WorldWideScience

Sample records for total ionization cross

  1. Calculation of the total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1993-10-01

    The total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen are calculated by applying the Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) method to the model where positronium formation channels are omitted. This model accurately describes the physics of the scattering whenever the positronium formation cross section is negligible, in particular, above 100 eV for this system. The total ionization cross section results in this energy region are in excellent agreement with the recent measurements of Jones et al., and so lie below the earlier measurements of Spicher et al., and the recent calculations of Acacia et al.. The total cross section is in very good agreement with the recent measurements of Zhou et al. down to 30 eV. 12 refs., 2 figs

  2. Total and ionization cross-sections of N2 and CO by positron impact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total and ionization cross-sections of N2 and CO different for different projectiles so that the total (complete) cross-sections QT exhibit a large difference at low energies for the e. − against e. + projectiles. The absorption potential Vabs(r, Ei) used presently to account for all inelastic channels with incident positrons was ...

  3. Total, partial and differential ionization cross sections in proton-hydrogen collisions at low energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Shiyang; Pichl, Lukas; Kimura, Mineo; Kato, Takako

    2003-01-01

    Single-differential, partial and total ionization cross sections for the proton-hydrogen collision system at low energy range (0.1-10 keV/amu) are determined by using the electron translation factor corrected molecular-orbital close-coupling method. Full convergence of ionization cross sections as a function of H 2 + molecular basis size is achieved by including up to 10 bound states, and 11 continuum partial waves. The present cross sections are in an excellent agreement with the recent experiments of Shah et al., but decrease more rapidly than the cross sections measured by Pieksma et al. with decreasing energy. The calculated cross section data are included in this report. (author)

  4. Ionization of molecules by electron impact: Differential and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezkallah, Z.; Houamer, S.; Dal Cappello, C.; Charpentier, I.; Roy, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate differential and total ionization cross sections of a set of small molecules, namely, HF, H 2 O, NH 3 and CH 4 by electron impact. The molecular targets are described by single center molecular orbitals consisting of linear combinations of atomic orbitals (MO-LCAO). First, we have considered electron momentum spectroscopy experiments to check the accuracy of the wave functions. The triply, doubly, singly differential and total cross sections are then evaluated in a systematic way for a variety of kinematics. The results are discussed and compared with experiments.

  5. Ionization of molecules by electron impact: Differential and total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezkallah, Z. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Houamer, S., E-mail: hosalim@yahoo.com [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et Systemes Dynamiques, Departement de physique, Faculte des sciences, Universite Ferhat Abbas, Setif 19000 (Algeria); Dal Cappello, C. [Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz, Institut de Physique, 1 Boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France); Charpentier, I. [Laboratoire de Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux, Universite Paul Verlaine-Metz UMR 7554, ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz Cedex 1 (France); Roy, A.C. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda University, Belur Math 711202, West Bengal (India)

    2011-12-01

    The first Born approximation is applied to calculate differential and total ionization cross sections of a set of small molecules, namely, HF, H{sub 2}O, NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by electron impact. The molecular targets are described by single center molecular orbitals consisting of linear combinations of atomic orbitals (MO-LCAO). First, we have considered electron momentum spectroscopy experiments to check the accuracy of the wave functions. The triply, doubly, singly differential and total cross sections are then evaluated in a systematic way for a variety of kinematics. The results are discussed and compared with experiments.

  6. Differential and total cross sections for the ionization of water molecule by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houamer, S.; Dal Cappello, C.; Mansouri, A.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical approach is presented to calculate multiply differential and total cross sections of the ionization of H 2 O molecule in the vapour phase. The wave function of the target is described by molecular orbitals consisting of a linear combination of slater type atomic orbitals centered on the heaviest atom which is the oxygen atom in this case. The calculations are carried out in the first Born approximation where the projectile is described by a plane wave while the ejected electron is described by a coulomb wave taking into account its interaction with the residual ion. The spherical average over the Euler solid angle due to the randomly oriented gaseous target molecule is carried out analytically using the rotation matrix properties. The differential and total cross sections are thus evaluated without any special difficulty and compared with experiments and distorted wave calculations. Fair agreements are observed

  7. Integral elastic, electronic-state, ionization, and total cross sections for electron scattering with furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D. B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Costa, R. F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Varella, M. T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, M. H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Lima, M. A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, 13083-859 São Paulo (Brazil); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); García, G. [Instituto de Física Fundamental, CSIC, Serrano 113-bis, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Brunger, M. J., E-mail: Michael.Brunger@flinders.edu.au [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, South Australia 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-14

    We report absolute experimental integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of bands of electronic-states in furfural, for incident electron energies in the range 20–250 eV. Wherever possible, those results are compared to corresponding excitation cross sections in the structurally similar species furan, as previously reported by da Costa et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 062706 (2012)] and Regeta and Allan [Phys. Rev. A 91, 012707 (2015)]. Generally, very good agreement is found. In addition, ICSs calculated with our independent atom model (IAM) with screening corrected additivity rule (SCAR) formalism, extended to account for interference (I) terms that arise due to the multi-centre nature of the scattering problem, are also reported. The sum of those ICSs gives the IAM-SCAR+I total cross section for electron–furfural scattering. Where possible, those calculated IAM-SCAR+I ICS results are compared against corresponding results from the present measurements with an acceptable level of accord being obtained. Similarly, but only for the band I and band II excited electronic states, we also present results from our Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials calculations. Those results are found to be in good qualitative accord with the present experimental ICSs. Finally, with a view to assembling a complete cross section data base for furfural, some binary-encounter-Bethe-level total ionization cross sections for this collision system are presented.

  8. Total and single differential cross sections for the electron impact ionization of the ground state of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, T.S.C.; Choudhury, K.B.; Singh, M.B.; Deb, N.C.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Mazumdar, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Total cross sections (TCS) and single differential cross sections (SDCS) have been computed for the single ionization of the ground state of helium by electron impact in a distorted wave formalism which takes into account the effects of the initial and final channel distortions. The present TCS and SDCS results are in fair agreement with the measured values and other theoretical predictions for the incident electron energy E i > 150 eV. (orig.)

  9. Electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, H.; Huo, W.M.; Ali, M.A.; Kim, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Both theoretical and experimental electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF 4 , C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 are presented. The experimental cross sections have been measured as a function of incident electron energy T from threshold to 3 keV. A parallel plate condenser type apparatus was used. The molecular polarizability for C 3 F 8 was empirically estimated to be α=10.6 ampersand hthinsp;Angstrom 3 ±0.8 ampersand hthinsp;Angstrom 3 . Theoretical cross sections calculated from the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method, which combines a modified form of the Mott cross section and the Bethe cross section, are compared with the experimental cross sections. The BEB cross sections calculated from correlated molecular wave functions with theoretical estimates for multiple ionization are about 10% higher than the experimental data at the peak for CF 4 , while they are in excellent agreement with the experimental data for C 2 F 6 and C 3 F 8 . Our analysis shows that the BEB theory implicitly includes part of neutral dissociation, such as CF 4 →CF 3 +F, and hence tends to be an upper limit to the total ionization cross section. We found that the difference between our best theory for CF 4 and the present experimental cross section exhibits a remarkable similarity to the shape of the recently measured cross section for neutral dissociation, though there is no a priori reason for the similarity. Owing to the large number of bound electrons, the correlation included in our wave functions for C 2 F 6 and C 3 F 8 is more limited than for CF 4 . Hence, we believe that for these two molecules the calculated cross sections are lower than the true BEB values, in spite of the apparent excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  10. Ionization cross section of partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, al - Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Bfb77@kazsu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2008-05-01

    In present work the electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated, based on pseudopotential model of interaction between plasma particles which accounts correlation effects. It is calculated with help of two methods: classical and quantum - mechanical (Born approximation). The ionization cross section is compared with corresponding results of other authors and experimental data. It has been shown that it is very important to take into account an influence of the surrounding during consideration of ionization processes.

  11. Ionization cross section for a strongly coupled partially ionized hydrogen plasma: variable phase approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Fazylhan.Baimbetov@kaznu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2009-05-29

    In the present work an electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated with the help of a variable phase approach to potential scattering. The Calogero equation is numerically solved, based on a pseudopotential model of interaction between partially ionized plasma particles, which accounts for correlation effects. As a result, scattering phase shifts are obtained. On the basis of the scattering phase shifts, the ionization cross section is calculated.

  12. Absolute total ionization cross sections of uracil (C4H4N2O2) in collisions with MeV energy highly charged carbon, oxygen and fluorine ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnihotri, A. N.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Nandi, S.; Kumar, A.; Champion, C.; Lekadir, H.; Hanssen, J.; Weck, P. F.; Galassi, M. E.; Rivarola, R. D.; Fojón, O.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2013-09-01

    Ionization and fragmentation of uracil molecules (C4H4N2O2, m = 112 amu) in collisions with fast highly charged C, O and F ions have been investigated using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The measurement of total ionization cross sections (TCS) is reported for different charge states (q), such as Fq + with q = 5-8 Oq + with q = 5,7; Cq + with q = 5 and 6. These studies reveal a (q/v)˜1.5 dependence of TCS, in contrast, to the well-known q2-dependence in ion-atom collisions. Scaling properties of the TCS with projectile energy and charge states are obtained. The experimental results for TCS measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations performed within classical and quantum mechanical frameworks. The trends in energy dependence of the TCSs is qualitatively well reproduced by the different models and more specifically by the classical description, which provides the best agreement with measurements.

  13. Fully differential cross sections for heavy particle impact ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    We describe a procedure for extracting fully differential ionization cross sections from an impact parameter coupled pseudostate treatment of the collision. Some examples from antiproton impact ionization of atomic Hydrogen are given.

  14. Penning ionization cross sections of excited rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Masatoshi; Hatano, Yoshihiko.

    1988-01-01

    Electronic energy transfer processes involving excited rare gas atoms play one of the most important roles in ionized gas phenomena. Penning ionization is one of the well known electronic energy transfer processes and has been studied extensively both experimentally and theoretically. The present paper reports the deexcitation (Penning ionization) cross sections of metastable state helium He(2 3 S) and radiative He(2 1 P) atoms in collision with atoms and molecules, which have recently been obtained by the authors' group by using a pulse radiolysis method. Investigation is made of the selected deexcitation cross sections of He(2 3 S) by atoms and molecules in the thermal collisional energy region. Results indicate that the cross sections are strongly dependent on the target molecule. The deexcitation probability of He(2 3 S) per collision increases with the excess electronic energy of He(2 3 S) above the ionization potential of the target atom or molecule. Another investigation, made on the deexcitation of He(2 1 P), suggests that the deexcitation cross section for He(2 1 P) by Ar is determined mainly by the Penning ionization cross section due to a dipole-dipole interaction. Penning ionization due to the dipole-dipole interaction is also important for deexcitation of He(2 1 P) by the target molecules examined. (N.K.)

  15. K+ nucleus total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K + mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K + holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K + is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K + with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K + is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon

  16. Cross section data for ionization of important cyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Multi centre spherical complex optical potential formalism used to find the CS. • Effective method (CSP-ic) to derive ionization contribution from inelastic CS. • Result shows excellent accord with previous results and consistent behaviour. • Maiden attempt to find CS for many cyanide molecules. • Strong correlation observed between peak of ionization with target properties. - Abstract: This article presents cross section calculations for interactions of important cyanides with electrons possessing energies beginning from ionization threshold of the target molecule to 5 keV. These data are pursued to meet the ever increasing demand for cross sections by the relevant atomic and molecular community for modelling astrophysical, atmospheric and technological domains. The calculations have been executed using an amalgam of multi centre spherical complex optical potential (MSCOP) formalism and complex scattering potential-ionization contribution (CSP-ic) method. Cross sections are compared with experimental and theoretical data wherever available. Strong correlations are observed for the cross sections which affirms consistent and reliable cross sections. Isomeric effect has been interpreted using variation of cross section with structure and target properties. Our cross sections will be tabulated in atomic collision database for use in modelling various statistical and dynamical quantities.

  17. Cross-Linking Aromatic Polymers With Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Vernon L.; Havens, Stephen J.

    1987-01-01

    Resistance to heat and solvents increased. Certain aromatic polymers containing radiation-sensitive methylene groups cross-linked through methylene groups upon exposure to ionizing radiation. Cross-linked polymers resistant to most organic solvents and generally more resistant to high temperatures, with less tendency to creep under load. No significant embrittlement of parts fabricated from these polymers when degree of cross-linking, as controlled by irradiation dose, kept at moderate level.

  18. Total cross section of highly excited strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizzi, F.; Senda, I.

    1990-01-01

    The unpolarized total cross section for the joining of two highly excited strings is calculated. The calculation is performed by taking the average overall states in the given excitation levels of the initial strings. We find that the total cross section grows with the energy and momentum of the initial states. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  19. Ion-induced ionization and capture cross sections for DNA nucleobases impacted by light ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, Christophe; Hanssen, Jocelyn; Galassi, Mariel E; Fojón, Omar; Rivarola, Roberto D; Weck, Philippe F

    2012-01-01

    Two quantum mechanical models (CB1 and CDW-EIS) are here presented for describing electron ionization and electron capture induced by heavy charged particles in DNA bases. Multiple differential and total cross sections are determined and compared with the scarce existing experimental data.

  20. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  1. Adiabatic theory of Wannier threshold laws and ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, J.H.; Ovchinnikov, S.Y.

    1994-01-01

    Adiabatic energy eigenvalues of H 2 + are computed for complex values of the internuclear distance R. The infinite number of bound-state eigenenergies are represented by a function ε(R) that is single valued on a multisheeted Riemann surface. A region is found where ε(R) and the corresponding eigenfunctions exhibit harmonic-oscillator structure characteristic of electron motion on a potential saddle. The Schroedinger equation is solved in the adiabatic approximation along a path in the complex R plane to compute ionization cross sections. The cross section thus obtained joins the Wannier threshold region with the keV energy region, but the exponent near the ionization threshold disagrees with well-accepted values. Accepted values are obtained when a lowest-order diabatic correction is employed, indicating that adiabatic approximations do not give the correct zero velocity limit for ionization cross sections. Semiclassical eigenvalues for general top-of-barrier motion are given and the theory is applied to the ionization of atomic hydrogen by electron impact. The theory with a first diabatic correction gives the Wannier threshold law even for this case

  2. Analytical models for total dose ionization effects in MOS devices.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Bogdan, Carolyn W.

    2008-08-01

    MOS devices are susceptible to damage by ionizing radiation due to charge buildup in gate, field and SOI buried oxides. Under positive bias holes created in the gate oxide will transport to the Si / SiO{sub 2} interface creating oxide-trapped charge. As a result of hole transport and trapping, hydrogen is liberated in the oxide which can create interface-trapped charge. The trapped charge will affect the threshold voltage and degrade the channel mobility. Neutralization of oxidetrapped charge by electron tunneling from the silicon and by thermal emission can take place over long periods of time. Neutralization of interface-trapped charge is not observed at room temperature. Analytical models are developed that account for the principal effects of total dose in MOS devices under different gate bias. The intent is to obtain closed-form solutions that can be used in circuit simulation. Expressions are derived for the aging effects of very low dose rate radiation over long time periods.

  3. Experimental electron impact ionization cross sections of molecules for plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basner, R.; Schmidt, M.; Deutsch, H.; Becker, K.

    2002-01-01

    Non - thermal low temperature plasmas used in plasma processing are mainly composed of hot electrons (average electron energy 0.5 eV - 5 eV), cold ions and neutral gas molecules, which both have energies corresponding to temperatures in the range of 300 K to 1000 K. Electron impact ionization of the neutral heavy particles in ground or in excited states is the initial, and in many plasmas the dominant ion formation process depending on the shape of the electron energy distribution function. The electron impact can produced the molecular ion by direct ionization and by dissociative ionization fragment ions and neutral products such as radicals and smaller neutral stable molecules. An experimental investigation of the formation of molecular positive ions for plasma processing was performed. The ionization cross - section measurements were carried out using a time of flight mass spectrometer under single collision conditions with operating pressures not higher than 0.5 mPa and in linear mode. The ion efficiency curves were measured simultaneously for Ar and the molecule under study in a well defined gas mixture. The measured relative partial ionization cross - sections were put on an absolute scale by normalization relative to the total Ar ionization cross section of 2.77 x 10 - 16 cm 2 at 70 eV. A summary of electron ionization cross - sections results for titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4 ), tetrafluorosilane (SiF 4 ), and hexafluoroethane (C 2 F 6 ) is presented. Dissociative ionization was found to be the dominant process for all three molecules, there was evidence of the presence of the TiCl 4 + and SiF 4 + parent ions, whereas no ion signals that correspond to the formation of C 2 F 6 + were detected. Only single charged fragment ions ( C 2 F 5 - , C 2 F 4 + , C 2 F + , C 2 - , CF 3 + , CF 2 + , CF - , C + and F - ) from C 2 F 6 were produced, but from TiCl 4 and SiF 4 singly (TiCl x - and SiF x + (x=1-4), Ti + , Cl + ; Si + , F + ) and doubly charged fragment ions

  4. Enzymatic digestibility of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, M.; Gajewski, E.; Simic, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Digestibility by proteolytic enzymes of peptides cross-linked by ionizing radiation was investigated. Small peptides of alanine and phenylalanine were chosen as model compounds and aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases were used as proteolytic enzymes. Peptides exposed to γ-radiation in aqueous solution were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography before and after hydrolysis by aminopeptidase M, leucine aminopeptidase carboxypeptidase A and carboxypeptidase Y. The results obtained clearly demonstrate the different actions of these enzymes on cross-linked aliphatic and aromatic peptides. Peptide bonds of cross-linked dipeptides of alanine were completely resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis whereas the enzymes, except for carboxypeptidase Y, cleaved all peptide bonds of cross-linked peptides of phenylalanine. The actions of the enzymes on these particular compounds are discussed in detail. (author)

  5. Crossing Total Occlusions : Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; Regar, E.; Dankelman, J.; Breedveld, P.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate visualization, and the

  6. Crossing Total Occlusions: Navigating Towards Recanalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sakes (Aimée); E.S. Regar (Eveline); J. Dankelman (Jenny); P. Breedveld (Paul)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractChronic total occlusions (CTOs) represent the “last frontier” of percutaneous interventions. The main technical challenges lies in crossing the guidewire into the distal true lumen, which is primarily due to three problems: device buckling during initial puncture, inadequate

  7. Negative meson capture in hydrogen. [Ionization cross sections, perturbed stationary state method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baird, T.J.

    1977-01-01

    The processes of deexcitation and capture of negative mesons and hadrons in atomic hydrogen are investigated. Only slow collisions in which the projectile-atom relative velocity is less than one atomic unit are considered, and the motion of the incident particle is treated classically. For each classical trajectory the probability of ionizing the hydrogen atom is determined, together with the energy spectrum of the emitted electron. Ionization probabilities are calculated using the time-dependent formulation of the perturbed stationary state method. Exact two-center electronic wave functions are used for both bound and continuum states. The total ionization cross section and electron energy spectrum have been calculated for negative muons, kaons and antiprotons at incident relative velocities between 0.04 and 1.0 atomic units. The electron energy spectrum has a sharp peak for electron kinetic energies on the order of 10/sup -3/ Rydbergs. The ionization process thus favors the emission of very slow electrons. The cross section for ionization with capture of the incident particle was calculated for relative kinetic energies greater than 1.0 Rydberg. Since ionization was found to occur with the emission of electrons of nearly zero kinetic energy, the fraction of ionizing collisions which result in capture decreases very rapidly with projectile kinetic energy. The energy distributions of slowed down muons and hadrons were also computed. These distributions were used together with the capture cross section to determine the distribution of kinetic energies at which capture takes place. It was found that most captures occur for kinetic energies slightly less than 1.0 Rydbergs with relatively little capture at thermal energies. The captured particles therefore tend to go into very large and loosely found orbits with binding energies less than 0.1 Rydbergs.

  8. Cross section calculation for electron impact ionization and elastic scattering from cisplatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zywicka, B.; Mozejko, P.

    2012-01-01

    One of the drugs which is typically used in chemotherapy is cisplatin (H 6 N 2 Cl 2 Pt). Chemotherapy is often successfully connected with the ionizing radiation treatment. Our work deals with the elastic electron scattering and electron impact ionization of cisplatin molecule. Total cross section for single electron-impact ionization of cisplatin molecule has been calculated with the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) model from the ionization threshold up to 5 keV. To obtain input data for the BEB calculations, geometric and electronic structures of the cisplatin have been studied with quantum chemical methods. Elastic cross section for electron collisions with cisplatin have also been evaluated using independent atom method with static-polarization model potential for incident energies ranging from 50 to 3000 eV. The obtained geometric structure of cisplatin is compared with available experimental and theoretical data. Calculated cross sections have been compared with related cross sections for selected purine and pyrimidine bases, they appear to be similar in values

  9. Electron Impact Multiple Ionization Cross Sections for Solar Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.; Mueller, A.

    2017-12-01

    We have compiled a set of electron-impact multiple ionization (EIMI) cross sections for astrophysically relevant ions. EIMI can have a significant effect on the ionization balance of non-equilibrium plasmas. For example, it can be important if there is a rapid change in the electron temperature, as in solar flares or in nanoflare coronal heating. EIMI is also likely to be significant when the electron energy distribution is non-thermal, such as if the electrons follow a kappa distribution. Cross sections for EIMI are needed in order to account for these processes in plasma modeling and for spectroscopic interpretation. Here, we describe our comparison of proposed semiempirical formulae to the available experimental EIMI cross section data. Based on this comparison, we have interpolated and extrapolated fitting parameters to systems that have not yet been measured. A tabulation of the fit parameters is provided for thousands of EIMI cross sections. We also highlight some outstanding issues that remain to be resolved.

  10. Near threshold electron impact ionization cross section for tellurium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chipev, F.F.; Chernyshova, I.V.; Kontros, J.E.; Shpenik, O.B.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Up today electron-impact ionization is one of the most intensively investigated processes in atomic and molecular physics [1]. These experiments however, are associated with difficulties: high temperatures and densities are required to produce atomic beams and monochromatic intensive electron beams. A crossed electron and atomic beams scattering geometry was employed to measure the ionization efficiency curve for tellurium atoms. Our electron spectrometer comprises two serially mounted hypocycloidal electron energy analyzers [2], the first being the monochromator and the second - the scattered electron analyzer. The whole spectrometer is immersed into the homogenous magnetic field. Great care was taken in selecting the value of the extracting potential at the electrode, mounted normally to the atomic beam direction. By careful choosing this potential as low as possible (∼1.4 V), its influence on the motion of the monochromatized electrons in the collision region was minimized and the full collection of the formed ions was reached. The atom beam was produced using a compact effusion source made of the stainless steel with a microchannel exit to minimise the angular divergency of the beam. The temperature of the microchannel plate was taken about 50 K higher than that of the metal vapour in the heated reservoir. This atomic beam source enabled to produce an atomic beam with the concentration of two orders of magnitude higher than that in the case of a standard effusion source. A typical value of the electron energy spread was 0.15 eV (FWHM) in the 0.1-15 eV energy range. The primary electron beam current was equal to 10 -7 A. Such values of electron energy spread and beam current for the primary electron beam passing through the collision chamber were chosen to provide identical conditions for carrying out all the measurements. The energy scale was calibrated with the accuracy of ± 0.05 eV. The measured ionization cross-section normalized to the results

  11. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report for the UC1823A Pulse Width Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Forney, James

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the total ionizing dose susceptibility for the UC1823A pulse width modulator manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. The part is suspected to be vulnerable to enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS).

  12. Total ionizing dose effects and hardening techniques of anti-fuse FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao Ju Chao

    2002-01-01

    Total ionizing dose hardening of commercial FPGAs for space applications is presented briefly. Total ionizing dose effects of Actel anti-fuse FPGAs are analysed in detail, including effects of fabrication technologies, bias condition and charge pump. The results show that degradation of the internal charge pump is a key factor in severe degradation of the systems. It is vitally important that radiation testing should include special measurements of start-up transients. Lastly, available hardening techniques are discussed

  13. Total Neutron Cross Section Instrumentation at UML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, P.-N.; Egan, J. J.; Kegel, G. H. R.; Mittler, A.; Tedesco, J.

    1997-10-01

    The UML type CN Van de Graaff accelerator incorporates a terminal pulsing system operating at 5 MHz. Proton bursts are Mobley-compressed to subnanosecond durations. When used with a thick metallic Li target, a pulsed pseudo-white neutron spectrum is produced suitable for neutron total cross section measurements. The spectrum is characterized by its sharp high energy cut-off, e.g. at 500 keV. Precautions are necessary because neutrons of different energies are recorded in the same time bin if their flight times differ by 200 ns. Pulse height discrimination may be used to eliminate lower energy neutrons; this is inefficient because higher energy neutron signals are also eliminated, to some degree. Two-dimensional data acquisition is the preferred approach. We review two systems of this type and we describe the system in use at UML.

  14. Tritium metrology in a total absorption ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blondel, M.; Dalmazzone, J.

    1969-01-01

    Because of its low maximum energy (18 keV), the beta spectrum of tritium can be measured in an ionisation chamber with total absorption and fixed sensitive volume. The results obtained are compared with those given by an absolute measurement method using a differential counter. They confirm the possibility of making simple and rapid tritium measurements within a wide range (10 -3 curie to 100 curies) with a precision of ± 1,5 per cent. (authors) [fr

  15. Experimental determination of absolute partial ionization cross section for water and ammoniac gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomet, J.-C.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements are made of the partial cross sections of ions originating from ionization of water (H 2 O) and ammoniac gas (NH 3 ) by electrons of 20-250eV. Parent ions have the greatest abundance. The maximum value of ionization cross section of parent ions corresponds to a greater electron energy than those corresponding to the other ions maxima [fr

  16. Synergistic effects of total ionizing dose on single event upset sensitivity in static random access memory under proton irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Yao; Guo Hong-Xia; Zhang Feng-Qi; Zhao Wen; Wang Yan-Ping; Zhang Ke-Ying; Ding Li-Li; Luo Yin-Hong; Wang Yuan-Ming; Fan Xue

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic effects of the total ionizing dose (TID) on the single event upset (SEU) sensitivity in static random access memories (SRAMs) were studied by using protons. The total dose was cumulated with high flux protons during the TID exposure, and the SEU cross section was tested with low flux protons at several cumulated dose steps. Because of the radiation-induced off-state leakage current increase of the CMOS transistors, the noise margin became asymmetric and the memory imprint effect was observed. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Near-threshold electron impact doubly differential cross sections for the ionization of neon and xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, Brent R; Keane, Kyle; Khakoo, Murtadha A

    2009-01-01

    Normalized doubly differential cross sections (DDCSs) for the electron impact single ionization of Ne and Xe are presented. The Ne measurements are taken at incident energies of 23.5 eV, 25 eV, 30 eV and 40 eV while the Xe measurements are taken at 14 eV, 15 eV and 20 eV. Scattering angles in the experiment range from 15 deg. to 120 deg. The measurements use a moveable target method for an accurate determination of the experimental background. Normalization of the differential data is initially made to available experimental cross sections for excitation of the ground np 6 to the np 5 (n + 1)s excited states of the noble gas and then, if necessary after integration, to available experimental total ionization cross sections. We show that our single differential cross sections, derived from integrating the DDCSs, show a convex profile (frown) for Ne whereas they are concave (smile) for Xe similar to what is observed for He and we suggest a tentative mechanism for this effect.

  18. Recent Total Ionizing Dose Results and Displacement Damage Results for Candidate Spacecraft Electronics for NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Donna J.; Buchner, Stephen P.; Irwin, Tim L.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Marshall, Cheryl J.; Reed, Robert A.; Sanders, Anthony B.; Hawkins, Donald K.; Flanigan, Ryan J.; Cox, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    We present data on the vulnerability of a variety of candidate spacecraft electronics to total ionizing dose and displacement damage. Devices tested include optoelectronics, digital, analog, linear bipolar devices, hybrid devices, Analog-to- Digital Converters (ADCs), and Digital-to-Analog Converters (DACs), among others. T

  19. Computation of electron-impact K-shell ionization cross sections of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.A.; Haque, A.K.F.; Billah, M. Masum; Basak, A.K.; Karim, K.R.; Saha, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The total cross sections of electron impact single K-shell ionization of atomic targets, with a wide range of atomic numbers from Z=6-50, are evaluated in the energy range up to about 10 MeV employing the recently proposed modified version of the improved binary-encounter dipole (RQIBED) model [Uddin et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 032706 (2004)], which incorporates the ionic and relativistic effects. The experimental cross sections for all targets are reproduced satisfactorily even in the relativistic energies using fixed generic values of the two parameters in the RQIBED model. The relativistic effect is found to be significant in all targets except for C, being profound in Ag and Sn

  20. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body ?-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to ?-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10?mGy/day; moderate, 50?mGy/day; high,...

  1. Absolute total and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine at electron and proton intermediate impact velocities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Wania, E-mail: wania@if.ufrj.br; Luna, Hugo; Sigaud, Lucas; Montenegro, Eduardo C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, PO 68528, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tavares, Andre C. [Departamento de Física, Pontificia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, PO 38071, Rua Marquês de São Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-02-14

    Absolute total non-dissociative and partial dissociative cross sections of pyrimidine were measured for electron impact energies ranging from 70 to 400 eV and for proton impact energies from 125 up to 2500 keV. MOs ionization induced by coulomb interaction were studied by measuring both ionization and partial dissociative cross sections through time of flight mass spectrometry and by obtaining the branching ratios for fragment formation via a model calculation based on the Born approximation. The partial yields and the absolute cross sections measured as a function of the energy combined with the model calculation proved to be a useful tool to determine the vacancy population of the valence MOs from which several sets of fragment ions are produced. It was also a key point to distinguish the dissociation regimes induced by both particles. A comparison with previous experimental results is also presented.

  2. K sup + nucleus total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawafta, R.

    1990-01-01

    The scattering of K{sup +} mesons from nuclei has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. The K{sup +} holds a very special position as the weakest of all strongly interaction probes. The average cross section is not larger than about 10 mb at lab momenta below 800 MeV/c, corresponding to a mean free path in the nucleus larger than 5 fm. Thus the K{sup +} is capable of probing the entire volume of the nucleus. Single scattering of the K{sup +} with a nucleon in the nucleus dominates the nuclear scattering, and only small and calculable higher order corrections are needed. The nucleon is a dynamical entity and its internal structure can, in principle, be altered by its surrounding nuclear environment. This work reports an experiment in which the K{sup +} is used to compare the nucleon in the nucleus with a free nucleon.

  3. Total cross sections for heavy flavour production at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Frixione, Stefano; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G; Frixione, S; Mangano, M L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    1995-01-01

    We compute total cross sections for charm and bottom photoproduction at HERA energies, and discuss the relevant theoretical uncertainties. In particular we discuss the problems arising from the small-x region, the uncertainties in the gluon parton density, and the uncertainties in the hadronic component of the cross section. Total electroproduction cross sections, calculated in the Weizs\\"acker-Williams approximation, are also given.

  4. Measurement of absolute photo-ionization cross sections using magnesium magneto-optical traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, D.N.; Thomsen, J.W. [Niels Bohr Institute, Oersted Laboratory, Copenhagen (Denmark)]. E-mail: jwt@fys.ku.dk

    2002-05-14

    This paper reports on an experimental study of resonant photo-ionization of the 3s3p {sup 1}P{sub 1} level of magnesium using near-resonant light at 285 nm. We extract an absolute photo-ionization cross section of (8.1{+-}2.3)x10{sup -17} cm{sup 2} using a magneto-optical trap and compare this value to current theoretical calculations. We find good agreement between theory and experiment. (author)

  5. Doubly differential cross sections of low-energy electrons emitted in the ionization of molecular hydrogen by bare carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Richard, P.; Ling, D.; Wang, Y.D.; Lin, C.D.; Moshammer, R.; Kerby, G.W. III; Gealy, M.W.; Rudd, M.E. [J.R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States)]|[Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291 (Federal Republic of Germany)]|[Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0111 (United States)

    1996-09-01

    We have measured the double differential cross sections (DDCS) ({ital d}{sup 2}{sigma}/{ital d}{var_epsilon}{sub {ital ed}}{Omega}{sub {ital e}}) of low-energy electron emission in the ionization of H{sub 2} bombarded by bare carbon ions of energy 30 MeV. The energy and angular distributions of the electron DDCS have been obtained for 12 different emission angles and for electron energies varying between 0.1 and 300 eV. We have also deduced the single differential and total ionization cross section from the measured DDCS. The data have been compared with the predictions of first Born approximations and the CDW-EIS (continuum distorted wave{endash}eikonal initial state) model. The CDW-EIS model provides an excellent agreement with the data. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  6. Double Differential Cross-Sections for Electron Impact Ionization of Atoms and Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlut Dogan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The single ionizing collision between an incident electron and an atom/molecule ends up two kinds of outgoing electrons called scattered and ejected electrons. As features of electron impact ionization, these two types of electrons are indistinguishable. Double differential cross-sections (DDCS can be obtained by measuring the energy and angular distributions of one of the two outgoing electrons with an electron analyzer. We used He, Ar, H2, and CH4 targets in order to understand the ionization mechanisms of atomic and molecular systems. We measured differential cross-sections (DCS and double differential cross-sections at 250 eV electron impact energy. The elastic DCSs were measured for He, Ar, H2, and CH4, whereas the inelastic DCSs of He were obtained for 21P excitation level for 200 eV impact electron energy.

  7. Total and ionized serum magnesium and calcium levels during magnesium sulfate administration for preterm labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Won Hee; An, Yuna; Moon, Jong Ho; Noh, Eun Ji; Kim, Jong Woon

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to estimate the association between total and ionized magnesium, and the changes in serum magnesium and calcium levels in patients with preterm labor during magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) administration. Methods The study population included 64 women who were candidates for intravenous MgSO4 treatment for preterm labor. Serial blood samples were taken and measured total magnesium (T-Mg), ionized magnesium (I-Mg), total calcium (T-Ca), and ionized calcium (I-Ca) levels every one-week interval (1st, 2nd, 3rd). Results There was no significant difference in T-Mg and I-Mg levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). There was no significant difference in T-Ca and I-Ca levels during MgSO4 administration (P>0.05). Compared before and after administration of MgSO4, T-Mg and I-Mg levels and T-Ca levels were changed allow statistically significant (P0.05). There was significant correlation between levels of I-Mg and T-Mg (I-Mg=0.395×T-Mg+0.144, P<0.01). Conclusion There were no significant differences in serum Mg and Ca levels during MgSO4 administration for preterm labor. Compared to the before and after administration of MgSO4, only I-Ca levels were not substantially changed. There are significant correlations between I-Mg and T-Mg levels during administration of MgSO4 and I-Mg level seemed to have more correlation with adverse effect than T-Mg. PMID:29372150

  8. Total cross sections for positron and electron scattering from pyrimidine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zecca, A; Chiari, L; Trainotti, E; GarcIa, G; Blanco, F; Brunger, M J

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we report original measurements of total cross sections for positron scattering from the important biomolecule pyrimidine. The energy range of these measurements was 0.3-45 eV, while the energy resolution was ∼260 meV. In addition, we report theoretical results, calculated within the independent atom-screened additivity rule (IAM-SCAR) formalism, for the corresponding electron impact total cross sections. In that case the energy range is 1-10 000 eV. Total cross sections are very important input data for codes that seek to simulate charged-particle tracks in matter, as they define the mean-free path between collisions. As the present data and computations are to the best of our knowledge the first total cross sections to be reported for either positron or electron scattering from pyrimidine, they fill an important void in our available knowledge in the literature.

  9. Semiempirical description of the PWBA scaled electron ionization cross section for atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campeanu, R.I.; Koch, S.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate electron ionization cross sections on atoms and ions are required in many areas of physics, such as the modeling of impurity effects in tokamak plasmas, or the modeling of laser-produced plasmas. The large number of the data needed in these cases precludes the possibility of the quantum calculations, which are even on fast computers time-consuming. This situation encouraged the studies on semiempirical formulae and on scaling laws. It is therefore useful to perform semiempirical calculations based on scaled theoretical cross sections. Our paper gives a semiempirical description of the electron single ionization on atoms. (orig./FKS)

  10. Porosity effects in the neutron total cross section of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santisteban, J. R; Dawidowski, J; Petriw, S. N

    2009-01-01

    Graphite has been used in nuclear reactors since the birth of the nuclear industry due to its good performance as a neutron moderator material. Graphite is still an option as moderator for generation IV reactors due to its good mechanical and thermal properties at high operation temperatures. So, there has been renewed interest in a revision of the computer libraries used to describe the neutron cross section of graphite. For sub-thermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a larger total cross section (between 4 and 8 barns) than predicted by existing theoretical models (0.2 barns). In order to investigate the origin of this discrepancy we measured the total cross section of graphite samples of three different origins, in the energy range from 0.001 eV to 10 eV. Different experimental arrangements and sample treatments were explored, to identify the effect of various experimental parameters on the total cross section measurement. The experiments showed that the increase in total cross section is due to neutrons scattered around the forward direction. We associate these small-angle scattered neutrons (SANS) to the porous structure of graphite, and formulate a very simple model to compute its contribution to the total cross section of the material. This results in an analytic expression that explicitly depends on the density and mean size of the pores, which can be easily incorporated in nuclear library codes. [es

  11. Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of Gold, Chromium and Iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    daca ...................... 30 4. Repeatable hysteresis example ...................... 31 4 5. Unstable Au cross section data...The nature of the investigation requires evaporation of the experimental material in order to create an atomic beam. Some of the beam, of necessity ...unstable or otherwise malfunctioning. The investigation was further complicated and delayed by the necessity of movirng the entire experi- ment

  12. Excitation and ionization contributions to sum-rule Born cross sections for collisions of one-electron ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    The contributions of bound-state excitations and continuum ionizations to the total inelastic (sum-rule) cross section are examined in Born approximation. The results of an investigation of this problem for the case of one-electron ions colliding with neutral atoms are presented. Emphasis in this work is placed on the general features of these types of cross sections and on the relative contributions of excitation and ionization to the total Born cross section. In addition, extensive numerical results for the parameters which determine the cross sections for electron loss, and for excitation to bound states, are given for one-electron ions having atomic numbers up to 30 colliding with He, N, and Ar target atoms. It is shown that for the asymptotic (high-velocity) Born cross sections, excitation never contributes more than a certain fraction of the total sum-rule inelastic cross section, and this fraction has a bound which is determined by the dipole limit of the transition amplitudes for the incident ion. This bound is given by M/sub ex/ 2 /M/sub tot/ 2 , where M/sub tot/ 2 is the -1 energy moment of the dipole-oscillator-strength distribution and M/sub ex/ 2 is the contribution to this moment from transitions to bound excited states. This result is independent of the target atom involved in the collision. Since M/sub ex/ 2 /M/sub tot/ 2 does not depend on the atomic number for one-electron ions, this bound is also independent of the incident-ion atomic number in this case. As a consequence, ionization never contributes less to the sum-rule cross sections than the fraction (1-M/sub ex/ 2 /M/sub tot/ 2 ) = M/sub ion/ 2 /M/sub tot/ 2 . The more general problem, which involves multielectron ions (or atoms) colliding with atoms, is discussed from several viewpoints, and similar results are suggested for that case. In particular, separate upper bounds on the Born-excitation cross section, and lower bounds on the Born electron-loss cross section, are proposed

  13. X-ray pre-ionized molecular fluorine laser with a large discharge cross-section

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Peters, P.J.M.; Witteman, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    High energy extraction from UV pre-ionized molecular fluorine lasers is hampered by the short period of discharge stability and the spatial inhomogeneity of the discharge. So far stable discharge operation is reported for small discharge cross sections with an area less than 0.8 cm2 and efficiencies

  14. Triple differential cross-sections for the ionization of metastable 2P ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... Abstract. In this paper, triple differential cross-sections for the ionization of metastable 2P-state hydrogen atoms by 250 eV electron energy with exchange effects for various kinematic conditions are calculated. Multiple scattering theory proposed by Das and Seal in Phys. Rev. A 47, 2978 (1993) is utilized ...

  15. Models of cosmic ray sources: the possible role of the ionization cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.; Rothenflug, R.; Casse, M.

    1987-01-01

    We confirm that a clear correlation exists between the Cosmic Ray Source/Local Galactic abundance ratio and the ionization cross section of the corresponding neutral elements, as pointed out originally by Krisstianson in 1971. However we are not able to propose a firm explanation to this empirical fact

  16. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  17. Total fusion cross section for the 160+160 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserruya, I.; Eisen, Y.; Pelte, D.; Gavron, A.; Oeschler, H.; Berndt, D.; Harney, H.L.

    1978-01-01

    Total fusion cross sections Σsub(F) have been measured for 16 0+ 16 0 at bombarding energies 27-66 MeV using the E-Δ or the time-of-flight techniques. The fusion excitation function shows oscillations in agreement with the resonances produced in the total reaction cross section by a surface-transparent potential. The results are compared to those obtained via the γ-ray technique and th importance of direct decay to ground states is discussed. Mass and total angular distributions are well reproduced by statistical model calculations which take angular momentum into account explicitly. Barrier and critical parameters are extracted from the average energy behavior of Σ sub(F). No evidence for shell effects as predicted by Glas and Mosel is found on the measured fusion cross sections. (author)

  18. Neutron total scattering cross sections of elemental antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV with broad resolutions. Differential-neutron-elastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles distributed between 20 and 160 degrees. Lumped-level neutron-inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured over the same angular and energy range. The exPerimental results are discussed in terms of an optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  19. Parameterized total cross sections for pion production in nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norbury, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    Total inclusive cross sections for neutral and charged pion production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus reactions have been calculated and compared to experiment. Nucleon-nucleon theoretical cross sections have been scaled up to nuclear collisions using a scaling factor similar to (A P A T ) 2/3 , where A P and A T are the nucleon numbers of the projectile and target nuclei. Variations in the power of this scaling factor have been studied and a good fit to experiment is obtained with a small modification of the power. Theoretical cross sections are written in a form that is very suitable for immediate input into transport codes

  20. Evaluation of the 238U neutron total cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Poenitz, W.P.; Howerton, R.J.

    1982-12-01

    Experimental energy-averaged neutron total cross sections of 238 U were evaluated from 0.044 to 20.0 MeV using regorous numerical methods. The evaluated results are presented together with the associated uncertainties and correlation matrix. They indicate that this energy-averaged neutron total cross section is known to better than 1% over wide energy regions. There are somwewhat larger uncertainties at low energies (e.g., less than or equal to 0.2 MeV), near 8 MeV and above 15 MeV. The present evaluation is compard with values given in ENDF/B-V

  1. Continuum effects in electron-helium total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, I.E.; Ratnavelu, K.; Weigold, A.M.

    1988-06-01

    It is shown that total cross sections for the excitation of target states with large spectroscopic factors may be calculated accurately by representing the states by their leading independent-particle configurations. With this approximation coupled channels calculations agree only qualitatively with experimental total cross sections for the first five states of helium. R-matrix calculations using configuration interaction show better qualitative agreement. The complex polarisation potential for continuum excitations is described for two-electron atoms. When this is included in a coupled-channels optical calculation quantitative agreement with experiment is obtained for most states at 30, 50 and 100eV

  2. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullmann, John Leonard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Couture, Aaron Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mocko, Michal [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mosby, Shea Morgan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wender, Stephen Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  3. K+ nucleus total cross section experiment and nuclear medium effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Ruth.

    1992-11-01

    The low momentum K + is the weakest of the available strongly interacting particles. It has a mean bee path in nuclear matter of about 6 fm which makes it a good probe for studying properties of the nuclear interior. It allows one to build a good microscopic optical potential which can be used to calculate K + nucleus elastic and total cross sections. In the latter case the calculated ratio R T =[σ tot (K + A)/A]/[σ tot (K + d)/2] can be expected to be more reliable because some uncertainties in K + N phase shifts will cancel. This ratio can also be measured more reliably than the total cross sections themselves because of cancellation of some systematic errors. We measured the total cross sections of K + on D, 6 Li, 12 C, 28 Si and 40 Ca from 488 to 714 MeV/c. The emphasis was placed on extracting values of R T with a precision of better than 2 percent. The total cross section ratios are found to lie significantly above those predicted by optical potential calculations with the usual nuclear medium corrections. This suggests that novel phenomena are taking place within the nucleus. Several models which incorporate such phenomena are discussed, including nucleon 'swelling', mass rescaling, nuclear pions, and relativistic effects. (author) 31 refs., 27 figs., 21 tabs.,

  4. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  5. Positron total scattering cross-sections for alkali atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Nidhi; Singh, Suvam; Antony, Bobby

    2018-01-01

    Positron-impact total scattering cross-sections for Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs and Fr atoms are calculated in the energy range from 5-5000 eV employing modified spherical complex optical potential formalism. The main aim of this work is to apply this formalism to the less studied positron-target collision systems. The results are compared with previous theoretical and experimental data, wherever available. In general, the present data show overall agreement and consistency with other results. Furthermore, we have done a comparative study of the results to investigate the effect of atomic size on the cross-sections as we descend through the group in the periodic table. We have also plotted a correlation graph of the present total cross-sections with polarizability and number of target electrons. The two correlation plots confirm the credibility and consistency of the present results. Besides, this is the first theoretical attempt to report positron-impact total cross-sections of alkali atoms over such a wide energy range.

  6. Influence of burn-in on total-ionizing-dose effect of SRAM device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Minbo; Yao Zhibin; Huang Shaoyan; He Baoping; Sheng Jiangkun

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Burn-in on the total-ionizing-dose (TID) effect of SRAM device was investigated. SRAM devices of three different feature sizes were selected and irradiated by 60 Co source with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in. Some parameters for radiation effect of SRAM device such as upset data, were measured, and the influence on the TID effect of different feature size SRAM devices with or without pre-irradiation Burn-in was obtained. The influence of different temperature Burn-in on radiation resistant capability of SRAM device was studied for 0.25 μm SRAM device. The results show that the smaller the device feature size is, the better the radiation-resistant capability of SRAM device is and the weaker the influence of Burn-in is. And the higher Burn-in temperature is, the more serious the influence of Burn-in on the total-dose radiation effect is. (authors)

  7. Total reaction cross section calculations in proton-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellisch, H.P.; Axen, D.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a general semiempirical total reaction cross section formula for proton-nucleus reactions. It is applicable for all materials with nuclear charge Z greater than 5, and all proton kinetic energies from the lowest measured energies up to ≅20 GeV. While the regime of applicability is greatly enlarged, agreement between the calculated cross sections and the experimental data is comparable to or better than all earlier published results in their regime of applicability. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Electron-impact excitation and ionization cross sections for ground state and excited helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.; Janev, R.K.; Kato, T.; Fursa, D.V.; Bray, I.; Heer, F.J. de

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive and critically assessed cross sections for the electron-impact excitation and ionization of ground state and excited helium atoms are presented. All states (atomic terms) with n≤4 are treated individually, while the states with n≥5 are considered degenerate. For the processes involving transitions to and from n≥5 levels, suitable cross section scaling relations are presented. For a large number of transitions, from both ground and excited states, convergent close coupling calculations were performed to achieve a high accuracy of the data. The evaluated/recommended cross section data are presented by analytic fit functions, which preserve the correct asymptotic behavior of the cross sections. The cross sections are also displayed in graphical form

  9. Doubly differential cross sections for electron emission in ionization of hydrogen by bare carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.; Tribedi, L.; Wang, Y.D.; Ling, D.; Lin, C.D. [and others

    1996-05-01

    The doubly differential cross sections (DDCS) for soft electron emission can provide a stringent test of the theoretical models for ionization in ion-atom collisions. The authors have measured the electron DDCS (d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{epsilon}{sub e}d{Omega}{sub e}) of soft electron emission in the ionization of H{sub 2} bombarded by bare Carbon ions of energy 30 MeV. The energy and angular distribution of the electron DDCS have been carried out for ten different angles ({theta}{sub e}) and for electron energies ({epsilon}{sub e}) varying between 0.1 to 300 eV. The single differential cross sections in terms of electron energy ({epsilon}{sub e}) and angle ({theta}{sub e}) are obtained. The angular distribution is found to peak at {approximately}75{degrees}. The data have been compared to FBA and CDWEIS calculations.

  10. Thick-target method in the measurement of inner-shell ionization cross-sections by low-energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Z.; Wu, Y.; Liu, M.T.; Duan, Y.M.; Tang, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the thick-target method for the measurements of atomic inner-shell ionization cross-section or X-ray production cross-section by keV electron impact. We find that in the processes of electron impact on the thick targets, the ratios of the characteristic X-ray yields of photoelectric ionization by bremsstrahlung to the total characteristic X-ray yields are Z-dependent and shell-dependent, and the ratios also show the weak energy-dependence. In addition, in the lower incident energy region (i.e. U < 5-6), the contribution from the rediffusion effect and the secondary electrons can be negligible. In general, the thick-target method can be appropriately applied to the measurements of atomic inner-shell ionization cross-sections or X-ray production cross-sections by electron impact for low and medium Z elements in the lower incident electron energy (i.e. U < 5-6). The experimental accuracies by the thick-target method can reach to the level equivalent or superior to the accuracies of experimental data based on the thin-target method. This thick-target method has been applied to the measurement of K-shell ionization cross-sections of Ni element by electron impact in this paper

  11. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V

  12. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Neutron total cross sections of niobium were measured from approx. = 0.7 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV with broad resolution. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of 0.1 to 0.2 MeV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 degrees. Inelastically-scattered neutrons, corresponding to the excitation of levels at: 788 +- 23, 982 +- 17, 1088 +- 27, 1335 +- 35, 1504 +- 30, 1697 +- 19, 1971 +- 22, 2176 +- 28, 2456 +- (.), and 2581 +- (.) keV, were observed. An optical-statistical model, giving a good description of the observables, was deduced from the measured differential-elastic-scattering cross sections. The experimental-results were compared with the respective evaluated quantities given in ENDF/B-V.

  13. Integral bounds for N-body total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, T.A.; Bolle, D.

    1979-01-01

    We study the behavior of the total cross sections in the three- and N-body scattering problem. Working within the framework of the time-dependent two-Hilbert space scattering theory, we give a simple derivation of integral bounds for the total cross section for all processes initiated by the collision of two clusters. By combining the optical theorem with a trace identity derived by Jauch, Sinha, and Misra, we find, roughly speaking, that if the local pairwise interaction falls off faster than r -3 , then sigma/sub tot/(E) must decrease faster than E/sup -1/2/ at high energy. This conclusion is unchanged if one introduces a class of well-behaved three-body interactions

  14. Association of Radon Background and Total Background Ionizing Radiation with Alzheimer's Disease Deaths in U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Rheinstein, Peter H; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E

    2017-01-01

    Exposure of the brain to ionizing radiation might promote the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Analysis of AD death rates versus radon background radiation and total background radiation in U.S. states. Total background, radon background, cosmic and terrestrial background radiation measurements are from Assessment of Variations in Radiation Exposure in the United States and Report No. 160 - Ionizing Radiation Exposure of the Population of the United States. 2013 AD death rates by U.S. state are from the Alzheimer's Association. Radon background ionizing radiation was significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.467, p = 0.001). Total background ionizing radiation was also significantly correlated with AD death rate in 50 states and the District of Columbia (r = 0.452, p = 0.001). Multivariate linear regression weighted by state population demonstrated that AD death rate was significantly correlated with radon background (β= 0.169, p ionizing radiation is a risk factor for AD. Intranasal inhalation of radon gas could subject the rhinencephalon and hippocampus to damaging radiation that initiates AD. The damage would accumulate over time, causing age to be a powerful risk factor.

  15. The total top-pair production cross section at NNLL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beneke, M. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Falgari, P., E-mail: p.falgari@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Klein, S. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Piclum, J. [Physik Department T31, James-Franck-Straße, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Schwinn, C. [Albert-Ludwigs Universität Freiburg, Physikalisches Institut, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Ubiali, M.; Yan, F. [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    We present results for the total top-pair production cross section at the Tevatron and the LHC. Our predictions supplement fixed-order results with resummation of soft logarithms and Coulomb singularities to next-to-next-to-leading (NNLL) logarithmic accuracy and include top-antitop bound-state effects. The effects of resummation, the dependence on the PDF set used, the residual sources of theoretical uncertainty and their implication for measurements of the top-quark mass are discussed.

  16. Antineutrino-nucleon total cross section and ratio of antineutrino cross section on neutrons and protons

    CERN Document Server

    Erriquez, O; Bisi, V; Bonetti, S; Bullock, F W; Cavalli, D; Engel, J P; Eranzinetti, C; Escubes, B; Esten, M J; Fogli-Muciaccia, M T; Gamba, D; Guyonnet, J L; Halsteinslid, A; Henderson, R C W; Huss, D; Jones, T W; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mauri, F; Myklebost, K; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Paty, M; Pullia, A; Racca, C; Ramzan, F A; Riccati, L; Riester, J L; Rognebakke, A; Rollier, M; Romero, A; Skjeggestad, O

    1979-01-01

    On a selected sample of 2171 events, observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber Gargamelle at CERN, the charged current total cross section for antineutrino on nucleons has been determined to the laboratory energy 8 GeV. (7 refs).

  17. (n, {alpha}) cross section measurement of light nuclei using gridded ionization chamber and gaseous sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Saito, Keiichiro; Ibara, Yasutaka; Yamazaki, Tetsuro; Sato, Jun; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    We have developed a measuring method of (n, {alpha}) cross section by using gaseous sample in a gridded ionization chamber. In this study, we measured the {sup 12}C(n, {alpha}{sub 0}) and the {sup 16}O(n, {alpha}{sub 0}), (n, {alpha}{sub 123}) cross sections for En=11.5 and 12.8 MeV neutrons. We also deduced the {sup 12}C(n, x{alpha}) spectrum and analyzed the data by a kinematic calculation combined with the reaction data of the {sup 12}C(n, n`3{alpha}). (author)

  18. Performance Improvement of Total Ionization Dose Radiation Sensor Devices Using Fluorine-Treated MOHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Ching Hsieh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine-treated titanium nitride–silicon oxide–hafnium oxide–silicon oxide–silicon devices (hereafter F-MOHOS are candidates for total ionization dose (TID radiation sensor applications. The main subject of the study reportedherein is the performance improvement in terms of TID radiation-induced charge generation effect and charge-retention reliability characterization for F-MOHOS devices. In the case of F-MOHOS TID radiation sensors, the gamma radiation induces a significant decrease of threshold voltage VT and the radiation-induced charge density is nearly six times larger than that of standard metal–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon MONOS devices. The decrease of VT for F-MOHOS after gamma irradiation has a strong correlation to the TID up to 5 Mrad gamma irradiation as well. The improvement of charge retention loss for F-MOHOS devices is nearly 15% better than that of metal–oxide–hafnium oxide–oxide–silicon MOHOS devices. The F-MOHOS device described in this study demonstrates better feasibility for non-volatile TID radiation sensing in the future.

  19. Total Ionizing Dose effects in 130-nm commercial CMOS technologies for HEP experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Gonella, L; Silvestri, M; Gerardin, S; Pantano, D; Re, V; Manghisoni, M; Ratti, L; Ranieri, A

    2007-01-01

    The impact of foundry-to-foundry variability and bias conditions during irradiation on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) response of commercial 130-nm CMOS technologies have been investigated for applications in High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments. n- and p-channel MOSFETs from three different manufacturers have been irradiated with X-rays up to more than 100 Mrad (SiO2). Even though the effects of TID are qualitatively similar, the amount of degradation is shown to vary considerably from foundry to foundry, probably depending on the processing of the STI oxide and/or doping profile in the substrate. The bias during irradiation showed to have a strong impact as well on the TID response, proving that exposure at worst case bias conditions largely overestimates the degradation a device may experience during its lifetime. Overall, our results increase the confidence that 130-nm CMOS technologies can be used in future HEP experiments even without Hardness-By-Design solutions, provided that constant monitoring of th...

  20. Classical calculation of the total ionization energy of helium-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    Quantum mechanics rejects the classical modelling of microworld. One of the reasons is that the Bohr's rules can not be applied for many-electron atoms and molecules. But the many-body problem in classical mechanics has no analytical solution even for 3 particles. Numerical solutions should be used. The quantum Bohr's rule expressing the moment of momentum conservation for two particles is invalid in more complicated cases. Yet Bohr reached some success for helium-like atoms. The Bohr's formula concerning helim-like atoms is deduced again in this paper and its practical reliability is analyzed with contemporary data. The binding energy of the system is obtained in the simple form E=(Z-1/4) 2 α 2 mc 2 , where Z is the atomic number, α - the fine structure constant, M - the electron mass and c - the light speed in vacuum. The calculated values are compared with experimental data on the total ionization energy of the helium-like atoms from 2 He 4 to 29 Cu 64 . The error decreases quickly with the increasing of atomic mass, reaching zero for Cu. This indicated that the main source of error is the nucleus motion. The role of other possible causes is analyzed and proves negligible. (author). 1 tab, 4 refs

  1. Inclusive and exclusive cross sections for multiple ionization by fast, highly charged ions in the independent-electron approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Gray, T.J.; Legg, J.C.; McGuire, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Cross sections for the ionization of n of N electrons with equal single-electron ionization probability P are considered. When both N and the projectile charge q are large, the cross sections for single and double ionization are both found to be approximately linear in q at 1 MeVamu. The ratio of double-to-single-ionization cross sections is independent of q. Moreover, first-order perturbation theory for the single-electron ionization probability P, which varies as q 2 , is found to be applicable due to the damping of contributions with large P caused by factors of (1-P)/sup N/ - /sup n/. For large P there are differences between the inclusive probability P and the probability NP commonly used for a target with N electrons. Both of these probabilities differ significantly from the exclusive probability NP(1-P)/sup N/ -1 for the ionization of only one electron. For large N and large q, the exclusive ionization probabilities for removing exactly n of the N electrons tend to be concentrated in somewhat separate ranges of impact parameters b, defining impact-parameter ''windows.'' The windows which we obtain using the quantum-mechanical semiclassical-Coulomb-approximation (SCA) probabilities are similar to those using classical Monte Carlo calculations. Model calculations, based on analytic fits to the SCA probabilities, are used to obtain approximate analytic expressions for single- and double-ionization cross sections and for the impact-parameter windows

  2. Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses ionization phenomena in helium, both photoionization and electron ionization. In particular he compares double ionization cross sections with total cross sections, as a function of electron energy, and photon energy. Data is discussed over the energy range up to 10 keV

  3. New procedure calculation of K-shell ionization cross sections by proton impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahoul, A.; Deghfel, B.; Abdellatif, A.; Nekkab, M.

    2011-01-01

    The database, which relies on different compilations available in the literature and on other experimental values extracted from papers published from 1992 till 2010, is used, within the individual treatment of the elements from beryllium ( 4 Be) to uranium ( 92 U), to deduce the empirical cross sections. These experimental data can be presented in a single curve, depending on a scaling law extracted from studies in the most familiar theories of collision (PWBA and BEA). Then, a fourth order polynomial was used to fit very well the existing database of K-shell ionization cross sections by proton. This procedure generates a new set of parameters to calculate empirical cross sections. Following the present procedure, our results are compared with those obtained using the ECPSSR model where a discrepancy is observed in the low-proton energy regime. - Highlights: → We used the experimental data to define the K-shell ionization cross sections. → These values are presented in a single curve used PWBA and BEA theories. → The empirical values are defined for each element separately.

  4. Double differential cross sections for soft electron emission in ionization of hydrogen by bare carbon ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Richard, P.; Ling, D.; DePaola, B.; Wang, Y.D.; Lin, C.D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. MacDonald Lab.; Rudd, M.E. [Nebraska Univ., Lincoln, NE (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    1997-12-31

    The double differential cross sections (DDCS) for low energy electron emission can provide stringent tests of the theoretical models for ionization in ion-atom collisions. We have measured the DDCS (d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega} d{epsilon}) of soft electron emission in the ionization of H{sub 2} bombarded by bare Carbon ions of energy 1.84 and 2.5 MeV/u. The measurements have been carried out for different emission angles ({theta}) and for electron energies ({epsilon}) between 0.1 and 300 eV. The angular distributions of the DDCS for electrons with fixed energies were found to peak around 70-75 . The data have been compared with CDW-EIS and FBA calculations. (orig.). 10 refs.

  5. Analysis of bias effects on the total ionizing dose response in a 180 nm technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhangli; Hu Zhiyuan; Zhang, Zhengxuan; Shao Hua; Chen Ming; Bi Dawei; Ning Bingxu; Zou Shichang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of gamma ray irradiation on the shallow trench isolation (STI) leakage current in a 180 nm technology are investigated. The radiation response is strongly influenced by the bias modes, gate bias during irradiation, substrate bias during irradiation and operating substrate bias after irradiation. We found that the worst case occurs under the ON bias condition for the ON, OFF and PASS bias mode. A positive gate bias during irradiation significantly enhances the STI leakage current, indicating the electric field influence on the charge buildup process during radiation. Also, a negative substrate bias during irradiation enhances the STI leakage current. However a negative operating substrate bias effectively suppresses the STI leakage current, and can be used to eliminate the leakage current produced by the charge trapped in the deep STI oxide. Appropriate substrate bias should be introduced to alleviate the total ionizing dose (TID) response, and lead to acceptable threshold voltage shift and subthreshold hump effect. Depending on the simulation results, we believe that the electric field distribution in the STI oxide is the key parameter influencing bias effects on the radiation response of transistor. - Highlights: → ON bias is the worst bias condition for the ON, PASS and OFF bias modes. → Larger gate bias during irradiation leads to more pronounced characteristic degradation. → TID induced STI leakage can be suppressed by negative operating substrate bias voltage. → Negative substrate bias during irradiation leads to larger increase of off-state leakage. → Electric field in the STI oxide greatly influences the device's radiation effect.

  6. Experimental and theoretical determinations of the absolute ionization cross section of alkali metals by electron impact in the energy range from 100 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalin, Rene

    1972-01-01

    The absolute electron impact ionization cross sections for the alkali metals in the energy range between 100 eV and 2000 eV were measured by the non-modulated crossed beam technique. The neutral beam of alkali atoms is produced by a Knudsen cell and crossed at right angles with the electron beam. The ions formed are collected on a plate and their intensity determined with a D.C. amplifier. The neutral beam is condensed on a cold trap cooled with liquid nitrogen, this temperature being much lower than that required to obtain total condensation. The amount of metal deposited is measured by the isotopic dilution technique and by atomic absorption, and the density of the atoms in the neutral beam is calculated. The total absolute ionization cross sections can then be determined. All possible errors have been carefully analyzed and their magnitudes estimated. The absolute ionization cross section for Li at an energy of 500 eV is: Q Li = 0,358 x 10 -16 cm 2 . This value is half of that obtained by Mac Farland and Kinney. The partial ionization cross sections for the singly and multiply charged ions is determined with a mass spectrometer attached to this apparatus. For the singly charged ions, the variation of the cross section with the energy of the ionizing electrons is in agreement with the optically allowed transition law: Q = A log BE/E. From the variation of Q with E, the squared matrix elements of the transition moment (|M i |) 2 are determined for all the elements studied. New calculations of the ionization cross section of Li and Na were performed in the framework of the Born-Bethe approximation as modified by Gaudin and Botter to take into account collisions with large momentum variation of the incident electron. Hartree-Fock type wave functions for the ground state atom (tabulated by Clementi) were used. The calculated values are in good agreement with our experimental results and with the former theoretical results calculated by various methods. This work also

  7. Total cross sections for pion charge exchange on the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitschopf, J.

    2006-04-28

    This work describes the measurement of total SCX cross sections employing a new 4{pi} scintillation counter to perform transmission measurements in the incident pion energy range from about 38 to 250 MeV. A small 4{pi} detector box consisting of thin plastic scintillators has been constructed. The transmission technique, which was used, relates the number of transmitted charged pions to that of incident beam pions and this way effectively counts events with neutral products. The incoming negative pions were counted by three beam defining counters before they hit a target of very well known size and chemical composition. The target was placed in the box detector which was not sensitive to the neutral particles resulting from the SCX. The total cross section for emerging neutral particles was derived from the comparison of the numbers of the incoming and transmitted charged particles. The total SCX cross section on hydrogen was derived from the transmissions of a CH{sub 2} target, a carbon target and an empty target. For a detailed offline analysis all TDC, QDC and FADC information was recorded in an event by event mode for each triggered beam event. Various corrections had to be applied to the data, such as random correction, the detection of neutrals in the detector, Dalitz decay, pion decay and the radiative pion capture. This measurement covers, as the only experiment, the whole {delta}-resonance and the sp-interference region in one single experimental setup and improves the available data base for the SCX reaction. It is shown that the description of the SCX cross sections is improved if the s-wave amplitudes, that have been fixed essentially by elastic pion-nucleon scattering data, is reduced by (4{+-}1.5)%. The exact value depends on the SCX literature data included and on the parameters of the {delta}{sup 0} Breit-Wigner resonance describing the p{sub 33}-waves. This shows that p-wave as well as s-wave effects should be considered in studies of isospin

  8. Total cross sections for pion charge exchange on the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitschopf, J.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the measurement of total SCX cross sections employing a new 4π scintillation counter to perform transmission measurements in the incident pion energy range from about 38 to 250 MeV. A small 4π detector box consisting of thin plastic scintillators has been constructed. The transmission technique, which was used, relates the number of transmitted charged pions to that of incident beam pions and this way effectively counts events with neutral products. The incoming negative pions were counted by three beam defining counters before they hit a target of very well known size and chemical composition. The target was placed in the box detector which was not sensitive to the neutral particles resulting from the SCX. The total cross section for emerging neutral particles was derived from the comparison of the numbers of the incoming and transmitted charged particles. The total SCX cross section on hydrogen was derived from the transmissions of a CH 2 target, a carbon target and an empty target. For a detailed offline analysis all TDC, QDC and FADC information was recorded in an event by event mode for each triggered beam event. Various corrections had to be applied to the data, such as random correction, the detection of neutrals in the detector, Dalitz decay, pion decay and the radiative pion capture. This measurement covers, as the only experiment, the whole Δ-resonance and the sp-interference region in one single experimental setup and improves the available data base for the SCX reaction. It is shown that the description of the SCX cross sections is improved if the s-wave amplitudes, that have been fixed essentially by elastic pion-nucleon scattering data, is reduced by (4±1.5)%. The exact value depends on the SCX literature data included and on the parameters of the Δ 0 Breit-Wigner resonance describing the p 33 -waves. This shows that p-wave as well as s-wave effects should be considered in studies of isospin symmetry breaking. Interestingly

  9. Cross-Field Current Instabilities in Thin Ionization Layers and the Enhanced Aurora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay R.; Okuda, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Nearly half of the time, auroral displays exhibit thin, bright layers known as 'enhanced aurora'. There is a substantial body of evidence that connects these displays with thin, dense, heavy ion layers in the E-region. Based on the spectral characteristics of the enhanced layers, it is believed that they result when wave-particle interaction heats ambient electrons to energies at or just above the 17 eV ionization energy of N2. While there are several possible instabilities that could produce suprathermal electrons in thin layers, there has been no clear theoretical investigation which examines in detail how wave instabilities in the thin ionization layers could develop and produce the suprathermal electrons. We examine instabilities which would occur in thin, dense, heavy ion layers using extensive analytical analysis combined with particle simulations. We analyze a cross field current instability that is found to be strongly unstable in the heavy ion layers. Electrostatic simulations show that substantial heating of the ambient electrons occurs with energization at or above the N2 ionization energy.

  10. Direct Measurement of the 4He(12C, 16Oγ Total Cross Section Near Stellar Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujita Kunihiro

    2015-01-01

    For measuring at Ecm < 1.2 MeV, a hybrid detector employing both, an ionization chamber and a silicon detector was developed to reduce the carbon backgrounds more efficiently. The oxygen ions were clearly separated from carbon background by using the energy deposit in the ionization chamber. Experiment of Ecm = 1.2 MeV was performed and the cross section was obtained.

  11. Surface oxidation on thin films affects ionization cross section induced by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertol, Ana Paula Lamberti; Vasconcellos, M.A.Z.; Hinrichs, Ruth; Limandri, Silvina; Trincavelli, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Full text: In microanalysis techniques such as Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), the transformation from intensity to concentration is made by standard less software that needs exact values of fundamental parameters such as the ionization cross section, transition probabilities of the different electronic levels, and fluorescent yield. The three parameters together measure the photon generating probability of an electronic transition and can be determined experimentally under the name of production cross section. These measurements are performed on thin films, with thickness around 10 nm, but most studies do not take into account any spontaneous surface oxidation. In this work, in the attempt to obtain cross section values of Al, Si and Ti, in metallic and oxide films, the influence of surface oxidation on the metallic films was established. Simulations considering the oxidation with the software SIMNRA on the Rutherford backscattering (RBS) spectra obtained from the films provided mass thickness values used to calculate the cross section data that were compared with theoretical values (PWBA and ECPSSR), and with experimental values and empirical adjustments from other studies. The inclusion of the natural oxidation affects the values of cross section, and may be one of the causes of discrepancies between the experimental values published in literature. (author)

  12. Total Ionization Dose effects in the FE-I4 front-end chip of the ATLAS Pixel IBL detector

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Pixel Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the first year of operation, a drift of the IBL calibration parameters (Threshold and ToT) and a low voltage current increase was observed. It was assumed that both observations were related to radiation damage effects depending on the Total Ionizing Dose (TID) in the NMOS transistors of which each Front End chip holds around 80 million. The effect of radiation on those transistors was investigated in lab measurements and the results will be presented in this talk.

  13. Measurement of differential (n,x{alpha}) cross section using 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanami, Toshiya; Baba, Mamoru; Matsuyama, Shigeo; Kiyosumi, Takehide; Nauchi, Yasushi; Saito, Keiichiro; Hirakawa, Naohiro [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kawano, Toshihiko

    1997-03-01

    We carried out the measurements of high resolution {alpha} emission spectra of {sup 58}Ni and {sup nat}Ni between 4.5 and 6.5 MeV, and {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) cross section using a 4{pi} gridded ionization chamber. In Ni measurement, overall energy resolution was improved to around 200 keV by optimizing a sample thickness and a neutron source width. Measured alpha spectra showed separate peaks corresponding to the ground and low-lying excited states of the residual nucleus ({sup 55}Fe). These results were compared with another direct measurement and statistical model calculations. In {sup 12}C measurement, GIC was applied for (n,x{alpha}) reactions of light nuclei. This application is difficult to (n,x{alpha}) cross sections of light nuclei, because of the influences of large recoil energy and multi-body break-up. We developed new methods which eliminate the effects of recoil nuclei and multi-body break-up and applied them to {sup 12}C(n,x{alpha}) reaction at En=14.1 MeV. In our experiment, the {sup 12}C(n,{alpha}{sub 0}){sup 9}Be angular differential cross section and {sup 12}C(n,n`3{alpha}) cross section were obtained. (author)

  14. Absolute experimental cross sections for the electron impact ionization of rubidium. Technical summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, D.W.; Feeney, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The absolute cross sections for the double, triple, and quadruple ionization of Rb + ions by electron impact have been measured from below their respective thresholds to approximately 3000 eV. This determination has been accomplished using a crossed beam facility in which monoenergetic beams of ions and electrons are caused to intersect at right angles in a well-defined collision volume. Multiply charged, product ions born as a result of the electron impact are deflected into their respective detectors by cascaded electrostatic analyzers. The multiply charged beam current component is measured by means of a vibrating reed electrometer operating in the rate-of-charge mode. The required singly charged rubidium ions are produced in a thermionic ion source and pass through a series of focusing, collimating and deflecting structures before entering the interaction region. A thermionically generated, rectangular electron beam intercepts the target ions in a spatially designated collision volume. Just prior to entering this interaction region the two beams can be made to pass through a movable slit scanner which determines their spatial profiles. The various charged particle currents, energies and beam current density distributions represent the experimental data from which the desired absolute cross sections have been determined. The results obtained with this technique are compared with available theoretical predictions of the appropriate cross sections

  15. Rise of Kp total cross section and universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Barger, Vernon

    2011-01-01

    The increase of the measured hadronic total cross sections at the highest energies is empirically described by the squared log of center-of-mass energy √(s) as σ tot ≅Blog 2 s, consistent with the energy dependence of the Froissart unitarity bound. The coefficient B is argued to have a universal value, but this is not proved directly from QCD. In the previous tests of this universality, the p(p)p, π ± p, and K ± p forward scatterings were analyzed independently and found to be consistent with B pp ≅B πp ≅B Kp , although the determined value of B Kp had large uncertainty. In the present work, we have further analyzed forward K ± p scattering to obtain a more exact value of B Kp . Making use of continuous-moment sum rules we have fully exploited the information of low-energy scattering data to predict the high-energy behavior of the amplitude through duality. The estimation of B Kp is improved remarkably, and our result strongly supports the universality of B.

  16. Totally Active Scintillator Tracker-Calorimeter for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078013; Blondel, Alain

    2014-09-31

    The recent discoveries in particle physics, the Higgs Boson and neutrino oscillations, voiced the need for new machines that can provide higher intensities, energy and precision. To study the neutrino oscillations in great details and to access new physics, a Neutrino Factory stands as an ultimate tool that offers a high intensity, well understood neutrino beam. On the other hand, a Muon Collider is indispensable for better understanding of a Higgs physics. Both machines share similar ingredients and one of them, that is essential to achieve high luminosity of the beams, is beam cooling. And the only feasible method to achieve cooling of a muons beam is based on ionization. An R&D project was established to verify a possibility of such a cooling, Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE). Its purpose is to build a cooling cell capable of cooling a muon beam by 10% and measure the effect (the cooling effect is attributed to a reduction of beam emittance) with an absolute precision of 0.1%. This is achieve...

  17. Experimental and theoretical double differential cross sections for electron impact ionization of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Murat; Ozer, Zehra Nur, E-mail: zehraerengil@aku.edu.tr; Ulu, Melike; Dogan, Mevlut [e-COL Laboratory, Department of Physics, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyonkarahisar 03200 (Turkey); Champion, Christophe [Centre d’Etudes Nucléaires de Bordeaux Gradignan, CNRS/IN2P3, Université de Bordeaux, Gradignan 33170 (France)

    2016-04-28

    Experimental and theoretical double differential cross sections (DDCSs) for electron-induced ionization of methane (CH{sub 4}) are here reported for primary energies ranging from 50 eV to 350 eV and ejection angles between 25° and 130°. Experimental DDCSs are compared with theoretical predictions performed within the first Born approximation Coulomb wave. In this model, the initial molecular state is described by using single center wave functions, the incident (scattered) electron being described by a plane wave, while a Coulomb wave function is used for modeling the secondary ejected electron. A fairly good agreement may be observed between theory and experiment with nevertheless an expected systematic overestimation of the theory at low-ejection energies (<50 eV).

  18. Double ionization of the hydrogen sulfide molecule by electron impact: Influence of the target orientation on multiple differential cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imadouchene, N.; Aouchiche, H.; Champion, C.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The double ionization of the H 2 S molecule is here theoretically studied. • The orientation dependence of the differential cross sections is scrutinized. • The specific double ionizing mechanisms are clearly identified. - Abstract: Multiple differential cross sections of double ionization of hydrogen sulfide molecule impacted by electrons are here investigated within the first Born approximation. In the initial state, the incident electron is represented by a plane wave function whereas the target is described by means of a single-center molecular wave function. In the final state, the two ejected electrons are described by Coulomb wave functions coupled by the Gamow factor, whereas the scattered electron is described by a plane wave. In this work, we analyze the role played by the molecular target orientation in the double ionization of the four outermost orbitals, namely 2b 1 , 5a 1 , 2b 2 and 4a 1 in considering the particular case of two electrons ejected from the same orbital. The contribution of each final state to the double ionization process is studied in terms of shape and magnitude for specific molecular orientations and for each molecular orbital we identified the mechanisms involved in the double ionization process, namely, the Shake-Off and the Two-Step 1.

  19. Total absorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor between 100 and 1000 A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, G. N.; Samson, J. A. R.

    1986-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of water vapor are reported at a large number of discrete wavelengths between 100 and 1000 A with an estimate error of + or - 3 percent in regions free from any discrete structure. The double ionization chamber technique utilized is described. Recent calculations are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the present data.

  20. Simulation and measurement of total ionizing dose radiation induced image lag increase in pinned photodiode CMOS image sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xiangtan University, Hunan (China); State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: chenwei@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Wang, Zujun, E-mail: wangzujun@nint.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China); Xue, Yuanyuan; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Ma, Wuying; Jin, Junshan; Sheng, Jiangkun; Dong, Guantao [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Irradiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, P.O.Box 69-10, Xi’an (China)

    2017-06-01

    This paper presents an investigation of total ionizing dose (TID) induced image lag sources in pinned photodiodes (PPD) CMOS image sensors based on radiation experiments and TCAD simulation. The radiation experiments have been carried out at the Cobalt −60 gamma-ray source. The experimental results show the image lag degradation is more and more serious with increasing TID. Combining with the TCAD simulation results, we can confirm that the junction of PPD and transfer gate (TG) is an important region forming image lag during irradiation. These simulations demonstrate that TID can generate a potential pocket leading to incomplete transfer.

  1. Models for photon-photon total cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbole, R.M.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents here a brief overview of recent models describing the photon-photon cross-section into hadrons. It shall be showed in detail results from the eikonal minijet model, with and without soft gluon summation

  2. Estimation of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium for the diagnosis of hypocalcaemia of malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaz, A.; Mehmood, T.; Qureshi, A.H.; Anwar, M.; Dilawar, M.; Hussain, I.; Khan, F.A.; Khan, D.A.; Hussain, S.; Khan, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure levels of ionized calcium, total calcium and albumin corrected calcium in patients with different malignant disorders for the diagnosis of hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Design: A case control comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, Army Medical College Rawalpindi, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology and Department of Oncology CMH, Rawalpindi from March 2003 to December 2003. Subjects and Methods: Ninety-seven patients of various malignant disorders, admitted in the Department of Oncology, CMH, Rawalpindi, and 39 age and gender-matched disease-free persons (as control) were included in the study. Blood ionized calcium (Ca/sup ++/), pH, sodium (Na/sup +/) and potassium (K/sup +/) were analysed by Ion selective electrode (ISE) on Easylyte> auto analyser. Other related parameters were measured by colorimetric methods. Results: Blood Ca/sup ++/ levels in patients suffering from malignant disorders were found significantly high (mean +- j 1.30+017 mmoV/L) as compared to control subjects (mean +- 1.23+0.03 mmoV/L) (p<0.001). The number of patients with hypercalcaemia of malignancy detected by Ca/sup ++/ estimation was significantly higher (38%) as compared to total calcium (8.4%) and albumin corrected calcium ACC (10.6%) (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in other parameters e.g. phosphate, urea, creatinine, pH, Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/ levels in study subjects and controls. Conclusion: Detection of hypercalcaemia can be markedly improved if ionized calcium estimation is used in patients with malignant disorders. (author)

  3. Ionizing Radiation Effects on the Noise of 65 nm CMOS Transistors for Pixel Sensor Readout at Extreme Total Dose Levels

    CERN Document Server

    Re, V.; Manghisoni, M.; Riceputi, E.; Traversi, G.; Ratti, L.

    2018-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the noise performance of 65 nm CMOS transistors at extremely high total ionizing dose (TID) levels of the order of several hundreds of Mrad(SiO2). Noise measurements are reported and discussed, analyzing radiation effects on 1/ f noise and channel thermal noise. In nMOSFETs, up to 10 Mrad(SiO2), the experimental behavior is consistent with a damage mechanism mainly associ- ated with lateral isolation oxides, and can be modeled by parasitic transistors turning on after irradiation and contributing to the total noise of the device. At very high dose, these parasitic transistors tend to be turned off by negative charge accumulating in interface states and compensating radiation-induced positive charge building up inside thick isolation oxides. Effects associated with ionization and hydrogen transport in spacer oxides may become dominant at 600 Mrad(SiO2) and may explain the observed noise behavior at extremely high TID. The results of this analysis provide an understanding o...

  4. Universal cross sections for K-shell ionization by low-velocity protons; importance of relativistic and energy-loss effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, A.R.; Lapicki, G.

    1981-01-01

    When Z 1 2 , inner-shell ionization of a target atom of atomic number Z 2 by a projectile of atomic number Z 1 occurs predominately via removal of an inner-shell electron to the target atom continuum (direct ionization). Electron capture contributes then insignificantly to the ionization, and thus the predictions of perturbativein-Z 1 /Z 2 theories of direct ionization can be tested through comparison with measured ionization cross sections. We present such a comparison with the recently reported data for K-shell ionization of the Z 2 =22, 26, 28, and 30 elements by 60-150 keV protons (Z 1 =1). These ionization cross sections were inferred from x-ray production measurements using Krause's fluorescence yields

  5. (e,3e) and (e,3-1e) differential cross sections for the double ionization of water molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, A.; Dal Cappello, C.; Kada, I.; Champion, C.; Roy, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    We report new results for differential cross sections for the double ionization of water molecule by 1 keV electron impact. The present calculation is based on the first Born approximation. We describe the water molecule by a single centre wave function of Moccia. For the final state, an approximation of the well-known 3C wave function is used. An extensive study has been made by varying the angles of detection and the energies of each ejected electron. We have investigated the double ionization of each molecular state (1b 1 , 3a 1 , 1b 2 and 2a 1 ) and identified the mechanisms of this process.

  6. Polarization effects in the ionization cross section of Ar, Kr, and Xe by laser-excited Ne sup ** ((2 p ) sup 5 (3 p ); J =3, M ) atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driessen, J.P.J.; van de Weijer, F.J.M.; Zonneveld, M.J.; Somers, L.M.T.; Janssens, M.F.M.; Beijerinck, H.C.W.; Verhaar, B.J. (Physics Department, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (The Netherlands))

    1990-10-01

    In a crossed-beam experiment the total ionization cross section for the title systems has been investigated in the range 0.1{le}{ital E} (eV) {lt}=4 of collision energies. The population of the short-lived Ne{sup **}((3{ital p});{ital J}=3) state is produced by saturated optical pumping of the Ne{sup *}((3{ital s});{ital J}=2){leftrightarrow}Ne{sup **}((3{ital p});{ital J}=3) two-level system with a polarized laser beam, resulting in a well-determined distribution of the magnetic substates {vert bar}{ital J},{ital M}{r angle} with respect to the relative velocity {bold g}. By measuring the ion yield in the scattering center at five different orientations of the laser polarization (linear and circular) with respect to {bold g}, the data can be analyzed in terms of pure-state total ionization cross sections {sup 3}{ital Q{vert bar}{ital M}{vert bar}} corresponding to a single asymptotic state {vert bar}{ital J},{ital M}{r angle}.

  7. Neutron method and apparatus for determining total cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flaum, C.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the determination of the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of the geological formation surrounding a borehole. The method comprises passing a logging sonde through the borehole while continuously irradiating the formation with neutrons. The radiation emanating from the formation is monitored to generate a first signal indicative of thermal neutrons and a second signal indicative of epithermal neutrons. Output signals are generated indicative of the spatial distribution of thermal and epithermal neutrons, and are combined to generate a signal representative of the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of the formation. The apparatus comprises a logging sonde adapted for movement through the borehole and carrying a neutron source; detector means on the sonde for monitoring radiation emanating from the formation to generate signals indicative of thermal and epithermal neutrons; means for generating output signals indicative of the spatial distribution of thermal and epithermal neutrons; and means for combining the two output signals to generate a signal indicative of the macroscopic neutron absorption cross section of the material

  8. Photodouble ionization differential cross sections for D2 with various electron energy sharing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seccombe, D.P.; Collins, S.A.; Reddish, T.J.; Selles, P.; Malegat, L.; Huetz, A.; Kazansky, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    The mutual angular distributions of the two ejected electrons following direct photodouble ionization have been measured for D 2 at an excess energy (E) of 25 eV using linearly polarized light. These (γ, 2e) 'triple' differential cross sections (TDCSs) were obtained for asymmetric electron energy conditions with energy sharing ratios (R=E 2 /E 1 ) of R=24, 11.5, 4 and 2.57. In all cases the 'reference' electron (energy = E 1 ) was oriented along the direction of the electric field vector (ε) and detected in coincidence with a second electron (energy = E 2 ) coplanar with ε and the photon beam direction (kγ). For comparison, helium TDCSs were obtained for the same E and R values under nearly identical spectrometer conditions. These show very good agreement with the results of hyperspherical-R-matrix with semi-classical outgoing waves calculations, thus providing even more confidence in the D 2 TDCSs where there is as yet no accurate ab initio theory. The similarities and differences between the experimental results associated with the two targets are qualitatively discussed in terms of Feagin's model (Feagin J M 1998 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 31 L729). (author)

  9. Total Ionizing Dose Test Report BFR92A NPN 5 GHz Wide Band Transistor from NXP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Anthony M.; Oldham, Timothy R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this test was to characterize the Philips/NXP BFR92A NPN 5 gigahertz wide band silicon transistor for total dose response. This test shall serves as the radiation lot acceptance test (RLAT) for the lot date code (LDC) 1027. The BFR92A is packaged in a 3-pin plastic SOT23 package. Low dose rate (LDR/ELDRS) irradiations was performed.

  10. A scattering cross-section and ionization equilibrium in dense metal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramazanov, T S; Dzhumagulova, K N; Gabdullin, M T; Akbar, A Zh [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole Bi 96a, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Redmer, R [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, D-18051, Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: ramazan@physics.kz

    2009-05-29

    The kinetic and thermodynamic properties of non-ideal Al and Cu plasmas were investigated on the basis of pseudopotential models, taking screening and quantum-mechanical effects into account. For investigation of ionization stages, the Saha equations with corrections to non-ideality (lowering of ionization potentials) were used.

  11. Total J/psi production cross section at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Lansberg, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluate the production cross section for direct J/psi integrated in P_T for various collision energies of the LHC in the QCD-based Colour-Singlet Model. We consider the LO contribution from gluon fusion as well as the one from a fusion of a gluon and a charm quark from the colliding protons. The rapidity distribution of the yield is evaluated in the central region relevant for the ATLAS and CMS detectors, as well as in the more forward region relevant for the ALICE and LHC-b detectors. The results obtained here are compatible with those of other approaches within the range of the theoretical uncertainties which are admittedly very large. This suggests that the "mere" measurements of the yield at the LHC will not help disentangle between the different possible quarkonium production mechanisms.

  12. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    impact ionization successfully. In particular, the close coupling calculations of Bray and. Stelbovics [7] and that of Kato and Watanabe [9] describe the total ionization cross section from near threshold to about 500 eV very accurately. Due to lack of experimental data, the study of positron impact ionization is till now.

  13. Laser produced ionization of alcali-atoms through three-photon absorption: comparison between experimental and theoretical cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laplanche, G.; Flank, Y.; Jaouen, M.; Rachman, A.

    1977-01-01

    Three-photon ionization cross-sections of alkali atoms for linearly and circularly polarized light have been calculated in the electric dipole approximation. The infinite summations over the complete set of unperturbed atomic states, appearing when Nth-order time-dependent perturbation theory is applied, have been calculated by using the Green's function formalism and the quantum defect method. The theoretical results are compared with the values experimentally obtained by Cervenan, Chan and Isenor [fr

  14. K-shell ionization by antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehler, G.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.; Soff, G.

    1987-01-01

    We present first calculations for the impact parameter dependence of K-shell ionization rates in anti pCu and in anti pAg collisions at various projectile energies. We show that the effect of the attractive Coulomb potential on the Rutherford trajectory and the anti-binding effect caused by the negative charge of the antiproton result in a considerable increase of the ionization probability. Total ionization cross-sections for proton and antiproton projectiles are compared with each other and with experimental ionization cross-sections for protons. (orig.)

  15. Initial Experience With the Gaia Composite Core Guidewires in Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Houman; Vo, Minh N; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2016-02-01

    Inability to cross the occlusion with a guidewire is the most common cause of failure of coronary chronic total occlusion (CTO) interventions. We describe two cases of successful application of the novel Gaia family of coronary guidewires (Asahi Intecc) for crossing coronary CTOs using all available crossing strategies, namely antegrade wire escalation, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde.

  16. Charge dependence of the ratio of double to total ionization of a helium-like ion by Compton scattering of a high energy photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suric, T.; Pisk, K.; Pratt, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the charge (Z) dependence of the nonrelativistic high energy limit for the double to total ionization ratio by Compton scattering of a photon, as well as by the photoeffect, utilizing our approach based on the impulse approximation or on the generalized shake-off theory. For all Z our high energy Compton ratio is about half the corresponding photoeffect ratio, calculated using the same assumptions or, alternatively, the ratio of double ionization by Compton scattering to double ionization by the photoeffect is about half the ratio for single ionization. We conclude that all current Compton calculations are consistent with this result, and we show that the recent calculation of Amusia and Mikhailov [Phys. Lett. A 199 (1995) 209] corresponds to our high Z results. (orig.)

  17. The electron-impact ionization of Ar and Kr revisited: A critical analysis of double-to-single ionization cross section ratio measurements using the fast-atom-beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnovsky, V.; Becker, K.

    1992-01-01

    We report new measurements of the absolute electron-impact double ionization cross sections for Ar and Kr and of the ratios of double-to-single ionization for impact energies from threshold to 200 eV using the crossed electron-beam - fast-atom-beam technique. The work was motivated by the recently highlighted spread of about 30% in the Ar 2+ /Ar + ionization cross section ratios obtained by several groups using different experimental techniques. Such a spread is inconsistent with statistical uncertainties of typically 3% or less that were quoted for the various reported ratios. A similar situation exists for Kr where the spread among the recently published Kr 2+ /Kr + ionization cross section ratios is about 15%. We made an attempt to identify all potential systematic errors inherent to the fast-beam technique that could affect the measurement of cross section ratios with special emphasis on those systematic errors that could influence the detection of singly and doubly charged product ions differently. We found Ar 2+ /Ar + and Kr 2+ /Kr + cross section ratios of, respectively 0.066±0.007 and 0.087±0.008 at 100 eV which confirm earlier measurements using the same experimental technique. The error limits on cross sections ratios of multiple-to-single ionization for the same target atom and at least ±10% for ratios of single ionization cross sections for different target species. Our error limits are dominated by systematic uncertainties of the apparatus which do not cancel when cross section ratios are measured, since the ratios are obtained under similar, but not identical experimental conditions. (orig.)

  18. Measurement and calculation of excitation cross sections and level ionization by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Rames, F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental and theoretical study of the atomic structure in neutral noble gases is studied in this work. It mainly deals with the determination of total cross sections by electron impact and transition probabilities, including: Chapter 1: Theoretical introduction and the intermediate coupling description obtained for 420 levels of s, p and d configurations in neutral noble gases. Chapter 2: Experimental and theoretical values for electron collision cross sections are obtained for several levels of He, Ne, Ar and Kr. Our results as well as those available from existing bibliography are sumarized and compared. By means of an intermediate coupling treatment a number of regularities is found that provides us with some useful approximate semi empirical expressions. Chapter 3: Determination of lifetime and transition probabilities. Lifetime measurements are carried out by means of laser excitation and multichannel delayed coincidences technique. The experimental setup and electronics are also described. Chapter 4: Details the experimental setup developed for electron cross sections measurement by the optical method. The difficulties of this method and their treatment are also shown. (Author)

  19. Total neutron cross sections at energies around 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.R.; Romero, J.L.; Martens, P.

    1990-09-01

    The results for measurements of total cross sections on C, Al, Mg, Cu, Ge and Pb at 17.6 and 19.8 MeV are reported. A detailed comparison is presented with previous data and with the global optical model by the Ohio group. We also discuss plans for total non elastic cross section measurements. 31 refs, 12 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Electron impact ionization cross section studies of C2Fx (x = 1 - 6) and C3Fx (x = 1 - 8) fluorocarbon species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Choi, Heechol; Song, Mi-Young; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Yoon, Jung-Sik

    2017-05-01

    The total ionization cross section for C2Fx (x = 1 - 6) and C3Fx (x = 1 - 8) fluorocarbon species are studied with the Binary-Encounter Bethe (BEB) model using various orbital parameters calculated from restricted/unrestricted Hartree-Fock (RHF/UHF) and Density Functional Theory (DFT). All the targets were optimized for their minimal structures and energies with several ab-initio methods with the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. Among them, the present results with RHF/UHF orbital energies showed good agreement with the experimental results for stable targets C2F6, C2F4, C3F6 and C3F8. The results with the DFT (ωB97X/ωB97X-D) showed a reasonable agreement with the recent calculation of Bull et al. [J.N. Bull, M. Bart, C. Vallance, P.W. Harland, Phys. Rev. A 88, 062710 (2013)] for C2F6, C3F6 and C3F8 targets. The ionization cross section for C2F, C2F2, C2F3, C3F, C3F2, C3F3, C3F4, C3F5 and C3F7 were computed for the first time in the present study. We have also computed the vertical ionization potentials and polarizability for all the targets and compared them with other experimental and theoretical values. A good agreement is found between the present and the previous results. The calculated polarizability in turn is used to study the correlation with maximum ionization cross section and in general a good correlation is found among them, confirming the consistency and reliability of the present data. The cross section data reported in this article are very important for plasma modeling especially related to fluorocarbon plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  1. Ab initio calculation of differential cross sections for the double ionization of water vapour by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kada, I; Mansouri, A; Dal Cappello, C; Hervieux, P A; Roy, A C

    2009-01-01

    We carry out a theoretical analysis of the double ionization of the water molecule by fast electrons. The analysis is based on a perturbative approach. For the final state we employ the well-known 3C wavefunction which has the correct asymptotic behaviour when all interparticle distances are large. The initial state of the target is described by an accurate molecular wavefunction proposed by Moccia (1964 J. Chem. Phys. A 40 2186). We present five-fold differential cross sections for a wide variety of kinematical conditions. We show that a simple summation over four indices is able to avoid a time-consuming triple numerical integration required to take account of the orientation of the molecule in space. The mechanisms of the double ionization of the water molecule are identified and discussed.

  2. The search for oscillations in the near-threshold photo-double ionization cross section of helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleiman, U; Topcu, T; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F [Department of Physics, Auburn University, 206 Allison Laboratory, Auburn, AL 36849-5311 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    The photo-double ionization cross section for the helium atom is calculated in the near-threshold region by direct solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. Full close-coupling results for the 1s{sup 21}S ground state are found to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The calculations confirm the validity of the Wannier power law from 0.1 eV to about 1.7 eV excess energy and find no oscillations in the threshold cross section beyond numerical uncertainty. Further time-dependent calculations are made in a simpler s-wave counterlinear model for both the 1s{sup 21}S ground and 1s2s {sup 1}S excited states. Although numerical uncertainties are significantly reduced in the helium model calculations, again no oscillations in the threshold cross sections are found beyond the remaining numerical uncertainty. (letter to the editor)

  3. The total cross section as a function of energy for elastic scattering of noble gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Precise relative measurements of the total cross-sections as a function of velocity is presented for the systems Ar-Ar, Ar-Kr, Kr-Ar, Ar-Xe, Ne-Ar, Ne-Kr, and Ne-Xe, the primary beam particle being mentioned first. A discription of the apparatus is given. Then the method for extracting total cross-sections from the measured beam attenuation is analyzed. A comparison is made with total cross-sections calculated from various potentials that have been proposed in the literature

  4. On the SCA-description of the energy- and impact parameter dependence of K-shell ionization cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, D.; Kauer, T.

    1989-01-01

    We present the application of the SCA-model to impact-parameter and energy-dependent K-shell ionization cross sections for several projectile-target combinations. Then we discuss the successes and failures of the SCA-description and investigate the additional approximations still existing in this approach. It is shown that after the introduction of a fully time-dependent perturbed electronic boundstate wave function many of the former discrepancies between experiment and theory can be resolved and in general very good agreement is obtained. (orig.)

  5. Total cross section for chloroflouromethanes and CClx radicals by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model to find total CS for freons and CCl x by e − impact is employed. ► Complex optical potential formalism is used to find total inelastic and elastic CS. ► Result shows very good agreement with previous data wherever available. ► Maiden attempt to find cross section for the CCl x radicals. -- Abstract: We report here the total cross section for chloroflouromethanes namely CCl 3 F (Freon 11), CCl 2 F 2 (Freon 12), CClF 3 (Freon 13), CCl 4 and CCl x (x = 1–3), radicals by electron impact 50 to 5000 eV. The total inelastic and elastic cross sections are obtained employing a complex optical potential formalism and solving the Schrödinger equation through partial wave analysis. The total cross section is obtained as the sum of total inelastic and elastic cross sections. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. The present result shows reasonable agreement with previous data. For the CCl x radicals, we have predicted the total cross sections for the first time. The data reported here has immense interest to atmospheric and technological plasma modelling

  6. Total ionizing dose (TID) effect and single event effect (SEE) in quasi-SOI nMOSFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Fei; Huang, Ru; An, Xia; Wu, Weikang; Feng, Hui; Huang, Liangxi; Fan, Jiewen; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Yangyuan

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the total ionizing dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) in quasi-SOI nMOSFETs for the first time. After exposure to gamma rays, the off-state leakage current (I off ) of a quasi-SOI device increases with the accumulating TID, and the on-state bias configuration is shown to be the worst-case bias configuration during irradiation. Although an additional TID-sensitive region is introduced by the unique structure of the quasi-SOI device, the influence of positive charge trapped in L-type oxide layers on the degradation of device performance is neglectable. Since the TID-induced leakage path in the quasi-SOI device is greatly reduced due to the isolation of L-type oxide layers, the TID-induced I off  degradation in the quasi-SOI device is greatly suppressed. In addition, 3D simulation is performed to investigate the SEE of the quasi-SOI device. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of worst-case drain current transient and collected charges of the quasi-SOI device after single-ion-striking is smaller than in a bulk Si device, indicating that the quasi-SOI device inherits the advantage of an SOI device in single event transient immunity. Therefore, the quasi-SOI device, which has improved electrical properties and radiation-hardened characteristics for both TID and SEE, can be considered as one of the promising candidates for space applications. (paper)

  7. A high-throughput system for boron microsublimation and isotope analysis by total evaporation thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Wei; Aciego, Sarah M; Wanamaker, Alan D; Sell, Bryan K

    2013-08-15

    Research on the ocean carbon cycle is vitally important due to the projected impacts of atmospheric CO2 on global temperatures and climate change, but also on ocean chemistry. The direct influence of this CO2 rise on the seawater pH can be evaluated from the boron isotopic composition in biogenic carbonates; however, conscientious laboratory techniques and data treatment are vital in obtaining accurate and precise results. A rapid-throughput boron purification and Total Evaporation Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry method was developed for high accuracy and precision boron isotopic analysis for small (ng) sample sizes. An improved microsublimation method, in which up to 20 samples can be processed simultaneously under identical temperature conditions, was developed. Several tests have confirmed the viability of this technique. First, seawater and Porites coral samples were processed with H2 O2 and the results compared with those obtained using microsublimation; second, the impact of various sublimation times was evaluated; and third, quantitative recovery was assessed using standard addition. Microsublimation provides a valid method for the quantitative recovery and separation of boron from both major elements and organic matter under low-blank conditions. The close agreement of our results with published values validates the accuracy of the measurements. The isotopic ratio for SRM 951a boric acid isotopic standard was 4.0328 ± 0.0054 (2 STD, n = 25). The reproducibility of boron isotopic composition for standards including AE121, IAEA B-1 and an in-house coral standard UM-CP1 was ±0.68‰ (2 STD, n = 15), ±1.12‰ (2 STD, n = 24), and ±1.17‰ (2 STD, n = 14), respectively. The sample sizes were boron isotopic values in a variety of carbonate materials should facilitate the reconstruction of past ocean pH conditions with decadal-scale resolution. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Towards a Total Cross Section Measurement with the ALFA Detector at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebiński, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    The main goals of the Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) detector is to provide an absolute luminosity and total cross section measurement. The measurement method used, the detector alignment and the quality of the collected data are discussed.

  9. Total and Compound Formation Cross Sections for Americium Nuclei: Recommendations for Coupled-Channels Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-11

    Calculations for total cross sections and compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections for americium isotopes are described, for use in the 2017 NA-22 evaluation effort. The code ECIS 2006 was used in conjunction with Frank Dietrich's wrapper `runtemplate'.

  10. The total neutron cross sections for 14N and 24Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, J.

    This report contains tables of the total neutron cross sections of 14 N and 24 Mg as determined in a recent measurement for neutron energies between 1 and 5.3 MeV. Graphic representations and details on the evaluation of the cross sections are included. (orig.) [de

  11. Total cross sections of hadron interactions at high energies in low constituents number model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovskij, V.A.; Radchenko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    We consider QCD hadrons interaction model in which gluons density is low in initial state wave function in rapidity space and real hadrons are produced from color strings decay. In this model behavior of total cross sections of pp, pp bar, π ± p, K ± p, γp, and γγ interactions is well described. The value of proton-proton total cross section at LHC energy is predicted

  12. A simple functional form for proton-208Pb total reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, S.; Deb, P.K.; Amos, K.

    2001-01-01

    A simple functional form has been found that gives a good representation of the total reaction cross sections for the scattering from 208 Pb of protons with energies in the range 30 to 300 MeV. The ratios of the total reaction cross sections calculated under this approximations compared well (to within a few percent) to those determined from the microscopic optical model potentials

  13. 6,7Li + 28Si total reaction cross sections at near barrier energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakou, A.; Musumarra, A.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Alamanos, N.; Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Divis, N.; Doukelis, G.; Gillibert, A.; Harissopulos, S.; Kalyva, G.; Kokkoris, M.; Lagoyannis, A.; Mertzimekis, T.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Papachristodoulou, C.; Perdikakis, G.; Roubos, D.; Rusek, K.; Spyrou, S.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    Total reaction cross section measurements for the 6,7 Li + 28 Si systems have been performed at near-barrier energies. The results indicate that, with respect to the potential anomaly at barrier, 6 Li and 7 Li on light targets exhibit similar energy dependence on the imaginary potential. Comparisons are made with 6,7 Li cross sections on light and heavy targets, extracted via previous elastic scattering measurements and also with CDCC calculations. Energy dependent parametrisations are also obtained for total reaction cross sections of 6,7 Li on Si, as well as on any target, at near barrier energies

  14. Total Cross Sections and Event Properties from Real to Virtual Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friberg, Christer; Sjoestrand, Torbjoern

    2000-01-01

    A model for total cross sections with virtual photons is presented. In particular gamma*-p and gamma*-gamma* cross sections are considered. Our approach extends on a model for photoproduction, where the total cross section is subdivided into three distinct event classes: direct, VMD and anomalous. With increasing photon virtuality, the latter two decrease in importance. Instead Deep Inelastic Scattering dominates, with the direct class being the O(alpha s ) correction thereof. Hence, the model provides a smooth transition between the two regions. By the breakdown into different event classes, one may aim for a complete picture of all event properties. (author)

  15. Measurement of 18O + 10B fusion cross section and construction of a position sensitive ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Added, N.

    1987-01-01

    The 18 O + 10 B fusion reaction has been investigated within the bombarding energy range of 29,0 MeV lab 0 lab 0 angular range. For this purpose, a high resolution position sensitive ionization chamber has been developed and constructed. Experimental results compared to model predictions and experimental systematics found in the literature allows to reject compound nucleus limitation to the fusion cross section up to energies as high as five times the coulomb barrier. Statistical model fits to the residues elementary distributions reveal a quite difuse partial fusion cross section in the angular momentum space. Systematic analysis of fusion barrier height (V B ) and radius (R B ) for neighbouring nuclei point out the importance of the nuclear matter difuseness in the competition between the fusion and quasi-direct process. Calculations within this framework were performed. (author) [pt

  16. γ*γ* total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, M.; Royon, C.; Wallon, S.; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL. (author)

  17. $\\gamma^{*}\\gamma^{*}$ total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Royon, C; Wallon, S

    1999-01-01

    The total $\\gamma^*\\gamma^*$ cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the $e^+e^-$ collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL.

  18. γ*γ* total cross section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Maarten; De Roeck, Albert; Royon, Christophe; Wallon, Samuel

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross section is derived in the leading order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from two-gluon exchange. The double leading logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL effects

  19. Total dissociation cross section of CF4 and other fluoroalkanes for electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winters, H.F.; Inokuti, M.

    1982-01-01

    Various techniques from the field of surface science have allowed the development of a method for measuring the total absolute cross section for electron-impact-induced dissociation of a number of molecules. The technique is particularly reliable for the fluoroalkanes such as CF 4 , CF 3 H, C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 . The total dissociation cross section for CF 4 has been measured for energies between threshold (approx.12.5 eV) and 600 eV. The magnitude of the cross section at its maximum is 5.5 x 10 -16 cm 2 . Less extensive data are presented for CF 3 H, C 2 F 6 , and C 3 F 8 . Their cross sections at the maxima are 5.8 x 10 -16 cm 2 , 8.6 x 10 -16 cm 2 , and 1.18 x 10 -15 cm 2 , respectively. Arguments are presented which suggest that the total dissociation cross section for each of these gases is equal to the sum of the cross sections for excitation to all electronic and ionic states, i.e., the total cross section for electronic excitation. The results are discussed from the point of view of the Bethe theory. It is concluded that the Bethe asymptotic behavior is not yet attained in the energy range of these measurements

  20. Measurements of effective total macroscopic cross sections and effective energy of continuum beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisao [Rikkyo Univ., Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan). Inst. for Atomic Energy

    1998-03-01

    Two practically useful quantities are introduced in this study to characterize a continuum neutron beam and to describe transmission phenomena of the beam in field of quantitative neutron radiography: an effective energy instead of a peak energy or a mean energy of the spectrum and an effective total macroscopic (ETM) cross section instead of a total macroscopic (TM) cross section defined at the monochromatic energy. The effective energy was evaluated by means of energy dependence of ETM cross section. To realize the method a beam quality indicator (BQI) has been proposed recently. Several effective energies were measured for non-filtered, filtered neutron beams, and outputs of neutron guide tubes in world by the BQI. A thermal neutron beam and three beams modulated by Pb filters with different thicknesses are studied to measure ETM cross sections for various materials and summarized in a table. Validity of the effective energy determined by the BQI is discussed relating with ETM cross sections of materials. (author)

  1. Universal trend for heavy-ion total reaction cross sections at energies above the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L., E-mail: emil@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Morcelle, V. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2010-06-15

    Heavy-ion total reaction cross section measurements for more than one thousand one hundred reaction cases covering 61 target nuclei in the range {sup 6}Li-{sup 238}U, and 158 projectile nuclei from {sup 2}H up to {sup 84}Kr (mostly exotic ones) have been analysed in a systematic way by using an empirical, three-parameter formula which is applicable to cases for projectile kinetic energies above the Coulomb barrier. The analysis has shown that the average total nuclear binding energy per nucleon of the interacting nuclei and their radii are the chief quantities which describe the cross section patterns. A great number of cross section data (87%) has been quite satisfactorily reproduced by the proposed formula, therefore total reaction cross section predictions for new, not yet experimentally investigated reaction cases can be obtained within 25 percent (or much less) of uncertainty (author)

  2. Neutron total cross section measurements of gold and tantalum at the nELBE photoneutron source

    CERN Document Server

    Hannaske, Roland; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd; Bemmerer, Daniel; Birgersson, Evert; Ferrari, Anna; Grosse, Eckart; Kempe, Mathias; Kögler, Toni; Marta, Michele; Massarczyk, Ralph; Matic, Andrija; Schramm, Georg; Schwengner, Ronald; Wagner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 197 Au and nat Ta have been measured at the nELBE photoneutron source in the energy range from 0.1 - 10 MeV with a statistical uncertainty of up to 2 % and a total systematic uncertainty of 1 %. This facility is optimized for the fast neutron energy range and combines an excellent t ime structure of the neutron pulses (electron bunch width 5 ps) with a short flight path of 7 m. Because of the low instantaneous neutron flux transmission measurements of neutron total cross sections are possible, that exhibit very different beam and back ground conditions than found at other neutron sources.

  3. Abrasive wear and metallosis associated with cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sean T; Burnell, Colin D; Hedden, David R; Brandt, Jan-M

    2013-01-01

    A 34-year-old female patient received a cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy femoral head on cross-linked polyethylene total hip replacement for the revision of her fractured ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement. The CoCr alloy femoral head became severely worn due to third-body abrasive wear by ceramic particles that could not be removed by synovectomy or irrigation at revision surgery. Ceramic particles were found embedded in the cross-linked polyethylene liner. The CoCr alloy femoral head exhibited a total mass loss of 14.2 g and the generated wear particles triggered metallosis in the patient. The present case study suggests not revising a fractured ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacement with a CoCr alloy femoral head and a cross-linked polyethylene liner to avoid metallosis due to third-body abrasive wear. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Induction of DNA–protein cross-links by ionizing radiation and their elimination from the genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Toshiaki; Mitsusada, Yusuke [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Salem, Amir M.H. [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Pathology, Medical Research Division, National Research Centre, El-Bohouth St., Dokki, Giza 12311 (Egypt); Shoulkamy, Mahmoud I. [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Department of Zoology, Biological Science Building, Faculty of Science, Minia University, Minia 61519 (Egypt); Sugimoto, Tatsuya [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Hirayama, Ryoichi; Uzawa, Akiko [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [Development and Support Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Ide, Hiroshi, E-mail: ideh@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mathematical and Life Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Normoxic and hypoxic mouse tumors were irradiated with X-rays and C-ion beams. • DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs) and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) were analyzed. • C-ion beams produced more DPCs than did X-rays in normoxic and hypoxic tumor cells. • DPCs were eliminated from the genome much more slowly than DSBs. • Persisting DPCs may have deleterious effects on cells in conjunction with DSBs. - Abstract: Ionizing radiation produces various types of DNA lesions, such as base damage, single-strand breaks, double-strand breaks (DSBs), and DNA–protein cross-links (DPCs). Of these, DSBs are the most critical lesions underlying the lethal effects of ionizing radiation. With DPCs, proteins covalently trapped in DNA constitute strong roadblocks to replication and transcription machineries, and hence can be lethal to cells. The formation of DPCs by ionizing radiation is promoted in the absence of oxygen, whereas that of DSBs is retarded. Accordingly, the contribution of DPCs to the lethal events in irradiated cells may not be negligible for hypoxic cells, such as those present in tumors. However, the role of DPCs in the lethal effects of ionizing radiation remains largely equivocal. In the present study, normoxic and hypoxic mouse tumors were irradiated with X-rays [low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation] and carbon (C)-ion beams (high LET radiation), and the resulting induction of DPCs and DSBs and their removal from the genome were analyzed. X-rays and C-ion beams produced more DPCs in hypoxic tumors than in normoxic tumors. Interestingly, the yield of DPCs was slightly but statistically significantly greater (1.3- to 1.5-fold) for C-ion beams than for X-rays. Both X-rays and C-ion beams generated two types of DPC that differed according to their rate of removal from the genome. This was also the case for DSBs. The half-lives of the rapidly removed components of DPCs and DSBs were similar (<1 h), but those of the slowly removed components

  5. Neutron total and scattering cross sections of 6Li in the few MeV region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Guenther, P.; Whalen, J.

    1980-02-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 6 Li are measured from approx. 0.5 to approx. 4.8 MeV at intervals of approx. 10 scattering angles and at incident-neutron intervals of approx.< 100 keV. Neutron differential inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured in the incident-energy range 3.5 to 4.0 MeV. The experimental results are extended to lower energies using measured neutron total cross sections recently reported elsewhere by the authors. The composite experimental data (total cross sections from 0.1 to 4.8 MeV and scattering cross sections from 0.22 to 4.0 MeV) are interpreted in terms of a simple two-level R-matrix model which describes the observed cross sections and implies the reaction cross section in unobserved channels; notably the (n;α)t reaction (Q = 4.783 MeV). The experimental and calculational results are compared with previously reported results as summarized in the ENDF/B-V evaluated nuclear data file

  6. Argon intermolecular potential from a measurement of the total scattering cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Y.W.

    1975-01-01

    An inversion method to obtain accurate intermolecular potentials from experimental total cross section measurements is presented. This method is based on the high energy Massey--Smith approximation. The attractive portion of the potential is represented by a multi-parameter spline function and the repulsive part by a Morse function. The best fit potential is obtained by a least squares minimization based on comparison of experimental cross sections with those obtained by a Fourier transform of the reduced Massey--Smith phase shift curve. An experimental method was developed to obtain the total cross sections needed for the above inversion procedure. In this technique, integral cross sections are measured at various resolutions and the total cross section is obtained by extrapolating to infinite resolution. Experimental results obtained for the Ar--Ar system are in excellent agreement with total cross sections calculated using the Barker-Fisher-Watts potential. Inversion of the data to obtain a potential distinguishable from the BFW-potential requires an extension of the method based on the Massey--Smith approximation to permit use of JWKB phase shifts and was not attempted

  7. Absolute triple differential cross section for electron-impact ionization of helium at 40 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, J.; Ehrhardt, H.; Bray, I.; Fursa, D.V.; McCarthy, I.E.

    1995-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of ionization of the ground state of helium by 40 eV incident electrons is presented. Absolute in-plane and out-of-plane measurements are provided for the case of 4 eV slow electron energy. These are found to be in good agreement with the convergent close-coupling (CCC) calculations. Three calculations are presented, in order to demonstrate convergence, which couple a total of 87, 99 and 103 states. These also simultaneously yield results for the equal energy sharing kinematics which are found to be in good agreement with the available relative coplanar symmetric measurement. 30 refs., 8 figs

  8. Electron collisions with phenol: Total, integral, differential, and momentum transfer cross sections and the role of multichannel coupling effects on the elastic channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Romarly F. da [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André, São Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira, Eliane M. de; Lima, Marco A. P. [Instituto de Física “Gleb Wataghin,” Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Bettega, Márcio H. F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, CP 19044, 81531-990 Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Varella, Márcio T. do N. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970 São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Jones, Darryl B. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Brunger, Michael J. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide SA 5001 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 2840 Madrid (Spain); Colmenares, Rafael [Hospital Ramón y Cajal, 28034 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2015-03-14

    We report theoretical and experimental total cross sections for electron scattering by phenol (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}OH). The experimental data were obtained with an apparatus based in Madrid and the calculated cross sections with two different methodologies, the independent atom method with screening corrected additivity rule (IAM-SCAR), and the Schwinger multichannel method with pseudopotentials (SMCPP). The SMCPP method in the N{sub open}-channel coupling scheme, at the static-exchange-plus-polarization approximation, is employed to calculate the scattering amplitudes at impact energies ranging from 5.0 eV to 50 eV. We discuss the multichannel coupling effects in the calculated cross sections, in particular how the number of excited states included in the open-channel space impacts upon the convergence of the elastic cross sections at higher collision energies. The IAM-SCAR approach was also used to obtain the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) and for correcting the experimental total cross sections for the so-called forward angle scattering effect. We found a very good agreement between our SMCPP theoretical differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections and experimental data for benzene (a molecule differing from phenol by replacing a hydrogen atom in benzene with a hydroxyl group). Although some discrepancies were found for lower energies, the agreement between the SMCPP data and the DCSs obtained with the IAM-SCAR method improves, as expected, as the impact energy increases. We also have a good agreement among the present SMCPP calculated total cross section (which includes elastic, 32 inelastic electronic excitation processes and ionization contributions, the latter estimated with the binary-encounter-Bethe model), the IAM-SCAR total cross section, and the experimental data when the latter is corrected for the forward angle scattering effect [Fuss et al., Phys. Rev. A 88, 042702 (2013)].

  9. Total cross section measurement of radioactive isotopes with a thin beam neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbudej, V.F.; Vertebnyj, V.P.; Padun, G.S.; Muravitskij, A.V.

    1975-01-01

    The method for measuring the neutron total cross sections of radioactive isotopes by a time-of-flight spectrometer with a narrow (0.17 mm in diameter) beam of thermal neutrons is described. The distinguishing feature of this method is the use of capillary samples with a small amount of substance (0.05-1.0 mg). The energy range is 0.01-0.3 eV. The total cross sections of irradiated samples of sub(153)Eu and sub(151)Eu are measured. From them are obtained the cross sections of sub(152)Eu (Tsub(1/2)=12.4 g) and of sub(154)E (Tsub(1/2)=8.6 yr); they equal 11400+-1400 and 1530+-190 barn at E=0.0253 eV. The cross section of the sub(152)Eu absorption for the thermal spectrum (T=333 K) is determined by the activation method; it is 8900+-1200 barn

  10. Measurements of the total and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production

    CERN Document Server

    ATLAS Collaboration; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    We present measurements of the total and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production that were performed using 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Cross sections are obtained from measured $H \\to \\gamma\\gamma$ and $H \\to ZZ \\to 4 \\ell$ event yields, which are combined accounting for detector efficiencies, fiducial acceptances and branching fractions. Differential cross sections are reported as a function of Higgs boson transverse momentum, Higgs boson rapidity, number of jets in the event, and transverse momentum of the leading jet. The total production cross section is determined to be: $\\sigma_{pp \\to H} = 33.0 \\pm 5.3 \\, (\\text{stat}) \\pm 1.6 \\, (\\text{sys})$ pb. The measurements are then compared to state-of-the-art predictions.

  11. Application of a simple Ramsauer model for neutron total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.W.; Anderson, J.D.; Grimes, S.M.; Knapp, D.A.; Madsen, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    A companion paper presented arguments that support the applicability of a simple Ramsauer model to describe neutron total cross sections. Such a model yields a simple equation for the energy dependence of the cross section of a given nucleus and also allows extrapolation to nuclei of other A values. Fits of the Ramsauer form to very precise total cross sections recently measured over an extended energy range are presented. Very good fits are obtained for neutron energies between 6 and 60 MeV, suggesting that this approach will be useful for estimating cross sections in cases where experimental data are unavailable. Extension of this model to 120 MeV was only moderately successful

  12. Removal cross sections and total mass attenuation coefficients of fast neutrons and gamma rays for steel

    CERN Document Server

    Elsayed, A A

    2003-01-01

    The present work deals with the study of the attenuation properties and determination of the cross sections of fast neutrons and gamma rays for structure steel used in different applications in nuclear power plants, particle accelerators, research reactors and different radiation attenuation fields. Investigation has been performed by measuring the transmitted fast neutron and gamma ray spectra behind cylindrical samples of steel (rho=7.87 gem sup - sup 3) of different thicknesses. A reactor collimated beam and neutron - gamma spectrometer with stiblbene scintillator were used for measurements. The pluse shape disriminate technique based on zero cross over method was used to discriminate between neutron and gamma ray pulses. Effective removal cross-section (sigma sub R) and total mass attenuation coefficient (mu) of neureons and gamma rays have been achieved using the attenuation relations. Microscopic removal cross sections sigma sup 9 sup 8 and mass removal cross sections sigma sub R sub / subrho of fast ne...

  13. Treatment of Chronic Total Occlusions Using the Avinger Ocelot Crossing Catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Luke E

    2015-12-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is becoming more prevalent as the population ages. In addition, the severity of the disease seems to be progressing from simple narrowing of vessels to chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Treatment of CTOs of the infrainguinal peripheral arteries remains a challenge even for experienced endovascular specialists. Many crossing techniques have been described ranging from standard guidewire and catheter-based techniques including subintimal recanalization to specialized CTO crossing devices. One of the newest technologies, the Avinger Ocelot catheter (Avinger, Inc., Redwood City, CA), employs optical coherence tomography imaging on the tip of a rotating crossing catheter to allow visual confirmation of luminal passage. This article will review this new technology for crossing CTOs, review the results of the multicenter CONNECT II trial, and discuss the potential benefits of direct visualization while crossing occlusions.

  14. Total Ionizing Dose Influence on the Single Event Effect Sensitivity in Samsung 8Gb NAND Flash Memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Larry D.; Irom, Farokh; Allen, Gregory R.

    2017-08-01

    A recent model provides risk estimates for the deprogramming of initially programmed floating gates via prompt charge loss produced by an ionizing radiation environment. The environment can be a mixture of electrons, protons, and heavy ions. The model requires several input parameters. This paper extends the model to include TID effects in the control circuitry by including one additional parameter. Parameters intended to produce conservative risk estimates for the Samsung 8 Gb SLC NAND flash memory are given, subject to some qualifications.

  15. Effect of the total charge on the magnitudes of the topological cross sections in hadron interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, D.N.; Smirnova, L.N.

    1985-01-01

    The reconstructed distributions in the total particle multiplicity in pp interactions are used to obtain the magnitudes of the topological cross sections in pp-bar interactions with baryons in the final state. The mean particle multiplicities are found for the differences of the topological cross sections (K - p-K + p) and (π - p-π + p) taking into account the difference in the total charge of these reactions. The mean numbers of neutral particles are given for events with different numbers of charged particles in pp interactions

  16. High-energy behavior of hadronic total cross sections from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meggiolaro, Enrico; Giordano, Matteo; Moretti, Niccolò

    2013-01-01

    By means of a nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy hadron-hadron scattering, based on the analytic continuation of Wilson-loop correlation functions from Euclidean to Minkowskian theory, we shall investigate the asymptotic energy dependence of hadron-hadron total cross sections in lattice QCD: we will show, using best fits of the lattice data with proper functional forms satisfying unitarity and other physical constraints, how indications emerge in favor of a universal asymptotic high-energy behavior of the kind Blog 2 s for hadronic total cross sections

  17. The γ{sup *}γ{sup *} total cross section in NLA BFKL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Dmitry Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics and Novosibirsk State University, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Murdaca, Beatrice; Papa, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende, I-87036 Cosenza (Italy)

    2015-04-10

    We study the γ{sup *}γ{sup *} total cross section in the NLA BFKL approach. We have extracted the NLO corrections to the photon impact factor from two recent papers of Balitsky and Chirilli and Chirilli and Kovchegov and used them to build several representations of the total cross section, equivalent within the NLA. We have combined these different representations with two among the most common methods for the optimization of a perturbative series, namely PMS and BLM, and compared their behavior with the energy with the only available experimental data, those from the LEP2 collider.

  18. Inversion of the total cross sections for electron-molecule and electron-atom scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lun, D.R.; Amos, K.; Allen, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    Inverse scattering theory has been applied to construct the interaction potentials from total cross sections as a function of energy for electrons scattered off of atoms and molecules. The underlying potentials are assumed to be real and energy independent and are evaluated using the Eikonal approximation and with real phase shifts determined from the total cross sections. The inversion potentials have been determined using either a high energy limit approximation or by using a fixed energy inversion method at select energies. These procedures have been used to analyse e - - CH 4 , e - - SiH 4 , e - -Kr and e - -Xe scattering data in particular. 14 refs., 1 tabs., 3 figs

  19. Measurements of low-energy e+--Ne and e+-Ar total scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, M.; Laricchia, G.; Griffith, T.C.; Wright, G.L.; Heyland, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of positron and electron-Ne total scattering cross sections are reported in the energy range 2-50 eV. e + -Ar total cross sections are presented in the energy range 2-20 eV. In both the e + -Ne and e + -Ar cases marked discrepancies are found with other recent measurements and these are discussed along with possible systematic errors which may affect the data. The e - -Ne measurements are found to be in excellent agreement with recent experiments. (author)

  20. Total cross section for Z0 production in electron proton collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salati, P.; Wallet, J.C.

    1982-07-01

    We present an exact calculation of the total cross section σsub(tot) of the Z 0 production in e - +p → e - +Z 0 +X processes. We find a total cross section σsub(tot) approximately 1.0 10 - 36 cm 2 for an energy in the center of mass of 300 GeV and a Z 0 mass of 90 GeV, which is quite a measurable result in some e - proton collider experiments, like HERA or SPS/LEP

  1. Ionization of RNA-uracil by highly charged carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, C.; Galassi, M. E.; Fojón, O.; Lekadir, H.; Hanssen, J.; Rivarola, R. D.; Weck, P. F.; Agnihotri, A. N.; Nandi, S.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2012-07-01

    We present a theoretical description of highly charged carbon ion-induced ionization of isolated RNA-uracil molecules. A comparison between recent experimental and theoretical total cross sections is provided.

  2. Resonance structure of 32S+n from measurements of neutron total and capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halperin, J.; Johnson, C.H.; Winters, R.R.; Macklin, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron total and capture cross sections of 32 S have been measured up to 1100 keV neutron energy [E/sub exc/( 33 S) =9700 keV]. Spin and parity assignments have been made for 28 of the 64 resonances found in this region. Values of total radiation widths, reduced neutron widths, level spacings, and neutron strength functions have been evaluated for s/sub 1/2/, p/sub 1/2/, p/sub 3/2/, and d/sub 5/2/ levels. Single particle contributions using the valency model account for a significant portion of the total radiation width only for the p/sub 1/2/-wave resonances. A significant number of resonances can be identified with reported levels excited in 32 S(d,p) and 29 Si(α,n) reactions. A calculation of the Maxwellian average cross section appropriate to stellar interiors indicates an average capture cross section at 30 keV, sigma-bar approx. = 4.2(2) mb, a result that is relatively insensitive to the assumed stellar temperature. Direct (potential) capture and the s-wave resonance capture contributions to the thermal capture cross section do not fully account for the reported thermal cross section (530 +- 40 mb) and a bound state is invoked to account for the discrepancy

  3. Neutron total cross section calculation within the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Klinkby, Esben

    2017-10-01

    The accuracy of neutron scattering cross sections is the gauge for the realistic outcome of a neutron transport simulation. To improve the traditional harmonic physics model used in such simulations, we revisit the slow neutron transport theory in crystalline materials and aim to develop a unified model that has good performance for neutron transport problems in crystals in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) correlates phonon evolution explicitly with unit cell volume. Therefore, it is capable of evaluating a variety of material properties at finite temperatures. In this work, we show numerically that it is a very effective tool for our application as well. Within the framework of QHA, we calculate the temperature dependent characteristics of phonons in three elemental crystals, namely Be, Mg and Al. Based on the obtained results, our calculated neutron total cross sections agree closely with experimental transmission cross sections in a large temperature range below the melting point. We show that as the harmonic cross section model ignores the effects of phonon softening in these crystals, it underestimates the total inelastic cross sections at high temperatures. In the case of Al, we observe that such underestimation is up to 7% at room temperature. In addition, we study the phonon-phonon scatterings in Al. We observe that the cross section is insensitive to the finite phonon lifetimes even at 800 K.

  4. Neutron total cross section calculation within the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Xiao-Xiao; Klinkby, Esben

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron scattering cross sections is the gauge for the realistic outcome of a neutron transport simulation. To improve the traditional harmonic physics model used in such simulations, we revisit the slow neutron transport theory in crystalline materials and aim to develop a unified model that has good performance for neutron transport problems in crystals in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) correlates phonon evolution explicitly with unit cell volume. Therefore, it is capable of evaluating a variety of material properties at finite temperatures. In this work, we show numerically that it is a very effective tool for our application as well. Within the framework of QHA, we calculate the temperature dependent characteristics of phonons in three elemental crystals, namely Be, Mg and Al. Based on the obtained results, our calculated neutron total cross sections agree closely with experimental transmission cross sections in a large temperature range below the melting point. We show that as the harmonic cross section model ignores the effects of phonon softening in these crystals, it underestimates the total inelastic cross sections at high temperatures. In the case of Al, we observe that such underestimation is up to 7% at room temperature. In addition, we study the phonon–phonon scatterings in Al. We observe that the cross section is insensitive to the finite phonon lifetimes even at 800 K. (paper)

  5. Lightning rod ionizing natural ionca - Ionic electrode active trimetallictriac of grounding - Definitive and total solution against 'blackouts' and electrical faults generated by atmospheric charges (lightning)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda, Luis

    2010-09-15

    The Natural Ionizing System of Electrical Protection conformed by: Lightning Rod Ionizing Natural Ionca and Ionic Electrode Active Trimetallic Triac of Grounding offers Total Protection, Maximum Security and Zero Risk to Clinics, Hospitals, Integral Diagnostic Center, avoiding ''the burning'' of Electronics Cards; Refineries, Tanks and Stations of Fuel Provision; Electrical Substations, Towers and Transmission Lines with transformer protection, motors, elevators, A/C, mechanicals stairs, portable and cooling equipment, electrical plants, others. This New High Technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it's the mechanism to end the 'Blackouts' that produces so many damages and losses throughout the world.

  6. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  7. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  8. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  9. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  10. Total fragmentation cross section of 158A GeV lead projectiles in Cu target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar Ahmed Rana; Shahid Manzoor

    2008-01-01

    Total fragmentation cross section for the reaction 158A Pb ions + Cu target is measured using the most sensitive track detector CR-39. Measured values are compared with calculations. Exposures of target-detector stack with 158A Pb projectiles are made at CERN-SPS beam facility. Results of calibration of CR-39 detector in a charge region (63≤Z≤83) are also reported, which can be used for high energy particle identification using CR-39 and in determination of partial charge changing cross sections. The charge resolution σ Z achieved by this technique is about 0.2e. A systematic dependence of total fragmentation cross section on target properties is revealed and the corresponding results are presented. (authors)

  11. Total Fragmentation Cross Section of 158A GeV Lead Projectiles in Cu Target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    Total fragmentation cross section for the reaction 158 A Pb ions + Cu target is measured using the most sensitive track detector CR-39. Measured values are compared with calculations. Exposures of target-detector stack with 158A Pb projectiles are made at CERN-SPS beam facility. Results of calibration of CR-39 detector in a charge region (63 ≤ Z ≤ 83) are also reported, which can be used for high energy particle identification using CR-39 and in determination of partial charge changing cross sections. The charge resolution σ z achieved by this technique is about 0.2e. A systematic dependence of total fragmentation cross section on target properties is revealed and the corresponding results are presented. (nuclear physics)

  12. Endovascular crossing of Chronic Total Occlusions using an impulse : An explorative design study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakes, A.; van der Wiel (student), Marleen; Dodou, D.; Breedveld, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this study we investigated whether exerting an impulse on a Chronic Total Occlusion (CTO) improves the success rate of CTO crossing as compared to the currently used method of statically pushing the guidewire against the CTO. A prototype (Ø2 mm) was developed that generates translational

  13. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation at ADONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Paternoster, G.; Tortora, L.; Troya, U.; Bemporad, C.; Brosco, G.; Calvetti, M.; Costantini, F.; Giannini, G.R.; Lariccia, P.; Pisa Univ.

    1980-01-01

    The total cross section for electron-positron annihilation into three or more hadrons has been measured for centre of mass energies between 1.4 and 2.0 GeV. The data were obtained at ADONE by the B anti B experiment. (orig.)

  14. Measurement of the π- proton total cross section from 5 to 15 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelouch, Daniel.

    1979-01-01

    An original method for total cross-section measurement based on a fast microcomputer processing events on line is described. An excellent accuracy is reached by a systematical control of numerous biases. It is shown that the experiment is a first approach to the study of narrow baryonic resonances a multiquark states ('color chemics') [fr

  15. The heavy-ion total reaction cross-section and nuclear transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.; Hussein, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of heavy ions at intermediate energies is discussed. The special role played by the individual nucleon-nucleon collisions in determining the nuclear transparency is analysed. Several competing effects arising from the nuclear and Coulomb interactions between the two ions are found to be important in determining σ(sub R) at lower energies. (Author) [pt

  16. Triple differential cross-sections for the ionization of metastable 2P ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-06

    Oct 6, 2016 ... atoms by 250 eV electron energy with exchange effects for various kinematic conditions are calculated. Multiple scattering theory proposed ... In addition, physical origin of the peaks of the cross-section curves is ..... and molecules, 2nd edn (Pearson Education, New York,. 1983). [31] S Vucic, R M Potvliege ...

  17. Antiproton impact ionization of atomic hydrogen and helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, M; Walters, H R J [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 INN (United Kingdom); Assafrao, D; Mohallem, J R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P.O Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Whelan, Colm T, E-mail: mmcgovern06@qub.ac.u [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529-0116 (United States)

    2009-11-01

    We shall present results for antiproton ionization of H and He ranging from fully differential cross sections to total ionization. The calculations have been made in a coupled pseudostate impact parameter approximation. It will be shown that the interaction between the antiproton and the target nucleus is very important at low energies.

  18. Total to K-shell photoelectric cross section ratios in Zr, Ag, Ta and Th

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivasankara Rao, K.; Radha Krishna Murty, V.; Parthasaradhi, K.; Rama Rao, J.; Lakshminarayana, V.

    1977-01-01

    Total photon atomic cross sections in elements Zr, Ag, Ta and Th were determined around their K-edges in the energy region 6 to 400 keV with a good geometry set-up using proportional counter or Ge(Li) detector system. From these values the photoelectric cross sections were obtained by subtracting the theoretical values of coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections. The resulting photoelectric cross sections were fitted to curves above and below the K-edge for each element and extrapolated on either side and the total to K-shell photoelectric cross section ratios were determined with an error not exceeding 2%. The ratios were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Grodstein and others, as also from the empirical relation of Hubbell. The present values show good agreement with those of Scofield. A definite trend of decrease of the ratio as the energy increases is observed in the case of Th unlike in the previous experimental studies. (author)

  19. Accelerating cross-validation with total variation and its application to super-resolution imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Obuchi

    Full Text Available We develop an approximation formula for the cross-validation error (CVE of a sparse linear regression penalized by ℓ1-norm and total variation terms, which is based on a perturbative expansion utilizing the largeness of both the data dimensionality and the model. The developed formula allows us to reduce the necessary computational cost of the CVE evaluation significantly. The practicality of the formula is tested through application to simulated black-hole image reconstruction on the event-horizon scale with super resolution. The results demonstrate that our approximation reproduces the CVE values obtained via literally conducted cross-validation with reasonably good precision.

  20. Accelerating cross-validation with total variation and its application to super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shiro; Akiyama, Kazunori; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki

    2017-12-01

    We develop an approximation formula for the cross-validation error (CVE) of a sparse linear regression penalized by ℓ_1-norm and total variation terms, which is based on a perturbative expansion utilizing the largeness of both the data dimensionality and the model. The developed formula allows us to reduce the necessary computational cost of the CVE evaluation significantly. The practicality of the formula is tested through application to simulated black-hole image reconstruction on the event-horizon scale with super resolution. The results demonstrate that our approximation reproduces the CVE values obtained via literally conducted cross-validation with reasonably good precision.

  1. Fast-neutron total and elastic-scattering cross sections of elemental indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-11-01

    Broad-resolution neutron total cross sections of elemental indium were measured from 0.8 to 4.5 MeV. Differential-elastic-scattering cross sections were measured from approx. = 1.5 to 3.8 MeV at intervals of approx. = 50 to 200 keV and at scattering angles in the range 20 to 160 degrees. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of the optical-statistical model and are compared with respective values given in ENDF/B-V

  2. Chronic Total Occlusion Crossing Approach Based on Plaque Cap Morphology: The CTOP Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Fadi; Jaff, Michael R; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry J; Engen, Gwennan D; McGoff, Theresa N; Adams, George; Al-Dadah, Ashraf; Goodney, Philip P; Khawaja, Farhan; Mustapha, Jihad A

    2018-02-01

    To present the chronic total occlusion (CTO) crossing approach based on plaque cap morphology (CTOP) classification system and assess its ability to predict successful lesion crossing. A retrospective analysis was conducted of imaging and procedure data from 114 consecutive symptomatic patients (mean age 69±11 years; 84 men) with claudication (Rutherford category 3) or critical limb ischemia (Rutherford category 4-6) who underwent endovascular interventions for 142 CTOs. CTO cap morphology was determined from a review pf angiography and duplex ultrasonography and classified into 4 types (I, II, III, or IV) based on the concave or convex shape of the proximal and distal caps. Statistically significant differences among groups were found in patients with rest pain, lesion length, and severe calcification. CTOP type II CTOs were most common and type III lesions the least common. Type I CTOs were most likely to be crossed antegrade and had a lower incidence of severe calcification. Type IV lesions were more likely to be crossed retrograde from a tibiopedal approach. CTOP type IV was least likely to be crossed in an antegrade fashion. Access conversion, or need for an alternate access, was commonly seen in types II, III, and IV lesions. Distinctive predictors of access conversion were CTO types II and III, lesion length, and severe calcification. CTOP type I lesions were easiest to cross in antegrade fashion and type IV the most difficult. Lesion length >10 cm, severe calcification, and CTO types II, III, and IV benefited from the addition of retrograde tibiopedal access.

  3. Merged-beams energy-loss technique for electron-ion excitation: Absolute total cross sections for O5+(2s→2p)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, E.W.; Guo, X.Q.; Forand, J.L.; Rinn, K.; Swenson, D.R.; Thompson, J.S.; Dunn, G.H.; Bannister, M.E.; Gregory, D.C.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Smith, A.C.H.; Mueller, A.; Timmer, C.A.; Wahlin, E.K.; DePaola, B.D.; Belic, D.S.

    1994-01-01

    A merged-beams electron-energy-loss technique is described, by which absolute cross sections can be measured for near-threshold electron-impact excitation of multipy charged ions. Results are reported here for absolute total electron-impact excitation cross sections for the O 5+ (2s→2p) transition from below threshold to 1.6 eV above threshold. The experimental data are in good agremeent with a seven-state close-coupling calculation throughout the energy range of the experiment. Results agree with calculations showing that more than 90% of the electrons causing excitation are ejected in the backward direction in the center-of-mass frame. This backscattering is shown in both quantum-mechanical and semiclassical calculations. Evidence is observed for high-lying metastable autoionizing states with a lifetime of approximately 0.9 μs which are made to ionize by electron impact

  4. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of Persian Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Naghdi, Soofia; Hasanvand, Sahar; Fakhari, Zahra; Kordi, Ramin; Nilsson-Helander, Katarina

    2016-04-01

    To cross-culturally adapt the Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) to Persian language and to preliminary evaluate the reliability and validity of a Persian ATRS. A cross-sectional and prospective cohort study was conducted to translate and cross-culturally adapt the ATRS to Persian language (ATRS-Persian) following steps described in guidelines. Thirty patients with total Achilles tendon rupture and 30 healthy subjects participated in this study. Psychometric properties of floor/ceiling effects (responsiveness), internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), construct validity, and discriminant validity were tested. Factor analysis was performed to determine the ATRS-Persian structure. There were no floor or ceiling effects that indicate the content and responsiveness of ATRS-Persian. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's α 0.95). Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standard of 0.3 for the all items (0.58-0.95). The test-retest reliability was excellent [(ICC)agreement 0.98]. SEM and SDC were 3.57 and 9.9, respectively. Construct validity was supported by a significant correlation between the ATRS-Persian total score and the Persian Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (PFAOS) total score and PFAOS subscales (r = 0.55-0.83). The ATRS-Persian significantly discriminated between patients and healthy subjects. Explanatory factor analysis revealed 1 component. The ATRS was cross-culturally adapted to Persian and demonstrated to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure functional outcomes in Persian patients with Achilles tendon rupture. II.

  5. Amino acids analysis by total neutron cross-sections determinations: part V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O., E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio F. da, E-mail: helionutro@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2013-07-01

    Total neutron cross-sections of twenty essential and non-essential amino acids to human were determined using crystal spectrometer installed on the Argonauta reactor of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ) and compared with data generated by parceling and grouping methodologies developed at this institution. For each amino acid was calculated the respective neutron cross-section by molecular structure, conformation and chemistry analysis. The results obtained for eighteen of twenty amino acids confirm the specifications and product formulations indicated by manufactures. These initial results allow to build a neutron cross-sections database as part of quality control of the amino supplied to hospitals for production of nutriments for parenteral or enteral formulations used in critical patients dependent on artificial feed, and for application in future studies of structure and dynamics for more complex molecules, including proteins, enzymes, fatty acids, membranes, organelles and other cell components. (author)

  6. Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty at five years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nebergall, A. K.; Greene, M. E.; Laursen, M. B.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this five-year prospective, blinded, randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to compare femoral head penetration into a Vitamin E diffused highly cross-linked polyethylene (HXLPE) liner with penetration into a medium cross-linked polyethylene control liner using......, ArComXL. This is the longest-term RCT comparing the wear performance and clinical outcome of Vitamin E diffused HXLPE with a previous generation of medium cross-linked polyethylene....... radiostereometric analysis. Patients and Methods: Patients scheduled for total hip arthroplasty (THA) were randomised to receive either the study E1 (32 patients) or the control ArComXL polyethylene (35 patients). The median age (range) of the overall cohort was 66 years (40 to 76). Results: The five-year median...

  7. Amino acids analysis by total neutron cross-sections determinations: part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2013-01-01

    Total neutron cross-sections of twenty essential and non-essential amino acids to human were determined using crystal spectrometer installed on the Argonauta reactor of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ) and compared with data generated by parceling and grouping methodologies developed at this institution. For each amino acid was calculated the respective neutron cross-section by molecular structure, conformation and chemistry analysis. The results obtained for eighteen of twenty amino acids confirm the specifications and product formulations indicated by manufactures. These initial results allow to build a neutron cross-sections database as part of quality control of the amino supplied to hospitals for production of nutriments for parenteral or enteral formulations used in critical patients dependent on artificial feed, and for application in future studies of structure and dynamics for more complex molecules, including proteins, enzymes, fatty acids, membranes, organelles and other cell components. (author)

  8. High resolution neutron total and capture cross-sections in separated isotopes of copper (6365Cu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution neutron total and capture cross section measurements have been performed on separated isotopes of copper ( 63 65 Cu). Measurements for capture cross section were made from about 1 keV to a few hundreds of keV. The total cross section measurements were made in the energy interval of approximately 10 keV to 150 keV. The resulting capture data have been analyzed by a generalized least square peak fitting computer code in the energy interval of 2.5 keV to 50 keV. Photon strengths are determined using the data up to approximately 250 keV. The resulting total cross section data have been analyzed by area-analysis on the transmission values and by R-matrix multilevel code on cross section values. Average s- and p-wave level spacing and s- and p-wave strength function values are determined. From the resonance parameters thus obtained, by the analysis, statistical distribution is studied for s- and p-wave level spacings and reduced neutron widths. A comparison has been made for adjacent level spacings with the theoretical predictions of level repulsion (of same J/sup π/) by Wigner considering levels with various spin states separately for s-wave resonances where confident spin assignment has been possible. Reduced neutron widths are compared with the Porter-Thomas distribution. Optical model formulated by Feshbach, Porter and Weiskopf describes the neutron-nucleus interaction. A comparison has been made between experimentally determined values of the s- and p-wave strength functions and that obtainable from optical model calculations, thereby determining the appropriate optical model parameters. The experimental arrangement, pertinent theoretical discussion, and the processes of data reduction and the analyses along with the comparison of the previously reported results with the present work are presented in detail

  9. Proportional wire chamber system for beam definition in precision total cross section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, A.S.; Chiang, I.H.; Kycia, T.F.

    1978-03-01

    A PWC system was developed and extensively used in precision measurements of total cross sections at low momenta (0.4 to 1.1 GeV/c) and at high momenta (23 to 370 GeV/c). This ''electronic collimator'' operated simultaneously in a fast (250 nsec) decision making mode, and a slower (0.5 msec) readout mode. The decision making mode utilized adjustable hard-wired logic to define acceptable incident beam trajectories and reject multiple beam tracks. A sample of the events were read into an on-line computer for beam tuning, for chamber diagnostics, and for study of the effect of small angle scattering to verify the total cross section extrapolation procedure

  10. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms and solids for protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Toshiaki.

    1990-12-01

    Based on a wave packet theory (Phys. Rev. A40, 2188(1989); Phys. Stat. Sol. (B)156,49(1989)), partial and total electronic cross sections of target elements in atomic and solid phases with atomic number Z ranging from 2 (He) to 92 (U) are tabulated shell by shell for protons with velocity v from 0.2V 0 to 2OV 0 (V 0 =2.18 x 10 8 cm/s). (author)

  11. Helicity dependence of the total inclusive cross section on the deuteron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Arends, H.-J.; Beck, R. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Blackston, M.A. [Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Braghieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); D' Hose, N. [CEA Saclay, DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dutz, H. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Heid, E.; Jahn, O. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Klein, F. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Kondratiev, R. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lang, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Lisin, V. [INR, Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation); Martinez Fabregate, M. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); McGeorge, J.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom); Meyer, W. [Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44801 Bochum (Germany); Panzeri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy)], E-mail: pedroni@pv.infn.it (and others)

    2009-03-02

    A measurement of the helicity dependence of the total inclusive photoabsorption cross section on the deuteron was carried out at MAMI (Mainz) in the energy range 200

  12. On the unexpected oscillation of the total cross section for excitation in He2+ + H collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, D.R.; Reinhold, C.O.; Krstic, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Recent calculations and measurements have revealed unexpected oscillations of the total cross section for excitation in low- to intermediate-energy He 2+ + H collisions. A physical explanation of this behavior is given here stemming from analysis of classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, molecular orbital close coupling calculations, and solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation on a numerical lattice. These results indicate that the observed behavior should be characteristic of a wide range of reactions in ion-atom collisions

  13. Total cross section measurements for electron scattering on methane between 1 and 50 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Taihua; Ye Ruiying; Yang Yong

    1996-01-01

    The absolute electron scattering total cross sections (TCS) for methane have been measured with a time-of-flight (TOF) spectrometer for incident energies from 1 to 50 eV. The TOF spectrometer and experimental procedures are briefly described. The experimental results are presented together with associated errors. The results are compared with other experimental data and they are found to be in excellent agreement

  14. Treatment of Chronic Total Occlusions Using the Avinger Ocelot Crossing Catheter

    OpenAIRE

    Sewall, Luke E.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease is becoming more prevalent as the population ages. In addition, the severity of the disease seems to be progressing from simple narrowing of vessels to chronic total occlusions (CTOs). Treatment of CTOs of the infrainguinal peripheral arteries remains a challenge even for experienced endovascular specialists. Many crossing techniques have been described ranging from standard guidewire and catheter-based techniques including subintimal recanalization to specialized ...

  15. Measurement of Total Reaction Cross-sections with Heavy Ions at the SC

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is the measurement of heavy ion total reaction cross-sections in the energy range 40-86 MeV/A with the anti-coincidence beam attenuation technique. A system of 19 @DE scintillation detectors together with a time-of-flight measurement is used for detection of the residual beam. The results will complete measurements at the Grenoble cyclotron and post accelerator over the energy range 10-40 MeV/A.

  16. Total electron scattering cross section of Fluorocarbons at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-10-01

    Total electron scattering cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6) and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) have been measured using the linear transmission technique for impact energies 0.10 -- 4.00 keV. These TCS are compared to existing experimental and theoretical TCS in the literature. Based on the present measurements, an empirical formula is developed to predict the TCS of fluorocarbons as a function of incident electron energy.

  17. Threshold resummation and the total cross section for top quark production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Contopanagos, H.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the motivation for resummation of the effects of initial-state soft gluon radiation, to all orders in the strong coupling strength, for processes in which the near-threshold region in the partonic subenergy is important. We summarize our calculation of the total cross section for top quark production at hadron colliders. Comments are included on the differences between our treatment of subleading logarithmic terms and other methods

  18. Measurement of the total proton-proton cross section with ATLAS at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    khalek, Samah Abdel

    It is now nearly fifty years since total proton-proton (pp) cross sections have been found to grow with energy after it was believed for long time that they would become asymptotically constant . The uncertainties of the cosmic ray data, at high energy, do not allow to determine the exact growth with energy of the total cross section .The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Geneva has already delivered collisions with an energy never reached in a particle accelerator. The energy in the center of mass was 7 TeV (2010 - 2011) or 8 TeV (2012) and will ultimately reached 14 TeV in the near future. Thus, this will provide a good environment for a new precise measurement of the total pp cross section at this energy.The ATLAS detector installed in one of the four LHC interaction points is used to collect the result of the pp collisions. Its sub-detector ALFA located 240 m from the interaction point, is used to track protons resulting from elastic collisions.Therefore, within special beam optics conditions, ALFA i...

  19. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of Cr, Fe and 60Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections are measured with broad resolutions (50 to 100 keV) from approx. = 1.0 to 4.5 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV and to accuracies of approx. = 1% using a variety of sample thicknesses. Differential elastic-scattering cross sections are measured at greater than or equal to 10 scattering angles distributed between 20 to 160 deg. from approx. = 1.5 to 4.0 MeV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV. Angle-integrated elastic scattering cross sections are deduced from the measured values to accuracies greater than or equal to 5%. Inelastic-neutron-scattering cross sections are determined up to incident neutron energies of 4.0 MeV, at scattering angles distributed between 20 to 160 deg., and for 5 observed excitations in Cr, for 7 in Fe and for 6 in 60 Ni. The experimental results are discussed in terms of conventional optical-statistical models with attention to cross section fluctuations and in the context of direct-scattering processes. The experimental and calculational results are compared with the corresponding evaluated quantities given in the ENDF/B file with attention to regions of agreement and inconsistency. 14 references

  20. Tips and tricks for antegrade recanalization of chronic total occlusions using the CrossBoss catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Tak W; Diwan, Ravi; Ratcliffe, Justin A; Huang, Yili; Patri, Rahul; James, David; Liou, Michael; Fallahi, Arzhang; Young, Bruce; Nanjundappa, Aravinda; Daggubati, Ramesh

    2015-02-01

    To provide new strategies and techniques for the successful recanalization of chronic total occlusions (CTOs) with the sole use of the CrossBoss catheter. In addition, some common CTO scenarios are illustrated in detail. CTOs are one of the most challenging complex coronary lesion subsets to intervene upon. Even with the innovation of specialized catheters, the success rate of antegrade recanalization remains low. Between June and December 2013, a retrospective analysis of 50 consecutive patients who presented with a planned percutaneous intervention (PCI) of a CTO was performed. In all patients, the CrossBoss catheter was used. No additional reentry devices were necessary. Procedural success was defined as failure. The average fluoroscopy time was 45.9 minutes and the average amount of contrast use was 273.8 mL. No patient suffered a coronary perforation from the CrossBoss catheter. With increased experience using the CrossBoss catheter, the antegrade success rate of CTOs can be improved. Some tips include identifying the likely course of the artery with the aid of retrograde injection, proper guidewire selection and manipulation, and redirecting the CrossBoss catheter if there is substantial deviation from the original path.

  1. Comparison Of Quantum Mechanical And Classical Trajectory Calculations Of Cross Sections For Ion-Atom Impact Ionization of Negative - And Positive -Ions For Heavy Ion Fusion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Startsev, Edward A.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2003-01-01

    Stripping cross sections in nitrogen have been calculated using the classical trajectory approximation and the Born approximation of quantum mechanics for the outer shell electrons of 3.2GeV I - and Cs + ions. A large difference in cross section, up to a factor of six, calculated in quantum mechanics and classical mechanics, has been obtained. Because at such high velocities the Born approximation is well validated, the classical trajectory approach fails to correctly predict the stripping cross sections at high energies for electron orbitals with low ionization potential

  2. Compendium of Single-Event Latchup and Total Ionizing Dose Test Results of Commercial Analog to Digital Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irom, Farokh; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports single-event latchup and total dose results for a variety of analog to digital converters targeted for possible use in NASA spacecraft's. The compendium covers devices tested over the last 15 years.

  3. Diffraction and Total Cross-Section at the Tevatron and the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Deile, M; Aurola, A; Avati, V; Berardi, V; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Calicchio, M; Capurro, F; Catanesi, M G; Ciocci, M A; Cuneo, S; Da Vià, C; Dimovasili, E; Eggert, K; Eraluoto, M; Ferro, F; Giachero, A; Guillaud, J P; Hasi, J; Haug, F; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Jarron, P; Kalliopuska, J; Kaspar, J; Kempa, J; Kenney, C; Kok, A; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Lamsa, J; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Lippmaa, J; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Macina, D; Macri, M; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Morelli, A; Musico, P; Negri, M; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Ojala, J; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Paoletti, R; Parker, S; Perrot, Anne Laure; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, Leszek; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Saramad, S; Sauli, Fabio; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Smotlacha, J; Snoeys, W; Taylor, C; Toppinen, A; Turini, N; Van Remortel, N; Verardo, L; Verdier, A; Watts, S; Whitmore, J

    2006-01-01

    At the Tevatron, the total p_bar-p cross-section has been measured by CDF at 546 GeV and 1.8 TeV, and by E710/E811 at 1.8 TeV. The two results at 1.8 TeV disagree by 2.6 standard deviations, introducing big uncertainties into extrapolations to higher energies. At the LHC, the TOTEM collaboration is preparing to resolve the ambiguity by measuring the total p-p cross-section with a precision of about 1 %. Like at the Tevatron experiments, the luminosity-independent method based on the Optical Theorem will be used. The Tevatron experiments have also performed a vast range of studies about soft and hard diffractive events, partly with antiproton tagging by Roman Pots, partly with rapidity gap tagging. At the LHC, the combined CMS/TOTEM experiments will carry out their diffractive programme with an unprecedented rapidity coverage and Roman Pot spectrometers on both sides of the interaction point. The physics menu comprises detailed studies of soft diffractive differential cross-sections, diffractive structure func...

  4. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of 58Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Smith, A.B.; Whalen, J.F.

    1981-09-01

    Neutron total cross sections of 58 Ni were measured at 25 keV intervals from 0.9 to 4.5 MeV with 50 to 100 keV resolutions. Attention was given to self-shielding corrections to the observed total cross sections. Differential elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections were measured at 50 keV intervals from 1.35 to 4.0 MeV with 50 to 100 keV resolutions. Inelastic excitation of levels at 1.458 +- 0.009, 2.462 +- 0.010, 2.791 +- 0.015, 2.927 +- 0.012 and 3.059 +- 0.025 MeV was observed. The experimental results were interpreted in terms of optical-statistical and coupled-channels models. A spherical optical-statistical model was found generally descriptive of an energy-average of the experimental results. However, detailed considerations suggested significant contributions from direct-vibrational interactions, particularly associated with the excitation of the first 2+ level

  5. Measurements of inelastic, elastic and total pp cross-sections at the LHC with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Trottier-McDonald, Michel; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    First, a recent measurement of the inelastic cross section using the ATLAS detector with 63 $\\mu b^{−1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV is presented. The measurement is performed using scintillators mounted in front of the forward calorimeters. A cross section of $65.2\\pm0.8$ (exp.) $\\pm5.9$ (lum.) mb is measured in the fiducial region $M_X>13$ GeV, where $M_X$ is the larger of the dissociation masses of the two proton systems in diffractive events. The experimental uncertainty is indicated by (exp.) and the luminosity uncertainty by (lum.). The full inelastic cross section is determined to be $73.1\\pm0.9$ (exp.) $\\pm6.6$ (lum.) $\\pm3.8$ (extr.) mb, where (extr.) indicates model-dependent uncertainties on the extrapolation from the fiducial region. The measured value is about one standard deviation below most current theoretical predictions. Second, a measurement of the total $pp$ cross section at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ TeV is presented. In a special run with high-$\\beta^*$ beam optics, a...

  6. Mass spectrometric determination of partial electron impact ionization cross sections of No, No2, and N2O from threshold up to 180 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. B.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact ionization of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) has been studied as a function of electron energy up to 180 eV with a double focussing mass spectrometer Varian MAT CH5 and an improved Nier type electron impact ion source. Relative partial ionization cross sections were measured for the processes NO + + 2e, NO ++ + 3e, and NO 2 + e -> NO + 2 + 2e, NO ++ + 3e and N 2 O + e -> N 2 O + + 2e. An accurate measurement of the cross section ratios q(NO 2+ /NO)/q(NO + /NO) and q(NO 2 2 /NO 2 )/q(NO + 2 /NO 2 ) has been made. Relative cross section functions were calibrated absolutely with two different normalization methods. Moreover, both metastable and collision induced dissociations of N 2 O + were studied quantitatively using the technique of decoupling the acceleration and deflection electric fields. Using the n- th root extrapolation the following ionization potentials have been derived from the cross section functions near threshold: NO + (X 1 Σ + ); NO ++ ; NO + 2 ; NO 2 ++ ; N 2 O + (X 2 π). These results are compared with previous measurements and theoretical calculations, where available. Part of the results presented have been already published in seven papers by the author. (Author)

  7. Photoionization using the xchem approach: Total and partial cross sections of Ne and resonance parameters above the 2 s22 p5 threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marante, Carlos; Klinker, Markus; Kjellsson, Tor; Lindroth, Eva; González-Vázquez, Jesús; Argenti, Luca; Martín, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The XCHEM approach interfaces well established quantum chemistry packages with scattering numerical methods in order to describe single-ionization processes in atoms and molecules. This should allow one to describe electron correlation in the continuum at the same level of accuracy as quantum chemistry methods do for bound states. Here we have applied this method to study multichannel photoionization of Ne in the vicinity of the autoionizing states lying between the 2 s22 p5 and 2 s 2 p6 ionization thresholds. The calculated total photoionization cross sections are in very good agreement with the absolute measurement of Samson et al. [J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 123, 265 (2002), 10.1016/S0368-2048(02)00026-9], and with independent benchmark calculations performed at the same level of theory. From these cross sections, we have extracted resonance positions, total autoionization widths, Fano profile parameters, and correlation parameters for the lowest three autoionizing states. The values of these parameters are in good agreement with those reported in earlier theoretical and experimental work. We have also evaluated β asymmetry parameter and partial photoionization cross sections and, from the latter, partial autoionization widths and Starace parameters for the same resonances, not yet available in the literature. Resonant features in the calculated β parameter are in good agreement with the experimental observations. We have found that the three lowest resonances preferentially decay into the 2 p-1ɛ d continuum rather than into the 2 p-1ɛ s one [Phys. Rev. A 89, 043415 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevA.89.043415], in agreement with previous expectations, and that in the vicinity of the resonances the partial 2 p-1ɛ s cross section can be larger than the 2 p-1ɛ d one, in contrast with the accepted idea that the latter should amply dominate in the whole energy range. These results show the potential of the XCHEM approach to describe highly correlated process

  8. Total OH reactivity measurements using a new fast Gas Chromatographic Photo-Ionization Detector (GC-PID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The primary and most important oxidant in the atmosphere is the hydroxyl radical (OH. Currently OH sinks, particularly gas phase reactions, are poorly constrained. One way to characterize the overall sink of OH is to measure directly the ambient loss rate of OH, the total OH reactivity. To date, direct measurements of total OH reactivity have been either performed using a Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF system ("pump-and-probe" or "flow reactor" or the Comparative Reactivity Method (CRM with a Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS. Both techniques require large, complex and expensive detection systems. This study presents a feasibility assessment for CRM total OH reactivity measurements using a new detector, a Gas Chromatographic Photoionization Detector (GC-PID. Such a system is smaller, more portable, less power consuming and less expensive than other total OH reactivity measurement techniques.

    Total OH reactivity is measured by the CRM using a competitive reaction between a reagent (here pyrrole with OH alone and in the presence of atmospheric reactive molecules. The new CRM method for total OH reactivity has been tested with parallel measurements of the GC-PID and the previously validated PTR-MS as detector for the reagent pyrrole during laboratory experiments, plant chamber and boreal field studies. Excellent agreement of both detectors was found when the GC-PID was operated under optimum conditions. Time resolution (60–70 s, sensitivity (LOD 3–6 s−1 and overall uncertainty (25% in optimum conditions for total OH reactivity were similar to PTR-MS based total OH reactivity measurements. One drawback of the GC-PID system was the steady loss of sensitivity and accuracy during intensive measurements lasting several weeks, and a possible toluene interference. Generally, the GC-PID system has been shown to produce closely comparable results to the PTR-MS and thus in suitable environments (e.g. forests it

  9. Total and elastic electron scattering cross sections from Xe at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, G; Pablos, J L de; Blanco, F; Williart, A

    2002-01-01

    Experimental total electron scattering cross sections from Xe in the energy range 300-5000 eV have been obtained with experimental errors of about 3%. The method was based on the measurement of the attenuation of a linear electron beam through a Xe gas cell in combination with an electron spectroscopy technique to analyse the energy of the transmitted electrons. Differential and integral elastic cross sections have been calculated using a scattering potential method which includes relativistic effects. The consistency of our theoretical and experimental results is also discussed in the paper. Finally, analytical formulae depending on two parameters, namely the number of target electrons and the atomic polarizability, are given to reproduce the experimental data for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in the energy range 500-10 000 eV

  10. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of 103Rh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-07-01

    Fast-neutron total cross sections of 103 Rh are measured with 30 to 50 keV resolutions from 0.7 to 4.5 MeV. Differential elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.45 to 3.85 MeV. Scattered-neutron groups corresponding to excited levels at 334 +- 13, 536 +- 7, 648 +- 25, 796 +- 20, 864 +- 22, 1120 +- 22, 1279 +- 50, 1481 +- 27, 1683 +- 39, 1840 +- 79, 1991 +- 71 and 2050 (tentative) keV are observed. An optical-statistical model is derived from the elastic-scattering results. The experimental values are compared with comparable quantities given in the ENDF/B-V evaluation

  11. Fast-neutron total and scattering cross sections of elemental palladium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Whalen, J.F.

    1982-06-01

    Neutron total cross sections of palladium are measured from approx. = 0.6 to 4.5 MeV with resolutions of approx. = 30 to 70 keV at intervals of less than or equal to 50 keV. Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections are measured from 1.4 to 3.85 MeV at intervals of 50 to 100 keV and at 10 to 20 scattering angles distributed between approx. = 20 and 160 0 . The experimental results are compared with respective quantities given in ENDF/B-V and used to deduce an optical potential that provides a good description of the measured values

  12. Improved Neutron Capture Cross Section Measurements with the n_TOF Total Absorption Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Perkowski, J; Andriamonje, S; Carrapico, C; Moinul, M; Vannini, G; Quesada, J M; Harrisopulos, S; Milazzo, P M; Berthier, B; Lozano, M; Krticka, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Nolte, R; Chiaveri, E; Saarmento, H; Jericha, E; Ferrari, A; Massimi, C; Giubrone, G; Avrigeanu, V; Martinez, T; Guerrero, C; Andrzejewski, J; Karadimos, D; Mengoni, A; Ganesan, S; Vlachoudis, V; Becares, V; Cortes, G; Variale, V; Losito, H; Calvino, F; Kappeler, F; Gunsing, F; Gramegna, F; Colonna, N; Marrone, S; Pavlik, A; Berthoumieux, E; Paradela, C; Mastinu, P F; Vaz, P; Tassan-Got, L; Kadi, Y; Tarrio, D; Cano-Ott, D; Brugger, M; Wallner, A; Audouin, L; Fernandez-Ordonez, M; Becvar, F; Goncalves, I F; Cerutti, F; Ventura, A; Mosconi, M; Tagliente, G; Duran, I; Casado, A; Ioannides, K; Weiss, C; Mirea, M; Gomez-Hornillos, M B; Vlastou, R; Calviani, M; Lederer, C; Gonzalez-Romero, E; Marganiec, J; Vidriales, J J; Lebbos, E; Leeb, H; Heil, M; Dillmann, I; Tain, J L; Belloni, F

    2011-01-01

    The n\\_TOF collaboration operates a Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) {[}1] for measuring neutron capture cross-sections of low-mass and/or radioactive samples. The results obtained with the TAC have led to a substantial improvement of the capture cross sections of (237)Np and (240)Pu {[}2]. The experience acquired during the first measurements has allowed us to optimize the performance of the TAC and to improve the capture signal to background ratio, thus opening the way to more complex and demanding measurements on rare radioactive materials. The new design has been reached by a series of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of complete experiments and dedicated test measurements. The new capture setup will be presented and the main achievements highlighted.

  13. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Totally Occluded Superior Mesenteric Artery by Retrograde Crossing via the Villemin Arcade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G., E-mail: urossi76@hotmail.com; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital-IST-National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology and Interventional Radiology (Italy); Fornaro, Rosario [IRCCS San Martino University Hospital-IST-National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Surgery (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder that is commonly caused by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of one or more mesenteric arteries. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic CMI represents a viable option, especially in high-operative risk patients. We report a case of acute symptomatic CMI with chronic totally occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) that underwent endovascular treatment of all the three mesenteric arteries: stenting of CT and IMA stenosis, and recanalization of the SMA occlusion by retrograde crossing via the Villemin arcade.

  15. Measurement of the polarized neutron—polarized 3He total cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, C. D.; Gould, C. R.; Haase, D. G.; Seely, M. L.; Huffman, P. R.; Roberson, N. R.; Tornow, W.; Wilburn, W. S.

    1995-05-01

    The first measurements of polarized neutron-polarized 3He scattering in the few MeV energy region are reported. The total cross section difference ΔσT for transversely polarized target and beam has been measured for neutron energies between 1.9 and 7.5 MeV. Comparison is made to predictions of ΔσT using various descriptions of the 4He continuum. A brute-force polarized target of solid 3He has been developed for these measurements. The target is 4.3×1022 atoms/cm2 thick and is polarized to 38% at 7 Telsa and 12 mK.

  16. Endovascular Treatment of Totally Occluded Superior Mesenteric Artery by Retrograde Crossing via the Villemin Arcade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G.; Seitun, Sara; Bovio, Giulio; Fornaro, Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a rare disorder that is commonly caused by progressive atherosclerotic stenosis or occlusion of one or more mesenteric arteries. Endovascular treatment for symptomatic CMI represents a viable option, especially in high-operative risk patients. We report a case of acute symptomatic CMI with chronic totally occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with significant stenosis of celiac trunk (CT) and inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) that underwent endovascular treatment of all the three mesenteric arteries: stenting of CT and IMA stenosis, and recanalization of the SMA occlusion by retrograde crossing via the Villemin arcade.

  17. Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)

  18. Hadronic total cross sections at high energy and the QCD spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giordano, Matteo; Meggiolaro, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We show how to obtain the leading energy dependence of hadronic total cross sections, in the framework of the nonperturbative approach to soft high-energy scattering based on Wilson-loop correlation functions, if certain nontrivial analyticity assumptions are satisfied. The total cross sections turn out to be of “Froissart” type, σ tot (hh) (s)∼ Blog 2  s for s→∞. We also discuss under which conditions the coefficient B is universal, i.e., independent of the hadrons involved in the scattering process. In the most natural scenarios for universality, B can be related to the stable spectrum of QCD, and is predicted to be B th ≃0.22 mb, in fair agreement with experimental results. If we consider, instead, the stable spectrum of the quenched (i.e., pure-gauge) theory, we obtain a quite larger value B th (Q) ≥0.42 mb, suggesting (quite surprisingly) large unquenching effects due to the sea quarks

  19. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of Greek version of Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzopoulos, Panagiotis; Ververidis, Athanasios; Giakas, Giannis; Drosos, Georgios I

    2017-07-27

    The purpose of this study was the translation, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Achilles Tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) in Greek population. The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the original version of ATRS in Greek language was performed according to the methodology described by Beaton et al. Validation and test-retest reliability were evaluated in forty-six patients, treated surgically for acute Achilles tendon rupture. Validity was evaluated by correlation of total and all subscale scores of Greek version of Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index (MFPDI). Test-retest reliability evaluated with interclass correlation coefficient and Crombach's α coefficient was used for internal consistency. The internal consistency (α=0.96) and test-retest reliability (ICC=0.97) were excellent. There were no ceiling and floor effects during test-retest assessment. The Greek version of ATRS showed strong correlation with all subscales and overall score of MFPDI (pain subscale: R=-0.954, pGreek version of ATRS was successfully adapted in Greek population and it appears to be a valid and reliable instrument to evaluate outcomes in Greek speaking patients after Achilles tendon rupture. Level III. Copyright © 2017 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Maximizing Power Output of a Partially Shaded Total-Cross-Tied Photovoltaic array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Saurabh Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-uniform conditions on the modules of the PV array, especially, partial shading reduces the output of the PV array to a large extent. The shaded module in a string limits the current of the entire string and hence, the output power of the string.  The output power under such conditions is reported to be higher for total-cross-tied (TCT configuration. This paper describes two different approaches, one based on current compensation (current equalization and another based on voltage equalization, to extract higher power from the partially shaded total-cross-tied photovoltaic array. The TCT configuration is considered to minimize the number of converters, sensors, cost and complexity involved. The additional converters in the two distinct approaches evaluated here operate only when the partial shading occurs and are controlled to minimize the current and voltage miss-matches. The analysis and the control algorithm are presented. Simulation results obtained in MATLAB/Simulink are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods and the relative merits and demerits of these approaches are highlighted.

  1. Model for neutron total cross-section at low energies for nuclear grade graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galván Josa, V.M.; Dawidowski, J.; Santisteban, J.R.; Malamud, F.; Oliveira, R.G.

    2015-01-01

    At subthermal neutron energies, polycrystalline graphite shows a large total cross-section due to small angle scattering processes. In this work, a new methodology to determine pore size distributions through the neutron transmission technique at subthermal energies is proposed and its sensitivity is compared with standard techniques. A simple model based on the form factor for spherical particles, normally used in the Small Angle Neutron Scattering technique, is employed to calculate the contribution of small angle effect to the total scattering cross-section, with the width and center of the radii distributions as free parameters in the model. Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments were performed to compare results as a means to validate the method. The good agreement reached reveals that the neutron transmission technique is a useful tool to explore small angle scattering effects. This fact can be exploited in situations where large samples must be scanned and it is difficult to investigate them with conventional methods. It also opens the possibility to apply this method in energy-resolved neutron imaging. Also, since subthermal neutron transmission experiments are perfectly feasible in small neutron sources, the present findings open new possibilities to the work done in such kind of facilities

  2. Measurement of the total photoabsorption cross sections of hydrogen and helium-3 in the resonance zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Cormick, Marion

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes an experimental study of the total photoabsorption cross sections of hydrogen and helium-3. The results shown for hydrogen are not only in agreement with the previously published data but are superior in precision with smaller statistical and systematic fluctuations. The results for helium-3 present the first measurement of the total cross section. These studies are part of a general systematic study devoted to the exploration of the resonance damping which is observed in the passage of photoabsorption by light nuclei to heavy nuclei. Extremely high quality data were obtained thanks to the excellent experimental conditions. The measurements were obtained with photons of 100-800 MeV provided by Bremsstrahlung of the electron beam of the MAMI accelerator (Mainz, Germany). Reaction products were detected in the large acceptance detector DAPHNE. Details of the experimental set-up, the analysis method and a discussion of the results form the main bulk of this thesis. However, some consideration is also given to recent developments in the theoretical models used to explain the resonance damping. (author)

  3. Electron Impact Ionization of C60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenser, B.; Lezius, M.; Scheier, P.; Deutsch, H.; Maerk, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute partial and total cross sections for the electron impact ionization of C 60 have been measured using a novel approach for the absolute calibration. The results obtained reveal not only an anomalous large parent ion cross section (as compared to the other ionization channels), but also anomalies for the production of multiply charged parent and fragment ions. This special behavior has its origin in the specific electronic and geometric structure of C 60 . Semiclassical calculations for singly charged ions support the measured data

  4. Universal empirical fit to L-shell X-ray production cross sections in ionization by protons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapicki, G.; Miranda, J.

    2018-01-01

    A compilation published in 2014, with a recent 2017 update, contains 5730 experimental total L-shell X-ray production cross sections (XRPCS). The database covers an energy range from 10 keV to 1 GeV, and targets from 18Ar to 95Am. With only two adjustable parameters, universal fit to these data normalized to XRPCS calculated at proton velocity v1 equal to the electron velocity in the L-shell v2L, is obtained in terms of a single ratio of v1/v2L. This fit reproduces 97% of the compiled XRPCS to within a factor of 2.

  5. Absolute experimental cross sections for the electron impact single, double, triple, and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feeney, R.K.; Hertling, D.R.

    1981-02-28

    The absolute cross sections for the single, double, triple and quadruple ionization of Cs/sup +/ ions by electron impact have been measured from below their respective thresholds to approximately 5000 eV. This determination has been accomplshed using a crossed beam facility in which monoenergetic beams of ions and electrons are caused to intersect at right angles in a well-defined collision volume. Multiply charged, product ions born as a result of the electron impact are deflected into their respective detectors by cascaded electrostatic analyzers. The multiply charged beam current component is measured by means of a vibrating reed electrometer operating in the rate-of-charge mode.

  6. On the connection between the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution and the electron doubly differential cross section in ion-atom ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y.D.; Tribedi, L.C.; Richard, P.; Cocke, C.L.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Lin, C.D. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). J.R. MacDonald Lab.

    1996-03-28

    The connection between the ejected electron doubly differential cross section (DDCS) and the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution is presented. The relation between the two allows us to obtain a precise measurement and/or calculation of the doubly differential cross section with respect to longitudinal recoil-ion momentum and ejected electron angle d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{sub {rho}R} {sub parallel} {sub to} {sub d}{Omega} based on the corresponding electron DDCS. Distinct features characterizing fast ion-atom ionization processes are identified in both spectra. (Author).

  7. On the connection between the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution and the electron doubly differential cross section in ion-atom ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard, P.; Wang, Y.D.; Tribedi, L.; Cocke, C.L.; Lin, C.D.; Rodriguez, V.D. [Universidade de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1996-05-01

    The connection between the ejected electron doubly differential cross section (DDCS) and the longitudinal recoil-ion momentum distribution is presented. The relation between the two allows the authors to obtain a precise measurement and/or calculation of the doubly differential cross section with respect to longitudinal recoil-ion momentum and ejected electron angle d{sup 2}{sigma}/(dp{sub R{parallel}}d{Omega}{sub e)} based on the corresponding electron DDCS. Distinct features characterizing fast ion-atom ionization processes are identified in both spectra.

  8. Total-to-K-shell photoelectric cross-section ratios in some rare-earth and high-Z elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingam, S.C.; Babu, K.S.; Kumar, V.P.; Reddy, D.V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The total photoelectric cross-sections in the elements gadolinium, dysprosium erbium, lutetium, tantalum, tungsten, gold, and lead have been obtained by using the normal transmission experiments, and the results are reported. Using these total photoelectric cross sections, we have found the K-shell photoelectric cross sections the K-jump ratios, and the total-to-K-shell photoelectric cross section ratios at the K edges for the above elements. These values are compared with the available theoretical and experimental values. The results are in good agreement with the Storm and Israel results and the Scofield theoretical values, within the limits of experimental uncertainties. Furthermore, the variation of the total-to-K-shell photoelectric cross-section ratio with energy and atomic number is discussed. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Nucleus-neutron interactions in the region of lead and actinides from measurements of total cross sections, elastic scattering cross sections and inelastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachkar, J.; Haouat, G.; Lagrange, C.; Cates, M.; Patin, Y.; Sigaud, J.; Jary, J.; Ferguson, S.; Shamu, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the neutron-nucleus interaction for nuclei in the mass region from A=248 to A=240, neutron data have been taken which include total cross sections for 208 Pb, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu between 1.4 and 14 MeV, elastic scattering cross sections for 208 Pb at 2.5 and 3.4 MeV, and elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections for 208 Pb at 7.5 - 9.5 - 11.5 and 13.5 MeV, for 232 Th and 238 U at 0.7 - 2.5 and 3.4 MeV and for 235 U and 239 Pu at 0.7 and 3.4 MeV. These data have been analysed using the DWBA formalism for 208 Pb and the coupled-channels formalism for the actinides. Optical potential parameters and nuclear deformation parameters have been deduced from these analyses. (author) [fr

  10. Structure of electron tracks in water. 2. Distribution of primary ionizations and excitations in water radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimblott, S.M.; Mozumder, A.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure for the calculation of entity-specific ionization and excitation probabilities for water radiolysis at low linear energy transfer (LET) has been developed. The technique pays due attention to the effects of the ionization threshold and the energy dependence of the ionization efficiency. The numbers of primary ionizations and excitations are not directly proportional to the spur energy. At a given spur energy, ionization follows a binomial distribution subject to an energetically possible maximum. The excitation distribution for a spur of given energy and with a given number of ionizations is given by a geometric series. The occurrence probabilities depend upon the cross sections of ionization, excitation, and other inferior processes. Following the low-LET radiolysis of liquid water the most probable spurs contain one ionization, two ionizations, or one ionization and one excitation, while in water vapor they contain either one ionization or one excitation. In liquid water the most probable outcomes for spurs corresponding to the most probable energy loss (22 eV) and to the mean energy loss (38 eV) are one ionization and one excitation, and two ionizations and one excitation, respectively. In the vapor, the most probable energy loss is 14 eV which results in one ionization or one excitation and the mean energy loss is 34 eV for which the spur of maximum probability contains one ionization and two excitations. The total calculated primary yields for low-LET radiolysis are in approximate agreement with experiment in both phases

  11. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  12. The association between total leukocyte count and longevity: Evidence from longitudinal and cross-sectional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, Piotr Paweł; Borysławski, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Krzysztof; Chmielowiec, Jolanta; Strzelec, Bartłomiej

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between age-dependent changes in total leukocyte count (TLC) and certain selected differential counts expressed as frequencies (granulocytes, band cells, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes) and longevity in physically healthy men and women aged 45+. Longitudinal data on cell counts from 142 subjects (68 men and 74 women; all aged 45-70 and examined for 25 years) were compared with cross-sectional data from 225 subjects (113 men and 112 women; this group was divided into four categories of average lifespan; i.e.: 53, 63, 68, and 76+ years of age). ANOVA, t-test, and regression analysis were employed. Secular changes in leukocyte count were controlled. Men had continuously higher TLC compared with women. Moreover, sex differences in patterns of changes with age were found. The longitudinal assessment revealed a U-shaped pattern of changes in TLC in men (y=0.0026x(2)-0.2866x+14.4374; R(2)=0.852) and women (y=0.0048x(2)-0.5386x+20.922; R(2)=0.938), whereas the cross-sectional comparison showed an inverted U-shaped pattern in men (y=-0.0021x(2)+0.2421x; R(2)=0.417) and women (y=-0.0017x(2)+0.2061x; R(2)=0.888). In general, the comparison of longitudinal and cross-sectional data on changes with age in TLC indicates that longevity favors individuals with lower yet normal TLC and this correlation is more pronounced in men. In conclusion, our findings are in line with previous longitudinal studies of aging and suggest that lower TLC within the normal range (4.0-10.0 × 10(3)μL(-1)) can be a useful predictor of longevity in physically healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross sections for 8Li+12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barioni, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Lepine, A.; Lichtenthaeler Filho, Rubens; Mendes Junior, D.; Crema, E.; Pires, K.C.C.; Morais, M.C.; Morcelle, V.; Faria, P.N. de; Pampa, Ruben; Assuncao, M.; Mukherjee, S.; Monteiro, D.S.; Lubian, J.; Shorto, J.M.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The elastic scattering angular distribution for 8 Li on 12 C has been measured at E LAB = 23.9 MeV with 8 Li radioactive nuclear beam produced by the Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil facility (RIBRAS). This angular distribution was analysed in terms of optical model with Woods-Saxon and double-folding Sao Paulo potentials. The roles of the breakup and inelastic channels were also investigated with cluster folding and deformed potentials, respectively, through coupled channels calculations. The angular distributions for the proton-transfer 12 C( 8 Li, 9 Be) 11 B reaction was also measured at the same energy, simultaneously with the elastic scattering. The spectroscopic factor for the 9 Be I 8 Li+p> bound system was obtained through DWBA (Distorted-Wave Born Approximation) calculations with the code Fresco, and compared with shell model calculations and other experimental values. The spectroscopic factor obtained was used for normalization of the capture reaction cross section 8 Li(p, gamma) 9 Begs. The depth of the scattered potential obtained was 40,1 +- 1,6 MeV. The astrophysical S-factor curves and the reaction rate for the capture reaction 8 Li(p,gamma) 9 Begs were calculated. Total reaction cross sections for the present system were also extracted from the elastic scattering analysis. A systematic of the reduced reaction cross section obtained from the present and published data on 6 ; 7 ; 8 Li isotopes on 12 C was performed as a function of energy. (author)

  14. Measurement of the polarized neutron---polarized {sup 3}He total cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keith, C.D.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.; Seely, M.L. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Huffman, P.R.; Roberson, N.R.; Tornow, W.; Wilburn, W.S. [Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)]|[Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    1995-05-10

    The first measurements of polarized neutron--polarized {sup 3}He scattering in the few MeV energy region are reported. The total cross section difference {Delta}{sigma}{sub {ital T}} for transversely polarized target and beam has been measured for neutron energies between 1.9 and 7.5 MeV. Comparison is made to predictions of {Delta}{sigma}{sub {ital T}} using various descriptions of the {sup 4}He continuum. A brute-force polarized target of solid {sup 3}He has been developed for these measurements. The target is 4.3{times}10{sup 22} atoms/cm{sup 2} thick and is polarized to 38% at 7 Telsa and 12 mK. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Measurement of the energy dependence of the total photon-proton cross section at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences; Univ. Coll. London (United Kingdom); Krakow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Faculty of Physics, Mathematics and Applied Computer Science; Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Cracow (PL). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The energy dependence of the photon-proton total cross section, {sigma}{sub tot}{sup {gamma}}{sup p}, was determined from e{sup +}p scattering data collected with the ZEUS detector at HERA at three values of the center-of-mass energy, W, of the {gamma}p system in the range 194

  16. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  17. The total cross sections of heavy ion reaction and the nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rego, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The total reaction cross section of the systems 12 C + 12 C, 12 C + 40 Ca, 12 C + 90 Zr, 12 C + 208 Pb, 40 Ca + 40 Ca, 40 Ca + 208 Pb + 90 Zr + 90 Zr, 90 Zr + 208 Pb and 208 Pb + 208 Pb for a wide range of energies has been calculated microscopically. A WKB expression for the imaginary phase shift in the impact paremeter representation has been employed. The imaginary part of the optical potential has been constructed by using the first term of multiple scattering theory with the effect of Pauli blocking incorporated into it. The inclusion of the nuclear and Coulomb interactions is shown to be important. The theoretical results do not show very good agreement with the experimental data at lower energies. This is attributed to the weak absorption contained in the imaginary potential of the ''tο A ο B '' interaction, wich contained only quasifree knock-out as the dominant reaction mechanism. (author) [pt

  18. Forward elastic scattering and total cross-section at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, R.

    1985-01-01

    The successful cooling technique of antiproton beams at CERN has recently allowed the acceleration of proton and antiproton bunches simultaneously circulating in opposite directions in the SPS. Hadron-hadron collisions could so be produced at a centre-of-mass energy one order of magnitude higher than previously available, thus opening a new wide range of energies to experimentation. This technique also made it possible to replace one of the two proton beams in the ISR by a beam of antiprotons, allowing a direct precise comparison, by the same detectors, of pp and anti pp processes at the same energies. The recent results are summarized of the forward elastic scattering and total cross-section in this new energy domain. (Mori, K.)

  19. Accurate treatment of total photoabsorption cross sections by an ab initio time-dependent method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Mohammad Noh

    2014-09-01

    A detailed discussion of parallel and perpendicular transitions required for the photoabsorption of a molecule is presented within a time-dependent view. Total photoabsorption cross sections for the first two ultraviolet absorption bands of the N2O molecule corresponding to transitions from the X1 A' state to the 21 A' and 11 A'' states are calculated to test the reliability of the method. By fully considering the property of the electric field polarization vector of the incident light, the method treats the coupling of angular momentum and the parity differently for two kinds of transitions depending on the direction of the vector whether it is: (a) situated parallel in a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with the same symmetry; (b) situated perpendicular to a molecular plane for an electronic transition between states with different symmetry. Through this, for those transitions, we are able to offer an insightful picture of the dynamics involved and to characterize some new aspects in the photoabsorption process of N2O. Our calculations predicted that the parallel transition to the 21 A' state is the major dissociation pathway which is in qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. Most importantly, a significant improvement in the absolute value of the total cross section over previous theoretical results [R. Schinke, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064313 (2011), M.N. Daud, G.G. Balint-Kurti, A. Brown, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 054305 (2005), S. Nanbu, M.S. Johnson, J. Phys. Chem. A 108, 8905 (2004)] was obtained.

  20. Ionizing radiation and autoimmunity: Induction of autoimmune disease in mice by high dose fractionated total lymphoid irradiation and its prevention by inoculating normal T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, N.; Sakaguchi, S.; Miyai, K.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can functionally alter the immune system and break self-tolerance. High dose (42.5 Gy), fractionated (2.5 Gy 17 times) total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on mice caused various organ-specific autoimmune diseases, such as gastritis, thyroiditis, and orchitis, depending on the radiation dosages, the extent of lymphoid irradiation, and the genetic background of the mouse strains. Radiation-induced tissue damage is not the primary cause of the autoimmune disease because irradiation of the target organs alone failed to elicit the autoimmunity and shielding of the organs from irradiation was unable to prevent it. In contrast, irradiation of both the thymus and the peripheral lymphoid organs/tissues was required for efficient induction of autoimmune disease by TLI. TLI eliminated the majority of mature thymocytes and the peripheral T cells for 1 mo, and inoculation of spleen cell, thymocyte, or bone marrow cell suspensions (prepared from syngeneic nonirradiated mice) within 2 wk after TLI effectively prevented the autoimmune development. Depletion of T cells from the inocula abrogated the preventive activity. CD4 + T cells mediated the autoimmune prevention but CD8 + T cells did not. CD4 + T cells also appeared to mediate the TLI-induced autoimmune disease because CD4 + T cells from disease-bearing TLI mice adoptively transferred the autoimmune disease to syngeneic naive mice. Taken together, these results indicate that high dose, fractionated ionizing radiation on the lymphoid organs/tissues can cause autoimmune disease by affecting the T cell immune system, rather than the target self-Ags, presumably by altering T cell-dependent control of self-reactive T cells. 62 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Measurements and analysis of the 127I and 129I neutron capture and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, G.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the experimental work on the interaction of neutrons with matter has focused on materials important to reactor physics and reactor structures. By comparison, the corresponding data for minor actinides or long-lived fission products are poor. A significant demand has developed for improved neutron cross-section data of these little-studied nuclides due to the surge of interest in the transmutation of nuclear waste. With 400 kg of 129 I produced yearly in the reactors of the EU countries and a very long β - half-life of 1.57 x 10 7 years, iodine requires disposal strategies that will isolate this isotope from the environment for long periods of time. Therefore, 129 I is potentially a key long-lived fission product for transmutation applications, since 129 I transmutes in 130 I after a single neutron capture and decays to 130 Xe with a 12.36 h half-life. Accurate capture cross sections would help to reduce uncertainties in waste management concepts. For that purpose, Time-Of-Flight measurements covering the [0.5 eV-100 keV] energy range have been carried out at the 150 MeV pulsed neutron source GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). Two types of experiments have been performed at the IRMM, namely capture and transmission experiments. They are respectively related to the neutron capture and total cross sections. Since the PbI 2 samples used in this work contain natural and radioactive iodine, extensive measurements of 129 I have been carried out under the same experimental conditions as for the 129 I. The data reduction process was performed with the AGS system, and the resonance parameters were extracted with the SAMMY and REFIT shape analysis codes. In a last step, the parameters have been converted into ENDF-6 format and processed with the NJOY code to produce point-wise and multigroup cross sections, as well as MCNP and ERANOS libraries. (author)

  2. Total ionizing dose radiation hardness of the ATLAS MDT-ASD and the HP-Agilent 0.5 um CMOS process

    CERN Document Server

    Posch, C

    2002-01-01

    A total ionizing dose (TID) test of the MDT-ASD, the ATLAS MDT front-end chip has been performed at the Harvard Cyclotron Lab. The MDT-ASD is an 8-channel drift tube read-out ASIC fabricated in a commercial 0.5 um CMOS process (AMOS14TB). The accumulated TID at the end of the test was 300 krad, delivered by 160 MeV protons at a rate of approximately 70 rad/sec. All 10 irradiated chips retained their full functionality and performance and showed only irrelevantly small changes in device parameters. As the total accumulated dose is substantially higher than the relevant ATLAS Radiation Tolerance Criteria (RTCtid), the results of this test indicate that MDT-ASD meets the ATLAS TID radiation hardness requirements. In addition, the results of this test correspond well with results of a 30 keV gamma TID irradiation test performed by us on an earlier prototype at the CERN x-ray facility as well as with results of other irradiation test on this process found in literature.

  3. Influence of Triply-Charged Ions and Ionization Cross-Sections in a Hybrid-PIC Model of a Hall Thruster Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of xenon ionization rates to collision cross-sections is studied within the framework of a hybrid-PIC model of a Hall thruster discharge. A revised curve fit based on the Drawin form is proposed and is shown to better reproduce the measured crosssections at high electron energies, with differences in the integrated rate coefficients being on the order of 10% for electron temperatures between 20 eV and 30 eV. The revised fit is implemented into HPHall and the updated model is used to simulate NASA's HiVHAc EDU2 Hall thruster at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500 V. For all three operating points, the revised cross-sections result in an increase in the predicted thrust and anode efficiency, reducing the error relative to experimental performance measurements. Electron temperature and ionization reaction rates are shown to follow the trends expected based on the integrated rate coefficients. The effects of triply-charged xenon are also assessed. The predicted thruster performance is found to have little or no dependence on the presence of triply-charged ions. The fraction of ion current carried by triply-charged ions is found to be on the order of 1% and increases slightly with increasing discharge voltage. The reaction rates for the 0?III, I?III, and II?III ionization reactions are found to be of similar order of magnitude and are about one order of magnitude smaller than the rate of 0?II ionization in the discharge channel.

  4. Low energy positron interactions with uracil—Total scattering, positronium formation, and differential elastic scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E. K.; Boadle, R. A.; Machacek, J. R.; Makochekanwa, C.; Sullivan, J. P. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Chiari, L. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Buckman, S. J., E-mail: Stephen.buckman@anu.edu.au [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Brunger, M. J. [ARC Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, 5001 SA (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, G. [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, F. [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ingolfsson, O. [Department of Chemistry, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavík 107 (Iceland)

    2014-07-21

    Measurements of the grand total and total positronium formation cross sections for positron scattering from uracil have been performed for energies between 1 and 180 eV, using a trap-based beam apparatus. Angular, quasi-elastic differential cross section measurements at 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 eV are also presented and discussed. These measurements are compared to existing experimental results and theoretical calculations, including our own calculations using a variant of the independent atom approach.

  5. Low-energy and very-low energy total cross sections for electron collisions with N2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Masashi; Kishino, Takaya; Okumura, Takuma; Kobayashi, Naomasa; Sayama, Atsushi; Mori, Yuma; Hosaka, Kouichi; Odagiri, Takeshi; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    Absolute grand total cross sections for electron scattering from N2 are obtained in the energy range from 20 eV down to 5 meV with very narrow electron energy width of 9 meV using the threshold-photoelectron source. Total cross sections obtained in the present study are compared with the previous experimentally obtained results. At the very-low energy region below 50 meV, the present total cross sections are somewhat smaller than those reported by the Aarhus group [S.V. Hoffmann et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 4157 (2002)], which has been the only experimental work that provided the total cross sections in the very-low energy region. The energy positions of the peaks in the total cross sections due to the 2Πg shape resonance are obtained with higher accuracy, due to the improved uncertainty of the energy position in the present measurement compared to the previous works. The resonance structure in the total cross sections due to the Feshbach resonances of N2 at around 11.5 eV are also observed. Analysis of the resonant structure was carried out in order to determine the values of resonance width of Feshbach resonances of N2. Contribution to the Topical Issue: "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  6. Precise Measurement of the $\\bar{p}p$ Total Cross-Section in the ISR Energy Range

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The major aim of this experiment is the precise measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross-section in the ISR energy range, using the total-rate method. The proton-proton total cross-section is remeasured with the same method and the same apparatus, and a precision of 0.5\\% is expected for both cross-sections. The total-rate method consists in the simultaneous measurement of the total interaction rate and the ISR luminosity. This is done with a set of scintillation-counter hodoscopes covering over 99.99\\% of the solid angle, which are sensitive to over 95\\% of all interactions. In addition to these detectors, small-angle drift-tube hodoscopes are used to measure the differential elastic cross-section as a function of the momentum transfert t. The total cross-section can be measured independently by extrapolating this differential cross-section to the forward direction and invoking the optical theorem. A study of the general features of charged-particle production is performed using finely divided scinti...

  7. The estimation of lung dose from mid-perineum ionization chamber measurements in total body irradiations: A quality control check on dose delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.

    1995-01-01

    A series of patients (eleven males and eight females) receiving total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation was monitored during treatment by recording the dose from an ionization chamber placed between the thighs in the mid-perineal region. The treatment was delivered by opposed lateral 6 MV photon beams. The patient was encompassed by the radiation field with the maximum collimator opening at a distance of 3.49 m from the X-ray focus to the patient mid-line. An analysis was made of the measured dose and the calculated percentage average lung dose for each patient in the series to seek a correlation between measured doses and patients' anatomical data so that estimates of delivered lung doses could be made. Whilst a global factor can be applied to measured dose to predict lung dose, it is concluded that perineal dose measurements distal to the region where dose is prescribed (mean lung dose) are sub-optimal for checks on target dose delivery. Entrance and exit dose measurements at the level of dose prescription (in the thorax) are preferable for more accurate predictions and quality control checks. 6 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  8. Status report and measurement of total cross-sections at the Pohang Neutron Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.N.; Meaze, A.K.M.M.H.; Ahmed, H.

    2004-01-01

    We report the status of the Pohang Neutron Facility which consists of an electron linear accelerator, a water-cooled Ta target, and an 11-m time-of-flight path. It has been equipped with a four-position sample changer controlled remotely by a CAMAC data acquisition system, which allows simultaneous accumulation of the neutron time of flight spectra from 4 different detectors. It is possible to measure the neutron total cross-sections in the neutron energy range from 0.1 eV to 100 eV by using the neutron time of flight method. A 6 LiZnS(Ag) glass scintillator was used as a neutron detector. The neutron flight path from the water-cooled Ta target to the neutron detector was 10.81±0.02 m. The background level was determined by using notch-filters of Co, In, Ta, and Cd sheets. In order to reduce the gamma rays from Bremsstrahlung and those from neutron capture, we employed a neutron-gamma separation system based on their different pulse shapes. The present measurements are in general agreement with the evaluated data in ENDF/B-VI. The resonance parameters were extracted from the transmission data from the SAMMY fitting and compared with the previous ones. (author)

  9. Optical parameters Determination for absolute luminosity and total cross section measurements in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Cavalier, Sophie

    ALFA (Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS) aims at measuring the absolute luminosity for the ATLAS experiment with an incertitude down to 2-3 \\% and the total elastic cross section. The luminosity is related to the number of events, the highest the luminosity, the highest the number of events. This is, then, an important quantity for colliders like LHC (Large Hadron Collider). LHC is made of two beams circulating in two different beam pipes and colliding at four interaction points where the four physics experiments are located (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE, LHCb). ALFA detectors inserted into Roman Pots (RPs), have been placed around ATLAS at 240 m distance from the collision point (IP1) after six quadrupoles magnets and two dipoles defining the ALFA beam line which is part of the LHC ring.The detectors are made of scintillating optics fibers to catch elastic protons generated at IP1. These protons are tracked through the LHC magnets beam line which needs to be optimized in terms of optics parameters. We call high β optics, ...

  10. Measurement of the Antiproton-Proton Total Cross-Section at the CERN ISR

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a measurement of small angle scattering of antiprotons on protons and of protons on protons at 15/15, 22/22, 26/26 and 31/31 GeV, with the aim of obtaining data on the total cross-section for the scattering of protons on protons, and of determining the ratio of the real to the imaginary scattering amplitude at zero momentum transfer for antiprotons on protons. The measurement is divided into two parts: \\item 1) The measurement of @s^t^o^t(@*p) and @s^t^o^t(pp), using hodoscopes placed at small angles, outside the vacuum pipe, at approximately 9 metres from the intersection point. \\item 2) The measurement of the region in !t!, the momentum transfer squared, around the value !t^c!, where Coulomb and nuclear scattering are equal, in order to deduce the quantity @r = Re f(t=0)/Im f(t=0). This latter measurement is done by employi in earlier @s^t(pp) and @r experiments at the ISR. \\end{enumerate} In both set-ups the measurements are made by recording coincidences between collinear counters in th...

  11. Double-differential cross sections for ionization of H2O by fast bare O ions: Comparison with continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state calculations in prior and post forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S.; Biswas, S.; Khan, A.; Monti, J. M.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Misra, D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2013-05-01

    We have measured the double-differential cross sections (DDCS) for electron emission in ionization of H2O molecules under the impact of 4.5-MeV/u O8+ ions. The data were collected between 1 and 600 eV, in an angular range of 20∘-150∘ by using an electrostatic hemispherical analyzer. In the experiment we used the H2O vapor in a static gas condition which allowed us to deduce the absolute value of the cross sections. The single-differential cross sections (SDCS) and the total cross sections have also been obtained. The DDCS as well as the SDCS spectra are compared with the continuum-distorted-wave eikonal-initial-state (CDW-EIS) calculations for both the prior as well as the post forms of the scattering matrix. The initial state is represented within the complete neglect of differential overlap approximation, where the molecular orbitals are expressed in terms of atomic orbitals of the atomic constituents. The overall agreement with the CDW-EIS model is quite good as far as the energy dependence is concerned. The prior form of the model is found to provide a better understanding of the data compared to the post version. In particular, excellent agreement between the theory and experiment has been observed for the angular distribution data at forward angles.

  12. Molecular Data for a Biochemical Model of DNA Radiation Damage: Electron Impact Ionization and Dissociative Ionization of DNA Bases and Sugar-Phosphate Backbone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dateo, Christopher E.; Fletcher, Graham D.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the database for building up a biochemical model of DNA radiation damage, electron impact ionization cross sections of sugar-phosphate backbone and DNA bases have been calculated using the improved binary-encounter dipole (iBED) model. It is found that the total ionization cross sections of C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate, two conformers of the sugar-phosphate backbone, are close to each other. Furthermore, the sum of the ionization cross sections of the separate deoxyribose and phosphate fragments is in close agreement with the C3'- and C5'-deoxyribose-phospate cross sections, differing by less than 10%. Of the four DNA bases, the ionization cross section of guanine is the largest, then in decreasing order, adenine, thymine, and cytosine. The order is in accordance with the known propensity of oxidation of the bases by ionizing radiation. Dissociative ionization (DI), a process that both ionizes and dissociates a molecule, is investigated for cytosine. The DI cross section for the formation of H and (cytosine-Hl)(+), with the cytosine ion losing H at the 1 position, is also reported. The threshold of this process is calculated to be 17.1 eV. Detailed analysis of ionization products such as in DI is important to trace the sequential steps in the biochemical process of DNA damage.

  13. Total Cross Sections as a Surrogate for Neutron Capture: An Opportunity to Accurately Constrain (n,γ) Cross Sections for Nuclides Beyond the Reach of Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Paul E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-03-05

    There are many (n,γ) cross sections of great interest to radiochemical diagnostics and to nuclear astrophysics which are beyond the reach of current measurement techniques, and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. In contrast, total neutron cross sections currently are feasible for many of these nuclides and provide almost all the information needed to accurately calculate the (n,γ) cross sections via the nuclear statistical model (NSM). I demonstrate this for the case of 151Sm; NSM calculations constrained using average resonance parameters obtained from total cross section measurements made in 1975, are in excellent agreement with recent 151Sm (n,γ) measurements across a wide range of energy. Furthermore, I demonstrate through simulations that total cross section measurements can be made at the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center for samples as small as 10μg. Samples of this size should be attainable for many nuclides of interest. Finally, I estimate that over half of the radionuclides identified ~20 years ago as having (n,γ) cross sections of importance to s-process nucleosynthesis studies (24/43) and radiochemical diagnostics (11/19), almost none of which have been measured, can be constrained using this technique.

  14. Approach towards total knee arthroplasty in Brazil: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Frankllim de Carvalho Almeida

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA has evolved particularly since the 1970s, with improvements in implants and surgical instruments, and has thus become an effective intervention for treating knee arthrosis. Many studies have presented rates of satisfactory clinical and radiological results greater than 90%, from follow-ups of over ten years. Nevertheless, despite scientific evidence showing the efficacy of TKA, the approaches taken present controversies in certain respects. The objective of this study was to evaluate how the Brazilian orthopedists deal with TKA, with investigation of the main aspects of this procedure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional survey conducted during the 39th Brazilian Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology, in São Paulo, Brazil, in November 2007. METHODS: We applied a questionnaire to orthopedists registered at the congress. The questionnaire was randomly distributed and participation was voluntary; 858 completed questionnaires were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Most of the Brazilian orthopedists were members of SBOT and worked in the southeastern region. They used imported cemented implants through an anterior access route centered on the patella, with replacement of the joint surface of the patella and preservation of the posterior cruciate ligament. They did not have experience with simultaneous bilateral TKA. Postoperatively, they used antibiotics and suction drains for 48 hours. There was no consensus regarding prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism or the frequency of the main complications. CONCLUSION: The majority of Brazilian orthopedists work in the southeastern region of the country and agree about the main aspects of the approaches towards TKA.

  15. The total collision cross section of Ar-Ar as a function of velocity in the thermal range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linse, C.A.; Biesen, J.J.H. van den; Meijdenberg, C.J.N. van den

    1977-01-01

    To describe the Ar-Ar interaction several potentials have been proposed. These potentials have been derived starting from different bulk property data as well as spectroscopic and differential cross section data. The measurements of the glory structure in the total cross section as performed by Bredewout (1976) provided in principle an essential test for the existing potentials. However, the overall energy dependence of the measured cross sections was not in agreement with the theoretically predicted C 6 and C 8 values. Therefore new measurements were performed with improved angular and velocity resolution. There are still differences between the results of the measured and calculated cross sections. However, the energy dependence of the cross section remains within the limits to be expected from the theoretical predictions. (Auth.)

  16. Characteristics of the ionospheric total electron content of the equatorial ionization anomaly in the Asian-Australian region during 1996–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biqiang Zhao

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ionospheric total electron content (TEC of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA is studied by analyzing dual-frequency signals of the Global Position System (GPS acquired from a network of receivers around the Asian-Australian region during 1996–2004. The latitude, occurrence time, strength of the most developed EIA crest, and crest-to-trough ratio (CTR for both the noon and post-sunset sector obtained from a daily TEC contour map have been used to study the solar cycle variations of EIA in the Asian-Australian region. The results reveal that semiannual and seasonal variations were the dominant factor that controls the morphology of the EIA structure which can be identified in the past studies (e.g. Wu et al., 2008. It is also found that the latitude and local time position of the anomaly crest show a hemispheric asymmetry because (a The northern crest of EIA is expanded during the equinox indicating a weak semiannual variation while the southern crest is inhibited during June–August presenting a strong seasonal variation, and (b The local time of the northern crest appears ~1.3 h earlier than that of the southern crest in June while showing no difference at December. Solar activity dependence is more evident in the EIA crest region than in the EIA trough region and least in the post-sunset sector at equinox. A seasonal linear relationship is derived between the post-sunset CTR and solar flux, which should be caused by the solar-dependant equatorial E×B vertical drift.

  17. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  18. Total reaction cross sections and neutron-removal cross sections of neutron-rich light nuclei measured by the COMBAS fragment-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, B. M.; Isataev, T.; Erdemchimeg, B.; Artukh, A. G.; Aznabaev, D.; Davaa, S.; Klygin, S. A.; Kononenko, G. A.; Khuukhenkhuu, G.; Kuterbekov, K.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Mikhailova, T. I.; Maslov, V. A.; Mendibaev, K.; Sereda, Yu M.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Vorontsov, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Preliminary results of measurements of the total reaction cross sections σR and neutron removal cross section σ-xn for weakly bound 6He, 8Li, 9Be and 10Be nuclei at energy range (20-35) A MeV with 28Si target is presented. The secondary beams of light nuclei were produced by bombardment of the 22Ne (35 A MeV) primary beam on Be target and separated by COMBAS fragment-separator. In dispersive focal plane a horizontal slit defined the momentum acceptance as 1% and a wedge degrader of 200 μm Al was installed. The Bρ of the second section of the fragment-separator was adjusted for measurements in energy range (20-35) A MeV. Two-neutron removal cross sections for 6He and 10Be and one -neutron removal cross sections 8Li and 9Be were measured.

  19. Ionization of uracil in collisions with fast bare ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribedi, L. C.; Agnihotri, A. N.; Galassi, M. E.; Rivarola, R. D.; Champion, C.

    2012-11-01

    We study the atomic collisions with large molecules and simple atoms. The ionization and fragmentation spectra are investigated for uracil, a RNA base molecule, under the impact of fast bare C, O and F-ions. The experiments are conducted using a recoil-ion time-of-flight spectrometer. The energy dependence of the total ionization cross sections (TCS) and fragmentation yields are measured for MeV/u energies. In addition, the angular distribution of the electron double differential cross sections (DDCS) are also shown in some cases. The total cross sections of ionization and also the DDCS data are compared with the CDW-EIS calculations. The qualitative agreement is good but, in general, the theory tends to overestimate the data by a factor of 2.2. The angular distribution of electrons clearly indicates a good qualitative agreement except for the lowest energy electrons.

  20. Vanadium fine-structure K-shell electron impact ionization cross sections for fast-electron diagnostic in laser–solid experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmeri, P., E-mail: patrick.palmeri@umons.ac.be [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Université de Mons - UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Quinet, P., E-mail: pascal.quinet@umons.ac.be [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Université de Mons - UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); IPNAS, Université de Liège, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Batani, D., E-mail: batani@celia.u-bordeaux1.fr [CELIA, Université de Bordeaux, F-33400 Talence (France)

    2015-09-15

    The K-shell electron impact ionization (EII) cross section, along with the K-shell fluorescence yield, is one of the key atomic parameters for fast-electron diagnostic in laser–solid experiments through the K-shell emission cross section. In addition, in a campaign dedicated to the modeling of the K lines of astrophysical interest (Palmeri et al. (2012)), the K-shell fluorescence yields for the K-vacancy fine-structure atomic levels of all the vanadium isonuclear ions have been calculated. In this study, the K-shell EII cross sections connecting the ground and the metastable levels of the parent vanadium ions to the daughter ions K-vacancy levels considered in Palmeri et al. (2012) have been determined. The relativistic distorted-wave (DW) approximation implemented in the FAC atomic code has been used for the incident electron kinetic energies up to 20 times the K-shell threshold energies. Moreover, the resulting DW cross sections have been extrapolated at higher energies using the asymptotic behavior of the modified relativistic binary encounter Bethe model (MRBEB) of Guerra et al. (2012) with the density-effect correction proposed by Davies et al. (2013)

  1. Luminosity-Independent Measurement of the Proton-Proton Total Cross Section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Bottigli, U; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanad, M; Csorgo, T; Deile, M; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, R A; Kavspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrat, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajivcek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas-Rodriguez, F; Macri, M.; Maki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Osterberg, K; Palazzi, P; Prochazka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vitek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-01-01

    TOTEM has measured the proton-proton total cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV using a luminosity independent method. In LHC fills with dedicated beam optics, the Roman Pots have been inserted very close to the beam allowing the detection of 90% of the nuclear elastic scattering events. Simultaneously the inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 Telescopes. By applying the optical theorem, the total proton-proton cross-section of (101.7 $\\pm$ 2.9)mb is determined, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method allows also to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross-sections: $\\sigma_{el}$ = (27.1 $\\pm$ 1.4)mb; $\\sigma_{inel}$ = (74.7 $\\pm$ 1.7)mb.

  2. The extraction of φ-N total cross section from d(γ,pK+K-)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Chen, W.; Gao, H.; Hicks, K.; Kramer, K.; Laget, J.M.; Mibe, T.; Stepanyan, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Xu, W.; Adhikari, K.P.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the differential cross section of φ-meson photoproduction for the d(γ,pK + K - )n exclusive reaction channel. The experiment was performed using a tagged-photon beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. A combined analysis using data from the d(γ,pK + K - )n channel and those from a previous publication on coherent φ production on the deuteron has been carried out to extract the φ-N total cross section, σ φN . The extracted φ-N total cross section favors a value above 20 mb. This value is larger than the value extracted using vector-meson dominance models for φ photoproduction on the proton.

  3. Luminosity-independent measurement of the proton-proton total cross section at √s=8 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antchev, G; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bottigli, U; Bozzo, M; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Csörgő, T; Deile, M; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, R A; Kašpar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajíček, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Mäki, T; Mercadante, A; Minafra, N; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Smajek, J; Snoeys, W; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J; Wyszkowski, P

    2013-07-05

    The TOTEM collaboration has measured the proton-proton total cross section at √s=8 TeV using a luminosity-independent method. In LHC fills with dedicated beam optics, the Roman pots have been inserted very close to the beam allowing the detection of ~90% of the nuclear elastic scattering events. Simultaneously the inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 telescopes. By applying the optical theorem, the total proton-proton cross section of (101.7±2.9) mb has been determined, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method also allows one to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross sections: σ(el)=(27.1±1.4) mb; σ(inel)=(74.7±1.7) mb.

  4. Analytic amplitudes for hadronic forward scattering and the Heisenberg ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolescu, Basarab [LPNHE, Unite de Recherche des Universites Paris 6 et Paris 7, associee au CNRS, Theory Group, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2004-07-01

    We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes (the COMPETE analysis), and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, {pi}p, Kp, {gamma}p, {gamma}{gamma}, {sigma}p). Although these parametrizations are very close for {radical}s {>=} 9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term {approx} ln{sup 2} s enables one to extend the fit down to {radical}s = 4 GeV. We present predictions on the total cross sections and on the ratio of the real part to the imaginary part of the elastic amplitude ({rho} parameter) for present and future pp colliders, and on total cross sections for {gamma}p {yields} hadrons at cosmic-ray energies and for it{gamma}{gamma} {yields} hadrons up to {radical}s = 1 TeV. The ln{sup 2} s behaviour of total cross sections, first obtained by Heisenberg 50 years ago, receives now increased interest both on phenomenological and theoretical levels. We present a modification of the Heisenberg's model in connection with the presence of glueballs and we show that it leads to a realistic description of all existing hadron total cross-sections data, in agreement with the COMPETE analysis.

  5. Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms for a singly charged helium ion, Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, T.; Nishikori, M.; Yamato, N.

    1991-08-01

    Partial and total electronic stopping cross sections of atoms with Z (55 ≤ Z ≤ 92) for a He + ion are tabulated as the second part of NIFS-DATA-11 (1991) on the basis of the wave-packet theory. (author)

  6. Total Hadron Cross Section, New Particles, and Muon Electron Events in e{sup +}e{sup -} Annihilation at SPEAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.

    1976-01-01

    The review of total hadron electroproduction cross sections, the new states, and the muon--electron events includes large amount of information on hadron structure, nine states with width ranging from 10's of keV to many MeV, the principal decay modes and quantum numbers of some of the states, and limits on charm particle production. 13 references. (JFP)

  7. Luminosity-independent measurement of the proton-proton total cross section at √ s = 8 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Kašpar, Jan; Kopal, Josef; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Procházka, Jiří; Lokajíček, Miloš V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 1 (2013), "012001-1"-"012001-6" ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : proton-proton elastic and total cross-sections * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 7.728, year: 2013

  8. Total photoabsorption cross section on nuclei measured in energy range 0.5-2.6 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirazita, M.

    1998-03-01

    The total photoabsorption cross section on several nuclei has been measured in the energy range 0.5 - 2.6 GeV. Nuclear data show a significant reduction of the absorption strength with respect to the free nucleon case suggesting a shadowing effect at low energies

  9. Cross sections for double K-shell ionization in slow heavy ion-atom collisions, ch. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoogkamer, T.P.; Woerlee, P.H.; Saris, F.W.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for Ksub(αα) X-ray production have been measured in collisions of 200 keV N + → NH 3 , N 2 , H 2 O; O + → NH 3 , H 2 O and 200, 400, 600 keV Ne 2+ → Ne. Fluorescence yields for Ksub(αα) two-electron one-photon transitions have been estimated for N and O, whereas for Ne, theoretical values for the fluorescence yield are available. We have used these to obtain double K-shell ionizzation cross sections which are compared to calculated cross section based on the theory for rotational coupling in the transient quasimolecular state

  10. Directed Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregoric, Vincent C.; Kang, Xinyue; Liu, Zhimin Cheryl; Rowley, Zoe A.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2017-04-01

    Selective field ionization is an important experimental technique used to study the state distribution of Rydberg atoms. This is achieved by applying a steadily increasing electric field, which successively ionizes more tightly bound states. An atom prepared in an energy eigenstate encounters many avoided Stark level crossings on the way to ionization. As it traverses these avoided crossings, its amplitude is split among multiple different states, spreading out the time resolved electron ionization signal. By perturbing the electric field ramp, we can change how the atoms traverse the avoided crossings, and thus alter the shape of the ionization signal. We have used a genetic algorithm to evolve these perturbations in real time in order to arrive at a target ionization signal shape. This process is robust to large fluctuations in experimental conditions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1607335 and No. 1607377 and used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number OCI-1053575.

  11. Elastic scattering and total reaction cross section for the 6He + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamim, E.A.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Mendes Junior, D.R.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Guimaraes, V.; Gomes, P.R.S.; Chamon, L.C.; Hussein, M.S.; Moro, A.M.; Arazi, A.; Padron, I.; Alcantara Nunez, J.; Assuncao, M.; Barioni, A.; Camargo, O.; Denke, R.Z.; Faria, P.N. de; Pires, K.C.C.

    2007-01-01

    The elastic scattering of the radioactive halo nucleus 6 He on 27 Al target was measured at four energies close to the Coulomb barrier using the RIBRAS (Radioactive Ion Beams in Brazil) facility. The Sao Paulo Potential (SPP) was used and its diffuseness and imaginary strength were adjusted to fit the elastic scattering angular distributions. Reaction cross-sections were extracted from the optical model fits. The reduced reaction cross-sections of 6 He on 27 Al are similar to those for stable, weakly bound projectiles as 6,7 Li, 9 Be and larger than stable, tightly bound projectile as 16 O on 27 Al

  12. Development, optimization, validation and application of faster gas chromatography - flame ionization detector method for the analysis of total petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Abdulrazaq; Pappoe, Michael; James, Lesley A; Hawboldt, Kelly

    2015-12-18

    This paper presents an important new approach to improving the timeliness of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) analysis in the soil by Gas Chromatography - Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) using the CCME Canada-Wide Standard reference method. The Canada-Wide Standard (CWS) method is used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds across Canada. However, inter-laboratory application of this method for the analysis of TPH in the soil has often shown considerable variability in the results. This could be due, in part, to the different gas chromatography (GC) conditions, other steps involved in the method, as well as the soil properties. In addition, there are differences in the interpretation of the GC results, which impacts the determination of the effectiveness of remediation at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites. In this work, multivariate experimental design approach was used to develop and validate the analytical method for a faster quantitative analysis of TPH in (contaminated) soil. A fractional factorial design (fFD) was used to screen six factors to identify the most significant factors impacting the analysis. These factors included: injection volume (μL), injection temperature (°C), oven program (°C/min), detector temperature (°C), carrier gas flow rate (mL/min) and solvent ratio (v/v hexane/dichloromethane). The most important factors (carrier gas flow rate and oven program) were then optimized using a central composite response surface design. Robustness testing and validation of model compares favourably with the experimental results with percentage difference of 2.78% for the analysis time. This research successfully reduced the method's standard analytical time from 20 to 8min with all the carbon fractions eluting. The method was successfully applied for fast TPH analysis of Bunker C oil contaminated soil. A reduced analytical time would offer many benefits including an improved laboratory reporting times, and overall improved clean up

  13. CALCULATION OF IONIZATION RATE COEFFICIENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We use a simple numerical method to generate the ionization rates starting from the cross sections. These last are obtained by code FAC (Flexible Atomic Code). Our computation results will be compared with those published. Key words: Atomic data, radiative collisional Models, Ionization rate, cross Sections of ionization.

  14. Total and (n, 2n) neutron cross section measurements on 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, C.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron induced reaction cross sections on 241 Am have been measured at the IRMM in Geel, Belgium, in the frame of a collaboration between the EC Joint Research Centres IRMM and ITU and French laboratories from CNRS and CEA. Raw material coming from the Atalante facility of CEA Marcoule has been transformed into suitable AmO 2 samples embedded in Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 matrices. The irradiations for the 241 Am(n, 2n) 240 Am reaction cross section measurement were carried out at the 7 MV Van de Graaff accelerator using the activation technique with quasi mono-energetic neutrons from 8 to 21 MeV produced via the D(d, n) 3 He and the T(d, n) 4 He reactions. The cross section was determined relative to the 27 Al(n, α) 24 Na standard cross section and was investigated for the first time above 15 MeV. The induced activity was measured off-line by standard γ-ray spectrometry using a high purity Ge detector. A special effort was made for the estimation of the uncertainties and the correlations between our experimental points. A different sample of the same isotope 241 Am has been measured in transmission and capture experiments in the resolved resonance region at the neutron ToF facility GELINA. The transmission measurement was performed in two campaigns, with an upgrade of the whole data acquisition system in between, followed by an investigation of its new performances. A preliminary analysis of the resonance parameters tends to confirm the recent evaluation to a higher value for the cross section at the bottom of the first resonances. A new design of C 6 D 6 detectors for capture measurements has been studied, but the data reduction and analysis of the measurement are not part of this work. (author) [fr

  15. Novel Crossing System for the Recanalization of Complex Chronic Total Occlusions: Ex vivo Proof of Concept of the SoundBite Crossing System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérubé, Simon; Benko, Andrew; Despatis, Marc-Antoine; Riel, Louis-Philippe; Brodmann, Marianne; Therasse, Eric; Brouillette, Martin; Mustapha, Jihad A; Généreux, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Chronic total occlusion (CTO) lesions are frequent in patients with peripheral and coronary artery disease, and associated with a higher risk of adverse events, including mortality, decreased quality of life, and increased health-care costs. Percutaneous intervention of CTO lesions has been associated with a lower procedural success rate, and current dedicated CTO devices may be of limited use for the non-CTO expert, and associated with increased intraprocedural complication rates. The SoundBite Crossing System (SoundBite Medical Solutions, Inc) is a newly developed device using shockwaves (short-duration, high-amplitude pressure pulses) to facilitate penetration of the proximal cap and crossing of the occlusion. The current report describes the first use of the SoundBite Crossing System in the recanalization of human ex vivo occluded arteries below the knee during a simulated procedure performed under fluoroscopy. Microcomputed tomography and histologic evaluation of the occluded and recanalized segment are provided to support therapeutic mechanism.

  16. First results of total and partial cross-section measurements of the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Scholz, Philipp; Spieker, Mark; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The γ process is assumed to play an important role in the nucleosynthesis of the majority of the p nuclei. Since the network of the γ process includes so many different reactions and - mainly unstable - nuclei, cross-section values are predominantly calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The values heavily depend on the nuclear-physics input parameters. The results of total and partial cross-section measurements are used to improve the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. In order to extend the experimental database, the 107Ag(p,γ)108Cd reaction was studied via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency HPGe γ-ray spectrometer HORUS at the University of Cologne. Proton beams with energies between 3.5 MeV and 5.0 MeV were provided by the 10 MV FN-Tandem accelerator leading to the determination of four new total cross-section values. After slight adjustments of the nuclear level density and γ-ray strength function an excellent agreement between theoretical calculations and experimentally deduced values for both total and partial cross sections has been obtained.

  17. Measurements of ionization cross-section for electron energy-loss microanalysis under well defined scattering conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, K.M.; Echer, C.J.

    1991-04-01

    Partial cross-sections required for electron energy-loss microanalysis have been measured for a series of high purity single crystal standards. For each sample four different scattering geometries were used. The experimental data were compared with theoretical calculations using both standard hydrogenic model and parametrized Hartree-Slater cross-sections. Best agreement between theory and experiment were observed for experiments performed in diffraction mode (image coupling) with the probe convergence angle (0. 84 mrad) much smaller than the spectrometer collection angle (6.84 mrad). In addition, specimen thicknesses from the region of microanalysis were measured by convergent beam electron diffraction. Absolute cross-section based on these measurements are also currently being determined. 10 refs., 2 figs

  18. Total projectile electron loss cross sections of U^{28+} ions in collisions with gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Weber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Beam lifetimes of stored U^{28+} ions with kinetic energies of 30 and 50  MeV/u, respectively, were measured in the experimental storage ring of the GSI accelerator facility. By using the internal gas target station of the experimental storage ring, it was possible to obtain total projectile electron loss cross sections for collisions with several gaseous targets ranging from hydrogen to krypton from the beam lifetime data. The resulting experimental cross sections are compared to predictions by two theoretical approaches, namely the CTMC method and a combination of the DEPOSIT code and the RICODE program.

  19. Measurement of the total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons at small Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.; Deuter, A.; Genzel, H.; Lackas, W.; Pielorz, J.; Raupach, F.; Wagner, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Cartwright, S.L.; Dainton, J.B.; King, B.T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Thomson, J.C.; Achterberg, O.; Blobel, V.; Burkart, D.; Diehlmann, K.; Feindt, M.; Kapitza, H.; Koppitz, B.; Krueger, M.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Staa, R. van; Almeida, F.; Baecker, A.; Barreiro, F.; Brandt, S.; Derikum, K.; Grupen, C.; Meyer, H.J.; Mueller, H.; Neumann, B.; Rost, M.; Stupperich, K.; Zech, G.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Junge, H.; Kraski, K.; Maxeiner, C.; Maxeiner, H.; Meyer, H.; Schmidt, D.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Ferrarotto, F.; Franke, G.; Gaspero, M.; Gerke, C.; Knies, G.; Lewendel, B.; Meyer, J.; Michelsen, U.; Pape, K.H.; Stella, B.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zachara, M.; Zimmermann, W.

    1984-09-01

    The total photon-photon cross section for the production of hadrons, sigmasub(γγ)(W,Q 2 ), has been measured in the single tag condition for 0.1 2 2 and 1.5 2 dependence of sigmasub(γγ) averaged over W can be described by GVDM. The dependence of sigmasub(γγ) on the mass W of the hadronic final state has been extracted at Q 2 =0.44 GeV 2 by unfolding the effects of experimental resolution and acceptance. The cross section is found to rise at small W. The result is compared with VDM and the parton model. (orig.)

  20. Total scattering cross sections and interatomic potentials for neutral hydrogen and helium on some noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruzic, D.N.; Cohen, S.A.

    1985-04-01

    Measurements of energy-dependent scattering cross sections for 30 to 1800 eV D incident on He, Ne, Ar, and Kr, and for 40 to 850 eV He incident on He, Ar, and Kr are presented. They are determined by using the charge-exchange efflux from the Princeton Large Torus tokamak as a source of D or He. These neutrals are passed through a gas-filled scattering cell and detected by a time-of-flight spectrometer. The cross section for scattering greater than the effective angle of the apparatus (approx. =20 mrad) is found by measuring the energy-dependent attenuation of D or He as a function of pressure in the scattering cell. The interatomic potential is extracted from the data

  1. A 0.18 micrometer CMOS Thermopile Readout ASIC Immune to 50 MRAD Total Ionizing Dose (SI) and Single Event Latchup to 174MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilligan, Gerard T.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook; DuMonthier, Jeffery J.; Katz, Richard B.; Kleyner, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques allow commercial CMOS circuits to operate in high total ionizing dose and particle fluence environments. Our radiation hard multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC (Figure 1) is a versatile analog system on a chip (SoC) fabricated in 180nm CMOS. It provides 18 chopper stabilized amplifier channels, a 16- bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The MCD was evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center and Texas A&M University's radiation effects facilities and found to be immune to single event latchup (SEL) and total ionizing dose (TID) at 174 MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg and 50 Mrad (Si) respectively.

  2. Total cross-sections for reactions of high energy particles (including elastic, topological, inclusive and exclusive reactions). Subvol. b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopper, H.; Moorhead, W.G.; Morrison, D.R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this report is to present a compilation of cross-sections (i.e. reaction rates) of elementary particles at high energy. The data are presented in the form of tables, plots and some fits, which should be easy for the reader to use and may enable him to estimate cross-sections for presently unmeasured energies. We have analyzed all the data published in the major Journals and Reviews for momenta of the incoming particles larger than ≅ 50 MeV/c, since the early days of elementary particle physics and, for each reaction, we have selected the best cross-section data available. We have restricted our attention to integrated cross-sections, such as total cross-sections, exclusive and inclusive cross-sections etc., at various incident beam energies. We have disregarded data affected by geometrical and/or kinematical cuts which would make them not directly comparable to other data at different energies. Also, in the case of exclusive reactions, we have left out data where not all of the particles in the final state were unambiguously identified. This work contains reactions induced by neutrinos, gammas, charged pions, kaons, nucleons, antinucleons and hyperons. (orig./HSI)

  3. Assessment of total and soluble fluoride content in commercial dentifrices in Davangere: A cross sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    D J Veeresh; Umesh Wadgave

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The major reason for decline in dental caries across globe is because of widespread use of fluoride dentifrices. For a fluoride dentifrice to be effective in the control of dental caries, an adequate concentration of the fluoride must be soluble. Objective: To assess soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere. Materials and Methods: The soluble fluoride and total fluoride content in six selected commercial dentifrices in Davangere...

  4. Increased ionization rate in laser enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janes, G.S.; Pike, G.T.

    1977-01-01

    A system employing multiple, upper excitation levels in a technique for isotopically selective ionization to improve the ionization efficiency is described. Laser radiation is employed to excite particles with isotopic selectivity. Excitation is produced to a plurality of excited states below the ionization level with the result of increasing the number of available excited particles for ionization and thereby increasing the ionization cross section for improved system efficiency

  5. Measurement of total and differential cross sections of neutrino and antineutrino coherent π± production on carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislivec, A.; Higuera, A.; Aliaga, L.; Bellantoni, L.; Bercellie, A.; Betancourt, M.; Bodek, A.; Bravar, A.; Budd, H.; Caceres v., G. F. R.; Cai, T.; Martinez Caicedo, D. A.; Carneiro, M. F.; Chavarria, E.; da Motta, H.; Dytman, S. A.; Díaz, G. A.; Felix, J.; Fields, L.; Fine, R.; Gago, A. M.; Galindo, R.; Gallagher, H.; Ghosh, A.; Gran, R.; Harris, D. A.; Hurtado, K.; Jena, D.; Kleykamp, J.; Kordosky, M.; Le, T.; Maher, E.; Manly, S.; Mann, W. A.; Marshall, C. M.; McFarland, K. S.; Messerly, B.; Miller, J.; Morfín, J. G.; Mousseau, J.; Naples, D.; Nelson, J. K.; Nguyen, C.; Norrick, A.; Nuruzzaman, Paolone, V.; Perdue, G. N.; Ramírez, M. A.; Ransome, R. D.; Ray, H.; Ren, L.; Rimal, D.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Ruterbories, D.; Schellman, H.; Solano Salinas, C. J.; Sultana, M.; Sánchez Falero, S.; Tagg, N.; Valencia, E.; Wospakrik, M.; Yaeggy, B.; Zavala, G.; MinerνA Collaboration

    2018-02-01

    Neutrino induced coherent charged pion production on nuclei, ν¯ μA →μ±π∓A , is a rare inelastic interaction in which the four-momentum squared transferred to the nucleus is nearly zero, leaving it intact. We identify such events in the scintillator of MINERvA by reconstructing |t | from the final state pion and muon momenta and by removing events with evidence of energetic nuclear recoil or production of other final state particles. We measure the total neutrino and antineutrino cross sections as a function of neutrino energy between 2 and 20 GeV and measure flux integrated differential cross sections as a function of Q2 , Eπ, and θπ . The Q2 dependence and equality of the neutrino and antineutrino cross sections at finite Q2 provide a confirmation of Adler's partial conservation of axial current hypothesis.

  6. Determination of the total $c\\overline{c}$ production cross section in 340 GeV/c $\\Sigma^{-}$ - nucleus interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Adamovich, M.I.; Barberis, D.; Beck, M.; Berat, C.; Beusch, W.; Boss, M.; Brons, S.; Bruckner, W.; Buenerd, M.; Busch, C.; Buscher, C.; Charignon, F.; Chauvin, J.; Chudakov, E.A.; Dersch, U.; Dropmann, F.; Engelfried, J.; Faller, F.; Fournier, A.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Godbersen, M.; Grafstrom, P.; Haller, T.; Heidrich, M.; Hubbard, E.; Hurst, R.B.; Konigsmann, Kay; Konorov, I.; Keller, N.; Martens, K.; Martin, P.; Masciocchi, S.; Michaels, R.; Muller, U.; Neeb, H.; Newbold, D.; Newsom, C.; Paul, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Potashnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Ransome, R.; Ren, Z.; Rey-Campagnolle, M.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, L.; Rudolph, H.; Scheel, C.; Schmitt, L.; Siebert, H.W.; Simon, A.; Smith, V.J.; Thilmann, O.; Trombini, A.; Vesin, E.; Volkemer, B.; Vorwalter, K.; Walcher, T.; Walder, G.; Werding, R.; Wittmann, E.; Zavertyaev, M.V.

    2000-01-01

    The production of charmed particles by Sigma- of 340 Gev/c momentum was studied in the hyperon beam experiment WA89 at the CERN-SPS, using the Omega-spectrometer. In two data-taking periods in 1993 and 1994 an integrated luminosity of 1600 microb^-1 on copper and carbon targets was recorded. From the reconstruction of 930 +- 90 charm particle decays in 10 decay channels production cross sections for D, antiD, Ds and Lambdac were determined in the region xF>0. Assuming an A^1 dependence of the cross section on the nucleon number, we calculate a total ccbar production cross section of sigma(x_F > 0) = 5.3+- 0.4(stat)+-1.0(syst)+1.0(Xi_c) microb per nucleon. The last term is an upper limit on the unknown contribution from charmed-strange baryon production.

  7. Neutron total cross section measurements in the energy region from 47 keV to 20 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenitz, W.P.; Whalen, J.F.

    1983-05-01

    Neutron total cross sections were measured for 26 elements. Data were obtained in the energy range from 47 keV to 20 MeV for 11 elements in the range of light-mass fission products. Previously reported measurements for eight heavy and actinide isotopes were extended to 20 MeV. Data were also obtained for Cu (47 keV to 1.4 MeV) and for Sc, Zn, Nd, Hf, and Pt (1.8 to 20 MeV). The present work is part of a continuing effort to provide accurate neutron total cross sections for evaluations and for optical-model parameteriztions. The latter are required for the derivation of other nuclear-data information of importance to applied programs. 37 references

  8. A procedure for automatic updating of total cross section libraries of the Mercure IV code for nuclear safeguard applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicini, C.; Amici, S.

    1991-01-01

    The measuring utilization of Montecarlo codes for the simulation of the measurement techniques used in the field of Nuclear Safeguards and the high performances required (error<1%), needs the implementation of libraries with updated nuclear data. MERCURE IV is a computer code especially developed for the non destructive measurement techniques simulation. In addition to an analysis of the MERCURE IV code features, this work presents an algorithm developed for generating the library of the total gamma cross section used by the code

  9. A comparative study of total electron scattering cross sections of plasma processing gasses at intermediate electron energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palihawadana, Prasanga; Villela, Gilberto; Ariyasinghe, Wickramasinghe

    2008-11-01

    A comparison is made between the total electron cross sections (TCS) of Tetrafluoromethane (CF4), Trifluoromethane (CHF3), Hexafluoroethane (C2F6), and Octafluorocyclobutane (C4F8) available in the literature and those recently measured in this laboratory using the linear transmission technique. The present measurements are about 0-20% higher than those in the literature. An empirical formula developed to predict the TCS of plasma processing gases, as a function of incident electron energy, will be presented.

  10. Total photoabsorption cross sections for 1H, 2H and 3He from 200 to 800 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Cormick, M.; Audit, G.; Altieri, S.; Braghieri, A.; Pavia Univ.; Ahrens, J.; Beck, R.; Annand, J.R.M.; Crawford, R.A.; Dolbilkin, B.; Zabrodin, A.

    1996-01-01

    The total photoabsorption cross sections for 1 H, 2 H and 3 He have been measured for incident photon energies ranging from 200 to 800 MeV. The results show clearly the changes in the nucleon resonances in going from 1 H to 3 He. In particular, for the D 13 region the behaviour for 3 He is intermediate between that for 1 H, 2 H and heavier nuclei. (author)

  11. Measurement of the ratio of total and differential cross sections on neutrons and protons for charged-current neutrino events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenise, N.; Calicchio, M.; Erriquez, O.; Fogli-Muciaccia, M. T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Romano, F.; Belusevic, R.; Colley, D. C.; Jones, G. T.; O'Neale, S.; Sewell, S. J.; Votruba, M. F.; Bertrand, D.; Moreels, J.; Sacton, J.; Vander Velde-Wilquet, C.; Van Doninck, W.; Wilquet, G.; Brisson, V.; Francois, T.; Petiau, P.; Cooper, A. M.; Guy, J. G.; Michette, A. G.; Tyndel, M.; Venus, W.; Alitti, J.; Baton, J. P.; Gerbier, G.; Iori, M.; Kochowski, C.; Neveu, M.; Azemoon, T.; Bartley, J. H.; Bullock, F. W.; Davis, D. H.; Jones, T. W.; Parker, M. A.; BEBC TST Neutrino Collaboration

    1981-06-01

    Charged-current neutrino interactions have been analysed in a sample of pictures from BEBC equipped with a TST. Using a method independent of both the neutrino flux and nuclear interaction corrections, the ratio R= σn/ σp has been measured. The result is R=1.98±0.19 for the ratio of total cross sections. Bjorken x distributions for proton and neutron targets and for u and d quarks are compared.

  12. Total cross section measurement of muon neutrinos on isoscalar target. Exact determination of the electroweak mixing parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, R.

    1987-09-01

    The work presented in this thesis is concerned with high energy muon-neutrino nucleon interactions. The experiment was performed at CERN in 1984 using the CHARM marble target-calorimeter exposed to the 160 GeV narrow band beam. The experimental analysis is based on an event-by-event classification of neutral currents (NC) and charged currents (CC) interactions and on precise measurements of neutrinos and antineutrinos fluxes. This leads to precise measurements of CC total cross-sections of neutrinos and antineutrinos between 10 and 160 GeV and of NC to CC ratios of total cross-sections of events with hadron energy greater than 4 GeV: R n eutrino and R a ntineutrino. From the measurements of R n eutrino and of the ratio of CC total cross-sections of antineutrinos and neutrinos, we obtain a high precision value of the electroweak mixing angle. Comparison of this result with those obtained in proton-antiproton collisions make it possible to derive a measurement of electroweak radiative corrections and a precise determination of ρ [fr

  13. Ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, J.

    1989-01-01

    Ionizing radiation results in biological damage that differs from other hazardous substances and is highly dangerous to man. Ionizing radiation cannot be perceived by man's sense organs and the biological damage cannot be detected immediately afterwards (except in very high doses). Every human being is exposed to low doses of radiation. The structure of the atom; sources of ionizing radiation; radiation units; biological effects; norms for radiation protection; and the national control in South Africa are discussed. 1 fig., 5 refs

  14. Neutron total cross section calculation within the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Xiao Xiao; Klinkby, Esben Bryndt

    2017-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron scattering cross sections is the gauge for the realistic outcome of a neutron transport simulation. To improve the traditional harmonic physics model used in such simulations, we revisit the slow neutron transport theory in crystalline materials and aim to develop a unified...... model that has good performance for neutron transport problems in crystals in a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA) correlates phonon evolution explicitly with unit cell volume. Therefore, it is capable of evaluating a variety of material properties at finite...... temperatures. In this work, we show numerically that it is a very effective tool for our application as well. Within the framework of QHA, we calculate the temperature dependent characteristics of phonons in three elemental crystals, namely Be, Mg and Al. Based on the obtained results, our calculated neutron...

  15. Prediction of Maize Single Cross Hybrids Using the Total Effects of Associated Markers Approach Assessed by Cross-Validation and Regional Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Mateus Costa Melo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to predict the performance of maize hybrids and assess whether the total effects of associated markers (TEAM method can correctly predict hybrids using cross-validation and regional trials. The training was performed in 7 locations of Southern Brazil during the 2010/11 harvest. The regional assays were conducted in 6 different South Brazilian locations during the 2011/12 harvest. In the training trial, 51 lines from different backgrounds were used to create 58 single cross hybrids. Seventy-nine microsatellite markers were used to genotype these 51 lines. In the cross-validation method the predictive accuracy ranged from 0.10 to 0.96, depending on the sample size. Furthermore, the accuracy was 0.30 when the values of hybrids that were not used in the training population (119 were predicted for the regional assays. Regarding selective loss, the TEAM method correctly predicted 50% of the hybrids selected in the regional assays. There was also loss in only 33% of cases; that is, only 33% of the materials predicted to be good in training trial were considered to be bad in regional assays. Our results show that the predictive validation of different crop conditions is possible, and the cross-validation results strikingly represented the field performance.

  16. Examination of total cross section resonance structure of niobium and silicon in neutron transmission experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianova, Olga; Lomakov, Gleb; Manturov, Gennady

    2017-09-01

    The neutron transmission experiments are one of the main sources of information about the neutron cross section resonance structure and effect in the self-shielding. Such kind of data for niobium and silicon nuclides in energy range 7 keV to 3 MeV can be obtained from low-resolution transmission measurements performed earlier in Russia (with samples of 0.027 to 0.871 atom/barn for niobium and 0.076 to 1.803 atom/barn for silicon). A significant calculation-to-experiment discrepancy in energy range 100 to 600 keV and 300 to 800 keV for niobium and silicon, respectively, obtained using the evaluated nuclear data library ROSFOND, were found. The EVPAR code was used for estimation the average resonance parameters in energy range 7 to 600 keV for niobium. For silicon a stochastic optimization method was used to modify the resolved resonance parameters in energy range 300 to 800 keV. The improved ROSFOND evaluated nuclear data files were tested in calculation of ICSBEP integral benchmark experiments.

  17. High-energy pp¯ and pp forward elastic scattering and total cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, M. M.; Cahn, R. N.

    1985-04-01

    The present status of elastic pp and pp¯ scattering in the high-energy domain is reviewed, with emphasis on the forward and near-forward regions. The experimental techniques for measuring σtot, ρ, and B are discussed, emphasizing the importance of the region in which the nuclear and Coulomb scattering interfere. The impact-parameter representation is exploited to give simple didactic demonstrations of important rigorous theorems based on analyticity, and to illuminate the significance of the slope parameter B and the curvature parameter C. Models of elastic scattering are discussed, and a criterion for the onset of "asymptopia" is given. A critique of dispersion relations is presented. Simple analytic functions are used to fit simultaneously the real and imaginary parts of forward scattering amplitudes for both pp and pp¯, obtained from experimental data for σtot and ρ. It is found that a good fit can be obtained using only five parameters (with a cross section rising as ln2s), over the energy range 5∞ are examined critically. The nuclear slope parameters B are also fitted in a model-independent fashion. Examination of the fits reveals a new regularity of the pp¯ and the pp systems. Predictions of all of the elastic scattering parameters are made at ultrahigh energies, and are compared to the available SPS collider measurements.

  18. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, Tim M.; Mcmaster, Tom J.

    1992-01-01

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  19. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Tim M.; McMaster, Tom J.

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  20. Data Analysis of Minima Total Cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 on JENDL-3.2Nuclear Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Pandiangan, Tumpal; Ferhat-Aziz

    2000-01-01

    The integral tests of neutron cross-section for shielding material suchas nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file have been performed. Analysis ofthe calculation for nitrogen-14 was based on the MAEKER's ORNL-BroomstickExperiment at ORNL-USA. For the data comparison, the calculation analysiswith JENDL-3.1 file, ENDF/B-IV file, ENDF/B-VI file and JEF2.2 have also beencarried out. The overall calculation results by using JENDL-3.2 evaluationshowed good agreement with the experimental data, as well as those with theENDF/B-VI evaluation. In particular, the JENDL-3.2 evaluation gave betterresults than JENDL-3.1 evaluation and ENDF/B-IV. It was been concluded thatthe total cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file is invery good agreement with the experimental results, although the totalcross-section in the energy range between 0.5 MeV and 0.9 MeV on fileJENDL-3.2 was small (about 4% lower), and minima of total cross-sections wasdeeper. (author)

  1. Electron double differential cross sections for ionization of O2 under fast C6+ ion impact and interference oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, A. N.; Tachino, C. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Martín, F.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2013-09-01

    The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) have been obtained for electron emission from oxygen molecules under the impact of bare carbon ions. The DDCS values are measured between an energy range of a few eV to 600 eV and over an angular range of 30-150°. These are then compared with the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) calculations. The DDCS values for O2 are divided by that of atomic oxygen (calculated theoretically) to look for any oscillatory behaviour arising from Young-type interference. In addition, the DDCS ratios are further divided by a fitted straight line to extract any primary interference oscillation. Although a negative result has been obtained, these observations are in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the CDW-EIS model used.

  2. Electron double differential cross sections for ionization of O2 under fast C6+ ion impact and interference oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, Saikat; Agnihotri, A N; Tribedi, Lokesh C; Tachino, C A; Rivarola, R D; Martín, F

    2013-01-01

    The absolute double differential cross sections (DDCS) have been obtained for electron emission from oxygen molecules under the impact of bare carbon ions. The DDCS values are measured between an energy range of a few eV to 600 eV and over an angular range of 30–150°. These are then compared with the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) calculations. The DDCS values for O 2 are divided by that of atomic oxygen (calculated theoretically) to look for any oscillatory behaviour arising from Young-type interference. In addition, the DDCS ratios are further divided by a fitted straight line to extract any primary interference oscillation. Although a negative result has been obtained, these observations are in qualitative agreement with the prediction of the CDW-EIS model used. (paper)

  3. Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Sahu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to estimate the transcendental logarithmic production function and further study the determinants of total factor productivity (TFP of Indian manufacturing industries. The estimation of TFP is based on four inputs model, where apart from labour and capital, material and energy are the other two inputs. The findings of the paper suggest that labour and material inputs play major role as compared to the capital and energy input. Age of the firm, ownership, energy intensity, embodied and disembodied technology imports, research and development and exports were considered as the possible determinants of the TFP in the second stage regression. The finding of the estimates suggest that age of the firm, export intensity and disembodied technology import are positively related to the TFP, where ownership, energy intensity, embodied technology import and R&D intensity are negatively related to the TFP of the firms for Indian manufacturing.

  4. A cross-country analysis of total factor productivity using micro-level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Şeker

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Total factor productivity (TFP is a crucial measure of efficiency and thus an important tool for policymakers. However, research on comparison of TFP performances using micro-level data across developing countries has been limited due to the unavailability of homogenous data sources. This study aims to fill this crucial gap by using a data set which has been collected through a large body of surveys conducted across 69 developing countries following the same methodology. The homogenous nature of the data and the diverse set of questions included in the surveys provide unique opportunity to compare average productivity performances of firms across a large set of characteristics and business environment factors. The analysis performed here provides the groundwork for testing various stylized facts about TFP and its related factors such as exporting, innovation, access to finance, foreign ownership, and regulations across developing countries.

  5. Electron capture and ionization in collisions of multiply charged ions with H(2s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Guzman, F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J

    2007-01-01

    We present total cross sections for electron capture and ionization in collisions of B 5+ and Ne 10+ with H(2s), calculated using two methods: the semiclassical close-coupling molecular formalism and the eikonal-CTMC method. We have evaluated partial cross sections for capture into excited n-levels, required in plasma diagnostics

  6. Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, Afzal

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of Excitation and Ionization of Atoms and Molecules by Electron Impact, by Afzal Chaudhry and Hans Kleinpoppen, describes in detail the measurements of the partial and total doubly differential cross sections for the multiple-ionization of rare gas atoms by electron impact. These measurements show, among other trends, the role of Auger transitions in the production of multiply ionized atoms in the region where the incident electron energy is sufficient to produce inner shell ionization. Other processes like Coster-Kronig transitions and shake off also contribute towards increasing the charge of the ions. As discussed in the book, an incident electron having energy of 6 keV, for example, in a collision with xenon atom can remove up to nine electrons! The measurements of doubly differential cross sections for the dissociative and non-dissociative ionization of hydrogen, sulfur dioxide and sulfur hexa fluoride molecular gases are also explored. The results of the measurements for the sulfur dioxide mole...

  7. The K + - Nucleus Microscopic Optical Potential and Calculations of the Corresponding Differential Elastic and Total Reaction Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Lukyanov, K.V.; Lukyanov, V.K.; Hanna, K.M.

    2009-01-01

    The microscopic optical potential (OP) is calculated for the K+-meson scattering on the 12 C and 40 Ca nuclei at intermediate energies. This potential has no free parameters and based on the known kaon-nucleon amplitude and nuclear density distribution functions. Then, the Klein-Gordon equation is written in the form of the relativistic Schrodinger equation where terms quadratic in the potential was estimated can be neglected. The latter equations adapted to the considered task and solved numerically. The effect of revitalization is shown to play a significant role. A good agreement with the experimental data on differential elastic cross sections is obtained. However, to explain the data on total reaction cross sections the additional surface term of OP was introduced to account for influence of the peripheral nuclear reaction channels

  8. Xenon poisoning method for the determination of the average thermal neutron flux, macroscopic fission and total absorption cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durmayaz, A.; Sisman, A.; Cetin Sisman, F.; Yavuz, H.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents the xenon poisoning method as an experimental way to determine the average thermal neutron flux (anti φ), the average macroscopic fission cross section (anti Σ f ) and the average total macroscopic absorption cross section (anti Σ a ) together with the reactivity change due to the 135 Xe poisoning. The predictions for the reactivity change due to the 135 Xe poisoning are in good agreement with the results of the experiments. The results of anti φ, anti Σ f and anti Σ a obtained by using the xenon poisoning method are also in satisfactorily agreement with the predictions of TRIGAP and WIMS-D/4 computer codes. The temperature coefficients of the reactivity for the fuel and tank water have also been determined experimentally during this study. (orig.) [de

  9. Measurement of total and partial photon proton cross sections at 180 GeV center of mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-03-01

    Photon proton cross sections for elastic light vector meson production, σ el γp , inelastic diffractive production, σ d γp , non-diffractive procution, σ nd γp , as well as the total cross section, σ γp tot , have been measured at an average γp center of mass energy of 180 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The resulting values are σ el γp =18±7 μb, σ d γp =33±8 μb, σ nd γp =91±11 μb, and σ γp tot =143±17 μb, where the errors include statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature. (orig.)

  10. Total cross-sections assessment of neutron reaction with stainless steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto

    2002-01-01

    The integral testing of neutron cross-sections for Stainless Steel SUS-310 contained in various nuclear data files have been performed. The shielding benchmark calculations for Stainless Steel SUS-310 has been analysed through ORNL-Broomstick Experiment calculation which performed by MAERKER, R.E. at ORNL - USA ( 1) . Assessment with JENDL-3.1, JENDL-3.2, ENDF/B-IV, ENDF/B-VI nuclear data files and data from GEEL have also been carried out. The overall calculation results SUS-310 show in a good agreement with the experimental data, although, underestimate results appear below 3 MeV for all nuclear data files. These underestimation tendencies clearly caused by presented of iron nuclide which more than half in Stainless Steel compound. The total neutron cross-sections of iron nuclide contained in various nuclear data files relatively lower on that energy ranges

  11. Measurement of Elastic Scattering and of Total Cross-Section at the CERN $\\bar{p}p$ Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the experiment is to measure elastic scattering and the total cross-section at the $\\bar{p}p$ collider. \\\\ \\\\ Up to 1983 the experimental apparatus was composed of two parts : \\item 1) Telescopes of high accuracy drift and proportional chambers and counters inserted into vertically moveable sections of the vacuum chamber ('Roman pots'), detect elastic scattering in the angular region from .5 mrad up to about 3 mrad. \\item 2) The total inelastic rate is measured with a forward/backward system of drift chambers and counter hodoscopes and the UA2 central detector covering together @= 4@p solid angle. \\end{enumerate}\\\\ \\\\ With these two set-ups, the measured value of the total cross-section confirms extrapolation with (ln s)|2 behaviour. Elastic scattering and diffraction dissociation were measured in the range .03~$<$~-t~$<$~1.6~GeV|2. \\\\ \\\\ From 1984 on, six horizontally moveable ``Roman Pots'' have been installed farther away from the intersection region (up to 100~m). Using an especially desi...

  12. Measurement of the ratio of neutrino total cross sections on hydrogen and deuterium in the Brookhaven 7-ft. bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazzoli, E.G.; Cnops, A.M.; Connolly, P.L.; Louttit, R.I.; Murtagh, M.J.; Palmer, R.B.; Samios, N.P.; Tso, T.T.; Williams, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    Charged current neutrino interactions obtained in hydrogen and deuterium as a function of charged track multiplicity are presented. The ratio of neutrino fluxes in the two exposures is obtained from the two samples of the reaction ν p → μ - π + . The ratio of total charged current cross sections on hydrogen and deuterium is thus obtained and presented as a function of neutrino energy. The result obtained for neutrino energies above 2 GeV is: sigma (H 2 )/ sigma (D 2 ) = 0.40 +- 0.10. (U.S.)

  13. Measurement of the antiproton-proton total cross section at √s =546 and 1800 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, F.; Albrow, M.; Amidei, D.; Anway-Wiese, C.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Auchincloss, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Baden, A.R.; Badgett, W.; Bailey, M.W.; Bamberger, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Bauer, G.; Baumann, T.; Bedeschi, F.; Behrends, S.; Belforte, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Benlloch, J.; Bensinger, J.; Beretvas, A.; Berge, J.P.; Bertolucci, S.; Biery, K.; Bhadra, S.; Binkley, M.; Bisello, D.; Blair, R.; Blocker, C.; Bodek, A.; Bolognesi, V.; Booth, A.W.; Boswell, C.; Brandenburg, G.; Brown, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Budd, H.S.; Busetto, G.; Byon-Wagner, A.; Byrum, K.L.; Campagnari, C.; Campbell, M.; Caner, A.; Carey, R.; Carithers, W.; Carlsmith, D.; Carroll, J.T.; Cashmore, R.; Castro, A.; Cen, Y.; Cervelli, F.; Chadwick, K.; Chapman, J.; Chapin, T.J.; Chiarelli, G.; Chinowsky, W.; Cihangir, S.; Clark, A.G.; Cobal, M.; Connor, D.; Contreras, M.; Cooper, J.; Cordelli, M.; Crane, D.; Cunningham, J.D.; Day, C.; DeJongh, F.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Dell'Orso, M.; Demortier, L.; Denby, B.; Derwent, P.F.; Devlin, T.; Dickson, M.; Drucker, R.B.; Dunn, A.; Einsweiler, K.; Elias, J.E.; Ely, R.; Eno, S.; Errede, S.; Etchegoyen, A.; Farhat, B.; Frautschi, M.; Feldman, G.J.; Flaugher, B.; Foster, G.W.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.; Fuess, T.; Fukui, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gauthier, A.; Geer, S.; Gerdes, D.W.; Giannetti, P.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Gladney, L.; Gold, M.; Gonzalez, J.; Goulianos, K.; Grassmann, H.; Grieco, G.M.; Grindley, R.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Grunhaus, J.; Haber, C.; Hahn, S.R.; Handler, R.; Hara, K.; Harral, B.; Harris, R.M.; Hauger, S.A.; Hauser, J.; Hawk, C.; Hessing, T.; Hollebeek, R.; Holloway, L.; Hoelscher, A.; Hong, S.; Houk, G.; Hu, P.; Hubbard, B.; Huffman, B.T.; Hughes, R.; Hurst, P.; Huth, J.; Hylen, J.; Incagli, M.; Ino, T.; Iso, H.; Jessop, C.P.; Johnson, R.P.; Joshi, U.; Kadel, R.W.; Kamon, T.; Kanda, S.; Kardelis, D.A.; Karliner, I.; Kearns, E.; Keeble, L.

    1994-01-01

    We report a measurement of the proton-antiproton total cross section σ T at c.m.s. energies √s =546 and 1800 GeV. Using the luminosity-independent method, we find σ T =61.26±0.93 mb at √s =546 GeV and 80.03±2.24 mb at √s =1800 GeV. In this energy range, the ratio σ el /σ T increases from 0.210±0.002 to 0.246±0.004

  14. Total nuclear photoabsorption cross section in the range 0.2 - 1.0 GeV for nuclei throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terranova, M.L.; Tavares, O.A.P.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the total photoabsorption cross section for nuclei ranging from 4 He up to 238 U has been performed in the energy range 0.2-1.0 GeV. Mean total photoabsorption cross sections have been obtained by summing up the contributions from partial photo reactions, and found to follow an A l -dependence in the 0.2-1.0 GeV range. A review of the available total photoabsorption cross section data is also presented. Comparisons have been made with cross section values calculated by considering both the quasi-deuteron and π-meson photoproduction mechanism of primary nuclear photo interaction. (author)

  15. Measurement of the proton total reaction cross section for 159Tb, 181Ta and 197Au between 20 and 48 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abegg, R.; Birchall, J.; Davison, N.E.; Jong, M.S. de; Ginther, D.L.; Hasell, D.K.; Nasr, T.N.; Oers, W.T.H. van; Carlson, R.F.; Cox, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Proton total reaction cross sections have been measured for the nuclei 159 Tb, 181 Ta and 197 Au at seven proton energies between 20 and 48 MeV using an attenuation technique. The experimentally determined energy dependence of the total reaction cross sections is compared with results obtained for black nucleus and optical model calulations. (Auth.)

  16. Imaging Mass Spectrometry by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization and Stress-Strain Measurements in Iontophoresis Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Vinciguerra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare biomechanical effect, riboflavin penetration and distribution in transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking with iontophoresis (I-CXL, with standard cross linking (S-CXL and current transepithelial protocol (TE-CXL. Materials and Methods. The study was divided into two different sections, considering, respectively, rabbit and human cadaver corneas. In both sections corneas were divided according to imbibition protocols and irradiation power. Imaging mass spectrometry by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-IMS and stress-strain measurements were used. Forty-eight rabbit and twelve human cadaver corneas were evaluated. Results. MALDI-IMS showed a deep riboflavin penetration throughout the corneal layers with I-CXL, with a roughly lower concentration in the deepest layers when compared to S-CXL, whereas with TE-CXL penetration was considerably less. In rabbits, there was a significant increase (by 71.9% and P=0.05 in corneal rigidity after I-CXL, when compared to controls. In humans, corneal rigidity increase was not significantly different among the subgroups. Conclusions. In rabbits, I-CXL induced a significant increase in corneal stiffness as well as better riboflavin penetration when compared to controls and TE-CXL but not to S-CXL. Stress-strain in human corneas did not show significant differences among techniques, possibly because of the small sample size of groups. In conclusion, I-CXL could be a valid alternative to S-CXL for riboflavin delivery in CXL, preserving the epithelium.

  17. Ionizing Radiation Processing Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Kamarudin Hashim; Jamaliah Sharif; Ratnam, C.T.; Keong, C.C.

    2017-01-01

    This book completely brief on the basic concept and theory of ionizing radiation in polymers material processing. Besides of that the basic concept of polymerization addition, cross-linking and radiation degradation also highlighted in this informative book. All of the information is from scientific writing based on comprehensive scientific research in polymerization industry which using the radiation ionizing. It is very useful to other researcher whose study in Nuclear Sciencea and Science of Chemical and Material to use this book as a guideline for them in future scientific esearch.

  18. Measurement of cross section and angular distribution for sup 6 sup 4 Ze(n, alpha) sup 6 sup 1 Ni by using gridded ionization chamber of Kr(CH sub 4) gas

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan Jing; Tang Guo You; Chen Jin Xiang; Zhang Guo Hui; Gledenov, Yu M; Sedysheva, M V

    2002-01-01

    By using a gridded ionization chamber, the angular distribution and total cross section for sup 6 sup 4 Zn(n, alpha) sup 6 sup 1 Ni reaction were measured at 5.0, 5, 7 and 6.5 MeV, and included sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li measurement. The neutrons were produced through D(d, n) sup 3 He reaction, working gas was Kr + 4.71% CH sub 4. Because using Kr + 4.71% CH sub 4 as working gas, there is no interference from sup 1 sup 6 O(n, alpha), the authors got two dimensions events spectrums of the many excited states groups of sup 6 sup 4 Zr(n, alpha) sup 6 sup 1 Ni and high excited state of sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li clearly at first in the world, the result of measurement show that the distribution of sup 6 sup 4 Zn(n, alpha) sup 6 sup 1 Ni was nearly 90 degree symmetric at 5.7 MeV, and obviously backward peaked in the center of mass reference system

  19. Cellular determinants of the inverse cross sensitivity of mouse lymphoma L5178Y cell lines to ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszewski, M.

    1999-01-01

    The pair of L5178Y sublines (LY-R and LY-S) is exceptional among mammalian cell lines because of their unique inverse cross-sensitivity to ionizing radiation and hydrogen peroxide. The high sensitivity of LY-S cells to ionizing radiation is reasonably explained by the impairment of DNA double strand breaks rejoining. Although the enzymatic defect of LY-S cells is not yet identified, the more pronounced effect of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibitor (OK-1035) on DNA damage repair after 8 Gy x-irradiation in LY-R cells than in LY-S cells, suggests that LY-S cells may be defective in DNA-PK activity or in the other enzymatic activities downstream from DNA-PK. An additional feature is a higher protection of DNA against ionizing radiation by nuclear proteins in LY-R cells. These data support the concept that nuclear matrix organization may contribute to the cellular susceptibility to DNA damaging agents. Ionizing radiation-sensitive LY-S cells suffer also more DNA base damage than ionizing radiation-resistant LY-R cells. However, the repair rates of the γ-ray-induced DNA base damage in LY sublines are related neither to the initial amounts of the damaged bases nor to the lethal or mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation. In contrast, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) sensitive LY-R cells suffer more DNA base damage after H 2 O 2 treatment. This may be due to the lower activity of catalase and/or the lower level of glutathione and other monobromobimane-reactive thiols in LY-R cells than in LY-S cells. However, the main cause of LY-R cells' sensitivity to H 2 O 2 seems to be a higher iron ion content in these cells as compared to LY-S cells. A higher content of iron ions and a higher iron:copper ratio is found in isolated nuclei of LY-R cells than in those of LY-S cells. This is further confirmed by a higher ''labile iron'' pool in LY-R cells than in LY-S cells. Further evidence of different ions content in LY cells and its influence on nuclear matrix organization

  20. Ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boag, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although a variety of solid-state and chemical methods for measuring radiation dose have been developed in recent decades and calorimetry can now provide an absolute standard of reference, ionization dosimetry retains its position as the most widely used, most convenient, and, in most situations, most accurate method of measuring either exposure or absorbed dose. The ionization chamber itself is the central element in this system of dosimetry. In this chapter the principles governing the construction and operation of ionization chambers of various types are examined. Since the ionization chambers now in general use are nearly all of commercial manufacture, the emphasis is on operating characteristics and interpretation of measurements rather than on details of construction, although some knowledge of the latter is often required when applying necessary corrections to the measured quantities. Examples are given of the construction of typical chambers designed for particular purposes, and the methods of calibrating them are discussed

  1. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  2. WE-E-BRE-11: New Method to Simulate DNA Damage Using Ionization Cross-Sections and a Geometrical Nucleosome Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pater, P; Seuntjens, J; El Naqa, I

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain probability distributions of various DNA damage types as a function of the incident electron kinetic energy. Methods: Using Geant4-DNA electron ionization cross-sections, we calculated path length distributions for electrons of energies between 10 eV and 1 MeV, defined as the length between two subsequent interactions. These path lengths were then convolved with probability distributions for the creation of same-strand damage, opposite-strand damage, clustered damage, isolated damage, and same DNA strand target damage. These probability distributions of DNA damage were obtained by a Monte Carlo routine calculating probabilities of interaction in DNA targets inside a nucleosome geometrical model. Results represent the probability of a secondary electron, initially created inside a DNA strand target, of undergoing its next interaction: (1) in the opposite strand (DSB), (2) in the same strand (SSB+), (3) in either the opposite or same-strand (clustered), (4) in the same DNA target (multiple-hit) or (5) more than 10 base pairs away (isolated). Results: Electrons with kinetic energy between 50 and 250 eV have a maximal probability of creating DSB, SSB+, clustered damage and multiple-hits in the same target The probabilities for these damage patterns have values of 2.5%, 4.3%, 6.7% and 5.4%, respectively. Isolated damage is most probable between 700 eV to 900 eV with a probability of 0.2%. Conclusion: We obtained DNA damage probability distributions as a function of electron incident energy. We showed that electrons with kinetic energies between 50 and 250 eV have the highest probability of producing complex forms of DNA damage (DSB, SSB+). We also showed that a double ionization within the same DNA target is the most frequent outcome occurring 5% of the time. It is expected that electron slowing down spectra can be convolved with our formalism to calculate source specific DNA damage patterns. Research grants from governments of Canada and Quebec. PP

  3. Correction of Thick Foil Errors in Prompt Neutron (CALIFORNIUM-252 Nu), Fission Cross Section (sigma(f)) and Other Ionization Chamber Fission Data Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohensedgh, Farhad

    This research resolves two problems that have long been of important concern in experimental fission physics: (1) determination of pulse height distribution response of ionization chambers in fission fragment detection measurements, and (2) correction of "thick-foil effect" systematic errors in standard values of the fundamental parameters of fission physics--the average number of prompt neutrons per fission (=nu), absolute fission activity and true fission rate of samples (TFR), and isotopic fission cross sections (sigma _{f}). Results are obtained by a comprehensive digital simulation of the electrostatics and pulse height distribution response of the parallel-plate, ungridded, electron-pulse ionization fission chamber together with prompt neutron -fragment multiplicity and angular distribution correlations, neutron-fragment coincidence detection and related variations in the 4pi^here around the chamber for a wide range of the relevant factors--foil thickness, alpha particle interference bias level, fission detector configuration characteristics, fissile isotopes (^{252}Cf, ^{235}U, etc.) and other experimental parameters. Isotope-specific double-energy (E_1,E_2) natural variations in fragment spectrum, in fragment-specific range-energy (dE/dx) relations and in prompt neutron-fragment multiplicity (nu) and nuclear temperature dependent angular distribution correlations are simulated in detail. Detailed results are obtained for double-energy, fragment-specific count loss fractions resulting from in -foil fragment absorption and from alpha -interference discrimination as well as for chamber detection efficiency, fragment spectrum distortion and prompt neutron -fragment coincidence detection distribution variations. Decay alpha pulse pileup statistics are discussed, and the behavior of and factors affecting the fragment pulse height distribution tail are analyzed in detail. Fragment pairs and prompt neutrons issued from them are tracked in the 4pi^ace around the

  4. Ionisation cross sections of rare-gas atoms by electron impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, E.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1988-01-01

    A pulsed electron beam and ion extraction method is used to measure normalized values of partial ionization cross sections for rare gases from threshold to 1000 eV. Cross sections obtained for singly ionized species are used to calibrate the mass transmission efficiency of the ion extraction/analyzer/detection system by the relative flow technique, and this mass transmission curve is then used to determine the absolute cross sections of the multiply ionized species. Total ion cross sections are found by summation of the individual partial cross sections with proper weighting for charge.

  5. Kinematic analysis of the shoulder complex after anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roren, Alexandra; Nguyen, Christelle; Palazzo, Clémence; Fayad, Fouad; Revel, Michel; Gregory, Thomas; Poiraudeau, Serge; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2017-06-01

    The movement of the arm relative to the trunk results from coordinated 3D glenohumeral and scapulothoracic movements. Changes in scapula kinematics may occur after total shoulder arthroplasty and could affect clinical and functional outcomes. To assess the 3D movement of the scapula during arm elevation after anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This was a single-centre, non-randomized, controlled cross-sectional study. Patients with anatomic (n = 14) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (n = 9) were prospectively enrolled and were compared to age-matched asymptomatic controls (n = 23). 3D scapular kinematics were assessed by a non-invasive, electromagnetic method during arm abduction and flexion. 3D scapular rotations and 3D linear displacements of the barycentre (geometrical centre) at rest and at 30°, 60° and 90° arm elevation; as well as scapulohumeral rhythm were analysed. Participant groups were compared using one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc testing for normally distributed data, and Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed data. Total range of scapular lateral rotation and barycentre displacement were increased, and scapulohumeral rhythm was reduced, in patients with anatomic and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty compared with age-matched controls; however, the global scapular kinematic pattern was preserved. For patients after total shoulder arthroplasty, the increased contribution of the scapula to arm elevation is consistent with a compensatory mechanism for the reduced glenohumeral mobility. The stability of the global scapula kinematic pattern reflects its mechanical and neuromotor strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ionization and excitation of some atomic targets and metal oxides by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have calculated total inelastic and total ionization cross-sections for collisions of electrons on atomic targets oxygen (O), aluminium (Al) and copper (Cu) and metal oxides AlO and Al2O, at impact energies from near excitation threshold to 2000 eV. A complex (optical) energy-dependent interaction potential is used to ...

  7. Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene in Total Hip and Knee Replacement: Spatial Distribution of Molecular Orientation and Shape Recovery Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Takahashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated effects of processing procedures on morphology of highly cross-linked and re-melted UHMWPE (XLPE in total hip and knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA. The shape recovery behavior was also monitored via uniaxial compression test at room temperature after non-destructive characterizations of the in-depth microstructure by confocal/polarized Raman spectroscopy. The goal of this study was to relate the manufacturing-induced morphology to the in vivo micromechanical performance, and ultimately to explore an optimal structure in each alternative joint bearing. It was clearly confirmed that the investigated XLPE hip and knee implants, which were produced from different orthopaedic grade resins (GUR 1050 and GUR 1020, consisted of two structural regions in the as-received states: the near-surface transitional anisotropic layer (≈100 μm thickness and the bulk isotropic structural region. These XLPEs exhibited a different crystalline anisotropy and molecular texture within the near-surface layers. In addition, the knee insert showed a slightly higher efficiency of shape recovery against the applied strain over the hip liner owing to a markedly higher percentage of the bulk amorphous phase with intermolecular cross-linking. The quantitative data presented in this study might contribute to construct manufacturing strategies for further rationalized structures as alternative bearings in THA and TKA.

  8. Measurement of the total and differential b cross sections at HERA and CMS tracker alignment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Stefaniuk, Nazar; Gallo, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is logically divided into two main parts. The first part present a ZEUS analysis which was performed on the data obtained from electron-proton collisions measured by the ZEUS detector for the 2003-2007 running period. The full HERA-II integrated luminosity of 376 $pb^{−1}$ is used. The ZEUS detector is sensitive to the full phase space of beauty production, since it has cylindrical geometry, covers a wide rapidity range and was able to measure low transverse momentum muons. In this part a measurement of beauty production was studied via the process $ep \\rightarrow {e}'b \\bar{b} \\rightarrow {e}'\\mu \\mu X$. Making full use of the HERA-II detector upgrade, $bX$ secondary vertex information was used to constrain the beauty and charm contribution to this process. The result of this analysis is the measurement of the total, visible and differential cross sections for beauty production. The cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Similar to the beauty events, instanton ...

  9. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This booklet is concerned with radiation safety of radiologist and other hospital personnel. Part 1 deals with properties of radiation in general (especially of ionizing radiation). In part 2, different applications of radiation in hospitals are discussed. Part 3 indicates what to do to make improvements to not totally safe situations in hospitals. (Auth./G.J.P.)

  10. Ionization effects in electronic inner-shells of ionized atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchornak, G.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the atomic physics of ionization atoms has been presented. Interaction and structure effects in atomic shells, correlated to the occurrence of vacancies in several subshells of the atom have been considered. The methods of calculations of atomic states and wave functions have been reviewed. The energy shift of characteristic X-rays is discussed as a function of the ionization stage of the atom. The influence of inner and outer-shell vacancies on the energy of the X-rays is shown in detail. The influence of chemical effects on the parameters of X-rays is also taken into account. Further on, the change of transition probabilities in radiative and non-radiative transitions by changing stage of ionization is discussed; and among them the leading part of Auger and Coster-Kronig transitions by the arearrangement of the atomic states is shown. The influence of non-radiative electronic transitions on ionization cross-sections for multiple ionization is discussed. Using these results, ionization cross-sections for direct and indirect processes for several ionization stages are given

  11. Measurements of the proton total reaction cross section for 24Mg, 646668Zn and 140Ce between 17.5 and 48 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, N.E.; Hasell, D.K.; Sourkes, A.M.; Oers, W.T.H. van

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections have been made for the deformed nuclei 24 Mg, 64 66 68 Zn and 140 Ce in the energy range 17.5 to 48 MeV using an attenuation technique. The cross sections are compared with various theoretical predictions and with existing data. (Auth.)

  12. Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections for 6Li,7Li,14N,20Ne and 40Ar between 23 and 49 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Cox, A.J.; Nasr, T.N.; De Jong, M.S.; Ginther, D.I.; Hasell, D.K.; Sourkes, A.M.; Van Oers, W.T.H.; Margaziotis, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of proton total reaction cross sections for 6 Li, 7 Li, 14 N, 20 Ne and 40 Ar have been made in the energy range 23 to 49 MeV, using a variation of a standard attenuation technique. The measured cross sections are compared with optical-model and nuclear-transparency calculations. (orig.)

  13. K -shell-ionization cross sections for low- Z elements (11 le Z le 22) by protons in the energy range 0. 5--2. 5 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C.; Tandon, P.N. (Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Bombay 400 005 (India))

    1992-06-01

    {ital K}-shell-ionization cross sections for Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Ti by protons in the energy range 0.5--2.5 MeV have been measured using thin targets. Measurements have also been performed for thin targets of Fe, Ni, and Cu at a few energies. The energy range of protons for these targets corresponds to the reduced velocity ({ital v}{sub 1}/{ital v}{sub 2{ital K}}) range 0.2--1.1, in which the cross sections are very sensitive to the increased binding energy and the Coulomb-deflection effects. The measured ionization cross sections are compared with the predictions of the theory based on the perturbed-stationary-state approach including the Coulomb-deflection, energy-loss, and relativistic corrections. The data have been scaled according to various scaling laws to test the validity of the universal nature of the various Coulomb ionization theories based on the plane-wave Born approximation, the binary-encounter approximation, and the simplified semiclassical approximation model as given by L{ae}gsgaard, Andersen, and Lund (in {ital Proceedings} {ital of} {ital the} {ital Tenth} {ital International} {ital Conference} {ital on} {ital the} {ital Physics} {ital of} {ital Electronic} {ital and} {ital Atomic} {ital Collisions}, edited by G. Watel (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1978), p. 353). The measured data have also been compared with the calculations of Montenegro and Siguad (J. Phys. B 18, 299 (1985)) based on the theory of 1{ital s}{sigma} molecular-orbital ionization.

  14. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  15. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong; Hwang, Young Jung; Chung, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB

  16. Determination of the total neutron cross section for natural hafnium on the filtered neutron beam with 2 keV energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unshielded value of the total neutron cross section of the natHf at the neutron 2 keV energy was obtained. The MCNP 4С code and measurement results obtained with using six samples for thicknesses from 0.00236 to 0.01257 nucl/b were used for determination of the unshielded value of the natHf cross section. Obtained value of the total neutron cross section of the natHf was compared with the data of other authors and with data from the evaluated nuclear data libraries.

  17. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeri, Luca; Capogrosso, Paolo; Ventimiglia, Eugenio; Cazzaniga, Walter; Pederzoli, Filippo; Moretti, Donatella; Dehò, Federico; Montanari, Emanuele; Montorsi, Francesco; Salonia, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Although erectile dysfunction (ED) has been associated with low circulating total testosterone (TT) levels, the utility of free testosterone (FT) over TT is debatable. To assess the relative impact of low TT and low calculated FT (cFT) on androgen-related sexual symptoms in men with ED. Data from 485 men were analyzed. Comorbidities were scored with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). Patients completed the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and the Beck Inventory for Depression (BDI). Descriptive statistics tested differences between patients with normal TT levels (>3 ng/mL) and normal cFT levels (>65 pg/mL; group 1) and men with normal TT and low cFT (group 2), low TT and normal cFT (group 3), and low TT and low cFT (group 4). Linear regression models tested the association between clinical predictors and sexual function impairment. We assessed the impact of different hormonal categories on androgen-related symptoms and the clinical utility of measuring cFT in men with ED. Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were composed of 338 (69.6%), 44 (9.1%), 34 (7.0%), and 69 (14.3%) patients, respectively. Compared with group 1, patients in group 2 were older (P testosterone deficiency, even when concomitant with low TT or low cFT irrespective of TT values, it was indicative of poorer clinical profiles and impaired sexual and depressive parameters compared with normal TT and normal cFT in a cohort of patients with ED. Boeri L, Capogrosso P, Ventimiglia E, et al. Does Calculated Free Testosterone Overcome Total Testosterone in Protecting From Sexual Symptom Impairment? Findings of a Cross-Sectional Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:1549-1557. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Calculation of Ionization Rate Coefficients of Heliumoide Iron | Dilmi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We use a simple numerical method to generate the ionization rates starting from the cross sections. These last are obtained by code FAC (Flexible Atomic Code). Our computation results will be compared with those published. Keywords: Atomic data, radiative collisional Models, Ionization rate, cross Sections of ionization.

  19. Measurement of the total and differential b cross sections at HERA and CMS tracker alignment at LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniuk, Nazar

    2017-09-01

    This thesis is logically divided into two main parts. The first part present a ZEUS analysis which was performed on the data obtained from electron-proton collisions measured by the ZEUS detector for the 2003-2007 running period. The full HERA-II integrated luminosity of 376 pb -1 is used. The ZEUS detector is sensitive to the full phase space of beauty production, since it has cylindrical geometry, covers a wide rapidity range and was able to measure low transverse momentum muons. In this part a measurement of beauty production was studied via the process ep→e ' b anti bX→e ' μμX. Making full use of the HERA-II detector upgrade, secondary vertex information was used to constrain the beauty and charm contribution to this process. The result of this analysis is the measurement of the total, visible and differential cross sections for beauty production. The cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Similar to the beauty events, instanton or instanton-induced events involving heavy flavour can also be a source for non-isolated, both like- and unlike-sign muon pairs. In this analysis, instantons were studied with using QCDINS predictions. The data show no indication for instanton-induced events. The second part is related to CMS tracker alignment. It uses collision and cosmic data samples obtained by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. This part consists of studies of the CMS tracker alignment weak modes and a detailed study of the ''z-rescaling'' weak mode. The CMS tracker alignment weak mode study includes the simulation of the weak modes, and the alignment implementation on top of such simulation. This study shows that the alignment procedure of the CMS tracker is stable with regard to the three weak modes: ''Twist, Sagitta and Telescope'' which stand for three types of systematic shifts of the CMS tracker. The ''z-rescaling'' weak mode shows a

  20. Measurement of the total and differential b cross sections at HERA and CMS tracker alignment at LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefaniuk, Nazar

    2017-09-15

    This thesis is logically divided into two main parts. The first part present a ZEUS analysis which was performed on the data obtained from electron-proton collisions measured by the ZEUS detector for the 2003-2007 running period. The full HERA-II integrated luminosity of 376 pb{sup -1} is used. The ZEUS detector is sensitive to the full phase space of beauty production, since it has cylindrical geometry, covers a wide rapidity range and was able to measure low transverse momentum muons. In this part a measurement of beauty production was studied via the process ep→e{sup '}b anti bX→e{sup '}μμX. Making full use of the HERA-II detector upgrade, secondary vertex information was used to constrain the beauty and charm contribution to this process. The result of this analysis is the measurement of the total, visible and differential cross sections for beauty production. The cross sections are compared to next-to-leading order QCD calculations. Similar to the beauty events, instanton or instanton-induced events involving heavy flavour can also be a source for non-isolated, both like- and unlike-sign muon pairs. In this analysis, instantons were studied with using QCDINS predictions. The data show no indication for instanton-induced events. The second part is related to CMS tracker alignment. It uses collision and cosmic data samples obtained by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2012. This part consists of studies of the CMS tracker alignment weak modes and a detailed study of the ''z-rescaling'' weak mode. The CMS tracker alignment weak mode study includes the simulation of the weak modes, and the alignment implementation on top of such simulation. This study shows that the alignment procedure of the CMS tracker is stable with regard to the three weak modes: ''Twist, Sagitta and Telescope'' which stand for three types of systematic shifts of the CMS tracker. The ''z-rescaling'' weak

  1. Studying flow close to an interface by total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy: Quantitative data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, R.; Yordanov, S.; Butt, H. J.; Koynov, K.; Dünweg, B.

    2011-12-01

    Total internal reflection fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (TIR-FCCS) has recently [S. Yordanov , Optics ExpressOPEXFF1094-408710.1364/OE.17.021149 17, 21149 (2009)] been established as an experimental method to probe hydrodynamic flows near surfaces, on length scales of tens of nanometers. Its main advantage is that fluorescence occurs only for tracer particles close to the surface, thus resulting in high sensitivity. However, the measured correlation functions provide only rather indirect information about the flow parameters of interest, such as the shear rate and the slip length. In the present paper, we show how to combine detailed and fairly realistic theoretical modeling of the phenomena by Brownian dynamics simulations with accurate measurements of the correlation functions, in order to establish a quantitative method to retrieve the flow properties from the experiments. First, Brownian dynamics is used to sample highly accurate correlation functions for a fixed set of model parameters. Second, these parameters are varied systematically by means of an importance-sampling Monte Carlo procedure in order to fit the experiments. This provides the optimum parameter values together with their statistical error bars. The approach is well suited for massively parallel computers, which allows us to do the data analysis within moderate computing times. The method is applied to flow near a hydrophilic surface, where the slip length is observed to be smaller than 10nm, and, within the limitations of the experiments and the model, indistinguishable from zero.

  2. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  3. Charge transfer and ionization involving argon ions and neutral hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J

    2006-01-01

    We present classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations of total and partial cross sections for capture and ionization in Ar 18+ , Ar 17+ , Ar 16+ +H(1s) collisions in the 30-300 keV amu -1 impact energy range. We specially focus on capture into high-lying states of the projectile, which are of paramount importance for diagnostics of fusion plasmas involving Ar q+ seeding. (letter to the editor)

  4. An atomic model for neutral and singly ionized uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maceda, E. L.; Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    A model for the atomic levels above ground state in neutral, U(0), and singly ionized, U(+), uranium is described based on identified atomic transitions. Some 168 states in U(0) and 95 in U(+) are found. A total of 1581 atomic transitions are used to complete this process. Also discussed are the atomic inverse lifetimes and line widths for the radiative transitions as well as the electron collisional cross sections.

  5. Double-differential cross section for ionization of H2O molecules by 4-MeV/u C6 + and Si13 + ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shamik; Biswas, S.; Monti, J. M.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2017-11-01

    Double-differential cross section (DDCS) for electrons ejected in collisions of fast C6 + and Si13 + projectiles, with a H2O vapor target, were measured. The electrons were detected over an energy range of 1-600 eV and an angular range of 20∘-160∘. The obtained DDCS spectra, for both the ions, were compared with the CDW-EIS model. Occasional reference has been made to the DDCS data for the case of 3.75-MeV/u O8 + colliding on the same molecule for an overall comparison. A reasonable agreement with theoretical results was seen for the case of C6 + and O8 + projectiles. However, between C6 + and O8 + projectiles, the deviation from theory is larger for the case of the carbon projectile. Substantial deviation starts to show up for the case of the Si13 + projectile. By numerical integration of the DDCS data, the single-differential cross section (SDCS) and total cross section (TCS) were obtained and compared with theoretical models. The present TCS data along with the other available data for p , He , and C ions were plotted together. A clear and gradual deviation from the Bethe-Born predicted q2 scaling was observed, where q is the projectile charge state. From all the data we find TCS varies as qn where n = 1.7 ± 0.1. The provided data set will be valuable in order to help model the radiation damage in hadron therapy, particularly in the Bragg peak region.

  6. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Mi-Young, E-mail: mysong@nfri.re.kr; Yoon, Jung-Sik [Plasma Technology Research Center, National Fusion Research Institute, 814-2 Osikdo-dong, Gunsan, Jeollabuk-do 573-540 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyuck [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Itikawa, Yukikazu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Karwasz, Grzegorz P. [Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Informatics, University Nicolaus Copernicus, Grudziadzka 5, 87100 Toruń (Poland); Kokoouline, Viatcheslav [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Nakamura, Yoshiharu [6-1-5-201 Miyazaki, Miyamae, Kawasaki 216-0033 (Japan); Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  7. Proton induced K-shell ionization cross sections for a wide range of elements (4 ≤ Z ≤ 92 within ECPSSR theory and updated experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Deghfel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the individual treatment of the elements from beryllium (4Be to uranium (92U, the experimental databases are normalized to their corresponding values of the ECPSSR model to deduce the semi-empirical cross sections. These databases rely on the different compilations available in the literature and on the other data extracted from papers published from 1953 till 2010. In the present paper, a fourth order polynomial was used to fit very well the existing normalized database of K-shell ionization cross sections by proton. These procedures generate a new set of parameters for the sake of the quick calculation of the semi-empirical cross sections. A comparison is made between the deduced results and those obtained by using the ECPSSR model where a remarkable discrepancy is observed at low-proton velocity regime especially for the lightest elements.

  8. First measurement of the total proton-proton cross section at the LHC energy of √s =7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bozzo, M.; Brogi, P.; Brücken, E.; Buzzo, A.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Catanesi, M.G.; Covault, C.; Csörgõ, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, M.R.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajícek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Magaletti, L.; Mercadante, A.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Sanguinetti, G.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vítek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2011-01-01

    TOTEM has measured the differential cross-section for elastic proton-proton scattering at the LHC energy of √s = 7TeV analyzing data from a short run with dedicated large Beta∗ optics. A single exponential fit with B = 20.1GeV**−2 (all errors are given in the text) describes the lowest range of the squared four-momentum transfer |t| from 0.02 to 0.3GeV**2. After the extrapolation to |t| = 0, a total elastic scattering cross-section of 24.8mb was obtained. Applying the Optical Theorem and using the luminosity measurement from CMS, a total proton-proton cross-section of 98.3mb was deduced which is in good agreement with the expectation from the overall fit of previously measured data over a large range of energies. From the total and elastic pp cross-section measurements, an inelastic pp cross-section of (73:5{\\pm}0:6stat +1:8 -1:3 syst) mb was inferred. PACS 13.60.Hb: Total and inclusive cross sections

  9. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Fray, Nicolas; Gaie-Levrel, François; Mahjoub, Ahmed; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Schwell, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Photoionization of cyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the non-dissociative ionization excitation range 11–15.6 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyanoacetylene was measured as 11.573 ± 0.010 eV. A detailed analysis of photoelectron spectra of HC 3 N involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the A 2 Σ + and B 2 Π states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 11.94 to 15.5 eV region of the total ion yield (TIY) spectrum were assigned to two Rydberg series converging to the B 2 Π state of HC 3 N + . A number of the measured TIY features are suggested to be vibrational components of Rydberg series converging to the C 2 Σ + state of HC 3 N + at ≈17.6 eV and others to valence shell transitions of cyanoacetylene in the 11.6–15 eV region. The results of quantum chemical calculations of the cation electronic state geometries, vibrational frequencies and energies, as well as of the C–H dissociation potential energy profiles of the ground and electronic excited states of the ion, are compared with experimental observations. Ionization quantum yields are evaluated and discussed and the problem of adequate calibration of photoionization cross-sections is raised

  10. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of cyanoacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Fray, Nicolas; Gaie-Levrel, François [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Mahjoub, Ahmed; Bénilan, Yves; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Schwell, Martin [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2014-05-07

    Photoionization of cyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the non-dissociative ionization excitation range 11–15.6 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of cyanoacetylene was measured as 11.573 ± 0.010 eV. A detailed analysis of photoelectron spectra of HC{sub 3}N involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the A{sup 2}Σ{sup +} and B{sup 2}Π states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 11.94 to 15.5 eV region of the total ion yield (TIY) spectrum were assigned to two Rydberg series converging to the B{sup 2}Π state of HC{sub 3}N{sup +}. A number of the measured TIY features are suggested to be vibrational components of Rydberg series converging to the C{sup 2}Σ{sup +} state of HC{sub 3}N{sup +} at ≈17.6 eV and others to valence shell transitions of cyanoacetylene in the 11.6–15 eV region. The results of quantum chemical calculations of the cation electronic state geometries, vibrational frequencies and energies, as well as of the C–H dissociation potential energy profiles of the ground and electronic excited states of the ion, are compared with experimental observations. Ionization quantum yields are evaluated and discussed and the problem of adequate calibration of photoionization cross-sections is raised.

  11. Indirect contributions to electron-impact ionization of Li+ (1 s 2 s S31 ) ions: Role of intermediate double-K -vacancy states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, A.; Borovik, A.; Huber, K.; Schippers, S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2018-02-01

    Fine details of the cross section for electron-impact ionization of metastable two-electron Li+(1 s 2 s S31) ions are scrutinized by both experiment and theory. Beyond direct knockoff ionization, indirect ionization mechanisms proceeding via formation of intermediate double-K-vacancy (hollow) states either in a Li+ ion or in a neutral lithium atom and subsequent emission of one or two electrons, respectively, can contribute to the net production of Li2 + ions. The partial cross sections for such contributions are less than 4% of the total single-ionization cross section. The characteristic steps, resonances, and interference phenomena in the indirect ionization contribution are measured with an experimental energy spread of less than 0.9 eV and with a statistical relative uncertainty of the order of 1.7%, requiring a level of statistical uncertainty in the total single-ionization cross section of better than 0.05%. The measurements are accompanied by convergent-close-coupling calculations performed on a fine energy grid. Theory and experiment are in remarkable agreement concerning the fine details of the ionization cross section. Comparison with previous R-matrix results is less favorable.

  12. Ionization of highly excited atoms by atomic particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, B.M.

    1976-01-01

    The ionization of a highly excited atom by a collision with an atom or molecule is considered. The theory of these processes is presented and compared with experimental data. Cross sections and ionization potential are discussed. 23 refs

  13. Test of universal rise of hadronic total cross sections based on πp, Kp and pp, pp scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there have been several evidences that the hadronic total cross section σ tot is proportional to Blog 2 s, which is consistent with the Froissart unitarity bound. The COMPETE Collaboration has further assumed σ tot ≅Blog 2 (s/s 0 )+Z to extend its universal rise with the common values of B and s 0 for all hadronic scatterings to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. It was suggested that the coefficient B was universal in the arguments of the color glass condensate of QCD in recent years. However, there has been no rigorous proof yet based only on QCD. We attempt to investigate the value of B for π ± p, K ± p and pp, pp scatterings, respectively, through the search for the simultaneous best fit to the experimental σ tot and ρ ratios at high energies. The σ tot at the resonance- and intermediate-energy regions has also been exploited as a duality constraint based on the special form of the finite-energy sum rule. We estimate the values of B, s 0 , and Z individually for π ± p, K ± p and pp, pp scatterings without using the universality hypothesis. It turns out that the values of B are mutually consistent within 1 standard deviation. It has to be stressed that we cannot obtain such a definite conclusion without the duality constraint. It is also interesting to note that the values of Z for πp, Kp, and p(p)p approximately satisfy the ratio 2 ratio 2 ratio 3 predicted by the quark model. The obtained value of B for p(p)p is B pp =0.280±0.015 mb, which predicts σ tot pp =108.0±1.9 mb and ρ pp =0.131±0.0025 at the LHC energy √(s)=14 TeV.

  14. Sitting and standing performance in a total population of children with cerebral palsy: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodby-Bousquet Elisabet

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge of sitting and standing performance in a total population of children with cerebral palsy (CP is of interest for health care planning and for prediction of future ability in the individual child. In 1994, a register and a health care programme for children with CP in southern Sweden was initiated. In the programme information on how the child usually sits, stands, stands up and sits down, together with use of support or assistive devices, is recorded annually. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed, analysing the most recent report of all children with CP born 1990-2005 and living in southern Sweden during 2008. All 562 children (326 boys, 236 girls aged 3-18 years were included in the study. The degree of independence, use of support or assistive devices to sit, stand, stand up and sit down was analysed in relation to the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS, CP subtype and age. Result A majority of the children used standard chairs (57%, could stand independently (62% and could stand up (62% and sit down (63% without external support. Adaptive seating was used by 42%, external support to stand was used by 31%, to stand up by 19%, and to sit down by 18%. The use of adaptive seating and assistive devices increased with GMFCS levels (p Conclusion About 60% of children with CP, aged 3-18, use standard chairs, stand, stand up, and sit down without external support. Adding those using adaptive seating and external support, 99% of the children could sit, 96% could stand and 81% could stand up from a sitting position and 81% could sit down from a standing position. The GMFCS classification system is a good predictor of sitting and standing performance.

  15. Ionization and excitation of some atomic targets and metal oxides by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tering from the three atomic targets chosen presently. Total ionization cross- sections (TICS) in e–O scattering were measured by Thompson et al [5], while John- son et al [2] performed experimental-cum-model studies on the VUV excitation– emission processes. The measured TICS of e–Al system have been due to Freund.

  16. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Feldman, G.J.; Fischer, G.E.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Kadyk, J.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Zipse, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The total cross section for hadron production by e + e - annihilation has been measured at center-of-mass energies between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV. Aside from the very narrow resonances psi (3105) and psi (3695), the cross section varies between 32 and 17 nb over this region with structure in the vicinity of 4.1 GeV

  17. Association of translocator protein total distribution volume with duration of untreated major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Attwells, Sophia; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Rusjan, Pablo M; Miler, Laura; Xu, Cynthia; Sharma, Sarita; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2018-02-26

    People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (V T ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited participants aged 18-75 years from the Toronto area and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, ON, Canada). Participants either had major depressive episodes secondary to major depressive disorder or were healthy, as confirmed with a structured clinical interview and consultation with a study psychiatrist. To be enrolled, participants with major depressive episodes had to score a minimum of 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and had to be medication free or taking a stable dose of medication for at least 4 weeks before PET scanning. Eligible participants were non-smokers; had no history of or concurrent alcohol or substance dependence, neurological illness, autoimmune disorder, or severe medical problems; and were free from acute medical illnesses for the previous 2 weeks before PET scanning. Participants were excluded if they had used brain stimulation treatments within the 6 months before scanning, had used anti-inflammatory drugs lasting at least 1 week within the past month, were taking hormone replacement therapy, had psychotic symptoms, had bipolar disorder (type I or II) or borderline antisocial personality disorder, or were pregnant or breastfeeding. We scanned three primary grey-matter regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula) and 12 additional regions and subregions using 18

  18. Absolute elastic e--He and total electronically e-H2 scattering cross-section measurements from 1-19 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahgerefteh, M.

    1985-01-01

    Absolute e - -He and e - -H 2 total electronically, elastic differential cross-sections have been determined from relative scattered electron angular distribution measurements in the energy range form 2 to 19 eV in e - -He; and 1-19 eV in e - -H 2 by comparison to absolute e - -He cross-section measurements. The s, p, and d phase shifts determined in work are roughly in agreement with various previous determinations. The total and momentum-transfer cross sections for e - -He, and integrated total cross-sections for e - -H 2 have been determined as well. In case of e - -He, the total and momentum transfer cross sections found in this work at 2 and 5 eV are in excellent agreement with the direct measurements of Golden and Bandel and of Crompton et al., respectively. For e - -H 2 , absolute differences as large as 50% between the present results and some previous results have been found, although the agreement as to shape is quite good in many cases. The present results, for e - -H 2 , are generally in excellent agreement with recent full rovibrational laboratory-frame close-coupling calculations

  19. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of dicyanoacetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Sydney; Champion, Norbert; Schwell, Martin; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire; Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gaie-Levrel, François; Guillemin, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Photoionization of dicyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the excitation range 8–25 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and detailed spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of dicyanoacetylene was measured as 11.80 ± 0.01 eV. A detailed analysis of the cation spectroscopy involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the quasi-degenerate A 2 Π g , B 2 Σ g + states as well as the C 2 Σ u + and D 2 Π u states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 12.4–15 eV region of the total ion yield spectrum were assigned to vibrational components of valence shell transitions and to two previously unknown Rydberg series converging to the D 2 Π u state of C 4 N 2 + . The appearance energies of the fragment ions C 4 N + , C 3 N + , C 4 + , C 2 N + , and C 2 + were measured and their heats of formation were determined and compared with existing literature values. Thermochemical calculations of the appearance potentials of these and other weaker ions were used to infer aspects of dissociative ionization pathways

  20. Knee Pain during Strength Training Shortly following Fast-Track Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Thorborg, Kristian; Lunn, Troels Haxholdt; Kehlet, Henrik; Jakobsen, Thomas Linding

    2014-01-01

    Background Loading and contraction failure (muscular exhaustion) are strength training variables known to influence neural activation of the exercising muscle in healthy subjects, which may help reduce neural inhibition of the quadriceps muscle following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). It is unknown how these exercise variables influence knee pain after TKA. Objective To investigate the effect of loading and contraction failure on knee pain during strength training, shortly following TKA. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Consecutive sample of patients from the Copenhagen area, Denmark, receiving a TKA, between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants Seventeen patients, no more than 3 weeks after their TKA. Main outcome measures: In a randomized order, the patients performed 1 set of 4 standardized knee extensions, using relative loads of 8, 14, and 20 repetition maximum (RM), and ended with 1 single set to contraction failure (14 RM load). The individual loadings (kilograms) were determined during a familiarization session >72 hours prior. The patients rated their knee pain during each repetition, using a numerical rating scale (0–10). Results Two patients were lost to follow up. Knee pain increased with increasing load (20 RM: 3.1±2.0 points, 14 RM: 3.5±1.8 points, 8 RM: 4.3±2.5 points, P = 0.006), and repetitions to contraction failure (10% failure: 3.2±1.9 points, 100% failure: 5.4±1.6 points, Pknee pain 60 seconds after the final repetition (2.7±2.4 points) was not different from that recorded before strength training (2.7±1.8 points, P = 0.88). Conclusion Both loading and repetitions performed to contraction failure during knee- extension strength-training, increased post-operative knee pain during strength training implemented shortly following TKA. However, only the increase in pain during repetitions to contraction failure exceeded that defined as clinically relevant, and was very short-lived. Trial Registration Clinical

  1. Electron-impact Ionization Of Li2 And Li+2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgan, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Electron-impact ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} and Li{sup +}{sub 2} are calculated using a configuration-average distorted-wave method. Bound orbitals for the molecule and its ions are calculated using a single configuration self-consistent field method based on a linear combination of Slater-type orbitals. The bound orbitals are transformed onto a two-dimensional lattice ({tau}, {theta}), which is variable in the radial coordinate and constant in the angular coordinate, from which Hartree with local exchange potentials are constructed. The single particle Schrodinger equation is then solved for continuum distorted-waves with S-matrix boundary conditions. Total ionization cross sections for Li{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.0 and for Li{sup +}{sub 2} at an equilibrium internuclear separation of R = 5.9 are presented.

  2. Measurement of Neutrino and Antineutrino Total Charged-Current Cross Sections on Carbon with MINERvA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Lu [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of charged-current inclusive cross sections of muon neutrino and antineutrino interaction on carbon, and antineutrino to neutrino cross section ratio, r, in the energy range 2 - 22 GeV, with data collected in the MINERA experiment. The dataset corresponds to an exposure of 3.2 x 1020 protons on target (POT) for neutrinos and 1.01020 POT for antineutrinos. Measurement of neutrino and antineutrino charged-current inclusive cross sections provides essential constraints for future long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment at a few GeV energy range. Our measured antineutrino cross section has an uncertainty in the range 6.1% - 10.5% and is the most precise measurement below 6 GeV to date. The measured r has an uncertainty of 5.0% - 7.5%. This is the rst measurement below 6 GeV since Gargamelle in 1970s. The cross sections are measured as a function of neutrino energy by dividing the eciency corrected charged-current sample with extracted uxes. Fluxes are obtained using the low- method, which uses low hadronic energy subsamples of charged-current inclusive sample to extract ux. Measured cross sections show good agreement with the prediction of neutrino interaction models above 7 GeV, and are about 10% below the model below 7 GeV. The measured r agrees with the GENIE model [1] over the whole energy region. The measured cross sections and r are compared with world data.

  3. Ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    After having recalled some fundamental notions and measurement units related to ionizing radiations, this document describes various aspects of natural and occupational exposures: exposure modes and sources, exposure levels, biological effects, health impacts. Then, it presents prevention principles aimed at, in an occupational context of use of radiation sources (nuclear industry excluded), reducing and managing these exposures: risk assessment, implementation of safety from the front end. Some practical cases illustrate the radiation protection approach. The legal and regulatory framework is presented: general notions, worker exposure, measures specific to some worker categories (pregnant and breast feeding women, young workers, temporary workers). A last part describes what is to be done in case of incident or accident (dissemination of radioactive substances from unsealed sources, anomaly occurring when using a generator or a sealed source, post-accident situation)

  4. Measurement of the photon-proton total cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 209 GeV at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Pellegrino, A.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Crittenden, J.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kerger, R.; Kind, O.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Weber, A.; Wessoleck, H.; Bailey, D.S.; Brook, N.H.; Cole, J.E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H.Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Ma, K.J.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Przybycien, M.B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Bednarek, B.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Mindur, B.; Przybycien, M.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Goettlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hillert, S.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martens, J.; Martinez, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Stonjek, S.; Surrow, B.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, R.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Coldewey, C.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Markun, P.; Raach, H.; Woelfle, S.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; McCance, G.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Bodmann, B.; Holm, U.; Salehi, H.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Carli, T.; Gialas, I.; Klimek, K.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Metlica, F.; Miller, D.B.; Tapper, A.D.; Walker, R.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Kuze, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, S.B.; Park, S.K.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Redondo, I.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Bertolin, A.; Corriveau, F.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; St-Laurent, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korotkova, N.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Solomin, A.N.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Bokel, C.; Engelen, J.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Schagen, S.; Tassi, E.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Kim, C.L.; Ling, T.Y.; Boogert, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Ferrando, J.; Matsushita, T.; Rigby, M.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Adamczyk, L.; Oh, B.Y.; Saull, P.R.B.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Dagan, S.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kohno, T.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hayes, M.E.; Heaphy, E.A.; Jones, T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Lightwood, M.S.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Smalska, B.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zakrzewski, J.A.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L.K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Breitweg, J.; Chapin, D.; Cross, R.; Kcira, D.; Lammers, S.; Reeder, D.D.; Savin, A.A.; Smith, W.H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Straub, P.B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.D.; Fourletov, S.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.

    2002-01-01

    The photon-proton total cross section has been measured in the process e + p→e + γp→e + X with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Events were collected with photon virtuality Q 2 2 and average γp center-of-mass energy W γp =209 GeV in a dedicated run, designed to control systematic effects, with an integrated luminosity of 49 nb -1 . The measured total cross section is σ tot γp =174±1 (stat.)±13 (syst.) μb. The energy dependence of the cross section is compatible with parameterizations of high-energy pp and pp-bar data

  5. Total reaction cross section of silicon induced by 4He in the energy range 3-10 MeV/u

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugryumov, V.Yu.; Kuznetsov, I.V.; Kalpakchieva, R.

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for α-particles on nat Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that σ R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The σ R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions

  6. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Böhm, Jan; Chudoba, Jiří; Havránek, Miroslav; Hejbal, Jiří; Jakoubek, Tomáš; Kepka, Oldřich; Kupčo, Alexander; Kůs, Vlastimil; Lokajíček, Miloš; Lysák, Roman; Marčišovský, Michal; Mikeštíková, Marcela; Němeček, Stanislav; Šícho, Petr; Staroba, Pavel; Svatoš, Michal; Taševský, Marek; Vrba, Václav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 889, Dec (2014), 486-548 ISSN 0550-3213 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13009 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : total cross section * ATLAS * elastic scattering * momentum transfer * optical theorem * CERN LHC Coll * beam optics * slope * star Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.929, year: 2014

  7. Total Reaction Cross Section of Silicon Induced by ^{4}He in the Energy Range 3-10 MeV/u

    CERN Document Server

    Ugryumov, V Yu; Basybekov, K B; Bialkowski, E; Budzanowski, A; Duysebaev, A D; Duysebaev, B A; Zholdybaev, T K; Ismailov, K M; Kadyrzhanov, K K; Kalpakchieva, R; Kugler, A; Kukhtina, I N; Kushniruk, V F; Kuterbekov, K A; Mukhambetzhan, A; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Sadykov, B M; Skwirczynska, I; Sobolev, Yu G

    2003-01-01

    The energy dependence of total reaction cross section for alpha-particles on ^{nat}Si has been directly and accurately measured by the transmission method. These data show that sigma_R has different energy dependence from theoretical predictions at low energies. The sigma_R corrections due to inelastic scattering to the first excited state were made by integrating corresponding angular distributions.

  8. Ionization Mechanism of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, I.-Chung; Lee, Chuping; Lee, Yuan-Tseh; Ni, Chi-Kung

    2015-07-01

    In past studies, mistakes in determining the ionization mechanism in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) were made because an inappropriate ion-to-neutral ratio was used. The ion-to-neutral ratio of the analyte differs substantially from that of the matrix in MALDI. However, these ratios were not carefully distinguished in previous studies. We begin by describing the properties of ion-to-neutral ratios and reviews early experimental measurements. A discussion of the errors committed in previous theoretical studies and a comparison of recent experimental measurements follow. We then describe a thermal proton transfer model and demonstrate how the model appropriately describes ion-to-neutral ratios and the total ion intensity. Arguments raised to challenge thermal ionization are then discussed. We demonstrate how none of the arguments are valid before concluding that thermal proton transfer must play a crucial role in the ionization process of MALDI.

  9. Systematic study of L shell ionization of heavry atoms by protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros Leite Filho, C.V. de.

    1977-01-01

    Cross sections for L-subshell ionization by proton impact have been determined for W, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th and U over the projectile range 0.5-3.5 MeV. The measured X-ray production cross sections of the total L- Shell and of some well resolved lines or groups of lines are consistent with those obtained by different authors in the same regions of bombarding energies and atomic numbers. Ionization cross sections were obtained by using the above results and the experimental values for the relative radiative transition probabilities, fluorescente yelds and Coster-Kronig factors. Relative radiative decay rates were measured with a Si (Li) detection system. A graphical method was employed to analyze the X-ray spectra so obtained. The values of fluorescente and Coster-Kronig yields were taken from previously published experiments performed in this laboratory. The influence of these experimental data on the shape of cross section versus proton energy curves is discussed. Comparisons of the experimentally determined L-subshell ionization cross sections are made wuth calculations in the plane-wave Born approximation, semi-classical aproximation and binary encounter approximation. The large effect of binding-energy trajetory and relativistic corrections on the PWBA calculations, invalidates quantitative conclusions regarding agreement between experimental and theoretical values. Semi-classical arguments are presented, however, to explain some general aspects of the ionization cross section curves. (Author) [pt

  10. High accuracy measurement of the total cross section and of the real part of the scattering amplitude π+p from 2 to 14 GeV/c

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellouch, D.

    1984-11-01

    This thesis presents the results of the experiment PS 157 which has been carried out at the CERN in 1980; the total cross section of π + p for 4000 values of energy was measured with an accuracy of 5%. The density of the measurements allows the exploration of a new region of the plane (width, elasticity) for narrow baryon resonances of which the mass is between 2 and 5,5 GeV/c 2 . The total cross section of K - p has also been measured between 4,6 and 4,9 GeV/c for 80 momentum values; the measurement quality allows to exclude any narrow resonance of which the partial elastic width is below 10 kw/c 2 and to clarify the confused situation of the Δ resonances. The principles of the measurements are first given. The experimental results of the researches of narrow baryon resonances are presented; the main results of baryonium physics are recalled as also the most important theoretical models which are applied to mesobaryons. Then, one deals with the normalization process, the efficiency of the transmission detectors, and the determination of the total cross section. Finally, the total cross sections of π + p and π - p are compared, and one studies the forward elastic differential cross sections, to determinate on one side ''the slope'' of the nuclear differential cross section, and on the other side the real part of the scattering amplitude, by means of the measurement of the interference term between the Coulomb and nuclear amplitudes. 33 refs [fr

  11. Dependence of pre-breakdown time on ionization processes in a pseudospark discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaotong; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Ruixue; Huo, Weijie; Fu, Yulei; Zhao, Wansheng

    2017-11-01

    The formation and development of pseudospark discharge, especially the onset of the breakdown, are of great technological interests in multiple applications due to their influences on the limits of current rising and fast switching performances of the devices. In this work, the development of pseudospark discharge in the pre-discharge and hollow cathode phases in a single-gap device are investigated by a time-dependent model to calculate the temporal development of total ionization cross section in varying times and regions. The simulations in our work are performed using the two-dimensional kinetic plasma simulation code XOOPIC. The time-dependent evolutions of the ionization cross section in pre-discharge and hollow cathode phases are presented under varying electric fields and hollow cathode configurations. Thus the electron multiplications and plasma generation processes by ionizing collisions in varying phases are examined and their dependences on a variety of external parameters are determined in different regions in the pseudospark device. A sequence of physical events and their influences in different regions are also identified via the quantitative analysis of time-dependent ionization cross section. The discharge formation time shows highest dependences on the cathode aperture diameters and anode voltages. Additionally, a linear dependence of the pseudospark breakdown time on the time-averaged ionization cross section is illustrated under varying external parameters. It indicates that the influences of the external parameters on the discharge performances can be determined and estimated via the total and average ionization cross sections under varying external conditions. In this work, both a qualitative understanding of the pseudospark onset mechanism and a quantitative approach to estimate the formation time in a pseudospark device with varying parameters are developed via this model.

  12. Measurement of the Proton-Antiproton Total Cross-Section at Center-of-Mass Energy of 1800-GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, Carlos [Cornell U., LNS

    1997-05-01

    We have made a new measurement of the $P\\overline{P}$ total cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$=1800 GeV, using a luminosity independent method for the analysis. The value obtained is $\\sigma_T = 69.82 \\pm 2.44 mb$. Also we obtained the values of $\\sigma_{el} = 14.93 \\pm 1.03 mb$ and $\\sigma_{in} = 54.88 \\pm 1.43 mb$ for the total elastic and total inelastic cross sections respectively. To perform our measurement we used scintillation counters to detect inelastic events, and 4 scintillating fiber detectors installed inside the Tevatron vacuum to detect elastic events; the elastic detectors were read out with image intensifiers and ccds.

  13. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in pp collisions at s=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aaboud

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A measurement of the total pp cross section at the LHC at s=8 TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of 500 μb−1 was accumulated in a special run with high-β⋆ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable t. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the −t range from 0.014 GeV2 to 0.1 GeV2 to extrapolate t→0, the total cross section, σtot(pp→X, is measured via the optical theorem to beσtot(pp→X=96.07±0.18(stat.±0.85(exp.±0.31(extr.mb, where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation t→0. In addition, the slope of the exponential function describing the elastic cross section at small t is determined to be B=19.74±0.05(stat.±0.23(syst.GeV−2.

  14. Relative total--cross-section measurements for collisions of low-energy electrons (10--25 eV) with N2 and CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, J.P.; Bailey, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    We report the measurements of the relative total cross sections of collisions between electrons and molecular nitrogen and between electrons and carbon monoxide for incident electron energies in the range 10--25 eV. Through the use of a crossed electron--supersonic-molecular-beam configuration and a phase-lock detection technique we obtain direct measurement of features in the relative total cross section that are approximately 10/sup -3/ of the total cross section itself. Our measurements confirm that the e - -N 2 collisions exhibit a number of features that can be consistently interpreted with the grandparent model proposed by Sanche and Schultz [Phys. Rev. A 6, 69 (1972)], and further developed by Brunt, King, and Read [J. Phys. B 11, 173 (1978)]. The e - -CO collisions are also amenable to this interpretation. We find no evidence of a Feshbach resonance at 15.6 eV and suggest that the Feshbach resonances in the e - -CO system arise from only two grandparent states, as they do in the e - -N 2 system

  15. First measurement of elastic, inelastic and total cross-section at sqrt(s)= 13 TeV by TOTEM and overview of cross-section data at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G.; The TOTEM collaboration; Atanassov, I.; Avati, V.; Baechler, J.; Barrera, C.B.; Berardi, V.; Berretti, M.; Bossini, E.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzo, M.; Burkhardt, H.; Cafagna, F.S.; Catanesi, M.G.; Csanád, M.; Csörgő, T.; Deile, M.; De Leonardis, F.; D'Orazio, A.; Doubek, M.; Druzhkin, D.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Georgiev, V.; Giani, S.; Grzanka, L.; Hammerbauer, J.; Heino, J.; Helander, P.; Isidori, T.; Ivanchenko, V.; Janda, M.; Karev, A.; Kašpar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Linhart, R.; Lindsey, C.; Lokajíček, M.V.; Losurdo, L.; Lo Vetere, M.; Lucas Rodríguez, F.; Macrí, M.; Malawski, M.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Naaranoja, T.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Novák, T.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Oriunno, M.; Österberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Passaro, V.; Peroutka, Z.; Procházka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Royon, C.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Scribano, A.; Siroky, J.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Stefanovitch, R.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Tcherniaev, E.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Welti, J.; Williams, J.; Wyszkowski, P.; Zich, J.; Zielinski, K.

    2017-01-01

    The TOTEM collaboration has measured the proton-proton total cross section at sqrt(s) = 13 TeV with a luminosity-independent method. Using dedicated beta ∗ = 90 m beam optics, the Roman Pots were inserted very close to the beam. The inelastic scattering rate has been measured by the T1 and T2 telescopes during the same LHC fill. After applying the optical theorem the total proton-proton cross section is σ-tot = (110.6 ± 3.4) mb, well in agreement with the extrapolation from lower energies. This method also allows one to derive the luminosity-independent elastic and inelastic cross sections: σel = (31.0 ± 1.7) mb and σinel = (79.5 ± 1.8) mb.

  16. Total and partial cross sections of the $^{112}$Sn($\\alpha,\\gamma$)$^{116}$Te reaction measured via in-beam $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Netterdon, L.; Mayer, J.; Scholz, P.; Zilges, A.

    2015-01-01

    An extended database of experimental data is needed to address uncertainties of the nuclear-physics input parameters for Hauser-Feshbach calculations. Especially $\\alpha$+nucleus optical model potentials at low energies are not well known. The in-beam technique with an array of high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was successfully applied to the measurement of absolute cross sections of an ($\\alpha$,$\\gamma$) reaction on a heavy nucleus at sub-Coulomb energies. The total and partial cross-s...

  17. A study of charge independence and symmetry from π+ and π- total cross sections on hydrogen and deuterium near the 3,3 resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Domingo, J.J.; Hirt, W.; Schwaller, P.

    1978-01-01

    The total cross sections for π +- p and π +- d scattering have been measured in the energy range 70-370 MeV in a classical transmission experiment using multiwire proportional chambers. The hydrogen data agree quite well with earlier measurements. After correcting the results for the direct effects of the Coulomb potential, energy differences of a few percent were found between the π + d and π - d cross sections. This charge symmetry violation can be parameterised in terms of mass and width differences between the Δ-isobars in agreement with the predictions of the quark model. (Auth.)

  18. High-precision Measurement of the 238U(n,γ) Cross Section with the Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) at n_TOF, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, T; Billowes, J; Ware, T; Cano-Ott, D; Mendoza, E; Massimi, C; Mingrone, F; Gunsing, F; Berthoumieux, E; Lampoudis, C; Altstadt, S; Andrzejewski, J; Audouin, L; Barbagallo, M; Bécares, V; Bečvář, F; Belloni, F; Boccone, V; Bosnar, D; Brugger, M; Calviani, M; Calviño, F; Carrapiço, C; Cerutti, F; Chiaveri, E; Chin, M; Colonna, N; Cortés, G; Cortés-Giraldo, M A; Diakaki, M; Domingo-Pardo, C; Duran, I; Dressler, R; Dzysiuk, N; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrari, A; Fraval, K; Ganesan, S; García, A R; Gómez-Hornillos, M B; Gonçalves, I F; González-Romero, E; Griesmayer, E; Giubrone, G; Gurusamy, P; Jenkins, D G; Jericha, E; Kadi, Y; Käppeler, F; Karadimos, D; Kivel, N; Koehler, P; Kokkoris, M; Korschinek, G; Krtička, M; Kroll, J; Langer, C; Lederer, C; Leeb, H; Leong, L S; Losito, R; Manousos, A; Marganiec, J; Martínez, T; Mastinu, P F; Mastromarco, M; Meaze, M; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Mirea, M; Mondelaers, W; Paradela, C; Pavlik, A; Perkowski, J; Pignatari, M; Plompen, A; Praena, J; Quesada, J M; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Riego, A; Roman, F; Rubbia, C; Sarmento, R; Schillebeeckx, P; Schmidt, S; Schumann, D; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tarrío, D; Tassan-Got, L; Tsinganis, A; Valenta, S; Vannini, G; Variale, V; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Versaci, R; Vermeulen, M J; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Wallner, A; Weigand, M; Weiß, C; Žugec, P

    2014-01-01

    The neutron capture cross section of U-238 is fundamental to the design and operation of current reactors and future fast nuclear reactors, and thus must be measured to a high level of accuracy. An experiment has been performed at the CERN n TOF facility using a 4 pi Total Absorption Calorimeter (TAC) to measure the capture cross section in the resolved resonance region between 1 eV and 25 keV. A preliminary analysis of the TAC data is presented with particular emphasis to the experimental background in this energy region of interest.

  19. Antiproton-proton total elastic cross sections in the t and u regions (0.69-2.43 GeV/c)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupland, M.; Eisenhandler, E.; Gibson, W.R.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Astbury, A.

    1977-01-01

    Antiproton-proton total elastic cross sections at 21 incident momenta in the range 0.69 to 2.43 GeV/c have been deduced by combining anti pp elastic differential cross sections over a c.m. angular range -0.95 1 approximately 2.155 and M 2 approximately 2.345 GeV/c 2 , having widths of GAMMA 1 and GAMMA 2 approximately 0.135 GeV/c 2 . Corresponding structures in other anti pp reaction channels are discussed. (Auth.)

  20. A measurement of the total charm cross section in 200 and 360 GeV/c pN interactions using a holographic bubble chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erriquez, O.; Calicchio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ruggieri, F.; Barth, M.; Cobbaert, H.; Geiregat, D.; Roosen, R.; Tavernier, S.P.K.; Drevermann, H.; Geissler, K.; Herve, A.; Johansson, E.; Lecoq, P.; Minaev, N.; Olivier, P.; Bartley, J.H.; Bullock, F.W.; Coupland, M.; Cranfield, R.; Duff, B.G.; Esten, M.J.; Gjerpe, I.; Heymann, F.F.; Hobson, P.R.; Imrie, D.C.; Lush, G.J.; Williams, O.R.; Boratav, M.; Touboul, M.C.; Touchard, A.M.; Arnold, R.; Maurer, G.; Hrubec, J.; Neuhofer, G.; Taurok, A.

    1986-01-01

    We present results from the first holographic bubble chamber experiment. Using topological information on the events observed in the heavy liquid bubble chamber HOBC, we have determined a total charm pair production cross section of (24.6 (+12.0-8.3)) μb and (3.9 (+2.5-1.9)) μb in 360 GeV/c and 200 GeV/c proton-nucleon interactions respectively. For these estimates we assumed a linear dependence of the charm cross section on the atomic number A. (orig.)

  1. L-subshell ionization studies of Au for α-particle and lithium-ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhal, B.B.; Nandi, T.; Padhi, H.C.; Trautmann, D.

    1995-01-01

    L-subshell ionization of Au has been investigated for α-particle and lithium-ion bombardments with energies 0.54-1.74 MeV u -1 and 0.65-1.44 MeV u -1 , respectively. Comparison of experimental x-ray production cross sections with the predictions of the ECPSSR and SCA theories shows reasonably good agreement for L α and L β x-rays, whereas for L γ and L γ1+5 the ECPSSR theory underestimates the cross sections by about 60% for both α-particle and lithium-ion impact, and the SCA theory agrees reasonably well. The ECPSSR theory underestimates the L 1 - and L 2 -subshell ionization cross sections and gives good agreement for the L 3 -subshell, whereas the SCA theory overestimates the L 3 -subshell ionization cross sections and gives good agreement for L 1 and L 2 . The experimental data for the total-ionization cross sections are within 25% of the predictions of both the theories. (Author)

  2. Microscale Solubility Measurements of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization (MALDI) Matrices Using Attenuated Total Reflection (ATR) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) Coupled with Partial Least Squares (PLS) Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorre, Elsa; Owens, Kevin G

    2016-11-01

    In this work an attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption based method is used to measure the solubility of two matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization (MALDI) matrices in a few pure solvents and mixtures of acetonitrile and water using low microliter amounts of solution. Results from a method that averages the values obtained from multiple calibration curves created by manual peak picking are compared to those predicted using a partial least squares (PLS) chemometrics approach. The PLS method provided solubility values that were in good agreement with the manual method with significantly greater ease of analysis. As a test, the solubility of adipic acid in acetone was measured using the two methods of analysis, and the values are in good agreement with solubility values reported in literature. The solubilities of the MALDI matrices α-cyano-4-hydroxy cinnamic acid (CHCA) and sinapinic acid (SA) were measured in a series of mixtures made from acetonitrile (ACN) and water; surprisingly, the results show a highly nonlinear trend. While both CHCA and SA show solubility values of less than 10 mg/mL in the pure solvents, the solubility value for SA increases to 56.3 mg/mL in a 75:25 v/v ACN:water mixture. This can have a significant effect on the matrix-to-analyte ratios in the MALDI experiment when sample protocols call for preparation of a saturated solution of the matrix in the chosen solvent system. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Measurement of the differential and total cross sections of the γ d →K0Λ (p ) reaction within the resonance region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, N.; Taylor, C. E.; Hicks, K.; Cole, P.; Zachariou, N.; Ilieva, Y.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Klempt, E.; Nikonov, V. A.; Sarantsev, A. V.; Adhikari, K. P.; Adhikari, S.; Akbar, Z.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Brooks, W. K.; Burkert, V. D.; Camp, M.; Cao, Frank Thanh; Cao, T.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Charles, G.; Chetry, T.; Ciullo, G.; Clark, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Cortes, O.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Gavalian, G.; Ghandilyan, Y.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Glazier, D. I.; Gleason, C.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Heddle, D.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Isupov, E. L.; Jenkins, D.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Keller, D.; Khachatryan, G.; Khachatryan, M.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuleshov, S. V.; Lanza, L.; Lenisa, P.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; McKinnon, B.; Meyer, C. A.; Mineeva, T.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Movsisyan, A.; Munevar, E.; Munoz Camacho, C.; Murdoch, G.; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Niculescu, I.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Paolone, M.; Paremuzyan, R.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Phelps, W.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Raue, B. A.; Ripani, M.; Ritchie, B. G.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schumacher, R. A.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, Iu.; Smith, G. D.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stankovic, I.; Stepanyan, S.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Strauch, S.; Taiuti, M.; Torayev, B.; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zhang, J.; CLAS Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    We report the first measurement of differential and total cross sections for the γ d →K0Λ (p ) reaction, using data from the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Data collected during two separate experimental runs were studied with photon-energy coverage 0.8-3.6 GeV and 0.5- 2.6 GeV, respectively. The two measurements are consistent giving confidence in the method and determination of systematic uncertainties. The cross sections are compared with predictions from the KAON-MAID theoretical model (without kaon exchange), which deviate from the data at higher W and at forward kaon angles. These data, along with previously published cross sections for K+Λ photoproduction, provide essential constraints on the nucleon resonance spectrum. A first partial wave analysis was performed that describes the data without the introduction of new resonances.

  4. Ionization detectors in environmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    Ionization detectors (IDs) use the information contained in the radiation-produced ionization current regarding the chemical composition of gas mixtures. The radionuclide radiation sources, 3 H, 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 85 Kr, 90 Sr, 241 Am, are used to produce carriers. Using recombination effects and carrier multiplication by electrical fields the response of IDs can be improved. There are electron capture detectors, cross-section detectors and noble-gas detectors, mainly used in gas chromatographic devices, and continuously working aerosol ionization detectors. Halocarbons, metal chelates, metal organic and inorganic compounds, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, but also SO 2 , AsH 3 , ClCN, HCN, HF, NH 3 , CO, CO 2 , H 2 O, can be determined within the pp10 9 range. They are used in automatic systems to control air pollution around industrial plants, in hospitals and factories, but also to prevent high levels of pesticides in agriculture products. (author)

  5. Measurement of proton-proton elastic scattering and total cross-section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Antchev, G; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brucken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C.; Csanad, M.; Csorgo, T.; Deile, M.; Eggert, K.; Eremin, V.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Fiergolski, A.; Garcia, F.; Giani, S.; Greco, V.; Grzanka, L.; Heino, J.; Hilden, T.; Intonti, R.A.; Kaspar, J.; Kopal, J.; Kundrat, V.; Kurvinen, K.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Lauhakangas, R.; Leszko, T.; Lippmaa, E.; Lokajıcek, M.; Lo Vetere, M.; Macrı, M.; Maki, T.; Mercadante, A.; Minafra, N.; Minutoli, S.; Nemes, F.; Niewiadomski, H.; Oliveri, E.; Oljemark, F.; Orava, R.; Oriunno, M.; Osterberg, K.; Palazzi, P.; Prochazka, J.; Quinto, M.; Radermacher, E.; Radicioni, E.; Ravotti, F.; Robutti, E.; Rodrıguez, F.L.; Ropelewski, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Saarikko, H.; Santroni, A.; Scribano, A.; Smajek, J.; Snoeys, W.; Sziklai, J.; Taylor, C.; Turini, N.; Vacek, V.; Vıtek, M.; Welti, J.; Whitmore, J.

    2013-01-01

    At the LHC energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, under various beam and background conditions, luminosities, and Roman Pot positions, TOTEM has measured the differential cross-section for proton-proton elastic scattering as a function of the four-momentum transfer squared t. The results of the different analyses are in excellent agreement demonstrating no sizeable dependence on the beam conditions. Due to the very close approach of the Roman Pot detectors to the beam center ( around 5 $\\sigma$ beam) in a dedicated run with $\\beta$* = 90m, abs(t)-values down to 5 10**-3 GeV**2 were reached. The exponential slope of the differential elastic cross-section in this newly explored abs(t)-region remained unchanged and thus an exponential fit with only one constant B = (19.90+/-0.3)GeV-2 over the large abs(t)-range from 0.005 to 0.2GeV**2 describes the differential distribution well. The high precision of the measurement and the large fit range lead to an error on the slope parameter B which is remarkably small compared to p...

  6. Measurement of the total cross section from elastic scattering in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aaboud, Morad; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abeloos, Baptiste; Aben, Rosemarie; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abraham, Nicola; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adachi, Shunsuke; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Ali, Babar; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allen, Benjamin William; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Alshehri, Azzah Aziz; Alstaty, Mahmoud; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antel, Claire; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Armitage, Lewis James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Artz, Sebastian; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Balunas, William Keaton; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisits, Martin-Stefan; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska-Blenessy, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barranco Navarro, Laura; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans~Peter; Becker, Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bedognetti, Matteo; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Andrew Stuart; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Belyaev, Nikita; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez, Jose; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Beringer, Jürg; Berlendis, Simon; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertram, Iain Alexander; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethani, Agni; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bielski, Rafal; Biesuz, Nicolo Vladi; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Billoud, Thomas Remy Victor; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Bisanz, Tobias; Bjergaard, David Martin; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blue, Andrew; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Blunier, Sylvain; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Boerner, Daniela; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bokan, Petar; Bold, Tomasz; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortoletto, Daniela; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Bossio Sola, Jonathan David; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Boutle, Sarah Kate; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Broughton, James; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruni, Lucrezia Stella; Brunt, Benjamin; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryant, Patrick; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burka, Klaudia; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Burr, Jonathan Thomas Peter; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabras, Grazia; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Callea, Giuseppe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvente Lopez, Sergio; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Calvet, Thomas Philippe; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Camincher, Clement; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Camplani, Alessandra; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Carbone, Ryne Michael; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Ina; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Casper, David William; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelijn, Remco; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavallaro, Emanuele; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerda Alberich, Leonor; Cerio, Benjamin; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Stephen Kam-wah; Chan, Yat Long; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Che, Siinn; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Shion; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Huajie; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chomont, Arthur Rene; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirotto, Francesco; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Michael; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cormier, Kyle James Read; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crawley, Samuel Joseph; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cueto, Ana; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cúth, Jakub; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'amen, Gabriele; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dado, Tomas; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dann, Nicholas Stuart; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Maria, Antonio; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Dehghanian, Nooshin; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Gaudio, Michela; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Denysiuk, Denys; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Dette, Karola; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Clemente, William Kennedy; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Díez Cornell, Sergio; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Du, Yanyan; Duarte-Campderros, Jorge; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudder, Andreas Christian; Duffield, Emily Marie; Duflot, Laurent; Dührssen, Michael; Dumancic, Mirta; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dutta, Baishali; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellajosyula, Venugopal; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Ennis, Joseph Stanford; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Ezzi, Mohammed; Fabbri, Federica; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farina, Christian; Farina, Edoardo Maria; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fawcett, William James; Fayard, Louis; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Forcolin, Giulio Tiziano; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Foster, Andrew Geoffrey; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; Fressard-Batraneanu, Silvia; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Louis Guillaume; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gascon Bravo, Alberto; Gasnikova, Ksenia; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisen, Marc; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Geng, Cong; Gentile, Simonetta; Gentsos, Christos; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghneimat, Mazuza; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gignac, Matthew; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuli, Francesco; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Giulia; Gonella, Laura; Gongadze, Alexi; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goudet, Christophe Raymond; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gravila, Paul Mircea; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Grefe, Christian; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Grevtsov, Kirill; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Sabrina; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guan, Wen; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Ruchi; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Hadef, Asma; Hageböck, Stephan; Hagihara, Mutsuto; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Haney, Bijan; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hartmann, Nikolai Marcel; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hayakawa, Daiki; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Jochen Jens; Heinrich, Lukas; Heinz, Christian; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Henkelmann, Steffen; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Herde, Hannah; Herget, Verena; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Honda, Takuya; Hong, Tae Min; Hooberman, Benjamin Henry; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Hoya, Joaquin; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Shuyang; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Huo, Peng; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Ishijima, Naoki; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ito, Fumiaki; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Paul; Jain, Vivek; Jakobi, Katharina Bianca; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanneau, Fabien; Jeanty, Laura; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Hai; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Jivan, Harshna; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Johnson, William Joseph; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Sarah; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Köhler, Markus Konrad; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kaji, Toshiaki; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kaluza, Adam; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kanjir, Luka; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karentzos, Efstathios; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kasahara, Kota; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Kentaro, Kawade; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khader, Mazin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Kharlamova, Tatyana; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kilby, Callum; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koehler, Nicolas Maximilian; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolb, Mathis; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Kowalewska, Anna Bozena; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozakai, Chihiro; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kravchenko, Anton; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuechler, Jan Thomas; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kukla, Romain; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lammers, Sabine; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lanfermann, Marie Christine; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Lazzaroni, Massimo; Le, Brian; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Quilleuc, Eloi; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Benoit; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lerner, Giuseppe; Leroy, Claude; Lesage, Arthur; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Dave; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Changqiao; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Qi; Li, Shu; Li, Xingguo; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Lionti, Anthony Eric; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Hongbin; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanlin; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina Maria; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loew, Kevin Michael; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan David; Long, Robin Eamonn; Longo, Luigi; Looper, Kristina Anne; López, Jorge Andrés; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lopez Solis, Alvaro; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Haonan; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luedtke, Christian; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Luzi, Pierre Marc; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Lyubushkin, Vladimir; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Ma, Yanhui; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Malone, Claire; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Maneira, José; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousos, Athanasios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mansour, Jason Dhia; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Manzoni, Stefano; Mapelli, Livio; Marceca, Gino; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mc Fadden, Neil Christopher; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McClymont, Laurie; McDonald, Emily; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melini, Davide; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Melo, Matej; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Miano, Fabrizio; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Minegishi, Yuji; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mistry, Khilesh; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Mlynarikova, Michaela; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monden, Ryutaro; Mondragon, Matthew Craig; Mönig, Klaus; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montalbano, Alyssa; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Stefanie; Mori, Daniel; Mori, Tatsuya; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Muškinja, Miha; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Narrias Villar, Daniel Isaac; Naryshkin, Iouri; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nguyen Manh, Tuan; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norjoharuddeen, Nurfikri; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Rourke, Abigail Alexandra; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Oleiro Seabra, Luis Filipe; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onogi, Kouta; Onyisi, Peter; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Pacheco Rodriguez, Laura; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganini, Michela; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palazzo, Serena; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Adam Jackson; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pascuzzi, Vincent; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penwell, John; Peralva, Bernardo; Perego, Marta Maria; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrov, Mariyan; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Peyaud, Alan; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pin, Arnaud Willy J; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pozo Astigarraga, Mikel Eukeni; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Puddu, Daniele; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Raine, John Andrew; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Ratti, Maria Giulia; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Ravinovich, Ilia; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Reale, Marilea; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reed, Robert; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reichert, Joseph; Reiss, Andreas; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rifki, Othmane; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rimoldi, Marco; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Rizzi, Chiara; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodina, Yulia; Rodriguez Perez, Andrea; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Daniel; Roe, Shaun; Rogan, Christopher Sean; Røhne, Ole; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosien, Nils-Arne; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Jonatan; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryu, Soo; Ryzhov, Andrey; Rzehorz, Gerhard Ferdinand; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saha, Puja; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Salazar Loyola, Javier Esteban; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sato, Koji; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Savic, Natascha; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schachtner, Balthasar Maria; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Leigh; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schier, Sheena; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, Korbinian Ralf; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schmitz, Simon; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schott, Matthias; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schuh, Natascha; Schulte, Alexandra; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shaikh, Nabila Wahab; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shirabe, Shohei; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyed Ruhollah; Shope, David Richard; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sickles, Anne Marie; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simon, Manuel; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sioli, Maximiliano; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Slovak, Radim; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smiesko, Juraj; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snyder, Ian Michael; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Sokhrannyi, Grygorii; Solans Sanchez, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Hong Ye; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spangenberg, Martin; Spanò, Francesco; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stabile, Alberto; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Giordon; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Stärz, Steffen; Staszewski, Rafal; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Suchek, Stanislav; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanioka, Ryo; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tapia Araya, Sebastian; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Aaron; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Pierre Thor Elliot; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Temple, Darren; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Baojia(Tony); Tornambe, Peter; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Trofymov, Artur; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsui, Ka Ming; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tu, Yanjun; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turgeman, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tyndel, Mike; Ucchielli, Giulia; Ueda, Ikuo; Ughetto, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valdes Santurio, Eduardo; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Graaf, Harry; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vasquez, Jared Gregory; Vasquez, Gerardo; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigani, Luigi; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vittori, Camilla; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wallangen, Veronica; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Tingting; Wang, Wenxiao; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Weber, Stephen; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Michael David; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Whallon, Nikola Lazar; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilk, Fabian; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winston, Oliver James; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wolf, Tim Michael Heinz; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Worm, Steven D; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamaguchi, Daiki; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zongchang; Yao, Weiming; Yap, Yee Chinn; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zakharchuk, Nataliia; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zeng, Jian Cong; Zeng, Qi; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Guangyi; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Mingliang; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2016-10-10

    A measurement of the total $pp$ cross section at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV is presented. An integrated luminosity of $500$ $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ was accumulated in a special run with high-$\\beta^{\\star}$ beam optics to measure the differential elastic cross section as a function of the Mandelstam momentum transfer variable $t$. The measurement is performed with the ALFA sub-detector of ATLAS. Using a fit to the differential elastic cross section in the $-t$ range from $0.014$ GeV$^2$ to $0.1$ GeV$^2$ to extrapolate $t\\rightarrow 0$, the total cross section, $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{tot}}(pp\\rightarrow X)$, is measured via the optical theorem to be: $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{tot}}(pp\\rightarrow X) = \\mbox{96.07} \\; \\pm 0.18 \\; ({\\mbox{stat.}}) \\pm 0.85 \\; ({\\mbox{exp.}}) \\pm 0.31 \\; (\\mbox{extr.}) \\; \\mbox{mb} \\;,$ where the first error is statistical, the second accounts for all experimental systematic uncertainties and the last is related to uncertainties in the extrapolation $t\\rightarrow 0$. In addition, the slope of the exponen...

  7. First measurement of the total proton-proton cross section at the LHC energy of √ s = 7 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antchev, G.; Aspell, P.; Atanassov, I.; Kašpar, Jan; Kopal, J.; Kundrát, Vojtěch; Lokajíček, Miloš; Procházka, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 2 (2011), "21002-p1"-"21002-p7" ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : total pp cross section * LHC Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 2.171, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0295-5075/96/2/21002

  8. Anion Gap as a Determinant of Ionized Fraction of Divalent Cations in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Yusuke; Hamano, Takayuki; Kubota, Keiichi; Oka, Tatsufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hashimoto, Nobuhiro; Mori, Daisuke; Obi, Yasue; Matsui, Isao; Isaka, Yoshitaka

    2018-02-07

    Circulating levels of anions that bind to magnesium and calcium are often altered in patients with CKD. However, it is unknown how these alterations affect the ionized fraction of magnesium and calcium. This cross-sectional study involved patients on maintenance hemodialysis and patients not on dialysis who visited the outpatient department of nephrology. We collected whole-blood samples to measure ionized magnesium and calcium concentrations. Adjusted anion gap was calculated as an integrative index of unmeasured anions. A total of 118 patients on hemodialysis and 112 patients not on dialysis were included. Although the prevalence of hypermagnesemia defined by total magnesium was much higher in patients on hemodialysis than in patients not on dialysis (69% versus 12%; P anion gap than patients not on dialysis (mean [SD]: 14.1 [2.2] versus 5.1 [3.1]), the ionized fractions of magnesium and calcium were inversely associated with the adjusted anion gap. Furthermore, the anion gap significantly improved predictions of ionized magnesium and calcium in patients on hemodialysis. Anions that accumulate in patients on hemodialysis contribute to the lower ionized fraction of magnesium and calcium. Equations that incorporate the anion gap provide better predictions of ionized magnesium and calcium in patients on hemodialysis. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  9. New measurement of the p-{anti p} total cross section at {radical}S = 1.8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avila, C.; Guss, C.; Mondardini, M.R. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies

    1997-09-01

    A new type of detector capable of reaching very small angles was successfully used in Fermilab E811 in Jan. 1996. It consists of a bundle of 15,000 scintillating fibers each of 100 {micro}m diameter. The fibers are oriented parallel to the beam and gave a measuring resolution of 38 {micro}m transverse to the beam. In this report the authors analyzed about 50,000 elastics as close as 3 mm from the beam. Simulated data runs show that the total cross section should be obtained to an accuracy of {+-}2%. The smallest t-bin used has a background subtraction of {approximately}20%, but for most of the t-bins the background is much smaller and the detection efficiency is over 95%. Very preliminary analysis gives a total cross section of {approximately}71 mb at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV using a luminosity-independent method. This is consistent with the earlier Fermilab E710 result which used a different kind of elastic detector. The rho-value analysis has not yet been completed. A personal interpretation (by Orear) of a slower rise in the total cross section is given at the end.

  10. Measurement of absolute total cross sections for the scattering of electrons by He, H2, CH4 and CCl/sub n/F/sub m/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    Absolute total electron scattering sections (elastic plus inelastic, integrated over all angles) were measured for helium, molecular hydrogen, methane, tetrachloromethane, trichlorofluoromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorotrifluoromethane and tetrafluoromethane for incident electron energies from below 1 eV to 50 eV. The electron transmission spectrometer employed consisted of a broad spectrum pulsed electron source in line with a gas sample cell and electron detector. The electron energy was derived from the measured electron time of flight from the source to the detector. The total cross section was determined, using Beer's law, from the attenuation of the electron beam as it passed through a sample cell. Thorough theoretical studies have been reported for helium and the simpler molecules. For these systems, comparisons are made between the above results and reported absolute cross section measurements and calculations with careful consideration given to possible causes of the differences observed between recent measurements. For the more complicated molecules there are few reported calculations or measurements of the total cross sections. In these cases the low energy resonances associated with electron capture processes are not adequately described by available theoretical studies, so molecular orbital calculations and complementary experimental results are employed to explain the observed structure

  11. Theoretical spectral distributions and total cross sections for neutral subthreshold pion production in carbon-carbon collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Deutchman, P. A.; Townsend, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A coherent isobar formalism is employed to model subthreshold production of neutral pions in carbon-carbon collisions at energies below 100 MeV/nucleon. No arbitrary scale factors or adjustable free parameters are used in calculation of the Lorentz-invariant cross sections for pion production in the projectile, which produces an excited state that goes to M1 resonance in the target by conservation of spin and isospin. Pion production is also modeled for the projectile, which also reaches M1 resonance. The overall pion spectral distribution in the center of mass system is then integrated over the energy range 35-84 MeV/nucleon. The results expose an energy loss in the incident ions, as observed experimentally, and indicate that an isobar mechanism is responsible for higher energy pion production. Lower energy pions are a result of thermal processes.

  12. Pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy: a randomized cross-over clinical trial comparing two different heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Jesús; Espiño, María Alvarez; Morado, Carolina Ogen

    2013-09-01

    Post-laryngectomy heat and moisture exchanger (HME) use is known to have a beneficial effect on tracheal climate, pulmonary symptoms and related aspects. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical effects between the first and second generation Provox HMEs. The second generation (Provox XtraHME) has better humidification properties than the first generation (Provox HME), and has been shown to further improve tracheal climate. Forty-five laryngectomized patients, who were already using an HME, participated in a prospective, randomized cross-over clinical study in which each HME was used for 6 weeks. Results showed that for most parameters studied, the second generation HME performed equally well or better than the first generation HME. The improvement in tracheal climate translated into patients reporting significantly less tracheal dryness with the second generation than with the first generation (p = 0.039). Using an HME with better humidification properties is related to a reduction in tracheal dryness in our study population.

  13. Calculation of total cross sections and effective emission coefficients for B5+ collisions with ground-state and excited hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, F; Errea, L F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B

    2010-01-01

    Classical and semiclassical calculations of nl-resolved charge exchange cross sections in B 5 + collisions with H(n i ) are performed to compute effective emission coefficients for the n = 7 → n = 6 transition in B 4 + for plasma conditions typical of the ASDEX-U tokamak. For n i = 1, the value of the emission coefficient is larger than that obtained from ADAS database by a factor of 2 at energies of 10 keV amu -1 , but no differences are found at energies above 50 keV amu -1 . For n i = 2, our calculation yields emission coefficients close to those derived from ADAS data from low to high impact energies. The emission coefficients corresponding to B 5 + + H(n i = 3) collisions are of the same order of magnitude as those for n i = 2.

  14. An analysis of cross-sectional variations in total household energy requirements in India using micro survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachauri, Shonali

    2004-01-01

    Using micro level household survey data from India, we analyse the variation in the pattern and quantum of household energy requirements, both direct and indirect, and the factors causing such variation. An econometric analysis using household survey data from India for the year 1993-1994 reveals that household socio-economic, demographic, geographic, family and dwelling attributes influence the total household energy requirements. There are also large variations in the pattern of energy requirements across households belonging to different expenditure classes. Results from the econometric estimation show that total household expenditure or income level is the most important explanatory variable causing variation in energy requirements across households. In addition, the size of the household dwelling and the age of the head of the household are related to higher household energy requirements. In contrast, the number of members in the household and literacy of the head are associated with lower household energy requirements

  15. Gender differences of oligomers and total adiponectin during puberty: a cross-sectional study of 859 Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian Kjaer; Frystyk, Jan; Wolthers, Ole D

    2007-01-01

    of the ADPN into the three major molecular fractions was performed in representative subgroups of pre- and postpubertal males and females (n = 40, 10 in each group) using a validated fast protein liquid chromatography method. RESULTS: Total ADPN levels before puberty were 13.4 (11.1-15.9) mg/liter (median...... and interquartile range) and 14.7 (12.3-18.1) mg/liter (P = not significant), in males and females, respectively. After puberty, ADPN levels were significantly reduced in males, 9.7 (8.2-12.0) mg/liter but remained unchanged in females, 12.1 (9.7-15.3) mg/liter (P ....007). CONCLUSION: Serum total ADPN levels decrease through puberty in males. Also, a reduced HMW ratio is seen in males at the onset of puberty. We speculate that the suppression of HMW ADPN may be caused by testosterone. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-May...

  16. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  17. Near-threshold electron impact ionization of Ne and Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, B R; Khakoo, M A; Keane, K

    2009-01-01

    Doubly differential cross-sections for the single electron impact ionization of Ne and Xe have been measured at several energies below the second ionization energy. The results indicate that the ionization of Ne is strongly influenced by the polarization of the ionized 2 2 P 3/2,1/2 core, where as this influence is significantly reduced for Xe. Single differential cross-sections are derived from the doubly differential cross-sections and for Xenon these show profiles similar to Helium ('smile'), whereas for Neon they show a dissimilar profile ('frown').

  18. Cross-sectional neck response of a total human body FE model during simulated frontal and side automobile impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas A; Moreno, Daniel P; Gayzik, F Scott; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Human body finite element (FE) models are beginning to play a more prevalent role in the advancement of automotive safety. A methodology has been developed to evaluate neck response at multiple levels in a human body FE model during simulated automotive impacts. Three different impact scenarios were simulated: a frontal impact of a belted driver with airbag deployment, a frontal impact of a belted passenger without airbag deployment and an unbelted side impact sled test. Cross sections were created at each vertebral level of the cervical spine to calculate the force and moment contributions of different anatomical components of the neck. Adjacent level axial force ratios varied between 0.74 and 1.11 and adjacent level bending moment ratios between 0.55 and 1.15. The present technique is ideal for comparing neck forces and moments to existing injury threshold values, calculating injury criteria and for better understanding the biomechanical mechanisms of neck injury and load sharing during sub-injurious and injurious loading.

  19. Multiple ionization and coupling effects in L-subshell ionization of heavy atoms by oxygen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajek, M.; Banas, D.; Semaniak, J.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Chojnacki, S.; Czyzewski, T.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Glombik, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Trautmann, D.; Lapicki, G.; Mukoyama, T.

    2003-01-01

    The multiple-ionization and coupling effects in L-shell ionization of atoms by heavy-ion impact have been studied by measuring the L x-ray production cross sections in solid targets of Au, Bi, Th, and U bombarded by oxygen ions in the energy range 6.4-70 MeV. The measured L x-ray spectra were analyzed using the recently proposed method accounting for the multiple-ionization effects, such as x-ray line shifting and broadening, which enables one to obtain the ionization probabilities for outer shells. The L-subshell ionization cross sections have been obtained from measured x-ray production cross sections for resolved Lα 1,2 , Lγ 1 , and Lγ 2,3 transitions using the L-shell fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields being substantially modified by the multiple ionization in the M and N shells. In particular, the effect of closing of strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 Coster-Kronig transitions in multiple-ionized atoms was evidenced and discussed. The experimental ionization cross sections for the L 1 , L 2 , and L 3 subshells have been compared with the predictions of the semiclassical approximation (SCA) and the ECPSSR theory that includes the corrections for the binding-polarization effect within the perturbed stationary states approximation, the projecticle energy loss, and Coulomb deflection effects as well as the relativistic description of inner-shell electrons. These approaches were further modified to include the L-subshell couplings within the ''coupled-subshell model'' (CSM). Both approaches, when modified for the coupling effects, are in better agreement with the data. Particularly, the predictions of the SCA-CSM calculations reproduce the experimental L-subshell ionization cross section reasonably well. Remaining discrepancies are discussed qualitatively, in terms of further modifications of the L-shell decay rates caused by a change of electronic wave functions in multiple-ionized atoms

  20. Lifestyle predictors of oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities and total antioxidant capacity in healthy women: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahasneh, Amjad A; Zhang, Yali; Zhao, Hua; Ambrosone, Christine B; Hong, Chi-Chen

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify demographic and modifiable lifestyle factors that may be related to endogenous oxidant and antioxidant activity measured in blood specimens from putatively healthy women recruited at the Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY, USA). Total glutathione (TGSH), catalase (CAT), CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured in 124 healthy women, and associations with epidemiological factors were tested using general linear models. There were significant differences in oxidant and antioxidant enzyme activities according to lifestyle factors, after adjusting for duration of blood storage and season of blood draw. Compared to women who consumed ≤2.8 servings of fruits and vegetables daily, those consuming >5.3 servings had on average 31 % lower MPO activity (p-trend = 0.02), as a marker of oxidative stress, 16 % higher antioxidant GPx activity (p-trend = 0.08), and 9 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.05). Obese women (body mass index, BMI ≥ 30) in contrast showed 17 % lower antioxidant GPx activity, 44 % higher MPO activity (p-trend = 0.03), and 10 % higher TAC (p-trend = 0.03) compared to women with normal BMI lifestyle factors and, therefore, may be potentially modifiable, with implications for risk reduction of chronic conditions related to oxidative stress.

  1. Cross-calibration of a GE iDXA and Prodigy for total and regional body bone parameters: the importance of using cross-calibration equations for longitudinal monitoring after a system upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Laura A; Cooper, William; Oldroyd, Brian; Hind, Karen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to determine if cross-calibration equations could be applied to convert GE Lunar Prodigy total and regional bone measurements to the GE iDXA model to support longitudinal monitoring of subjects. The cross-calibration group comprised 63 adults (age 45.1 [12.8] yr; body mass index: 25.6 [3.7] kg/m(2)) and the validation group comprised 25 adults (age 40.5 [11.5] yr; body mass index: 25.7 [3.5] kg/m(2)). The parameters reported were total and regional bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content, and bone area. There were significant differences between densitometers for all anatomical regions and reported bone parameters (p Prodigy apart from the ribs. Linear regression indicated good agreement for all measurements. Bland-Altman analyses indicated significant bias for all measurements and that cross-calibration equations were required. The derived cross-calibration equations were effective in reducing differences between predicted and measured results for each parameter and at each region apart from leg BMD, where the difference remained significant (0.013 g/cm(2); p Prodigy and iDXA. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain early after total knee arthroplasty: a randomized cross-over study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Husted, Henrik; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the acute effect of knee joint icing on knee extension strength and knee pain in patients shortly after total knee arthroplasty.Design: A prospective, single-blinded, randomized, cross-over study.Setting: A fast-track orthopaedic arthroplasty unit at a university hospital...... in knee pain at rest (P = 0.475), or knee pain during the knee extension strength measurements (P = 0.422) were not different between treatments.Conclusions: In contrast to observations in experimental knee effusion models and inflamed knee joints, knee joint icing for 30 minutes shortly after total knee.......Participants: Twenty patients (mean age 66 years; 10 women) scheduled for primary unilateral total knee arthroplasty.Interventions: The patients were treated on two days (day 7 and day 10) postoperatively. On one day they received 30 minutes of knee icing (active treatment) and on the other day they received 30...

  3. Relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viiola Irene Winata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Nephrotic syndrome (NS patients frequently have abnormalities in calcium metabolism that manifest as hypocalcemia and reduced intestinal absorption of calcium. Hypocalcemia is initially attributed to hypoalbuminemia but it may also relate to a low level of ionized calcium. The ionized calcium level depends on the severity and duration of proteinuria. Objective To assess the rel ationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in idiopathic NS children. Methods An analytical study with cross-sectional design was applied to NS and healthy children between 1-14 years old in the Child Health Department of Hasan Sadikin Hospital, Bandung from December 2009 to April 2010. Ionized calcium was examined by Ca2 + analyzer AVL 980 with ion-selective electrodes (ISE methods. Results A total of34 subjects were recruited, consist of 17 NS and 17 healthy children. The mean ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children was 4.56 (SD 0.23 mg/dLand 1.45 (SD 0.24 g/dL, respectively. Statistical difference between ionized calcium level in NS and in healthy children was significant (P<0.05. Pearson correlation test between ionized calcium and serum albumin was significant (P<0.05 with correlation coefficient (r 0.53. We found the following equation to estimate ionized calcium (y based on the serum albumin level (x: y=3.84+0.49x. Conclusion There is a moderately positive linear relationship between ionized calcium and serum albumin level in NS children.

  4. Theory of the ionization yield in gases under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1974-01-01

    The total number N/sub i/(T) of ionizations that an incident electron of kinetic energy T causes in a pure gas obeys an integral equation known as the Fowler equation. Its solution is shown to closely approximate N/sub i/(T) = (T -- U)/W/sub a/ for T exceeding several multiples of the first ionization energy I, where U and W/sub a/ are constants having the energy dimension. Simple formulas express U and W/sub a/ in terms of various cross sections for electron inelastic collisions with a gas molecule. In particular, U - I represents the average kinetic energy of a subionization electron. (35 refs) (U.S.)

  5. Bethe binary-encounter peaks in the double-differential cross sections for high-energy electron-impact ionization of H2 and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Agnihotri, A. N.; Stia, C. R.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2010-11-01

    We study the Bethe binary-encounter (BE) region in the ejected-electron double-differential emission spectrum of H2 and He targets in collisions with 8-keV electrons. We compare the absolute cross sections for these isoelectronic systems at high emission energies. The experimental data are analyzed in terms of a state-of-the-art theoretical model based on a two-effective-center approximation. In the case of the H2 molecule the binary peak in the double-differential cross sections (DDCS) is enhanced due to the two-center Young-type interference. The observed undulation in the DDCS ratio is explained in terms of the combined contributions of the Compton profile mismatch and the interference effect. The influence of the interference effect is thus observed for higher-energy electrons compared to most of the earlier studies which focused on low-energy electrons produced in soft collisions.

  6. Elastic Scattering and Total Cross-Section in p+p reactions as measured by the LHC Experiment TOTEM at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Csörgö, Tamás; Aspell, P; Atanassov, I; Avati, V; Baechler, J; Berardi, V; Berretti, M; Bossini, E; Bozzo, M; Brogi, P; Brücken, E; Buzzo, A; Cafagna, F S; Calicchio, M; Catanesi, M G; Covault, C; Csanád, M; Deile, M; Dimovasili, E; Doubek, M; Eggert, K; Eremin, V; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Fiergolski, A; Garcia, F; Giani, S; Greco, V; Grzanka, L; Heino, J; Hilden, T; Intonti, M R; Janda, M; Kaspar, J; Kopal, J; Kundrát, V; Kurvinen, K; Lami, S; Latino, G; Lauhakangas, R; Leszko, T; Lippmaa, E; Lokajícek, M; Lo Vetere, M; Lucas Rodríguez, F; Macrí, M; Magaletti, L; Magazzù, G; Mercadante, A; Meucci, M; Minutoli, S; Nemes, F; Niewiadomski, H; Noschis, E; Novák, T; Oliveri, E; Oljemark, F; Orava, R; Oriunno, M; Österberg, K; Palazzi, P; Perrot, A-L; Pedreschi, E; Petäjäjärvi, J; Procházka, J; Quinto, M; Radermacher, E; Radicioni, E; Ravotti, F; Robutti, E; Ropelewski, L; Ruggiero, G; Saarikko, H; Sanguinetti, G; Santroni, A; Scribano, A; Sette, G; Snoeys, W; Spinella, F; Sziklai, J; Taylor, C; Turini, N; Vacek, V; Vítek, M; Welti, J; Whitmore, J

    2012-01-01

    Proton-proton elastic scattering has been measured by the TOTEM experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s} = 7 $ TeV in special runs with the Roman Pot detectors placed as close to the outgoing beam as seven times the transverse beam size. The differential cross-section measurements are reported in the |t|-range of 0.36 to 2.5 GeV$^2$. Extending the range of data to low t values from 0.02 to 0.33 GeV$^2$,and utilizing the luminosity measurements of CMS, the total proton-proton cross section at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV is measured to be $(98.3 \\pm 0.2^{stat} \\pm 2.8^{syst})$ mb.

  7. Ionization photophysics and Rydberg spectroscopy of diacetylene

    KAUST Repository

    Schwell, Martin

    2012-11-01

    Photoionization of diacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the range 8-24 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) and threshold photoelectron-photoion coincidence (TPEPICO) techniques. Mass spectra, ion yields, total and partial ionization cross-sections were measured. The adiabatic ionization energy of diacetylene was determined as IE ad=(10.17±0.01) eV, and the appearance energy of the principal fragment ion C4H+ as AE=(16.15±0.03) eV. Calculated appearance energies of other fragment ions were used to infer aspects of dissociation pathways forming the weaker fragment ions C+ 4, C3H+, C+3 and C 4H+. Structured autoionization features observed in the PEPICO spectrum of diacetylene in the 11-13 eV region were assigned to vibrational components of three new Rydberg series, R1(nsσg, n=4-11), R2(ndσg, n=4-7) and R3(ndδg, n=4-6) converging to the A2Πu state of the cation, and to a new series R01(nsσg, n=3) converging to the B\\' 2Σ+u state of the cation. The autoionization mechanisms and their consistence with specific selection rules are discussed. © 2012 Taylor and Francis.

  8. Ionization photophysics and spectroscopy of dicyanoacetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Sydney, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Champion, Norbert [LERMA UMR CNRS 8112, Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 5 place Jules-Jansen, 92195 Meudon (France); Schwell, Martin, E-mail: Sydney.Leach@obspm.fr, E-mail: Martin.Schwell@lisa.u-pec.fr; Bénilan, Yves; Fray, Nicolas; Gazeau, Marie-Claire [LISA UMR CNRS 7583, Université Paris-Est Créteil and Université Paris Diderot, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, 61 Avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France); Garcia, Gustavo A.; Gaie-Levrel, François [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L’Orme des Merisiers, St. Aubin, B.P. 48, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Guillemin, Jean-Claude [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2013-11-14

    Photoionization of dicyanoacetylene was studied using synchrotron radiation over the excitation range 8–25 eV, with photoelectron-photoion coincidence techniques. The absolute ionization cross-section and detailed spectroscopic aspects of the parent ion were recorded. The adiabatic ionization energy of dicyanoacetylene was measured as 11.80 ± 0.01 eV. A detailed analysis of the cation spectroscopy involves new aspects and new assignments of the vibrational components to excitation of the quasi-degenerate A{sup 2}Π{sub g}, B{sup 2}Σ{sub g}{sup +} states as well as the C{sup 2}Σ{sub u}{sup +} and D{sup 2}Π{sub u} states of the cation. Some of the structured autoionization features observed in the 12.4–15 eV region of the total ion yield spectrum were assigned to vibrational components of valence shell transitions and to two previously unknown Rydberg series converging to the D{sup 2}Π{sub u} state of C{sub 4}N{sub 2}{sup +}. The appearance energies of the fragment ions C{sub 4}N{sup +}, C{sub 3}N{sup +}, C{sub 4}{sup +}, C{sub 2}N{sup +}, and C{sub 2}{sup +} were measured and their heats of formation were determined and compared with existing literature values. Thermochemical calculations of the appearance potentials of these and other weaker ions were used to infer aspects of dissociative ionization pathways.

  9. Determinants of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return after primary total hip replacement: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Tom; Schoenfelder, Tonio; Klewer, Joerg; Kugler, Joachim

    2016-08-08

    Surveys of patient satisfaction and their willingness to return can be used for the optimization of processes, improving their quality, and increasing the satisfaction and loyalty in customers. This study looked at the factors significantly associated with patient satisfaction after primary total hip replacement (THR), and which affect the patients' willingness to return to the same hospital for future treatment, even when unrelated to their THR. Data for the study was collected by written survey from 810 patients of 43 hospitals following their THR. Satisfaction and willingness to return were measured using a validated, multidimensional questionnaire, primarily based on six-point scales, which were then evaluated together with routine hospital data, according to bivariate and multivariate analyses. The bivariate analysis showed a strong correlation between satisfaction or willingness to return and the health condition before hospitalization as well as the perceived length of stay. In contrast, the patient's gender and the number of inpatient cases in a hospital with THR had no influence. The binary logistic regression analyses identified three predictors associated with overall satisfaction and seven predictors associated with willingness to return. The strongest factor for both dependent variables was the perceived length of stay, and the weakest factor for satisfaction was the treatment outcome. Overall, with all of the medical and service-related issues considered, high levels of satisfaction were reached. Despite the high satisfaction scores, probable causes for declining the willingness to return were identified. The results provide incentives for hospitals and medical professionals to attain a high satisfaction levels in their THR patients.

  10. Drawing enhances cross-modal memory plasticity in the human brain: a case study in a totally blind adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora T.

    2012-01-01

    In a memory-guided drawing task under blindfolded conditions, we have recently used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate that the primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as the visuo-spatial buffer, or “sketchpad,” for working memory. The results implied, however, a modality-independent or amodal form of its operation. In the present study, to validate the role of V1 in non-visual memory, we eliminated not only the visual input but all levels of visual processing by replicating the paradigm in a congenitally blind individual. Our novel Cognitive-Kinesthetic method was used to train this totally blind subject to draw complex images guided solely by tactile memory. Control tasks of tactile exploration and memorization of the image to be drawn, and memory-free scribbling were also included. FMRI was run before training and after training. Remarkably, V1 of this congenitally blind individual, which before training exhibited noisy, immature, and non-specific responses, after training produced full-fledged response time-courses specific to the tactile-memory drawing task. The results reveal the operation of a rapid training-based plasticity mechanism that recruits the resources of V1 in the process of learning to draw. The learning paradigm allowed us to investigate for the first time the evolution of plastic re-assignment in V1 in a congenitally blind subject. These findings are consistent with a non-visual memory involvement of V1, and specifically imply that the observed cortical reorganization can be empowered by the process of learning to draw. PMID:22593738

  11. Measurement of the helicity-dependent total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields} p {pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, J.; Arends, H.J.; Beck, R.; Heid, E.; Jahn, O.; Lang, M.; Martinez-Fabregate, M.; Tamas, G.; Thomas, A. [Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Mainz (Germany); Altieri, S.; Panzeri, A.; Pinelli, T. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Universita di Pavia, Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Pavia (Italy); Annand, J.R.M.; McGeorge, J.C.; Protopopescu, D.; Rosner, G. [University of Glasgow, SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Blackston, M.A.; Weller, H.R. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bradtke, C.; Dutz, H.; Klein, F.; Rohlof, C. [Universitaet Bonn, Physikalisches Institut, Bonn (Germany); Braghieri, A.; Pedroni, P. [INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Hose, N. d' [DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Fix, A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Kondratiev, R.; Lisin, V. [Academy of Science, INR, Moscow (Russian Federation); Meyer, W.; Reicherz, G. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Insitut fuer Experimentalphysik, Bochum (Germany); Rostomyan, T. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Ryckbosch, D. [Universiteit Gent, Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Gent (Belgium)

    2011-03-15

    The helicity dependence of the total cross-section for the {gamma}n{yields}p{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} reaction has been measured for the first time at incident photon energies from 450 to 800MeV. The measurement was performed with the large-acceptance detector DAPHNE at the tagged photon beam facility of the MAMI accelerator in Mainz. Both the measured unpolarized and the helicity-dependent observables are not well described by the existing theoretical models. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the total cross section difference ΔσL in np transmission at 1.19, 2.49 and 3.65 GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averichev, S.A.; Ball, J.; Bazhanov, N.A.; Dzyubak, A.P.; Fedorov, A.N.; Grosnick, D.P.; Gurevich, G.M.

    1996-01-01

    Results of the total cross section difference Δσ L in a np transmission experiment are presented. Results were obtained with a polarized beam of free quasi-monochromatic neutrons passing through the new Dubna frozen spin proton target. The beam and target polarizations were oriented longitudinally. The new results are compared with Δσ L (pn) data determined as a difference between Δσ L (pd) and Δσ L (pp) ANL-ZGS measurements. The values of Δσ L for the isospin state I=0 were deduced using known pp data. (author)

  13. Investigation of total cross sections for reactions induced by {sup 6}He interaction with silicon nuclei at energies between 5 and 50 MeV/A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabdrakhimova, G. D., E-mail: gaukharkd@gmail.com [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Sobolev, Yu. G.; Kuhtina, I. N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Kuterbekov, K. A. [L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University (Kazakhstan); Mendibaev, K. O.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Experimental excitation functions in terms of the total cross sections for {sup 6}He + Si nuclear reactions are analyzed in the energy range between 5 and 50 MeV/A, and a brief survey of the procedures used to obtain experimental data is given. Particular attention is given to describing experiments performed in beams of radioactive nuclei from the accelerators of the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR, Dubna). The experimental data in question are analyzed on the basis of a semimicroscopic optical model.

  14. Total cross-sections for single electron capture from H, He and H2 targets by impact of Be4+ and B5+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busnengo, H.F.; Rivarola, R.D.; Universidad Nacional de Rosario; Rosario Univ. Nacional

    1996-01-01

    Single electron capture from H, He and H 2 targets by impact of Be 4+ and B 5+ projectiles is studied for intermediate and high collision energies. Total cross-sections are calculated using the continuum distorted wave-eikonal final state model. Theoretical results corresponding to capture to selective final bound states and to all final states are presented for impact energies ranging from 50 keV/amu to 3 MeV/amu. A comparison with available experimental data is also shown. (orig.)

  15. Total cross sections for electron scattering by 1-propanol at impact energies in the range 40-500 eV

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, D. G. M.; Gomes, M.; Ghosh, S.; Silva, I. F. L.; Pires, W. A. D.; Jones, D. B.; Blanco, F.; Garcia, G.; Buckman, S. J.; Brunger, M. J.; Lopes, M. C. A.

    2017-11-01

    Absolute total cross section (TCS) measurements for electron scattering from 1-propanol molecules are reported for impact energies from 40 to 500 eV. These measurements were obtained using a new apparatus developed at Juiz de Fora Federal University—Brazil, which is based on the measurement of the attenuation of a collimated electron beam through a gas cell containing the molecules to be studied at a given pressure. Besides these experimental measurements, we have also calculated TCS using the Independent-Atom Model with Screening Corrected Additivity Rule and Interference (IAM-SCAR+I) approach with the level of agreement between them being typically found to be very good.

  16. A cross-sectional look at patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesworth Bert M

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, no researchers have investigated patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA. An understanding of patient concerns at a time when physical therapists are involved in the treatment of these patients will aid clinicians in providing patient-centered care. Linking of items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF allows for comparison and sharing of data amongst researchers, as the ICF is the accepted framework for evaluating disability in rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to identify patient concerns in the first six weeks following primary TKA and link these concerns to components of the ICF and map them to commonly used outcome measures. Methods Individual interviews were conducted to identify patient concerns during their recovery following primary TKA. Concerns identified by patients were analysed for content and linked to the components of the ICF using the operational definitions of the ICF components. These concerns were mapped to the WOMAC, KOOS and Oxford Knee Scale. Results Thirty patients (18 female with an average age (SD of 68.4 (11.1 years completed the study. Patients identified 32 concerns. Twenty-two percent (n = 7 of the concerns linked to Body Function and Structure, 47% (n = 15 to Activity, 13% (n = 4 to Participation, and 13% (n = 4 to the Environmental Factors component of the ICF. Six percent (n = 2 of the concerns did not link to the ICF. Of the 32 concerns identified by patients 14 mapped to the KOOS, 11 to the WOMAC and 4 to the Oxford Knee Scale. Conclusion Patient concerns linked to four different components of the ICF indicating that patients are involved in or are thinking of multiple aspects of life even in this early phase of recovery. The KOOS was found to be the most appropriate for use based on the patients' perspective. However, less than half of the concerns identified by patients were

  17. Ionization of atoms by bare ion projectiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribedi, L.C. [J. R. Macdonald Laboratory, Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2604 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The double differential cross sections (DDCS) for low energy electron emission can provide stringent tests to the theoretical models for ionization in ion-atom collision. The two-center effects and the post collision interactions play a major role in ionization by highly charged, high Z projectiles. We{close_quote}ll review the recent developments in this field and describe our efforts to study the energy and angular distributions of the low energy electrons emitted in ion-atom ionization. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Ionization potentials of seaborgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.; Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.

    1999-01-01

    Multiconfiguration relativistic Dirac-Fock values were calculated for the first six ionization potentials of seaborgium and of the other group 6 elements. No experimental ionization potentials are available for seaborgium. Accurate experimental values are not available for all of the other ionization potentials. Ionic radii for the 4+ through 6+ ions of seaborgium are also presented. The ionization potentials and ionic radii obtained will be used to predict some physiochemical properties of seaborgium and its compounds

  19. Ionization of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    After general remarks on foods preservation, on international works and on ionization future prospects, main irradiation sources are described. Recalls on radioactivity, on radiation-matter interaction, on toxicology of ionized foods and on ionized foods detection are given. Ionization applications to various products are reviewed, especially in: - Poultry meat - Fishing products - Fresh fruits and vegetables - Dry fruits and vegetables - spices, tea, infusion - prepacked products... An evaluation of economics and sociocultural impacts is presented in connection with recent experiments [fr

  20. Fast-electron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen: energy and angular distribution of double and single differential cross sections and Young-type interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, S.; Kasthurirangan, S.; Kelkar, A. H.; Stia, C. R.; Fojón, O. A.; Rivarola, R. D.; Tribedi, L. C.

    2009-03-01

    We report the energy and angular distribution of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of ejected electrons in collisions of 8 keV projectile electrons with molecular hydrogen. The ejected electrons with energy between 1 eV and 400 eV and ejection angles between 30° and 150° are detected. The measured data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on two-effective centre (TEC) model. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio spectra (H2 to 2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS spectra as a function of the ejection angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCS over the solid angle as well as ejection energy. We demonstrate that the SDCS and corresponding ratio spectra also preserve the signature of interference.

  1. Fast-electron impact ionization of molecular hydrogen: energy and angular distribution of double and single differential cross sections and Young-type interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, S; Kasthurirangan, S; Kelkar, A H; Tribedi, L C [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Stia, C R; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Av Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)], E-mail: lokesh@tifr.res.in

    2009-03-28

    We report the energy and angular distribution of absolute double differential cross sections (DDCSs) of ejected electrons in collisions of 8 keV projectile electrons with molecular hydrogen. The ejected electrons with energy between 1 eV and 400 eV and ejection angles between 30 deg. and 150 deg. are detected. The measured data are compared with the theoretical calculations based on two-effective centre (TEC) model. The first-order interference is derived from the energy distribution of DDCS and the resulting ratio spectra (H{sub 2} to 2H) exhibit oscillating behaviour. The signature of first-order interference is also demonstrated in the DDCS spectra as a function of the ejection angle. We have shown that the constructive interference prevails in soft- and binary-collision regions. The single differential cross sections (SDCS) are deduced by integrating the DDCS over the solid angle as well as ejection energy. We demonstrate that the SDCS and corresponding ratio spectra also preserve the signature of interference.

  2. Dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol among middle-aged and older adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarmath, Sujay S; Zack, Rachel M; Leyna, Germana H; Fahimi, Saman; Liu, Enju; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Lukmanji, Zohra; Killewo, Japhet; Sacks, Frank; Danaei, Goodarz

    2017-06-06

    To assess the dietary determinants of serum total cholesterol. Cross-sectional population-based study. Peri-urban region of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. 347 adults aged 40 years and older from the Dar es Salaam Urban Cohort Hypertension Study. Serum total cholesterol measured using a point-of-care device. Mean serum total cholesterol level was 204 mg/dL (IQR 169-236 mg/dL) in women and 185 mg/dL (IQR 152-216 mg/dL) in men. After adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle and dietary factors, participants who reported using palm oil as the major cooking oil had serum total cholesterol higher by 15 mg/dL (95% CI 1 to 29 mg/dL) compared with those who reported using sunflower oil. Consumption of one or more servings of meat per day (p for trend=0.017) and less than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day (p for trend=0.024) were also associated with higher serum total cholesterol. A combination of using palm oil for cooking, eating more than one serving of meat per day and fewer than five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, was associated with 46 mg/dL (95% CI 16 to 76 mg/dL) higher serum total cholesterol. Using palm oil for cooking was associated with higher serum total cholesterol levels in this peri-urban population in Dar es Salaam. Reduction of saturated fat content of edible oil may be considered as a population-based strategy for primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Effects of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and performance of growing Holstein-Zebu cross steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenongyai, Watcharawit; Pattarajinda, Virote; Stelzleni, Alexander M; Sethakul, Jutarat; Duangjinda, Monchai

    2017-09-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of forage ensiling and ration fermentation on total mixed ration pH, ruminal fermentation and animal performance. Thirty Holstein-Zebu cross steers were allotted to feeding treatments for 188 days in a randomized complete block design including: fresh grass-total mixed ration (GTMR; pH 4.7), grass silage-TMR (STMR; pH 4.0) and fermented-TMR (FTMR; pH 3.5). Average daily gain for STMR was greatest during the first 3 months period; however, that for FTMR tended to be greater than GTMR during the second 3 months period (P butyric acids were greater for FTMR than GTMR (P fermentation did not negatively impact on ruminal pH. STMR and FTMRs can be used to maintain performance of growing crossbred Holstein steers. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Multiphoton ionization of atomic cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, R.N.; Klots, C.E.; Stockdale, J.A.D.; Cooper, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    We describe experimental studies of resonantly enhanced multi-photon ionization (MPI) of cesium atoms in the presence and absence of an external electric field. In the zero-field studies, photo-electron angular distributions for one- and two-photon resonantly enhanced MPI are compared with the theory of Tang and Lambropoulos. Deviations of experiment from theory are attributed to hyperfine coupling effects in the resonant intermediate state. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent. In the absence of an external electric field, signal due to two-photon resonant three-photon ionization of cesium via np states is undetectable. Application of an electric field mixes nearby nd and ns levels, thereby inducing excitation and subsequent ionization. Signal due to two-photon excitation of ns levels in field-free experiments is weak due to their small photoionization cross section. An electric field mixes nearby np levels which again allows detectable photo-ionization signal. For both ns and np states the ''field induced'' MPI signal increases as the square of the electric field for a given principal quantum number and increases rapidly with n for a given field strength

  5. Measurement of the ratios of the Z/γ+⩾n jet production cross sections to the total inclusive Z/γ cross section in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96 TeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    DØ Collaboration; Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Abolins, M.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agelou, M.; Ahn, S. H.; Ahsan, M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Anastasoaie, M.; Andeen, T.; Anderson, S.; Andrieu, B.; Anzelc, M. S.; Arnoud, Y.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; Åsman, B.; Jesus, A. C. S. Assis; Atramentov, O.; Autermann, C.; Avila, C.; Ay, C.; Badaud, F.; Baden, A.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Bargassa, P.; Baringer, P.; Barnes, C.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bauer, D.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Bellavance, A.; Benitez, J. A.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Berntzon, L.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Binder, M.; Biscarat, C.; Black, K. M.; Blackler, I.; Blazey, G.; Blekman, F.; Blessing, S.; Bloch, D.; Bloom, K.; Blumenschein, U.; Boehnlein, A.; Boeriu, O.; Bolton, T. A.; Borissov, G.; Bos, K.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Buchanan, N. J.; Buchholz, D.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Burdin, S.; Burke, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Busato, E.; Buszello, C. P.; Butler, J. M.; Calfayan, P.; Calvet, S.; Cammin, J.; Caron, S.; Carvalho, W.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Charles, F.; Cheu, E.; Chevallier, F.; Cho, D. K.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Christofek, L.; Claes, D.; Clément, B.; Clément, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Coppage, D.; Corcoran, M.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Cox, B.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Cutts, D.; Ćwiok, M.; da Motta, H.; Das, A.; Das, M.; Davies, B.; Davies, G.; Davis, G. A.; de, K.; de Jong, P.; de Jong, S. J.; de La Cruz-Burelo, E.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Degenhardt, J. D.; Déliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Demine, P.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Doidge, M.; Dominguez, A.; Dong, H.; Dudko, L. V.; Duflot, L.; Dugad, S. R.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dyer, J.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Edwards, T.; Ellison, J.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Eno, S.; Ermolov, P.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fatakia, S. N.; Feligioni, L.; Ferapontov, A. V.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fu, S.; Fuess, S.; Gadfort, T.; Galea, C. F.; Gallas, E.; Galyaev, E.; Garcia, C.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gardner, J.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, A.; Gay, P.; Gelé, D.; Gelhaus, R.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gillberg, D.; Ginther, G.; Gollub, N.; Gómez, B.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guo, F.; Guo, J.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hadley, N. J.; Haefner, P.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Hall, I.; Hall, R. E.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Harrington, R.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hauser, R.; Hays, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegeman, J. G.; Heinmiller, J. M.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hoeth, H.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hong, S. J.; Hooper, R.; Houben, P.; Hu, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jain, S.; Jakobs, K.; Jarvis, C.; Jenkins, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Juste, A.; Käfer, D.; Kahn, S.; Kajfasz, E.; Kalinin, A. M.; Kalk, J. M.; Kalk, J. R.; Kappler, S.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, J.; Kasper, P.; Katsanos, I.; Kau, D.; Kaur, R.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Khatidze, D.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Kirby, M. H.; Klima, B.; Kohli, J. M.; Konrath, J.-P.; Kopal, M.; Korablev, V. M.; Kotcher, J.; Kothari, B.; Koubarovsky, A.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kozminski, J.; Krop, D.; Kryemadhi, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lazoflores, J.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, W. M.; Leflat, A.; Lehner, F.; Lesne, V.; Leveque, J.; Lewis, P.; Li, J.; Li, Q. Z.; Lima, J. G. R.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Z.; Lobo, L.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lounis, A.; Love, P.; Lubatti, H. J.; Lynker, M.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madaras, R. J.; Mättig, P.; Magass, C.; Magerkurth, A.; Magnan, A.-M.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P. K.; Malbouisson, H. B.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mao, H. S.; Maravin, Y.; Martens, M.; McCarthy, R.; Meder, D.; Melnitchouk, A.; Mendes, A.; Mendoza, L.; Merkin, M.; Merritt, K. W.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Michaut, M.; Miettinen, H.; Millet, T.; Mitrevski, J.; Molina, J.; Mondal, N. K.; Monk, J.

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of events with Z bosons and associated jets produced at the Fermilab Tevatron collider in pp¯ collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV. The data sample consists of nearly 14 000 Z/γ→ee candidates corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.4 fb-1 collected with the DØ detector. Ratios of the Z/γ+⩾n jet cross sections to the total inclusive Z/γ cross section have been measured for n=1 4 jets, and found to be in good agreement with a next-to-leading order QCD calculation and with a tree-level QCD prediction with parton shower simulation and hadronization.

  6. Position-sensitive ionization detectors for ionizing beams diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Artemiev, A N; Mikhailov, V; Rezvov, V; Yudin, L

    2002-01-01

    Ionizing detectors for on-line non-destructive monitoring of the geometric parameters of ionizing beams have been proposed. Such a detector can be used on a beamline with a residual gas pressure of about 10 sup - sup 3 -10 sup - sup 6 Torr. It measures the product of ionization of the residual gas by the beam under investigation. An electric field moves the ions through a narrow slit into an analyzer. The analyzer field transforms the energy distribution of the ions into a two-dimensional space distribution on the outer analyzer plane. An Open Image Converter Tube (ICT) with an amplifier consisting of two Micro Channel Plates (MCP) forms an image of the real beam cross-section. This image is registered by a video camera, processed and stored on a computer. The detectors were successfully tested on beams of charged particles with wide energy and intensity ranges and on synchrotron radiation beams. Codes developed give the distribution of the beam density along its cross-section, beam profiles, the position of ...

  7. Measurement of the total reaction cross section for interactions between heavy ions (application to the system 12C+12C at 112MeV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkaoui-Tadili, R.

    1982-01-01

    The total reaction cross-section σsub(R) for interactions between heavy ions is predicted to decrease rapidly with the energy of the incident projectile over the energy range 10 MeV/A - 100 MeV/A. We present here an experimental met σsub(R) to test the model based predictions. The method consists in counting the number of all incoming projectiles and the number of out going projectiles that did not interact with the target. The difference between these two numbers corresponds to the number of particles that reacted with the target nuclei and is therefore proportional to σsub(R). Values of σsub(R) have been measured for the system 12 C + 12 C at two incident energies of 112 MeV and 996 MeV. The results of 1444 +- 70 (112 MeV) and 994 +- 50 (996 MeV) show a total reaction cross-section decreasing with energy as predicted from the Glauber model and optical model fits to elastic scattering [fr

  8. Investigation of the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, M.; Meggiolaro, E.; Silva, P. V. R. G.

    2017-08-01

    In the present investigation we study the leading and subleading high-energy behavior of hadron-hadron total cross sections using a best-fit analysis of hadronic scattering data. The parametrization used for the hadron-hadron total cross sections at high energy is inspired by recent results obtained by Giordano and Meggiolaro [J. High Energy Phys. 03 (2014) 002, 10.1007/JHEP03(2014)002] using a nonperturbative approach in the framework of QCD, and it reads σtot˜B ln2s +C ln s ln ln s . We critically investigate if B and C can be obtained by means of best-fits to data for proton-proton and antiproton-proton scattering, including recent data obtained at the LHC, and also to data for other meson-baryon and baryon-baryon scattering processes. In particular, following the above-mentioned nonperturbative QCD approach, we also consider fits where the parameters B and C are set to B =κ Bth and C =κ Cth, where Bth and Cth are universal quantities related to the QCD stable spectrum, while κ (treated as an extra free parameter) is related to the asymptotic value of the ratio σel/σtot. Different possible scenarios are then considered and compared.

  9. Total delay in treatment among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in five primary health centers, southern Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anteneh Asefa

    Full Text Available The global burden of Tuberculosis (TB remains enormous. Delay in TB diagnosis may lead to a higher infectious pool in the community and a more advanced disease state at presentation increasing the risk of mortality. This study is conducted to determine the total delay before treatment among smear positive Pulmonary Tuberculosis (PTB patients.A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted in five primary health centers in southern Ethiopia from June to December 2012. A total of 328 smear positive PTB patients were enrolled in the study. A structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used. Median patient, diagnostic, and treatment delays were calculated to determine the total delay. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with total delay.The median patient, diagnostic, treatment and total delays measured in days were 30 (IQR 20.2, 60, 7 (IQR: 3, 14, 3 (IQR: 1, 4 and 45 (IQR: 34.5, 69.5 days respectively. Patients for whom treatment was not initiated within 45 days of onset of symptom(s (total delay constituted 49% of the study participants (59.5% among males and 39.2% among females; P<0.001. Total delay was found to be associated with: being female [AOR  = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.18-0.62], having attended tertiary level education [AOR  = 0.11, 95% CI: 0.02-0.55], perceived severity of stigma during the current TB disease course [AOR = 2. 18, 95% CI: 1.07, 4.42] and living in houses with higher family size [AOR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.61].Total delay in treatment of TB is still high in the study area. Patient's sex, perceived stigma, educational status and family size are significantly contributing for total delay. Therefore, a concerted effort should be taken in order to improve health seeking behavior of the community on TB and to reduce delays from seeking care after experiencing TB symptoms.

  10. Ionizing radiations and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Daşdağ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the biologic effects of ionizing radiation and relation between medical diagnosticradiation exposure and cancer risk. Many unnecessary ionizing radiation applications are performed in the medicalcenters and hospitals. Therefore the health staff and the patients expose to serious risks of radiation. On the other hand, recently some studies, which suggested relationshipsbetween low dose ionizing radiation and some cancers, have been published. The relationship between low dose ionizing radiation and cancer can be more understandablewhen the stochastic effects of ionizing radiationtake into consideration. This presented review calls attention to the fact that low dose ionizing radiation may be an important factor for increased cancer risk. Therefore,physicians, health workers and patients have to pay maximum attention to avoid hazards of low dose ionizing radiation.

  11. Cross Calibration of the GE Prodigy and iDXA for the Measurement of Total and Regional Body Composition in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, Brian; Treadgold, Laura; Hind, Karen

    2017-07-18

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) body composition measurements are widely performed in both clinical and research settings, and enable the rapid and noninvasive estimation of total and regional fat and lean mass tissues. DXA upgrading can occur during longitudinal monitoring or study; therefore, cross calibration of old and new absorptiometers is required. We compared soft tissue estimations from the GE Prodigy (GE Healthcare, Madison, WI) with the more recent iDXA (GE Healthcare) and developed translational equations to enable Prodigy values to be converted to iDXA values. Eighty-three males and females aged 20.1-63.3 yr and with a body mass index range of 17.0-34.4 kg/m 2 were recruited for the study. Fifty-nine participants (41 females and 18 males) comprised the cross-calibration group and 24 (14 females and 10 males) comprised the validation group. Total body Prodigy and iDXA scans were performed on each subject within 24 h. Predictive equations for total and regional soft tissue parameters were derived from linear regression of the data. Measures of lean and fat tissues were highly correlated (R 2  = 0.95-0.99), but significant differences and variability between machines were identified. Bland-Altman analysis revealed significant biases for most measures, particularly for arm, android, and gynoid fat mass (12.3%-22.7%). The derived translational equations reduced biases and differences for most parameters, although limits of agreement exceeded iDXA least significant change. In conclusion, variability in soft tissue estimates between the Prodigy and iDXA were detected, supporting the need for translational equations in longitudinal monitoring. The derived equations are suitable for group analysis but not individual analysis. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Parity violating total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Preston, D.

    1988-01-01

    A diquark-quark scattering model for the parity-violating asymmetry in nucleon-nucleon scattering is described. Criticism of the model by Simonius and Unger is refuted. The strong energy dependence of the result, and the possibility of important non-valence contributions to the nucleon polarization, both support the need for further measurements at Fermilab and at Brookhaven energies. 9 refs., 7 figs

  13. Wear resistant performance of highly cross-linked and annealed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against ceramic heads in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taishi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Akiyama, Mio; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Mawatari, Taro; Itokawa, Takashi; Ohishi, Masanobu; Motomura, Goro; Hirata, Masanobu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ceramic femoral head material, size, and implantation periods on the wear of annealed, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (XLPE) in total hip arthroplasty compared to non-cross-linked conventional UHMWPE (CPE). XLPE was fabricated by cross-linking with 60 kGy irradiation and annealing. Femoral heads made from zirconia and alumina ceramics and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) of 22 or 26 mm diameter were used. In this retrospective cohort study, the femoral head penetration into the cup was measured digitally on radiographs of 367 hips with XLPE and 64 hips with CPE. The average follow-up periods were 6.3 and 11.9 years, respectively. Both XLPE creep and wear rates were significantly lower than those of CPE (0.19 mm vs. 0.44 mm, 0.0001 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year, respectively). Zirconia displayed increased wear rates compared to alumina in CPE; however, there was no difference among head materials in XLPE (0.0008, 0.00007, and -0.009 mm/year for zirconia, alumina, and CoCr, respectively). Neither head size or implantation period impacted XLPE wear. In contrast to CPE, XLPE displayed low wear rates surpassing the effects of varying femoral head material, size, implantation period, and patient demographics. Further follow-up is required to determine the long-term clinical performance of the annealed XLPE. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. Total neutron cross-section of U-238 as measured with filtered neutrons of 55 keV and 144 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Zuy Hien; Vuong Huu Tan; Nguyen Phuoc Xuan.

    1993-01-01

    In the piercing horizontal channel of the Dalat nuclear research reactor a 98cm long silicon filter has been installed for producing quasi-monoenergetic neutrons of 55 keV and 144 keV. The flux intensities of the neutron beams are 4x10 6 n/cm 2 .s (55 keV) and 1.2x10 7 n/cm 2 .s (144 keV). Filtered neutron beams are being utilized for the measurements of the resonance-averaged nuclear parameters. In the first experiments aiming partly at testing the adequacy of the experimental conditions total neutron cross-sections have been measured by transmission technique for U-238 and C-12 target nuclei. The data for U-238 obtained with the accuracy of about 1% were compared with the evaluated ENDF/B-IV data and the results of recent experimental works. (author). 4 figs, 6 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Updated predictions for the total production cross sections of top and of heavier quark pairs at the Tevatron and at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, Matteo; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, Paolo; Ridolfi, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    We present updated predictions for the total production cross section of top-quark pairs at the Tevatron and at the LHC, and, at the LHC, of heavy-quark pairs with mass in the range 0.5-2 TeV. For t\\bar{t} production at the LHC we also present results at \\sqrt{S}= 10 TeV, in view of the expected accelerator conditions during the forthcoming 2008 run. Our results are accurate at the level of next-to-leading order in alpha_s, and of next-to-leading threshold logarithms (NLO+NLL). We adopt the most recent parametrizations of parton distribution functions, and compute the corresponding uncertainties. We study the dependence of the results on the top mass, and we assess the impact of missing higher-order corrections by independent variations of factorisation and renormalisation scales.

  16. High resolution measurements of the He-He total scattering cross section for reduced collision energies between 0.2 and 200

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltgen, R.; Koehler, K.A.; Pauly, H.; Torello, F.; Vehmeyer, H.

    1974-01-01

    The energy dependence of the total scattering cross section is measured for the isotopic systems He 4 -He 4 and He 3 -He 3 using a velocity selected He primary beam and a He target in a scattering chamber maintained at 1.57 deg K. In the low energy region both systems show a pronounced atomic Ramsauer-Townsend effect. At higher energies 13 backward glory extrema in the case of He 4 -He 4 and 10 extrema for He 3 -He 3 are observed. From these extrema the energy dependence of the s-phase shift can be derived. Applying the semiclassical inversion method proposed by Miller it is possible to compute the repulsive potential in the energy range of the measurement

  17. Measurement of the total and differential inclusive $\\mathrm{B}^{+}$ hadron cross sections in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Lauwers, Jasper; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Delannoy, Hugo; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Luetic, Jelena; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Cimmino, Anna; Cornelis, Tom; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Poyraz, Deniz; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Schöfbeck, Robert; Sharma, Archana; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Francois, Brieuc; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Magitteri, Alessio; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Wertz, Sébastien; Beliy, Nikita; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Tongguang; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Liu, Zhenan; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhao, Jingzhou; Ban, Yong; Chen, Geng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; González Hernández, Carlos Felipe; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Sculac, Toni; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Susa, Tatjana; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio

    2017-08-10

    The total and differential cross sections for inclusive production of $\\mathrm{B}^{+}$ hadrons are measured as a function of the $\\mathrm{B}^{+}$ transverse momentum $p_{\\mathrm{T}}^\\mathrm{B}$ and rapidity $y^\\mathrm{B}$ in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, using data collected by the CMS experiment that correspond to an integrated luminosity of 49.4 pb$^{-1}$. The measurement uses the exclusive decay channel $\\mathrm{B}^{+} \\to \\mathrm{J}/\\psi \\mathrm{K}^{+}$, with $\\mathrm{J}/\\psi$ mesons that decay to a pair of muons. The results show a reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations within the uncertainties.

  18. The Structure of Nuclei Joint Analysis of Elastic, Inelastic Scattering and Total Reactions Cross-Sections for ^{90,94}Zr-Particles Data

    CERN Document Server

    Duysebaev, A D; Kuchtina, I N; Sadykov, B M; Slusarenko, L I; Tokarevsky, V V; Fayans, S A

    2001-01-01

    A complex analysis of experimental data of elastic, inelastic scattering and total reactions cross-sections of alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei is performed. Values of the deformation lengths and neutron-proton multipole matrix elements relations for 2_{1}^{+}- and 3_{1}^{+}-states of ^{90,92,94,96}Zr nuclei for different types of particles are obtained. A comparative analysis is made. Experimental data for inelastic scattering of 35.4, 40.0, 50.1 and 65.0 MeV alpha-particles on ^{90,94}Zr nuclei are analysed for understanding the phase shifts in frames of the unified approach.

  19. Precision measurement of the total cross section for e/sup +/e/sup -/. -->. hadrons at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Ford, W.T.; Qi, N.; Read A.L. Jr.; Smith, J.G.; Camporesi, T.; De Sangro, R.; Marini, A.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Ronga, F.; Blume, H.T.; Hurst, R.B.; Sleeman, J.C.; Venuti, J.P.; Wald, H.B.; Weinstein, R.; Band, H.R.; Gettner, M.W.; Goderre, G.P.; Gottschalk, B.; Meyer, O.A.; Moromisato, J.H.; Shambroom, W.D.; von Goeler, E.; Ash, W.W.; Chadwick, G.B.; Clearwater, S.H.; Coombes, R.W.; Kaye, H.S.; Lau, K.H.; Leedy, R.E.; Lynch, H.L.; Messner, R.L.; Michalowski, S.J.; Muller, F.; Moss, L.J.; Nelson, H.N.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D.M.; Rosenberg, L.J.; Wiser, D.E.; Zdarko, R.W.; Groom, D.E.; Lee, H.; Loh, E.C.; Delfino, M.C.; Heltsley, B.K.; Johnson, J.R.; Lavine, T.L.; Maruyama, T.; Prepost, R.

    1985-04-01

    We report a high-precision measurement of the ratio R of the total cross section for e/sup +/e/sup -/..-->..hadrons to that for e/sup +/e/sup -/..--> mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/, at a center-of-mass energy of 29.0 GeV using the MAC detector. The result is R = 3.96 +- 0.09. This value of R is used to determine a value of the strong coupling constant ..cap alpha../sub s/ of 0.23 +- 0.06, nearly independent of fragmentation models. Two different analysis methods having quite different event-selection criteria have been used and the results are in agreement. Particular attention has been given to the study of systematic errors. New higher-order QED calculations are used for the luminosity determination and the acceptance for hadrons.

  20. Measurement of the total cross section for the photoproduction of omega mesons on the proton; Messung des totalen Wirkungsquerschnitts fuer die Photoproduktion von Omegamesonen am Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeffgen, S.K.

    2007-06-15

    The photoproduction of omega mesons on the proton ({gamma}p {yields} {omega}p) directly at the production threshold was investigated during the first phase of the CB-ELSA experiment in Bonn. In experiments directly at the threshold the protons are strongly focussed in forward direction due to kinematic reasons. Therefore the forward detector, a large area time of flight detector, plays a prominent role and there is a detailed description of the reconstruction and measuring capabilities of this spectrometer. Thereafter follows the extraction of the total cross section of the reaction {gamma}p {yields} {omega}p in the decay channel with {omega} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} directly at the production threshold with previously unequaled accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of total reaction sup 4 sup , sup 6 He + sup 2 sup 8 Si cross section at 10-28 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, I V; Kalpakchieva, R

    2002-01-01

    New results have been obtained for the energy dependence of the total reaction cross section sigma sub R of sup 6 He on sup 2 sup 8 Si in the energy range 10-28 MeV/A. The cross sections of formation of alpha-particles in the interaction of sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 6 He + sup 4 He)X were also measured. The secondary sup 6 He beams, with an intensity of up to 5 x 10 sup 4 pps, were produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with a primary sup 7 Li beam of approx 32 MeV/A. In the energy region below 17 MeV/A a strong rise in the values of sigma sub R has been observed. The experimental data on sigma sub R are compared with calculations, where for the analysis of sigma sub R the double-folding potential in the frame of the optical model is used. The different energy dependence of sigma sub R for sup 6 He compared to that of some neighbouring nuclei may be due to peculiarities in its structure. The energy spectra of the alpha-particles, produced in the sup 2 sup 8 Si( sup 6 He + sup 4 He) reaction, show that they...

  2. Total Reaction Cross Sections for the $^{4,6}$ He+$^{28}$Si Reactions at 10-28 MeV/A

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, I V; Ivanov, M P; Kalpakchieva, R; Kugler, A; Kukhtina, I N; Kushniruk, V F; Maslov, V A; Mikhailov, L V; Negoita, F; Penionzhkevich, Yu E; Poroshin, O N; Skobelev, N K; Sobolev, Yu G; Ugryumov, V Yu

    2001-01-01

    New results have been obtained for the energy dependence of the total reaction cross section \\sigma_R of ^{6}He on ^{28}Si in the energy range 10-28 MeV/A. The cross sections of formation of alpha-particles in the interaction of ^{6}He with ^{28}Si were also measured. The secondary ^{6}He beams, with an intensity of up to 5\\cdot10^{4} pps, were produced by bombarding a thick beryllium target with a primary ^{7}Li-beam of \\sim32 MeV/A. In the energy region below 17 MeV/A a strong rise in the values of \\sigma_R has been observed. The experimental data on \\sigma_R are compared with calculations, where for the analysis of \\sigma_R the double-folding potential in the frame of the optical model is used. The different energy dependence of \\sigma_R for ^{6}He compared to that of some neighbouring nuclei may be due to peculiarities in its structure. The energy spectra of the alpha-particles, produced in the ^{28}Si(^{6}He,^{4}He)X reaction, show that they may be the result of a transfer and breakup reaction mechanisms...

  3. Total Cross-Sections of U, UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} for Thermal and Subthermal Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshai, S.F. [IAEA-fellow from Atomic Energy Establishment (Egypt)

    1966-03-15

    The total neutron cross-sections of U, UO{sub 2} and ThO{sub 2} have been measured from 0.0045 eV to 0.028 eV, using the time-of-flight technique. The samples were measured at 20 deg C. ThO{sub 2} was also measured at 750 deg C. The neutron source was the reactor Rl, Stockholm. The experimental results presented as graphs in the report show in detail the influence of Bragg scattering. The results further show that the increase of the temperature for the ThO{sub 2} sample gives an increase in the cross-section. The work also contains some calculations of the position in energy of Bragg edges for the three materials. These calculations show a very good agreement with the experiments. For uranium metal some calculations have been carried out also for the height ({sigma}{sup g}{sub hkl}) of the edges The agreement with the experiments is reasonable.

  4. Multiple ionization of atoms by ion impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    In order to model the energy deposition of fast ions as they slow down in gaseous media, information about the ionization occurring in collisions between ions and target atoms/molecules is required. Our measurements of doubly differential electron emission cross sections provide detailed information about the ionization process but do not provide any information about the final states of the target. They also do not distinguish between the emission of one or more target electrons in a single collision. It is important to know the relative importance of multiple-, with respect to single-, target ionization in order to accurately model the energy deposition. To date, multiple ionization of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe targets has been studied. Primarily, H and He ions were used, although some data for heavier ions (C,N and O) have also been obtained

  5. Ionizing radiation in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandl, J.; Petr, I.

    1988-01-01

    The basic terms are explained such as the atom, radioactivity, nuclear reaction, interaction of ionizing radiation with matter, etc. The basic dosimetric variables and units and properties of radionuclides and ionizing radiation are given. Natural and artificial sources of ionizing radiation are discussed with regard to the environment and the propagation and migration of radionuclides is described in the environment to man. The impact is explained of ionizing radiation on the cell and the somatic and genetic effects of radiation on man are outlined. Attention is devoted to protection against ionizing radiation and to radiation limits, also to the detection, dosimetry and monitoring of ionizing radiation in the environment. (M.D.). 92 figs., 40 tabs. 74 refs

  6. Ionizing radiation in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blok, K.; Ginkel, G. van; Leun, K. van der; Muller, H.; Oude Elferink, J.; Vesseur, A.

    1985-10-01

    This booklet dels with the risks of the use of ionizing radiation for people working in a hospital. It is subdivided in three parts. Part 1 treats the properties of ionizing radiation in general. In part 2 the various applications are discussed of ionizing radiation in hospitals. Part 3 indicates how a not completely safe situation may be improved. (H.W.). 14 figs.; 4 tabs

  7. Ionization of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, E.C.; Bakale, G.

    1976-01-01

    Application of pulsed-conductivity techniques to ionization phenomena in liquids has yielded new results on electron transport and electron reactions in nonpolar liquids which we have extrapolated to biological systems to develop a novel model of direct radiation damage to mammalian cells that involves the unsolvated electron as the key reactant. Among these new results are electron attachment rate constants of thirty-five substituted nitrobenzene compounds measured in nonpolar solvents which when combined with product anion lifetimes are correlated with cellular radiosensitization efficiencies. From this study we found that electron attachment rates are dependent upon the electron mobility in the solvents and upon the dipole moment of the electron-accepting nitrobenzene compounds. The model also drawn upon energy-dependent electron attachment rates which we have measured in cryogenic liquids, and we have measured in the same solvents associative detachment rate constants and electron momentum transfer cross sections. In addition to these studies of electronic processes in liquids, we have measured ion mobilities of lecithin and chlorophyll in nonpolar solvents and conclude that these solutes form inverse micelles under certain conditions. Formation of these micelles permits electron transport through the lipid micellar walls and electron attachment to electron-accepting polar solutes inside the lipid vesicles to be studied

  8. Dosimetry of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.; Seda, J.; Trousil, J.

    1992-01-01

    The publication deals with a major field of ionizing radiation dosimetry, viz., integrating dosimetric methods, which are the basic means of operative dose determination. It is divided into the following sections: physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation; integrating dosimetric methods for low radiation doses (film dosimetry, nuclear emulsions, thermoluminescence, radiophotoluminescence, solid-state track detectors, integrating ionization dosemeters); dosimetry of high ionizing radiation doses (chemical dosimetric methods, dosemeters based on the coloring effect, activation detectors); additional methods applicable to integrating dosimetry (exoelectron emission, electron spin resonance, lyoluminescence, etc.); and calibration techniques for dosimetric instrumentation. (Z.S.). 422 refs

  9. Ultrasensitive analysis of thorium by resonance ionization mass spectroscopy (RIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.G.; Nogar, N.S.; Miller, C.M.; Murrell, M.T.; Fearey, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This communication presents results on a RIMS analysis of thorium. Thorium is of interest for geochronological and geochemical purposes. The measurement of uranium series disequilibrium is a well established and valuable approach for geochronological studies: disequilibrium between 234/238 U and 230 Th can be used to date samples younger than 350,000 years. Both continuous wave (cw) and pulsed lasers were utilized in this study for resonantly exciting and subsequently ionizing thorium. In the case of the pulsed laser RIMS experiments, two excimer laser-pumped dye lasers were used in conjunction with a 0.4 m time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The cw RIMS experiments used an Ar + laser-pumped dye laser and a second Ar + in combination with a single magnetic sector mass spectrometer (NBS 12-90 design). Experiments performed with the pulsed RIMS apparatus were aimed at determining the autoionization state structure and re-determining the ionization potential (IP). By tuning one dye laser to a resonance and scanning the second laser such that the total energy was equal to or above the IP, over 150 autoionization states were determined. The IP was re-determined to be 6.211±.002 eV (50900 ± 20 cm -1 ). In addition, the typical cross section for ionization of an autoionizing state was determined to be 1 x 10 -15 cm 2

  10. Measurements of Fission Cross Sections of Actinides

    CERN Multimedia

    Wiescher, M; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M

    2002-01-01

    A measurement of the neutron induced fission cross sections of $^{237}$Np, $^{241},{243}$Am and of $^{245}$Cm is proposed for the n_TOF neutron beam. Two sets of fission detectors will be used: one based on PPAC counters and another based on a fast ionization chamber (FIC). A total of 5x10$^{18}$ protons are requested for the entire fission measurement campaign.

  11. Communication: Rovibrationally selected absolute total cross sections for the reaction H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000; N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+)}+ D{sub 2}: Observation of the rotational enhancement effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Yuntao; Xiong Bo; Chang, Yih Chung; Ng, C. Y. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2012-12-28

    By employing the newly established vacuum ultraviolet laser pulsed field ionization-photoion (PFI-PI) double quadrupole-double octopole ion guide apparatus, we have measured the rovibrationally selected absolute total cross sections of the ion-molecule reaction H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000; N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+)}+ D{sub 2}{yields} H{sub 2}DO{sup +}+ D in the center-of-mass collision energy (E{sub cm}) range of 0.05-10.00 eV. The pulsing scheme used for the generation of PFI-PIs has made possible the preparation of reactant H{sub 2}O{sup +}(X{sup 2}B{sub 1}; v{sub 1}{sup +}v{sub 2}{sup +}v{sub 3}{sup +}= 000) ions in single N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+} rotational levels with high kinetic energy resolutions. The absolute total cross sections observed in different N{sup +}{sub Ka+Kc+} levels with rotational energies in the range of 0-200 cm{sup -1} were found to exhibit a significant rotational enhancement on the reactivity for the titled reaction. In contrast, the measured cross sections reveal a decreasing trend with increasing E{sub cm}, indicating that the rotational enhancement observed is not a total energy effect, but a dynamical effect. Furthermore, the rotational enhancement is found to be more pronounced as E{sub cm} is decreased. This experiment provided evidence that the coupling of the core rotational angular momentum with the orbital angular momentum could play a role in chemical reactivity, particularly at low E{sub cm}.

  12. Many-body Hamiltonian with screening parameter and ionization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We prove the existence of a Hamiltonian with ionization energy as part of the eigenvalue, which can be used to study strongly correlated matter. This eigenvalue consists of total energy at zero temperature (0) and the ionization energy (). We show that the existence of this total energy eigenvalue, 0 ± , does not violate ...

  13. Many-body Hamiltonian with screening parameter and ionization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We prove the existence of a Hamiltonian with ionization energy as part of the eigenvalue, which can be used to study strongly correlated matter. This eigenvalue consists of total energy at zero temperature (E0) and the ionization energy (ξ). We show that the existence of this total energy eigenvalue, E0 ±ξ, does not ...

  14. Electron impact single ionization of copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Electron impact single ionization cross sections of copper have been calculated in the binary encounter approximation using accurate expression for as given by Vriens and Hartree–Fock momentum distribution for the target electron. The BEA calculation based on the usual procedure does not show satisfactory ...

  15. Awareness of ionizing radiationamong medical students. | Okafor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This is to assess the awareness of medical students who are the future medical practitioners of the sources, benefits and hazards of ionizing radiation. Method: This is a descriptive cross sectional study carried out among clinical medical students of Nnamdi Azikiwe university Nnewi campus. Data was collected ...

  16. Improvements in ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whetten, N.R.; Zubal, C.

    1980-01-01

    A method of reducing mechanical vibrations transmitted to the parallel plate electrodes of ionization chamber x-ray detectors, commonly used in computerized x-ray axial tomography systems, is described. The metal plate cathodes and anodes are mounted in the ionizable gas on dielectric sheet insulators consisting of a composite of silicone resin and glass fibres. (UK)

  17. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  18. Introduction to ionizing radiation physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musilek, L.

    1979-01-01

    Basic properties are described of the atom, atomic nucleus and of ionizing radiation particles; nuclear reactions, ionizing radiation sources and ionizing radiation interaction with matter are explained. (J.P.)

  19. Inverse association between dietary habits with high total antioxidant capacity and prevalence of frailty among elderly Japanese women: a multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, S; Asakura, K; Suga, H; Sasaki, S

    2014-11-01

    To examine the association of dietary habits with high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with frailty among elderly Japanese women. Cross-sectional multicenter study. Thirty-five of 47 prefectures in Japan. 2121 grandmothers or acquaintances of dietetic students aged 65 and older. Dietary TAC and food intakes were calculated using a validated brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. The TAC value of each food was assigned using four different assays, ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). Frailty was defined as the presence three or more of the following four components: slowness and weakness (two points), exhaustion, low physical activity, and unintentional weight loss. The number of subjects with frailty was 486 (23%). Multivariate adjusted ORs (95% CI) for frailty in the highest compared to the lowest quintile were 0.35 (0.24, 0.53) for FRAP, 0.35 (0.23, 0.52) for ORAC, 0.40 (0.27, 0.60) for TEAC, and 0.41 (0.28, 0.62) for TRAP. The intakes of green tea, coffee, vegetables, and fruits which contribute to dietary TAC were also associated with lower odds of frailty (the range of multivariate adjusted OR: 0.47 for vegetables to 0.77 for green tea), although the odds ratios were less marked than those of dietary TAC. Dietary habits with high TAC showed a stronger inverse association with frailty in elderly Japanese women than the individual foods examined.

  20. Impact of Indian Total Sanitation Campaign on latrine coverage and use: a cross-sectional study in Orissa three years following programme implementation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmani Barnard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Faced with a massive shortfall in meeting sanitation targets, some governments have implemented campaigns that use subsidies focused on latrine construction to overcome income constraints and rapidly expand coverage. In settings like rural India where open defecation is common, this may result in sub-optimal compliance (use, thereby continuing to leave the population exposed to human excreta. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate latrine coverage and use among 20 villages (447 households, 1933 individuals in Orissa, India where the Government of India's Total Sanitation Campaign had been implemented at least three years previously. We defined coverage as the proportion of households that had a latrine; for use we identified the proportion of households with at least one reported user and among those, the extent of reported use by each member of the household. RESULTS: Mean latrine coverage among the villages was 72% (compared to <10% in comparable villages in the same district where the Total Sanitation Campaign had not yet been implemented, though three of the villages had less than 50% coverage. Among these households with latrines, more than a third (39% were not being used by any member of the household. Well over a third (37% of the members of households with latrines reported never defecating in their latrines. Less than half (47% of the members of such households reported using their latrines at all times for defecation. Combined with the 28% of households that did not have latrines, it appears that most defecation events in these communities are still practiced in the open. CONCLUSION: A large-scale campaign to implement sanitation has achieved substantial gains in latrine coverage in this population. Nevertheless, gaps in coverage and widespread continuation of open defecation will result in continued exposure to human excreta, reducing the potential for health gains.

  1. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  2. Measurement of the total cross section difference Δσ L in np transmission at 1.19, 2.49 and 3.65 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiasevich, B. P.; Antonenko, V. G.; Averichev, S. A.; Azhgirey, L. S.; Ball, J.; Bazhanov, N. A.; Benda, B.; Borisov, N. S.; Borzunov, Yu. T.; Bunyatova, E. I.; Burinov, V. F.; Chernykh, E. V.; Dolgii, S. A.; Durand, G.; Dzyubak, A. P.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fimushkin, V. V.; Fontaine, J. M.; Glagolev, V. V.; Golovanov, L. B.; Grosnick, D. P.; Gurevich, G. M.; Hill, D. A.; Karpunin, A. V.; Kasprzyk, T. E.; Khachaturov, B. A.; Kirillov, A. D.; Kochelev, N. I.; Kovalenko, A. D.; Kovalev, A. I.; Kulikov, M. V.; Ladygin, V. P.; Lazarev, A. B.; Lehar, F.; de Lesquen, A.; Liburg, M. Yu.; Lopiano, D.; Lukhanin, A. A.; Maniakov, P. K.; Matafonov, V. N.; Matyushevsky, E. A.; Mgebrishvili, G.; Mironov, S. V.; Neganov, A. B.; Nikolaevsky, G. P.; Nomofilov, A. A.; Pilipenko, Yu. K.; Pisarev, I. L.; Piskunov, N. M.; Plis, Yu. A.; Polunin, Yu. P.; Polyakov, V. V.; Prokofiev, A. N.; Ronzhin, D. A.; Rukoyatkin, P. A.; Sans, J. L.; Sharov, V. I.; Shilov, S. N.; Shishov, Yu. A.; Shutov, V. B.; Sorokin, P. V.; Spinka, H. M.; Starikov, A. Yu.; Stoletov, G. D.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Strunov, L. N.; Svetov, A. L.; Teterin, V. V.; Topalov, S. V.; Trautman, V. Yu.; Tsvinev, A. P.; Usov, Yu. A.; Vikhrov, V. V.; Volkov, V. I.; Yershov, A. A.; Yershov, V. P.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhdanov, A. A.

    1996-03-01

    Results of the total cross section difference Δσ L in a np transmission experiment at 1.19, 2.49 and 3.65 GeV incident neutron beam kinetic energies are presented. Measurements were performed at the Synchrophasotron of the Laboratory of High Energies of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. Results were obtained with a polarized beam of free quasi-monochromatic neutrons passing through the new Dubna frozen spin proton target. The beam and target polarizations were oriented longitudinally. The present results were obtained at the highest energies of free polarized neutrons that can be reached at present. They extend the energy range of existing results from PSI, LAMPF and Saclay measured between 0.066 and 1.10 GeV. The new results are compared with Δσ L( pn) data determined as a difference between Δσ L( pd) and Δσ L( pp) ANL-ZGS measurements. The values of Δσ L for the isospin state I=0 were deduced using known pp data.

  3. Determination αs and sin2Θw from measurements of the total hadronic cross section in e+e- annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrend, H.J.; Buerger, J.; Criegee, L.; Dainton, J.B.; Fenner, H.; Field, J.H.; Franke, G.; Fuster, J.; Holler, Y.; Meyer, J.; Schroeder, V.; Sindt, H.; Timm, U.; Winter, G.G.; Zimmermann, W.; Bussey, P.J.; Buttar, C.; Campbell, A.J.; Hendry, D.; McCurrach, G.; Scarr, J.M.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Smith, K.M.; Ahme, J.; Blobel, V.; Feindt, M.; Harjes, J.; Poppe, M.; Spitzer, H.; Boer, W. de; Buschhorn, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Gunderson, B.; Kiesling, C.; Kotthaus, R.; Kroha, H.; Luers, D.; Oberlack, H.; Sack, B.; Schacht, P.; Shooshtari, G.; Wiedenmann, W.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Fournier, D.; Gaillard, M.; Grivaz, J.F.; Haissinski, J.; Janot, P.; Journe, V.; Le Diberder, F.; Ros, E.; Spadafora, A.; Veillet, J.J.; Aleksan, R.; Cozzika, G.; Ducros, Y.; Lavagne, Y.; Ould Saada, F.; Pamela, J.; Pierre, F.; Zacek, J.; Alexander, G.; Bella, G.; Gnat, Y.; Grunhaus, J.; Levy, A.

    1987-01-01

    We have measured the total normalized cross section R for the process e + e - → hadrons at centre-of-mass energies between 14.0 and 46.8 GeV based on an integrated luminosity of 60.3 pb -1 . The data are well described by the standard SU(3) c xSU(2) L xU(1) model with the production of the five known quarks. No open production of a sixth quark with charge 2/3 or 1/3 occurs below a centre-of-mass energy of 46.6 or 46.3 GeV, respectively. A fitting procedure which takes the correlations between measurements into account was used to determine the electroweak mixing angle sin 2 θ w and the strong coupling constant α s (s) in second-order QCD. We applied this procedure to the CELLO data and in addition included the data from other experiments at PETRA and PEP. Both fits give consistent results. The fit to the combined data yields α s (34 2 GeV 2 ) = 0.165 ± 0.030, and sin 2 θ w = 0.236 ± 0.020. Fixing sin 2 θ w at the world average value of 0.23 yields α s (34 2 GeV 2 ) = 0.169 ± 0.025. (orig.)

  4. A cross-over study comparing an online versus a paper 7-day food record: focus on total water intake data and participant's perception of the records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerie, B; Tavoularis, L G; Guelinckx, I; Hebel, P; Boisvieux, T; Cousin, A; Le Bellego, L

    2015-06-01

    To compare (1) fluid, food and nutrient intake obtained with a paper versus an online version of a 7-day food record and (2) user's acceptability of both versions of the food record. A cross-over study was carried out in 2010 in France. A total of 246 participants aged 18-60 years reported their food and fluid intake using both versions of the 7-day food record, separated by a 7- to 14-day washout period. To help participants in estimating consumed portions, both versions of the food record were supported by a photographic booklet of standard portions and containers. At the end of the study protocol, participants completed a questionnaire designed to assess the acceptability of the two questionnaires. The reported water intake of fluids was significantly higher with the online version compared with the paper version (respectively 1348 ± 36 and 1219 ± 34 mL/day, p < 0.0001). No difference was found between methods in terms of energy intake and the consumption of most food categories, macro- and micronutrients. Furthermore, 77 % of the participants preferred the online method to the paper version. Fluid intake, but not food intake, reported with the online 7-day food record was higher in comparison with the paper version. In addition, the online version was preferred by users. In population surveys, the online record is therefore a relevant alternative, and even a preferred alternative in the case of fluid intake, to the paper record.

  5. Pulse valve with gas preliminary ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voronin, A.V.; Goncharov, S.E.; Danilov, A.D.; Kil'keev, R.Sh.; Kuznetsov, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    A pulse electrodynamic valve for the injection of weakly ionized gas into vacuum has been described. Gas ionization is realized in an intermediate chamber, located in electric field antinode in a waveguide cavity, in which a standing wave is excited. Total number of particles injected can be gradually varied in the range 10 14 -10 20 , at that, the number of charged particles varies from 10 10 to 10 11 . The valve time response constitutes approximately 400 μs. The valve is used to in ect the preliminarily ionized plasma into the ''Tornado'' magnetic trap. With its help in the volUme of 256 l a preliminarily ionized hydrogen plasma with the charged particle concentration 10 5 -10 6 cm -3 has been produced

  6. Kelvin spray ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Abdil; Lin, Jung-Lee; Gillig, Kent J; Chen, Chung-Hsuan

    2013-11-21

    A novel self-powered dual spray ionization source has been developed for applications in mass spectrometry. This new source does not use any power supply and produces both positive and negative ions simultaneously. The idea behind this ionization source comes from the Kelvin water dropper. The source employs one or two syringes, two pneumatic sprays operated over a range of flow rates (0.15-15 μL min(-1)) and gas pressures (0-150 psi), and two double layered metal screens for ion formation. A variable electrostatic potential from 0 to 4 kV can be produced depending on solvent and gas flow rates that allow gentle ionization of compounds. There are several parameters that affect the performance during ionization of molecules including the flow rate of solvent, gas pressure, solvent acidity, position of spray and metal screens with respect to each other and distance between metal screens and the counter electrode. This ionization method has been successfully applied to solutions of peptides, proteins and non-covalent complexes. In comparison with ESI, the charge number of the most populated state is lower than that from ESI. It indicates that this is a softer ionization technique and it produces more protein ions with folded structures. The unique features of Kelvin spray ionization (KeSI) are that the method is self-powered and ionization occurs at very low potentials by providing very low internal energy to the ions. This advantage can be used for the ionization of very fragile molecules and investigation of non-covalent interactions.

  7. Strong suppression of the positronium channel in double ionization of noble gases by positron impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bluhme, H.; Knudsen, H.; Merrison, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Positron-induced double ionization of helium and neon has been studied at energies from threshold to 900 eV. A remarkable difference between the near-threshold behavior of the single and double ionization cross sections is found: Single ionization is dominated by positronium (Ps) formation, while...

  8. Ionization of atoms by high energy photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Ioffe, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Photoionization of atoms by high energy photons is considered. It is emphasized that in this frequency region the cross section and other characteristics of the process are strongly effected by electron shell polarization and rearrangement effects, including that due to inner vacancy Auger decay. In the effects of nuclear structure could be important and noticeable, i.e. of virtual or real excitation of the nucleus degrees of freedom and of the Quantum Electrodynamics vacuum. Ionization accompanied by secondary photon emission (Compton ionization) is analyzed in the considered domain of energies

  9. Near-Threshold Ionization of Argon by Positron Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, T. J.; Machacek, J. R.; Murtagh, D. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    The direct single-ionization cross section for Ar by positron impact has been measured in the region above the first ionization threshold. These measurements are compared to semiclassical calculations which give rise to a power law variation of the cross section in the threshold region. The experimental results appear to be in disagreement with extensions to the Wannier theory applied to positron impact ionization, with a smaller exponent than that calculated by most previous works. In fact, in this work, we see no difference in threshold behavior between the positron and electron cases. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Ionizing radiation perception by insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanhola, C.

    1980-04-01

    The proof of the existence of a perception for ionizing radiation by insects was aimed at, as well as the determination of its processing mechanism. It was tried also to check if such perception induces the insects to keep away from the radiation source, proving therefore a protection against the harms caused by ionizing radiation, or else the stimulus for such behaviour is similar to that caused by light radiations. 60 Co and 241 Am were used as gamma radiation sources, the 60 Co source of 0.435mCi and the 241 Am of 99.68mCi activity. Adult insects were used with the following treatments : exposure to 60 Co and 241 Am radiation and non-exposure (control). A total of approximately 50 insects per replication was released in the central region of an opaque white wooden barrier divided into 3 sections with the same area - 60.0 cm diameter and 7.5 cm height - covered with a nylon screen. 5 replications per treatment were made and the distribution of the insects was evaluated by photographs taken at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after release. Sitophilus oryzae (l., 1763) and Ephestia cautella (Walker, 1864) showed some response to 241 Am gamma radiation, i.e. negative tactism. It was concluded that ionizing radiations can be detected by insects through direct visual stimulus or by visual stimulus reslting from interaction of radiation-Cerenkov radiation - with some other occular component with a refraction index greater than water. Also, the activity of the radioactive source with regard to perception for ionizing radiation, is of relevance in comparison with the energy of the radiation emitted by same, or in other words, what really matters is the radiation dose absorbed. (Author) [pt

  11. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  12. Highly cross-linked polyethylene decreases the rate of revision of total hip arthroplasty compared with conventional polyethylene at 13 years' follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, S A; Somerville, L; McCalden, R W; Naudie, D D; MacDonald, S J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the long-term results of primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in young patients using either a conventional (CPE) or a highly cross-linked (HXLPE) polyethylene liner in terms of functional outcome, incidence of osteolysis, radiological wear and rate of revision. We included all patients between the ages of 45 and 65 years who, between January 2000 and December 2001, had undergone a primary THA for osteoarthritis at our hospital using a CPE or HXLPE acetabular liner and a 28 mm cobalt-chrome femoral head. From a total of 160 patients, 158 (177 hips) were available for review (CPE 89; XLPE 88). The mean age, body mass index (BMI) and follow-up in each group were: CPE: 56.8 years (46 to 65); 30.7 kg/m(2) (19 to 58); 13.2 years (2.1 to 14.7) and HXLPE: 55.6 years (45 to 65); BMI: 30 kg/m(2) (18 to 51); 13.1 years (5.7 to 14.4). The mean Harris hip score (HHS) at final follow-up was 89.3 for the CPE group and 90.9 for the HXLPE group (p = 0.078). Osteolysis was present around 15 acetabular (17%) and 16 femoral (18%) components in the CPE hips compared with none (0%) in the HXLPE hips. The mean radiological linear wear of the CPE liners was 0.11 mm/year compared with 0.035 mm/year for the HXLPE liners (p = 0.006). The cumulative implant survival, with revision for polyethylene wear as the endpoint, was 86% (95% confidence interval 78 to 94) in the CPE group and 100% in the HXLPE group at 13 years (numbers at risk at 13 years - CPE: 65, XLPE: 61). This study shows that HXLPE liners are associated with significantly less osteolysis and a lower rate of revision THA than CPE liners at long-term follow-up. The findings of this study highlight the clinical benefits of using HXLPE liners in THA and support the routine use of the material in order to improve implant longevity and to decrease the number of patients needing revision for aseptic osteolysis. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. Universal rise of hadronic total cross sections based on forward πp and p-bar p(pp) scatterings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2009-01-01

    Recently there are several evidences of the increase of the total cross section σ tot to be log 2 s consistent with the Froissart unitarity bound, and the COMPETE collaborations in the PDG have further assumed σ tot ≅Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) to extend its universal rise with a common value of B for all the hadronic scatterings. However, there is no rigorous proof yet based only on QCD. Therefore, it is worthwhile to prove this universal rise of σ tot even empirically. In this Letter we attempt to obtain the value of B for πp scattering, B πp , with reasonable accuracy by taking into account the rich πp data in all the energy regions. We use the finite-energy sum rule (FESR) expressed in terms of the πp scattering data in the low and intermediate energies as a constraint between high-energy parameters. We then have searched for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, the ratios of the real to imaginary parts of the forward scattering amplitudes. The lower energy data are included in the integral of FESR, the more precisely determined is the non-leading term such as logs, and then helps to determine the leading terms like log 2 s. We have derived the value of B πp as B πp =0.311±0.044 mb. This value is to be compared with the value of B for p-barp,pp scattering, B pp , in our previous analysis [M. Ishida, K. Igi, Eur. Phys. J. C 52 (2007) 357], B pp =0.289±0.023 mb. Thus, our result appears to support the universality hypothesis

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Japanese version of the new Knee Society Scoring System for osteoarthritic knee with total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamoto, Yosuke; Ito, Hiromu; Furu, Moritoshi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Azukizawa, Masayuki; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to translate the new Knee Society Score (KSS) into Japanese and to evaluate the construct and content validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the Japanese version of the new KSS. The Japanese version of the KSS was developed according to cross-cultural guidelines by using the "translation-back translation" method to ensure content validity. KSS data were then obtained from patients who had undergone total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The psychometric properties evaluated were as follows: for feasibility, response rate, and floor and ceiling effects; for construct validity, internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha, and correlations with quality of life. Construct validity was evaluated by using Spearman's correlation coefficient to quantify the correlation between the KSS and the Japanese version of the Oxford 12-item Knee Score or Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaires. The Japanese version of the KSS was sent to 93 consecutive osteoarthritic patients who underwent primary TKA in our institution. Fifty-five patients completed the questionnaires and were included in this study. Neither a floor nor ceiling effect was observed. The reliability proved excellent in the majority of domains, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.65-0.88. Internal consistency, assessed by Cronbach's alpha, was good to excellent for all domains (0.78-0.94). All of the four domains of the KSS correlated significantly with the Oxford 12-item Knee Score. The activity and satisfaction domains of the KSS correlated significantly with all and the majority of subscales of the SF-36, respectively, whereas symptoms and expectation domains showed significant correlations only with bodily pain and vitality subscales and with the physical function, bodily pain, and vitality subscales, respectively. The Japanese version of the new KSS is a valid, reliable, and responsive instrument to capture subjective aspects of the functional

  15. Differential and total excitation cross sections in the collision of protons with He atoms at intermediate and high energies under a three body formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Fathi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  A three-body model is devised to study differential and total cross sections for the excitation of helium atom under impact of energetic protons. The actual process is a four body one but in the present model the process is simplified into a three-body one. In this model, an electron of helium atom is assumed to be inactive and only one electron of the atom is active. Therefore, the active electron is assumed to be in an atomic state with a potential of the nucleus, T, being screened by the inactive electron, e, and, thus, an effective charge of Ze. As a result, the ground state, 11S, or the excited states, 21S and 21P, wave function of the active electron is deduced from similar hydrogenic wave functions assuming effective charge, Ze for the combined nucleus (T+e. In this three-body model, the Faddeev-Watson-Lovelace formalism for excitation channel is used to calculate the transition amplitude. In the first order approximation, electronic and nuclear interaction is assumed in the collision to be A(1e= and A(1n=, respectively. Here, A(1, Txy, |i> and |f> are the first order transition amplitude, the transition matrix for the interaction between particles x and y, the initial state and the final state, respectively. The transition matrix for the first order electronic interaction implemented into A(1e is approximated as the corresponding two-body interaction, Vxy. In order to calculate first order nuclear amplitude A(1n, the near-the-shell form of transition matrix TPT is used. Calculations are performed in the energy range of 50 keV up to 1MeV. The results are then compared with those of theoretical and experimental works in the literature.

  16. Ionization particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ried, L.

    1982-01-01

    A new device is claimed for detecting particles in a gas. The invention comprises a low cost, easy to assemble, and highly accurate particle detector using a single ionization chamber to contain a reference region and a sensing region. The chamber is designed with the radioactive source near one electrode and the second electrode located at a distance less than the distance of maximum ionization from the radioactive source

  17. Measurements of the Total and Differential Higgs Boson Production Cross Sections Combining the $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ Decay Channels at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; 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Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. 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Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-08-26

    Measurements of the total and differential cross sections of Higgs boson production are performed using 20.3~fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions produced by the Large Hadron Collider at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV and recorded by the ATLAS detector. Cross sections are obtained from measured $H \\rightarrow \\gamma \\gamma$ and $H \\rightarrow ZZ ^{*}\\rightarrow 4\\ell$ event yields, which are combined accounting for detector efficiencies, fiducial acceptances and branching fractions. Differential cross sections are reported as a function of Higgs boson transverse momentum, Higgs boson rapidity, number of jets in the event, and transverse momentum of the leading jet. The total production cross section is determined to be $\\sigma_{pp \\to H} = 33.0 \\pm 5.3 \\, ({\\rm stat}) \\pm 1.6 \\, ({\\rm sys}) \\mathrm{pb}$. The measurements are compared to state-of-the-art predictions.

  18. Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms (N, O, F, Ne, P, S, Cl, Ar, As, Se, Br, Kr) between 0.5-10 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williart, A. [Univ. Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica de los Materiales; Garcia, G. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, Madrid (Spain)

    2001-10-01

    Analytical formulae for total cross sections for electron scattering by atoms which are close to the noble gases (Ne, Ar and Kr), for electron energies ranging from 0.5 to 10 keV, have been obtained in this study. We have shown, previously, that molecular total cross sections, at these energies, depend on target polarizability and the number of target electrons. A similar behaviour has been supposed for total cross sections of some atoms (N, O, F, P, S, Cl, As, Se and Br). The obtained expression depends on atomic parameters and it is based in some correlation derived from noble gases. The applicability of the formula has been checked by comparison with available data for atomic oxygen. (orig.)

  19. Hadron production by e+e- annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 2.6 and 7.8 GeV. I. Total cross section, multiplicities, and inclusive momentum distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegrist, J.L.; Schwitters, R.F.; Alam, M.S.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Dorfan, J.M.; Feldman, G.J.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Jaros, J.A.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Lueth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Perl, M.L.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Pun, T.P.; Rapidis, P.; Richter, B.; Schindler, R.H.; Tanenbaum, W.; Vannucci, F.; Chinowsky, W.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Carithers, W.C.; Cooper, S.; DeVoe, R.G.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Johnson, A.D.; Kadyk, J.A.; Litke, A.M.; Madaras, R.J.; Nguyen, H.K.; Pierre, F.M.; Sadoulet, B.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wiss, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements of multihadron production in e + e - annihilation at center-of-mass energies between 2.6 and 7.8 GeV are presented. Aside from the narrow resonances psi(3095) and psi(3684), the total hadronic cross section is found to be approximately 2.7 times the cross section for the production of muon pairs at c.m. energies below 3.7 GeV and 4.3 times the muon-pair cross section at c.m. energies above 5.5 GeV. Complicated structure is found at intermediate energies. Charged-particle multiplicities and inclusive momentum distributions are presented

  20. Measurement of the neutron capture cross section of the fissile isotope 235U with the CERN n{sub T}OF Total Absorption Calorimeter and fission tagging based on micromegas detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balibrea, J.; Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Berthomieux, E.; Guerrero, C.; TOF Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The future nuclear technologies require accurate nuclear data on neutron-induced capture cross sections and α ratios of fissile isotopes. The measurement of their cross section present several difficulties, most of them related to the larger fission γ-ray background competing with the weaker γ-ray cascades from the capture reactions used as signal. A specific setup was used for the measurement of 235U capture cross section at the CERN n{sub T}OF facility in 2012. The setup consists of a set of micromegas fission detectors surrounding the 235U samples all placed inside a segmented BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter. (Author)