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Sample records for total incubation time

  1. Incubation times of dinosaur eggs via embryonic metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    The incubation times for the eggs of 21 dinosaurs are determined from an estimate of their embyronic metabolic rate and the mass of the hatchlings via a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. Embryos in extant birds and crocodiles are studied in order to determine the best model for embryonic metabolism and growth. These results are used to develop a theoretical model that predicts the incubation times of an egg. This model is applied to dinosaur eggs and provides a unique window into dinosaur reproduction. The dinosaurs studied come from both Saurischia and Ornithischia. The incubation times vary from about 28 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 76 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis.

  2. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  3. Modulating intracellular acidification by regulating the incubation time of proton caged compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Marilena; Sabbatella, Gianfranco; Antonaroli, Simonetta; Orlando, Viviana; Biagioni, Stefano; Nucara, Alessandro

    2016-09-01

    A proton caged compound, the 1-(2-nitrophenyl)- ethylhexadecyl sulfonate (HDNS), was dosed into HEK-293 at different incubation times. Samples were irradiated with filtered UV light for inducing photolysis of the HDNS and then probed by infrared spectroscopy. The intracellular acidification reaction can be followed by monitoring the consequent CO2 peak intensity variation. The total CO2 produced is similar for all the samples, hence it is only a function of the initial HDNS concentration. The way it is achieved, though, is different for the different incubation times and follows kinetics, which results in a combination of a linear CO2 increase and a steep CO2 increase followed by a decay. This is interpreted in terms of confinement of the HDNS into intracellular vesicles of variable average size and sensitive to UV light when they reach critical dimensions.

  4. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  5. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  6. The effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noraisyah Yusof; Noriah Jamal; Rahimah Abdul Rahim; Juliana Mahamad Napiah

    2010-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has recommended that incubation time for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique to be between 15 to 20 minutes. Incubation time will effect the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes and thus, the breakage of cytoplasmic membrane. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of varying incubation times for hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes in dicentric assay technique. In this study, we choose to use our standard protocol for dicentric assay technique. However, for the hypotonic treatment of lymphocytes, the incubation times were varied from 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes respectively. Lymphocytes were then fixed and stained with Giemsa. The cells were then analyzed for clear background that indicates good metaphases. We found that incubation time of 30 minutes gives the best metaphase images. This incubation time is longer than what has been recommended by the IAEA. This maybe explained by the fact that our country's climate is of higher humidity compared with the European countries. (author)

  7. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  8. Physical origin of the incubation time of self-induced GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Consonni, V.; Trampert, A.; Geelhaar, L.; Riechert, H.

    2011-01-01

    The nucleation process of self-induced GaN nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy has been investigated by reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements. It is found that stable nuclei in the form of spherical cap-shaped islands develop only after an incubation time that is strongly dependent upon the growth conditions. Its evolution with the growth temperature and gallium rate has been described within standard island nucleation theory, revealing a nucleation energy of 4.9 ± 0.1 eV and a very small nucleus critical size. The consideration of the incubation time is critical for the control of the nanowire morphology.

  9. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  10. Computer-generated versus nurse-determined strategy for incubator humidity and time to regain birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helder, Onno K.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    To compare effects on premature infants' weight gain of a computer-generated and a nurse-determined incubator humidity strategy. An optimal humidity protocol is thought to reduce time to regain birthweight. Prospective randomized controlled design. Level IIIC neonatal intensive care unit in the

  11. Evaluation of the effect of temperature and time of incubation on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common tests requested by physicians. The results of this test are affected by different factors such as temperature and time of incubation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in CBC results at room temperature (RT). In a cross-sectional study, ...

  12. A randomized clinical trial comparing embryo culture in a conventional incubator with a time-lapse incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Kirstine; Hindkjaer, Johnny Juhl; Grøndahl, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    Time-lapse monitoring allows for a flexible embryo evaluation and potentially provides new dynamic markers of embryo competence. Before introducing time-lapse monitoring in a clinical setting, the safety of the instrument must be properly documented. Accordingly, the aim of this study...

  13. Assessment of the theoretical basis of the Rule of Additivity for the nucleation incubation time during continuous cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Y.T.; Lowe, T.C.; Asaro, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rule of additivity was first proposed by Scheil and Steinberg for predicting the incubation time for nucleation of solid phases during continuous-cooling phase transformations, and has since been widely used for both the nucleation incubation and the entire process of phase transformation. While having been successfully used to calculate the transformed volume fraction during continuous cooling in many steel alloy systems, there is experimental evidence that shows rule of additivity to be invalid for describing the incubation time for nucleation. Attempts to prove the validity of the rule of additivity for the incubation time have not met with much success, and much confusion still exists about its applicability to the incubation time. This article investigates the additivity of the consumption of the incubation time for nucleation during continuous cooling through an analysis based upon classical nucleation theory. It is rigorously demonstrated that the rule of additivity is invalid for the incubation time for nucleation. However, in practice, the relative error caused by using the rule of additivity could be very small in many cases due to the resolution limit of current experimental techniques. The present theory provides an explanation for the failure of the rule of additivity in predicting the incubation time for nucleation during continuous cooling. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  14. Probabilistic analysis of degradation incubation time of steam generator tubing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.D.; Jyrkama, M.I.; Lu, Y.; Chi, L.

    2012-01-01

    The prediction of degradation free lifetime of steam generator (SG) tubing material is an important step in the life cycle management and decision for replacement of steam generators during the refurbishment of a nuclear station. Therefore, an extensive experimental research program has been undertaken by the Canadian Nuclear Industry to investigate the degradation of widely-used SG tubing alloys, namely, Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800. The corrosion related degradations of passive metals, such as pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) etc. are assumed to start with the break down of the passive film at the tube-environment interface, which is characterized by the incubation time for passivity breakdown and then the degradation growth rate, and both are influenced by the chemical environment and coolant temperature. Since the incubation time and growth rate exhibit significant variability in the laboratory tests used to simulate these degradation processes, the use of probabilistic modeling is warranted. A pit is initiated with the breakdown of the passive film on the SG tubing surface. Upon exposure to aggressive environments, pitting corrosion may not initiate immediately, or may initiate and then re-passivate. The time required to initiate pitting corrosion is called the pitting incubation time, and that can be used to characterize the corrosion resistance of a material under specific test conditions. Pitting may be the precursor to other corrosion degradation mechanisms, such as environmentally-assisted cracking. This paper will provide an overview of the results of the first stage of experimental program in which samples of Alloy 600 TT, Alloy 690 TT, and Alloy 800 were tested under various temperatures and potentials and simulated crevice environments. The testing environment was chosen to represent layup, startup, and full operating conditions of the steam generators. Degradation incubation times for over 80 samples were

  15. Dynamic failure of dry and fully saturated limestone samples based on incubation time concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri V. Petrov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the results of experimental study of the dynamic rock failure based on the comparison of dry and saturated limestone samples obtained during the dynamic compression and split tests. The tests were performed using the Kolsky method and its modifications for dynamic splitting. The mechanical data (e.g. strength, time and energy characteristics of this material at high strain rates are obtained. It is shown that these characteristics are sensitive to the strain rate. A unified interpretation of these rate effects, based on the structural–temporal approach, is hereby presented. It is demonstrated that the temporal dependence of the dynamic compressive and split tensile strengths of dry and saturated limestone samples can be predicted by the incubation time criterion. Previously discovered possibilities to optimize (minimize the energy input for the failure process is discussed in connection with industrial rock failure processes. It is shown that the optimal energy input value associated with critical load, which is required to initialize failure in the rock media, strongly depends on the incubation time and the impact duration. The optimal load shapes, which minimize the momentum for a single failure impact, are demonstrated. Through this investigation, a possible approach to reduce the specific energy required for rock cutting by means of high-frequency vibrations is also discussed.

  16. Evolution of Sr distribution coefficient as a function of time, incubation conditions and measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guo; Staunton, Siobhan

    2005-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the dynamics of radiostrontium in soil is required to allow accurate long-term predictions of its mobility. We have followed the soil solution distribution of 85 Sr as a function of time under controlled conditions over 4 months and studied the effect of soil moisture content and organic matter amendments. Data have been compared to redox conditions and soil pH. To fuel the ongoing debate on the validity of distribution coefficient (K d ) values measured in dilute suspension, we have compared values obtained from the activity concentration in soil solution obtained by centrifugation to data obtained in suspension with or without air-drying of the soil samples after incubation. The 85 Sr adsorption properties of soil, incubated without prior contamination were also measured. There is some time-dependent adsorption of Sr. This is partly due to changing soil composition due to the decomposition of added organic matter and anaerobic conditions induced by flooding. There is also a kinetic effect, but adsorption remains largely reversible. Most of the observed effects are lost when soil is suspended in electrolyte solution

  17. Needle-to-incubator transport time: Logistic factors influencing transport time for blood culture specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Kerremans (Jos); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe maximum recommended transport time for blood cultures is 4 h [L. S. Garcia (ed.), 2007 Update: Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 2nd ed., 2007]. In a previous study, we found that the average transport time was 10 h. In this cohort study, we measured transport times for

  18. Embryonic metabolism of the ornithischian dinosaurs Protoceratops andrewsi and Hypacrosaurus stebingeri and implications for calculations of dinosaur egg incubation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Scott A.

    2017-04-01

    The embryonic metabolisms of the ornithischian dinosaurs Protoceratops andrewsi and Hypacrosaurus stebingeri have been determined and are in the range observed in extant reptiles. The average value of the measured embryonic metabolic rates for P. andrewsi and H. stebingeri are then used to calculate the incubation times for 21 dinosaurs from both Sauischia and Ornithischia using a mass growth model based on conservation of energy. The calculated incubation times vary from about 70 days for Archaeopteryx lithographica to about 180 days for Alamosaurus sanjuanensis. Such long incubation times seem unlikely, particularly for the sauropods and large theropods. Incubation times are also predicted with the assumption that the saurischian dinosaurs had embryonic metabolisms in the range observed in extant birds.

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A

    1997-01-01

    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  20. Chronic wasting disease in bank voles: characterisation of the shortest incubation time model for prion diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Angelo Di Bari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the susceptibility of bank voles to chronic wasting disease (CWD, we inoculated voles carrying isoleucine or methionine at codon 109 (Bv109I and Bv109M, respectively with CWD isolates from elk, mule deer and white-tailed deer. Efficient transmission rate (100% was observed with mean survival times ranging from 156 to 281 days post inoculation. Subsequent passages in Bv109I allowed us to isolate from all CWD sources the same vole-adapted CWD strain (Bv(109ICWD, typified by unprecedented short incubation times of 25-28 days and survival times of ∼35 days. Neuropathological and molecular characterisation of Bv(109ICWD showed that the classical features of mammalian prion diseases were all recapitulated in less than one month after intracerebral inoculation. Bv(109ICWD was characterised by a mild and discrete distribution of spongiosis and relatively low levels of protease-resistant PrP(Sc (PrP(res in the same brain regions. Despite the low PrP(res levels and the short time lapse available for its accumulation, end-point titration revealed that brains from terminally-ill voles contained up to 10(8,4 i.c. ID50 infectious units per gram. Bv(109ICWD was efficiently replicated by protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and the infectivity faithfully generated in vitro, as demonstrated by the preservation of the peculiar Bv(109ICWD strain features on re-isolation in Bv109I. Overall, we provide evidence that the same CWD strain was isolated in Bv109I from the three-cervid species. Bv(109ICWD showed unique characteristics of "virulence", low PrP(res accumulation and high infectivity, thus providing exceptional opportunities to improve basic knowledge of the relationship between PrP(Sc, neurodegeneration and infectivity.

  1. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Incubation Time and Carotenoid Production in Rhodotorula Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Isolated from Leather Tanning Wastewater .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat Naghavi, Farzaneh; Hanachi, Parichehr; Soudi, Mohammad Reza; Saboora, Azra; Ghorbani, Atefeh

    2013-10-01

    Carotenoids which are naturally synthesized by fungi such as yeasts can act as an antioxidant which is closely related to their ability to decrease the risk of a variety of degenerative diseases. In recent years, the increase of demand for carotenoids obtained from natural sources has promoted major efforts to improve carotenoid production from biological sources such as pigmented yeasts. The aim of this study was comparing incubation time and carotenoid production in Rhodotorula slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa isolated from leather tanning wastewater. To isolate the carotenoid pigment, cells were suspended in acetone and broken using a homogenizer, followed by centrifugation and separation of supernatant. In order to study the effect of incubation time, samples were held at 30 ˚С in a shaker at 150 rpm for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hr. For analytical evaluation, pigments were measured spectrophotometrically at 450 nm using the extinction coefficient E(1%) 450=2500. The results showed that the content of total carotenoid in R. slooffiae was the highest when samples were incubated for 72 hr. Overall, R. mucilaginosa had more potential to produce carotenoid. The best incubation periods for R. slooffiae and R. mucilaginosa were 72 hr and 48 hr, respectively. It seemed that the maximum rate of total carotenoid was not directly associated with the maximum amount of cell biomass and the type of carotenoid and their relative amount may vary depending on genus of yeast.

  2. Timing the total reflection of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvat, Dominique; Bonnet, Christophe; Dunseath, Kevin; Emile, Olivier; Le Floch, Albert

    2005-01-01

    We have identified for the first time the absolute delay at total reflection, envisioned by Newton. We show that there are in fact two divergent Wigner delays, depending on the polarisation of the incident light. These measurements give a new insight on the passage from total reflection to refraction

  3. INFLUENCE OF INCUBATION TIME, GAMMA RAYS AND ELECTRON BEAM ON RADIATION RESISTANCE OF SOME SELECTED PATHOGENS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-HIFNAWI, H.N.; EL-TABLAWY, S.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different growth phases on the radiation resistance, antibiotic susceptibility and pathogenicity of certain selected pathogens (Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus) was studied in mice. The obtained results showed that Escherichia coli was slightly more resistant to gamma radiation in 18 h than 24 h or 48 h but it was relatively more resistant to electron beam in 24 h and 48 h than 18 h. Candida albicans showed radiation resistance nearly the same in all incubation times in the case of gamma radiation while for electron beam, its radiation resistance was slightly more in 24 h and 48 h than in 18 h. On the other hand, Staphylococcus aureus recorded much more resistance to gamma radiation in the 48 h than in 24 h or 18 h whereas in the case of electron beam, it was slightly more resistant in 18 h than in 24 h and 48 h.The antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli reported that the exposure to gamma radiation at 3 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy increase the susceptibility to the nalidixic acid and nitrofurantoin. When Candida albicans was exposed to 3 kGy gamma radiation and 6 kGy electron beam, the same sensitivity to nystatin was observed in comparison with the unexposed one while the sensitivity of Staphylococcus aureus to some antibiotics (amoxicillin, nitrofurantoin and tetracycline) was decreased after exposure to gamma radiation at 0.75 and 2 kGy and electron beam at 6 kGy, but for other antibiotics (trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole), the sensitivity was increased at 6 kGy electron beam.The lethality percent recorded after the oral ingestion of the mice with the unexposed Escherichia coli and Candida albicans were 25% and 100%, respectively, and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 0% . The cotaneous disease and abscesses caused by the intradermal injection of the mice with unexposed Staphylococcus aureus was 75% and for 6 kGy exposure to electron beam was 25%.

  4. Incubation strategies of the Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis) in relation to ambient temperature and time of day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixun Zhang; Bei An; Meilin Shu; Changming Zhao; Xiaojun Yang; Yila Suo; Yongjun Se; Xilite Dabu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The behavior of cranes reflects many of their survival strategies, but little has been known of the incu-bation strategies of cranes, in which both parents share incubation duties, in response to cold temperatures in alpine environments. The lack of information may restrict the effective conservation of the threatened Black-necked Crane (Grus nigricollis), a biparental bird nesting in high elevation wetlands. Methods: We directly observed and used infrared video cameras from 2014 to 2015 to study the incubation behav-ior and quantitatively measured the frequency and details of egg turning behavior in the Black-necked Crane at the Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve in western Gansu Province, China. Results: At lower ambient temperatures in the morning, crane parents spent more time on the nest with less recess frequency and prolonged on-bout duration, while at higher temperatures around noon, the parents had more frequent recesses from incubation and shorter periods between nest exchanges. They adjusted the amount of time incubating by varying the recess frequency and the length of on-bout duration. Mean nest attendance and egg turn-ing frequency of females were significantly higher than those of the males. The nest attendance and on-bout duration of females showed a significantly negative relationship with those of males. The two parents responded differently to the change of temperature. Females spent more time on the nest at lower morning temperatures, while males increased their time on the nest at higher temperatures after noon. Higher incubation recess frequency and egg turn-ing frequency were observed at noon, probably because parents spent more time foraging, taking advantage of the lower egg cooling rate. Conclusion: Both Black-necked Crane parents in the alpine environment adjusted their behavior in response to the thermal requirements of eggs and the weather conditions experienced. Our findings demonstrate that parents of this species incubated

  5. Incubation strategies of the Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis) in relation to ambient temperature and time of day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lixun Zhang; Bei AnSchool of Basic Medical Sciences, Lanzhou University; Meilin Shu; Changming Zhao; Xiaojun Yang; Yila Suo; Yongjun Se; Xilite Dabu

    2017-01-01

    Background: The behavior of cranes reflects many of their survival strategies, but little has been known of the incubation strategies of cranes, in which both parents share incubation duties, in response to cold temperatures in alpine environments. The lack of information may restrict the effective conservation of the threatened Black-necked Crane(Grus nigricollis), a biparental bird nesting in high elevation wetlands.Methods: We directly observed and used infrared video cameras from 2014 to 2015 to study the incubation behavior and quantitatively measured the frequency and details of egg turning behavior in the Black-necked Crane at the Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve in western Gansu Province, China.Results: At lower ambient temperatures in the morning, crane parents spent more time on the nest with less recess frequency and prolonged on-bout duration, while at higher temperatures around noon, the parents had more frequent recesses from incubation and shorter periods between nest exchanges. They adjusted the amount of time incubating by varying the recess frequency and the length of on-bout duration. Mean nest attendance and egg turning frequency of females were significantly higher than those of the males. The nest attendance and on-bout duration of females showed a significantly negative relationship with those of males. The two parents responded differently to the change of temperature. Females spent more time on the nest at lower morning temperatures, while males increased their time on the nest at higher temperatures after noon. Higher incubation recess frequency and egg turning frequency were observed at noon, probably because parents spent more time foraging, taking advantage of the lower egg cooling rate.Conclusion: Both Black-necked Crane parents in the alpine environment adjusted their behavior in response to the thermal requirements of eggs and the weather conditions experienced. Our findings demonstrate that parents of this species incubated in

  6. Measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration: importance of incubation time, soil type, moisture content and model fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, L. A.; Robinson, J.; O'Neill, T.; Ryburn, J.; Arcus, V. L.

    2015-12-01

    Developing robust models of the temperature response and sensitivity of soil respiration is critical for determining changes carbon cycling in response to climate change and at daily to annual time scales. Currently, approaches for measuring temperature dependence of soil respiration generally use long incubation times (days to weeks and months) at a limited number of incubation temperatures. Long incubation times likely allow thermal adaptation by the microbial population so that results are poorly representative of in situ soil responses. Additionally, too few incubation temperatures allows for the fit and justification of many different predictive equations, which can lead to inaccuracies when used for carbon budgeting purposes. We have developed a method to rapidly determine the response of soil respiration rate to wide range of temperatures. An aluminium block with 44 sample slots is heated at one end and cooled at the other to give a temperature gradient from 0 to 55°C at about one degree increments. Soil respiration is measured within 5 hours to minimise the possibility of thermal adaptation. We have used this method to demonstrate the similarity of temperature sensitivity of respiration for different soils from the same location across seasons. We are currently testing whether long-term (weeks to months) incubation alter temperature response and sensitivity that occurs in situ responses. This method is also well suited for determining the most appropriate models of temperature dependence and sensitivity of soil respiration (including macromolecular rate theory MMRT). With additional testing, this method is expected to be a more reliable method of measuring soil respiration rate for soil quality and modelling of soil carbon processes.

  7. Microbial activity and community composition during bioremediation of diesel-oil-contaminated soil: effects of hydrocarbon concentration, fertilizers, and incubation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margesin, Rosa; Hämmerle, Marion; Tscherko, Dagmar

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the influence of three factors-diesel oil concentration [2500, 5000, 10,000, 20,000 mg total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) kg(-1) soil], biostimulation (unfertilized, inorganic fertilization with NPK nutrients, or oleophilic fertilization with Inipol EAP22), and incubation time-on hydrocarbon removal, enzyme activity (lipase), and microbial community structure [phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA)] in a laboratory soil bioremediation treatment. Fertilization enhanced TPH removal and lipase activity significantly (P 0.05). Microbial communities, as assessed by PLFA patterns, were primarily influenced by the TPH content, followed by fertilization, and the interaction of these two factors, whereas incubation time was of minor importance. This was demonstrated by three-factorial analysis of variance and multidimensional scaling analysis. Low TPH content had no significant effect on soil microbial community, independent of the treatment. High TPH content generally resulted in increased PLFA concentrations, whereby a significant increase in microbial biomass with time was only observed with inorganic fertilization, whereas oleophilic fertilization (Inipol EAP22) tended to inhibit microbial activity and to reduce PLFA contents with time. Among bacteria, PLFA indicative of the Gram-negative population were significantly (P diesel oil and fertilized with NPK after 21-38 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. The Gram-positive population was not significantly influenced by TPH content or biostimulation treatment.

  8. The Effect of Rice Fermented (Tape Ketan Hitam Liquid Fraction Concentrations and Incubation Times on pH, Viscosity and Organoleptic Quality of Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naili Iqrimah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine of interaction and the best of percentage rice fermented liquid fraction addition and incubation times on pH, viscosity and organoleptic quality. The experimental method was designed by factorial Completely Randomized Design (CRD which three times replicated. The treatment consists of rice fermented liquid fraction concentrations by 5 %, 15 %, 25 % and 35 % (v/v  and incubation times by 0 (without incubation , 8,16 and 24 hours. The results showed that the different concentration of rice fermented liquid fraction showed a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, colour, smell, taste and textur, while  in incubation times gave a significantly different effect on pH, viscosity, smell, taste and textur but not give a significant effect on colour. The best combination obtained from addition of rice fermented liquid fraction 25 % and 24 hours of incubation times. Key words: goat milk, rice fermented liquid fraction, incubation times

  9. The effects of callus age, UV irradiation and incubation time on trans-resveratol production in grapevine callus culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, N.; Kunter, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the effects of callus age, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and incubation time were investigated for the induction of trans-resveratrol production in callus cultures of Kalecik karası (Clone 12) Vitis vinifera L. grape cultivar. Part of leaves (~1 cm 2 ) were taken from one year old grapevines grown in greenhouse and then were cultured in Gamborg B-5 media including 2% saccarose, 0.8% agar, 1.0 μM BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.1 μM 2, 4-D (2, 4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid). After the second subculture, 12 and 15 days old callus tissues were exposed to 254 nm UV light at 10 cm distance from the source for 10 and 15 min. Trans-resveratrol was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours of incubation by using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Trans-resveratrol concentration of control callus ranged from 0.56 to 0.96 μg g fw -1 . The highest trans-resveratrol production was obtained from 12 and 15 days-old callus irradiated for 10 min. at the 48th hours of incubation (2.42 μg g fw -1 ). Considering the highest value of trans-resveratrol concentration in controls and experiments, it was determined that UV irraditation in Kalecik karası elicitated the trans-resveratrol production by 2.5 times. (author) [tr

  10. Quantitation of intracellular metabolites of [35S]-6-mercaptopurine in L5178Y cells grown in time-course incubates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breter, H J; Zahn, R K

    1979-09-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6MP) metabolism was quantitatively determined in L5178Y murine lymphoma. Cells grown in time-course incubates with [35S]-6MP were extracted with cold perchloric acid, and the buffered extracts were subjected to high-performance liquid cation-exchange chromatography prior to and after hydrolysis with alkaline phosphatase. Free sulfate, 6-thiouric acid, 6-thioxanthosine, 6-thioguanosine, 6-thioinosine, free 6MP, and 6-methylthioinosine were separated from each other; identified in the radiochromatograms by elution volume, UV spectroscopic data, and enzymatic peak-shifting analyses with purine nucleoside phosphorylase; and quantitatively determined by means of 35S radioactivity. Gross intracellular 35S concentrations remained constant at 5 x 10(-5) M after 1 hr of incubation. 6MP metabolism in L5178Y cells was distinguished into an early phase (to 1 hr of incubation) in which 6MP was predominantly catabolized to 6-thiouric acid and free sulfate, into an intermediate phase (to 8 hr) in which substantial amounts of free 6MP and of ribonucleotides of 6-thioxanthosine and 6-thioguanosine were present while the concentrations of nonnucleotide oxidation products sharply decreased, and into a late phase (to 24 hr) in which the ribonucleotides of 6MP, of 6-thioguanosine and, in particular, of 6-methylthioinosine were the most abundant metabolites.

  11. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  12. Effect of incubation time of sago (metroxylon sago) waste by local microorganism ″ginta″ on ph, crude protein, and crude fiber content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurzainah; Pase, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of incubation times of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” to the crude protein and crude fiber content in relation to finding a cheap and good quality ruminants feed alternative. Incubation times were 0 hours to 144 hours. The data obtained were analyzed using Completely Randomize Design consisting of seven treatments and three replications. The result showed that the duration of incubation of sago waste by local microorganism (MOL) “Ginta” caused pH reduction, improved crude protein and crude fiber content. pH reduction was from 7.03 at 0 hour to 4.05 at 144 hours incubation. The highest increased in crude protein was H6U3 (5.58%) : 144 hours incubation and the lowest was H0U2 (3.22%) : 0 hour incubation while the highest crude fiber was H0U1 (19.99%) : 0 hour incubation and the lowest was H6U3 (18.23%) : 144 hours incubation. It can be concluded that incubation of sago waste triggered lower pH, higher crude protein and lower crude fiber than uninoculated. A recommendation could be given on using MOL ‘Ginta” in order to produce a cheap and good quality ruminans feed alternative.

  13. Moderate reagent mixing on an orbital shaker reduces the incubation time of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saroj; Ahirwar, Rajesh; Rehman, Ishita; Nahar, Pradip

    2017-07-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests can be developed using ELISA for detection of diseases in emergency conditions. Conventional ELISA takes 1-2 days, making it unsuitable for rapid diagnostics. Here, we report the effect of reagents mixing via shaking or vortexing on the assay timing of ELISA. A 48-min protocol of ELISA involving 12-min incubations with reagent mixing at 750 rpm for every step was optimized. Contrary to this, time-optimized control ELISA performed without mixing produced similar results in 8 h, leaving a time gain of 7 h using the developed protocol. Collectively, the findings suggest the development of ELISA-based rapid diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. European business venturing in times of digitisation - An analysis of for-profit business incubators in a triple helix context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Kreusel, Nico; Roth, Natalie

    2018-01-01

    Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public-dominated incubat......Business incubators have been developed as a key component of entrepreneurial activities in countries all over Europe. These incubators have a non-profit or a for-profit profile, with one-third located in Germany. The increased engagement of private business in what was a public......-dominated incubation landscape may influence established theoretical frameworks. Within this context, this paper analyses 11 German business incubators to look at the most common types of for-profit business incubators in Germany and their main characteristics. Moreover, it introduces classification criteria...... for these incubators. Another aspect of the analysis is the effect of the triple helix dimensions of the different incubation types. The results show that two additional types of incubators can be identified in addition to the traditional public business incubator model, namely 'company builders' and 'accelerators...

  15. Effect of incubation time, inoculum size, temperature, pasteurization time, goat milk powder and whey powder on ACE inhibitory activity in fermented milk by L. plantarum LP69.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Yang, Hui; Chen, He; Zhang, Qiuhong; Tian, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important physiological role in regulating hypertension. Lactic acid bacteria are known to produce ACE inhibitory peptides which can lower hypertension during fermentation. The effect of incubation time (0~36 h), inoculum size (3, 4, 5, 6 and 7%, v/v), temperature (25, 30, 35, 40 and 45°C), sterilization time (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 min), concentration of goat milk powder (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16%, w/v) and whey powder (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9%, w/v) on ACE inhibitory peptides fermented from goat milk by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69 was investigated using single factor experiment. The optimal incubation time, inoculum size, temperature, pasteurization time, goat milk powder and whey powder in fermented milk by L. plantarum LP69 was 14 h, 3.0%, 35°C, 20 min, 14% and 0.70% for ACE inhibitory activity and 22 h, 3.0%, 40°C, 25 min, 16% and 0.60% for viable cell counts, respectively. The incubation time, inoculum size, temperature, pasteurization time, goat milk powder and whey powder had a significant influence on ACE inhibitory activity in fermented milk by Lactobacillus plantarum LP69, the results are beneficial for further screening of main factors by using fractional factorial designs.

  16. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces.

  17. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces

  18. Evidence for varied aetiologies regulating the transmission of prion disease: implications for understanding the heritable basis of prion incubation times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad O Iyegbe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs are a group of progressive fatal neurodegenerative disorders, triggered by abnormal folding of the endogenous prion protein molecule. The encoding gene is a major biological factor influencing the length of the asymptomatic period after infection. It remains unclear the extent to which the variation between quantitative trait loci (QTLs reported in mouse models is due to methodological differences between approaches or genuine differences between traits. With this in mind, our approach to identifying genetic factors has sought to extend the linkage mapping approach traditionally applied, to a series of additional traits, while minimising methodological variability between them. Our approach allows estimations of heritability to be derived, as well as predictions to be made about possible existence of genetic overlap between the various traits.Our data indicate a surprising degree of heritability (up to 60%. Correlations between traits are also identified. A series of QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 11 and 18 accompany our heritability estimates. However, only a locus on chromosome 11 has a general effect across all 4 models explored.We have achieved some success in detecting novel and pre-existing QTLs associated with incubation time. However, aside from the general effects described, the model-specific nature of the broader host genetic architecture has also been brought into clearer focus. This suggests that genetic overlap can only partially account for the general heritability of incubation time when factors, such as the nature of the TSE agent and the route of administration are considered. This point is highly relevant to vCJD (a potential threat to public health where the route of primary importance is oral, while the QTLs being sought derive exclusively from studies of the ic route. Our results highlight the limitations of a single-model approach to QTL-mapping of TSEs.

  19. Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A G; Bracho, Rosvel; Elberling, Bo; Knoblauch, Christian; Lee, Hanna; Luo, Yiqi; Shaver, Gaius R; Turetsky, Merritt R

    2014-02-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C), which is twice as much C as is currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of permafrost organic matter could add large amounts of C to the atmosphere, thereby influencing the global C cycle. The rates at which C is being released from the permafrost zone at different soil depths and across different physiographic regions are poorly understood but crucial in understanding future changes in permafrost C storage with climate change. We assessed the inherent decomposability of C from the permafrost zone by assembling a database of long-term (>1 year) aerobic soil incubations from 121 individual samples from 23 high-latitude ecosystems located across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone. Using a three-pool (i.e., fast, slow and passive) decomposition model, we estimated pool sizes for C fractions with different turnover times and their inherent decomposition rates using a reference temperature of 5 °C. Fast cycling C accounted for less than 5% of all C in both organic and mineral soils whereas the pool size of slow cycling C increased with C : N. Turnover time at 5 °C of fast cycling C typically was below 1 year, between 5 and 15 years for slow turning over C, and more than 500 years for passive C. We project that between 20 and 90% of the organic C could potentially be mineralized to CO2 within 50 incubation years at a constant temperature of 5 °C, with vulnerability to loss increasing in soils with higher C : N. These results demonstrate the variation in the vulnerability of C stored in permafrost soils based on inherent differences in organic matter decomposability, and point toward C : N as an index of decomposability that has the potential to be used to scale permafrost C loss across landscapes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effect of ELISA kit manufacturing process and incubation time on progesterone concentration measured in dog serum for ovulation diagnosis - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuróczy, Julianna; Reiczigel, Jenő; Balogh, Lajos

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-two serum samples of healthy bitches were tested with the frozen and lyophilised version of the same ELISA kit (Quanticheck, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Budapest, Hungary). Samples were chosen on the basis of their progesterone (P4) concentrations, which were between 1.00 and 20.00 ng/mL. As it is well known, this range has the highest clinical relevance in ovulation diagnosis. Both types of microplates were read at 15-min intervals from the 15th until the 90th minute (min) of incubation, and the results were compared with those of frozen plates at 60 min of incubation as 100 percent. Lyophilised microplates gave on average 18 percent higher results than the frozen version at equal incubation times. The highest difference between lyophilised and frozen samples was observed at 45 and 60 min of incubation. Ninety-four percent of the reaction in the frozen microplate occurred in the first 15 min, and during the subsequent 30 min the reaction seemingly stopped. After the 45th min of incubation, this 94 percent increased to 108 percent in the subsequent 30 min, which remained the final approximate result at the end of the 90 min of incubation. In contrast to the frozen microplate, the measured concentration increased continuously in the lyophilised version and reached the highest level at the 60th min. The results of the lyophilised microplate reached the same level at 30 min of incubation as those of the frozen version at 60 min. In conclusion, a mechanical increase or decrease of the incubation time does not generate a linear change in the test results. This study demonstrated that the results of a series of samples collected from the same bitch cannot be compared if they are measured with different laboratory methods or different ELISA kits.

  1. Nickel adsorption and desorption in an acric oxisol as a function of pH, ionic strength and incubation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estêvão Vicari Mellis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Although nickel (Ni has both important potential benefits and toxic effects in the environment, its behavior in tropical soils has not been well studied. Nickel adsorption-desorption in topsoil and subsoil samples of an acric Oxisol was studied at three pH values (from 3.0 to 8.0. Adsorption-desorption isotherms were elaborated from experiments with increasing Ni concentration (5 to 100 mg L-1, during 0, 4, and 12 weeks, using CaCl2 0.01 and 0.1 M as electrolytic support in order to also verify the effect of Ni-soil time contact and of ionic strength on the reaction. Experimental results of Ni adsorption fitted Langmuir model, which indicated that maximum Ni adsorption (71,440 mg kg-1 occurred at subsoil, after 12 weeks. Nickel affinity (KL was also greater at subsoil (1.0 L kg-1. The Ni adsorption in the topsoil samples was higher, due to its lower point of zero salt effect (PZSE and higher organic matter content. The increase in soil pH resulted in the increase of Ni adsorption. Nickel desorbed less from soil samples incubated for 4 or 12 weeks, suggesting that Ni interactions with colloidal particles increase over time. The amount of Ni desorbed increased with increasing ionic strength in both the topsoil and subsoil soil samples. Finally, adsorption-desorption hysteresis was clearly observed. Soil pH, ionic strength of soil solution and the Ni-soil contact time should be considered as criteria for selecting the areas for disposal of residues containing Ni or to compose remediation strategies for acric soils contaminated with Ni.

  2. The time-course of broiler intestinal microbiota development after administration of cecal contents to incubating eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Donaldson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The microbial populations that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract (GIT are known to influence the health and growth performance of the host. Clean hatcheries and machine-based incubation practices in the commercial poultry industry can lead to the acquisition of aberrant microbiota in the GIT of chickens and a very high level of bird-to-bird variation. The lack of microbial profile flock uniformity presents challenges for harnessing and manipulating intestinal bacteria to better serve the host. Methods Cecal contents from high or low performing chickens were used to inoculate the surface of eggs prior to hatching and then the initial gut colonisation was monitored and subsequent changes in gut microbiota composition were followed over time. Two different cecal treatment groups were compared to an untreated control group (n = 32. Bacterial communities were characterised using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing techniques. Results Cecal microbiota transfer via egg surface application did not transfer the performance profile of the donors to the recipient birds. One of the cecal inoculations provided a more uniform gut microbiota, but this was not reproduced in the second group with a different inoculum. Development of the intestinal community was reproducible in all three groups with some genera like Lactobacillus showing no change, others like Faecalibacterium increased in abundance slowly and steadily over time and others like Enterobacter were abundant only in the first days of life. Discussion The cecal treatment reduced bird-to-bird variation in microbiota composition. Although the high FCR performance of donor birds was not transferred with the cecal microbiota, all three groups, including the control, performed better than standard for the breed. The pattern of microbiota development was similar in all three flocks, indicating that the normal processes of microbiota acquisition largely swamped any effect of the cecal

  3. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Frick, Petra; Bertsch, Uwe; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Mielke, Janina; Maringer, Marko; Piening, Niklas; Hepp, Alexander; Daude, Nathalie; Windl, Otto; Levin, Johannes; Giese, Armin; Sakthivelu, Vignesh; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans; Westaway, David

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G) at levels comparable to wild-type (wt) controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G) mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G) mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G) mice), were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  4. Integrating education and incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    During the last decade student business incubation activities have become mainstream activities in Western universities. This is also the case in Danish higher education where all universities have established in-house student incubators. The models applied are different and place varied emphasis...... on the integration of extracurricular activities with formal credit awarding activities. In a Danish context, such integration has become increasingly important due to recent political reforms aimed at shortening the time it takes students to graduate in order to reduce national higher education expenditures....... On this backdrop, this paper explores the following questions: • How and to what extent do university student incubators collaborate with formal study programmes? • And which factors influence this integration of curricular and extracurricular activities?...

  5. Cytotoxicity of β-D-glucose/sucrose-coated silver nanoparticles depends on cell type, nanoparticles concentration and time of incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergallo, Cristian; Panzarini, Elisa; Carata, Elisabetta; Ahmadi, Meysam; Mariano, Stefania; Tenuzzo, Bernardetta Anna; Dini, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    The use of silver NanoParticles (AgNPs) in several consumer commercialized products, like food contact materials, medical devices and cosmetics has increased significantly, owing to their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Even though the NPs are widely diffused, due to the great variety in size, coating or shape, controversial data on their possible detrimental health effects still exist. Herein, by performing an easy and fast green method synthesis, we used β-D-glucose/sucrose to stabilize AgNPs and avoid the release of cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag+ in the culture medium. The cytotoxic effects of these β-D-Glucose/Sucrose-Coated AgNPs (AgNPs-GS) was assessed on two cell culture models, which are human liver HepG2 and human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes (PBLs) cells. AgNPs-GS, as determined by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analyses, had an average diameter of 30±5 nm, a spherical shape and were well-dispersed in the freshly-prepared solution. In addition, they were found spectrophotometrically stable throughout the experiment. Cytotoxicity, determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, was evaluated by using two AgNPs-GS amounts, indicated as highest (10×103 of NPs/cell) and lowest (2×103 NPs/cell) concentration for 6, 12 and 24 h. The highest concentration of AgNPs-GS was significantly cytotoxic for both HepG2 and PBLs cells at all times, when compared with the negative control; conversely, the lowest amount of AgNPs-GS was toxic only for HepG2 cells. A significant increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels, determined by Nitro Blue Tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay, was observed only in PBLs after treatment with NPs, by reaching maximum levels after the incubation with the lowest amount of NPs for 24 h. Significant morphological changes, depending on NPs/cell amount, characteristic of cell toxicity, like shape, cytoplasm, and nucleus alterations, were observed in lymphocytes and Hep

  6. Relationships among gas production, end products of rumen fermentation and microbial N produced in vitro at two incubation times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattani, Mirko; Maccarana, Laura; Hansen, Hanne Helene

    2013-01-01

    at 48 h. At t½, the valerate content in rumen fl uid was negligible. However, relatively large amounts of valerate were measured after 48 h, probably the result of microbial lysis. Results suggest that relationships among end-products of rumen fermentation can be more accurately evaluated at a substrate...... for ammonia N (N-NH3), volatile fatty acids (VFA), residual NDF and N bound to residual NDF (N-NDF). Values of GP were also predicted from VFA. Microbial N (MN) was computed as the difference between N present at the beginning and at the end of incubation. At 48 h, the relationship between GP measured...

  7. Blastocyst development in single medium with or without renewal on day 3: a prospective cohort study on sibling donor oocytes in a time-lapse incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Borges, Nuno; Bellés, Marta; Meseguer, Marcos; Galliano, Daniela; Ballesteros, Agustin; Calderón, Gloria

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficiency of using a continuous (one-step) protocol with a single medium for the culture of human embryos in a time-lapse incubator (TLI). Prospective cohort study on sibling donor oocytes. University-affiliated in vitro fertilization (IVF) center. Embryos from 59 patients. Culture in a TLI in a single medium with or without renewal of the medium on day-3. Embryo morphology and morphokinetic parameters, clinical pregnancy, take-home baby rate, and perinatal outcomes. The blastocyst rates (68.3 vs. 66.8%) and the proportion of good-quality blastocysts (transferred plus frozen) obtained with the two-step (80.0%) protocol were statistically significantly similar to those obtained in the one-step protocol (72.2%). Similarly, morphokinetic events from early cleavage until late blastocyst stages were statistically significantly equivalent between both groups. No differences were found either in clinical pregnancy rates when comparing pure transfers performed with embryos selected from the two-step (75.0%), one-step (70.0%, respectively), and mixed (57.1%) groups. A total of 55 out of 91 embryos transferred implanted successfully (60.4%), resulting in a total of 37 newborns with a comparable birth weight mean among groups. Our findings support the idea that in a TLI with a controlled air purification system, human embryos can be successfully cultured continuously from day 0 onward in single medium with no need to renew it on day-3. This strategy does not affect embryo morphokinetics or development to term and offers more stable culture conditions for embryos as well as practical advantages and reduced costs for the IVF laboratory. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Circumpolar assessment of permafrost C quality and its vulnerability over time using long-term incubation data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schädel, Christina; Schuur, Edward A.G.; Bracho, Rosvel

    2014-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems store approximately 1700 Pg of soil carbon (C), which is twice as much C as is currently contained in the atmosphere. Permafrost thaw and subsequent microbial decomposition of permafrost organic matter could add large amounts of C to the atmosphere, thereby influencing...... the global C cycle. The rates at which C is being released from the permafrost zone at different soil depths and across different physiographic regions are poorly understood but crucial in understanding future changes in permafrost C storage with climate change. We assessed the inherent decomposability of C...... from the permafrost zone by assembling a database of long-term (>1 year) aerobic soil incubations from 121 individual samples from 23 high-latitude ecosystems located across the northern circumpolar permafrost zone. Using a three-pool (i.e., fast, slow and passive) decomposition model, we estimated...

  9. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF SEMINAL PLASMA, VITAMIN E AND INCUBATION TIME ON POST-THAWED SPERM VIABILITY IN BOAR SEMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba G C Pech-Sansores

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of seminal plasma (SP, vitamin E (VE, and incubation time on sperm viability of post-thawed boar semen. Thirty six ejaculates were used and allocated to four treatments: T1, semen + BTS (Belstville Thawing Solution + 10% SP; T2, semen + BTS + 200μg/ml VE; T3, semen + BTS + 10% SP + 200μg/ml VE; T4, semen + BTS (control. Motility (MOT, intact acrosomes (IA, membrane integrity (MI and mitochondrial activity (MA were evaluated, at 0 and 30 min after thawing. A split plot design was used and the data analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance. There was a significant effect of SP and VE on IA and MI (P0.05. There was significant effect of incubation time on MOT (21.3 and 27.9% and IA (46.0 and 36.0%, at 0 and 30 min post-thawing (P <0.05. It is concluded that the vitamin E, seminal plasma or the combination of both, affected the thawed sperm traits here studied. Incubation time increased motility and intact acrosome percentage but did not affect the membrane integrity and mitochondrial activity.

  10. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, A C M; Elgersma, P E; Friedrich, A W; Nagy, E; van Winkelhoff, A J

    2014-12-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the influence of incubation time, exposure to oxygen and sample preparation on the quality of the spectrum using the Bruker system. Also, reproducibility and inter-examiner variability were determined. Twenty-six anaerobic species, representing 17 genera, were selected based on gram-stain characteristics, growth rate and colony morphology. Inter-examiner variation showed that experience in the preparation of the targets can be a significant variable. The influence of incubation time was determined between 24 and 96 h of incubation. Reliable species identification was obtained after 48 h of incubation for gram-negative anaerobes and after 72 h for gram-positive anaerobes. Exposure of the cultures to oxygen did not influence the results of the MALDI-TOF MS identifications of all tested gram-positive species. Fusobacterium necrophorum and Prevotella intermedia could not be identified after >24 h and 48 h of exposure to oxygen, respectively. Other tested gram-negative bacteria could be identified after 48 h of exposure to oxygen. Most of the tested species could be identified using the direct spotting method. Bifidobacterium longum and Finegoldia magna needed on-target extraction with 70% formic acid in order to obtain reliable species identification and Peptoniphilus ivorii a full extraction. Spectrum quality was influenced by the amount of bacteria spotted on the target, the homogeneity of the smear and the experience of the examiner. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  11. PROCESS INNOVATION: HOLISTIC SCENARIOS TO REDUCE TOTAL LEAD TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin POSTEUCĂ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of markets requires continuous development of business holistic scenarios to ensure acceptable flexibility to satisfy customers. Continuous improvement of supply chain supposes continuous improvement of materials and products lead time and flow, material stocks and finished products stocks and increasing the number of suppliers close by as possible. The contribution of our study is to present holistic scenarios of total lead time improvement and innovation by implementing supply chain policy.

  12. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  13. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  14. Application of rat mast cell incubates as a possible short-time test for sensitizing occupational chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diel, F.; Neidhart, B.; Opree, W.

    1981-08-01

    The direct action of sensitizing occupational chemicals (formaldehyde, phenol, phenylhydrazine, p-aminophenol) on rat mast cells was investigated by determination of histamine using HPLC separation and fluorimetric detection. It turned out that dispersed mast cells from immunized and non-immunized Wistar-rats are more sensitive than small-cut lung tissue slices. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis was negative after a fortnight sensitizing experiment with the here described occupational chemicals. Short-time tests with rat mast cells reflect anaphylactoid response and are suitable for the screening of sensitizing chemicals.

  15. Effects of changing pH, incubation time, and As(V) competition, on F- retention on soils, natural adsorbents, by-products, and waste materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintáns-Fondo, Ana; Santás-Miguel, Vanesa; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan C.; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Fernández-Sanjurjo, María J.; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Esperanza; Núñez-Delgado, Avelino

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to elucidate the repercussion of changing pH, incubation time and As(V) competition on fluoride (F-) sorption on forest and vineyard soil samples, pyritic and granitic materials, as well as on the by-products pine sawdust, oak wood ash, mussel shell ash, fine and coarse mussel shell, and slate processing waste fines. To reach this end, the methodological approach was based on batch-type experiments. The results indicate that, for most materials, F- sorption was very high at the start, but was clearly diminished when the pH value increased. However, oak wood ash and shell ash showed high F- sorption even at alkaline pH, and pine sawdust showed low F- sorption for any pH value. Specifically, F- sorption was close to 100% for both ashes at pH time on F- sorption, it was very low for both soils, pyritic material, granitic material and both kinds of ashes, as all of them showed very rapid F- sorption from the start, with differences being lesser than 10% between sorption at 30 min and 1 month of incubation. However, sawdust and slate fines sorbed 20% of added F- in 30 minutes, remaining constant up to twelve hours, and doubling after 30 days. And finally, mussel shell sorbed 20% at 30 minutes, increasing to close to 60% when incubation time was 30 days. This means that some of the materials showed a first sorption phase characterized by rapid F- sorption, and a slower sorption in a second phase. As regards the effect of the presence of As(V) on F- sorption, it was almost negligible, indicating the absence of competition for sorption sites. In view of that all, these results could aid to appropriately manage soils and by-products when focusing on F- removal, in circumstances where pH value changes, contact time vary from hours to days, and potential competition between F- and As(V) could take place.

  16. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  17. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  18. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. METHODS: A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical...... activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment...... disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk...

  19. Time related total lactic acid bacteria population diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total lactic acid bacterial community involved in the spontaneous fermentation of malted cowpea fortified cereal weaning food was investigated by phenotypically and cultivation independent method. A total of 74 out of the isolated 178 strains were Lactobacillus plantarum, 32 were Pediococcus acidilactici and over 60% ...

  20. Effects of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production by toxinogenic Aspergillus flavus isolates on sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Amani; Marin, Sonia; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Saïd, Salem; Sanchis, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum, which is consumed in Tunisia as human food, suffers from severe colonization by several toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. The Tunisian climate is characterized by high temperature and humidity that stimulates mold proliferation and mycotoxin accumulation in foodstuffs. This study investigated the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 37°C), water activity (aw, between 0.85 and 0.99) and incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by three Aspergillus flavus isolates (8, 10 and 14) inoculated on sorghum grains. The Baranyi model was applied to identify the limits of growth and mycotoxin production. Maximum diameter growth rates were observed at 0.99 a(w) at 37°C for two of the isolates. The minimum aw needed for mycelial growth was 0.91 at 25 and 37°C. At 15°C, only isolate 8 grew at 0.99 a(w). Aflatoxin B1 accumulation could be avoided by storing sorghum at low water activity levels (≤0.91 a(w)). Aflatoxin production was not observed at 15°C. This is the first work on the effects of water activity and temperature on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus isolates on sorghum grains. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Humidification of incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, V A; Rutter, N

    1985-01-01

    The effect of increasing the humidity in incubators was examined in 62 infants of less than 30 weeks' gestation. Thirty three infants nursed in high humidity for two weeks were compared retrospectively with 29 infants from an earlier study who were nursed under plastic bubble blankets or with topical paraffin but without raised humidity. Humidification reduced skin water loss and improved maintenance of body temperature from birth, but did not delay the normal postnatal maturation of the skin. Infants nursed without humidity frequently became hypothermic in spite of a high incubator air temperature. These advantages must be weighed against the finding that overheating was more common and Pseudomonas was more commonly isolated from the infants. It is recommended that incubator humidity is raised for babies under 30 weeks' gestation in the first days of life but meticulous attention should be paid to fluid balance, avoiding overheating, and cleansing of the humidifier reservoir. PMID:3985653

  2. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Estine; Land, Kevin; Joubert, Trudi-Heleen

    2016-02-01

    The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli ) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption.1 This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior to environmental water quality screening tests. High sensitivity and rapid test time is essential and there is a great need for these tests to be implemented on-site without the use of a laboratory infrastructure. In the light of these requirements, a mobile micro-incubator was designed, manufactured and characterised. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) receptacle has been designed to house the 1-5 ml cell culture sample.2 A nano-silver printed electronics micro-heater has been designed to incubate the bacterial sample, with an array of temperature sensors implemented to accurately measure the sample temperature at various locations in the cell culture well. The micro-incubator limits the incubation temperature range to 37+/-3 °C in order to ensure near optimal growth of the bacteria at all times.3 The incubation time is adjustable between 30 minutes and 9 hours with a maximum rise time of 15 minutes to reach the set-point temperature. The surface area of the printed nano silver heating element is 500 mm2. Electrical and COMSOL Multiphysics simulations are included in order to give insight on micro-incubator temperature control. The design and characterization of this micro-incubator allows for further research in biosensing applications.

  3. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  4. Red light photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis using 37 J/cm2 : Fractionated irradiation with 12.3 mW/cm2 after 30 minutes incubation time compared to standard continuous irradiation with 75 mW/cm2 after 3 hours incubation time using a mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignion-Dewalle, Anne-Sophie; Baert, Gregory; Devos, Laura; Thecua, Elise; Vicentini, Claire; Mortier, Laurent; Mordon, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging treatment modality for various diseases, especially for dermatological conditions. Although, the standard PDT protocol for the treatment of actinic keratoses in Europe has shown to be effective, treatment-associated pain is often observed in patients. Different modifications to this protocol attempted to decrease pain have been investigated. The decrease in fluence rate seems to be a promising solution. Moreover, it has been suggested that light fractionation significantly increases the efficacy of PDT. Based on a flexible light-emitting textile, the FLEXITHERALIGHT device specifically provides a fractionated illumination at a fluence rate more than six times lower than that of the standard protocol. In a recently completed clinical trial of PDT for the treatment of actinic keratosis, the non-inferiority of a protocol involving illumination with the FLEXITHERALIGHT device after a short incubation time and referred to as the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol has been assessed compared to the standard protocol. In this paper, we propose a comparison of the two above mentioned 635 nm red light protocols with 37 J/cm 2 in the PDT treatment of actinic keratosis: the standard protocol and the FLEXITHERALIGHT one through a mathematical modeling. This mathematical modeling, which slightly differs from the one we have already published, enables the local damage induced by the therapy to be estimated. The comparison performed in terms of the local damage induced by the therapy demonstrates that the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol with lower fluence rate, light fractionation and shorter incubation time is somewhat less efficient than the standard protocol. Nevertheless, from the clinical trial results, the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol results in non-inferior response rates compared to the standard protocol. This finding raises the question of whether the PDT local damage achieved by the FLEXITHERALIGHT protocol (respectively, the standard protocol

  5. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D.

    1995-01-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system

  6. Real-time analysis of total, elemental, and total speciated mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlager, R.J.; Wilson, K.G.; Sappey, A.D. [ADA Technologies, Inc., Englewood, CO (United States)

    1995-11-01

    ADA Technologies, Inc., is developing a continuous emissions monitoring system that measures the concentrations of mercury in flue gas. Mercury is emitted as an air pollutant from a number of industrial processes. The largest contributors of these emissions are coal and oil combustion, municipal waste combustion, medical waste combustion, and the thermal treatment of hazardous materials. It is difficult, time consuming, and expensive to measure mercury emissions using current testing methods. Part of the difficulty lies in the fact that mercury is emitted from sources in several different forms, such as elemental mercury and mercuric chloride. The ADA analyzer measures these emissions in real time, thus providing a number of advantages over existing test methods: (1) it will provide a real-time measure of emission rates, (2) it will assure facility operators, regulators, and the public that emissions control systems are working at peak efficiency, and (3) it will provide information as to the nature of the emitted mercury (elemental mercury or speciated compounds). This update presents an overview of the CEM and describes features of key components of the monitoring system--the mercury detector, a mercury species converter, and the analyzer calibration system.

  7. RURAL EXTENSION EPISTEMOLOGY AND THE TIME OF TOTAL EXTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Calgaro Neto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to explore the field of knowledge related to rural extension. In general, a three complementary perspective is used as theoretical strategy to present this epistemological study. The first perspective, seeks to accomplish a brief archeology of rural extension, identifying the remarkable historical passages. At the second, we look to some theoretical models through the modern epistemological platform. Finally, the third perspective, aims to present a methodological proposal that contemplate this epistemic characteristics, relating with the contemporary transformations observed in the knowledge construction and technological transference for a rural development. Keywords: Total institutions. University.

  8. Evolutionary dynamics of incubation periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino-Loffler, Bertrand; Scott, Jacob G; Strogatz, Steven H

    2017-12-21

    The incubation period for typhoid, polio, measles, leukemia and many other diseases follows a right-skewed, approximately lognormal distribution. Although this pattern was discovered more than sixty years ago, it remains an open question to explain its ubiquity. Here, we propose an explanation based on evolutionary dynamics on graphs. For simple models of a mutant or pathogen invading a network-structured population of healthy cells, we show that skewed distributions of incubation periods emerge for a wide range of assumptions about invader fitness, competition dynamics, and network structure. The skewness stems from stochastic mechanisms associated with two classic problems in probability theory: the coupon collector and the random walk. Unlike previous explanations that rely crucially on heterogeneity, our results hold even for homogeneous populations. Thus, we predict that two equally healthy individuals subjected to equal doses of equally pathogenic agents may, by chance alone, show remarkably different time courses of disease.

  9. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...

  10. Minimizing total weighted completion time in a proportionate flow shop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakhlevich, N.V.; Hoogeveen, J.A.; Pinedo, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    We study the special case of the m machine flow shop problem in which the processing time of each operation of job j is equal to pj; this variant of the flow shop problem is known as the proportionate flow shop problem. We show that for any number of machines and for any regular performance

  11. Working time intervals and total work time on nursing positions in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Kunecka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: For the last few years a topic of overwork on nursing posts has given rise to strong discussions. The author has set herself a goal of answering the question if it is a result of real overwork of this particular profession or rather commonly assumed frustration of this professional group. The aim of this paper is to conduct the analysis of working time on chosen nursing positions in relation to measures of time being used as intervals in the course of conducting standard professional activities during one working day. Material and Methods: Research material consisted of documentation of work time on chosen nursing workplaces, compiled between 2007–2012 within the framework of a nursing course at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. As a method of measurement a photograph of a working day has been used. Measurements were performed in institutions located in 6 voivodeships in Poland. Results: Results suggest that only 6.5% of total of surveyed representatives of nurse profession spends proper amount of time (meaning: a time set by the applicable standards on work intervals during a working day. Conclusions: The scale of the phenomenon indicates excessive workload for nursing positions, which along with a longer period of time, longer working hours may cause decrease in efficiency of work and cause a drop in quality of provided services. Med Pr 2015;66,(2:165–172

  12. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  13. DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN ISO 9001:2008 IMPLEMENTATION PROJECTS IN INCUBATED TECHNOLOGY-BASED COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gome Salgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality Management Systems (QMS are designed to continuously improve the performance of organizations aiming to constantly improve their services seeking to overcome their results. Thus, for the services and/or products offered to transmit confidence and credibility, they should be designed within appropriate norms and standards. This research aims to assess the difficulties encountered by the incubated companies participating in the PRIME-FINEP project and developing projects for certification of their QMS in accordance with ISO 9001:2008. An exploratory survey was performed in nine incubated technology-based companies (TBC, through a questionnaire with 21 questions totaling the opinion of 20 respondents. After analyzing the data it is concluded, with statistical meaning, that the TBC's with little incubation time present difficulties in implementing the quality policy (5.3, difficulty not identified in other studies conducted in large companies. However difficulties similar to those of the large companies are present in the incubated TBC, and are the following: documentation requirements (4.2 present in all incubated companies (regardless of incubation time, and design and development (7.3 present in companies with little incubation time. The difficulty in implementing the quality policy (5.3 is reflected in the achievement of the QMS certification project in accordance with ISO 9001:2008.

  14. Application of total care time and payment per unit time model for physician reimbursement for common general surgery operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Holubar, Stefan D; Figy, Sean; Chen, Lilian; Montagne, Shirley A; Rosen, Joseph M; Desimone, Joseph P

    2012-06-01

    The relative value unit system relies on subjective measures of physician input in the care of patients. A payment per unit time model incorporates surgeon reimbursement to the total care time spent in the operating room, postoperative in-house, and clinic time to define payment per unit time. We aimed to compare common general surgery operations by using the total care time and payment per unit time method in order to demonstrate a more objective measurement for physician reimbursement. Average total physician payment per case was obtained for 5 outpatient operations and 4 inpatient operations in general surgery. Total care time was defined as the sum of operative time, 30 minutes per hospital day, and 30 minutes per office visit for each operation. Payment per unit time was calculated by dividing the physician reimbursement per case by the total care time. Total care time, physician payment per case, and payment per unit time for each type of operation demonstrated that an average payment per time spent for inpatient operations was $455.73 and slightly more at $467.51 for outpatient operations. Partial colectomy with primary anastomosis had the longest total care time (8.98 hours) and the least payment per unit time ($188.52). Laparoscopic gastric bypass had the highest payment per time ($707.30). The total care time and payment per unit time method can be used as an adjunct to compare reimbursement among different operations on an institutional level as well as on a national level. Although many operations have similar payment trends based on time spent by the surgeon, payment differences using this methodology are seen and may be in need of further review. Copyright © 2012 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Relationship between the Incubation Time and Carotenoid Production in Rhodotorula Slooffiae and R. Mucilaginosa Isolated from Leather Tanning Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Sadat Naghavi

    2013-10-01

    It seemed that the maximum rate of total carotenoid was not directly associated with the maximum amount of cell biomass and the type of carotenoid and their relative amount may vary depending on genus of yeast.

  16. Incubation temperature and hemoglobin dielectric of chicken embryos incubated under the influence of electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Shalaby, M I; Ghannam, M M

    2006-01-01

    Eggs from a layer-type breeder flock (Baladi, King Saud University) between 61 and 63 weeks of age were used in 3 trials to study the effects of electric field (EF) during incubation on the internal temperature of incubation, and eggs and hemoglobin (Hb) dielectric of chicken embryos at 18 days of age. Dielectric relative permittivity (epsilon') and conductivity (sigma) of Hb were examined in the range of frequency from 20 to 100 kHz. The values of dielectric increment (Deltaepsilon') and the relaxation times (tau) of Hb molecules were calculated. The internal temperature of eggs was measured in empty (following the removal of egg contents) and fertilized eggs in trials 1 and 2, respectively. The level of the EF was 30 kV/m, 60 Hz. EF incubation of embryos influenced the temperature of incubation and electrical properties of Hb molecules and did not influence the temperature of incubation and internal environment of eggs when empty eggs were incubated. EF incubation of fertilized eggs significantly raised the temperature of incubation, egg air cell, and at the surface of the egg yolk by approximately 0.09, 0.60, and 0.61 degrees F, respectively and Hb epsilon', sigma, Deltaepsilon', and tau as a function of the range of frequency of 20 to 100 kHz when compared with their counterparts of the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of fertilized chicken eggs to EF of 30 kV/m, 60 Hz, during incubation altered dielectric properties of Hb and that probably affected cell to cell communication and created the right environment for enhancing the growing process and heat production of embryos consequently increasing the temperature of the internal environment of the egg, and incubation.

  17. Business Incubators Support College Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators have a very important role in developing entrepreneurship, since it gives large opportunity to its participants to develop their business skill during incubation. The Indonesian government today provides a major boost to the development of business incubators in universities or other form of higher education institutions. The purpose of this research is to analyze the validation of the establishment of business incubator in colleges. In Ministerial Regulation (Permen Minister of Cooperation and Small Medium Entrepreneurship the Republic of Indonesia No. 24/2015 explained that the head of the university, the Rector or the Director may issue a business incubators license. Thus, internal validation can be done by university or college management through the issuance of Decree (SK Establishment complete with personnel appointed as manager. Furthermore, the college, has to provide a place or room consisting of office space, tenant room at least 3, discussion room 1, and tenant production display room. External validation is carried out by tenants through their success of becoming independent businessmen after being forged or incubated in a business incubator for a maximum of 3 years in one incubation period.

  18. Diffusion of student business incubators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Honig, Benson; Riis, Nina Louise Fynbo

    education. Applying neo-institutional theory, we examine the development of student incubation activities in the field of general state-funded Danish universities. We review institutional pressures from the political sphere that led to the diffusion of student incubation, introducing a three-phase process...

  19. The influence of incubation time, sample preparation and exposure to oxygen on the quality of the MALDI-TOF MS spectrum of anaerobic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veloo, A. C. M.; Elgersma, P. E.; Friedrich, A. W.; Nagy, E.; van Winkelhoff, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    With matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), bacteria can be identified quickly and reliably. This accounts especially for anaerobic bacteria. Because growth rate and oxygen sensitivity differ among anaerobic bacteria, we aimed to study the

  20. Advanced Portable Preterm Baby Incubator

    OpenAIRE

    Shaib , M.; Rashid , M.; Hamawy , L.; Arnout , M.; Majzoub , I. ,; Zaylaa , A. ,

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Nearly 20 million premature and Low Birth Weight infants are born each year in developing countries, 4 million die within their first month. These deaths occur due to the unavailability or unreliability of traditional incubators. Moreover, although Telemedicine is helpful in rural areas, the shortage of healthcare providers have made it inaccessible in both basic healthcare. Thereby, traditional preterm baby and low-birth weight incubators and therapeutic techniques la...

  1. Single machine total completion time minimization scheduling with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Bo; Wang, Ming-Zheng; Ji, Ping

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we consider a single machine scheduling problem with a time-dependent learning effect and deteriorating jobs. By the effects of time-dependent learning and deterioration, we mean that the job processing time is defined by a function of its starting time and total normal processing time of jobs in front of it in the sequence. The objective is to determine an optimal schedule so as to minimize the total completion time. This problem remains open for the case of -1 < a < 0, where a denotes the learning index; we show that an optimal schedule of the problem is V-shaped with respect to job normal processing times. Three heuristic algorithms utilising the V-shaped property are proposed, and computational experiments show that the last heuristic algorithm performs effectively and efficiently in obtaining near-optimal solutions.

  2. Asymptotic behavior of total times For jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures to the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task time distribution has an unbounded support then the total time distribution H is always heavy-tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  3. Asymptotic behaviour of total times for jobs that must start over if a failure occurs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmussen, Søren; Fiorini, Pierre; Lipsky, Lester

    2008-01-01

    the ready queue, or it may restart the task. The behavior of systems under the first two scenarios is well documented, but the third (RESTART) has resisted detailed analysis. In this paper we derive tight asymptotic relations between the distribution of task times without failures and the total time when...... including failures, for any failure distribution. In particular, we show that if the task-time distribution has an unbounded support, then the total-time distribution H is always heavy tailed. Asymptotic expressions are given for the tail of H in various scenarios. The key ingredients of the analysis...

  4. Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Burda , Michael C; Hamermesh , Daniel S; Weil , Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time--the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more total work. The f...

  5. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  6. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  7. Business support within business incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  8. Does antegrade JJ stenting affect the total operative time during laparoscopic pyeloplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolat, Mustafa Suat; Çınar, Önder; Akdeniz, Ekrem

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to show the effect of retrograde JJ stenting and intraoperative antegrade JJ stenting techniques on operative time in patients who underwent laparoscopic pyeloplasty. A total of 34 patients were retrospectively investigated (15 male and 19 female) with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Of the patients stentized under local anesthesia preoperatively, as a part of surgery, 15 were retrogradely stentized at the beginning of the procedure (Group 1), and 19 were antegradely stentized during the procedure (Group 2). A transperitoneal dismembered pyeloplasty technique was performed in all patients. The two groups were retrospectively compared in terms of complications, the mean total operative time, and the mean stenting times. The mean ages of the patients were 31.5±15.5 and 33.2±15.5 years (p=0.09), and the mean body mass indexes were 25.8±5.6 and 26.2.3±8.4 kg/m 2 in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. The mean total operative times were 128.9±38.9 min and 112.7±21.9 min (p=0.04); the mean stenting times were 12.6±5.4 min and 3.5±2.4 min (p=0.02); and the mean rates of catheterization-to-total surgery times were 0.1 and 0.03 (p=0.01) in Group 1 and 2, respectively. The mean hospital stays and the mean anastomosis times were similar between the two groups (p>0.05). Antegrade JJ stenting during laparoscopic pyeloplasty significantly decreased the total operative time.

  9. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time. Results The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary

  10. Minimizing Total Completion Time For Preemptive Scheduling With Release Dates And Deadline Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the single machine preemptive scheduling problem of minimizing total completion time with release date and deadline constraints is NP- hard. Du and Leung solved some special cases by the generalized Baker's algorithm and the generalized Smith's algorithm in O(n2 time. In this paper we give an O(n2 algorithm for the special case where the processing times and deadlines are agreeable. Moreover, for the case where the processing times and deadlines are disagreeable, we present two properties which could enable us to reduce the range of the enumeration algorithm

  11. Timing of Re-Transfusion Drain Removal Following Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeman, MF; Costa, ML; Costello, E; Edwards, D

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of postoperative drains following total knee replacement (TKR) has recently been modified by the use of re-transfusion drains. The aim of our study was to investigate the optimal time for removal of re-transfusion drains following TKR. PATIENTS AND METHODS The medical records of 66 patients who had a TKR performed between October 2003 and October 2004 were reviewed; blood drained before 6 h and the total volume of blood drained was recorded. RESULTS A total of 56 patients had complete records of postoperative drainage. The mean volume of blood collected in the drain in the first 6 h was 442 ml. The mean total volume of blood in the drain was 595 ml. Therefore, of the blood drained, 78% was available for transfusion. CONCLUSION Re-transfusion drains should be removed after 6 h, when no further re-transfusion is permissible. PMID:16551400

  12. A polynomial time algorithm for checking regularity of totally normed process algebra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, F.; Huang, H.

    2015-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm for the regularity problem of weak and branching bisimilarity on totally normed process algebra (PA) processes is given. Its time complexity is O(n 3 +mn) O(n3+mn), where n is the number of transition rules and m is the maximal length of the rules. The algorithm works for

  13. Complexities of the storm-time characteristics of ionospheric total electron content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The complexities of the storm-time variations of the ionospheric total electron content are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that large variations from storm to storm may be due to irregular flows from the auroral region towards equator. A proper study of such flows needs an elaborate network of TEC measuring instruments. The need of planning and organizing such a network is emphasized

  14. Objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Coffeng, J. K.; Ploeg, H.P. van der; Beek, A.J. van der; Boot, C.R.; Hendriksen, I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged

  15. What are the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harato, Kengo; Maeno, Shinichi; Tanikawa, Hidenori; Kaneda, Kazuya; Morishige, Yutaro; Nomoto, So; Niki, Yasuo

    2016-08-01

    It was hypothesized that surgical time of beginners would be much longer than that of experts. Our purpose was to investigate and clarify the important manoeuvres for beginners to minimize surgical time in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) as a multicentre study. A total of 300 knees in 248 patients (averaged 74.6 years) were enrolled. All TKAs were done using the same instruments and the same measured resection technique at 14 facilities by 25 orthopaedic surgeons. Surgeons were divided into three surgeon groups (four experts, nine medium-volume surgeons and 12 beginners). The surgical technique was divided into five phases. Detailed surgical time and ratio of the time in each phase to overall surgical time were recorded and compared among the groups in each phase. A total of 62, 119, and 119 TKAs were done by beginners, medium-volume surgeons, and experts, respectively. Significant differences in surgical time among the groups were seen in each phase. Concerning the ratio of the time, experts and medium-volume surgeons seemed cautious in fixation of the permanent component compared to other phases. Interestingly, even in ratio, beginners and medium-volume surgeons took more time in exposure of soft tissue compared to experts. (0.14 in beginners, 0.13 in medium-volume surgeons, 0.11 in experts, P time in exposure and closure of soft tissue compared to experts. Improvement in basic technique is essential to minimize surgical time among beginners. First of all, surgical instructors should teach basic techniques in primary TKA for beginners. Therapeutic studies, Level IV.

  16. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation and postirradiation incubation on heterogeneous nuclear RNA size in murine cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.; Sauerbier, W.

    1978-01-01

    We have analyzed the decrease in synthesis of individual size classes of heterogeneous nuclear RNA (hnRNA) in ultraviolet (uv)-irradiated Merwin plasmacytoma (MPC-11) cells at various times of postirradiation incubation. HnRNA from nonirradiated control cells is distributed over a wide range from approximately 60S to 5S, with 42S RNA carrying more label than any other size class. HnRNA from uv-irradiated cells shows a dose-dependent shift in size distribution toward lower molecular weight. The size distribution of hnRNA synthesized after prolonged times of postirradiation incubation is restored toward normal, i.e., synthesis of long RNA molecules increases relative to the synthesis of short ones. Analysis of the total number of hnRNA chains synthesized during a 20-min [ 3 H]uridine pulse shows a considerable eduction in their number with increasing uv dose. Murine cell lines are excision-repair-deficient but capable of post replication repair inhibited by caffeine. HnRNA transcripts of cells incubated in its presence were studied. The caffeine, which has no effect on hnRNA size in control cells, inhibits to a considerable extent the restoration of full-length transcripts during postirradiation incubation. The lack of excision repair in MPC-11 was confirmed by the analysis of pyrimidine dimers in trichloracetic acid-insoluble and soluble fractions within 8 h of postirradiation incubation. The size of parental and daughter strand DNA in uv-irradiated cells was correlated with RNA transcript size. The parental DNA in these experiments does not change its size as a consequence of uv exposure and postirradiation incubation. In contrast, daughter DNA strands are short in uv-irradiated cells and they increase in size during postirradiation incubation to reach the size of parental strands after 8 h

  17. Batch Scheduling for Hybrid Assembly Differentiation Flow Shop to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulidya, R.; Suprayogi; Wangsaputra, R.; Halim, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    A hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop is a three-stage flow shop consisting of Machining, Assembly and Differentiation Stages and producing different types of products. In the machining stage, parts are processed in batches on different (unrelated) machines. In the assembly stage, each part of the different parts is assembled into an assembly product. Finally, the assembled products will further be processed into different types of final products in the differentiation stage. In this paper, we develop a batch scheduling model for a hybrid assembly differentiation flow shop to minimize the total actual flow time defined as the total times part spent in the shop floor from the arrival times until its due date. We also proposed a heuristic algorithm for solving the problems. The proposed algorithm is tested using a set of hypothetic data. The solution shows that the algorithm can solve the problems effectively.

  18. Television viewing, computer use and total screen time in Canadian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Amy E; Boyce, William F; Janssen, Ian

    2006-11-01

    Research has linked excessive television viewing and computer use in children and adolescents to a variety of health and social problems. Current recommendations are that screen time in children and adolescents should be limited to no more than 2 h per day. To determine the percentage of Canadian youth meeting the screen time guideline recommendations. The representative study sample consisted of 6942 Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 who participated in the 2001/2002 World Health Organization Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey. Only 41% of girls and 34% of boys in grades 6 to 10 watched 2 h or less of television per day. Once the time of leisure computer use was included and total daily screen time was examined, only 18% of girls and 14% of boys met the guidelines. The prevalence of those meeting the screen time guidelines was higher in girls than boys. Fewer than 20% of Canadian youth in grades 6 to 10 met the total screen time guidelines, suggesting that increased public health interventions are needed to reduce the number of leisure time hours that Canadian youth spend watching television and using the computer.

  19. Different but Equal: Total Work, Gender and Social Norms in EU and US Time Use

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel S Hamermesh; Michael C Burda; Philippe Weil

    2008-01-01

    Using time-diary data from 27 countries, we demonstrate a negative relationship between real GDP per capita and the female-male difference in total work time—the sum of work for pay and work at home. We also show that in rich non-Catholic countries on four continents men and women do the same amount of total work on average. Our survey results demonstrate that labor economists, macroeconomists, sociologists and the general public consistently believe that women perform more tot...

  20. Physiotherapy Exercise After Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty: Time for Reconsideration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas; Kehlet, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Bandholm T, Kehlet H. Physiotherapy exercise after fast-track total hip and knee arthroplasty: time for reconsideration? Major surgery, including total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA), is followed by a convalescence period, during which the loss of muscle strength......-track methodology or enhanced recovery programs. It is the nature of this methodology to systematically and scientifically optimize all perioperative care components, with the overall goal of enhancing recovery. This is also the case for the care component "physiotherapy exercise" after THA and TKA. The 2 latest...... meta-analyses on the effectiveness of physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA generally conclude that physiotherapy exercise after THA and TKA either does not work or is not very effective. The reason for this may be that the "pill" of physiotherapy exercise typically offered after THA and TKA does...

  1. Time-based analysis of total cost of patient episodes: a case study of hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti; Kujala, Jaakko

    2006-01-01

    Healthcare in the public and private sectors is facing increasing pressure to become more cost-effective. Time-based competition and work-in-progress have been used successfully to measure and improve the efficiency of industrial manufacturing. Seeks to address this issue. Presents a framework for time based management of the total cost of a patient episode and apply it to the six sigma DMAIC-process development approach. The framework is used to analyse hip replacement patient episodes in Päijät-Häme Hospital District in Finland, which has a catchment area of 210,000 inhabitants and performs an average of 230 hip replacements per year. The work-in-progress concept is applicable to healthcare--notably that the DMAIC-process development approach can be used to analyse the total cost of patient episodes. Concludes that a framework, which combines the patient-in-process and the DMAIC development approach, can be used not only to analyse the total cost of patient episode but also to improve patient process efficiency. Presents a framework that combines patient-in-process and DMAIC-process development approaches, which can be used to analyse the total cost of a patient episode in order to improve patient process efficiency.

  2. Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management Part Of Technical Strategic Management Accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesi Hertati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to determine Just In Time Value Chain Total Quality Management tqm as a technique in management accounting stategis.Tujuan Just In Time value chain or value chain Total Quality Management TQM is strategic for customer satisfaction in the long term obtained from the information. Quality information is the way to continuous improvement in order to increase the companys financial performance in the long term to increase competitive advantage. Strategic Management Accounting process gather competitor information explore opportunities to reduce costs integrate accounting with emphasis on the strategic position of the competition is a great plan. An overall strategic plan interrelated and serves as the basis for achieving targets or goals ahead.

  3. Estimation of total bacteria by real-time PCR in patients with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brajović, Gavrilo; Popović, Branka; Puletić, Miljan; Kostić, Marija; Milasin, Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are associated with the presence of elevated levels of bacteria within the gingival crevice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a total amount of bacteria in subgingival plaque samples in patients with a periodontal disease. A quantitative evaluation of total bacteria amount using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed on 20 samples of patients with ulceronecrotic periodontitis and on 10 samples of healthy subjects. The estimation of total bacterial amount was based on gene copy number for 16S rRNA that was determined by comparing to Ct values/gene copy number of the standard curve. A statistically significant difference between average gene copy number of total bacteria in periodontal patients (2.55 x 10⁷) and healthy control (2.37 x 10⁶) was found (p = 0.01). Also, a trend of higher numbers of the gene copy in deeper periodontal lesions (> 7 mm) was confirmed by a positive value of coefficient of correlation (r = 0.073). The quantitative estimation of total bacteria based on gene copy number could be an important additional tool in diagnosing periodontitis.

  4. Optimizing Ship Speed to Minimize Total Fuel Consumption with Multiple Time Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the ship speed optimization problem with the objective of minimizing the total fuel consumption. We consider multiple time windows for each port call as constraints and formulate the problem as a nonlinear mixed integer program. We derive intrinsic properties of the problem and develop an exact algorithm based on the properties. Computational experiments show that the suggested algorithm is very efficient in finding an optimal solution.

  5. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    OpenAIRE

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, C?cile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods. Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 wom...

  6. Improvements in and relating to the incubation of samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagshawe, K.D.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for incubating a plurality of biological samples and particularly as part of an analysis, e.g. radioimmunoassay or enzyme assay, of the samples. The apparatus is comprised of an incubation station with a plurality of containers to which samples together with diluent and reagents are supplied. The containers are arranged in rows in two side-by-side columns and are circulated sequentially. Sample removal means is provided either at a fixed location or at a movable point relative to the incubator. Circulation of the containers and the length of sample incubation time is controlled by a computer. The incubation station may include a plurality of sections with the columns in communication so that rows of samples can be moved from the column of one section to the column of an adjacent section, to provide alternative paths for circulation of the samples. (author)

  7. Avian Incubation Patterns Reflect Temporal Changes in Developing Clutches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B Cooper

    Full Text Available Incubation conditions for eggs influence offspring quality and reproductive success. One way in which parents regulate brooding conditions is by balancing the thermal requirements of embryos with time spent away from the nest for self-maintenance. Age related changes in embryo thermal tolerance would thus be expected to shape parental incubation behavior. We use data from unmanipulated Black-capped Chickadee (Poecile atricapillus nests to examine the temporal dynamics of incubation, testing the prediction that increased heat flux from eggs as embryos age influences female incubation behavior and/or physiology to minimize temperature fluctuations. We found that the rate of heat loss from eggs increased with embryo age. Females responded to increased egg cooling rates by altering incubation rhythms (more frequent, shorter on- and off- bouts, but not brood patch temperature. Consequently, as embryos aged, females were able to increase mean egg temperature and decrease variation in temperature. Our findings highlight the need to view full incubation as more than a static rhythm; rather, it is a temporally dynamic and finely adjustable parental behavior. Furthermore, from a methodological perspective, intra- and inter-specific comparisons of incubation rhythms and average egg temperatures should control for the stage of incubation.

  8. [Determination of total and segmental colonic transit time in constipated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shu-cheng; Wang, Wei-lin; Bai, Yu-zuo; Yuan, Zheng-wei; Wang, Wei

    2003-03-01

    To determine the total and segmental colonic transit time of normal Chinese children and to explore its value in constipation in children. The subjects involved in this study were divided into 2 groups. One group was control, which had 33 healthy children (21 males and 12 females) aged 2 - 13 years (mean 5 years). The other was constipation group, which had 25 patients (15 males and 10 females) aged 3 - 14 years (mean 7 years) with constipation according to Benninga's criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the parents of each subject. In this study the simplified method of radio opaque markers was used to determine the total gastrointestinal transit time and segmental colonic transit time of the normal and constipated children, and in part of these patients X-ray defecography was also used. The total gastrointestinal transit time (TGITT), right colonic transit time (RCTT), left colonic transit time (LCTT) and rectosigmoid colonic transit time (RSTT) of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. In the constipated children, the TGITT, LCTT and RSTT were significantly longer than those in controls (92.2 +/- 55.5 h vs 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, P < 0.001; 16.9 +/- 12.6 h vs 6.5 +/- 3.8 h, P < 0.01; 61.5 +/- 29.0 h vs 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, P < 0.001), while the RCTT had no significant difference. X-ray defecography demonstrated one rectocele, one perineal descent syndrome and one puborectal muscle syndrome, respectively. The TGITT, RCTT, LCTT and RSTT of the normal children were 28.7 +/- 7.7 h, 7.5 +/- 3.2 h, 6.5 +/- 3.8 h and 13.4 +/- 5.6 h, respectively. With the segmental colonic transit time, constipation can be divided into four types: slow-transit constipation, outlet obstruction, mixed type and normal transit constipation. X-ray defecography can demonstrate the anatomical or dynamic abnormalities within the anorectal area, with which constipation can be further divided into different subtypes, and

  9. First passage times in homogeneous nucleation: Dependence on the total number of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yvinec, Romain; Bernard, Samuel; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Hingant, Erwan

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by nucleation and molecular aggregation in physical, chemical, and biological settings, we present an extension to a thorough analysis of the stochastic self-assembly of a fixed number of identical particles in a finite volume. We study the statistics of times required for maximal clusters to be completed, starting from a pure-monomeric particle configuration. For finite volumes, we extend previous analytical approaches to the case of arbitrary size-dependent aggregation and fragmentation kinetic rates. For larger volumes, we develop a scaling framework to study the first assembly time behavior as a function of the total quantity of particles. We find that the mean time to first completion of a maximum-sized cluster may have a surprisingly weak dependence on the total number of particles. We highlight how higher statistics (variance, distribution) of the first passage time may nevertheless help to infer key parameters, such as the size of the maximum cluster. Finally, we present a framework to quantify formation of macroscopic sized clusters, which are (asymptotically) very unlikely and occur as a large deviation phenomenon from the mean-field limit. We argue that this framework is suitable to describe phase transition phenomena, as inherent infrequent stochastic processes, in contrast to classical nucleation theory

  10. Empirical forecast of quiet time ionospheric Total Electron Content maps over Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badeke, Ronny; Borries, Claudia; Hoque, Mainul M.; Minkwitz, David

    2018-06-01

    An accurate forecast of the atmospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is helpful to investigate space weather influences on the ionosphere and technical applications like satellite-receiver radio links. The purpose of this work is to compare four empirical methods for a 24-h forecast of vertical TEC maps over Europe under geomagnetically quiet conditions. TEC map data are obtained from the Space Weather Application Center Ionosphere (SWACI) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). The time-series methods Standard Persistence Model (SPM), a 27 day median model (MediMod) and a Fourier Series Expansion are compared to maps for the entire year of 2015. As a representative of the climatological coefficient models the forecast performance of the Global Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM-GL) is also investigated. Time periods of magnetic storms, which are identified with the Dst index, are excluded from the validation. By calculating the TEC values with the most recent maps, the time-series methods perform slightly better than the coefficient model NTCM-GL. The benefit of NTCM-GL is its independence on observational TEC data. Amongst the time-series methods mentioned, MediMod delivers the best overall performance regarding accuracy and data gap handling. Quiet-time SWACI maps can be forecasted accurately and in real-time by the MediMod time-series approach.

  11. Effects of varying levels of vegetable juice powder and incubation time on color, residual nitrate and nitrite, pigment, pH, and trained sensory attributes of ready-to-eat uncured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A; Ahn, D U

    2007-08-01

    Vegetable juice powder (VJP) and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus have been identified as necessary ingredients for the manufacture of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products with quality and sensory attributes similar to traditional cured products. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of varying concentrations of VJP and incubation time (MIN-HOLD) on quality characteristics, including lipid oxidation, color, and cured meat pigment concentrations, of ham over a 90-d storage period, compare residual nitrate and nitrite content, and determine if differences exist in sensory properties of finished products. Four ham treatments (TRT) (TRT 1: 0.20% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 2: 0.20% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD; TRT 3: 0.35% VJP, 0 MIN-HOLD; TRT 4: 0.35% VJP, 120 MIN-HOLD) and a sodium nitrite-added control (C) were used for this study. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between TRTs and C for CIE L*, a*, b*, and cured color measured by reflectance ratio. Lipid oxidation (TBARS) for combined TRTs and C revealed little change over time while the C had less (P 0.05) were reported for cured pigment concentration between TRTs and C. Trained sensory panel intensity ratings for ham and vegetable aroma, and flavor, color, and firmness showed that a high concentration (0.35%) of VJP resulted in the highest scores for undesirable vegetable aroma and flavor. Treatment combinations with a low concentration (0.20%) of VJP were comparable to the C for all sensory attributes.

  12. Technology Business Incubators as Engines of Growth: Towards a distinction between Technology Incubators and Non-Technology Incubators.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  13. Technology business incubators as engines of growth: towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Langan Fox, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  14. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  15. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Eric R; van Kuijk, Sander M J; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; de Korte, Marcel J M; van Merode, Godefridus G; Buhre, Wolfgang F F A

    2017-01-01

    For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs), accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT) per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT) and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT). We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT). TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related benefits.

  16. Improving the Prediction of Total Surgical Procedure Time Using Linear Regression Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R. Edelman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For efficient utilization of operating rooms (ORs, accurate schedules of assigned block time and sequences of patient cases need to be made. The quality of these planning tools is dependent on the accurate prediction of total procedure time (TPT per case. In this paper, we attempt to improve the accuracy of TPT predictions by using linear regression models based on estimated surgeon-controlled time (eSCT and other variables relevant to TPT. We extracted data from a Dutch benchmarking database of all surgeries performed in six academic hospitals in The Netherlands from 2012 till 2016. The final dataset consisted of 79,983 records, describing 199,772 h of total OR time. Potential predictors of TPT that were included in the subsequent analysis were eSCT, patient age, type of operation, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA physical status classification, and type of anesthesia used. First, we computed the predicted TPT based on a previously described fixed ratio model for each record, multiplying eSCT by 1.33. This number is based on the research performed by van Veen-Berkx et al., which showed that 33% of SCT is generally a good approximation of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT. We then systematically tested all possible linear regression models to predict TPT using eSCT in combination with the other available independent variables. In addition, all regression models were again tested without eSCT as a predictor to predict ACT separately (which leads to TPT by adding SCT. TPT was most accurately predicted using a linear regression model based on the independent variables eSCT, type of operation, ASA classification, and type of anesthesia. This model performed significantly better than the fixed ratio model and the method of predicting ACT separately. Making use of these more accurate predictions in planning and sequencing algorithms may enable an increase in utilization of ORs, leading to significant financial and productivity related

  17. Time-dependent density functional theory description of total photoabsorption cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenorio, Bruno Nunes Cabral; Nascimento, Marco Antonio Chaer; Rocha, Alexandre Braga

    2018-02-01

    The time-dependent version of the density functional theory (TDDFT) has been used to calculate the total photoabsorption cross section of a number of molecules, namely, benzene, pyridine, furan, pyrrole, thiophene, phenol, naphthalene, and anthracene. The discrete electronic pseudo-spectra, obtained in a L2 basis set calculation were used in an analytic continuation procedure to obtain the photoabsorption cross sections. The ammonia molecule was chosen as a model system to compare the results obtained with TDDFT to those obtained with the linear response coupled cluster approach in order to make a link with our previous work and establish benchmarks.

  18. Parathion alters incubation behavior of laughing gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Hill, E.F.

    1983-01-01

    One member of each pair of incubating laughing gulls at 9 nests was trapped, orally dosed with either 6 mg/kg parathion in corn oil or corn oil alone, and marked about the neck with red dye. Each nest was marked with a numbered stake and the treatment was recorded. A pilot study with captive laughing gulls had determined the proper dosage of parathion that would significantly inhibit their brain AChE activity (about 50% of normal) without overt signs of poisoning. After dosing, birds were released and the nests were observed for 2 1/2 days from a blind on the nesting island. The activities of the birds at each marked nest were recorded at 10-minute intervals. Results indicated that on the day of treatment there was no difference (P greater than 0.05, Chi-square test) in the proportion of time spent on the nest between treated and control birds. However, birds dosed with 6 mg/kg parathion spent significantly less time incubating on days 2 and 3 than did birds receiving only corn oil. By noon on the third day, sharing of nest duties between pair members in the treated group had approached normal, indicating recovery from parathion intoxication. These findings suggest that sublethal exposure of nesting birds to an organophosphate (OP) insecticide, such as parathion, may result in decreased nest attentiveness, thereby making the clutch more susceptible to predation or egg failure. Behavioral changes caused by sublethal OP exposure could be especially detrimental in avian species where only one pair member incubates or where both members are exposed in species sharing nest duties.

  19. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  20. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  1. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  2. Can a surgery-first orthognathic approach reduce the total treatment time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Woo Shik; Choi, Jong Woo; Kim, Do Yeon; Lee, Jang Yeol; Kwon, Soon Man

    2017-04-01

    Although pre-surgical orthodontic treatment has been accepted as a necessary process for stable orthognathic correction in the traditional orthognathic approach, recent advances in the application of miniscrews and in the pre-surgical simulation of orthodontic management using dental models have shown that it is possible to perform a surgery-first orthognathic approach without pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. This prospective study investigated the surgical outcomes of patients with diagnosed skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent orthognathic surgery between December 2007 and December 2014. Cephalometric landmark data for patients undergoing the surgery-first approach were analyzed in terms of postoperative changes in vertical and horizontal skeletal pattern, dental pattern, and soft tissue profile. Forty-five consecutive Asian patients with skeletal class III dentofacial deformities who underwent surgery-first orthognathic surgery and 52 patients who underwent conventional two-jaw orthognathic surgery were included. The analysis revealed that the total treatment period for the surgery-first approach averaged 14.6 months, compared with 22.0 months for the orthodontics-first approach. Comparisons between the immediate postoperative and preoperative and between the postoperative and immediate postoperative cephalometric data revealed factors that correlated with the total treatment duration. The surgery-first orthognathic approach can dramatically reduce the total treatment time, with no major complications. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-driven Activity-based Cost of Fast-Track Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Signe E; Holm, Henriette B; Jørgensen, Mira

    2017-01-01

    this between 2 departments with different logistical set-ups. METHODS: Prospective data collection was analyzed using the time-driven activity-based costing method (TDABC) on time consumed by different staff members involved in patient treatment in the perioperative period of fast-track THA and TKA in 2 Danish...... orthopedic departments with standardized fast-track settings, but different logistical set-ups. RESULTS: Length of stay was median 2 days in both departments. TDABC revealed minor differences in the perioperative settings between departments, but the total cost excluding the prosthesis was similar at USD......-track methodology, the result could be a more cost-effective pathway altogether. As THA and TKA are potentially costly procedures and the numbers are increasing in an economical limited environment, the aim of this study is to present baseline detailed economical calculations of fast-track THA and TKA and compare...

  4. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295

  5. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

  6. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  8. Time-gated scintillator imaging for real-time optical surface dosimetry in total skin electron therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruza, Petr; Gollub, Sarah L.; Andreozzi, Jacqueline M.; Tendler, Irwin I.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A.; Gladstone, David J.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure surface dose by remote time-gated imaging of plastic scintillators. A novel technique for time-gated, intensified camera imaging of scintillator emission was demonstrated, and key parameters influencing the signal were analyzed, including distance, angle and thickness. A set of scintillator samples was calibrated by using thermo-luminescence detector response as reference. Examples of use in total skin electron therapy are described. The data showed excellent room light rejection (signal-to-noise ratio of scintillation SNR  ≈  470), ideal scintillation dose response linearity, and 2% dose rate error. Individual sample scintillation response varied by 7% due to sample preparation. Inverse square distance dependence correction and lens throughput error (8% per meter) correction were needed. At scintillator-to-source angle and observation angle  <50°, the radiant energy fluence error was smaller than 1%. The achieved standard error of the scintillator cumulative dose measurement compared to the TLD dose was 5%. The results from this proof-of-concept study documented the first use of small scintillator targets for remote surface dosimetry in ambient room lighting. The measured dose accuracy renders our method to be comparable to thermo-luminescent detector dosimetry, with the ultimate realization of accuracy likely to be better than shown here. Once optimized, this approach to remote dosimetry may substantially reduce the time and effort required for surface dosimetry.

  9. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor (or total precipitable water) is essential for understanding weather and the environment including the greenhouse effect, the climate system with its feedbacks and the hydrological cycle. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models need accurate estimations of water vapor content to provide realistic forecasts including representation of clouds and precipitation. In the present study we introduce our research activity for the estimation and forecast of atmospheric water vapor in Central Europe using both observations and models. The Eötvös Loránd University (Hungary) operates a polar orbiting satellite receiving station in Budapest since 2002. This station receives Earth observation data from polar orbiting satellites including MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Direct Broadcast (DB) data stream from satellites Terra and Aqua. The received DB MODIS data are automatically processed using freely distributed software packages. Using the IMAPP Level2 software total precipitable water is calculated operationally using two different methods. Quality of the TPW estimations is a crucial question for further application of the results, thus validation of the remotely sensed total precipitable water fields is presented using radiosonde data. In a current research project in Hungary we aim to compare different estimations of atmospheric water vapor content. Within the frame of the project we use a NWP model (DBCRAS; Direct Broadcast CIMSS Regional Assimilation System numerical weather prediction software developed by the University of Wisconsin, Madison) to forecast TPW. DBCRAS uses near real time Level2 products from the MODIS data processing chain. From the wide range of the derived Level2 products the MODIS TPW parameter found within the so-called mod07 results (Atmospheric Profiles Product) and the cloud top pressure and cloud effective emissivity parameters from the so

  10. Smoking is associated with earlier time to revision of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chin Tat; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Harris, Alex H S; Bhowmick, Subhrojyoti; Maloney, William J; Amanatullah, Derek F

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is associated with early postoperative complications, increased length of hospital stay, and an increased risk of revision after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). However, the effect of smoking on time to revision TKA is unknown. A total of 619 primary TKAs referred to an academic tertiary center for revision TKA were retrospectively stratified according to the patient smoking status. Smoking status was then analyzed for associations with time to revision TKA using a Chi square test. The association was also analyzed according to the indication for revision TKA. Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to non-smokers (274/357, 77%, p=0.031). Smokers (37/41, 90%) have an increased risk of earlier revision for any reason compared to ex-smokers (168/221, 76%, p=0.028). Subgroup analysis did not reveal a difference in indication for revision TKA (p>0.05). Smokers are at increased risk of earlier revision TKA when compared to non-smokers and ex-smokers. The risk for ex-smokers was similar to that of non-smokers. Smoking appears to have an all-or-none effect on earlier revision TKA as patients who smoked more did not have higher risk of early revision TKA. These results highlight the need for clinicians to urge patients not to begin smoking and encourage smokers to quit smoking prior to primary TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Time-driven activity based costing of total knee replacement surgery at a London teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alvin; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Akhtar, Kashif; Makaram, Navnit; Gupte, Chinmay M

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a time-driven activity based costing (TDABC) analysis of the clinical pathway for total knee replacement (TKR) and to determine where the major cost drivers lay. The in-patient pathway was prospectively mapped utilising a TDABC model, following 20 TKRs. The mean age for these patients was 73.4 years. All patients were ASA grade I or II and their mean BMI was 30.4. The 14 varus knees had a mean deformity of 5.32° and the six valgus knee had a mean deformity of 10.83°. Timings were prospectively collected as each patient was followed through the TKR pathway. Pre-operative costs including pre-assessment and joint school were £ 163. Total staff costs for admission and the operating theatre were £ 658. Consumables cost for the operating theatre were £ 1862. The average length of stay was 5.25 days at a total cost of £ 910. Trust overheads contributed £ 1651. The overall institutional cost of a 'noncomplex' TKR in patients without substantial medical co-morbidities was estimated to be £ 5422, representing a profit of £ 1065 based on a best practice tariff of £ 6487. The major cost drivers in the TKR pathway were determined to be theatre consumables, corporate overheads, overall ward cost and operating theatre staffing costs. Appropriate discounting of implant costs, reduction in length of stay by adopting an enhanced recovery programme and control of corporate overheads through the use of elective orthopaedic treatment centres are proposed approaches for reducing the overall cost of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Preterm infant thermal care: differing thermal environments produced by air versus skin servo-control incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K A; Burr, R

    1999-06-01

    Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.

  13. Creativity – The Unconscious Foundations of the Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone M. eRitter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Creativity is one of the most important assets we have to navigate through the fast changing world of the 21st century. Anecdotal accounts of creative individuals suggest that oftentimes, creative discoveries result from a process whereby initial conscious thought is followed by a period during which one refrains from task-related conscious thought. For example, one may spend an embarrassing amount of time thinking about a problem when the solution suddenly pops into consciousness while taking a shower. Not only creative individuals but also traditional theories of creativity have put a lot of emphasis on this incubation stage in creative thinking. The aim of the present article is twofold. First, an overview of the domain of incubation and creativity is provided by reviewing and discussing studies on incubation, mind-wandering, and sleep. Second, the causes of incubation effects are discussed. Previously, little attention has been paid to the causes of incubation effects and most findings do not really speak to whether the effects should be explained by unconscious processes or merely by consequences of a period of distraction. In the latter case, there is no need to assume active unconscious processes. The findings discussed in the current article support the idea that it is not merely the absence of conscious thought that drives incubation effects, but that during an incubation period unconscious processes contribute to creative thinking. Finally, practical implications and directions for future research will be discussed.

  14. Effects of Defaunation on Fermentation Characteristics and Methane Production by Rumen Microbes When Incubated with Starchy Feed Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Z. Qin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An in vitro experiment was conducted to examine the effects of defaunation (removal of protozoa on ruminal fermentation characteristics, CH4 production and degradation by rumen microbes when incubated with cereal grains (corn, wheat and rye. Sodium lauryl sulfate as a defaunation reagent was added into the culture solution at a concentration of 0.000375 g/ml, and incubated anaerobically for up to 12 h at 39°C. Following defaunation, live protozoa in the culture solution were rarely observed by microscopic examination. A difference in pH was found among grains regardless of defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.01 to 0.001. Defaunation significantly decreased pH at 12 h (p<0.05 when rumen fluid was incubated with grains. Ammonia-N concentration was increased by defaunation for all grains at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05 incubation times. Total VFA concentration was increased by defaunation at 6 h (p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.01 for all grains. Meanwhile, defaunation decreased acetate and butyrate proportions at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.01 and 12 h (p<0.01, p<0.001, but increased the propionate proportion at 3 h, 6 h and 12 h incubation (p<0.01 to 0.001 for all grains. Defaunation increased in vitro effective degradability of DM (p<0.05. Production of total gas and CO2 was decreased by defaunation for all grains at 1 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and then increased at 6 h (p<0.05, p<0.05 and 12 h (p<0.05, p<0.05. CH4 production was higher from faunation than from defaunation at all incubation times (p<0.05.

  15. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening at time of neourethral prelamination in transgender men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Carlos A; Fein, Lydia A; Salgado, Christopher J

    2017-11-29

    For transgender men (TGM), gender-affirmation surgery (GAS) is often the final stage of their gender transition. GAS involves creating a neophallus, typically using tissue remote from the genital region, such as radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty. Essential to this process is vaginectomy. Complexity of vaginal fascial attachments, atrophy due to testosterone use, and need to preserve integrity of the vaginal epithelium for tissue rearrangement add to the intricacy of the procedure during GAS. We designed the technique presented here to minimize complications and contribute to overall success of the phalloplasty procedure. After obtaining approval from the Institutional Review Board, our transgender (TG) database at the University of Miami Hospital was reviewed to identify cases with vaginectomy and urethral elongation performed at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Surgical technique for posterior vaginectomy and anterior vaginal wall-flap harvest with subsequent urethral lengthening is detailed. Six patients underwent total vaginectomy and urethral elongation at the time of radial forearm free-flap phalloplasty prelamination. Mean estimated blood loss (EBL) was 290 ± 199.4 ml for the vaginectomy and urethral elongation, and no one required transfusion. There were no intraoperative complications (cystotomy, ureteral obstruction, enterotomy, proctotomy, or neurological injury). One patient had a urologic complication (urethral stricture) in the neobulbar urethra. Total vaginectomy and urethral lengthening procedures at the time of GAS are relatively safe procedures, and using the described technique provides excellent tissue for urethral prelamination and a low complication rate in both the short and long term.

  16. Timing of urinary catheter removal after uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Magdy R; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed A; Atwa, Khaled A; Metwally, Lobna

    2014-05-01

    To assess whether immediate (0h), intermediate (after 6h) or delayed (after 24h) removal of an indwelling urinary catheter after uncomplicated abdominal hysterectomy can affect the rate of re-catheterization due to urinary retention, rate of urinary tract infection, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. Prospective randomized controlled trial conducted at Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt. Two hundred and twenty-one women underwent total abdominal hysterectomy for benign gynecological diseases and were randomly allocated into three groups. Women in group A (73 patients) had their urinary catheter removed immediately after surgery. Group B (81 patients) had the catheter removed 6h post-operatively while in group C (67 patients) the catheter was removed after 24h. The main outcome measures were the frequency of urinary retention, urinary tract infections, ambulation time and length of hospital stay. There was a significantly higher number of urinary retention episodes requiring re-catheterization in the immediate removal group compared to the intermediate and delayed removal groups (16.4% versus 2.5% and 0% respectively). Delayed urinary catheter removal was associated with a higher incidence of urinary tract infections (15%), delayed ambulation time (10.3h) and longer hospital stay (5.6 days) compared to the early (1.4%, 4.1h and 3.2 days respectively) and intermediate (3.7%, 6.8h and 3.4 days respectively) removal groups. Removal of the urinary catheter 6h postoperatively appears to be more advantageous than early or late removal in cases of uncomplicated total abdominal hysterectomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total column abundances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.-M. Sinnhuber

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Time series of total column abundances of hydrogen chloride (HCl, chlorine nitrate (ClONO2, and hydrogen fluoride (HF were determined from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectra recorded at 17 sites belonging to the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC and located between 80.05° N and 77.82° S. By providing such a near-global overview on ground-based measurements of the two major stratospheric chlorine reservoir species, HCl and ClONO2, the present study is able to confirm the decrease of the atmospheric inorganic chlorine abundance during the last few years. This decrease is expected following the 1987 Montreal Protocol and its amendments and adjustments, where restrictions and a subsequent phase-out of the prominent anthropogenic chlorine source gases (solvents, chlorofluorocarbons were agreed upon to enable a stabilisation and recovery of the stratospheric ozone layer. The atmospheric fluorine content is expected to be influenced by the Montreal Protocol, too, because most of the banned anthropogenic gases also represent important fluorine sources. But many of the substitutes to the banned gases also contain fluorine so that the HF total column abundance is expected to have continued to increase during the last few years. The measurements are compared with calculations from five different models: the two-dimensional Bremen model, the two chemistry-transport models KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the two chemistry-climate models EMAC and SOCOL. Thereby, the ability of the models to reproduce the absolute total column amounts, the seasonal cycles, and the temporal evolution found in the FTIR measurements is investigated and inter-compared. This is especially interesting because the models have different architectures. The overall agreement between the measurements and models for the total column abundances and the seasonal cycles is good. Linear trends of HCl, ClONO2, and HF are calculated from both

  18. The influence of tourniquet use and operative time on the incidence of deep vein thrombosis in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Arnaldo José; Almeida, Adriano Marques de; Fávaro, Edmar; Sguizzato, Guilherme Turola

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the association between tourniquet and total operative time during total knee arthroplasty and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis. Seventy-eight consecutive patients from our institution underwent cemented total knee arthroplasty for degenerative knee disorders. The pneumatic tourniquet time and total operative time were recorded in minutes. Four categories were established for total tourniquet time: 120 minutes. Three categories were defined for operative time: 150 minutes. Between 7 and 12 days after surgery, the patients underwent ascending venography to evaluate the presence of distal or proximal deep vein thrombosis. We evaluated the association between the tourniquet time and total operative time and the occurrence of deep vein thrombosis after total knee arthroplasty. In total, 33 cases (42.3%) were positive for deep vein thrombosis; 13 (16.7%) cases involved the proximal type. We found no statistically significant difference in tourniquet time or operative time between patients with or without deep vein thrombosis. We did observe a higher frequency of proximal deep vein thrombosis in patients who underwent surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes. The mean total operative time was also higher in patients with proximal deep vein thrombosis. The tourniquet time did not significantly differ in these patients. We concluded that surgery lasting longer than 120 minutes increases the risk of proximal deep vein thrombosis.

  19. Wait time management strategies for total joint replacement surgery: sustainability and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomey, Marie-Pascale; Clavel, Nathalie; Amar, Claudia; Sabogale-Olarte, Juan Carlos; Sanmartin, Claudia; De Coster, Carolyn; Noseworthy, Tom

    2017-09-07

    In Canada, long waiting times for core specialized services have consistently been identified as a key barrier to access. Governments and organizations have responded with strategies for better access management, notably for total joint replacement (TJR) of the hip and knee. While wait time management strategies (WTMS) are promising, the factors which influence their sustainable implementation at the organizational level are understudied. Consequently, this study examined organizational and systemic factors that made it possible to sustain waiting times for TJR within federally established limits and for at least 18 months or more. The research design is a multiple case study of WTMS implementation. Five cases were selected across five Canadian provinces. Three success levels were pre-defined: 1) the WTMS maintained compliance with requirements for more than 18 months; 2) the WTMS met requirements for 18 months but could not sustain the level thereafter; 3) the WTMS never met requirements. For each case, we collected documents and interviewed key informants. We analyzed systemic and organizational factors, with particular attention to governance and leadership, culture, resources, methods, and tools. We found that successful organizations had specific characteristics: 1) management of the whole care continuum, 2) strong clinical leadership; 3) dedicated committees to coordinate and sustain strategy; 4) a culture based on trust and innovation. All strategies led to relatively similar unintended consequences. The main negative consequence was an initial increase in waiting times for TJR and the main positive consequence was operational enhancement of other areas of specialization based on the TJR model. This study highlights important differences in factors which help to achieve and sustain waiting times. To be sustainable, a WTMS needs to generate greater synergies between contextual-level strategy (provincial or regional) and organizational objectives and

  20. What determines a successful business incubator?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Sophia; Brem, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Business incubators have become an important pillar in the attraction and the support of innovation and entrepreneurship – in practice, and to a greater extent in theory as well. Based on earlier research, we give an overview of business incubator literature between 2001 and 2013. We review...... these results in a generic business incubation process model, which is elaborated in a pre-, main- and after-incubation phase. Finally, we introduce an incubator guide, which is summarizing the key areas into a questionnaire. Hence, on the one hand, we foster future research on business incubation with our...... conceptual framework based on an extensive literature review. On the other hand, we support managers and policy makers with a practice-oriented and research-based evaluation tool for a status quo analysis as well as a solid basis for a further incubator development....

  1. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  2. Optimum filters with time width constraints for liquid argon total-absorption detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatti, E.; Radeka, V.

    1977-10-01

    Optimum filter responses are found for triangular current input pulses occurring in liquid argon ionization chambers used as total absorption detectors. The filters considered are subject to the following constraints: finite width of the output pulse having a prescribed ratio to the width of the triangular input current pulse and zero area of a bipolar antisymmetrical pulse or of a three lobe pulse, as required for high event rates. The feasibility of pulse shaping giving an output equal to, or shorter than, the input one is demonstrated. It is shown that the signal-to-noise ratio remains constant for the chamber interelectrode gap which gives an input pulse width (i.e., electron drift time) greater than one third of the required output pulse width

  3. Simplified neural networks for solving linear least squares and total least squares problems in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cichocki, A; Unbehauen, R

    1994-01-01

    In this paper a new class of simplified low-cost analog artificial neural networks with on chip adaptive learning algorithms are proposed for solving linear systems of algebraic equations in real time. The proposed learning algorithms for linear least squares (LS), total least squares (TLS) and data least squares (DLS) problems can be considered as modifications and extensions of well known algorithms: the row-action projection-Kaczmarz algorithm and/or the LMS (Adaline) Widrow-Hoff algorithms. The algorithms can be applied to any problem which can be formulated as a linear regression problem. The correctness and high performance of the proposed neural networks are illustrated by extensive computer simulation results.

  4. Exact and Heuristic Solutions to Minimize Total Waiting Time in the Blood Products Distribution Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Salehipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel application of operations research to support decision making in blood distribution management. The rapid and dynamic increasing demand, criticality of the product, storage, handling, and distribution requirements, and the different geographical locations of hospitals and medical centers have made blood distribution a complex and important problem. In this study, a real blood distribution problem containing 24 hospitals was tackled by the authors, and an exact approach was presented. The objective of the problem is to distribute blood and its products among hospitals and medical centers such that the total waiting time of those requiring the product is minimized. Following the exact solution, a hybrid heuristic algorithm is proposed. Computational experiments showed the optimal solutions could be obtained for medium size instances, while for larger instances the proposed hybrid heuristic is very competitive.

  5. Estimating time-based instantaneous total mortality rate based on the age-structured abundance index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Jiao, Yan

    2015-05-01

    The instantaneous total mortality rate ( Z) of a fish population is one of the important parameters in fisheries stock assessment. The estimation of Z is crucial to fish population dynamics analysis, abundance and catch forecast, and fisheries management. A catch curve-based method for estimating time-based Z and its change trend from catch per unit effort (CPUE) data of multiple cohorts is developed. Unlike the traditional catch-curve method, the method developed here does not need the assumption of constant Z throughout the time, but the Z values in n continuous years are assumed constant, and then the Z values in different n continuous years are estimated using the age-based CPUE data within these years. The results of the simulation analyses show that the trends of the estimated time-based Z are consistent with the trends of the true Z, and the estimated rates of change from this approach are close to the true change rates (the relative differences between the change rates of the estimated Z and the true Z are smaller than 10%). Variations of both Z and recruitment can affect the estimates of Z value and the trend of Z. The most appropriate value of n can be different given the effects of different factors. Therefore, the appropriate value of n for different fisheries should be determined through a simulation analysis as we demonstrated in this study. Further analyses suggested that selectivity and age estimation are also two factors that can affect the estimated Z values if there is error in either of them, but the estimated change rates of Z are still close to the true change rates. We also applied this approach to the Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fishery of eastern Newfoundland and Labrador from 1983 to 1997, and obtained reasonable estimates of time-based Z.

  6. Total and domain-specific sitting time among employees in desk-based work settings in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Pedisic, Zeljko; Timperio, Anna; Crawford, David; Dunstan, David; Bauman, Adrian; van Uffelen, Jannique; Salmon, Jo

    2015-06-01

    To describe the total and domain-specific daily sitting time among a sample of Australian office-based employees. In April 2010, paper-based surveys were provided to desk-based employees (n=801) in Victoria, Australia. Total daily and domain-specific (work, leisure-time and transport-related) sitting time (minutes/day) were assessed by validated questionnaires. Differences in sitting time were examined across socio-demographic (age, sex, occupational status) and lifestyle characteristics (physical activity levels, body mass index [BMI]) using multiple linear regression analyses. The median (95% confidence interval [CI]) of total daily sitting time was 540 (531-557) minutes/day. Insufficiently active adults (median=578 minutes/day, [95%CI: 564-602]), younger adults aged 18-29 years (median=561 minutes/day, [95%CI: 540-577]) reported the highest total daily sitting times. Occupational sitting time accounted for almost 60% of total daily sitting time. In multivariate analyses, total daily sitting time was negatively associated with age (unstandardised regression coefficient [B]=-1.58, pphysical activity (minutes/week) (B=-0.03, pemployees reported that more than half of their total daily sitting time was accrued in the work setting. Given the high contribution of occupational sitting to total daily sitting time among desk-based employees, interventions should focus on the work setting. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Total variation regularization for a backward time-fractional diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Liyan; Liu, Jijun

    2013-01-01

    Consider a two-dimensional backward problem for a time-fractional diffusion process, which can be considered as image de-blurring where the blurring process is assumed to be slow diffusion. In order to avoid the over-smoothing effect for object image with edges and to construct a fast reconstruction scheme, the total variation regularizing term and the data residual error in the frequency domain are coupled to construct the cost functional. The well posedness of this optimization problem is studied. The minimizer is sought approximately using the iteration process for a series of optimization problems with Bregman distance as a penalty term. This iteration reconstruction scheme is essentially a new regularizing scheme with coupling parameter in the cost functional and the iteration stopping times as two regularizing parameters. We give the choice strategy for the regularizing parameters in terms of the noise level of measurement data, which yields the optimal error estimate on the iterative solution. The series optimization problems are solved by alternative iteration with explicit exact solution and therefore the amount of computation is much weakened. Numerical implementations are given to support our theoretical analysis on the convergence rate and to show the significant reconstruction improvements. (paper)

  8. The Co-evolution of Business Incubators and National Incubator Networks in Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Robinson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study proposes a three stage model of the development of business incubation practices in emerging markets. The model addresses the diffusion of incubation practices to new markets, the institutionalization of those practices and the co-evolution of incubators and national networks of incubation. The model is based on interviews conducted in Bolivia, Peru, Chile, Argentina, and Brazil. New incubators in emerging markets often face strong cultural norms and institutional impediments to helping entrepreneurs start new businesses. As incubation becomes better established in a country, incubators provide more advanced technical, legal and market-based advice. Networks of incubators form to share specialized services across many incubators, to allocate government funding to incubators, and to lobby for public and private support of innovation.

  9. Trans-shell infection by pathogenic micro-organisms reduces the shelf life of non-incubated bird's eggs: a constraint on the onset of incubation?

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Mark I; Beissinger, Steven R; Toranzos, Gary A; Rodriguez, Roberto A; Arendt, Wayne J

    2003-01-01

    Many birds initiate incubation before clutch completion, which results in asynchronous hatching. The ensuing within-brood size disparity often places later-hatched nestlings at a developmental disadvantage, but the functional significance of the timing of the onset of incubation is poorly understood. Early incubation may serve to maintain the viability of early-laid eggs, which declines over time owing to the putative effects of ambient temperature. An unexplored risk to egg viability is tran...

  10. Carbon dioxide emission from maize straw incubated with soil under various moisture and nitrogen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abro, S.A.; Tian, X.; Hussain, Q.; Talpur, M.; Singh, U.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the decomposition of maize straw incorporated into soil amended with nitrogen (N) and moisture (M) levels. Clay loam topsoil amended with maize straw was adjusted to four initial nitrogen treatments (C/N ratios of 72, 36, 18, and 9) and four moisture levels (60%, 70%, 80% and 90 % of field capacity) for the total of 16 treatments and incubated at 20 deg. C for 51 days. CO/sub 2/-C evolved was regularly recorded for all treatments during entire incubation period. Results showed that the mixing of straw with soil accelerated decomposition rates and enhanced cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production. The incorporation of straw brought about 50% increase in the cumulative CO/sub 2/-C production as compared with controls. About 45% of added maize straw C was mineralized to CO/sub 2/-C in 51 days. We conclude that incorporation of straw into soil along with the addition of N and moisture levels significantly affected CO/sub 2/-C evolution, cumulative CO/sub 2-C/, C mineralization and soil organic carbon deposition. The CO/sub 2/ emission was in positive correlation with (R2=0.99) N, moisture and incubation time (days). The straw returning into soil may enhance carbon pools and, thus will improve soil and environmental quality. (author)

  11. Determination of time-dependent uncertainty of the total solar irradiance records from 1978 to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröhlich Claus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. The existing records of total solar irradiance (TSI since 1978 differ not only in absolute values, but also show different trends. For the study of TSI variability these records need to be combined and three composites have been devised; however, the results depend on the choice of the records and the way they are combined. A new composite should be based on all existing records with an individual qualification. It is proposed to use a time-dependent uncertainty for weighting of the individual records. Methods. The determination of the time-dependent deviation of the TSI records is performed by comparison with the square root of the sunspot number (SSN. However, this correlation is only valid for timescales of the order of a year or more because TSI and SSN react quite differently to solar activity changes on shorter timescales. Hence the results concern only periods longer than the one-year-low-pass filter used in the analysis. Results. Besides the main objective to determine an investigator-independent uncertainty, the comparison of TSI with √SSN turns out to be a powerful tool for the study of the TSI long-term changes. The correlation of √SSN with TSI replicates very well the TSI minima, especially the very low value of the recent minimum. The results of the uncertainty determination confirm not only the need for adequate corrections for degradation, but also show that a rather detailed analysis is needed. The daily average of all TSI values available on that day, weighted with the correspondingly determined uncertainty, is used to construct a “new” composite, which, overall, compares well with the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos (PMOD composite. Finally, the TSI − √SSN comparison proves to be an important diagnostic tool not only for estimating uncertainties of observations, but also for a better understanding of the long-term variability of TSI.

  12. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  13. Parallel algorithm of real-time infrared image restoration based on total variation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ran; Li, Miao; Long, Yunli; Zeng, Yaoyuan; An, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Image restoration is a necessary preprocessing step for infrared remote sensing applications. Traditional methods allow us to remove the noise but penalize too much the gradients corresponding to edges. Image restoration techniques based on variational approaches can solve this over-smoothing problem for the merits of their well-defined mathematical modeling of the restore procedure. The total variation (TV) of infrared image is introduced as a L1 regularization term added to the objective energy functional. It converts the restoration process to an optimization problem of functional involving a fidelity term to the image data plus a regularization term. Infrared image restoration technology with TV-L1 model exploits the remote sensing data obtained sufficiently and preserves information at edges caused by clouds. Numerical implementation algorithm is presented in detail. Analysis indicates that the structure of this algorithm can be easily implemented in parallelization. Therefore a parallel implementation of the TV-L1 filter based on multicore architecture with shared memory is proposed for infrared real-time remote sensing systems. Massive computation of image data is performed in parallel by cooperating threads running simultaneously on multiple cores. Several groups of synthetic infrared image data are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed parallel algorithm. Quantitative analysis of measuring the restored image quality compared to input image is presented. Experiment results show that the TV-L1 filter can restore the varying background image reasonably, and that its performance can achieve the requirement of real-time image processing.

  14. Brake response time before and after total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niederseer David

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the numbers of total knee arthroplasty (TKA are increasing, there is only a small number of studies investigating driving safety after TKA. The parameter 'Brake Response Time (BRT' is one of the most important criteria for driving safety and was therefore chosen for investigation. The present study was conducted to test the hypotheses that patients with right- or left-sided TKA show a significant increase in BRT from pre-operative (pre-op, 1 day before surgery to post-operative (post-op, 2 weeks post surgery, and a significant decrease in BRT from post-op to the follow-up investigation (FU, 8 weeks post surgery. Additionally, it was hypothesized that the BRT of patients after TKA is significantly higher than that of healthy controls. Methods 31 of 70 consecutive patients (mean age 65.7 +/- 10.2 years receiving TKA were tested for their BRT pre-op, post-op and at FU. BRT was assessed using a custom-made driving simulator. We used normative BRT data from 31 healthy controls for comparison. Results There were no significant increases between pre-op and post-op BRT values for patients who had undergone left- or right-sided TKA. Even the proportion of patients above a BRT threshold of 700 ms was not significantly increased postop. Controls had a BRT which was significantly better than the BRT of patients with right- or left-sided TKA at all three time points. Conclusion The present study showed a small and insignificant postoperative increase in the BRT of patients who had undergone right- or left-sided TKA. Therefore, we believe it is not justified to impair the patient's quality of social and occupational life post-surgery by imposing restrictions on driving motor vehicles beyond an interval of two weeks after surgery.

  15. The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of incubation period and temperature on the Hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S) technique for detection of faecal contamination in water. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. Journal Home ... A total of 171 water samples from 3 sources were analyzed for the presence of faecal contamination by

  16. Modulation of Total Sleep Time by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Lukas; Piosczyk, Hannah; Zittel, Sulamith; Jahn, Friederike; Selhausen, Peter; Krone, Lukas; Feige, Bernd; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Normann, Claus; Sterr, Annette; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nitsche, Michael A; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Arousal and sleep are fundamental physiological processes, and their modulation is of high clinical significance. This study tested the hypothesis that total sleep time (TST) in humans can be modulated by the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting a 'top-down' cortico-thalamic pathway of sleep-wake regulation. Nineteen healthy participants underwent a within-subject, repeated-measures protocol across five nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring (adaptation, baseline, three experimental nights). tDCS was delivered via bi-frontal target electrodes and bi-parietal return electrodes before sleep (anodal 'activation', cathodal 'deactivation', and sham stimulation). Bi-frontal anodal stimulation significantly decreased TST, compared with cathodal and sham stimulation. This effect was location specific. Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation did not significantly increase TST, potentially due to ceiling effects in good sleepers. Exploratory resting-state EEG analyses before and after the tDCS protocols were consistent with the notion of increased cortical arousal after anodal stimulation and decreased cortical arousal after cathodal stimulation. The study provides proof-of-concept that TST can be decreased by non-invasive bi-frontal anodal tDCS in healthy humans. Further elucidating the 'top-down' pathway of sleep-wake regulation is expected to increase knowledge on the fundamentals of sleep-wake regulation and to contribute to the development of novel treatments for clinical conditions of disturbed arousal and sleep.

  17. On the Laws of Total Local Times for -Paths and Bridges of Symmetric Lévy Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The joint law of the total local times at two levels for -paths of symmetric Lévy processes is shown to admit an explicit representation in terms of the laws of the squared Bessel processes of dimensions two and zero. The law of the total local time at a single level for bridges is also discussed.

  18. Incubation Temperature during Fetal Development Influences Morphophysiological Characteristics and Preferred Ambient Temperature of Chicken Hatchlings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane de Souza Morita

    Full Text Available Skin and feather characteristics, which play a critical role in body temperature maintenance, can be affected by incubation circumstances, such as incubation temperature. However, no study to date has assessed the influence of incubation temperature during the fetal stage on morphometric characteristics and vascular development of the skin, feather characteristics, and their relationship to hormone levels and preferred temperature in later life in chickens. Broiler breeder eggs were exposed to low (36°C, control (37.5°C, or high (39°C temperatures (treatments LT, CK, and HT, respectively from day 13 of incubation onward, because it is known that the endocrine axes are already established at this time. During this period, eggshell temperature of HT eggs (38.8±0.33°C was higher than of LT (37.4±0.08°C and CK eggs (37.8 ±0.15°C. The difference between eggshell and incubator air temperature diminished with the increasing incubation temperature, and was approximately zero for HT. HT hatchlings had higher surface temperature on the head, neck, and back, and thinner and more vascularized skin than did CK and LT hatchlings. No differences were found among treatments for body weight, total feather weight, number and length of barbs, barbule length, and plasma T4 concentration. LT hatchlings showed lower plasma T3 and GH, as well as lower T3/T4 ratio and decreased vascularity in the neck, back, and thigh skin compared to CK hatchlings. On the other hand, HT hatchlings had decreased skin thickness and increased vascularity, and preferred a higher ambient temperature compared to CK and HT hatchlings. In addition, for all treatments, surface temperature on the head was higher than of the other body regions. We conclude that changes in skin thickness and vascularity, as well as changes in thyroid and growth hormone levels, are the result of embryonic strategies to cope with higher or lower than normal incubation temperatures. Additionally exposure to

  19. The Upgrade to Hybrid Incubators in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Gao, Yuchen

    countries and emerging economics. Based on a single in-depth case-study of Tuspark Incubator, this study explores key factors and specific ways for the upgrade to hybrid incubators in the context of China. By using categorical analysis, three factors, i.e. incubation subdivision, intermediary platform......, and proactive approach, are found to be essential for a formerly government-sponsored TBI’s upgrading. The result of this study also provides new insights and several implications for incubator managers and policy makers in emerging economies. In addition, whether the key factors can be used in upgrade of other...... TBIs in China requires further study....

  20. The business incubator in a network perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2003-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a new incubator model, the "networked incubator", which is a hybrid form of the archetypal business incubators, based on territorial synergy, relational symbiosis and economices of scale, to the benefit of the participating 'incubatees'. The question...... addressed in this paper is why this new model has emerged and what distinguishes it from the more traditional incubator model. The theoretical basis of the research is social capital theory. Empirically, the paper is based on 6 months' ethnographic data collected in one of the first known networked...

  1. Surgical time and complications of total transvaginal (total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional ovariohysterectomy in bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recently developed minimally invasive techniques of ovariohysterectomy (OVH have been studied in dogs in order to optimize their benefits and decrease risks to the patients. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical time, complications and technical difficulties of transvaginal total-NOTES, single-port laparoscopic-assisted and conventional OVH in bitches. Twelve bitches were submitted to total-NOTES (NOTES group, while 13 underwent single-port laparoscopic-assisted (SPLA group and 15 were submitted to conventional OVH (OPEN group. Intra-operative period was divided into 7 stages: (1 access to abdominal cavity; (2 pneumoperitoneum; approach to the right (3 and left (4 ovarian pedicle and uterine body (5; (6 abdominal or vaginal synthesis, performed in 6 out of 12 patients of NOTES; (7 inoperative time. Overall and stages operative times, intra and postoperative complications and technical difficulties were compared among groups. Mean overall surgical time in NOTES (25.7±6.8 minutes and SPLA (23.1±4.0 minutes groups were shorter than in the OPEN group (34.0±6.4 minutes (P<0.05. The intraoperative stage that required the longest time was the approach to the uterine body in the NOTES group and abdominal and cutaneous sutures in the OPEN group. There was no difference regarding the rates of complications. Major complications included postoperative bleeding requiring reoperation in a bitch in the OPEN group, while minor complications included mild vaginal discharge in four patients in the NOTES group and seroma in three bitches in the SPLA group. In conclusion, total-NOTES and SPLA OVH were less time-consuming then conventional OVH in bitches. All techniques presented complications, which were properly managed.

  2. Joint association of physical activity in leisure and total sitting time with metabolic syndrome amongst 15,235 Danish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Nielsen, Asser Jon; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    and total daily sitting time were assessed by self-report in 15,235 men and women in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Associations between leisure time physical activity, total sitting time and metabolic syndrome were investigated in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios......BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that physical inactivity as well as sitting time are associated with metabolic syndrome. Our aim was to examine joint associations of leisure time physical activity and total daily sitting time with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Leisure time physical activity...... (OR) for metabolic syndrome were 2.14 (95% CI: 1.88-2.43) amongst participants who were inactive in leisure time compared to the most active, and 1.42 (95% CI: 1.26-1.61) amongst those who sat for ≥10h/day compared to physical activity, sitting time...

  3. Effect of pre-incubation and incubation conditions on hatchability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Mukono Zonal Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MUZARDI),. P. O. Box 164 ... affect hatch time, hatchability and hatch window (temperature, humidity, turning, and ventilation) ..... were significantly heavier at market age; but this ...

  4. Observed and simulated time evolution of HCl, ClONO2, and HF total columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Roland; Geomon, Ndacc Infrared, Modelling Working Group

    2010-05-01

    Institute of Technology (KIT), IMK-IFU, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, (16) University of Denver, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Denver, CO, USA, (17) National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), Boulder, CO, USA, (18) NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USA, (19) Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Steinbuch Centre for Computing, Karlsruhe, Germany Total column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, the primary components of the stratospheric inorganic chlorine (Cly) budget, and of HF have been retrieved from ground-based, high-resolution infrared solar absorption spectra recorded at 17 sites of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) located at latitudes between 80.05°N and 77.82°S. These data extend over more than 20 years (through 2007) during a period when the growth in atmospheric halogen loading has slowed in response to the Montreal Protocol (and ammendments). These observed time series are interpreted with calculations performed with a 2-D model, the 3-D chemistry-transport models (CTMs) KASIMA and SLIMCAT, and the 3-D chemistry-climate models (CCMs) EMAC and SOCOLv2.0. The observed Cly and in particular HCl column abundances decreases significantely since the end of the nineties at all stations, which is consistent with the observed changes in the halocarbon source gases, with an increasing rate in the last years. In contrast to Cly, the trend values for total column HF at the different stations show a less consistent behaviour pointing to the fact that the time development of the HF columns is peaking. There is a good overall qualitative agreement regarding trends between models and data. With respect to the CTMs the agreement improves if simulation results for measurement days only are used in the trend analysis instead of simulation results for each day.

  5. Storm-time total electron content and its response to penetration electric fields over South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. de Siqueira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work the response of the ionosphere due to the severe magnetic storm of 7–10 November 2004 is investigated by analyzing GPS Total Electron Content (TEC maps constructed for the South America sector. In order to verify the disturbed zonal electric fields in South America during the superstorm, ionospheric vertical drift data obtained from modeling results are used in the analysis. The vertical drifts were inferred from ΔH magnetometer data (Jicamarca-Piura following the methodology presented by Anderson et al. (2004. Also used were vertical drifts measured by the Jicamarca ISR. Data from a digisonde located at São Luís, Brazil (2.33° S, 44.2° W, dip latitude 0.25° are presented to complement the Jicamarca equatorial data. Penetration electric fields were observed by the comparison between the equatorial vertical drifts and the Interplanetary Electric Field (IEF. The TEC maps obtained from GPS data reflect the ionospheric response over the South America low-latitude and equatorial region. They reveal unexpected plasma distributions and TEC levels during the main phase of the superstorm on 7 November, which is coincident with the local post-sunset hours. At this time an increase in the pre-reversal enhancement was expected to develop the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA but we observed the absence of EIA. The results also reveal well known characteristics of the plasma distributions on 8, 9, and 10 November. The emphasized features are the expansion and intensification of EIA due to prompt penetration electric fields on 9 November and the inhibition of EIA during post-sunset hours on 7, 8, and 10 November. One important result is that the TEC maps provided a bi-dimensional view of the ionospheric changes offering a spatial description of the electrodynamics involved, which is an advantage over TEC measured by isolated GPS receivers.

  6. When is it safe to resume driving after total hip and total knee arthroplasty? a meta-analysis of literature on post-operative brake reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, C A; Tolk, J J; Janssen, R P A; Reijman, M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current available evidence about when patients might resume driving after elective, primary total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) undertaken for osteoarthritis (OA). In February 2016, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed Publisher, CINAHL, EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies reporting on 'THA', 'TKA', 'car driving', 'reaction time' and 'brake response time'. Two researchers (CAV and JJT) independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility and assessed the risk of bias. Both fixed and random effects were used to pool data and calculate mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre- and post-operative total brake response time (TBRT). A total of 19 studies were included. The assessment of the risk of bias showed that one study was at high risk, six studies at moderate risk and 12 studies at low risk. Meta-analysis of TBRT showed a MD decrease of 25.54 ms (95% CI -32.02 to 83.09) two weeks after right-sided THA, and of 18.19 ms (95% CI -6.13 to 42.50) four weeks after a right-sided TKA, when compared with the pre-operative value. The TBRT returned to baseline two weeks after a right-sided THA and four weeks after a right-sided TKA. These results may serve as guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons when advising patients when to resume driving. However, the advice should be individualised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:566-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Degradation of 14C-ETU in a soil profile investigated by means of incubation in two different incubation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, A.; Johannesen, H.

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of the paper is to elucidate the mechanism of biodegradation of ethylenethiourea (ETU) in arable soils, both on the surface and in the deeper layers. The effect of incubation system upon the ETU biodegradation was studied by incubation of undisturbed and mixed soil cores in tubes or flasks respectively. The total mineralization of ETU to CO2 in the ploughed layer and in the deeper layers is investigated by means of biodegradation tests with 14 C-ETU in soil samples collected from 15, 60 and 100 cm depth. ETU microbial biodegradation was studied in a series of tests covering conversion and isolation of ETU degrading microorganisms. (EG) 86 refs

  8. Understanding management practices in business incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Vincent; Thijssen, Sander; Pascucci, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Following the call for process-oriented research on business incubation processes, this paper investigates the process of business incubation (BI) via an understanding of management practices and interactions. Based on a comprehensive literature review and empirical evidence of management practices

  9. National Security Technology Incubator Evaluation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This report describes the process by which the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) will be evaluated. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes a brief description of the components, steps, and measures of the proposed evaluation process. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. An effective evaluation process of the NSTI is an important step as it can provide qualitative and quantitative information on incubator performance over a given period. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The mission of the NSTI is to identify, incubate, and accelerate technologies with national security applications at various stages of development by providing hands-on mentoring and business assistance to small businesses and emerging or growing companies. To achieve success for both incubator businesses and the NSTI program, an evaluation process is essential to effectively measure results and implement corrective processes in the incubation design if needed. The evaluation process design will collect and analyze qualitative and quantitative data through performance evaluation system.

  10. Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator - Phase III

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The goals of the Mozambique Information and Communication Technology Micro and Small Enterprises Incubator (MICTI Incubator) are twofold: to identify sustainable opportunities for technology-based businesses in priority development areas; and to test the assumption that technology-based businesses can mentor the ...

  11. MONITORING BABY INCUBATOR SENTRAL DENGAN KOMUNIKASI WIRELESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Sulistyo Utomo

    2018-04-01

    180m. Pengujian suhu ruang baby incubator menggunakan termometer sebagai perbandingan dengan nilai suhu yang dibaca pada alat. Dari pengukuran diperoleh tingkat perbedaan 0% pada suhu 30oC dan 2,8% pada suhu 37oC.   Kata kunci: baby incubator, sistem monitoring sentral, microsoft visual studio, arduino.

  12. Effect of High Incubation Temperature on the Blood Parameters of Layer Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Adequate environmental temperature control is essential for incubation efficiency. Layer breeder eggs (n=360 were weighed and distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with two treatments, consisting of two incubation temperatures (T1=37.5 °C, control; and T2=39.0 °C, hot, with two incubators per temperature, and 90 eggs per incubator, totaling 360 eggs. Hatchability, embryo mortality, and chick cloacal and body surface temperatures were not affected by incubation temperature. Eggs incubated at the hot temperature presented greater egg mass loss and higher eggshell conductance than those incubated at the control temperature. Layer chicks derived from eggs incubated at control temperature showed greater absolute weight, yolk-free egg mass, and heavier hearts than those from eggs submitted to heat stress during incubation. The control group presented lower base excess and ionized calcium blood levels. Incubating eggs at temperatures higher than those recommended compromises body and heart development of layer chicks and negatively affects blood ionized calcium availability, and therefore, bone mineralization during embryo development. Efficient temperature control during the incubation of fertile eggs is essential to obtain good quality layer chicks.

  13. Effect of irradiation ad incubation of palm oil empty fruit bunch medium on the Growth of rice mushroom (volvariella volvaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmawi; Suwadji, E.

    1998-01-01

    Study on the effect of irradiation and time incubation of composted palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) were conducted in growth chamber in the plastic bag as growth medium. Treatments were consisted of sterilization of composted EFB growth medium by autoclave heating were conducted at 2.0 kg/cm 2 for 40 minutes and gamma irradiation at the dose of 0, 15, 30, and 45kGy. After sterilization, EFB medium were inoculated using mushroom seed of V. volvaceae. The time of incubation of EFB medium after inoculation was 2 and 4 weeks before mushroom harvesting. Growth chamber was maintained at 28-35 0 C room temperature and humidity > 80%. Parameters of the experiment were determined on mushroom analysis i.e. fat, protein, and content and weight of mushroom. analysis od EFB medium after incubation were determined i.e. total fiber and percentage of rendement. Results of the experiment showed that dose of 45 kGy effected on mushroom fat content 0.52% which was decreasing regards to the delay of incubation period. Irradiation treatment did not effect EFB fat content compared to non irradiated EFB (0.82%). Irradiation treatment and one.variety produced number of plaincreasing on mushroom protein content. Mushroom starch content was obtained on the dose of 15 kGy and 4 weeks of incubation period 3.09 and 3.13% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy and autoclave heating were decreasing total fiber of EFB medium 29.29 and 28.02% respectively. The dose of 45 kGy on EFB medium with 2 weeks of incubation period produced weight of mushroom 30.92 and 27.73 g/bag respectively. (author)

  14. RT 128: New Project Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-04

    Evaluation and Improvements Using Dynamic Failure Valuation and Genetic Algorithms Missouri S&T University Dincer Konus Cihan Dagli Stability of System of...methodologies. From our perspective, these three collectively fall under the rubric of engineered resilience. The last three also require real-time tradeoffs

  15. High turnover of fungal hyphae in incubation experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Franciska T; Bååth, Erland; Kuyper, Thom W; Bloem, Jaap

    2009-03-01

    Soil biological studies are often conducted on sieved soils without the presence of plants. However, soil fungi build delicate mycelial networks, often symbiotically associated with plant roots (mycorrhizal fungi). We hypothesized that as a result of sieving and incubating without plants, the total fungal biomass decreases. To test this, we conducted three incubation experiments. We expected total and arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal biomass to be higher in less fertilized soils than in fertilized soils, and thus to decrease more during incubation. Indeed, we found that fungal biomass decreased rapidly in the less fertilized soils. A shift towards thicker hyphae occurred, and the fraction of septate hyphae increased. However, analyses of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and neutral lipid fatty acids could not clarify which fungal groups were decreasing. We propose that in our soils, there was a fraction of fungal biomass that was sensitive to fertilization and disturbance (sieving, followed by incubation without plants) with a very high turnover (possibly composed of fine hyphae of AM and saprotrophic fungi), and a fraction that was much less vulnerable with a low turnover (composed of saprotrophic fungi and runner hyphae of AMF). Furthermore, PLFAs might not be as sensitive in detecting changes in fungal biomass as previously thought.

  16. Systematic factors that affect ostrich egg incubation traits | Brand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock maintained at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate environmental and genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), water loss of incubated eggs up to 21 days (WL21), water loss up to 35 days (WL35), pipping time (PT) and weight of day-old chicks (CWT). Between ...

  17. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  18. Total factor productivity (TFP) growth agriculture in pakistan: trends in different time horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Mushtaq, K.; Ashfaq, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study estimated total factor productivity (TFP) growth of agriculture sector of Pakistan for the period 1971-2006 by employing Tornqvist-Theil (T-T) index number methodology. Most of the conventional inputs were used in constructing the input index. The output index includes major crops, minor crops, important fruits and vegetables and four categories of livestock products. The study estimated TFP growth rates for different decades. The results showed that TFP growth rate was lowest during the decade of 70s (0.96 percent) and highest during the last six years of the study period (2.86 percent). The decade of 80s and 90s registered TFP growth rate of 2.24 percent and 2.46 percent, respectively. The results also explained that TFP growth contributed about 33 percent to total agricultural output growth during the decade of 70s and this contribution increased up to 83 percent during the last six years of the study period. The contribution of TFP growth to total agricultural output growth was 53 and 81 percent during the decades of 80s and 90s, respectively. The study observed that macro level government policies, institutional factors and weather conditions are the major key factors that influenced TFP growth. (author)

  19. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Morgan, Alexandria; Gibson, Bethan; Berry, Sandeep; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality.

  20. Correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in working adults: results from the Singapore multi-ethnic cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Yin, Jason Dean-Chen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2017-12-13

    Evidence on the health risks of sitting is accumulating. However, research identifying factors influencing sitting time in adults is limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to identify socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in a sample of Singapore working adults. Data were collected between 2004 and 2010 from participants of the Singapore Multi Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Medical exclusion criteria for cohort participation were cancer, heart disease, stroke, renal failure and serious mental illness. Participants who were not working over the past 12 months and without data on sitting time were excluded from the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine cross-sectional associations of self-reported age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, smoking, caloric intake and moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with self-reported occupational, leisure and total sitting time. Correlates were also studied separately for Chinese, Malays and Indians. The final sample comprised 9384 participants (54.8% male): 50.5% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 25.5% Indian. For the total sample, mean occupational sitting time was 2.71 h/day, mean leisure sitting time was 2.77 h/day and mean total sitting time was 5.48 h/day. Sitting time in all domains was highest among Chinese. Age, gender, education, and caloric intake were associated with higher occupational sitting time, while ethnicity, marital status and smoking were associated with lower occupational sitting time. Marital status, smoking, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher leisure sitting time, while age, gender and ethnicity were associated with lower leisure sitting time. Gender, marital status, education, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher total sitting time, while ethnicity was associated with lower total sitting time. Stratified analyses revealed different associations within

  1. Total donor ischemic time: relationship to early hemodynamics and intensive care morbidity in pediatric cardiac transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Warren; Carr, Michelle; Ridout, Deborah; Carter, Katherine; Hulme, Sara Louise; Simmonds, Jacob; Elliott, Martin; Hoskote, Aparna; Burch, Michael; Brown, Kate L

    2011-11-01

    Single-center studies have failed to link modest increases in total donor ischemic time to mortality after pediatric orthotopic heart transplant. We aimed to investigate whether prolonged total donor ischemic time is linked to pediatric intensive care morbidity after orthotopic heart transplant. Retrospective cohort review. Tertiary pediatric transplant center in the United Kingdom. Ninety-three pediatric orthotopic heart transplants between 2002 and 2006. Total donor ischemic time was investigated for association with early post-orthotopic heart transplant hemodynamics and intensive care unit morbidities. Of 43 males and 50 females with median age 7.2 (interquartile range 2.2, 13.0) yrs, 62 (68%) had dilated cardiomyopathy, 20 (22%) had congenital heart disease, and nine (10%) had restrictive cardiomyopathy. The mean total donor ischemic time was 225.9 (sd 65.6) mins. In the first 24 hrs after orthotopic heart transplant, age-adjusted mean arterial blood pressure increased (p total donor ischemic time was significantly associated with lower mean arterial blood pressure (p care unit (p = .004), and longer post-orthotopic heart transplant stay in hospital (p = .02). Total donor ischemic time was not related to levels of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p = .62), left atrial pressure (p = .38), or central venous pressure (p = .76) early after orthotopic heart transplant. Prolonged total donor ischemic time has an adverse effect on the donor organ, contributing to lower mean arterial blood pressure, as well as more prolonged ventilation and intensive care unit and hospital stays post-orthotopic heart transplant, reflecting increased morbidity.

  2. Measuring the performance of business incubators

    OpenAIRE

    VANDERSTRAETEN, Johanna; MATTHYSSENS, Paul; VAN WITTELOOSTUIJN, Arjen

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on incubator performance measurement. First, we report the findings of an extensive literature review. Both existing individual measures and more comprehensive measurement systems are discussed. This literature review shows that most incubator researchers and practitioners only use one or a few indicators for performance evaluation, and that existing measurement systems do not recognize the importance of short, medium and long-term results, do not always include an incubato...

  3. Establishment and Development of Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Teliceanu Claudiu Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are established in order to help new businesses to consolidate and, consequently, to lead to creation of new jobs as part of a strategic framework - territorial oriented, or on a particular policy priority or a combination of these factors. The business incubator supports its customers to overcome the legislative, administrative barriers and thus to start much easier a business, by facilitating the business establishment process and their access to community support network.

  4. Imageless navigation total hip arthroplasty – an evaluation of operative time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valsamis Epaminondas Markos

    2018-01-01

    Discussion: This is the first study that demonstrates no added operative time when using imageless navigation in THA, achieved with an improved workflow. The results also demonstrate a very reasonable learning curve.

  5. 20 Years of Total and Tropical Ozone Time Series Based on European Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, D. G.; Heue, K. P.; Coldewey-Egbers, M.

    2016-12-01

    Ozone is an important trace gas in the atmosphere, while the stratospheric ozone layer protects the earth surface from the incident UV radiation, the tropospheric ozone acts as green house gas and causes health damages as well as crop loss. The total ozone column is dominated by the stratospheric column, the tropospheric columns only contributes about 10% to the total column.The ozone column data from the European satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B are available within the ESA Climate Change Initiative project with a high degree of inter-sensor consistency. The tropospheric ozone columns are based on the convective cloud differential algorithm. The datasets encompass a period of more than 20 years between 1995 and 2015, for the trend analysis the data sets were harmonized relative to one of the instruments. For the tropics we found an increase in the tropospheric ozone column of 0.75 ± 0.12 DU decade^{-1} with local variations between 1.8 and -0.8. The largest trends were observed over southern Africa and the Atlantic Ocean. A seasonal trend analysis led to the assumption that the increase is caused by additional forest fires.The trend for the total column was not that certain, based on model predicted trend data and the measurement uncertainty we estimated that another 10 to 15 years of observations will be required to observe a statistical significant trend. In the mid latitudes the trends are currently hidden in the large variability and for the tropics the modelled trends are low. Also the possibility of diverging trends at different altitudes must be considered; an increase in the tropospheric ozone might be accompanied by decreasing stratospheric ozone.The European satellite data record will be extended over the next two decades with the atmospheric satellite missions Sentinel 5 Precursor (launch end of 2016), Sentinel 4 and Sentinel 5.

  6. Broiler incubation. 1. Effect of elevated temperature during late incubation on body weight and organs of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leksrisompong, N; Romero-Sanchez, H; Plumstead, P W; Brannan, K E; Brake, J

    2007-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of increased egg temperature during the final third of incubation on BW, yolk sac, heart, and digestive organs of broiler chicks at hatching. Egg temperatures were found to be approximately 1.0 to 1.5 degrees C higher than incubator air temperature. Elevated egg temperature (39.5 degrees C) after embryonic day 14 generally accelerated hatching time but decreased the relative weight of the heart in all 3 experiments, whereas BW and relative weights of the gizzard, proventriculus, and small intestines were significantly smaller in 2 of 3 experiments as compared with the control (approximately 38.2 degrees C). Relative weights of the yolk sac or liver were significantly larger due to elevated egg temperature in single experiments only. A striking feature of the chicks that developed at an elevated egg temperature was their white color as compared with the yellow color of chicks from eggs incubated at more normal temperatures.

  7. Changes in the air cell volume of artificially incubated ostrich eggs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 2160 images of candled, incubated ostrich eggs were digitized to determine the percentage of egg volume occupied by the air cell at different stages of incubation. The air cell on average occupied 2.5% of the volume of fresh eggs. For eggs that hatched successfully, this volume increased to an average of 24.4% ...

  8. Total sitting time, leisure time physical activity and risk of hospitalization due to low back pain: The Danish Health Examination Survey cohort 2007-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balling, Mie; Holmberg, Teresa; Petersen, Christina B; Aadahl, Mette; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to test the hypotheses that a high total sitting time and vigorous physical activity in leisure time increase the risk of low back pain and herniated lumbar disc disease. A total of 76,438 adults answered questions regarding their total sitting time and physical activity during leisure time in the Danish Health Examination Survey 2007-2008. Information on low back pain diagnoses up to 10 September 2015 was obtained from The National Patient Register. The mean follow-up time was 7.4 years. Data were analysed using Cox regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders. Multiple imputations were performed for missing values. During the follow-up period, 1796 individuals were diagnosed with low back pain, of whom 479 were diagnosed with herniated lumbar disc disease. Total sitting time was not associated with low back pain or herniated lumbar disc disease. However, moderate or vigorous physical activity, as compared to light physical activity, was associated with increased risk of low back pain (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.30 and HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.83). Moderate, but not vigorous physical activity was associated with increased risk of herniated lumbar disc disease. The results suggest that total sitting time is not associated with low back pain, but moderate and vigorous physical activity is associated with increased risk of low back pain compared with light physical activity.

  9. Stellar 'Incubators' Seen Cooking up Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5 This image composite compares visible-light and infrared views from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of the glowing Trifid Nebula, a giant star-forming cloud of gas and dust located 5,400 light-years away in the constellation Sagittarius. Visible-light images of the Trifid taken with NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, Baltimore, Md. (inside left, figure 1) and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Ariz., (outside left, figure 1) show a murky cloud lined with dark trails of dust. Data of this same region from the Institute for Radioastronomy millimeter telescope in Spain revealed four dense knots, or cores, of dust (outlined by yellow circles), which are 'incubators' for embryonic stars. Astronomers thought these cores were not yet ripe for stars, until Spitzer spotted the warmth of rapidly growing massive embryos tucked inside. These embryos are indicated with arrows in the false-color Spitzer picture (right, figure 1), taken by the telescope's infrared array camera. The same embryos cannot be seen in the visible-light pictures (left, figure 1). Spitzer found clusters of embryos in two of the cores and only single embryos in the other two. This is one of the first times that multiple embryos have been observed in individual cores at this early stage of stellar development.

  10. Assessment of Tandem Measurements of pH and Total Gut Transit Time in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Mikolajczyk, Adam E; Watson, Sydeaka; Surma, Bonnie L; Rubin, David T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The variation of luminal pH and transit time in an individual is unknown, yet is necessary to interpret single measurements. This study aimed to assess the intrasubject variability of gut pH and transit time in healthy volunteers using SmartPill devices (Covidien, Minneapolis, MN). Methods: Each subject (n=10) ingested two SmartPill devices separated by 24?h. Mean pH values were calculated for 30?min after gastric emptying (AGE), before the ileocecal (BIC) valve, after the ileocec...

  11. Determinantal Representation of the Time-Dependent Stationary Correlation Function for the Totally Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay M. Bogoliubov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.

  12. Total time on test processes and applications to failure data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, R.E.; Campo, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes a new method for analyzing data. The method applies to non-negative observations such as times to failure of devices and survival times of biological organisms and involves a plot of the data. These plots are useful in choosing a probabilistic model to represent the failure behavior of the data. They also furnish information about the failure rate function and aid in its estimation. An important feature of these data plots is that incomplete data can be analyzed. The underlying random variables are, however, assumed to be independent and identically distributed. The plots have a theoretical basis, and converge to a transform of the underlying probability distribution as the sample size increases

  13. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  14. Time- and dose-dependent effects of total-body ionizing radiation on muscle stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Shinya; Hisamatsu, Tsubasa; Seko, Daiki; Urata, Yoshishige; Goto, Shinji; Li, Tao-Sheng; Ono, Yusuke

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of genotoxic stress, such as high-dose ionizing radiation, increases both cancer and noncancer risks. However, it remains debatable whether low-dose ionizing radiation reduces cellular function, or rather induces hormetic health benefits. Here, we investigated the effects of total-body γ-ray radiation on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Adult C57BL/6 mice were exposed to γ-radiation at low- to high-dose rates (low, 2 or 10 mGy/day; moderate, 50 mGy/day; high, 250 mGy/day) for 30 days. No hormetic responses in proliferation, differentiation, or self-renewal of satellite cells were observed in low-dose radiation-exposed mice at the acute phase. However, at the chronic phase, population expansion of satellite cell-derived progeny was slightly decreased in mice exposed to low-dose radiation. Taken together, low-dose ionizing irradiation may suppress satellite cell function, rather than induce hormetic health benefits, in skeletal muscle in adult mice. PMID:25869487

  15. Fall Risk Score at the Time of Discharge Predicts Readmission Following Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Bheeshma; Nan, Zhang; Schwartz, Adam J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    Readmission among Medicare recipients is a leading driver of healthcare expenditure. To date, most predictive tools are too coarse for direct clinical application. Our objective in this study is to determine if a pre-existing tool to identify patients at increased risk for inpatient falls, the Hendrich Fall Risk Score, could be used to accurately identify Medicare patients at increased risk for readmission following arthroplasty, regardless of whether the readmission was due to a fall. This study is a retrospective cohort study. We identified 2437 Medicare patients who underwent a primary elective total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip or knee for osteoarthritis between 2011 and 2014. The Hendrich Fall Risk score was recorded for each patient preoperatively and postoperatively. Our main outcome measure was hospital readmission within 30 days of discharge. Of 2437 eligible TJA recipients, there were 226 (9.3%) patients who had a score ≥6. These patients were more likely to have an unplanned readmission (unadjusted odds ratio 2.84, 95% confidence interval 1.70-4.76, P 3 days (49.6% vs 36.6%, P = .0001), and were less likely to be sent home after discharge (20.8% vs 35.8%, P fall risk score after TJA is strongly associated with unplanned readmission. Application of this tool will allow hospitals to identify these patients and plan their discharge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative clinical evaluation of a prototype non-electric transport incubator and an electrical infant incubator in a neonatal unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadeh, Y; Nili, F; Nayeri, F; Wickramasinghe, Y

    2001-09-01

    A new non-electric transport incubator has been developed for transferring babies between health facilities in developing countries. The temperature performance of this prototype was compared with a commercial electric incubator. The warm-up time for the prototype was 51.8 min, compared with 48.1 min for the electric incubator. Forty-five non-distressed premature babies, aged 24-72 h, with a gestational age of less than 37 weeks, were continuously evaluated for a 2 h period. Twenty-five babies, with a mean weight of 2073 g (range 1500-2500 g), were studied in the prototype, and 20 babies, with a mean weight of 2076g (range 1550-2500 g), were studied in the electrical incubator. The rectal and abdominal skin temperature, heart rate, oxygen saturation and respiratory rate of the babies were recorded. The temperature, oxygen and humidity level of the canopy and the room temperature were also measured. The SaO2, heart rate and respiratory rate were within the normal range (in the prototype: 96.5%, 130.5 beats min(-1) and 43 breaths min(-1), respectively; and, in the electric incubator: 96.5%, 128.5 beats min(-1) and 40 breaths min(-1), respectively). No evidence of carbon dioxide narcosis, hypoxia, acidosis or adverse thermoregulatory behaviour were observed in the two groups. The mean rectal temperature for both groups was within the range 36.5 degrees C-37.5 degrees C. There was no significant difference between the measurements of the two groups. The level of oxygen inside the canopy was 21%, and no decrease was observed. The new nonelectric transport incubator confirmed its safety and efficiency in providing a warm environment for non-distressed premature babies over a 2 h period.

  17. Saddlepoint approximation to the distribution of the total distance of the continuous time random walk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Riccardo

    2017-12-01

    This article considers the random walk over Rp, with p ≥ 2, where a given particle starts at the origin and moves stepwise with uniformly distributed step directions and step lengths following a common distribution. Step directions and step lengths are independent. The case where the number of steps of the particle is fixed and the more general case where it follows an independent continuous time inhomogeneous counting process are considered. Saddlepoint approximations to the distribution of the distance from the position of the particle to the origin are provided. Despite the p-dimensional nature of the random walk, the computations of the saddlepoint approximations are one-dimensional and thus simple. Explicit formulae are derived with dimension p = 3: for uniformly and exponentially distributed step lengths, for fixed and for Poisson distributed number of steps. In these situations, the high accuracy of the saddlepoint approximations is illustrated by numerical comparisons with Monte Carlo simulation. Contribution to the "Topical Issue: Continuous Time Random Walk Still Trendy: Fifty-year History, Current State and Outlook", edited by Ryszard Kutner and Jaume Masoliver.

  18. A close-form solution to predict the total melting time of an ablating slab in contact with a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, F.-B.

    2007-01-01

    An exact melt-through time is derived for a one-dimensional heated slab in contact with a plasma when the melted material is immediately removed. The plasma is composed of a collisionless presheath and sheath on a slab, which partially reflects and secondarily emits ions and electrons. The energy transport from plasma to the surface accounting for the presheath and sheath is determined from the kinetic analysis. This work proposes a semi-analytical model to calculate the total melting time of a slab based on a direct integration of the unsteady heat conduction equation, and provides quantitative results applicable to control the total melting time of the slab. The total melting time as a function of plasma parameters and thermophysical properties of the slab are obtained. The predicted energy transmission factor as a function of dimensionless wall potential agrees well with the experimental data. The effects of reflectivities of the ions and electrons on the wall, electron-to-ion source temperature ratio at the presheath edge, charge number, ion-to-electron mass ratio, ionization energy, plasma flow work-to-heat conduction ratios, Stefan number, melting temperature, Biot number and bias voltage on the total melting time of the slab are quantitatively provided in this work

  19. National Security Technology Incubator Business Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2007-12-31

    This document contains a business plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI), developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) and performed under a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This business plan describes key features of the NSTI, including the vision and mission, organizational structure and staffing, services, evaluation criteria, marketing strategies, client processes, a budget, incubator evaluation criteria, and a development schedule. The purpose of the NSPP is to promote national security technologies through business incubation, technology demonstration and validation, and workforce development. The NSTI will focus on serving businesses with national security technology applications by nurturing them through critical stages of early development. The vision of the NSTI is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety, security, and protection of the homeland. The NSTI is operated and managed by the Arrowhead Center, responsible for leading the economic development mission of New Mexico State University (NMSU). The Arrowhead Center will recruit business with applications for national security technologies recruited for the NSTI program. The Arrowhead Center and its strategic partners will provide business incubation services, including hands-on mentoring in general business matters, marketing, proposal writing, management, accounting, and finance. Additionally, networking opportunities and technology development assistance will be provided.

  20. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-07-01

    To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost.

  1. Does the brake response time of the right leg change after left total knee arthroplasty? A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Carlos J; Barreiros, João; Cabri, Jan; Carita, Ana I; Friesecke, Christian; Loehr, Jochen F

    2008-08-01

    Patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty often ask when they can safely resume car driving. There is little evidence available on which physicians can rely when advising patients on this issue. In a prospective study we assessed the brake response time of 24 patients admitted to the clinic for left total knee arthroplasty preoperatively and then 10 days after surgery. On each measurement day the patients performed two tasks, a simple and a complex brake response time task in a car simulator. Ten days after left TKA the brake response time for the simple task had decreased by 3.6% (p=0.24), the reaction time by 3.1% (p=0.34) and the movement time by 6.6% (p=0.07). However, the performance improvement was not statistically significant. Task complexity increased brake response time at both time points. A 5.8% increase was significant (p=0.01) at 10 days after surgery. Based on our results, we suggest that patients who have undergone left total knee arthroplasty may resume car driving 10 days after surgery as long as they drive a car with automatic transmission.

  2. [Total quality management in times of crisis. The case of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larroca, Norberto

    2003-01-01

    Healthcare organizations were faced with so great a challenge following the financial slump that they were forced to 'sharpen their wits' in order to survive. Integrated Quality Management (in Spanish GIC), proved the ideal instrument. GIC has four foundational elements, the application of which allow for successful management of crisis situations. They are as follows: TRAINING of human resources EVALUATION of healthcare institutions SELF-EVALUATION by institutions QUALITY ACCREDITATION of institutions All our organizations have the appropriate tools to carry out these activities which form the basis of our project: CAES (Argentinean Chamber of Healthcare Institutions) -training-, CIDCAM (Inter-institutional Committee for Quality Development in Medical Care) -evaluation and self-evaluation-, CENAS (Specialist Centre for the Standardization and Accreditation in Health Care)-accreditation-. In times of crisis, we play an active part, that is, instead of withdrawing our efforts, we do our best to achieve the best and most adequate objective in order to meet the needs of the population through Integrated Quality Management. Eventually, when the results are examined, medical care that meets the best quality standards is found to be, after all, the most economical (that is best results, better satisfaction of healthcare users and providers as well as less mistakes).

  3. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  4. Encapsulation of Aloe Vera and Its Effect During Yogur Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Adolfo Parra Huertas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The yogurt is milk derivative highly consumed around the world,as well as aloe vera. Both have reports tocontribute to human health. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of the addition of capsules with aloe vera during the incubation of yogurt. Aloeverawas encapsulated in alginate at two different concentrations, 1% and 2%,addingthe capsules from the moment of incubation and comparing the effect of the addition of capsules withthe non-addition of them. For these samples were determined: pH, acidity, syneresis, lactic acid bacteria count, sensory evaluation and proximate analysis. The results indicated that for the three treatments pH values and acid behaved similarly to each characteristic of the yogurt during incubation. The lactic acid bacteria count indicated that treatment with capsules containing 2% sodium alginate had higher counts. Sensorially, three treatments had a favorable acceptability; proximate analysis had favorable values . In conclusion,the tests showed the viability of encapsulated aloe vera in the manufacture of yogurt during incubation time without being affected by the concentration of sodium alginate.

  5. [Audit "Toys and incubators in neonatology"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raginel, T; Bigoin-Dupont, M; Aguelon, V; Fines-Guyon, M; Guillemin, M G

    2009-08-01

    Owing to an increase in nosocomial septicaemias in the Neonatalogy department, we've judged it necessary to consider the role of items not linked to the nursing procedures, and nevertheless present in the incubators, as well as the hygiene techniques applied to them. In November 2007, we've made a longitudinal prospective study consisting in an observation audit during 3 successive days, observing every single incubator with a newborn baby. In each incubator, we've checked whether there were or not items that weren't required by the nursing activities, along with their characteristics and the hygiene procedures applied to them. We've inquired as well whether the parents and the nursing staff knew and applied the required hygiene procedures. In 13 among the 17 incubators under survey, at least one item not strictly required by the nursing procedures could be found. The number of toys in each incubator varied from seven to one. Among the 33 toys surveyed, 24 (73%) of them showed a score of maximum fluffiness (4 out of 4), and only 10 wore labels giving cleansing advice from the manufacturers. Without any record about the cleaning/disinfecting of the toys brought in hospital, we have observed that the parents were given varied advice about how to clean the toys at home before putting them in the incubators (only four parents had washed the toys in their washing machines at more than 30 degrees C). From the six samples under scrutiny, all the culture results were tested positive. In particular two of the soft toys sampled were found infected by a Pseudomonas oryzihabitans. These particular toys belonged to a baby who had been diagnosed with a septicaemia characterized by hemocultures positive to a P. oryzihabitans of a different strain. Our audit has been an efficient reminder that any item put in an incubator is a potential vector and reservoir of pathogen organisms. After a general feedback towards the department staff, the medical staff then prescribed to

  6. Independent and combined associations of total sedentary time and television viewing time with food intake patterns of 9- to 11-year-old Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Genevieve; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; LeBlanc, Allana G; Francis, Claire; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2014-08-01

    The relationships among sedentary time, television viewing time, and dietary patterns in children are not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to determine which of self-reported television viewing time or objectively measured sedentary time is a better correlate of the frequency of consumption of healthy and unhealthy foods. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 523; 57.1% female) from Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Accelerometers were used to determine total sedentary time, and questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching and the frequency of consumption of foods per week. Television viewing was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables, and green vegetables, and positively associated with the frequency of consumption of sweets, soft drinks, diet soft drinks, pastries, potato chips, French fries, fruit juices, ice cream, fried foods, and fast food. Except for diet soft drinks and fruit juices, these associations were independent of covariates, including sedentary time. Total sedentary time was negatively associated with the frequency of consumption of sports drinks, independent of covariates, including television viewing. In combined sedentary time and television viewing analyses, children watching >2 h of television per day consumed several unhealthy food items more frequently than did children watching ≤2 h of television, regardless of sedentary time. In conclusion, this paper provides evidence to suggest that television viewing time is more strongly associated with unhealthy dietary patterns than is total sedentary time. Future research should focus on reducing television viewing time, as a means of improving dietary patterns and potentially reducing childhood obesity.

  7. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  8. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  9. Associations of Total and Domain-Specific Sedentary Time With Type 2 Diabetes in Taiwanese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chun Hsueh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes in older adults has become a public health concern. We investigated the associations of total and domain-specific sedentary time with risk of type 2 diabetes in older adults. Methods: The sample comprised 1046 older people (aged ≥65 years. Analyses were performed using crosssectional data collected via computer-assisted telephone-based interviews in 2014. Data on six self-reported domains of sedentary time (Measure of Older Adults’ Sedentary Time, type 2 diabetes status, and sociodemographic variables were included in the study. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for total and individual sedentary behavior components and likelihood of type 2 diabetes. Results: A total of 17.5% of the participants reported type 2 diabetes. No significant associations were found between total sitting time and risk of type 2 diabetes, after controlling for confounding factors. After total sedentary behavior was stratified into six domains, only watching television for more than 2 hours per day was associated with higher odds of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.56; 95% CI, 1.10–2.21, but no significant associations were found between other domains of sedentary behavior (computer use, reading, socializing, transport, and hobbies and risk of type 2 diabetes. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among domain-specific sedentary behavior, excessive television viewing might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes among older adults more than other forms of sedentary behavior.

  10. Technology Business Incubators in China and India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Mingfeng; Baskaran, Angathevar; Pancholi, Jatin

    2011-01-01

    We present a comparative case study of Technology Business Incubators (TBIs) in two major emerging economies in Asia - China and India. We employ an integrative analytical framework that combines three broad categories of indicators (originally developed by developed by Mian, 1997): Management...

  11. Micro-incubator for bacterial biosensing applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Clasen, E

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a commonly used indicator micro-organism to determine whether water is safe for human consumption. This paper discusses the design of a micro-incubator that can be applied to concentrate bacteria prior...

  12. Selective medium for aerobic incubation of Campylobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted on the formulation of a selective medium that could be used to isolate Campylobacter from mixed bacterial cultures using aerobic incubation. A non-selective, basal broth medium was prepared and supplemented with Bolton, Cefex, or Skirrow antibiotic mixtures. The ability of pur...

  13. Artificial incubation of muscovy duck eggs : Why some eggs hatch and others do not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harun, MAS; Veeneklaas, RJ; Visser, GH; Van Kampen, M

    This study was designed to gain insight into the influence of spraying and cooling, during artificial incubation, on the embryo metabolic rate and hatching ability of Muscovy duck eggs. Three times a week 93 incubated eggs were sprayed and cooled for 0.5 h at room temperature. Daily embryo metabolic

  14. The costs of egg production and incubation in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.E.; Lessells, C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The costs of egg production and incubation may have a crucial effect on avian reproductive decisions, such as clutch size and the timing of reproduction. We carried out a brood-size enlargement experiment on the great tit (Parus major), in which the birds had to lay and incubate extra eggs (full

  15. Lot-Order Assignment Applying Priority Rules for the Single-Machine Total Tardiness Scheduling with Nonnegative Time-Dependent Processing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Gon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lot-order assignment is to assign items in lots being processed to orders to fulfill the orders. It is usually performed periodically for meeting the due dates of orders especially in a manufacturing industry with a long production cycle time such as the semiconductor manufacturing industry. In this paper, we consider the lot-order assignment problem (LOAP with the objective of minimizing the total tardiness of the orders with distinct due dates. We show that we can solve the LOAP optimally by finding an optimal sequence for the single-machine total tardiness scheduling problem with nonnegative time-dependent processing times (SMTTSP-NNTDPT. Also, we address how the priority rules for the SMTTSP can be modified to those for the SMTTSP-NNTDPT to solve the LOAP. In computational experiments, we discuss the performances of the suggested priority rules and show the result of the proposed approach outperforms that of the commercial optimization software package.

  16. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy applied to the rapid discrimination of the botanical origin of honeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen; Zhang, Yuying; Yang, Si; Han, Donghai

    2018-05-01

    A new technique to identify the floral resources of honeys is demanded. Terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy combined with chemometrics methods was applied to discriminate different categorizes (Medlar honey, Vitex honey, and Acacia honey). Principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis (CA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) have been used to find information of the botanical origins of honeys. Spectral range also was discussed to increase the precision of PLS-DA model. The accuracy of 88.46% for validation set was obtained, using PLS-DA model in 0.5-1.5 THz. This work indicated terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy was an available approach to evaluate the quality of honey rapidly.

  17. Total and segmental colon transit time in constipated children assessed by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA given orally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Burroni, L; Bertelli, P; Messina, M; Meucci, D; Tota, G

    1993-12-01

    Serial colon scintigraphy using 111In-DTPA (2 MBq) given orally was performed in 39 children referred for constipation, and the total and segmental colon transit times were measured. The bowel movements during the study were recorded and the intervals between defecations (ID) were calculated. This method proved able to identify children with normal colon morphology (no. = 32) and those with dolichocolon (no. = 7). Normal children were not included for ethical reasons and we used the normal range determined by others using x-ray methods (29 +/- 4 hours). Total and segmental colon transit times were found to be prolonged in all children with dolichocolon (TC: 113.55 +/- 41.20 hours; RC: 39.85 +/- 26.39 hours; LC: 43.05 +/- 18.30 hours; RS: 30.66 +/- 26.89 hours). In the group of children with a normal colon shape, 13 presented total and segmental colon transit times within the referred normal value (TC: 27.79 +/- 4.10 hours; RC: 9.11 +/- 2.53 hours; LC: 9.80 +/- 3.50 hours; RS: 8.88 +/- 4.09 hours) and normal bowel function (ID: 23.37 +/- 5.93 hours). In the remaining children, 5 presented prolonged retention in the rectum (RS: 53.36 +/- 29.66 hours), and 14 a prolonged transit time in all segments. A good correlation was found between the transit time and bowel function. From the point of view of radiation dosimetry, the most heavily irradiated organs were the lower large intestine and the ovaries, and the level of radiation burden depended on the colon transit time. We can conclude that the described method results safe, accurate and fully diagnostic.

  18. Objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors are not associated with accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Compernolle, Sofie; De Cocker, Katrien; Mackenbach, Joreintje D.; Van Nassau, Femke; Lakerveld, Jeroen; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical neighbourhood environment may influence adults' sedentary behaviour. Yet, most studies examining the association between the physical neighbourhood environment and sedentary behaviour rely on self-reported data of either the physical neighbourhood environment and/or sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured physical environmental neighbourhood factors and accelerometer-determined total sedentary time in...

  19. Minimizing total weighted tardiness for the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Haddad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the single machine scheduling problem with dependent setup time and precedence constraints. The primary objective of this paper is minimization of total weighted tardiness. Since the complexity of the resulted problem is NP-hard we use metaheuristics method to solve the resulted model. The proposed model of this paper uses genetic algorithm to solve the problem in reasonable amount of time. Because of high sensitivity of GA to its initial values of parameters, a Taguchi approach is presented to calibrate its parameters. Computational experiments validate the effectiveness and capability of proposed method.

  20. Clinical responses after total body irradiation by over permissible dose of γ-rays in one time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Benrong; Wang Guilin; Liu Huilan; Tang Xingsheng; Ai Huisheng

    1990-01-01

    The clinical responses of patients after total body over permissilbe dose γ-ray irradiation were observed and analysed. The results showed: when the dose was above 5 cGy, there was some immunological depression, but no significant change in hematopoietic functions. 5 cases showed some transient changes of ECG, perhaps due to vagotonia caused by psychological imbalance, One case vomitted 3-4 times after 28 cGy irradiation, this suggested that a few times of vomitting had no significance in the estimation of the irradiated dose and the whole clinical manifestations must be concretely analysed

  1. Knowledge service decision making in business incubators based on the supernetwork model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liming; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing

    2017-08-01

    As valuable resources for incubating firms, knowledge resources have received gradually increasing attention from all types of business incubators, and business incubators use a variety of knowledge services to stimulate rapid growth in incubating firms. Based on previous research, we generalize the knowledge transfer and knowledge networking services of two main forms of knowledge services and further divide knowledge transfer services into knowledge depth services and knowledge breadth services. Then, we construct the business incubators' knowledge supernetwork model, describe the evolution mechanism among heterogeneous agents and utilize a simulation to explore the performance variance of different business incubators' knowledge services. The simulation results show that knowledge stock increases faster when business incubators are able to provide knowledge services to more incubating firms and that the degree of discrepancy in the knowledge stock increases during the process of knowledge growth. Further, knowledge transfer services lead to greater differences in the knowledge structure, while knowledge networking services lead to smaller differences. Regarding the two types of knowledge transfer services, knowledge depth services are more conducive to knowledge growth than knowledge breadth services, but knowledge depth services lead to greater gaps in knowledge stocks and greater differences in knowledge structures. Overall, it is optimal for business incubators to select a single knowledge service or portfolio strategy based on the amount of time and energy expended on the two types of knowledge services.

  2. National Security Technology Incubation Project Continuation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-09-30

    This document contains a project continuation plan for the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI). The plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP) funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This continuation plan describes the current status of NSTI (staffing and clients), long-term goals, strategies, and long-term financial solvency goals.The Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University (NMSU) is the operator and manager of the NSTI. To realize the NSTI, Arrowhead Center must meet several performance objectives related to planning, development, execution, evaluation, and sustainability. This continuation plan is critical to the success of NSTI in its mission of incubating businesses with security technology products and services.

  3. Program Incubation and Commercialization Best Practices Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Shannon

    2018-04-06

    As a reminder, the primary task of the 4C Program is to increase the commercialization rate of cleantech companies in California. Commercialization, broadly defined, is the innovation continuum of developing and introducing a new product or service into the market. For measurability, the 4C Program defines commercialization as encompassing a startup’s: (a) preparation, (b) incubation, (c) commercial-scale pilot / demonstration, and (d) first customer.

  4. Social capital dimensions among incubated entrepreneurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ezequiel Quijano Quijano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows contributions from leading researchers in the fi eld of social capital as support of corporate sustainability and the contribution generated by a descriptive case study based on a representative sample from entrepreneurs from the Fundación Parque de Desarrollo Tecnológico (Parquesoft in Colombia, to contrast the theoretical approaches. The findings show a slight presence of social capital in the performance of incubated entrepreneurs.

  5. A new view of avian life-history evolution tested on an incubation paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E

    2002-02-07

    Viewing life-history evolution in birds based on an age-specific mortality framework can explain broad life-history patterns, including the long incubation periods in southern latitudes documented here. I show that incubation periods of species that are matched phylogenetically and ecologically between Argentina and Arizona are longer in Argentina. Long incubation periods have mystified scientists because they increase the accumulated risk of time-dependent mortality to young without providing a clear benefit. I hypothesize that parents of species with low adult mortality accept increased risk of mortality to their young from longer incubation if this allows reduced risk of mortality to themselves. During incubation, songbird parents can reduce risk of mortality to themselves by reducing nest attentiveness (percentage of time on the nest). Here I show that parents of species with lower adult mortality exhibit reduced nest attentiveness and that lower attentiveness is associated with longer incubation periods. However, the incubation period is also modified by juvenile mortality. Clutch size variation is also strongly correlated with age-specific mortality. Ultimately, adult and juvenile mortality explain variation in incubation and other life-history traits better than the historical paradigm.

  6. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deligianni, X. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology; Bieri, O. [University of Basel Hospital, Basel (Switzerland). Div. of Radiological Physics; Elke, R. [Orthomerian, Basel (Switzerland); Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T. [Merian Iselin Klinik, Basel (Switzerland). Inst. of Radiology

    2015-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm{sup 3} ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  7. Optimization of scan time in MRI for total hip prostheses. SEMAC tailoring for prosthetic implants containing different types of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deligianni, X.; Wischer, T.; Egelhof, T.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Mueller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2 - 23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm 3 ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting.

  8. Impact of operative time on early joint infection and deep vein thrombosis in primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, B W; Sheppard, E D; Smith, W R; Staggers, J R; Li, P; Shah, A; Lee, S R; Naranje, S M

    2018-03-22

    Infections and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) are challenging problems for both the patient and surgeon. Previous studies have identified numerous risk factors for infections and DVT after THA but have often been limited by sample size. We aimed to evaluate the effect of operative time on early postoperative infection as well as DVT rates following THA. We hypothesized that an increase in operative time would result in increased odds of acquiring an infection as well as a DVT. We conducted a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) database from 2006 to 2015 for all patients undergoing primary THA. Associations between operative time and infection or DVT were evaluated with multivariable logistic regressions controlling for demographics and several known risks factors for infection. Three different types of infections were evaluated: (1) superficial surgical site infection (SSI), an infection involving the skin or subcutaneous tissue, (2) deep SSI, an infection involving the muscle or fascial layers beneath the subcutaneous tissue, and (3) organ/space infection, an infection involving any part of the anatomy manipulated during surgery other than the incisional components. In total, 103,044 patients who underwent THA were included in our study. Our results suggested a significant association between superficial SSIs and operative time. Specifically, the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI increased by 6% (CI=1.04-1.08, ptime. When using dichotomized operative time (90minutes), the adjusted odds of suffering a superficial SSI was 56% higher for patients with prolonged operative time (CI=1.05-2.32, p=0.0277). The adjusted odds of suffering a deep SSI increased by 7% for every 10-minute increase in operative time (CI=1.01-1.14, p=0.0335). No significant associations were detected between organ/space infection, wound

  9. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eric, E-mail: eberg@ucdavis.edu; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kapusta, Maciej [Molecular Imaging, Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals.

  10. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eric; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R.; Kapusta, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals

  11. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B; Takx, Richard A P; Stone, Luke L; Girard, Erin E; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Lombardi, William L; Yeh, Robert W; Jaffer, Farouc A

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with x-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. • Real-time semi-automated fusion of CTA/fluoroscopy is feasible during CTO PCI. • CTA fusion data can be toggled on/off as desired during CTO PCI • Real-time CT calcium and centreline overlay could benefit antegrade dissection/reentry-based CTO PCI.

  12. The Time Course of Knee Swelling Post Total Knee Arthroplasty and Its Associations with Quadriceps Strength and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the time course of knee swelling post total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and its associations with quadriceps strength and gait speed. Eighty-five patients with unilateral TKA participated. Preoperatively and on post-operative days (PODs) 1, 4, 14, and 90, knee swelling was measured using bioimpedance spectrometry. Preoperatively and on PODs 14 and 90, quadriceps strength was measured using isokinetic dynamometry while fast gait speed was measured using the timed 10-meter walk. On POD1, knee swelling increased ~35% from preoperative levels after which, knee swelling reduced but remained at ~11% above preoperative levels on POD90. In longitudinal, multivariable analyses, knee swelling was associated with quadriceps weakness (P<0.01) and slower gait speed (P=0.03). Interventions to reduce post-TKA knee swelling may be indicated to improve quadriceps strength and gait speed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature during the last week of incubation. III. Effects on chicken embryo physiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Roovert-Reijrink, van I.A.M.; Engel, B.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2017-01-01

    We investigated effects of eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 onward on chicken embryo physiology. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15.

  14. Assessment and Certification of Neonatal Incubator Sensors through an Inferential Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Medeiros de Araújo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Measurement and diagnostic systems based on electronic sensors have been increasingly essential in the standardization of hospital equipment. The technical standard IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission 60601-2-19 establishes requirements for neonatal incubators and specifies the calibration procedure and validation tests for such devices using sensors systems. This paper proposes a new procedure based on an inferential neural network to evaluate and calibrate a neonatal incubator. The proposal presents significant advantages over the standard calibration process, i.e., the number of sensors is drastically reduced, and it runs with the incubator under operation. Since the sensors used in the new calibration process are already installed in the commercial incubator, no additional hardware is necessary; and the calibration necessity can be diagnosed in real time without the presence of technical professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Experimental tests involving the aforementioned calibration system are carried out in a commercial incubator in order to validate the proposal.

  15. The total length of myocytes and capillaries, and total number of myocyte nuclei in the rat heart are time-dependently increased by growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüel, Annemarie; Oxlund, Hans; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2005-01-01

    /kg/day) or vehicle for 5, 10, 20, 40, or 80 days. From the left ventricle (LV) histological sections were made and stereological methods applied. Linear regression showed that GH time-dependently increased: LV volume (r=0.96, P

  16. Physics Incubator at Kansas State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanders, Bret; Chakrabarti, Amitabha

    Funded by a major private endowment, the physics department at Kansas State University has recently started a physics incubator program that provides support to research projects with a high probability of commercial application. Some examples of these projects will be discussed in this talk. In a parallel effort, undergraduate physics majors and graduate students are being encouraged to work with our business school to earn an Entrepreneurship minor and a certification in Entrepreneurship. We will discuss how these efforts are promoting a ``culture change'' in the department. We will also discuss the advantages and the difficulties in running such a program in a Midwest college town.

  17. Weight monitoring system for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, Arif; Nurfitri, Intan; Mahatidana, Pradipta; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih., Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    We proposed weight monitoring system using load cell sensor for newborn incubator application. The weight sensing system consists of a load cell, conditioning signal circuit, and microcontroller Arduino Uno R3. The performance of the sensor was investigated by using the various weight from 0 up to 3000 g. Experiment results showed that this system has a small error of 4.313% and 12.5 g of threshold and resolution value. Compared to the typical baby scale available in local market, the proposed system has a lower error value and hysteresis.

  18. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiura Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1 analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2 when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  19. Early efforts in modeling the incubation period of infectious diseases with an acute course of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, Hiroshi

    2007-05-11

    The incubation period of infectious diseases, the time from infection with a microorganism to onset of disease, is directly relevant to prevention and control. Since explicit models of the incubation period enhance our understanding of the spread of disease, previous classic studies were revisited, focusing on the modeling methods employed and paying particular attention to relatively unknown historical efforts. The earliest study on the incubation period of pandemic influenza was published in 1919, providing estimates of the incubation period of Spanish flu using the daily incidence on ships departing from several ports in Australia. Although the study explicitly dealt with an unknown time of exposure, the assumed periods of exposure, which had an equal probability of infection, were too long, and thus, likely resulted in slight underestimates of the incubation period. After the suggestion that the incubation period follows lognormal distribution, Japanese epidemiologists extended this assumption to estimates of the time of exposure during a point source outbreak. Although the reason why the incubation period of acute infectious diseases tends to reveal a right-skewed distribution has been explored several times, the validity of the lognormal assumption is yet to be fully clarified. At present, various different distributions are assumed, and the lack of validity in assuming lognormal distribution is particularly apparent in the case of slowly progressing diseases. The present paper indicates that (1) analysis using well-defined short periods of exposure with appropriate statistical methods is critical when the exact time of exposure is unknown, and (2) when assuming a specific distribution for the incubation period, comparisons using different distributions are needed in addition to estimations using different datasets, analyses of the determinants of incubation period, and an understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms.

  20. IMU-based Real-time Pose Measurement system for Anterior Pelvic Plane in Total Hip Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Cao; Shaojie Su; Hao Tang; Yixin Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Hong Chen

    2017-07-01

    With the aging of population, the number of Total Hip Replacement Surgeries (THR) increased year by year. In THR, inaccurate position of the implanted prosthesis may lead to the failure of the operation. In order to reduce the failure rate and acquire the real-time pose of Anterior Pelvic Plane (APP), we propose a measurement system in this paper. The measurement system includes two parts: Initial Pose Measurement Instrument (IPMI) and Real-time Pose Measurement Instrument (RPMI). IPMI is used to acquire the initial pose of the APP, and RPMI is used to estimate the real-time pose of the APP. Both are composed of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensors. To estimate the attitude of the measurement system, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is adopted in this paper. The real-time pose of the APP could be acquired together with the algorithm designed in the paper. The experiment results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is within 1.6 degrees, which meets the requirement of THR operations.

  1. Reconstruction of MODIS total suspended matter time series maps by DINEOF and validation with autonomous platform data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechad, Bouchra; Alvera-Azcaràte, Aida; Ruddick, Kevin; Greenwood, Naomi

    2011-08-01

    In situ measurements of total suspended matter (TSM) over the period 2003-2006, collected with two autonomous platforms from the Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (Cefas) measuring the optical backscatter (OBS) in the southern North Sea, are used to assess the accuracy of TSM time series extracted from satellite data. Since there are gaps in the remote sensing (RS) data, due mainly to cloud cover, the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) is used to fill in the TSM time series and build a continuous daily "recoloured" dataset. The RS datasets consist of TSM maps derived from MODIS imagery using the bio-optical model of Nechad et al. (Rem Sens Environ 114: 854-866, 2010). In this study, the DINEOF time series are compared to the in situ OBS measured in moderately to very turbid waters respectively in West Gabbard and Warp Anchorage, in the southern North Sea. The discrepancies between instantaneous RS, DINEOF-filled RS data and Cefas data are analysed in terms of TSM algorithm uncertainties, space-time variability and DINEOF reconstruction uncertainty.

  2. BIOREACTOR WITH LID FOR EASY ACCESS TO INCUBATION CAVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible.......There is provided a bioreactor which is provided with a lid (13) that facilitates access to the incubation cavity. Specifically the end wall of the incubation cavity is constituted by the lid (13) so that removal of the cap renders the incubation cavity fully accessible....

  3. Real-time fusion of coronary CT angiography with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion PCI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoshhajra, Brian B.; Takx, Richard A.P. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology and Division of Cardiology, Boston, MA (United States); Stone, Luke L.; Yeh, Robert W.; Jaffer, Farouc A. [Harvard Medical School, Cardiac Cathetrization Laboratory, Cardiology Division, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Girard, Erin E. [Siemens Healthcare, Princeton, NJ (United States); Brilakis, Emmanouil S. [Cardiology Division, Dallas VA Medical Center and UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Lombardi, William L. [University of Washington, Cardiology Division, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of real-time fusion of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) centreline and arterial wall calcification with X-ray fluoroscopy during chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients undergoing CTO PCI were prospectively enrolled. Pre-procedural CT scans were integrated with conventional coronary fluoroscopy using prototype software. We enrolled 24 patients who underwent CTO PCI using the prototype CT fusion software, and 24 consecutive CTO PCI patients without CT guidance served as a control group. Mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 43/48 patients were men. Real-time CTA fusion during CTO PCI provided additional information regarding coronary arterial calcification and tortuosity that generated new insights into antegrade wiring, antegrade dissection/reentry, and retrograde wiring during CTO PCI. Overall CTO success rates and procedural outcomes remained similar between the two groups, despite a trend toward higher complexity in the fusion CTA group. This study demonstrates that real-time automated co-registration of coronary CTA centreline and calcification onto live fluoroscopic images is feasible and provides new insights into CTO PCI, and in particular, antegrade dissection reentry-based CTO PCI. (orig.)

  4. A Hybrid Metaheuristic Approach for Minimizing the Total Flow Time in A Flow Shop Sequence Dependent Group Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Production processes in Cellular Manufacturing Systems (CMS often involve groups of parts sharing the same technological requirements in terms of tooling and setup. The issue of scheduling such parts through a flow-shop production layout is known as the Flow-Shop Group Scheduling (FSGS problem or, whether setup times are sequence-dependent, the Flow-Shop Sequence-Dependent Group Scheduling (FSDGS problem. This paper addresses the FSDGS issue, proposing a hybrid metaheuristic procedure integrating features from Genetic Algorithms (GAs and Biased Random Sampling (BRS search techniques with the aim of minimizing the total flow time, i.e., the sum of completion times of all jobs. A well-known benchmark of test cases, entailing problems with two, three, and six machines, is employed for both tuning the relevant parameters of the developed procedure and assessing its performances against two metaheuristic algorithms recently presented by literature. The obtained results and a properly arranged ANOVA analysis highlight the superiority of the proposed approach in tackling the scheduling problem under investigation.

  5. A Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem with Controllable Processing Times to Optimize Total Cost of Delay and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the flexible job shop scheduling problem with machine flexibility and controllable process times is studied. The main idea is that the processing times of operations may be controlled by consumptions of additional resources. The purpose of this paper to find the best trade-off between processing cost and delay cost in order to minimize the total costs. The proposed model, flexible job shop scheduling with controllable processing times (FJCPT, is formulated as an integer non-linear programming (INLP model and then it is converted into an integer linear programming (ILP model. Due to NP-hardness of FJCPT, conventional analytic optimization methods are not efficient. Hence, in order to solve the problem, a Scatter Search (SS, as an efficient metaheuristic method, is developed. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, numerical experiments are conducted. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm is compared with that of a genetic algorithm (GA available in the literature for solving FJSP problem. The results showed that the proposed SS provide better solutions than the existing GA.

  6. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in waterbird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ± 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ± 1.6 days and 1.9 ± 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ± 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ± 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates.

  7. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  9. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Patrick; Glombitza, Clemens; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2012-01-01

    dioxide sequestration. As an application of the system we extracted organic compounds from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O–CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C) and pressure (5 MPa). Subsamples were taken at different time points during the incubation and analyzed by ion chromatography....... Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulfate reduction rate upon the addition of methane to the sample....

  10. Screening of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Anti-Fusarium Activity and Optimization of Incubation Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Vegi, Anuradha; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2017-10-01

    Anti-Fusarium activities of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) Lactobacillus plantarum 299V, L. plantarum NRRL-4496, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus VT1 were determined by a microdilution assay developed in this study against Fusarium graminearum 08/RG/BF/51. A cell-free Lactobacillus culture supernatant (CFLCS) of L. rhamnosus VT1 had the highest anti-Fusarium activity. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the incubation conditions for production of CFLCS. A Box-Behnken factorial design was used to investigate the effects of incubation time, shaking speed, and incubation temperature on the inhibition rate of CFLCS. A model equation was generated to predict the inhibition rate of CFLCS under various incubation conditions. A low probability value (0.0012) and associated F value of 25.10 suggested that the model was highly significant. A high R 2 value (0.978) indicated a very satisfactory model performance. Response surface methodology analysis suggested that an incubation temperature at 34°C, a shaking speed at 170 rpm, and an incubation time of 55 h were the best combination for production of CFLCS from L. rhamnosus VT1. Under these incubation conditions, a 10% L. rhamnosus VT1 CFLCS solution was predicted to inhibit the growth of F. graminearum by 75.6% in vitro and inhibited 83.7% of the growth in the validation experiment. Thus, the CFLCS of L. rhamnosus VT1 was an effective anti-Fusarium mixture.

  11. Extending total parenteral nutrition hang time in the neonatal intensive care unit: is it safe and cost effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balegar V, Kiran Kumar; Azeem, Mohammad Irfan; Spence, Kaye; Badawi, Nadia

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of prolonging hang time of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) fluid on central line-associated blood stream infection (CLABSI), TPN-related cost and nursing workload. A before-after observational study comparing the practice of hanging TPN bags for 48 h (6 February 2009-5 February 2010) versus 24 h (6 February 2008-5 February 2009) in a tertiary neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. The main outcome measures were CLABSI, TPN-related expenses and nursing workload. One hundred thirty-six infants received 24-h TPN bags and 124 received 48-h TPN bags. Median (inter-quartile range) gestation (37 weeks (33,39) vs. 36 weeks (33,39)), mean (±standard deviation) admission weight of 2442 g (±101) versus 2476 g (±104) and TPN duration (9.7 days (±12.7) vs. 9.9 days (±13.4)) were similar (P > 0.05) between the 24- and 48-h TPN groups. There was no increase in CLABSI with longer hang time (0.8 vs. 0.4 per 1000 line days in the 24-h vs. 48-h group; P < 0.05). Annual cost saving using 48-h TPN was AUD 97,603.00. By using 48-h TPN, 68.3% of nurses indicated that their workload decreased and 80.5% indicated that time spent changing TPN reduced. Extending TPN hang time from 24 to 48 h did not alter CLABSI rate and was associated with a reduced TPN-related cost and perceived nursing workload. Larger randomised controlled trials are needed to more clearly delineate these effects. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Influência do tempo de incubação e do tamanho de partículas sobre os teores de compostos indigestíveis em alimentos e fezes bovinas obtidos por procedimentos in situ Influence of incubation time and particles size on indigestible compounds contents in cattle feeds and feces obtained by in situ procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Oliveira Casali

    2008-02-01

    proporcionar maior precisão das estimativas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of in situ incubation time and particles size on the estimates of indigestible fractions of dry matter (iDM, neutral detergent fiber (iNDF, and acid detergent fiber (iADF in cattle feeds and feces. Samples of corn grain, wheat bran, corn silage, elephant grass, sugarcane, signal grass hay, corn straw, and feces obtained from cattle fed high and low concentrate diets were used. The samples were ground through 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm screen sieve and put in 4 × 5 cm non-woven textile bags (20 mg DM/cm² of surface. The samples were divided in three groups, being each group incubated in the rumen of a crossbred heifer. The incubation procedure was conducted three times with the change of groups among animals. The following incubation times were used: 0, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192, 216, 240, and 312 hours. The contents of iDM, iNDF, and iADF were evaluated sequentially in each bag. The degradation profiles were interpreted by a non-linear logistic model. The particles size did not influence the estimates of iNDF and iADF. However, the particles size altered the rumen degradation dynamic rates of DM for corn silage and corn grain; of NDF for sugarcane, corn silage, and corn straw; and ADF for sugarcane. For those samples, the particle size has been positively associated with the incubation time necessary to estimate the indigestible fraction. Incubation times of 240 hours for DM and NDF, and 264 hours for ADF were suggested for obtaining more accurate estimates of indigestible fractions. The use of 2 mm particle size can increase the precision of estimates.

  13. Innovation Incubator: Whisker Labs Technical Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, Bethany F. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frank, Stephen M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scheib, Jennifer G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Wells Fargo Innovation Incubator (IN2) is a program to foster and accelerate startup companies with commercial building energy-efficiency and demand management technologies. The program is funded by the Wells Fargo Foundation and co-administered by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Whisker Labs, an Oakland, California-based company, was one of four awardees in the first IN2 cohort and was invited to participate in the program because of its novel electrical power sensing technology for circuit breakers. The stick-on Whisker meters install directly on the front face of the circuit breakers in an electrical panel using adhesive, eliminating the need to open the panel and install current transducers (CTs) on the circuit wiring.

  14. INNOVATION CLUSTERS: SOCIAL LEARNING AND BUSINESS INCUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Deac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A sustainable innovation is more expensive than a regular one but it may lead to long termbenefits and durable competitive advantage, especially if many firms from the networkcollude or act within constrained environments such as business incubators. The opinionformation process, which leads to sustainable innovation, may be viewed as a collectivecognitive process resembling that of branding and re-branding. Technological innovationscan be viewed as sequences of cost reduction events and, in a many-firm setting, sociallearning which leads to sustainability-oriented behaviour depends on (mutual trustrelations. The experimental modelling part of the paper illustrates selected aspects of theconcept just outlined by developing a stylized dynamic model of the firm.

  15. Latitude-Time Total Electron Content Anomalies as Precursors to Japan's Large Earthquakes Associated with Principal Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Woei Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to determine whether principal component analysis (PCA can be used to process latitude-time ionospheric TEC data on a monthly basis to identify earthquake associated TEC anomalies. PCA is applied to latitude-time (mean-of-a-month ionospheric total electron content (TEC records collected from the Japan GEONET network to detect TEC anomalies associated with 18 earthquakes in Japan (M≥6.0 from 2000 to 2005. According to the results, PCA was able to discriminate clear TEC anomalies in the months when all 18 earthquakes occurred. After reviewing months when no M≥6.0 earthquakes occurred but geomagnetic storm activity was present, it is possible that the maximal principal eigenvalues PCA returned for these 18 earthquakes indicate earthquake associated TEC anomalies. Previously PCA has been used to discriminate earthquake-associated TEC anomalies recognized by other researchers, who found that statistical association between large earthquakes and TEC anomalies could be established in the 5 days before earthquake nucleation; however, since PCA uses the characteristics of principal eigenvalues to determine earthquake related TEC anomalies, it is possible to show that such anomalies existed earlier than this 5-day statistical window.

  16. Time-series MODIS image-based retrieval and distribution analysis of total suspended matter concentrations in Lake Taihu (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer.

  17. A Novel Ant Colony Algorithm for the Single-Machine Total Weighted Tardiness Problem with Sequence Dependent Setup Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fardin Ahmadizar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the NP-hard single-machine total weighted tardiness problem with sequence dependent setup times. Incorporating fuzzy sets and genetic operators, a novel ant colony optimization algorithm is developed for the problem. In the proposed algorithm, artificial ants construct solutions as orders of jobs based on the heuristic information as well as pheromone trails. To calculate the heuristic information, three well-known priority rules are adopted as fuzzy sets and then aggregated. When all artificial ants have terminated their constructions, genetic operators such as crossover and mutation are applied to generate new regions of the solution space. A local search is then performed to improve the performance quality of some of the solutions found. Moreover, at run-time the pheromone trails are locally as well as globally updated, and limited between lower and upper bounds. The proposed algorithm is experimented on a set of benchmark problems from the literature and compared with other metaheuristics.

  18. RELIABILITY ASSESSMENTS OF INFANT INCUBATOR AND THE ANALYZER

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemirci, Emre; Özarslan Yatak, Meral; Duran, Fecir; Canal, Mehmet Rahmi

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of newborn in Turkey are put in neonatal incubators because of their problematic cases. Incubators used for treatment may adversely affect baby’s health seriously, if they adjusts or measures the parameters incorrectly. In this study, complications arisen because of inaccurate adjustment and measurement of incubator parameters were investigated. Current infant incubator analyzers were researched and the deficiencies were evaluated considering the standards and clin...

  19. The Impact of the Incubator on the Internationalization of Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Engelman; Aurora Carneiro zen; Edi Madalena Fracasso

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine how technology incubators contribute to the internationalization of incubated Brazilian companies. To do so, was developed a framework that, in addition to supporting research, can be used to provide a basis for studies of internationalization in small technology-based companies and incubators and to assist their managers. By comparing the factors identified as influencing internationalization and the actions and services provided by the technology incubators, an in...

  20. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Auer, Sonya K; Bassar, Ronald D; Niklison, Alina M; Lloyd, Penn

    2007-11-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized.

  1. Geographic variation in avian incubation periods and parental influences on embryonic temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.; Auer, S.K.; Bassar, R.D.; Niklison, Alina M.; Lloyd, P.

    2007-01-01

    Theory predicts shorter embryonic periods in species with greater embryo mortality risk and smaller body size. Field studies of 80 passerine species on three continents yielded data that largely conflicted with theory; incubation (embryonic) periods were longer rather than shorter in smaller species, and egg (embryo) mortality risk explained some variation within regions, but did not explain larger differences in incubation periods among geographic regions. Incubation behavior of parents seems to explain these discrepancies. Bird embryos are effectively ectothermic and depend on warmth provided by parents sitting on the eggs to attain proper temperatures for development. Parents of smaller species, plus tropical and southern hemisphere species, commonly exhibited lower nest attentiveness (percent of time spent on the nest incubating) than larger and northern hemisphere species. Lower nest attentiveness produced cooler minimum and average embryonic temperatures that were correlated with longer incubation periods independent of nest predation risk or body size. We experimentally tested this correlation by swapping eggs of species with cool incubation temperatures with eggs of species with warm incubation temperatures and similar egg mass. Incubation periods changed (shortened or lengthened) as expected and verified the importance of egg temperature on development rate. Slower development resulting from cooler temperatures may simply be a cost imposed on embryos by parents and may not enhance offspring quality. At the same time, incubation periods of transferred eggs did not match host species and reflect intrinsic differences among species that may result from nest predation and other selection pressures. Thus, geographic variation in embryonic development may reflect more complex interactions than previously recognized. ?? 2007 The Author(s).

  2. Egg incubator control system with short message service (sms) fault ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The egg incubator system with temperature sensor can measure the state of the incubator and automatically change to the suitable condition for the egg. The health of the egg is very important for the development of embryo. The status condition in the incubator system will appear on the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen.

  3. Effects of oil transferred from incubating gulls to their eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    No. 2 fuel oil, or water, was applied to the breast feathers of incubating laughing gulls trapped at their nest site on an island colony in Texas. Gulls were released after treatment and allowed to incubate their eggs for 5 days. Oil was transferred from the feathers of incubating adults to their eggs and resulted in 41% embryo mortality compared with 2% in controls.

  4. The design of multi temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junyu; Xu, Peng; Peng, Zitao; Qiang, Haonan; Shen, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Currently, there is only one monitor of the temperature and humidity in an incubator, which may cause inaccurate or unreliable data, and even endanger the life safety of the baby. In order to solve this problem,we designed a multi-point temperature and humidity monitoring system for incubators. The system uses the STC12C5A60S2 microcontrollers as the sender core chip which is connected to four AM2321 temperature and humidity sensors. We select STM32F103ZET6 core development board as the receiving end,cooperating with Zigbee wireless transmitting and receiving module to realize data acquisition and transmission. This design can realize remote real-time observation data on the computer by communicating with PC via Ethernet. Prototype tests show that the system can effectively collect and display the information of temperature and humidity of multiple incubators at the same time and there are four monitors in each incubator.

  5. Noise level in neonatal incubators: A comparative study of three models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Zacarías, F; Beira Jiménez, J L; Bustillo Velázquez-Gaztelu, P J; Hernández Molina, R; Lubián López, Simón

    2018-04-01

    Preterm infants usually have to spend a long time in an incubator, excessive noise in which can have adverse physiological and psychological effects on neonates. In fact, incubator noise levels typically range from 45 to 70 dB but differences in this respect depend largely on the noise measuring method used. The primary aim of this work was to assess the extent to which noise in an incubator comes from its own fan and how efficiently the incubator can isolate external noise. Three different incubator models were characterized for acoustic performance by measuring their internal noise levels in an anechoic chamber, and also for noise isolation efficiency by using a pink noise source in combination with an internal and an external microphone that were connected to an SVAN958 noise analyzer. The incubators studied produced continuous equivalent noise levels of 53.5-58 dB and reduced external noise by 5.2-10.4 dB. A preterm infant in an incubator is exposed to noise levels clearly exceeding international recommendations even though such levels usually comply with the limit set in the standard IEC60601-2-19: 2009 (60 dBA) under normal conditions of use. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Factors affecting incubation patterns and sex roles of black oystercatchers in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Caleb S.; Haig, Susan M.; Goldstein, Michael I.; Huso, Manuela M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Studies examining the effects of human disturbance on avian parental behavior and reproductive success are fundamental to bird conservation. However, many such studies fail to also consider the influence of natural threats, a variable environment, and parental roles. Our work examines interactive relationships of cyclical (time of day, tide, temperature, seasonality) and stochastic (natural/human disturbance) processes with incubation patterns (attendance, bout lengths, recess rates) of the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopus bachmani), a shorebird of conservation concern. We used 24-hour-per-day video monitoring of 13 molecularly-sexed breeding pairs to systematically examine incubation, revealing previously undocumented information that may inform conservation practices for the genus. Seven of 22 video-monitored nests failed, primarily from egg depredation by nocturnally-active mammals. Analyses of 3177 hrs of video footage indicated a near doubling of incubation bout lengths at night, corresponding to the increased risk of nighttime egg predation. Females had higher overall nest attendance (54% vs. 42%) and longer mean incubation bout lengths than males (88 min vs. 73 min). Uninterrupted incubation bouts were over twice as long as bouts interrupted by disturbance. Incubating males departed nests substantially more frequently due to nest-area disturbances than females in one, but not both, years of our study. Our findings suggest that sexes exhibit different, but complimentary, incubation patterns, facilitating efficient egg care in a dynamic environment with several nest threats. We emphasize the importance of considering natural influences when evaluating human threats to shorebird reproductive behavior and success.

  7. EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT OF YELLOWFIN TUNA (Thunnus albacares AT DIFFERENT INCUBATION TEMPERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Harianto Hutapea

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted in order to figure out the effect of incubation temperature on embryonic development of yellowfin tuna, Thunnus albacares eggs. Five different incubation temperatures were applied as treatments, i.e.: 24°C, 26°C, 28°C, 30°C, and 32°C with 3 replicate each. Ten micro plates with lid (IWAKI, Japan were used; each has 6 well and 10 mL volumes. Five micro plates were used for experiment and five for balance on shaker. Three well of each micro plate were filled with 8 mL ultra violet sterilized sea water and 50 fertilized eggs. Temperature was set using Multi Thermo Incubator which has 5 level racks. Temperatures were set from the lowest to the highest on bottom to upper rack order. To maintain eggs dispersed in the medium, shaker on each rack was operated at 150 RPM. The embryo was monitored every 30-60 minutes depends on embryonic stage development using Microscope which was connected to Digital Camera DXM 1200F. Image analyses by Image Analyzer Program. The results showed, incubation temperature was significantly affect (P<0.05 embryonic development and hatching time of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares eggs. Optimum incubation temperature for embryo development and hatching was 28°C. Decreased on incubation temperature slows down embryo development at all stages, and vice versa, increased on incubation temperature accelerates embryo development.

  8. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M; Huang, C L; Vonk, L A; Lu, Z F; Bank, R A; Helder, M N; Doulabi, B Zandieh

    2016-11-01

    Studies which consider the molecular mechanisms of degeneration and regeneration of cartilaginous tissues are seriously hampered by problematic ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolations due to low cell density and the dense, proteoglycan-rich extracellular matrix of cartilage. Proteoglycans tend to co-purify with RNA, they can absorb the full spectrum of UV light and they are potent inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Therefore, the objective of the present study is to compare and optimise different homogenisation methods and RNA isolation kits for an array of cartilaginous tissues. Tissue samples such as the nucleus pulposus (NP), annulus fibrosus (AF), articular cartilage (AC) and meniscus, were collected from goats and homogenised by either the MagNA Lyser or Freezer Mill. RNA of duplicate samples was subsequently isolated by either TRIzol (benchmark), or the RNeasy Lipid Tissue, RNeasy Fibrous Tissue, or Aurum Total RNA Fatty and Fibrous Tissue kits. RNA yield, purity, and integrity were determined and gene expression levels of type II collagen and aggrecan were measured by real-time PCR. No differences between the two homogenisation methods were found. RNA isolation using the RNeasy Fibrous and Lipid kits resulted in the purest RNA (A260/A280 ratio), whereas TRIzol isolations resulted in RNA that is not as pure, and show a larger difference in gene expression of duplicate samples compared with both RNeasy kits. The Aurum kit showed low reproducibility. For the extraction of high-quality RNA from cartilaginous structures, we suggest homogenisation of the samples by the MagNA Lyser. For AC, NP and AF we recommend the RNeasy Fibrous kit, whereas for the meniscus the RNeasy Lipid kit is advised.Cite this article: M. Peeters, C. L. Huang, L. A. Vonk, Z. F. Lu, R. A. Bank, M. N. Helder, B. Zandieh Doulabi. Optimisation of high-quality total ribonucleic acid isolation from cartilaginous tissues for real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016

  9. Disponibilidade e fracionamento de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn em função do pH e tempo de incubação com o solo Availability and fractionation of Cd, Pb, Cu, AND Zn in soil as a function of incubation time and pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Évio Eduardo Chaves de Melo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O pH e o tempo de contato influenciam a distribuição dos metais entre frações do solo e a eficiência da fitoextração. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho estudar a disponibilidade dos metais Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn para a fitoextração, bem como suas redistribuições no solo, em função do tempo de incubação em solo com e sem calagem. O solo recebeu Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn nas doses 20, 150, 100 e 150 mg kg-1, respectivamente, na forma de sal solúvel. As amostras foram incubadas por 210, 180, 150, 120, 90, 60, 30 e 0,5 dia. Terminada a incubação, mucuna preta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy foi cultivada por 30 dias. EDTA (10 mmol kg-1 foi aplicado sete dias, antes da coleta das plantas. As amostras de solo foram submetidas à extração química e fracionada. A concentração de metais pesados e a calagem afetaram a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e da raiz. Em solos sem calagem, o aumento da solubilidade dos metais aumentou a fitoextração de Cd e Zn, mesmo sem aplicação do EDTA. A aplicação do EDTA ao solo com calagem mostrou-se eficiente para a fitoextração de Pb e Cu. A calagem reduziu os teores disponíveis de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn. A calagem provocou redução nos teores de Cd, Pb, Cu e Zn trocáveis e aumento nas frações matéria orgânica, óxidos de ferro amorfo e cristalino.It is known that pH and incubation time influence the distribution of metals into soil fractions and therefore affect phytoextraction. Taking this in account, the aim of this work was to study the fractionation and availability of heavy metals for phytoextraction, as a function of incubation period in soils with or without liming. The soil samples were applied to Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn at concentrations of 20, 150, 100, and 150 mg kg-1, respectively, in the form of soluble salt. The samples were kept incubated for high incubation periods: 210, 180, 150, 120, 90, 60, 30, and 0,5 day. After that, velvetbean (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy was cultivated

  10. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena

    2018-01-01

    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  12. Characterizing the hydration state of L-threonine in solution using terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflection spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huachuan; Liu, Qiao; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren

    2018-01-01

    The hydration of biomolecules is closely related to the dynamic process of their functional expression, therefore, characterizing hydration phenomena is a subject of keen interest. However, direct measurements on the global hydration state of biomolecules couldn't have been acquired using traditional techniques such as thermodynamics, ultrasound, microwave spectroscopy or viscosity, etc. In order to realize global hydration characterization of amino acid such as L-threonine, terahertz time-domain attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (THz-TDS-ATR) was adopted in this paper. By measuring the complex permittivity of L-threonine solutions with various concentrations in the THz region, the hydration state and its concentration dependence were obtained, indicating that the number of hydrous water decreased with the increase of concentration. The hydration number was evaluated to be 17.8 when the molar concentration of L-threonine was 0.34 mol/L, and dropped to 13.2 when the molar concentration increased to 0.84 mol/L, when global hydration was taken into account. According to the proposed direct measurements, it is believed that the THz-TDS-ATR technique is a powerful tool for studying the picosecond molecular dynamics of amino acid solutions.

  13. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chau, J.Y.; Grunseit, A.; Midthjell, K.; Holmen, J.; Holmen, T.L.; Bauman, A.E.; van der Ploeg, H.P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Design: Population based cross-sectional study. Methods: Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting

  14. Towards a distinction between technology incubators and non-technology incubators: can they contribute to economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.; Fink, M.; Hatak, I.

    2010-01-01

    Business incubators are an increasingly popular tool for promoting job and wealth creation. Yet given the heterogeneity of incubation models, it is not always clear how incubators operate, what their main characteristics are and how can they best contribute to job and wealth creation. If technology

  15. Rabies viral encephalitis with proable 25 year incubation period!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rabies viral encephalitis in a 48-year-old male with an unusually long incubation period, historically suspected to be more than 20 years. The case was referred for histological diagnosis following alleged medical negligence to the forensic department. The histology and immunocytochemical demonstration of rabies viral antigen established the diagnosis unequivocally. The case manifested initially with hydrophobia and aggressive behavior, although he suddenly went to the bathroom and drank a small amount of water. History of dog bite 25 years back was elicited retrospectively following clinical suspicion. There was no subsequent history to suggest nonbite exposure to a rabid dog to consider recent event causing the disease, although this cannot be totally excluded.

  16. Marketing Plan for the National Security Technology Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-03-31

    This marketing plan was developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University. The vision of the National Security Technology Incubator program is to be a successful incubator of technologies and private enterprise that assist the NNSA in meeting new challenges in national safety and security. The plan defines important aspects of developing the incubator, such as defining the target market, marketing goals, and creating strategies to reach the target market while meeting those goals. The three main marketing goals of the incubator are: 1) developing marketing materials for the incubator program; 2) attracting businesses to become incubator participants; and 3) increasing name recognition of the incubator program on a national level.

  17. National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators New Mexico Clean Energy Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Suzanne S.

    2004-12-15

    The National Alliance for Clean Energy Incubators was established by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop an emerging network of business incubators for entrepreneurs specializing in clean energy enterprises. The Alliance provides a broad range of business services to entrepreneurs in specific geographic locales across the U.S. and in diverse clean energy technology areas such as fuel cells, alternative fuels, power generation, and renewables, to name a few. Technology Ventures Corporation (TVC) participates in the Alliance from its corporate offices in Albuquerque, NM, and from its sites in Northern and Southern New Mexico, California, and Nevada. TVC reports on the results of its attempts to accelerate the growth and success of clean energy and energy efficiency companies through its array of business support services. During the period from September 2002 through September 2004, TVC describes contributions to the Alliance including the development of 28 clients and facilitating capital raises exceeding $35M.

  18. Electromagnetic fields produced by incubators influence heart rate variability in newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, C V; Acampa, M; Maffei, M; Maffei, S; Perrone, S; Pinto, I; Stacchini, N; Buonocore, G

    2008-07-01

    Incubators are largely used to preserve preterm and sick babies from postnatal stressors, but their motors produce high electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Newborns are chronically exposed to these EMFs, but no studies about their effects on the fragile developing neonatal structure exist. To verify whether the exposure to incubator motor electric power may alter autonomous nervous system activity in newborns. Heart rate variability (HRV) of 43 newborns in incubators was studied. The study group comprised 27 newborns whose HRV was studied throughout three 5-minute periods: with incubator motor on, off, and on again, respectively. Mean HRV values obtained during each period were compared. The control group comprised 16 newborns with constantly unrecordable EMF and exposed to changes in background noise, similar to those provoked by the incubator motor. Mean (SD) total power and the high-frequency (HF) component of HRV increased significantly (from 87.1 (76.2) ms2 to 183.6 (168.5) ms2) and the mean low-frequency (LF)/HF ratio decreased significantly (from 2.0 (0.5) to 1.5 (0.6)) when the incubator motor was turned off. Basal values (HF = 107.1 (118.1) ms2 and LF/HF = 1.9 (0.6)) were restored when incubators were turned on again. The LF spectral component of HRV showed a statistically significant change only in the second phase of the experiment. Changes in background noise did not provoke any significant change in HRV. EMFs produced by incubators influence newborns' HRV, showing an influence on their autonomous nervous system. More research is needed to assess possible long-term consequences, since premature newborns may be exposed to these high EMFs for months.

  19. Mobile Incubation in Waved Albatross (Phoebastria irrorata: Associated Hatching Failure and Artificial Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill A. Awkerman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Waved albatrosses often relocate their eggs during incubation by placing the egg between the tarsi and shuffling forward. This behavior frequently results in eggs becoming lodged between rocks, accounting for at least 10%, and perhaps as much as 80%, of breeding failures. Because albatross populations worldwide are currently threatened, artificial means of augmenting reproductive success may be necessary to mitigate losses caused by anthropogenic effects. We characterize the frequency and extent of egg movement; test several hypotheses related to microhabitat, timing, and incubation location to explain the behavior; and investigate the utility of repositioning lodged eggs in a location in which breeding birds might resume incubation. Egg rescue increased both the likelihood of continued incubation as well as the hatching rate in our experiment, and provides an efficient, low-cost management option for this species.

  20. Exposing broiler eggs to green, red and white light during incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, G S

    2017-07-01

    Previous work has shown that exposing broiler eggs to white light during incubation can improve hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare. It was hypothesized that due to how different wavelengths of light can affect avian physiology differently, and how pigmented eggshells filter light that different monochromatic wavelengths would have differential effects on hatchability and post-hatch animal welfare indicators. To determine, we incubated chicken eggs (n=6912) under either no light (dark), green light, red light or white light; the light level was 250 lux. White and red light were observed to increase hatch of fertile (P0.05). Fear response of during isolation and tonic immobility was reduced (P0.05) from dark incubated broilers. All light incubated broilers had lower (Phatchery efficiency and post-hatch animal welfare at the same time.

  1. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  2. iFLOOD: A Real Time Flood Forecast System for Total Water Modeling in the National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, S. J.; Ferreira, C.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme flood events are the costliest natural hazards impacting the US and frequently cause extensive damages to infrastructure, disruption to economy and loss of lives. In 2016, Hurricane Matthew brought severe damage to South Carolina and demonstrated the importance of accurate flood hazard predictions that requires the integration of riverine and coastal model forecasts for total water prediction in coastal and tidal areas. The National Weather Service (NWS) and the National Ocean Service (NOS) provide flood forecasts for almost the entire US, still there are service-gap areas in tidal regions where no official flood forecast is available. The National capital region is vulnerable to multi-flood hazards including high flows from annual inland precipitation events and surge driven coastal inundation along the tidal Potomac River. Predicting flood levels on such tidal areas in river-estuarine zone is extremely challenging. The main objective of this study is to develop the next generation of flood forecast systems capable of providing accurate and timely information to support emergency management and response in areas impacted by multi-flood hazards. This forecast system is capable of simulating flood levels in the Potomac and Anacostia River incorporating the effects of riverine flooding from the upstream basins, urban storm water and tidal oscillations from the Chesapeake Bay. Flood forecast models developed so far have been using riverine data to simulate water levels for Potomac River. Therefore, the idea is to use forecasted storm surge data from a coastal model as boundary condition of this system. Final output of this validated model will capture the water behavior in river-estuary transition zone far better than the one with riverine data only. The challenge for this iFLOOD forecast system is to understand the complex dynamics of multi-flood hazards caused by storm surges, riverine flow, tidal oscillation and urban storm water. Automated system

  3. Incubation period for campylobacteriosis and its importance in the estimation of incidence related to travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, B J; Lake, R J

    2013-10-03

    Differentiation between travel-related and domestic cases of infectious disease is important in managing risk. Incubation periods of cases from several outbreaks of campylobacteriosis in Canada, Europe, and the United States with defined exposure time of less than 24 hours were collated to provide information on the incubation period distribution. This distribution was consistent across the varied outbreaks considered, with 84% (702/832) of cases having an incubation period of four days or less and 1% having an incubation period of eight days or more. The incubation period distribution was incorporated into a model for the number of travel-related cases presenting with symptom onset at given dates after return to their country of residence. Using New Zealand notification data between 2006 and 2010 for cases who had undertaken foreign travel within 10 days prior to symptom onset, we found that 29.6% (67/227 cases; 95% confidence interval (CI): 28.3–30.8%) of these cases were likely to have been domestic cases. When cases with symptom onset prior to arrival were included, the probable domestic cases represented 11.8% (67/571; 95% CI: 11.2–12.3%). Consideration of incubation time distributions and consistent collection of travel start/end dates with symptom onset dates would assist attribution of cases to foreign travel.

  4. Hidrólise da uréia em latossolos: efeito da concentração de uréia, temperatura, pH, armazenamento e tempo de incubação Urea hydrolysis in oxisols: effects of substrate concentration, temperature, pH, incubation time and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Marcia Longo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a velocidade de hidrólise da uréia em dois diferentes solos brasileiros (Latossolo Vermelho Aluminoférrico típico e Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico onde foram realizados ensaios sobre o efeito do tempo e condições de armazenamento, concentração do substrato (uréia, temperatura, pH e tempo de incubação sobre a atividade da urease. As melhores condições de armazenamento foram em temperatura ambiente ou 5 ºC, após secagem ao ar, por um período de até 7 dias; para as condições estudadas, o melhor tempo de incubação foi de uma hora a 25-30 ºC, sem a utilização de tampão para acertar o pH, e a concentração de uréia suficiente foi de 3,30 g L-1, para o Latossolo Vermelho Aluminoférrico típico, e de 2,5 g L-1, para o Latossolo Vermelho distrófico típico para obter a velocidade máxima da enzima.This study evaluated the kinetics of urease hydrolysis in two different Brazilian soils (Rhodic Oxisols: a typic alumino-ferric Red Latossol and a typic distrophic Red Latosol. The trials were carried out to study the effects of air drying, soil sampling, storage conditions and temperature, pH, time of incubation, and substrate concentration on the urease activity. Results showed that best conditions for soil sample storage after air-drying for a 7-day period were at room temperature or at a temperature of 5 ºC. For the studied conditions the best incubation time was one hour at 25-30 ºC, without pH buffering. The ideal urea concentration suggested for the detection of the maximum velocity was 3.3 g L-1 for the typic alumino-ferric Red Latossol and 2.5 g L-1 for the typic distrophic Red Latosol.

  5. The Impact of Total Ischemic Time, Donor Age and the Pathway of Donor Death on Graft Outcomes After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Germaine; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Chapman, Jeremy R; Craig, Jonathan C; Pleass, Henry; McDonald, Stephen; Lim, Wai H

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged ischemia is a known risk factor for delayed graft function (DGF) and its interaction with donor characteristics, the pathways of donor death, and graft outcomes may have important implications for allocation policies. Using data from the Australian and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant registry (1994-2013), we examined the relationship between total ischemic time with graft outcomes among recipients who received their first deceased donor kidney transplants. Total ischemic time (in hours) was defined as the time of the donor renal artery interruption or aortic clamp, until the time of release of the clamp on the renal artery in the recipient. A total of 7542 recipients were followed up over a median follow-up time of 5.3 years (interquartile range of 8.2 years). Of these, 1823 (24.6%) experienced DGF and 2553 (33.9%) experienced allograft loss. Recipients with total ischemic time of 14 hours or longer experienced an increased odd of DGF compared with those with total ischemic time less than 14 hours. This effect was most marked among those with older donors (P value for interaction = 0.01). There was a significant interaction between total ischemic time, donor age, and graft loss (P value for interaction = 0.03). There was on average, a 9% increase in the overall risk of graft loss per hour increase in the total ischemic time (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.18; P = 0.02) in recipients with older donation after circulatory death grafts. There is a clinically important interaction between donor age, the pathway of donor death, and total ischemic time on graft outcomes, such that the duration of ischemic time has the greatest impact on graft survival in recipients with older donation after circulatory death kidneys.

  6. Cross-sectional associations of total sitting and leisure screen time with cardiometabolic risk in adults. Results from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Josephine Y; Grunseit, Anne; Midthjell, Kristian; Holmen, Jostein; Holmen, Turid L; Bauman, Adrian E; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2014-01-01

    To examine associations of total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use with cardiometabolic risk biomarkers in adults. Population based cross-sectional study. Waist circumference, BMI, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) and triglycerides were measured in 48,882 adults aged 20 years or older from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 2006-2008 (HUNT3). Adjusted multiple regression models were used to test for associations between these biomarkers and self-reported total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use in the whole sample and by cardiometabolic disease status sub-groups. In the whole sample, reporting total sitting time ≥10 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, non-fasting glucose, GGT and triglyceride levels compared to those reporting total sitting time Leisure-time computer use ≥1 h/day was associated with poorer BMI, total cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, GGT and triglycerides compared with those reporting no leisure-time computing. Sub-group analyses by cardiometabolic disease status showed similar patterns in participants free of cardiometabolic disease, while similar albeit non-significant patterns were observed in those with cardiometabolic disease. Total sitting time, TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use are associated with poorer cardiometabolic risk profiles in adults. Reducing sedentary behaviour throughout the day and limiting TV-viewing and leisure-time computer use may have health benefits. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Business Incubation in Chile: Development, Financing and Financial Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Chandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Business incubation in Chile is still in its nascent stages, with approximately 27 incubators supported primarily by a coalition of government and universities. Chilean business incubators tend to capitalize on regional resource strengths and have a strategic focus on high growth, high innovation, high impact businesses as a result of a government mandate to focus on developing business with high potential for economic development and job creation. The government’s efforts to create the framework conditions for entrepreneurship by investing in business incubators, organizing risk capital for early stage ventures to fill capital market gaps and support for angel networks as well as incubator funding are discussed. Policy implications for the continued growth of the incubation industry are provided.

  8. INCUBATION YIELD AS A FUNCTION OF BROILER BREEDER AGE / RENDIMENTO DE INCUBAÇÃO EM FUNÇÃO DA IDADE DA MATRIZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. F. da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors involved in poultry egg incubation include breeder hen age, which may influence both the external and internal quality of eggs. In this context, this study sought to determine incubation yield among eggs from breeder hens at three ages. A total of 1,728 eggs were obtained from Cobb broiler breeders at three ages (26 weeks, 32 weeks, and 53 weeks and incubated. At the end of the incubation process, eclosion, hatchability, the percentage of infertile eggs, the time of embryo mortality, and chick weight were all analyzed according to breeder hen age. Analysis of variance was applied to the results, and egg fertility was found to be associated with breeder age, since lower rates of eclosion were found in eggs from younger broiler breeders. Chick weight was also found to be influenced by breeder age, since eggs from older broiler breeders hatched into heavier chicks. However, neither mortality nor hatchability were found to be affected by breeder hen age.

  9. Periodical low eggshell temperatures during incubation and post hatch dietary arginine supplementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarian, O.; Shahir, M.H.; Akhlaghi, A.; Lotfolahian, H.; Hoseini, A.; Lourens, A.

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a periodically low eggshell temperature exposure during incubation and dietary supplementation of arginine on performance, ascites incidence, and cold tolerance acquisition in broilers. A total of 2,400 hatching eggs were randomly assigned to

  10. Short Nissl staining for incubated cryostat sections of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroos, O F

    1991-01-01

    Nissl stain often binds poorly to cryostat sections which have been incubated in solutions of radiolabeled ligands. Such incubation is used in receptor autoradiography of the brain when using the in vitro method. We have developed a rapid (16 min) modification of Nissl staining for sections that bind stain poorly, e.g., incubated sections. The method stains well sections which cannot be stained with other rapid Nissl staining methods.

  11. Study of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in infant incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermáková, Eleonora

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work was to present the results of measurements of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF EMF), namely the magnetic flux density, inside infant incubators, and to compare these results with the data published by other authors who point out to a possible association between leukemia or other diseases observed in newborns kept in incubators after the birth and the ELF EMF exposure in the incubator. The measured magnetic flux densities were compared with the reference values for this frequency range indicated in the European Union (EU) recommendations. The repeated measurements in incubators were made with a calibrated magnetometer EFA 300 in the frequency range of 5-30 kHz. Effective values of magnetic flux densities of ELF EMF were determined taking account of the reference values. The results of many repeated measurements showing the values of magnetic flux density in modern incubators with plastic supporting frame, were compared with those obtained in old type incubators with iron skeleton. A power frequency of 50 Hz was detected in the incubator and the ELF EMF values were by over two orders lower than the EU reference values. The paper emphasizes the need to take a special care of newborns kept in incubators even if only the sub-reference values are detected. The EU reference values are intended for the adult human population. A baby in an incubator has much smaller dimensions, higher electric conductivity and maybe trigger another mechanism of response to ELF EMF than that indicated in this paper.

  12. Incubator Display Software Cost Reduction Toolset Software Requirements Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Susanne; Jeffords, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    The Incubator Display Software Requirements Specification was initially developed by Intrinsyx Technologies Corporation (Intrinsyx) under subcontract to Lockheed Martin, Contract Number NAS2-02090, for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center (ARC) Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP). The Incubator Display is a User Payload Application (UPA) used to control an Incubator subrack payload for the SSBRP. The Incubator Display functions on-orbit as part of the subrack payload laptop, on the ground as part of the Communication and Data System (CDS) ground control system, and also as part of the crew training environment.

  13. 38 CFR 3.22 - DIC benefits for survivors of certain veterans rated totally disabled at time of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... benefits under paragraph (a) of this section receives any money or property pursuant to a judicial... amount of money received and the fair market value of the property received. The provisions of this... veteran. The amount to be reported is the total of the amount of money received and the fair market value...

  14. A real-time PCR method for quantification of the total and major variant strains of the deformed wing virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma L Bradford

    Full Text Available European honey bees (Apis mellifera are critically important to global food production by virtue of their pollination services but are severely threatened by deformed wing virus (DWV especially in the presence of the external parasite Varroa destructor. DWV exists as many viral strains with the two major variants (DWV-A and DWV-B varying in virulence. A single plasmid standard was constructed containing three sections for the specific determination of DWV-A (VP2 capsid region, DWV-B (IRES and a conserved region suitable for total DWV (helicase region. The assays were confirmed as specific and discriminatory with limits of detections of 25, 25 and 50 genome equivalents for DWV-A, DWV-B and total-DWV, respectively. The methods were successfully tested on Apis mellifera and V. destructor samples with varying DWV profiles. The new method determined a more accurate total DWV titre in samples with substantial DWV-B than the method currently described in the COLOSS Beebook. The proposed assays could be utilized for the screening of large quantities of bee material for both a total DWV load overview along with more detailed investigations into DWV-A and DWV-B profiles.

  15. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy for real-time imaging of nanoparticle-cell plasma membrane interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parhamifar, Ladan; Moghimi, Seyed Moien

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate systems are widely used for site-specific drug and gene delivery as well as for medical imaging. The mode of nanoparticle-cell interaction may have a significant effect on the pathway of nanoparticle internalization and subsequent intracellular trafficking. Total internal reflection...

  16. Effects of incubation on solubility and mobility of trace metals in two contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Lena Q.; Dong Yan

    2004-01-01

    Much research has focused on changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals in soils under incubation. In this experiment, changes in solubility and mobility of trace metals (Pb, Cu and As) and Fe in two contaminated soils from Tampa, Florida and Montreal, Canada were examined. Soils of 30 g were packed in columns and were incubated for 3-80 days under water-flooding incubation. Following incubation, metal concentrations in pore water (water soluble) and in 0.01 M CaCl 2 leachates (exchangeable+water soluble) were determined. While both soils were contaminated with Pb (1600-2500 mg kg -1 ), Tampa soil was also contaminated with As (230 mg kg -1 ). Contrast to the low pH (3.8) of Tampa soil, Montreal soil had an alkaline pH of 7.7 and high Ca of 1.6%. Concentrations of Fe(II) increased with incubation time in the Tampa soil mainly due to reductive Fe dissolution, but decreased in the Montreal soil possibly due to formation of FeCO 3 . The inverse relationship between concentrations of Pb and Fe(II) in pore water coupled with the fact that Fe(II) concentrations were much greater than those of Pb in pore water may suggest the importance of Fe(II) in controlling Pb solubility in soils. However, changes in concentrations of Fe(II), Pb, Cu and As in pore water with incubation time were similar to those in leachate, i.e. water soluble metals were positively related to exchangeable metals in the two contaminated soils. This research suggests the importance of Fe in controlling metal solubility and mobility in soils under water-flooded incubation. - Iron is important in controlling metal solubility and mobility in flooded soils

  17. Light scattering method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Szołna-Chodór, A.; Baryła, J.; DreŻek, D.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation can be observed both in vivo as well as in vitro. This process is a cause of alterations of blood flow in microvascular network. Enhanced RBC aggregation makes oxygen and nutrients delivery difficult. Measurements of RBC aggregation usually give a description of the process for a sample where the state of a solution and cells is well-defined and the system reached an equilibrium. Incubation of RBCs in various solutions is frequently used to study the effects of the solutions on the RBC aggregation. The aggregation parameters are compared before and after incubation while the detailed changes of the parameters during incubation remain unknown. In this paper we have proposed a method to measure red blood cell aggregation during incubation based on the well-known technique where backscattered light is used to assess the parameters of the RBC aggregation. Couette system consisting of two cylinders is adopted in the method. The incubation is observed in the Couette system. In the proposed method following sequence of rotations is adapted. Two minutes rotation is followed by two minutes stop. In this way we have obtained a time series of back scattered intensity consisting of signals respective for disaggregation and aggregation. It is shown that the temporal changes of the intensity manifest changes of RBC aggregation during incubation. To show the ability of the method to assess the effect of incubation time on RBC aggregation the results are shown for solutions that cause an increase of RBC aggregation as well as for the case where the aggregation is decreased.

  18. Influence of the incubation conditions on culture media to optimize primary isolation of Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Yumi Ikuta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The isolation of Mycobacterium bovis is critical to a surveillance system for bovine tuberculosis based on detection of lesions in abattoirs. Thus, four solid culture media and three incubation conditions were investigated to elucidate which combination overcomes the others by assessing growth, time to the first appearance of colonies and their number. Ninety-seven samples of granulomatous lesions were submitted to the decontamination procedure by 1-hexadecylpyridinium chloride at 0.75% w/v, and inoculated on two egg-based media, Stonebrink’s (ST and Löwenstein-Jensen’s with sodium pyruvate (LJp, and two agar-based media, tuberculosis blood agar (B83 and Middlebrook 7H11 medium (7H11. Each medium was incubated at 37°C for 90 days in three incubation conditions: in air, in air containing 10% carbon dioxide (CO2, and in air in slopes closed with burned hydrophobic cotton and subsequently plugged with a cork to create a microaerophilic atmosphere. The colonies appeared faster and in higher number when incubated in air containing 10% CO2 (p < 0.01, independent of media. B83 showed a faster growth and detected more isolates at 30 days of incubation, when compared to ST (0.0178, LJp (p < 0.0001 and 7H11 (p < 0.0001, though there was no difference between B83, ST and LJp at 60 and 90 days of incubation. 7H11 presented the lowest number of isolates (p < 0.0001 and a longer period for the appearance of the first colony (p < 0.001. According to our findings, the concomitant use of ST and B83 media incubated in air containing 10% CO2 increases the isolation of M. bovis in a shorter period of time, which improves bovine tuberculosis diagnosis.

  19. Incubation as a form of psychotherapy in the care of patients in ancient and modern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, M G

    1975-01-01

    Incubation or temple sleep in sanctuaries of Aesculapius, Amphiaraos, Trophonios, etc., for the care of patients was practised even in the older times of ancient Greece and may be viewed as a form of psychotherapy and especially as 'dream-psychotherapy'. In Greek antiquity, as it is known, dreams were considered as a way of communication between gods and men. Survival of the custom of incubation exists even in our times in modern Greece, but are disappearing slowly. An attempt is made to find an explanation, if any, of those miraculous cures in accordance with the scientific thought of today.

  20. Incubator weaning in preterm infants and associated practice variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, R; Kirkby, S; Turenne, W; Greenspan, J

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship of weight of preterm infants when first placed into an open crib with days to full oral feedings, growth velocity and length of stay (LOS), and to identify unwarranted variation in incubator weaning after adjusting for severity indices. A retrospective study using the ParadigmHealth neonatal database from 2003 to 2006 reviewed incubator weaning to an open crib in appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) infants from 22 to weeks gestation. Primary outcome measurements included days to full oral (PO) feeding, weight gain from open crib to discharge and length of stay. Models were severity adjusted. To understand hospital practice variation, we also used a regression model to estimate the weight at open crib for the top 10 volume hospitals. In all 2908 infants met the inclusion criteria for the study. Their mean weight at open crib was 1850 g. On average every additional 100 g an infant weighed at the open crib was associated with increased time to full PO feeding by 0.8 days, decreased weight gained per day by 1 gram and increased LOS by 0.9 days. For the top 10 volume hospitals, severity variables alone accounted for 9% of the variation in weight at open crib, whereas the hospital in which the baby was treated accounted for an additional 19% of the variation. Even after controlling for severity, significant practice variation exists in weaning to an open crib, leading to potential delays in achieving full-volume oral feeds, decreased growth velocity and prolonged LOS.

  1. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ability and survival of ostrich chicks. Z Brand, SWP Cloete, IA Malecki, CR Brown. Abstract. Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the hatchability and survival of near-term ostrich chicks is still not well understood. Records from 13 975 ...

  2. Meeting embryonic requirements of broilers throughout incubation: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Molenaar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During incubation of chicken embryos, environmental conditions, such as temperature, relative humidity, and CO2 concentration, must be controlled to meet embryonic requirements that change during the different phases of embryonic development. In the current review, the effects of embryo temperature, egg weight loss, and CO2 concentration on hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance are discussed from an embryonic point of view. In addition, new insights related to the incubation process are described. Several studies have shown that a constant eggshell temperature (EST of 37.5 to 38.0°C throughout incubation results in the highest hatchability, hatchling quality, and subsequent performance. Egg weight loss must be between 6.5 and 14.0% of the initial egg weight, to obtain an adequate air cell size before the embryo internally pips. An increased CO2 concentration during the developmental phase of incubation (first 10 days can accelerate embryonic development and hatchability, but the physiological mechanisms of this acceleration are not completely understood. Effects of ar increased CO2 concentration during late incubation also need further investigation. The preincubation warming profile, thermal manipulation, and in ovo feeding are new insights related to the incubation process and show that the optimal situation for the embryo during incubation highly depends on the conditions of the eggs before (storage duration and during incubation (environmental conditions and on the conditions of the chickens after hatching (environmental temperature.

  3. Development Of A Biogas-Powered Poultry Egg Incubator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study advances the utilization of biogas energy for chick production. A wooden frame still-air incubator was developed, which uses biogas as a fuel to supply heat through a burner installed at the base. A no-load test was carried out during which incubator temperatures were calibrated against ambient temperatures ...

  4. Business Incubators: A Review. Digest Number 97-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, Gwyer

    A business incubator is an organization of services designed to nurture new businesses. Services that can be offered include management assistance, access to financing, business or technical support services, and shared office services. In 1997, 550 incubators served more than 13,000 clients, affiliates, and graduates. More than 80 percent of the…

  5. Are incubators the new wonder tool for entrepreneurship education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toon Buddingh

    2014-01-01

    In the nineties of the last century, a lot of (ICT) incubators started in the Netherlands, many private (GorillaPark, Ant Factory, Lost Boys and Newconomy), some public, such as Twinning. Most of them stopped early this century or gone bankrupt. From 2005 university incubators like YesDelft!,

  6. State of the art incubator for controlled atmosphere studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1998-01-01

    in the design of the incubator, due to their importance for the final performance of the incubator. This includes choice of temperature control system, humidification system, gas addition and control, data collection and process control, and the physical design which includes airlocks for taking out samples...

  7. Business Incubators: Creation of a Fit in Armenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorian, A.; Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which business incubation services meet tenant’s needs. Additionally, we pose the question of whether the current business incubators actually cover the needs of a particular industry. Our empirical setting is a developing country in the Caucasian Region

  8. [Centralized management strategy of the infant incubators in NICUs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-cheng

    2005-07-01

    There are many problems existing at present in the incubator applications and management. Among them, the prominent problems are their cleaning and disinfection. We hope to find, through the centralized management and clinical engineering, an efficient strategy in order to get more reasonable and better maintenance, cleaning and training for infant incubators in NICUs. Scientific management will provide an excellent service to infant patients.

  9. The Impact of the Incubator on the Internationalization of Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Engelman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how technology incubators contribute to the internationalization of incubated Brazilian companies. To do so, was developed a framework that, in addition to supporting research, can be used to provide a basis for studies of internationalization in small technology-based companies and incubators and to assist their managers. By comparing the factors identified as influencing internationalization and the actions and services provided by the technology incubators, an integrated model with four constructs (entrepreneurs; organizational characteristics; network; foreign market was built. The results demonstrate that incubation positively affects the internationalization of companies and indicate the actions and services that contribute towards the internationalization, as also reveals aspects that could be improved.

  10. Effects of Ascorbic Acid Injection in Incubated Eggs Submitted to Heat Stress on Incubation Parameters and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sgavioli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dose-dependent positive effects on hatchability and hatchling weight have been attributed to ascorbic acid (AA when eggs were submitted or not to intermittent heat stress during incubation. Fertile breeder (Cobb(r eggs were used to determine if the pre-incubation injection of AA in ovo affects the incubation and hatchling quality of egg incubated under thermoneutral or intermittent heat stress conditions. Eggs were not injected or injected with 0, 2,4, or 6% AA/100µL water and incubated at continuous thermoneutral (37.5ºC or hot (39.0ºC temperature. Eggshell temperature (EST increased in the second half of the incubation period in all experimental groups. The EST of non-injected eggs and of those injected with water was higher when incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C, but EST was not different among eggs injected with AA. Egg mass loss and eggshell conductance were higher in the eggs incubated at 39°C than at 37.5°C.Hatchability was lower in the eggs injected with AA. Liver and yolk sac weights were higher, whereas heart and liver weights were lower in hatchlings from eggs incubated at 39°C; however, hatchling weight was not affected by incubation temperature. The results showed that AA doses affected egg conductive heat loss and hatchability, and that they did not minimize the effects of high incubation temperature on liver and heart development.

  11. Male songbirds provide indirect parental care by guarding females during incubation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedy, B.C.; Martin, T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Across many taxa, guarding of fertile mates is a widespread tactic that enhances paternity assurance. However, guarding of mates can also occur during the nonfertile period, and the fitness benefits of this behavior are unclear. Male songbirds, for example, sometimes guard nonfertile females during foraging recesses from incubation. We hypothesized that guarding postreproductive mates may have important, but unrecognized, benefits by enhancing female foraging efficiency, thereby increasing time spent incubating eggs. We tested the hypothesis in 2 songbird species by examining female behavior during natural and experimentally induced absences of males. Male absence caused increased vigilance in foraging females that decreased their efficiency and resulted in less time spent incubating eggs. Male guarding of nonfertile females can thus provide a previously unrecognized form of indirect parental care.

  12. Comparison of the flows of nitrogen and inorganic phosphorous, dissolved in the Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean; obtained from incubation cameras in situ and incubation of silt nucleus in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navas S, Gabriel R; Zea Sven; Campos, Nestor Hernando

    2002-01-01

    This research focused on the comparison of low cost methodologies to determine ionic nitrogen and phosphorous fluxes across the soft sediment-water interface in Cienaga Grande de Santa Marta. In situ transparent incubation chambers and sediment cores for laboratory incubation were employed. It was found that inside the incubation chambers a depletion of dissolved oxygen occurred thus the incubation couldn't be extended for more than six hours, time insufficiently to detect important variations in concentration of the analyzed ions. Furthermore in addition, chambers were difficult to handle. Twenty-four hour sediment core incubation in the laboratory did not have the above-mentioned problems. Oxygen concentration could be kept constant, and ion concentration changes were generally large enough to allow quantitative estimations of the fluxes

  13. An evaluation of total disintegration time for three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in patients with breakthrough pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalamachu, Srinivas

    2013-12-01

    Breakthrough pain is common among patients with cancer and presents challenges to effective pain management. Breakthrough pain is characterized by rapid onset, severe intensity, and duration typically lasting disintegration time of three different doses of sublingual fentanyl tablets in opioid-tolerant patients. This was a single-center, non-randomized, open-label study. Opioid-tolerant adult patients (N = 30) with chronic pain were assigned to one of three dose groups and self-administered a single 100, 200, or 300 μg sublingual fentanyl tablet (Abstral(®), Galena Biopharma, Portland, OR, USA). Time to complete disintegration was measured by each patient with a stopwatch and independently verified by study personnel. Disintegration time (mean ± SD) for sublingual fentanyl tablets (all doses) was 88.2 ± 55.1 s. Mean disintegration times tended to be slightly longer for the 200 μg (96.7 ± 57.9 s) and 300 μg doses (98.6 ± 64.8 s) compared to the 100 μg dose (69.5 ± 40.5 s). Differences were not statistically significant. Disintegration time was not significantly different between men and women and was not affected by age. Sublingual fentanyl tablets dissolved rapidly (average time <2 min) in all patients, with the higher doses taking slightly more time to dissolve.

  14. Availability of caesium isotopes in vegetation estimated from incubation and extraction experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salbu, B.; Oestby, G.; Garmo, T.H.; Hove, K.

    1992-01-01

    A rapid and inexpensive incubation and extraction technique for estimating the available low molecular weight and potentially bioavailable fraction of Cs isotopes in vegetation has been developed. Samples of contaminated vegetation (grass, herbage and fungi) and litter were exposed to rumen liquid from sheep, by in vitro incubation or by placing nylon bags in the rumen of sheep (in sacco). The results were compared with laboratory extractions using rumen buffer, NH 4 OAc, CsCl and de-ionized water. The release of low molecular weight 137 Cs species after in vitro incubation with rumen liquid for 4-8 h was 75-85% for grass, herbage and fungi, 30% for lichen and 10% for litter. The reproducibility of the method was 5% for digestible matrices and 10-20% for litter where the fraction of Cs isotopes released was small. Extractions with NH 4 OAc and CsCl released 75 and 80% of the Cs isotopes in grass, respectively. Significantly lower extraction yields were obtained with de-ionized water and buffer. During in sacco incubation, 90-100% of the Cs isotopes in vegetation was released within 1 h; however, potentially available low molecular weight forms and Cs-bearing colloidal material could not be differentiated. The results obtained by incubation with rumen liquid and by extraction with NH 4 OAc or CsCl were in good agreement with published data from a 3 week feeding trial. For practical reasons extraction with NH 4 OAc or CsCl rather than incubation with rumen liquid is recommended for estimating the fraction of available low molecular weight Cs species. Results from incubation with rumen liquid showed that the availability of Cs isotopes in grass collected in 1986 was low (15%), but increased with time up to 1989 (75-80%). It is probable that the high fraction of inert 137 Cs species reflects surface contamination in 1986. (author)

  15. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  16. Simulated effect of timing and Pt quantity injected on On-line NobleChem application on total fuel liftoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, M.G.; Riddle, J.M.; Lamanna, L.S.; Gregorich, C.; Hoornik, A.

    2015-01-01

    Total liftoff is a measure of fuel performance and a risk indicator for fuel reliability. Fuel operability and license limits are directly related to the expected total lifetime liftoff. AREVA's continued commitment to zero fuel failure is expressed, among other efforts, in the continued development and improvement of its fuel cladding corrosion and crud risk assessment tools. The AREVA models used to assess and predict crud deposition on BWR cores over their lifespan have been refined by the development and incorporation of the PEZOG tool in response to the move in the industry to the On-Line NobleChem TM (OLNC) technology. PEZOG models the platinum-enhanced zirconium oxide growth of fuel cladding when exposed to platinum during operation. Depending on the local chemistry and radiation condition, noble metals act as catalysts for many reactions, including but not limited to hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction. OLNC's intention is to catalyze the hydrogen and oxygen recombination reaction for core internals protection. However, research has indicated that noble metals catalyze the oxygen reduction under the chemistry and radiation conditions as experienced in the pores of crud deposits, and hence, can increase the corrosion rate of zirconium alloy cladding. The developed PEZOG module calculates the oxide thickness as a function of platinum injection strategy. The stratified nature of oxide and crud layers formed on fuel cladding surfaces is reflected in the calculations as are the different platinum interaction in each of the layers. This paper presents examples of the evaluation of various aspects of the platinum injection strategies and their influence on the oxide growth enhancement as applied to conditions of a U.S. plant. (authors)

  17. Temperature during the last week of incubation. I. Effects on hatching pattern and broiler chicken embryonic organ development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatjens, C.M.; Roovert-Reijrink, van I.A.M.; Engel, B.; Pol, van der C.W.; Kemp, B.; Brand, van den H.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of an eggshell temperature (EST) of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, and 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, and E19 on hatching pattern and embryonic organ development. A total of 2,850 first-grade eggs of a 43-week-old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an

  18. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea F. Şchiopu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from around the world. In this paper, the authors have identified several types of incubators that could be used successfully for the benefit of start-ups in the tourism sector, such as network incubators, incubators in ecotourism or nature-based incubators. The authors also propose a new perspective on best practices in business incubation, emphasizing the role of the emotions that entrepreneurs have to cope with. Even though the studies in this area are still scarce, the authors strongly believe that this will be a topic highly discussed in the near future, given the fact that emotion and logical thought are intertwined, interacting in complex ways during problem solving, decision making, and other important forms of cognition that entrepreneurs use when pursuing their ventures.

  19. Aligning business strategy of incubator center and tenants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Agustiani, Elly; Jumayla, Sari

    2017-06-01

    Incubator center is developed to help a particular group of small business players to achieve the expected business growth. In this center, business players often called as tenants will get assistances in pertaining with space, professional network, marketing, investment or funding, and training to improve their business capability. There are three types of incubator center, namely universities that help their alumni or business people in their surrounded area, company that supports small business as the corporate social responsibility, and independent organizations that have specialties in the business development. Some might success in increasing the capacity of the tenants, while other can have difficulties to increase the simplest business capability, e.g., to define the production cost to measure the profit. This study was intended to propose a model to align the business strategy between incubator center and its tenants. The sales and profit growth are the main priorities for the tenants together with their business capability and sustainability. The proposed alignment model provides measurement tools that link the motivation of tenants for joining the incubation process with the mission of incubator center. The linkage covered the key performance indicators (KPI), steps to achieve the target and evaluation tools to improve the current handicaps. An experiment on 4 (four) diverse business fields of the tenants of an incubator center was performed to test the model. As a result, the increase of KPI of incubator center will simultaneously yield a higher value of the tenants' sales.

  20. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  1. Effect of the ionizing radiation and aging time on total flavonoids contents in Brazilian sugarcane spirit composed with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin, but, this substance, in general, is collected in the beehives. This product is largely known because its heath benefit attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, 'cachaca', is an interesting alcoholic beverage with an increasing importance in the segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, was evaluating the addition of the propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological properties. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0.1%). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were considered in this study. Three doses of ionizing energy from electron beam and gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, with the goal to accelerate the aging time of the cachaca. The sugarcane spirits samples were storage during two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their flavonoids contents were analyzed. Flavonoids contents in sugarcane spirit were statistically different between both storage time. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented the highest reduction in flavonoids contents, approximately 30.0 % in relation to the first analysis time. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the flavonoids contents and the ionizing radiation also promoted reduction on the contents of these compounds, mainly in the first period of storage. (author)

  2. Linear and nonlinear attributes of ultrasonic time series recorded from experimentally loaded rock samples and total failure prediction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudajev, Vladimír; Číž, R.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2007), s. 457-467 ISSN 1365-1609 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/06/0906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516; CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : ultrasonic emission * microfracturing * time series * autocorrelation * fractal dimensions * neural networks Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.735, year: 2007

  3. Distributed Task Rescheduling With Time Constraints for the Optimization of Total Task Allocations in a Multirobot System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Meng, Qinggang; Schaefer, Gerald; Whitbrook, Amanda; Soltoggio, Andrea

    2017-09-28

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing the number of task allocations in a distributed multirobot system under strict time constraints, where other optimization objectives need also be considered. It builds upon existing distributed task allocation algorithms, extending them with a novel method for maximizing the number of task assignments. The fundamental idea is that a task assignment to a robot has a high cost if its reassignment to another robot creates a feasible time slot for unallocated tasks. Multiple reassignments among networked robots may be required to create a feasible time slot and an upper limit to this number of reassignments can be adjusted according to performance requirements. A simulated rescue scenario with task deadlines and fuel limits is used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method compared with existing methods, the consensus-based bundle algorithm and the performance impact (PI) algorithm. Starting from existing (PI-generated) solutions, results show up to a 20% increase in task allocations using the proposed method.

  4. Integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting to minimize total actual flow time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinto Yusriski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses an integer batch scheduling problems for a single-machine with position-dependent batch processing time due to the simultaneous effect of learning and forgetting. The decision variables are the number of batches, batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as total interval time between the arrival times of parts in all respective batches and their common due date. There are two proposed algorithms to solve the problems. The first is developed by using the Integer Composition method, and it produces an optimal solution. Since the problems can be solved by the first algorithm in a worst-case time complexity O(n2n-1, this research proposes the second algorithm. It is a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation method. Numerical experiments show that the heuristic algorithm gives outstanding results.

  5. Noise distribution of an incubator with nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H F; Chang, Y J

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the noise distribution and sources of peak noise inside an incubator with a nebulizer at a neonatal intensive care unit of a medical center in Southern Taiwan. Sound levels were monitored continuously with an electronic sound-meter for 24 hours daily over a one-week period. Three working hours (day, evening, and night hours) in the weekday and weekend (total 48 hours) were selected randomly from the one-week period of noise survey to observe peak noise at levels > or = 65 dBA. Results revealed that 24.8% of the total monitoring period had sound levels at or = 70 dBA. Furthermore, a total of 947 peak noises > or = 65 dBA were found within the 48 hours, of which 61.5% were in a range of 65-69 dBA, 24% of 70-74 dBA, 9.8% of 75-79 dBA, and 4.8% > or = 80 dBA. Human-related sources, equaling 79%, were the dominant peak noises. These noises included opening and closing doors, banging the incubator hood, conversation among staff, nursing activity inside the incubator, tearing and opening paper or bags, opening and closing trash can lids, and bumping metal carts or other apparatus. Nonhuman-related sources were 21% including alarms of monitors and running of the incubator motor. Results of this study showed that the noise distribution in the incubator with nebulizer was far above a protective limitation of 58 dBA, suggested by the American Academy of Pediatrics in 1974. However, most peak noises could be reduced by modification of staff behavior. Therefore, determinations of noise distribution and sources of peak noise in this study are useful for further noise reduction programs.

  6. Rapid production of Candida albicans chlamydospores in liquid media under various incubation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicia, Zavalza-Stiker; Blanca, Ortiz-Saldivar; Mariana, García-Hernández; Magdalena, Castillo-Casanova; Alexandro, Bonifaz

    2006-01-01

    The production of chlamydospores is a diagnostic tool used to identify Candida albicans; these structures also represent a model for morphogenetic research. The time required to produce them with standard methods is 48-72 hours in rice meal agar and tensoactive agents. This time can be shorted using liquid media such as cornmeal broth (CMB) and dairy supplements. Five media were tested: CMB plus 1% Tween-80, CMB plus 5% milk, CMB plus 5% milk serum, milk serum, and milk serum plus 1% Tween-80, under different incubation conditions: at 28 degrees C and 37 degrees C in a metabolic bath stirring at 150 rpm, and at 28 degrees C in a culture stove. The reading time points were established at 8 and 16 hours. The best results were obtained at 16 hours with CMB plus 5% milk under incubation at 28 degrees C and stirring at 150 rpm. The next most efficient methods were CMB plus 5% milk serum and CMB plus 1% Tween-80, under the same incubation conditions. The other media were ineffective in producing chlamydospores. The absence of stirring at 28 degrees C prevented the formation of chlamydospores within the set time points, and incubation at 37 degrees C decreased their production. This paper reports that the time to form C. albicans chlamydospores can be reduced.

  7. Adaptive influence of extrinsic and intrinsic factors on variation of incubation periods among tropical and temperate passerines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Ton, Riccardo; Oteyza, Juan C.

    2018-01-01

    Understanding intrinsic (physiological) and extrinsic (e.g., temperature) causes of variation in embryonic development time (incubation period) is important because they can have different impacts on individual quality. Robert Ricklefs and colleagues have argued that longer incubation periods result primarily from intrinsic physiological programs that increase individual quality and adult survival. They claim that incubation periods are largely invariant and that extrinsic factors like temperature have little impact. We have argued that adult survival may be a cause rather than a consequence of much of the variation in embryonic development time. A reduction in extrinsic sources of annual adult mortality (e.g., migration, predation, nonbreeding-season mortality) favors reduced parental effort during incubation to minimize costs to future reproduction and survival. Reduced parental effort, in turn, manifests as cooler average egg temperatures that yield longer incubation periods. Ricklefs and colleagues mischaracterized our hypothesis and deconstructed their own incorrect version, while also making some incorrect statements. We show that reevaluation of previous evidence provided by this group actually supports a role of egg temperature for the variation in incubation periods. We also summarize other observational and experimental evidence that incubation periods are not invariant and that egg temperature has a strong causal influence on variation within and among species. In fact, egg temperature explains ∼60% of the difference in incubation periods among species. The remaining ∼40% reflects intrinsic physiological programs and other factors, potentially providing intrinsic benefits. Ultimately, annual adult mortality explains substantial variation in parental effort and egg temperature, and the latter strongly explains variation in incubation periods. Both intrinsic programs and extrinsic temperature effects need to be considered in attempts to understand

  8. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  9. Temperature - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  10. Chiller Design Model - Impact of chiller failure on the short-term temperature variation in the incubation of salmonids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In salmon recovery programs it is commonly necessary to chill incubation and early rearing temperatures to match wild development times. The most common failure mode...

  11. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

    2015-01-01

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h

  12. Egg incubation effects generate positive correlations between size, speed and learning ability in young lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel, Joshua Johnstone; Lindström, Tom; Shine, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that body size and locomotor performance are targets of Darwinian selection in reptiles. However, much of the variation in these traits may derive from phenotypically plastic responses to incubation temperature, rather than from underlying genetic variation. Intriguingly, incubation temperature may also influence cognitive traits such as learning ability. Therefore, we might expect correlations between a reptile's size, locomotor speed and learning ability either due to selection on all of these traits or due to environmental effects during egg incubation. In the present study, we incubated lizard eggs (Scincidae: Bassiana duperreyi) under 'hot' and 'cold' thermal regimes and then assessed differences in hatchling body size, running speed and learning ability. We measured learning ability using a Y-maze and a food reward. We found high correlations between size, speed and learning ability, using two different metrics to quantify learning (time to solution, and directness of route), and showed that environmental effects (incubation temperature) cause these correlations. If widespread, such correlations challenge any simple interpretation of fitness advantages due to body size or speed within a population; for example, survivors may be larger and faster than nonsurvivors because of differences in learning ability, not because of their size or speed.

  13. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  14. Ichnotaxa for bite traces of thetrapods : A new area of research or a total waste of time?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Aase Roland; Bromley, Richard Granville

    to the naming of biting trace fossils in bone substrates. Study of tetrapod bite trace fossils has revealed feeding behaviour, jaw mechanism, face-biting behaviour, social behaviour etc., as well as palaeoenvironmental conditions. But should naming of scratches and holes produced by teeth be considered...... a worthless waste of time? Is naming of this group of trace fossils considered a productive move? We have extended this work, suggesting new ichnotaxa for bite traces to focus on their potential value for identifying the tracemaker and thereby feeding behaviour. Bite traces also have a great potential...

  15. Business incubator as a support measure for start-ups in Russia and Sweden. : Comparative analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiseleva, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Growth and developing of start-ups plays an important role as starting new business is one of the indicator that shows the economy level of each country. At that time start-ups need support and one of such support institutions is business incubator who can provide all resources that start-ups need. Different studies exist about business incubator as a support measure and the role of them for start- ups, but there is a lack of studies in analyzing this topic in different business environments....

  16. Rethinking the extrinsic incubation period of malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohm, Johanna R; Baldini, Francesco; Barreaux, Priscille; Lefevre, Thierry; Lynch, Penelope A; Suh, Eunho; Whitehead, Shelley A; Thomas, Matthew B

    2018-03-12

    The time it takes for malaria parasites to develop within a mosquito, and become transmissible, is known as the extrinsic incubation period, or EIP. EIP is a key parameter influencing transmission intensity as it combines with mosquito mortality rate and competence to determine the number of mosquitoes that ultimately become infectious. In spite of its epidemiological significance, data on EIP are scant. Current approaches to estimate EIP are largely based on temperature-dependent models developed from data collected on parasite development within a single mosquito species in the 1930s. These models assume that the only factor affecting EIP is mean environmental temperature. Here, we review evidence to suggest that in addition to mean temperature, EIP is likely influenced by genetic diversity of the vector, diversity of the parasite, and variation in a range of biotic and abiotic factors that affect mosquito condition. We further demonstrate that the classic approach of measuring EIP as the time at which mosquitoes first become infectious likely misrepresents EIP for a mosquito population. We argue for a better understanding of EIP to improve models of transmission, refine predictions of the possible impacts of climate change, and determine the potential evolutionary responses of malaria parasites to current and future mosquito control tools.

  17. Availability of a P from phosphate rock, thermophosphate and trip superphosphate after different incubation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, T.; Boaretto, A.E.; Scivittaro, W.B.; Brasil, E.C.

    2002-01-01

    Patos phosphate rock, Yoorin thermophosphate and triple phosphate were mixed with a tropical acid soil (Haplic Ferralsol) and incubated for different periods (short term experiment 1: 0, 1 and 30 days, and long term experiment 2: 0, 1, 30, 60, 150 and 300 days). The experiments were started with the longest period in order to have all the periods ending at the same time when rice was sown. Soil samples were taken for available P determination through Bray 1 method. There was clear decrease in extractable P with increasing period of incubation, probably due to reversion reactions to form less soluble forms of P. In addition, the reversion reactions seemed to be a more intensive process than the dissolution process. The Yoorin thermophosphate, probably due to its alkaline nature and Si content, proved to be a superior agronomic P source by maintaining the same extractable P content during the whole incubation period. (author)

  18. Soil structure and microbial activity dynamics in 20-month field-incubated organic-amended soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    to determine compressive strength. During incubation, the amount of WDC depended on soil carbon content while the trends correlated with moisture content. Organic amendment only yielded modest decreases (mean of 14% across all sampling times and soils) in WDC, but it was sufficient to stimulate the microbial......Soil structure formation is essential to all soil ecosystem functions and services. This study aims to quantify changes in soil structure and microbial activity during and after field incubation and examine the effect of carbon, organic amendment and clay on aggregate characteristics. Five soils...... community (65–100% increase in FDA). Incubation led to significant macroaggregate formation (>2 mm) for all soils. Friability and strength of newly-formed aggregates were negatively correlated with clay content and carbon content, respectively. Soil workability was best for the kaolinite-rich soil...

  19. A Theory for the Incubation Period Following a Stress Reduction During Creep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1978-01-01

    incubation period is much shorter than the time needed to establish an equilibrium structure at the new lower stress. The dependence of dislocation line tension upon line length is taken into account; as a result of this, recovery rates are predicted to depend on stress to a power larger than three......A dislocation model is presented for the phenomena following a stress reduction during creep. It is suggested that an incubation period for the production of new mobile dislocations arises because attractive junctions on the verge of breaking just before the stress reduction are no longer so after...... the stress reduction. The breaking stress of the junctions must be lowered by climb movements in the surrounding network before the junctions can break and release new mobile dislocations. On the basis of these concepts, an expression is derived for the length of the incubation period. This theoretical...

  20. MID-VASTUS VS MEDIAL PARA-PATELLAR APPROACH IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT—TIME TO DISCHARGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Press, J.; Hockings, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been shown before that when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, the mid-vastus approach for TKR results in less post-operative pain for patients and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise. As far as we are aware the post-operative length of stay of the two groups of patients has not been compared. We postulated that the reduced pain and more rapid recovery of straight leg raise would translate into an earlier, safe, discharge home for the mid-vastus patients compared with those who underwent a traditional medial para-patellar approach. Methods Twenty patients operated on by each of five established knee arthroplasty surgeons were evaluated prospectively with regard to their pre and post-operative range of movement, time to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively and length of post-operative hospital stay. Only one of the surgeons performed the mid-vastus approach, and the measurements were recorded by physiotherapists who were blinded as to the approach used on each patient. Results The results were analysed using a standard statistical software package, and although the mean length of stay was lower for the mid-vastus patients, the difference did not reach a level of significance (p = 0.13). The time taken to achieve straight leg raise post-operatively was significantly less in the mid-vastus group (p<0.001). Conclusion Although this study confirms previous findings that the mid-vastus approach reduces the time taken for patients to achieve straight leg raise, when compared with the medial para-patellar approach, on its own it does not translate into a significantly shorter length of hospital stay. In order to reduce the length of post-operative hospital stay with an accelerated rehabilitation program for TKR, a multi-disciplinary approach is required. Patient expectations, GP support, physiotherapists and nursing staff all have a role to play and the mid-vastus approach, in permitting earlier straight leg raising

  1. Design of an Incubator for Premature Infant Based on LabVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lina; Zhou, Runjing

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces the system structure, hardware circuits, control algorithms, and software program of the incubator for premature infant based on LabVIEW. The main advantages of this device are that preheating is less time than others, the capability of meeting of emergency is provided, control track of temperature and humidity are visible, operation is easy to clinical practice, and maintainability is possessed.

  2. Nest attentiveness and egg temperature do not explain the variation in incubation periods in tropical birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, Bernadine; Ricklefs, R.E.; Williams, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    The wide range in incubation periods among bird species has puzzled biologists for decades, because an extended egg-phase increases time-dependent mortality of the eggs. We investigated a recently proposed mechanistic explanation inspired by life-history theory, suggesting that adults may increase

  3. A Model for Promoting Poultry Industry Development in Togo: Part 1. Management Practices and Incubation Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tona, K.; Agbonon, A.; Eklu-Gadegbeku, K.; Teteh, A.; Simons, P.; Buyse, J.; Everaert, N.; Kemp, B.; Decuypere, E.; Gbeassor, M.

    2014-01-01

    In commercial poultry husbandry practice, the hatchery takes over the incubation of bird eggs in order to provide as many day-old chicks as needed at any time to farmers. The main bottleneck for poultry industry development in Togo is the lack of day-old chick supply. Indeed, there is no proficient

  4. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by 60 Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  5. Effect of ionizing radiation and aging time on total phenolics in Brazilian sugarcane spirit with green propolis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, Claudio L. de; Baptista, Antonio S.; Alencar, Severino M. de; Tiveron, Ana P.; Prado, Adna; Bergamaschi, Keityane B.; Veiga, Lucimara F. da; Baptista, Aparecido S.; Horii, Jorge [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao], e-mail: claguiar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: asbaptis@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: alencar@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: anptiver@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: adprado@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: kbergamas@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: lcfernan@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: pmatao@gmail.com, e-mail: jhorii@esalq.usp.br; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Propolis is a natural product from vegetable origin that is generally collected from beehives. This product is well-known for its heath benefits attributed to its biological properties. On the other hand, Brazilian sugarcane spirit, cachaca, shows increasing interest and importance in the alcoholic beverage segment in many markets in the world. Therefore, it was evaluated the addition of propolis into cachaca and the effect of ionizing radiation on propolis compounds with biological activity. Samples of cachaca with propolis used in irradiation experiments were prepared from cachaca (40 deg GL) composed with propolis (0,1 %). Eight treatments, with four repetitions each, were carried out in this study. Three doses of ionizing radiation from electron beam and gamma radiation by {sup 60}Co were applied on the cachaca samples, i.e. 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 kGy, aiming to accelerate the aging of the cachaca samples. The spirits samples were stored for two periods (immediately after the radiation treatment and 30 months after the treatments) and their phenolic compounds contents were analyzed. Phenolic compounds contents were statistically different between both storage times of the cachaca. The samples of cachaca treated with electron beam at 2.0 kGy presented higher reduction in phenolic compounds contents, approximately 6 % in the first analysis and 11 % in the second analysis. In conclusion, the time of storage to promote reduction on the phenolics compounds and the ionizing radiations from electron beams affect more the contents of these compounds than gamma radiation. (author)

  6. Effect of incubation on bacterial communities of eggshells in a temperate bird, the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Young Lee

    Full Text Available Inhibitory effect of incubation on microbial growth has extensively been studied in wild bird populations using culture-based methods and conflicting results exist on whether incubation selectively affects the growth of microbes on the egg surface. In this study, we employed culture-independent methods, quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, to elucidate the effect of incubation on the bacterial abundance and bacterial community composition on the eggshells of the Eurasian Magpie (Pica pica. We found that total bacterial abundance increased and diversity decreased on incubated eggs while there were no changes on non-incubated eggs. Interestingly, Gram-positive Bacillus, which include mostly harmless species, became dominant and genus Pseudomonas, which include opportunistic avian egg pathogens, were significantly reduced after incubation. These results suggest that avian incubation in temperate regions may promote the growth of harmless (or benevolent bacteria and suppress the growth of pathogenic bacterial taxa and consequently reduce the diversity of microbes on the egg surface. We hypothesize that this may occur due to difference in sensitivity to dehydration on the egg surface among microbes, combined with the introduction of Bacillus from bird feathers and due to the presence of antibiotics that certain bacteria produce.

  7. Navigating the Role of Business Incubators: A Review on the Current Literature on Business Incubation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators (BIs are a significant tool in promoting the development of entrepreneurial firms, technology-based growth firms and economic growth in South Africa. The study reviewed the current literature on business incubation in South Africa. BIs in South Africa emerged as a popular strategy in the 1990s and most of the current literature was established in the same period. However, the current literature is still limited. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of existing knowledge on the role and effectiveness of business incubation in supporting the development of new small startup businesses. The quantitative and qualitative literature published by the academic and practitioner communities is reviewed. The searches indicated that incubation has encouraged many studies in South Africa. The studies can be categorised under the following themes: the role and contribution of incubators, success factors for business incubation, obstacles, and the relationship between incubators and entrepreneurship. The areas for further research are suggested. Two major areas that new research can explore focus on the creation of the model and selfsustainability of BIs.

  8. International strategies of business incubation: the USA, Germany and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Tsaplin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine strategies of business incubation in the following countries: the USA, Germany and Russia using both a comparative theoretical analysis of different performance criteria of business incubators and interviewing experts who work directly with startup companies. We find that there are more differences than similarities between the strategies of business incubation in these countries. The USA prove to be far ahead of Germany and especially Russia in supporting start-ups. The study might impact a business practice in the way of clarifying the most significant characteristics and general trends of business incubation strategies in the countries mentioned to take them into account in the process of launching and developing startup companies in one or another country.

  9. Particle size alterations of feedstuffs during in situ NDF incubation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Nørgaard, P.; Lund, Peter

    2013-01-01

    feedstuffs with a decrease of 74 % between 24 h and 288 h in situ rumen incubation. Together with the highest mass proportion (20 %) of particles in the critical zone for escape (smaller than 0.005 mm2 in area) for late cut grass silage after 288 h in situ rumen incubation, this imposes a risk for particle...... evaluated in terms of particle size for a broad range of feedstuffs which typically serve as NDF sources in dairy cow rations. Early and late cut grass silages, corn silage, alfalfa silage, rapeseed meal and dried distillers grains were examined. Treatments were I) drying and grinding of forage samples...... and grinding of concentrates, II) neutral detergent soluble (NDS) extraction, III) machine-washing and NDS extraction, IV) 24 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction, and V) 288 h rumen incubation, machine-washing and NDS extraction. Degradation profiles for potentially degradable NDF were...

  10. Influence of incubation management on pipping position, hatching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    Despite numerous studies, the effect of artificial incubation on the .... effects of environmental factors such as production year, season, female age, ... Eggs were obtained from the commercial ostrich breeding flock maintained at the Oudtshoorn.

  11. Learning Incubator: an instrument to foster entrepreneurship in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Dirce Stein; Obem, Marielle Kulakowski; Pereira, Simone Barbosa; Gomes, Carine Alves; Backes, Marli Terezinha Stein; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini

    2015-01-01

    this study aimed to know the contributions of the Learning Incubator to the process of lifelong education in health. this is a qualitative field research whose data was collected from August to December 2014 by the focus group technique. The research had 34 employees of a Teaching Hospital in the central region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul that participated previously in the incubation process. from the data encoded by content analysis, three themes were selected: Learning Incubator - welcoming and integrating space; An instigating instrument that enhances possibilities; Continuous and lifelong education strategy. the Learning Incubator is an important instrument to foster entrepreneurship in nursing and other health areas due to its capacity of rethinking mechanized practices, to the possibility of instigating new ways of being and acting, and to the ability of creating and developing new ideas based on individual and institutional needs.

  12. Gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and its importance for short and long time prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinarova, Lenka; Spinar, Jindrich; Vitovec, Jiri; Linhart, Ales; Widimsky, Petr; Fedorco, Marian; Malek, Filip; Cihalik, Cestmir; Miklik, Roman; Dusek, Ladislav; Zidova, Klaudia; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Littnerova, Simona; Parenica, Jiri

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether there are gender differences in total cholesterol levels in patients with acute heart failure and if there is an association of this parameter with short and long time mortality. The AHEAD MAIN registry is a database conducted in 7 university hospitals, all with 24 h cath lab service, in 4 cities in the Czech Republic. The database included 4 153 patients hospitalised for acute heart failure in the period 2006-2009. 2 384 patients had a complete record of their total cholesterol levels. 946 females and 1437 males were included in this analysis. According to the admission total cholesterol levels, patients were divided into 5 groups: 6.0 mmol/l (group E). The median total cholesterol levels were 4.24 in males and 4.60 in females (Ppercentage of women with total cholesterol levels above 6 mmol/l and lower percentage in the group below 4.5 mmol/l than in men. In all, total cholesterol categories women were older than men. Total cholesterol levels are important for in- hospital mortality and long term survival of patients admitted for acute heart failure.

  13. A STUDY ON INDIAN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTE BASED BUSINESS INCUBATORS

    OpenAIRE

    RANA BASU; DHRUBES BISWAS

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the various range of business incubation services being provided to the nascent entrepreneurs which is based on comprehensive compilation and subsequent analysis of literature followed by case based approach in context to Indian higher educational institute (HEI) based business incubation centres. The objective behind this research is to critically assess the assistance services and to prioritize the service dimensions provided by the busin...

  14. CO2 emissions from soil incubated with sugarcane straw and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-08-13

    Aug 13, 2014 ... CO2 emissions peaked at 5.45, 10.82, 14.00, 11.92 and 11.20, 14.47, 15.98,and 14.74 µg mol of. CO2 g-1 s-1 within the ... of mineral N for plants and microorganisms. The .... incubation and were highest when incubated at 30°C with average daily ... because the majority of labile C had been consumed.

  15. Principles and Best Practices in Successful Tourism Business Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Andreea F. Schiopu; Dragos C. Vasile; Claudia E. Tuclea

    2015-01-01

    The business incubators are entities that provide support to start-up companies, managing the obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and facilitating the hazardous process of business creation. This article aims to identify the existing views on best practices that can contribute to the achieving of business incubators’ objectives. Moreover, the present study investigates how the business incubators can ensure the success of tourism, with evidence grounded in both theory and case studies from aroun...

  16. Effects of pre-incubation of eggs in fresh water and varying sperm concentration on fertilization rate in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siddique, Mohammad Abdul Momin; Butts, Ian; Psěnička, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , while it was significant at the 4300:1 and 430:1 ratios. The use of adequate experimental suboptimal sperm to egg ratio revealed a positive effect of pre-incubation time, such that at the 430:1 ratio, 0.5. min pre-incubation increased the fertilization rate than 10. min. At 0. min pre......-incubation the proportion of fertilized eggs increased at the 430,000:1 ratio, while at 1. min fertilization increased at the 4300:1 ratio. At the 10. min pre-incubation time, fertilization increased at the 43,000:1 ratio. Moreover, at the 0.5. min pre-incubation time, the 43,000:1 ratio increased the fertilization rate...... than the 430:1 ratio. Generally, for 430:1 ratio, the fertilization rate is lower than in control. Transmission electron microscopy showed that pre-incubation of eggs in water for

  17. Incubation environment impacts the social cognition of adult lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviter, Harry; Deeming, D Charles; van Giezen, M F T; Wilkinson, Anna

    2017-11-01

    Recent work exploring the relationship between early environmental conditions and cognition has shown that incubation environment can influence both brain anatomy and performance in simple operant tasks in young lizards. It is currently unknown how it impacts other, potentially more sophisticated, cognitive processes. Social-cognitive abilities, such as gaze following and social learning, are thought to be highly adaptive as they provide a short-cut to acquiring new information. Here, we investigated whether egg incubation temperature influenced two aspects of social cognition, gaze following and social learning in adult reptiles ( Pogona vitticeps ). Incubation temperature did not influence the gaze following ability of the bearded dragons; however, lizards incubated at colder temperatures were quicker at learning a social task and faster at completing that task. These results are the first to show that egg incubation temperature influences the social cognitive abilities of an oviparous reptile species and that it does so differentially depending on the task. Further, the results show that the effect of incubation environment was not ephemeral but lasted long into adulthood. It could thus have potential long-term effects on fitness.

  18. Analyzing the Dynamics of a Rumor Transmission Model with Incubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang'an Huo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a rumor transmission model with incubation that incorporates constant recruitment and has infectious force in the latent period and infected period. By carrying out a global analysis of the model and studying the stability of the rumor-free equilibrium and the rumor-endemic equilibrium, we use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations which is based on the use of higher-order generalization of Bendixson’s criterion. It shows that either the number of rumor infective individuals tends to zero as time evolves or the rumor persists. We prove that the transcritical bifurcation occurs at R0 crosses the bifurcation threshold R0=1 by projecting the flow onto the extended center manifold. Since the rumor endemic level at the equilibrium is a continuous function of R0, as a consequence for successful eradication of the rumor, one should simply reduce R0 continuously below the threshold value 1. Finally, the obtained results are numerically validated and then discussed from both the mathematical and the sociological perspectives.

  19. Coupled Heuristic Prediction of Long Lead-Time Accumulated Total Inflow of a Reservoir during Typhoons Using Deterministic Recurrent and Fuzzy Inference-Based Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Lin Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study applies Real-Time Recurrent Learning Neural Network (RTRLNN and Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS with novel heuristic techniques to develop an advanced prediction model of accumulated total inflow of a reservoir in order to solve the difficulties of future long lead-time highly varied uncertainty during typhoon attacks while using a real-time forecast. For promoting the temporal-spatial forecasted precision, the following original specialized heuristic inputs were coupled: observed-predicted inflow increase/decrease (OPIID rate, total precipitation, and duration from current time to the time of maximum precipitation and direct runoff ending (DRE. This study also investigated the temporal-spatial forecasted error feature to assess the feasibility of the developed models, and analyzed the output sensitivity of both single and combined heuristic inputs to determine whether the heuristic model is susceptible to the impact of future forecasted uncertainty/errors. Validation results showed that the long lead-time–predicted accuracy and stability of the RTRLNN-based accumulated total inflow model are better than that of the ANFIS-based model because of the real-time recurrent deterministic routing mechanism of RTRLNN. Simulations show that the RTRLNN-based model with coupled heuristic inputs (RTRLNN-CHI, average error percentage (AEP/average forecast lead-time (AFLT: 6.3%/49 h can achieve better prediction than the model with non-heuristic inputs (AEP of RTRLNN-NHI and ANFIS-NHI: 15.2%/31.8% because of the full consideration of real-time hydrological initial/boundary conditions. Besides, the RTRLNN-CHI model can promote the forecasted lead-time above 49 h with less than 10% of AEP which can overcome the previous forecasted limits of 6-h AFLT with above 20%–40% of AEP.

  20. The Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus) nest as an incubation chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Felipe L S; Braga, Talita V; Roper, James J

    2015-01-01

    Foraging and incubation are mutually exclusive activities for parent birds. A trade-off is generated when a combination of food availability and temperature regulation force birds to choose one and neglect the other, at least temporarily. The Rufous Hornero builds large, oven-like, mud nests, the evolutionary cause of which remains unknown. We tested that temperature variation inside the nest is that which is expected if one function of the nest were for temperate regulation. If so, this would suggest that the nest works as an incubation chamber (but which now may serve more than one function). We divided nests into two natural treatments: nests that received more continuous direct sunshine (sun), and those that received less direct sunshine, due to shade from trees or buildings (shade). Thermometer data loggers were placed in the nest cavity and outside, in the shade of the nest, and temperature was measured every 10min. We predicted that temperatures would consistently be higher and less variable in nests than outside nests. Also, at higher ambient temperatures the nest would function better as an incubation chamber as a consequence of having evolved in a hotter climate. Thus, in Curitiba, where temperatures are lower than where the species (and nest) evolved, nests in greater sunshine should have thermal characteristics that support the incubation chamber hypothesis. Predictions were supported: with Repeated Measures ANOVA and t-tests, we found that temperatures were more constant and higher in nests, especially when in the sun, and as the season progressed (hotter ambient temperatures). We conclude that the large mud nest of the Rufous Hornero works as an incubation chamber that likely evolved to help resolve the incubation-foraging trade-off in the very seasonal and hot regions where the bird evolved. Thus, as an incubation chamber, the nest allows the bird to forage rather than incubate thereby resolving the foraging-incubation trade-off and potentially

  1. A Handy Preterm Infant Incubator for Providing Intensive Care: Simulation, 3D Printed Prototype, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaylaa, Amira J; Rashid, Mohamad; Shaib, Mounir; El Majzoub, Imad

    2018-01-01

    Preterm infants encounter an abrupt delivery before their complete maturity during the third trimester of pregnancy. Polls anticipate an increase in the rates of preterm infants for 2025, especially in middle- and low-income countries. Despite the abundance of intensive care methods for preterm infants, such as, but not limited to, commercial, transport, embrace warmer, radiant warmer, and Kangaroo Mother Care methods, they are either expensive, lack the most essential requirements or specifications, or lack the maternal-preterm bond. This drove us to carry this original research and innovative idea of developing a new 3D printed prototype of a Handy preterm infant incubator. We aim to provide the most indispensable intensive care with the lowest cost, to bestow low-income countries with the Handy incubator's care, preserve the maternal -preterm's bond, and diminish the rate of mortality. Biomedical features, electronics, and biocompatible materials were utilized. The design was simulated, the prototype was 3D printed, and the outcomes were tested and evaluated. Simulation results showed the best fit for the Handy incubator's components. Experimental results showed the 3D-printed prototype and the time elapsed to obtain it. Evaluation results revealed that the overall performance of Kangaroo Mother Care and the embrace warmer was 75 ± 1.4% and 66.7 ± 1.5%, respectively, while the overall performance of our Handy incubator was 91.7 ± 1.6%, thereby our cost-effective Handy incubator surpassed existing intensive care methods. The future step is associating the Handy incubator with more specifications and advancements.

  2. Business Incubators - the savior of startups? : An exploratory study on knowledge acquisition in a business incubator from a startup perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Pettersson, Beatrice; Götsén, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Startups play a vital role in economic development, however, have a high rate of failure, partly due to insufficient knowledge resources. A business incubator is an institution aimed to assist startups with services and resources in order to facilitate their development. There is, however, a gap in previous research regarding knowledge flows and acquisition in business incubators. Furthermore, few scholars have conducted research from the startup perspective in this context. This study, there...

  3. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da Silveira Bressan Clarisse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from Central America, Asia and African countries. Prolonged incubation periods have been described for P. vivax malaria in temperate climates. The diversity in essential biological characteristics is traditionally considered as one possible explanation to the emergence of relapse in malaria and to the differences in the duration of the incubation period, which can also be explained by the use of chemoprophylaxis. Studying the reported cases of P. vivax malaria in Rio de Janeiro, where there is no vector transmission, has made it possible to evaluate the extension of the incubation period and to notice that it may be extended in some cases. Methods Descriptive study of every malaria patients who visited the clinic in the last five years. The mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum of all incubation periods were analysed. Results From the total of 80 patients seen in the clinic during the study time, with confirmed diagnosis of malaria, 49 (63% were infected with P. vivax. Between those, seven had an estimated incubation period varying from three to 12 months and were returned travellers from Brazilian Amazonian states (6 and Indonesia (1. None of them had taken malarial chemoprophylaxis. Conclusions The authors emphasize that considering malaria as a possible cause of febrile syndrome should be a post-travel routine, independent of the time elapsed after exposure in the transmission area, even in the absence of malaria chemoprophylaxis. They speculate that, since there is no current and detailed information about the biological cycle of human malaria plasmodia's in Brazil, it is possible

  4. Conjugated fatty acids and methane production by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil alone or mixed with fish oil and/or malate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Z; Gao, Qing S; Yan, Chang G; Choi, Seong H; Shin, Jong S; Song, Man K

    2015-08-01

    We hypothesized that manipulating metabolism with fish oil and malate as a hydrogen acceptor would affect the biohydrogenation process of α-linolenic acid by rumen microbes. This study was to examine the effect of fish oil and/or malate on the production of conjugated fatty acids and methane (CH4 ) by rumen microbes when incubated with linseed oil. Linseed oil (LO), LO with fish oil (LO-FO), LO with malate (LO-MA), or LO with fish oil and malate (LO-FO-MA) was added to diluted rumen fluid, respectively. The LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased pH and propionate concentration compared to the other treatments. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA reduced CH4 production compared to LO. LO-MA and LO-FO-MA increased the contents of c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and c9,t11,c15-conjugated linolenic acid (CLnA) compared to LO. The content of malate was rapidly reduced while that of lactate was reduced in LO-MA and LO-FO-MA from 3 h incubation time. The fold change of the quantity of methanogen related to total bacteria was decreased at both 3 h and 6 h incubation times in all treatments compared to the control. Overall data indicate that supplementation of combined malate and/or fish oil when incubated with linseed oil, could depress methane generation and increase production of propionate, CLA and CLnA under the conditions of the current in vitro study. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Determining the need for improvement of infant incubator design with quality function deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, U.; Ginting, R.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    A Newborns need particular attention because it takes time to adapt to the outside world. In accordance with the standard post-neonatal procedures, newborns should be incorporated into the incubator within a specified period of time according to the infant’s health level. Infant incubator as a medical device used to care for newborns, often get complaints from doctors and child nurses. The complaint indicates consumer dissatisfaction with incubator products in the hospital. Broadly speaking, objection against infant incubators lie in inappropriate designs. To overcome these complaints the researchers apply the method of Quality Function Deployment to determine the characteristics of priority techniques in accordance with the wishes of consumers with it. The primary focus of QFD is to engage customers in the product development process as early as possible, which their needs and desires serve as the starting point of the QFD process. Therefore, QFD is called the voice of customer. The underlying philosophy is that customers are not always satisfied with a product even though the product has been perfectly produced. The results show that the category used as a priority improvement is the additional function of the oxygen cylinder and the size of the door hole. QFD phase one produces technical characteristics of Ergonomy, Features and Cost as critical part determinants.

  6. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  7. A new system of computer-assisted navigation leading to reduction in operating time in uncemented total hip replacement in a matched population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Fouad A; Ismail, Sanaa Z; Davis, Edward T

    2018-05-01

    Computer-assisted navigation techniques are used to optimise component placement and alignment in total hip replacement. It has developed in the last 10 years but despite its advantages only 0.3% of all total hip replacements in England and Wales are done using computer navigation. One of the reasons for this is that computer-assisted technology increases operative time. A new method of pelvic registration has been developed without the need to register the anterior pelvic plane (BrainLab hip 6.0) which has shown to improve the accuracy of THR. The purpose of this study was to find out if the new method reduces the operating time. This was a retrospective analysis of comparing operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacement using two methods of registration. Group 1 included 128 cases that were performed using BrainLab versions 2.1-5.1. This version relied on the acquisition of the anterior pelvic plane for registration. Group 2 included 128 cases that were performed using the newest navigation software, BrainLab hip 6.0 (registration possible with the patient in the lateral decubitus position). The operating time was 65.79 (40-98) minutes using the old method of registration and was 50.87 (33-74) minutes using the new method of registration. This difference was statistically significant. The body mass index (BMI) was comparable in both groups. The study supports the use of new method of registration in improving the operating time in computer navigated primary uncemented total hip replacements.

  8. Covalent binding of food carcinogens MeIQx, MeIQ and IQ to DNA and protein in microsomal incubations and isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, H.; Holme, J.A.; Alexander, J.

    1992-01-01

    The metabolic activation of 14 C-labelled food carcinogens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx),2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline(MeIQ) and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) to macromolecular bound species was studied in microsomal and hepatocellular incubations. Several data indicated that the covalent binding was dependent on P450 enzymes: It was dependent on NADPH, it was induced many times by the P450 IA1 and IA2 upregulators β-naphthoflavone and polychlorinated biphenyls, and was inhibited by the P450 IA1 and IA2 inhibitor α-naphtoflavone. In both hepatocellular and microsomal incubations the three compounds bound with similar efficiency, with IQ being somewhat more potent compared to MeIQx and MeIQ. The binding appeared to follow saturation kinetics with K m values less than 20 μM. In incubations with hepatocytes the compounds bound to both cellular DNA and to bovine serum albumin in the medium. The fact that 13-26% of total adducts were formed with bovine serum albumin, indicates that reactive metabolites of the compounds may be transported and react at distant sites from their formation without any further activation. (au)

  9. Testing of mechanical ventilators and infant incubators in healthcare institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badnjevic, Almir; Gurbeta, Lejla; Jimenez, Elvira Ruiz; Iadanza, Ernesto

    2017-01-01

    The medical device industry has grown rapidly and incessantly over the past century. The sophistication and complexity of the designed instrumentation is nowadays rising and, with it, has also increased the need to develop some better, more effective and efficient maintenance processes, as part of the safety and performance requirements. This paper presents the results of performance tests conducted on 50 mechanical ventilators and 50 infant incubators used in various public healthcare institutions. Testing was conducted in accordance to safety and performance requirements stated in relevant international standards, directives and legal metrology policies. Testing of output parameters for mechanical ventilators was performed in 4 measuring points while testing of output parameters for infant incubators was performed in 7 measuring points for each infant incubator. As performance criteria, relative error of output parameters for mechanical ventilators and absolute error of output parameters for infant incubators was calculated. The ranges of permissible error, for both groups of devices, are regulated by the Rules on Metrological and Technical Requirements published in the Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina No. 75/14, which are defined based on international recommendations, standards and guidelines. All ventilators and incubators were tested by etalons calibrated in an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory, which provides compliance to international standards for all measured parameters.The results show that 30% of the tested medical devices are not operating properly and should be serviced, recalibrated and/or removed from daily application.

  10. Neither pre-operative education or a minimally invasive procedure have any influence on the recovery time after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biau, David Jean; Porcher, Raphael; Roren, Alexandra; Babinet, Antoine; Rosencher, Nadia; Chevret, Sylvie; Poiraudeau, Serge; Anract, Philippe

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate pre-operative education versus no education and mini-invasive surgery versus standard surgery to reach complete independence. We conducted a four-arm randomized controlled trial of 209 patients. The primary outcome criterion was the time to reach complete functional independence. Secondary outcomes included the operative time, the estimated total blood loss, the pain level, the dose of morphine, and the time to discharge. There was no significant effect of either education (HR: 1.1; P = 0.77) or mini-invasive surgery (HR: 1.0; 95 %; P = 0.96) on the time to reach complete independence. The mini-invasive surgery group significantly reduced the total estimated blood loss (P = 0.0035) and decreased the dose of morphine necessary for titration in the recovery (P = 0.035). Neither pre-operative education nor mini-invasive surgery reduces the time to reach complete functional independence. Mini-invasive surgery significantly reduces blood loss and the need for morphine consumption.

  11. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusriski, R.; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Halim, A. H.

    2016-02-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%.

  12. An Integer Batch Scheduling Model for a Single Machine with Simultaneous Learning and Deterioration Effects to Minimize Total Actual Flow Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusriski, R; Sukoyo; Samadhi, T M A A; Halim, A H

    2016-01-01

    In the manufacturing industry, several identical parts can be processed in batches, and setup time is needed between two consecutive batches. Since the processing times of batches are not always fixed during a scheduling period due to learning and deterioration effects, this research deals with batch scheduling problems with simultaneous learning and deterioration effects. The objective is to minimize total actual flow time, defined as a time interval between the arrival of all parts at the shop and their common due date. The decision variables are the number of batches, integer batch sizes, and the sequence of the resulting batches. This research proposes a heuristic algorithm based on the Lagrange Relaxation. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is determined by comparing the resulting solutions of the algorithm to the respective optimal solution obtained from the enumeration method. Numerical experience results show that the average of difference among the solutions is 0.05%. (paper)

  13. Effects of Soil Moisture on the Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Heterotrophic Respiration: A Laboratory Incubation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weiping; Hui, Dafeng; Shen, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The temperature sensitivity (Q10) of soil heterotrophic respiration (Rh) is an important ecological model parameter and may vary with temperature and moisture. While Q10 generally decreases with increasing temperature, the moisture effects on Q10 have been controversial. To address this, we conducted a 90-day laboratory incubation experiment using a subtropical forest soil with a full factorial combination of five moisture levels (20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% water holding capacity - WHC) and five temperature levels (10, 17, 24, 31, and 38°C). Under each moisture treatment, Rh was measured several times for each temperature treatment to derive Q10 based on the exponential relationships between Rh and temperature. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial community structure and soil nutrients were also measured several times to detect their potential contributions to the moisture-induced Q10 variation. We found that Q10 was significantly lower at lower moisture levels (60%, 40% and 20% WHC) than at higher moisture level (80% WHC) during the early stage of the incubation, but became significantly higher at 20%WHC than at 60% WHC and not significantly different from the other three moisture levels during the late stage of incubation. In contrast, soil Rh had the highest value at 60% WHC and the lowest at 20% WHC throughout the whole incubation period. Variations of Q10 were significantly associated with MBC during the early stages of incubation, but with the fungi-to-bacteria ratio during the later stages, suggesting that changes in microbial biomass and community structure are related to the moisture-induced Q10 changes. This study implies that global warming’s impacts on soil CO2 emission may depend upon soil moisture conditions. With the same temperature rise, wetter soils may emit more CO2 into the atmosphere via heterotrophic respiration. PMID:24647610

  14. Pyruvate incubation enhances glycogen stores and sustains neuronal function during subsequent glucose deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Pavan K; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Galeffi, Francesca; Turner, Dennis A

    2012-01-01

    The use of energy substrates, such as lactate and pyruvate, has been shown to improve synaptic function when administered during glucose deprivation. In the present study, we investigated whether prolonged incubation with monocarboxylate (pyruvate or lactate) prior rather than during glucose deprivation can also sustain synaptic and metabolic function. Pyruvate pre-incubation(3-4h) significantly prolonged (>25 min) the tolerance of rat hippocampal slices to delayed glucose deprivation compared to control and lactate pre-incubated slices, as revealed by field excitatory post synaptic potentials (fEPSPs); pre-incubation with pyruvate also reduced the marked decrease in NAD(P)H fluorescence resulting from glucose deprivation. Moreover, pyruvate exposure led to the enhancement of glycogen stores with time, compared to glucose alone (12 μmol/g tissue at 4h vs. 3.5 μmol/g tissue). Prolonged resistance to glucose deprivation following exogenous pyruvate incubation was prevented by glycogenolysis inhibitors, suggesting that enhanced glycogen mediates the delay in synaptic activity failure. The application of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist enhanced glycogen utilization and prolonged the time to synaptic failure, further confirming this hypothesis of the importance of glycogen. Moreover, tissue levels of ATP were also significantly maintained during glucose deprivation in pyruvate pretreated slices compared to control and lactate. In summary, these experiments indicate that pyruvate exposure prior to glucose deprivation significantly increased the energy buffering capacity of hippocampal slices, particularly by enhancing internal glycogen stores, delaying synaptic failure during glucose deprivation by maintaining ATP levels, and minimizing the decrease in the levels of NAD(P)H. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [A pathogenesis study of tic disorder in children based on pathogen incubation theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya-bing; Wu, Min

    2007-11-01

    Pathogen incubation theory includes "no manifestation after infection" and "manifestation after incubation". Clinical data showed that the incidence and recurrence of tic disorders in children had a strong relevance to six exogenous factors. The pathogenesis is similar to the pathogenic mechanism based on incubation of pathogen theory, so we proposed a theory of "tic disorder induced by incubation of pathogen". Pathogenic wind can be classified into exterior wind and endogenous wind. Pathogenic wind is more apt to move, rise and migrate. The characteristics of pathogenic wind, especially easy mobility, determine the symptoms and signs of tic disorder, for pathogenic wind can be characterized by vibration and involuntary movement such as convulsion and tremor. If exogenous pathogenic wind moves into half-exterior and half-interior phase from the exterior, both the exterior and interior syndromes should be treated at the same time. We should regulate the function of the liver and the lung, expel pathogenic wind by dispersing the lung, and calm endogenous wind by removing obstruction in the collaterals and soothing the liver.

  16. Utilization Efficiency of Yolk Egg on Maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare Embryos and Larvae in Different Incubation Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine the efficiency of yolk egg utilization in embryos and larvae, hatching rate, incubation time to hatch, and growth rate of maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare larvae incubated at room remperature, 27oC, and 30oC.  Results of study showed that yolk egg utilization efficiency of embryos and larvae incubated at 30oC was 73.70% and 0,18%, respectively, and no different with that of room and 27oC incubation temperatures.  Hatching rate of eggs incubated at 30oC (84.75% was also same with that of other treatments.  However, incubation time to hatch (27.41 hours was shorter than that of other treatments.  The growth rate by length of larvae (2.16% and survival rate (75.28% incubated at 30oC was also higher compared with that of other treatments.  Thus, in general, optimum temperature for egg hatching and larval rearing of maanvis was 30oC. Keywords: maanvis, Pterophyllum scalare, egg yolk, larvae, embryo, temperature   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur pada embrio dan larva, derajat penetasan, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas, dan laju pertumbuhan serta kelangsungan hidup larva ikan maanvis (Pterophyllum scalare yang diinkubasi pada suhu ruang, 27oC dan 30oC.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai efisiensi pemanfaatan kuning telur bila diinkubasi pada suhu 30oCsebesar 73,70% pada fase embrio dan 0,18% pada fase larva, dan tidak berbeda dengan suhu ruang dan 27oC.  Demikian juga dengan derajat penetasan telur  (84,75% tidak berbeda dengan perlakuan lainnya.  Sementara itu, lama inkubasi telur hingga menetas (27,41 jam lebih cepat dibandingkan dengan suhu inkubasi perlakuan lainnya. Demikian juga dengan laju pertumbuhan panjang (2,16% dan kelangsungan hidup larva (75,28% lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan perlakuan lainnya. Dengan demikian, secara umum suhu optimal untuk penetasan dan pemeliharaan larva ikan maanvis adalah 30°C. Kata kunci: ikan maanvis

  17. Properties of slate mining wastes incubated with grape marc compost under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; Barral, María Teresa

    2009-02-01

    The effect of the addition of spent grape marc compost (GMC) and vermicompost (GMV) as amendments to slate mining wastes was evaluated in a laboratory incubation experiment. Mixtures of slate processing fines (SPF), with three doses of each amendment (4%, 8% and 16% compost, dry weight), plus a control were incubated at 25 degrees C in the laboratory for 90 days. The changes in the chemical and biological properties of the mixtures (pH, total C, total N, inorganic N, available nutrients, microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity) were investigated during the incubation period, and once it was finished, the phytotoxicity of the mixtures was determined by the germination of Lolium multiflorum Lam. seeds. The addition of the amendments significantly increased the nutrient concentrations of the SPF and enhanced biological activity by increasing microbial biomass and enzymatic activity. Results improved with higher doses; within the composts, GMV showed a better performance than GMC. These results prove the suitability of grape marc-derived amendments for the biochemical amelioration of mining wastes, and highlight the benefits of organic amendment in restoration projects.

  18. A Real Time PCR Platform for the Simultaneous Quantification of Total and Extrachromosomal HIV DNA Forms in Blood of HIV-1 Infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovari, Benedetta; Scotti, Maddalena; Acetoso, Marcello; Valentini, Massimo; Petrelli, Enzo; Magnani, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Background The quantitative measurement of various HIV-1 DNA forms including total, unintegrated and integrated provirus play an increasingly important role in HIV-1 infection monitoring and treatment-related research. We report the development and validation of a SYBR Green real time PCR (TotUFsys platform) for the simultaneous quantification of total and extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA forms in patients. This innovative technique makes it possible to obtain both measurements in a single PCR run starting from frozen blood employing the same primers and standard curve. Moreover, due to identical amplification efficiency, it allows indirect estimation of integrated level. To specifically detect 2-LTR a qPCR method was also developed. Methodology/Findings Primers used for total HIV-1 DNA quantification spanning a highly conserved region were selected and found to detect all HIV-1 clades of group M and the unintegrated forms of the same. A total of 195 samples from HIV-1 patients in a wide range of clinical conditions were analyzed with a 100% success rate, even in patients with suppressed plasma viremia, regardless of CD4+ or therapy. No significant correlation was observed between the two current prognostic markers, CD4+ and plasma viremia, while a moderate or high inverse correlation was found between CD4+ and total HIV DNA, with strong values for unintegrated HIV DNA. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, the results support the use of HIV DNA as another tool, in addition to traditional assays, which can be used to estimate the state of viral infection, the risk of disease progression and to monitor the effects of ART. The TotUFsys platform allowed us to obtain a final result, expressed as the total and unintegrated HIV DNA copy number per microgram of DNA or 104 CD4+, for 12 patients within two working days. PMID:25364909

  19. The Attributable Proportion of Specific Leisure-Time Physical Activities to Total Leisure Activity Volume Among US Adults, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kathleen Bachtel; Dai, Shifan; Paul, Prabasaj; Carlson, Susan A; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have examined participation in specific leisure-time physical activities (PA) among US adults. The purpose of this study was to identify specific activities that contribute substantially to total volume of leisure-time PA in US adults. Proportion of total volume of leisure-time PA moderate-equivalent minutes attributable to 9 specific types of activities was estimated using self-reported data from 21,685 adult participants (≥ 18 years) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Overall, walking (28%), sports (22%), and dancing (9%) contributed most to PA volume. Attributable proportion was higher among men than women for sports (30% vs. 11%) and higher among women than men for walking (36% vs. 23%), dancing (16% vs. 4%), and conditioning exercises (10% vs. 5%). The proportion was lower for walking, but higher for sports, among active adults than those insufficiently active and increased with age for walking. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, the proportion was lower for sports among non-Hispanic white men and for dancing among non-Hispanic white women. Walking, sports, and dance account for the most activity time among US adults overall, yet some demographic variations exist. Strategies for PA promotion should be tailored to differences across population subgroups.

  20. Multipurpose assessment for the quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria in fish and seawater using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Yeun; Lee, Jung-Lim

    2014-01-01

    Background This study describes the first multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay developed, as a multipurpose assessment, for the simultaneous quantification of total bacteria and three Vibrio spp. (V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus and V. anguillarum) in fish and seawater. The consumption of raw finfish as sushi or sashimi has been increasing the chance of Vibrio outbreaks in consumers. Freshness and quality of fishery products also depend on the total bacterial populations present. Results The detection sensitivity of the specific targets for the multiplex assay was 1 CFU mL−1 in pure culture and seawater, and 10 CFU g−1 in fish. While total bacterial counts by the multiplex assay were similar to those obtained by cultural methods, the levels of Vibrio detected by the multiplex assay were generally higher than by cultural methods of the same populations. Among the natural samples without Vibrio spp. inoculation, eight out of 10 seawater and three out of 20 fish samples were determined to contain Vibrio spp. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that this multiplex assay could be useful for the rapid detection and quantification of Vibrio spp. and total bacteria as a multipurpose tool for surveillance of fish and water quality as well as diagnostic method. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:24752974

  1. Time- and radiation-dose dependent changes in the plasma proteome after total body irradiation of non-human primates: Implications for biomarker selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie D Byrum

    Full Text Available Acute radiation syndrome (ARS is a complex multi-organ disease resulting from total body exposure to high doses of radiation. Individuals can be exposed to total body irradiation (TBI in a number of ways, including terrorist radiological weapons or nuclear accidents. In order to determine whether an individual has been exposed to high doses of radiation and needs countermeasure treatment, robust biomarkers are needed to estimate radiation exposure from biospecimens such as blood or urine. In order to identity such candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure, high-resolution proteomics was used to analyze plasma from non-human primates following whole body irradiation (Co-60 at 6.7 Gy and 7.4 Gy with a twelve day observation period. A total of 663 proteins were evaluated from the plasma proteome analysis. A panel of plasma proteins with characteristic time- and dose-dependent changes was identified. In addition to the plasma proteomics study reported here, we recently identified candidate biomarkers using urine from these same non-human primates. From the proteomic analysis of both plasma and urine, we identified ten overlapping proteins that significantly differentiate both time and dose variables. These shared plasma and urine proteins represent optimal candidate biomarkers of radiation exposure.

  2. Accuracy of egg flotation throughout incubation to determine embryo age and incubation day in water bird nests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2010-01-01

    Floating bird eggs to estimate their age is a widely used technique, but few studies have examined its accuracy throughout incubation. We assessed egg flotation for estimating hatch date, day of incubation, and the embryo's developmental age in eggs of the American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana), Black-necked Stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Predicted hatch dates based on egg flotation during our first visit to a nest were highly correlated with actual hatch dates (r = 0.99) and accurate within 2.3 ?? 1.7 (SD) days. Age estimates based on flotation were correlated with both day of incubation (r = 0.96) and the embryo's developmental age (r = 0.86) and accurate within 1.3 ?? 1.6 days and 1.9 ?? 1.6 days, respectively. However, the technique's accuracy varied substantially throughout incubation. Flotation overestimated the embryo's developmental age between 3 and 9 days, underestimated age between 12 and 21 days, and was most accurate between 0 and 3 days and 9 and 12 days. Age estimates based on egg flotation were generally accurate within 3 days until day 15 but later in incubation were biased progressively lower. Egg flotation was inaccurate and overestimated embryo age in abandoned nests (mean error: 7.5 ?? 6.0 days). The embryo's developmental age and day of incubation were highly correlated (r = 0.94), differed by 2.1 ?? 1.6 days, and resulted in similar assessments of the egg-flotation technique. Floating every egg in the clutch and refloating eggs at subsequent visits to a nest can refine age estimates. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  3. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  4. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L

    2015-01-01

    biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time......PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular......-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM...

  5. Effect of varying incubation periods on cytotoxicity and virucidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgrounds: Justicia gendarussa Burm.f. has an anti-HIV activity. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of incubation periods on the cytotoxicity and virucidal activities of the J. gendarussa leaves extract on MOLT-4 cells. Materials and Methods: The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated by using the WST-1 test with ...

  6. MARKETING CHALLENGES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECTOR BUSINESS INCUBATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Walter James

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and innovation form the cornerstone of economic development in many developing countries. Through this, rather ideal combination employment can be enhanced, communities can be uplifted through education, and growth can be increased through discretionary purchasing power. This cycle has positive spinoffs which can alleviate poverty and decrease famine. Recent local research suggests that more than eighty percent of entrepreneurs, start-ups and Business ‘Incubatees’ don’t make it through their first year of establishment after leaving a Business Incubator programme. This paper tries to identify some of the marketing challenges faced by Business Incubators, and indeed BIMs in the Public Sector environment in South Africa. Identification and highlighting the possible drawbacks for ‘incubatees’ may assist them with success or meeting competitive challenges when they depart from the security of the relevant programmes. This study examines some of the skills, knowledge and attributes required for BIMs in this sector and what is required to meet the business and marketing challenges faced to remain sustainable. The survey was aimed at the largest, focused segment of South African Business Incubators affiliated to the industrial public sector and the hypothesis was to prove that strategic marketing information, acumen and knowledge is a key differentiator towards the growth and sustainability of Business Incubators in that sector. It is notable that these marketing challenges may also compare favourably with several other public sector segments in relevant countries of the southern African region as similar macroeconomic challenges are faced.

  7. An Agile Innovation Framework Supported through Business Incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unal, O.; Afsarmanesh, H.; Angelov, S.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Afsarmanesh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurs and SMEs that develop new ideas are the main sources of innovation in products and services in the society. However, due to the lack of required resources and know-how innovation ideas may not develop into full-fledged results. Business incubators can play an important role here. They

  8. note on variable incubation period within a clutch of eggs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compo Biochem. Physiol. 53A: 1-6. MENDELSOHN, 1. M., BIGOS, H. C. & LEDGER, 1. A. In press. The biology of the black-shouldered. NOTE ON VARIABLE. INCUBATION PERIOD WITHIN A. CLUTCH OF EGGS OF THE. LEOPARD TORTOISE. (GEOCHELONE P ARDALIS). (CHELONIA: CRYPTODIRA: TESTUDINIDAE).

  9. Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic parameters for ostrich incubation traits in South Africa. Z Brand, S Cloete, I Malecki, C Brown. Abstract. Data obtained from a pair-mated ostrich flock located at Oudtshoorn, South Africa, were used to estimate genetic parameters for egg weight (EWT), weight of day-old chicks (CWT), water loss to 21 (WL21) and 35 ...

  10. Business incubators: (how) do they support their tenants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ratinho, Tiago; Harms, Rainer; Groen, Arend J.

    2009-01-01

    Business incubators (BI) have been established worldwide as tools for company creation and small businesses support. BIs claim to help their tenants by providing them with the optimal conditions for increasing early stage survival. Practitioners and researchers agree that business support is a

  11. An Automated System for Incubation of Pelagic Fish Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Jørgensen

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated system for incubation of pelagic fish eggs is described. The system has an internal air driven water circulation which separates healthy and dead or strongly infected eggs. A processor controlled, pulsed water exchange provides a strongly reduced water requirement. The equipment has also an automated temperature and salinity control and adjustment.

  12. Factors affecting sleep/vigilance behaviour in incubating mallards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrková, V.; Hořák, D.; Kreisinger, J.; Klvaňa, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 4 (2011), s. 345-355 ISSN 0179-1613 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB601110803; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : mallard * vigilance * antipredation behaviour * incubation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.008, year: 2011

  13. [The oxygen consumption of ostrich embryos during incubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, G; Dzapo, V

    1995-02-01

    This work deals with the oxygen consumption of ostrich chicks during incubation. Brood eggs were incubated in a hermetic isolated acrylic-glass cylinder. Reduction of oxygen content in the air surrounding the egg was measured using an oxygen-sensitive electrode. A sigmoid curve could be drawn during incubation, with the steepest phase being around day 26. Maximum oxygen consumption was reached on day 36. It was slightly decreased until day 39, when the embryo switches to lung circulation, followed again by an increase until hatching. Average oxygen consumptions for the whole brood interval were calculated to 63.6 liters. Oxygen volumes consumed on day 36 result in a demand about to 240 liters of fresh air per egg and day. Oxygen consumption of the embryos on day 36 was significantly positive correlated with their vitality. Numb or less vital embryos could be clearly differentiated from others. The higher a chick's oxygen consumption, the earlier and shorter its hatching. Possible applications of the method in regard to the evaluation of incubation parameters or chicken constitution are discussed.

  14. Assessment of predation risk through referential communication in incubating birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.

    2015-05-01

    Parents of many bird species produce alarm calls when they approach and deter a nest predator in order to defend their offspring. Alarm calls have been shown to warn nestlings about predatory threats, but parents also face a similar risk of predation when incubating eggs in their nests. Here, I show that incubating female Japanese great tits, Parus minor, assess predation risk by conspecific alarm calls given outside the nest cavity. Tits produce acoustically discrete alarm calls for different nest predators: “jar” calls for snakes and “chicka” calls for other predators such as crows and martens. Playback experiments revealed that incubating females responded to “jar” calls by leaving their nest, whereas they responded to “chicka” calls by looking out of the nest entrance. Since snakes invade the nest cavity, escaping from the nest helps females avoid snake predation. In contrast, “chicka” calls are used for a variety of predator types, and therefore, looking out of the nest entrance helps females gather information about the type and location of approaching predators. These results show that incubating females derive information about predator type from different types of alarm calls, providing a novel example of functionally referential communication.

  15. Incubator Baby Shows: A Medical and Social Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Hannah

    2001-01-01

    America's first hospitals for premature infants were built at the turn of the twentieth century at fairs, amusement parks, and expositions. These hospitals represented both a medical and a social frontier. They had a great impact on American medicine because they demonstrated the success of caring for premature infants using incubators. The…

  16. Designing a Low-Cost Multifunctional Infant Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kevin; Gibson, Aaron; Wong, Don; Tilahun, Dagmawi; Selock, Nicholas; Good, Theresa; Ram, Geetha; Tolosa, Leah; Tolosa, Michael; Kostov, Yordan; Woo, Hyung Chul; Frizzell, Michael; Fulda, Victor; Gopinath, Ramya; Prasad, J Shashidhara; Sudarshan, Hanumappa; Venkatesan, Arunkumar; Kumar, V Sashi; Shylaja, N; Rao, Govind

    2014-06-01

    Every year, an unacceptably large number of infant deaths occur in developing nations, with premature birth and asphyxia being two of the leading causes. A well-regulated thermal environment is critical for neonatal survival. Advanced incubators currently exist, but they are far too expensive to meet the needs of developing nations. We are developing a thermodynamically advanced low-cost incubator suitable for operation in a low-resource environment. Our design features three innovations: (1) a disposable baby chamber to reduce infant mortality due to nosocomial infections, (2) a passive cooling mechanism using low-cost heat pipes and evaporative cooling from locally found clay pots, and (3) insulated panels and a thermal bank consisting of water that effectively preserve and store heat. We developed a prototype incubator and visited and presented our design to our partnership hospital site in Mysore, India. After obtaining feedback, we have determined realistic, nontrivial design requirements and constraints in order to develop a new prototype incubator for clinical trials in hospitals in India. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  17. Mind Wandering and the Incubation Effect in Insight Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tengteng; Zou, Hong; Chen, Chuansheng; Luo, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Although many anecdotes suggest that creative insights often arise during mind wandering, empirical research is still sparse. In this study, the number reduction task (NRT) was used to assess whether insightful solutions were related to mind wandering during the incubation stage of the creative process. An experience sampling paradigm was used to…

  18. Incubation of Spirometra eggs at laboratory conditions by Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incubation of Spirometra eggs was conducted in the helminthology laboratory Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sokoine University of Agriculture during the period July to September, 2012. Spirometra eggs from faeces of naturally infected lions (Panthera leo) from Tarangire National Park, Tanzania were cultured at laboratory ...

  19. Repeated restraint stress exposure during early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cue-induced cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Ryan M; Rosenkranz, J Amiel; Wolf, Marina E; Caccamise, Aaron; Shroff, Freya; Smith, Alyssa B; Loweth, Jessica A

    2018-01-01

    A major challenge for treating cocaine addiction is the propensity for abstinent users to relapse. Two important triggers for relapse are cues associated with prior drug use and stressful life events. To study their interaction in promoting relapse during abstinence, we used the incubation model of craving and relapse in which cue-induced drug seeking progressively intensifies ('incubates') during withdrawal from extended-access cocaine self-administration. We tested rats for cue-induced cocaine seeking on withdrawal day (WD) 1. Rats were then subjected to repeated restraint stress or control conditions (seven sessions held between WD6 and WD14). All rats were tested again for cue-induced cocaine seeking on WD15, 1 day after the last stress or control session. Although controls showed a time-dependent increase in cue-induced cocaine seeking (incubation), rats exposed to repeated stress in early withdrawal exhibited a more robust increase in seeking behavior between WD1 and WD15. In separate stressed and control rats, equivalent cocaine seeking was observed on WD48. These results indicate that repeated stress in early withdrawal accelerates incubation of cocaine craving, although craving plateaus at the same level were observed in controls. However, 1 month after the WD48 test, rats subjected to repeated stress in early withdrawal showed enhanced cue-induced cocaine seeking following acute (24 hours) food deprivation stress. Together, these data indicate that chronic stress exposure enhances the initial rate of incubation of craving during early withdrawal, resulting in increased vulnerability to cue-induced relapse during this period, and may lead to a persistent increase in vulnerability to the relapse-promoting effects of stress. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Preoperative management of surgical patients by "shortened fasting time": a study on the amount of total body water by multi-frequency impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hideki; Sasaki, Toshio; Fujita, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is an established procedure to be practiced for patients before surgery, but optimal preoperative fasting time still remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of "shortened preoperative fasting time" on the change in the amount of total body water (TBW) in elective surgical patients. TBW was measured by multi-frequency impedance method. The patients, who were scheduled to undergo surgery for stomach cancer, were divided into two groups of 15 patients each. Before surgery, patients in the control group were managed with conventional preoperative fasting time, while patients in the "enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS)" group were managed with "shortened preoperative fasting time" and "reduced laxative medication." TBW was measured on the day before surgery and the day of surgery before entering the operating room. Defecation times and anesthesia-related vomiting and aspiration were monitored. TBW values on the day of surgery showed changes in both groups as compared with those on the day before surgery, but the rate of change was smaller in the ERAS group than in the control group (2.4±6.8% [12 patients] vs. -10.6±4.6% [14 patients], pfasting time" and "reduced administration of laxatives" is effective in the maintenance of TBW in elective surgical patients.

  1. A system for incubations at high gas partial pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eSauer

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available High-pressure is a key feature of deep subsurface environments. High partial pressure of dissolved gasses plays an important role in microbial metabolism, because thermodynamic feasibility of many reactions depends on the concentration of reactants. For gases, this is controlled by their partial pressure, which can exceed one MPa at in-situ conditions. Therefore, high hydrostatic pressure alone is not sufficient to recreate true deep subsurface in-situ conditions, but the partial pressure of dissolved gasses has to be controlled as well.We developed an incubation system that allows for incubations at hydrostatic pressure up to 60 MPa, temperatures up to 120° C and at high gas partial pressure. The composition and partial pressure of gasses can be manipulated during the experiment. The system is mainly made from off-the-shelf components with only very few custom-made parts. A flexible and inert PVDF incubator sleeve, which is almost impermeable for gases, holds the sample and separates it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the incubator sleeve allows for sub-sampling of the medium without loss of pressure. Experiments can be run in both static and flow through mode. The incubation system described here is usable for versatile purposes, not only the incubation of microorganisms and determination of growth rates, but also for chemical degradation or extraction experiments under high gas saturation, e.g. fluid-gas-rock-interactions in relation to carbon dioxide sequestration.As an application of the system we extracted organic acids from sub-bituminous coal using H2O as well as a H2O-CO2 mixture at elevated temperature (90°C and pressure (5 MPa. Subsamples were taken during the incubation and analysed by ion chromatography. Furthermore we demonstrated the applicability of the system for studies of microbial activity, using samples from the Isis mud volcano. We could detect an increase in sulphate reduction rate upon the addition of

  2. Effect of particle size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation in incubated maize and soybean meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ton Nu, Mai Anh; Blaabjerg, Karoline; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of screen size (1, 2 and 3 mm) and microbial phytase (0 and 1000 FTU/kg as-fed) on phytate degradation in maize (100% maize), soybean meal (100% SBM) and maize–SBM (75% maize and 25% SBM) incubated in water for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h at 38°C...... reduced APS by 48% in maize, 30% in SBM and 26% in maize–SBM. No interaction between screen size and microbial phytase on phytate degradation was observed, but the interaction between microbial phytase and incubation time was significant (P... of screen size and feed on microbial phytase efficacy on phytate degradation. The interaction between screen size and feed affected the relative phytate degradation rate (Rd) of microbial phytase as well as the time to decrease 50% of the phytate P (t) (P

  3. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  4. A real-time monitoring and assessment method for calculation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted in subway stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, TaeSeok; Kim, MinJeong; Lim, JungJin; Kang, OnYu; Shetty, K Vidya; SankaraRao, B; Yoo, ChangKyoo; Park, Jae Hyung; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2012-05-01

    Subway systems are considered as main public transportation facility in developed countries. Time spent by people in indoors, such as underground spaces, subway stations, and indoor buildings, has gradually increased in the recent past. Especially, operators or old persons who stay in indoor environments more than 15 hr per day usually influenced a greater extent by indoor air pollutants. Hence, regulations on indoor air pollutants are needed to ensure good health of people. Therefore, in this study, a new cumulative calculation method for the estimation of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted inside the subway station is proposed by taking cumulative amounts of indoor air pollutants based on integration concept. Minimum concentration of individual air pollutants which naturally exist in indoor space is referred as base concentration of air pollutants and can be found from the data collected. After subtracting the value of base concentration from data point of each data set of indoor air pollutant, the primary quantity of emitted air pollutant is calculated. After integration is carried out with these values, adding the base concentration to the integration quantity gives the total amount of indoor air pollutant emitted. Moreover the values of new index for cumulative indoor air quality obtained for 1 day are calculated using the values of cumulative air quality index (CAI). Cumulative comprehensive indoor air quality index (CCIAI) is also proposed to compare the values of cumulative concentrations of indoor air pollutants. From the results, it is clear that the cumulative assessment approach of indoor air quality (IAQ) is useful for monitoring the values of total amounts of indoor air pollutants emitted, in case of exposure to indoor air pollutants for a long time. Also, the values of CCIAI are influenced more by the values of concentration of NO2, which is released due to the use of air conditioners and combustion of the fuel. The results obtained in

  5. Being flexible through customization : The impact of incubator focus and customization strategies on incubate survival and growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Matthyssens, P.; Andreassi, T.

    Given the increased importance of flexibility in company development models, it is not surprising that start-up support structures such as business incubators give more attention to flexible service offerings. In this paper, we argue that an incubator’s service customization strategy is ideal in

  6. The effect of education and supervised exercise vs. education alone on the time to total hip replacement in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis. A randomized clinical trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Carsten; Roos, Ewa M; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2013-01-14

    The age- and gender-specific incidence of total hip replacement surgery has increased over the last two decades in all age groups. Recent studies indicate that non-surgical interventions are effective in reducing pain and disability, even at later stages of the disease when joint replacement is considered. We hypothesize that the time to hip replacement can be postponed in patients with severe hip osteoarthritis following participation in a patient education and supervised exercise program when compared to patients receiving patient education alone. A prospective, blinded, parallel-group multi-center trial (2 sites), with balanced randomization [1:1]. Patients with hip osteoarthritis and an indication for hip replacement surgery, aged 40 years and above, will be consecutively recruited and randomized into two treatment groups. The active treatment group will receive 3 months of supervised exercise consisting of 12 sessions of individualized, goal-based neuromuscular training, and 12 sessions of intensive resistance training plus patient education (3 sessions). The control group will receive only patient education (3 sessions). The primary end-point for assessing the effectiveness of the intervention is 12 months after baseline. However, follow-ups will also be performed once a year for at least 5 years. The primary outcome measure is the time to hip replacement surgery measured on a Kaplain-Meier survival curve from time of inclusion. Secondary outcome measures are the five subscales of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, physical activity level (UCLA activity score), and patient's global perceived effect. Other measures include pain after exercise, joint-specific adverse events, exercise adherence, general health status (EQ-5D-5L), mechanical muscle strength and performance in physical tests. A cost-effectiveness analysis will also be performed. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized clinical trial comparing a patient education plus

  7. Influence of overall treatment time in a fractionated total lymphoid irradiation as an immunosuppressive therapy in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waer, M.; Ang, K.K.; Vandeputte, M.; Van der Schueren, E.

    1982-01-01

    Three groups of C 57 /BL/Ka mice received total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in a total dose of 34 Gy in three different fractionation schedules. The tolerance of all different schedules was excellent. No difference in the peripheral white blood cell and lymphocyte counts nor the degree of immunosuppression as measured by phytohaemaglutinin or concanavalin A induced blastogenesis and mixed lymphocyte reaction were observed at the end of the treatment and up to 200 days. When bone marrow transplantation was performed one day after the end of each schedule, chimerism without signs of graft versus host disease was induced in all the groups. However, from the results in a limited number of animals it seems that concentrated schedules were less effective for chimerism induction. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce drastically the overall treatment time for TLI before bone marrow transplantation. Further investigations are necessary in order to determine the optimal time-dose-fractionation factors and the different perameters involved in the transplantation

  8. Effects on mortality, treatment, and time management as a result of routine use of total body computed tomography in blunt high-energy trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, Raoul; Kool, Digna R; Deunk, Jaap; Edwards, Michael J R

    2012-03-01

    Currently, total body computed tomography (TBCT) is rapidly implemented in the evaluation of trauma patients. With this review, we aim to evaluate the clinical implications-mortality, change in treatment, and time management-of the routine use of TBCT in adult blunt high-energy trauma patients compared with a conservative approach with the use of conventional radiography, ultrasound, and selective computed tomography. A literature search for original studies on TBCT in blunt high-energy trauma patients was performed. Two independent observers included studies concerning mortality, change of treatment, and/or time management as outcome measures. For each article, relevant data were extracted and analyzed. In addition, the quality according to the Oxford levels of evidence was assessed. From 183 articles initially identified, the observers included nine original studies in consensus. One of three studies described a significant difference in mortality; four described a change of treatment in 2% to 27% of patients because of the use of TBCT. Five studies found a gain in time with the use of immediate routine TBCT. Eight studies scored a level of evidence of 2b and one of 3b. Current literature has predominantly suboptimal design to prove terminally that the routine use of TBCT results in improved survival of blunt high-energy trauma patients. TBCT can give a change of treatment and improves time intervals in the emergency department as compared with its selective use.

  9. Appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system in 1/R control of the total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Sora; Saito, Itsuro; Isoyama, Takashi; Hara, Shintaro; Yurimoto, Terumi; Li, Xinyang; Murakami, Haruka; Ono, Toshiya; Mabuchi, Kunihiko; Abe, Yusuke

    2017-09-01

    1/R control is a physiological control method of the total artificial heart (TAH) with which long-term survival was obtained with animal experiments. However, 1/R control occasionally diverged in the undulation pump TAH (UPTAH) animal experiment. To improve the control stability of the 1/R control, appropriate control time constant in relation to characteristics of the baroreflex vascular system was investigated with frequency analysis and numerical simulation. In the frequency analysis, data of five goats in which the UPTAH was implanted were analyzed with first Fourier transform technique to examine the vasomotion frequency. The numerical simulation was carried out repeatedly changing baroreflex parameters and control time constant using the elements-expanded Windkessel model. Results of the frequency analysis showed that the 1/R control tended to diverge when very low frequency band that was an indication of the vasomotion frequency was relative high. In numerical simulation, divergence of the 1/R control could be reproduced and the boundary curves between the divergence and convergence of the 1/R control varied depending on the control time constant. These results suggested that the 1/R control tended to be unstable when the TAH recipient had high reflex speed in the baroreflex vascular system. Therefore, the control time constant should be adjusted appropriately with the individual vasomotion frequency.

  10. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  11. Bifurcation and spatial pattern formation in spreading of disease with incubation period in a phytoplankton dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir Singh Baghel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we propose a three dimensional mathematical model of phytoplankton dynamics with the help of reaction-diffusion equations that studies the bifurcation and pattern formation mechanism. We provide an analytical explanation for understanding phytoplankton dynamics with three population classes: susceptible, incubated, and infected. This model has a Holling type II response function for the population transformation from susceptible to incubated class in an aquatic ecosystem. Our main goal is to provide a qualitative analysis of Hopf bifurcation mechanisms, taking death rate of infected phytoplankton as bifurcation parameter, and to study further spatial patterns formation due to spatial diffusion. Here analytical findings are supported by the results of numerical experiments. It is observed that the coexistence of all classes of population depends on the rate of diffusion. Also we obtained the time evaluation pattern formation of the spatial system.

  12. Comparison of turnaround time and total cost of HIV testing before and after implementation of the 2014 CDC/APHL Laboratory Testing Algorithm for diagnosis of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Derrick J; Yao, Joseph D

    2017-06-01

    Updated recommendations for HIV diagnostic laboratory testing published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories incorporate 4th generation HIV immunoassays, which are capable of identifying HIV infection prior to seroconversion. The purpose of this study was to compare turnaround time and cost between 3rd and 4th generation HIV immunoassay-based testing algorithms for initially reactive results. The clinical microbiology laboratory database at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN was queried for 3rd generation (from November 2012 to May 2014) and 4th generation (from May 2014 to November 2015) HIV immunoassay results. All results from downstream supplemental testing were recorded. Turnaround time (defined as the time of initial sample receipt in the laboratory to the time the final supplemental test in the algorithm was resulted) and cost (based on 2016 Medicare reimbursement rates) were assessed. A total of 76,454 and 78,998 initial tests were performed during the study period using the 3rd generation and 4th generation HIV immunoassays, respectively. There were 516 (0.7%) and 581 (0.7%) total initially reactive results, respectively. Of these, 304 (58.9%) and 457 (78.7%) were positive by supplemental testing. There were 10 (0.01%) cases of acute HIV infection identified with the 4th generation algorithm. The most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 3rd generation algorithm, which were reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1 Western blot, took a median time of 1.1 days to complete at a cost of $45.00. In contrast, the most frequent tests performed to confirm an HIV-positive case using the 4th generation algorithm, which included a reactive initial immunoassay and positive HIV-1/-2 antibody differentiation immunoassay for HIV-1, took a median time of 0.4 days and cost $63.25. Overall median turnaround time was 2.2 and 1.5 days, and overall median cost was $63.90 and $72.50 for

  13. UNIVERSITIES AND INCUBATORS: KEY FACTORS DRIVING ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane Mahlmann Kipper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic diversification is an utterly important factor for regions that are directly or indirectly related to any productive mechanisms and seek to strengthen their foundations for the generation of jobs and income. Within this context, to invest in business preparation and maturation, especially in the ones related to the technological area, turns out to be an interesting mean of diversifying a regional economy that is facing the risk of stagnation. This study considers the importance of the role taken on by universities and their incubators in driving entrepreneurship and supporting the creation of new companies and the innovative capacity of a country through knowledge transfer amongst universities and companies, generating benefits and socioeconomic progress in a country. It also conducts a case study on a company of the information technology area, recently incubated and whose major objective consists in becoming part of this economic diversification basis.

  14. Innovation, incubation and entrepreneurship case studies from IIT Kanpur

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on promoting entrepreneurial ecosystems within universities and educational institutes. It especially emphasizes the thriving systems and practices existing within the Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (IITK). It discusses cases and successes of the SIDBI Incubation and Innovation Centre in the Institute. This edited volume highlights the vision of IITK and describes a few of the major achievements of the past few years. It especially showcases the requirements and challenges of creating, sustaining, and boosting such entrepreneurial ecosystems and incubation centres. The contents of this book will be useful to researchers, administrators, and corporate collaborators working in the area of monetizing technology coming from educational institutions by converting it to successful products and business ideas. .

  15. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Malte Nordmann; Balslev-Harder, David; Christensen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    relevant for studies of atmospheric chemistry. We present results from continuous incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens (producing and reducing N2O) and P. chlororaphis (only producing N2O). The continuous position dependent measurements reveal the transient pattern....... fluorescens, the calculations results in SP values of −5.7 ‰ ± 5.6 during production of N2O and 2.3 ‰ ± 3.2 during reduction of N2O. In summary, we implemented continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers during incubation of denitrifying bacteria and believe that similar experiments will lead to a better...... understanding of denitrifying bacteria and N2O turnover in soils and sediments and ultimately hands-on knowledge on the biotic mechanisms behind greenhouse gas exchange of the Globe....

  16. Elasticity and breaking strength of synthetic suture materials incubated in various equine physiological and pathological solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, C M; Buckley, C T; Jenner, F; Moissonnier, P; Brama, P A J

    2014-07-01

    Selection of suture material in equine surgery is often based on costs or subjective factors, such as the surgeon's personal experience, rather than objective facts. The amount of objective data available on durability of suture materials with regard to specific equine physiological conditions is limited. To evaluate the effect of various equine physiological and pathological fluids on the rate of degradation of a number of commonly used suture materials. In vitro material testing. Suture materials were exposed in vitro to physiological fluid, followed by biomechanical analysis. Three absorbable suture materials, glycolide/lactide copolymer, polyglactin 910 and polydioxanone were incubated at 37°C for 7, 14 or 28 days in phosphate-buffered saline, equine serum, equine urine and equine peritoneal fluid from an animal with peritonitis. Five strands of each suture material type were tested to failure in a materials testing machine for each time point and each incubation medium. Yield strength, strain and Young's modulus were calculated, analysed and reported. For all suture types, the incubation time had a significant effect on yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype was also shown significantly to influence changes in each of yield strength, percentage elongation and Young's modulus in all culture media (Ptype of fluid have significant effects on the biomechanical properties of various suture materials. These findings are important for evidence-based selection of suture material in clinical cases. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  17. Buying Time—The Immune System Determinants of the Incubation Period to Respiratory Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Moran

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory viruses cause disease in humans characterized by an abrupt onset of symptoms. Studies in humans and animal models have shown that symptoms are not immediate and appear days or even weeks after infection. Since the initial symptoms are a manifestation of virus recognition by elements of the innate immune response, early virus replication must go largely undetected. The interval between infection and the emergence of symptoms is called the incubation period and is widely used as a clinical score. While incubation periods have been described for many virus infections the underlying mechanism for this asymptomatic phase has not been comprehensively documented. Here we review studies of the interaction between human pathogenic respiratory RNA viruses and the host with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms used by viruses to inhibit immunity. We discuss the concept of the “stealth phase”, defined as the time between infection and the earliest detectable inflammatory response. We propose that the “stealth phase” phenomenon is primarily responsible for the suppression of symptoms during the incubation period and results from viral antagonism that inhibits major pathways of the innate immune system allowing an extended time of unhindered virus replication.

  18. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W.

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which 125 I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity

  19. A Common Loon incubates rocks as surrogates for eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; Pereira, Jillian W.

    2013-01-01

    A nesting Gavia immer (Common Loon) was discovered incubating 2 rocks on a floating nest platform on the Quabbin reservoir in central Massachusetts for 43 days, well beyond the typical period of 28 days, before we moved in to investigate. The rocks were likely unearthed in the soil and vegetation used on the platform to create a more natural substrate for the nest. We suggest sifting through soil and vegetation to remove rocks before placing material on nest platforms.

  20. Incubating a Space Strategy: The Role of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Instruction in broad ranging subjects was given to “round out complete education as an Air Corps officer, especially where he will have close...development of space education ; and the internal connections within the military remain strong at ACSC, while the external connections, especially to...INCUBATING A SPACE STRATEGY: THE ROLE OF EDUCATION BY ELISABETH K. WHITE A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF

  1. New York Nano-Bio Molecular Information Technology (NYNBIT) Incubator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Digendra K

    2008-12-19

    This project presents the outcome of an effort made by a consortium of six universities in the State of New York to develop a Center for Advanced technology (CAT) in the emerging field of Nano-Bio-Molecular Information Technology. The effort consists of activities such as organization of the NYNBIT incubator, collaborative research projects, development of courses, an educational program for high schools, and commercial start-up programs.

  2. Considerations for Creating a Food Business Incubator in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Pasquarelli, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Due to overwhelming current demand for affordable rental commercial kitchen space in Virginia, this report was compiled in order to assess a viable Virginia model for small food business support. The incubator business model is gaining in popularity across the country, and increasing the capacity for small food business operations in many metropolitan areas. Multiple in-person interviews were conducted with food producers, food retailers, shared-use kitchen owners, city/county officials, and ...

  3. A New Environmental Monitoring System For Silkworm Incubators

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Duque-Torres; Juan Ruiz-Rosero; Gesille Zambrano-Gonzalez; Martha Almanza-Pinzon; Oscar Mauricio Caicedo Rendon; Gustavo Ramirez-Gonzalez

    2018-01-01

    A newly Monitoring Environmental Conditions System is proposed based on Raspberry-Pi. This proposal monitors the temperature, humidity, and luminosity in a silkworm incubator. The monitoring data are collected and save in the cloud for the subsequent analysis. The monitoring environmental system is based on Raspberry Pi due to capabilities, features, and low cost. The preliminary tests were realized in a real scenery and the results demonstrating its reliability.

  4. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  5. Pre-incubation of porcine semen reduces the incidence of polyspermy on embryos derived from low quality oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Francisco Brogni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The main cause of low efficiency of in vitro produced porcine embryos is the high polyspermic penetration rates at fertilization, which is aggravated in low quality oocytes. Experiment 1 evaluated the embryo development in high and low quality oocytes. Experiment 2 evaluated the embryo development and quality of low quality oocytes fertilized with sperm pre-incubated during 0h (control, 0.5h, 1h and 1.5h. Experiment 3 investigated fertilization and monospermic rates of the same groups of Experiment 2. Experiment 4 evaluated embryo development, cell density, fertilization and monospermic rates of high quality oocytes using semen pre incubated during the best time observed in the previous experiments. Cleavage and blastocyst rates were analyzed by chi-square test, and remaining data by ANOVA and Tukey test (P≤0.05. The cleavage (74.8 vs 51.7% and blastocyst (33.7 vs 9.8% rates were greater in oocytes of high versus low quality, with no differences in cell density. Fertilization rates (65.6 to 79.5% were not influenced by pre-incubation time. However, semen pre-incubation during 1.5h increased monospermic penetration (53.3% and cleavage rates (92.5% in low quality oocytes. Blastocyst rate was improved with 1.5h of semen pre incubation; however they were still lower than that observed with high quality control oocytes. Ultimately, pre-incubation did not influence fertilization, monospermic penetration, embryo development rates, nor cell density in oocytes of high quality. Low-quality porcine oocytes resulted in better rates of embryo development if in vitro fertilized with sperm pre-incubated for 1.5 hour.

  6. Serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 Determination is Influenced by Sample Incubation Temperature in Healthy Beagle Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Jerin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of serum thromboxane B2 (TXB2 production by platelets is a specific test for assessment of platelet cyclooxygenase (COX-1 activity following administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sample incubation at 37 °C for one hour on serum TXB2 concentration in comparison with incubation at room temperature. A total of 54 blood samples for serum TXB2 measurements were collected from six healthy beagle dogs into two separate serum tubes. While one group of tubes was incubated in a 37 °C water bath, the second group of tubes was left to coagulate at room temperature, both for one hour. Serum TXB2 concentrations were measured by ELISA. The mean concentration (± SD of serum TXB2 in the group of samples that were incubated at 37 °C was significantly (P 2 concentration in healthy beagle dogs and demonstrate that validated methods for assessment of COX-1 activity by measurement of serum TXB2 should be used in order to make results more reliable and comparable between different studies. The results of this study might be of great help in planning NSAID studies in dogs by providing the information that TXB2 generation by platelets is influenced profoundly by incubation temperature.

  7. Time series models for prediction the total and dissolved heavy metals concentration in road runoff and soil solution of roadside embankments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljoumani, Basem; Kluge, Björn; sanchez, Josep; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Highways and main roads are potential sources of contamination for the surrounding environment. High traffic rates result in elevated heavy metal concentrations in road runoff, soil and water seepage, which has attracted much attention in the recent past. Prediction of heavy metals transfer near the roadside into deeper soil layers are very important to prevent the groundwater pollution. This study was carried out on data of a number of lysimeters which were installed along the A115 highway (Germany) with a mean daily traffic of 90.000 vehicles per day. Three polyethylene (PE) lysimeters were installed at the A115 highway. They have the following dimensions: length 150 cm, width 100 cm, height 60 cm. The lysimeters were filled with different soil materials, which were recently used for embankment construction in Germany. With the obtained data, we will develop a time series analysis model to predict total and dissolved metal concentration in road runoff and in soil solution of the roadside embankments. The time series consisted of monthly measurements of heavy metals and was transformed to a stationary situation. Subsequently, the transformed data will be used to conduct analyses in the time domain in order to obtain the parameters of a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Four phase approaches for identifying and fitting ARIMA models will be used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, will use to enhance this flexible approach to model building

  8. Iterated greedy algorithms to minimize the total family flow time for job-shop scheduling with job families and sequence-dependent set-ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Su; Park, Jung-Hyeon; Lee, Dong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    This study addresses a variant of job-shop scheduling in which jobs are grouped into job families, but they are processed individually. The problem can be found in various industrial systems, especially in reprocessing shops of remanufacturing systems. If the reprocessing shop is a job-shop type and has the component-matching requirements, it can be regarded as a job shop with job families since the components of a product constitute a job family. In particular, sequence-dependent set-ups in which set-up time depends on the job just completed and the next job to be processed are also considered. The objective is to minimize the total family flow time, i.e. the maximum among the completion times of the jobs within a job family. A mixed-integer programming model is developed and two iterated greedy algorithms with different local search methods are proposed. Computational experiments were conducted on modified benchmark instances and the results are reported.

  9. An Enhanced Discrete Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm to Minimize the Total Flow Time in Permutation Flow Shop Scheduling with Limited Buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanlong Deng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an enhanced discrete artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the total flow time in the flow shop scheduling problem with buffer capacity. First, the solution in the algorithm is represented as discrete job permutation to directly convert to active schedule. Then, we present a simple and effective scheme called best insertion for the employed bee and onlooker bee and introduce a combined local search exploring both insertion and swap neighborhood. To validate the performance of the presented algorithm, a computational campaign is carried out on the Taillard benchmark instances, and computations and comparisons show that the proposed algorithm is not only capable of solving the benchmark set better than the existing discrete differential evolution algorithm and iterated greedy algorithm, but also capable of performing better than two recently proposed discrete artificial bee colony algorithms.

  10. Potential and limitation of mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for real time analysis of raw milk in milking lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Raphael; Etzion, Yael

    2009-02-01

    Real-time information about milk composition would be very useful for managing the milking process. Mid-infrared spectroscopy, which relies on fundamental modes of molecular vibrations, is routinely used for off-line analysis of milk and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential of attenuated total reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy for real-time analysis of milk in milking lines. The study was conducted with 189 samples from over 70 cows that were collected during an 18 months period. Principal component analysis, wavelets and neural networks were used to develop various models for predicting protein and fat concentration. Although reasonable protein models were obtained for some seasonal sub-datasets (determination errors protein), the models lacked robustness and it was not possible to develop a model suitable for all the data. Determination of fat concentration proved even more problematic and the determination errors remained unacceptably large regardless of the sub-dataset analyzed or of the spectral intervals used. These poor results can be explained by the limited penetration depth of the mid-infrared radiation that causes the spectra to be very sensitive to the presence of fat globules or fat biofilms in the boundary layer that forms at the interface between the milk and the crystal that serves both as radiation waveguide and sensing element. Since manipulations such as homogenisation are not permissible for in-line analysis, these results show that the potential of mid-infrared attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for in-line milk analysis is indeed quite limited.

  11. Total body propofol clearance (TBPC) after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) surgery is decreased in patients with a long warm ischemic time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jahdari, Wael S; Kunimoto, Fumio; Saito, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Koujirou; Koyama, Hiroshi; Horiuchi, Ryuya; Goto, Fumio

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic capacity after liver transplant surgery may be affected by the graft size and by hepatic injury during the surgery. This study was carried out to investigate the postoperative total body propofol clearance (TBPC) in living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT) patients and to investigate the major factors that contribute to decreased postoperative TBPC in LDLT patients. Fourteen patients scheduled for LDLT were included in this study. Propofol was administered at a rate of 2.0 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) as a sedative in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. To calculate TBPC, propofol arterial blood concentration was measured by HPLC. Five variables were selected as factors affecting postoperative TBPC; bleeding volume (BLD), warm ischemic time (WIT), cold ischemic time (CIT), graft weight/standard liver volume ratio (GW/SLV), and portal blood flow after surgery (PBF). After factor analysis of six variables, including TBPC, varimax rotation was carried out, and this yielded three interpretable factors that accounted for 75.5% of the total variance in the data set. TBPC, WIT, CIT, and BLD were loaded on the first factor, PBF on the second factor, and GW/SLV on the third factor. The adjusted correlation coefficient between TBPC and WIT showed the highest value (r = -0.61) in the first factor. The LDLT patients were divided into two groups according to WIT; group A (WIT > 100 min) and group B (WIT < 100 min). Mean TBPC values in group A and group B were 14.6 +/- 2.1 and 28.5 +/- 4.1 ml.kg(-1).min(-1), respectively (P < 0.0001). These data suggest that LDLT patients with a long WIT have a risk of deteriorated drug metabolism.

  12. Tranexamic acid reduces intraoperative occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yutong; Li, Zhirui; Gong, Ke; An, Xiao; Dong, Jiyuan; Tang, Peifu

    2018-01-01

    Obesity can result in increased blood loss, which is correlated with poor prognosis in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Clinical application of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing blood loss in TKA. However, most previous studies focused on the effect of tranexamic acid in the whole population, neglecting patients with specific health conditions, such as obesity. We hypothesized that tranexamic acid would reduce blood loss to a greater extent in obese patients than in those of normal weight. A total of 304 patients with knee osteoarthritis treated with TKA from October 2013 to March 2015 were separated into tranexamic, non-tranexamic, obese, and non-obese groups. The demographic characteristics, surgical indices, and hematological indices were all recorded. We first investigated the ability of intravenous tranexamic acid to reduce intraoperative blood loss in knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing unilateral TKA. Second, we performed subgroup analysis to compare the effects of tranexamic acid between obese and non-obese patients separately. Of the 304 patients, 146 (52.0%) received tranexamic acid and 130 (42.8%) were obese. In the analysis of the whole group, both the actual and occult blood loss volume were lower in the tranexamic acid group (both P tranexamic acid group ( P tranexamic acid was shown to reduce theoretical and actual blood loss in both the obese and non-obese groups ( P Tranexamic acid reduced occult blood loss and tourniquet time in the obese group ( P 0.05). Tranexamic acid can reduce occult blood loss and tourniquet time in obese patients to a greater extent than in patients of normal weight. Therefore, obese knee osteoarthritis patients undergoing TKA can benefit more from tranexamic acid.

  13. Real-time web-based assessment of total population risk of future emergency department utilization: statewide prospective active case finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongkai; Jin, Bo; Shin, Andrew Y; Zhu, Chunqing; Zhao, Yifan; Hao, Shiying; Zheng, Le; Fu, Changlin; Wen, Qiaojun; Ji, Jun; Li, Zhen; Wang, Yong; Zheng, Xiaolin; Dai, Dorothy; Culver, Devore S; Alfreds, Shaun T; Rogow, Todd; Stearns, Frank; Sylvester, Karl G; Widen, Eric; Ling, Xuefeng B

    2015-01-13

    An easily accessible real-time Web-based utility to assess patient risks of future emergency department (ED) visits can help the health care provider guide the allocation of resources to better manage higher-risk patient populations and thereby reduce unnecessary use of EDs. Our main objective was to develop a Health Information Exchange-based, next 6-month ED risk surveillance system in the state of Maine. Data on electronic medical record (EMR) encounters integrated by HealthInfoNet (HIN), Maine's Health Information Exchange, were used to develop the Web-based surveillance system for a population ED future 6-month risk prediction. To model, a retrospective cohort of 829,641 patients with comprehensive clinical histories from January 1 to December 31, 2012 was used for training and then tested with a prospective cohort of 875,979 patients from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2013. The multivariate statistical analysis identified 101 variables predictive of future defined 6-month risk of ED visit: 4 age groups, history of 8 different encounter types, history of 17 primary and 8 secondary diagnoses, 8 specific chronic diseases, 28 laboratory test results, history of 3 radiographic tests, and history of 25 outpatient prescription medications. The c-statistics for the retrospective and prospective cohorts were 0.739 and 0.732 respectively. Integration of our method into the HIN secure statewide data system in real time prospectively validated its performance. Cluster analysis in both the retrospective and prospective analyses revealed discrete subpopulations of high-risk patients, grouped around multiple "anchoring" demographics and chronic conditions. With the Web-based population risk-monitoring enterprise dashboards, the effectiveness of the active case finding algorithm has been validated by clinicians and caregivers in Maine. The active case finding model and associated real-time Web-based app were designed to track the evolving nature of total population risk, in a

  14. EMPOWERING IT ENTREPRENEURSHIPS: WHAT’S THE CONTRIBUTION OF BUSINESS INCUBATORS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wescley Silva Xavier

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the contribution of Business Incubators for small IT business. In this way, a deep research in three Brazilian IT Incubators was developed. We investigated the perception of incubators’ managers, tenant and graduated entrepreneurs regarding to the key elements of incubation process, as support and infrastructure, university-incubator interaction, and management training. Our findings indicate some deficiencies in IT Incubators, predominantly in prospecting customers, attracting financial resources, and establishing relationships within universities and research centers.

  15. Thermal management in closed incubators: New software for assessing the impact of humidity on the optimal incubator air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaud, Stéphane; Decima, Pauline; Pelletier, Amandine; Libert, Jean-Pierre; Durand, Estelle; Stephan-Blanchard, Erwan; Bach, Véronique; Tourneux, Pierre

    2017-08-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) neonates are nursed in closed incubators to prevent transcutaneous water loss. The RH's impact on the optimal incubator air temperature setting has not been studied. On the basis of a clinical cohort study, we modelled all the ambient parameters influencing body heat losses and gains. The algorithm quantifies the change in RH on the air temperature, to maintain optimal thermal conditions in the incubator. Twenty-three neonates (gestational age (GA): 30.0 [28.9-31.6] weeks) were included. A 20% increase and a 20% decrease in the RH induced a change in air temperature of between -1.51 and +1.85°C for a simulated 650g neonate (GA: 26 weeks), between -1.66 and +1.87°C for a 1000g neonate (GA: 31 weeks), and between -1.77 and +1.97°C for a 2000g neonate (GA: 33 weeks) (phumidity +c age +d weight (phumidity. The software constitutes a decision support tool for improving patient care in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Muscle-invasive bladder cancer treated with external beam radiation: influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption on local control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, L.; Voet, H. van der; Nijs, R. de; Horenblas, S.; Hart, A.A.M.; Bartelink, H.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate and eventually quantify a possible influence of tumor proliferation during the external radiation course on local control in muscle invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: The influence of total dose, overall treatment time, and treatment interruption has retrospectively been analyzed in a series of 379 patients with nonmetastasized, muscle-invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. All patients received external beam radiotherapy at the Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 1990. Total dose varied between 50 and 75 Gy with a mean of 60.5 Gy and a median of 60.4 Gy. Overall treatment time varied between 20 and 270 days with a mean of 49 days and a median of 41 days. Number of fractions varied between 17 and 36 with a mean of 27 and a median of 26. Two hundred and forty-four patients had a continuous radiation course, whereas 135 had an intended split course or an unintended treatment interruption. Median follow-up was 22 months for all patients and 82 months for the 30 patients still alive at last follow-up. A stepwise procedure using proportional hazard regression has been used to identify prognostic treatment factors with respect to local recurrence as sole first recurrence. Results: One hundred and thirty-six patients experienced a local recurrence and 120 of these occurred before regional or distant metastases. The actuarial local control rate was 40.3% at 5 years and 32.3% at 10 years. In a multivariate analysis total dose showed a significant association with local control (p 0.0039), however in a markedly nonlinear way. In fact only those patients treated with a dose below 57.5 Gy had a significant higher bladder relapse rate, whereas no difference in relapse rate was found among patients treated with doses above 57.5 Gy. This remained the case even after adjustment for overall treatment time and all significant tumor and patient characteristics. The Normalized Tumor Dose (NTD) (α/β = 10) and NTD (

  17. Open-dish incubator for live cell imaging with an inverted microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Steven R; Lamoureux, Phillip; Ngo, Kha; Reynolds, Matthew; Buxbaum, Robert E

    2003-10-01

    Here we describe the design and fabrication of an inexpensive cell culture incubator for the stage of an inverted light microscope for use in live cell imaging. This device maintains the temperature of the cell culture at 37 degrees C with great stability and, after reaching equilibrium, provides focal stability of an image for 20-25 min with oil-immersion lenses. We describe two versions of the incubator: one for use with standard 60-mm plastic culture dishes, and the other version for imaging of cells on glass coverslips. Either can be made for less than $400. Most components are widely available commercially, and it requires only simple wiring and 3 h to assemble. Although the device is generally useful for live cell imaging on an inverted microscope, it is particularly suitable for work in which instruments are introduced into the culture, such as electrophysiology or micromanipulation. The design is based on the principle that control performance is limited by the lag time between detection and response. The key element of the design is a heated, temperature-controlled aluminum ring serving as a mini-incubator surrounding the culture vessel. For this reason, we call our design a "ringcubator."

  18. Typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) profiles in selected tissue samples incubated in various environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemcunowicz-Janica, Anna; Pepiński, Witold; Janica, Jacek Robert; Janica, Jerzy; Skawrońska, Małgorzata; Koc-Zórawska, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    In cases of decomposed bodies, Y chromosomal STR markers may be useful in identification of a male relative. The authors assessed typeability of PowerPlex Y (Promega) loci in post mortem tissue material stored in various environments. Kidney, spleen and pancreas specimens were collected during autopsies of five persons aged 20-30 years, whose time of death was determined within the limit of 14 hours. Tissue material was incubated at 21 degrees C and 4 degrees C in various environmental conditions. DNA was extracted by the organic method from tissue samples collected in 7-day intervals and subsequently typed using the PowerPlexY-STR kit and ABI 310. A fast decrease in the typeability rate was seen in specimens incubated in peat soil and in sand. Kidney tissue samples were typeable in all PowerPlexY-STR loci within 63 days of incubation at 4 degrees C. Faster DNA degradation was recorded in spleen and pancreas specimens. In samples with negative genotyping results, no DNA was found by fluorometric quantitation. Decomposed soft tissues are a potential material for DNA typing.

  19. A large outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection with short incubation period in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Bjørn Odd; Lingaas, Egil; Torfoss, Dag; Strøm, Erik H; Nordøy, Ingvild

    2010-12-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen with a high mortality rate. We report a large, nosocomial outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes infection. Patients with L. monocytogenes isolated from a sterile site, or from faeces when diarrhoea and fever were present, were included. Clinical data were collected from the patient records. The incubation period was calculated as the time between exposure and start of symptoms. Seventeen patients (11 women, median age 64 years) were infected of whom 15 patients were at increased risk for listeriosis. Eleven patients received empiric antibiotic treatment, eight of them with cephalosporins. Three patients died with a resulting mortality rate of 18%. The source of the outbreak was a Camembert cheese made from pasteurised milk containing up to 360 million colony forming units per portion. The median incubation period was 3-4 days. The incubation period in this outbreak was significantly shorter than previously reported, a fact that may be due to the high number of ingested bacteria. Furthermore, food restrictions in hospitals seem warranted, as do treatment with antibiotics effective against L. monocytogenes in at-risk populations. Copyright © 2010 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Incubation behaviour in triazenepolymer thin films upon near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonse, J; Wiggins, S M; Solis, J; Sturm, H; Urech, L; Wokaun, A; Lippert, T

    2007-01-01

    The effects of laser radiation induced by a sequence of ultrashort (130 fs), near-infrared (800 nm) Ti:sapphire laser pulses in ∼1 μm thick triazenepolymer films on glass substrates have been investigated by means of in-situ real-time reflectivity measurements featuring a ps-resolution streak camera and a ns-resolution photodiode set-up. The polymer films show incubation effects when each laser pulse in the sequence has a fluence below the single-pulse damage threshold. Non-damage conditions are maintained for several incubation pulses such that the reflectivity of the film shows a rapid decrease of up to 30% within 1 ns but subsequently recovers to its initial value on a ms timescale. Additional pulses lead to a permanent film damage. The critical number of laser pulses needed to generate a permanent damage of the film has been studied as a function of the laser fluence. Once damage is created, further laser pulses cause a partial removal of the film material from the glass substrate. Scanning force microscopy has been used to characterise ex-situ the irradiated surface areas. Based on these complementary measurements possible incubation mechanisms are discussed

  1. The effects of feeding time on milk production, total-tract digestibility, and daily rhythms of feeding behavior and plasma metabolites and hormones in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, M; Ying, Y; Bartell, P A; Harvatine, K J

    2014-12-01

    The timing of feed intake entrains circadian rhythms regulated by internal clocks in many mammals. The objective of this study was to determine if the timing of feeding entrains daily rhythms in dairy cows. Nine Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. An automated system recorded the timing of feed intake over the last 7 d of each period. Treatments were feeding 1×/d at 0830 h (AM) or 2030 h (PM) and feeding 2×/d in equal amounts at 0830 and 2030 h. All treatments were fed at 110% of daily intake. Cows were milked 2×/d at 0500 and 1700 h. Milk yield and composition were not changed by treatment. Daily intake did not differ, but twice-daily feeding tended to decrease total-tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). A treatment by time of day interaction was observed for feeding behavior. The amount of feed consumed in the first 2h after feeding was 70% greater for PM compared with AM feeding. A low rate of intake overnight (2400 to 0500 h; 2.2 ± 0.74% daily intake/h, mean ± SD) and a moderate rate of intake in the afternoon (1200 to 1700 h; 4.8 ± 1.1% daily intake/h) was noted for all treatments, although PM slightly reduced the rate during the afternoon period compared with AM. A treatment by time of day interaction was seen for fecal NDF and indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentration, blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, body temperature, and lying behavior. Specifically, insulin increased and glucose decreased more after evening feeding than after morning feeding. A cosine function within a 24-h period was used to characterize daily rhythms using a random regression. Rate of feed intake during spontaneous feeding, fecal NDF and iNDF concentration, plasma glucose, insulin, NEFA, body temperature, and lying behavior fit a cosine function within a 24-h period that was modified by treatment. In conclusion, feeding time can reset the daily rhythms of feeding and

  2. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  3. Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Miller, Christopher B; Rogers, Zoe; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Macmahon, Kenneth M; Espie, Colin A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. Sleep research laboratory. Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ≤ 6 h. Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P insomnia.

  4. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 real time portal imaging device in a case of postoperative irradiation for prevention of heterotopic bone formation following total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffer, J.D.; Quong, G.; Lawlor, M.; Schumer, W.; Aitken, L.; Wallace, A.

    1994-01-01

    The new Radiation Oncology Department at the Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital in Melbourne, Australia commenced operation in June 1992. As part of quality control the Philips SL-15 linear accelerator was fitted with the Philips SRI-100 Real Time Portal Imaging Device (RTPID), the first such apparatus in Australia. One of its major advantages over older systems is its ability to provide a permanent hard copy of the image of the field treated. The computer image can be immediately manipulated and enhanced on the screen (with respect to such qualities as brightness and contrast) prior to the printing of the hard copy. This is a significant improvement over the more cumbersome older port films that required developing time, without any pre-assessment of the image quality. The utility of the Philips SRI-100 RTPID is demonstrated in the case of a patient irradiated soon after total hip replacement, as prophylaxis against heterotopic bone formation (HBF). The rapidity and quality of image production is a major advantage in these patients where post operative pain may result in positional change between film exposure and image production. Extremely accurate shielding block position is essential to shield the prosthesis(and allow bone ingrowth for fixation) whilst avoiding inadvertent shielding of the areas at risk for HBF. A review of the literature on this topic is provided. 14 refs., 4 figs

  5. Application of fiber-optic attenuated total reflection-FT-IR methods for in situ characterization of protein delivery systems in real time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFearin, Cathryn L; Sankaranarayanan, Jagadis; Almutairi, Adah

    2011-05-15

    A fiber-optic coupled attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FT-IR spectroscopy technique was applied to the study of two different therapeutic delivery systems, acid degradable hydrogels and nanoparticles. Real time exponential release of a model protein, human serum albumin (HSA), was observed from two different polymeric hydrogels formulated with a pH sensitive cross-linker. Spectroscopic examination of nanoparticles formulated with an acid degradable polymer shell and encapsulated HSA exhibited vibrational signatures characteristic of both particle and payload when exposed to lowered pH conditions, demonstrating the ability of this methodology to simultaneously measure phenomena arising from a system with a mixture of components. In addition, thorough characterization of these pH sensitive delivery vehicles without encapsulated protein was also accomplished in order to separate the effects of the payload during degradation. When in situ, real time detection in combination with the ability to specifically identify different components in a mixture without involved sample preparation and minimal sample disturbance is provided, the versatility and suitability of this type of experiment for research in the pharmaceutical field is demonstrated.

  6. Temperature experienced during incubation affects antioxidant capacity but not oxidative damage in hatchling red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treidel, L A; Carter, A W; Bowden, R M

    2016-02-01

    Our understanding of how oxidative stress resistance phenotypes are affected by the developmental environment is limited. One component of the developmental environment, which is likely central to early life oxidative stress among ectothermic and oviparous species, is that of temperature. We investigated how incubation temperature manipulations affect oxidative damage and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) hatchlings. First, to determine whether temperature fluctuations elicit oxidative stress, eggs from clutches were randomly assigned to either a constant (29.5 °C) or daily fluctuating temperature incubation (28.7 ± 3 °C) treatment. Second, to assess the effect of temperature fluctuation frequency on oxidative stress, eggs were incubated in one of three fluctuating incubation regimes: 28.7 ± 3 °C fluctuations every 12 h (hyper), 24 h (normal) or 48 h (hypo). Third, we tested the influence of average incubation temperature by incubating eggs in a daily fluctuating incubation temperature regime with a mean temperature of 26.5 °C (low), 27.1 °C (medium) or 27.7 °C (high). Although the accumulation of oxidative damage in hatchlings was unaffected by any thermal manipulation, TAC was affected by both temperature fluctuation frequency and average incubation temperature. Individuals incubated with a low frequency of temperature fluctuations had reduced TAC, while incubation at a lower average temperature was associated with enhanced TAC. These results indicate that although sufficient to prevent oxidative damage, TAC is influenced by developmental thermal environments, potentially because of temperature-mediated changes in metabolic rate. The observed differences in TAC may have important future consequences for hatchling fitness and overwinter survival. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly S Reyna

    Full Text Available Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C, high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C, low constant temperatures (28.85°C, high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C, or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C. After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C, surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C, even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre-incubation

  8. Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Kelly S; Burggren, Warren W

    2017-01-01

    Global warming is likely to alter reproductive success of ground-nesting birds that lay eggs normally left unattended for days or even weeks before actual parental incubation, especially in already warm climates. The native North American bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) is such a species, and pre-incubation quail eggs may experience temperatures ≥45°C. Yet, almost nothing is known about embryonic survival after such high pre-incubation temperatures. Freshly laid bobwhite quail eggs were exposed during a 12 day pre-incubation period to one of five thermal regimes: low oscillating temperatures (25-40°C, mean = 28.9°C), high oscillating temperatures (30-45°C, mean = 33.9°C), low constant temperatures (28.85°C), high constant temperatures (mean = 33.9°C), or commercially employed pre-incubation temperatures (20°C). After treatment, eggs were then incubated at a standard 37.5°C to determine subsequent effects on embryonic development rate, survival, water loss, hatching, and embryonic oxygen consumption. Both quantity of heating degree hours during pre-incubation and specific thermal regime (oscillating vs. non-oscillating) profoundly affected important aspects of embryo survival and indices of development and growth Pre-incubation quail eggs showed a remarkable tolerance to constant high temperatures (up to 45°C), surviving for 4.5±0.3 days of subsequent incubation, but high oscillating pre-incubation temperature increased embryo survival (mean survival 12.2±1.8 days) and led to more rapid development than high constant temperature (maximum 38.5°C), even though both groups experienced the same total heating degree-hours. Oxygen consumption was ~200-300 μl O2.egg.min-1 at hatching in all groups, and was not affected by pre-incubation conditions. Oscillating temperatures, which are the norm for pre-incubation quail eggs in their natural habitat, thus enhanced survival at higher temperatures. However, a 5°C increase in pre-incubation temperature

  9. A real time biofeedback using Kinect and Wii to improve gait for post-total knee replacement rehabilitation: a case study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Pazit; Zeina, Daniel; Teshome, Assefa K; Skinner, Elizabeth; Begg, Rezaul; Abbott, John Haxby

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a low-cost real-time biofeedback system to assist with rehabilitation for patients following total knee replacement (TKR) and to assess its feasibility of use in a post-TKR patient case study design with a comparison group. The biofeedback system consisted of Microsoft Kinect(TM) and Nintendo Wii balance board with a dedicated software. A six-week inpatient rehabilitation program was augmented by biofeedback and tested in a single patient following TKR. Three patients underwent a six weeks standard rehabilitation with no biofeedback and served as a control group. Gait, function and pain were assessed and compared before and after the rehabilitation. The biofeedback software incorporated real time visual feedback to correct limb alignment, movement pattern and weight distribution. Improvements in pain, function and quality of life were observed in both groups. The strong improvement in the knee moment pattern demonstrated in the case study indicates feasibility of the biofeedback-augmented intervention. This novel biofeedback software has used simple commercially accessible equipment that can be feasibly incorporated to augment a post-TKR rehabilitation program. Our preliminary results indicate the potential of this biofeedback-assisted rehabilitation to improve knee function during gait. Research is required to test this hypothesis. Implications for Rehabilitation The real-time biofeedback system developed integrated custom-made software and simple low-cost commercially accessible equipment such as Kinect and Wii board to provide augmented information during rehabilitation following TKR. The software incorporated key rehabilitation principles and visual feedback to correct alignment of the lower legs, pelvic and trunk as well as providing feedback on limbs weight distribution. The case study patient demonstrated greater improvement in their knee function where a more normal biphasic knee moment was achieved following the six

  10. Studies on improving ostrich egg hatch ability and its relation with some factors affecting embryonic development during artificial incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, N.S.I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out in co-operation between the Ostrich Production Farm, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, Egypt and the Faculty of Agriculture, AL-Azhar University, Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt. Ostrich eggs were obtained from Resk Company for Ostrich Production and set for incubation at ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Sharkia, Egypt. The objectives are:1- To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation and to provide reference blood biochemical baseline values for future studies of avian species and to document novel information on some normal changes associated with growth of the developing ostrich embryo during the incubation, as no similar and complete data could be found on this aspect in the literature. 2- In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. Two trials were carried out: 1-First trial To follow up changes in some vital physiological parameters and blood components associated with ostrich embryonic development during incubation. A total number of 60 ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and Egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Egg weight and egg weight loss during incubation were determined on each eggs.2- Second Trial In vivo injection In an effort to improve the hatch ability and hatching performance of ostrich eggs by testing the effect of in ovo injection of several nutrients. A total of 100 fertile ostrich eggs weighed between 1300 and 1500 g were obtained from from Resk Company for Ostrich Production. Eggs were collected weekly in patches of 25 eggs and egg incubation was performed in ElShfie Farm, Belbas, Egypt. Eggs were injected at the 7 th day of incubation to deposit test material in

  11. A rumor transmission model with incubation in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianwen; Wu, Wenjiang

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a rumor transmission model with incubation period and constant recruitment in social networks. By carrying out an analysis of the model, we study the stability of rumor-free equilibrium and come to the local stable condition of the rumor equilibrium. We use the geometric approach for ordinary differential equations for showing the global stability of the rumor equilibrium. And when ℜ0 = 1, the new model occurs a transcritical bifurcation. Furthermore, numerical simulations are used to support the analysis. At last, some conclusions are presented.

  12. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method in Benchmarking of Technological Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Kaczmarska

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an original concept for the application of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA in benchmarking processes within innovation and entrepreneurship centers based on the example of technological incubators. Applying the DEA method, it is possible to order analyzed objects, on the basis of explicitly defined relative efficiency, by compiling a rating list and rating classes. Establishing standards and indicating “clearances” allows the studied objects - innovation and entrepreneurship centers - to select a way of developing effectively, as well as preserving their individuality and a unique way of acting with the account of local needs. (original abstract

  13. Human-centered incubator: beyond a design concept

    OpenAIRE

    Goossens, R H M; Willemsen, H

    2013-01-01

    We read with interest the paper by Ferris and Shepley1 on a human-centered design project with university students on neonatal incubators. It is interesting to see that in the design solutions and concepts as presented by Ferris and Shepley,1 human-centered design played an important role. In 2005, a master thesis project was carried out in the Delft University of Technology, following a similar human-centered design approach.2, 3 In that design project we also addressed the noise level insid...

  14. Fibrinolytic Activity and Dose-Dependent Effect of Incubating Human Blood Clots in Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: In Vitro Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuzar Elnager

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE has been reported to possess time-dependent fibrinolytic activity by in vitro assay. This study is aimed at investigating fibrinolytic dose-dependent activity of CAPE using in vitro assays. Methods. Standardized human whole blood (WB clots were incubated in either blank controls or different concentrations of CAPE (3.75, 7.50, 15.00, 22.50, and 30.00 mM. After 3 hours, D-dimer (DD levels and WB clot weights were measured for each concentration. Thromboelastography (TEG parameters were recorded following CAPE incubation, and fibrin morphology was examined under a confocal microscope. Results. Overall, mean DD (μg/mL levels were significantly different across samples incubated with different CAPE concentrations, and the median pre- and postincubation WB clot weights (grams were significantly decreased for each CAPE concentration. Fibrin removal was observed microscopically and indicated dose-dependent effects. Based on the TEG test, the Ly30 fibrinolytic parameter was significantly different between samples incubated with two different CAPE concentrations (15.0 and 22.50 mM. The 50% effective dose (ED50 of CAPE (based on DD was 1.99 mg/mL. Conclusions. This study suggests that CAPE possesses fibrinolytic activity following in vitro incubation and that it has dose-dependent activities. Therefore, further investigation into CAPE as a potential alternative thrombolytic agent should be conducted.

  15. Optimization of cell adhesion on mg based implant materials by pre-incubation under cell culture conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willumeit, Regine; Möhring, Anneke; Feyerabend, Frank

    2014-05-05

    Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  16. Optimization of Cell Adhesion on Mg Based Implant Materials by Pre-Incubation under Cell Culture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine Willumeit

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium based implants could revolutionize applications where orthopedic implants such as nails, screws or bone plates are used because they are load bearing and degrade over time. This prevents a second surgery to remove conventional implants. To improve the biocompatibility we studied here if and for how long a pre-incubation of the material under cell culture conditions is favorable for cell attachment and proliferation. For two materials, Mg and Mg10Gd1Nd, we could show that 6 h pre-incubation are already enough to form a natural protective layer suitable for cell culture.

  17. The effect of holding in parent's arms on vital sign of low birth weight infants in incubator

    OpenAIRE

    東, 智恵; 鎌倉, 加奈子; 藤光, 陽理; 中野, 美紀; 村橋, 美也子; 井本, 清美

    1999-01-01

    It is said that carrying a baby is a natural behavior to parents and is effective for making up attachment and increasing self-knowledge as a parent. A baby in our NICU will be started on cot nursing(transfer to cot from incubator) under some standards for weight, post-conceptional age, incubator temperature and calorie intake etc., and then parents will have a time to carry their baby freely. Generally speaking, a baby born at low gestational age and as low birthweight will take many days to...

  18. Near real-time estimation of ionosphere vertical total electron content from GNSS satellites using B-splines in a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdogan, Eren; Schmidt, Michael; Seitz, Florian; Durmaz, Murat

    2017-02-01

    Although the number of terrestrial global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers supported by the International GNSS Service (IGS) is rapidly growing, the worldwide rather inhomogeneously distributed observation sites do not allow the generation of high-resolution global ionosphere products. Conversely, with the regionally enormous increase in highly precise GNSS data, the demands on (near) real-time ionosphere products, necessary in many applications such as navigation, are growing very fast. Consequently, many analysis centers accepted the responsibility of generating such products. In this regard, the primary objective of our work is to develop a near real-time processing framework for the estimation of the vertical total electron content (VTEC) of the ionosphere using proper models that are capable of a global representation adapted to the real data distribution. The global VTEC representation developed in this work is based on a series expansion in terms of compactly supported B-spline functions, which allow for an appropriate handling of the heterogeneous data distribution, including data gaps. The corresponding series coefficients and additional parameters such as differential code biases of the GNSS satellites and receivers constitute the set of unknown parameters. The Kalman filter (KF), as a popular recursive estimator, allows processing of the data immediately after acquisition and paves the way of sequential (near) real-time estimation of the unknown parameters. To exploit the advantages of the chosen data representation and the estimation procedure, the B-spline model is incorporated into the KF under the consideration of necessary constraints. Based on a preprocessing strategy, the developed approach utilizes hourly batches of GPS and GLONASS observations provided by the IGS data centers with a latency of 1 h in its current realization. Two methods for validation of the results are performed, namely the self consistency analysis and a comparison

  19. Characterization of incubation experiments and development of an enrichment culture capable of ammonium oxidation under iron-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S.; Jaffé, P. R.

    2015-02-01

    Incubation experiments were conducted using soil samples from a forested riparian wetland where we have previously observed anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Production of both nitrite and ferrous iron was measured repeatedly during incubations when the soil slurry was supplied with either ferrihydrite or goethite and ammonium chloride. Significant changes in the microbial community were observed after 180 days of incubation as well as in a continuous flow membrane reactor, using 16S rRNA gene PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, 454 pyrosequencing, and real-time quantitative PCR analysis. We be Acidimicrobiaceae bacterium A6), belonging to the Acidimicrobiaceae family, whose closest cultivated relative is Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum (with 92% identity) and Acidimicrobium ferrooxidans (with 90% identity), might play a key role in this anaerobic biological process that uses ferric iron as an electron acceptor while oxidizing ammonium to nitrite. After ammonium was oxidized to nitrite, nitrogen loss proceeded via denitrification and/or anammox.

  20. Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator Program Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesky, Marcia [Optical Society of America, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-11-06

    The Emerging Connections: Quantum & Classical Optics Incubator was a scientific meeting held in Washington, DC on 6-8 November 2016. This Incubator provided unique and focused experiences and valuable opportunities to discuss advances, challenges and opportunities regarding this important area of research. Quantum optics and classical optics have coexisted for nearly a century as two distinct, but consistent descriptions of light in their respective domains. Recently, a number of detailed examinations of the structure of classical light beams have revealed that effects widely thought to be solely quantum in origin also have a place in classical optics. These new quantum-classical connections are informing classical optics in meaningful ways specifically by expanding understanding of optical coherence. Simultaneously, relationships discovered with classical light beams now also serve as a vehicle to illuminate concepts that no longer solely belong to the quantum realm. Interference, polarization, coherence, complementarity and entanglement are a partial list of elementary notions that now appear to belong to both quantum and classical optics. The goal of this meeting was to bring emerging quantum-classical links into wider view and to indicate directions in which forthcoming and future work would promote discussion and lead to a more unified understanding of optics.

  1. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng [University of Chicago Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-01-15

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  2. Effect of comfort pads and incubator design on neonatal radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xia; Baad, Michael; Reiser, Ingrid; Feinstein, Kate A.; Lu, Zhengfeng

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in patient dose reduction in neonatal intensive care units. Removing comfort pads for radiography has been identified as a potential means to decrease patient dose. To assess the effect of comfort pads and support trays on detector entrance exposure (DEE) and image quality for neonatal radiography, and its implication for patient dose. Comfort pads and support trays from three incubator and warmer systems were examined. The attenuation of the primary beam by these structures was measured using a narrow beam geometry. Their effect on DEE and image quality was then assessed using typical neonatal chest radiography techniques with three configurations: (1) both the comfort pad and support included in the beam, (2) only the support tray included and (3) both the comfort pad and support tray removed. Comfort pads and support trays were found to attenuate the primary beam by 6-15%. Eliminating these structures from the X-ray beam's path was found to increase the detector entrance exposure by 28-36% and increase contrast-to-noise ratio by more than 21%, suggesting room for patient dose reduction when the same image quality is maintained. Comfort pads and tray support devices can have a considerable effect on DEE and image quality, with large variations among different incubator designs. Positioning the image detector directly underneath neonatal patients for radiography is a potential means for patient dose reduction. However, such benefit should be weighed against the risks of moving the patient. (orig.)

  3. How network-based incubation helps start-up performance : a systematic review against the background of management theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eveleens, Chris P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369284704; van Rijnsoever, Frank J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314100334; Niesten, Eva M M I

    2017-01-01

    The literature on how network-based incubation influences the performance of technology-based start-ups has recently grown considerably and provided valuable insights. However, at the same time this literature has become quite fragmented, inconsistently conceptualised, and theoretically

  4. Periodicity and time trends in the prevalence of total births and conceptions with congenital malformations among Jews and Muslims in Israel, 1999-2006: a time series study of 823,966 births.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND Congenital malformations (CMs) are a leading cause of infant disability. Geophysical patterns such as 2-year, yearly, half-year, 3-month, and lunar cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of all life on Earth and may affect birth and birth outcomes in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare trends and periodicity in total births and CM conceptions in two Israeli populations. METHODS Poisson nonlinear models (polynomial) were applied to study and compare trends and geophysical periodicity cycles of weekly births and weekly prevalence rate of CM (CMPR), in a time-series design of conception date within and between Jews and Muslims. The population included all live births and stillbirths (n = 823,966) and CM (three anatomic systems, eight CM groups [n = 2193]) in Israel during 2000 to 2006. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health. RESULTS We describe the trend and periodicity cycles for total birth conceptions. Of eight groups of CM, periodicity cycles were statistically significant in four CM groups for either Jews or Muslims. Lunar month and biennial periodicity cycles not previously investigated in the literature were found to be statistically significant. Biennial cycle was significant in total births (Jews and Muslims) and syndactyly (Muslims), whereas lunar month cycle was significant in total births (Muslims) and atresia of small intestine (Jews). CONCLUSION We encourage others to use the method we describe as an important tool to investigate the effects of different geophysical cycles on human health and pregnancy outcomes, especially CM, and to compare between populations. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. High frequency of Thermodesulfovibrio spp. and Anaerolineaceae in association with Methanoculleus spp. in a long-term incubation of n-alkanes-degrading methanogenic enrichment culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Liang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the microbial community and functional gene composition of a long-term active alkane-degrading methanogenic culture was established after two successive enrichment culture transfers and incubated for a total period of 1750 days. Molecular analysis was conducted after the second transfer (incubated for 750 days for both the active alkanes-degrading methanogenic enrichment cultures (T2-AE and the background control (T2-BC. A net increase of methane as the end product was detected in the headspace of the enrichment cultures amended with long-chain n-alkanes and intermediate metabolites, including octadecanoate, hexadecanoate, isocaprylate, butyrate, isobutyrate, propionate, acetate and formate were measured in the liquid cultures. The composition of microbial community shifted through the successive transfers over time of incubation. Sequences of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene (16S rDNA and mcrA functional gene indicated that bacterial sequences affiliated to Thermodesulfovibrio spp. and Anaerolineaceae and archaeal sequences falling within the genus Methanoculleus were the most frequently encountered and thus represented the dominant members performing the anaerobic degradation of long-chain n-alkanes and methanogenesis. In addition, the presence of assA functional genes encoding the alkylsuccinate synthase α subunit indicated that fumarate addition mechanism could be considered as a possible initial activation step of n-alkanes in the present study. The succession pattern of microbial communities indicates that Thermodesulfovibrio spp. could be a generalist participating in the metabolism of intermediates, while Anaerolineaceae plays a key role in the initial activation of long-chain n-alkane biodegradation.

  6. DBP formation in hot and cold water across a simulated distribution system: effect of incubation time, heating time, pH, chlorine dose, and incubation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2013-10-15

    This paper demonstrates that disinfection byproducts (DBP) concentration profiles in heated water were quite different from the DBP concentrations in the cold tap water. Chloroform concentrations in the heated water remained constant or even decreased slightly with increasing distribution system water age. The amount of dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was much higher in the heated water than in the cold water; however, the maximum levels in heated water with different distribution system water ages did not differ substantially. The levels of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) in the heated water were similar to the TCAA levels in the tap water, and a slight reduction was observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. Regardless of water age, significant reductions of nonregulated DBPs were observed after the tap water was heated for 24 h. For tap water with lower water ages, there were significant increases in dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), chloropicrin (CP), and 1,1-dichloropropane (1,1-DCP) after a short period of heating. Heating of the tap water with low pH led to a more significant increase of chloroform and a more significant short-term increase of DCAN. High pH accelerated the loss of the nonregulated DBPs in the heated water. The results indicated that as the chlorine doses increased, levels of chloroform and DCAA in the heated water increased significantly. However, for TCAA, the thermally induced increase in concentration was only notable for the chlorinated water with very high chlorine dose. Finally, heating may lead to higher DBP concentrations in chlorinated water with lower distribution system temperatures.

  7. Design of fiber optic based respiratory sensor for newborn incubator application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Arika; Devara, Kresna; Abuzairi, Tomy; Poespawati, N. R.; Purnamaningsih, Retno W.

    2018-02-01

    This paper reports the design of respiratory sensor using fiber optic for newborn incubator application. The sensor works based on light intensity losses difference obtained due to thorax movement during respiration. The output of the sensor launched to support electronic circuits to be processed in Arduino Uno microcontroler such that the real-time respiratory rate (breath per minute) can be presented on LCD. Experiment results using thorax expansion of newborn simulator show that the system is able to measure respiratory rate from 10 up to 130 breaths per minute with 0.595% error and 0.2% hysteresis error.

  8. Curriculum Design and Implementation of the Emergency Medicine Chief Resident Incubator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisondi, Michael A; Chou, Adaira; Joshi, Nikita; Sheehy, Margaret K; Zaver, Fareen; Chan, Teresa M; Riddell, Jeffrey; Sifford, Derek P; Lin, Michelle

    2018-02-24

    Background Chief residents receive minimal formal training in preparation for their administrative responsibilities. There is a lack of professional development programs specifically designed for chief residents. Objective In 2015, Academic Life in Emergency Medicine designed and implemented an annual, year-long, training program and virtual community of practice for chief residents in emergency medicine (EM). This study describes the curriculum design process and reports measures of learner engagement during the first two cycles of the curriculum. Methods Kern's Six-Step Approach for curriculum development informed key decisions in the design and implementation of the Chief Resident Incubator. The resultant curriculum was created using constructivist social learning theory, with specific objectives that emphasized the needs for a virtual community of practice, longitudinal content delivery, mentorship for participants, and the facilitation of multicenter digital scholarship. The 12-month curriculum included 11 key administrative or professional development domains, delivered using a combination of digital communications platforms. Primary outcomes measures included markers of learner engagement with the online curriculum, recognized as modified Kirkpatrick Level One outcomes for digital learning. Results An average of 206 chief residents annually enrolled in the first two years of the curriculum, with an overall participation by 33% (75/227) of the allopathic EM residency programs in the United States (U.S.). There was a high level of learner engagement, with an average 13,414 messages posted per year. There were also 42 small group teaching sessions held online, which included 39 faculty and 149 chief residents. The monthly e-newsletter had a 50.7% open rate. Digital scholarship totaled 23 online publications in two years, with 67 chief resident co-authors and 21 faculty co-authors. Conclusions The Chief Resident Incubator is a virtual community of practice that

  9. Application of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to Quantitatively Determine Relative Content of Puccnia striiformis f. sp. tritici DNA in Wheat Leaves in Incubation Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst is a devastating wheat disease worldwide. Potential application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS in detection of pathogen amounts in latently Pst-infected wheat leaves was investigated for disease prediction and control. A total of 300 near-infrared spectra were acquired from the Pst-infected leaf samples in an incubation period, and relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were obtained using duplex TaqMan real-time PCR arrays. Determination models of the relative contents of Pst DNA in the samples were built using quantitative partial least squares (QPLS, support vector regression (SVR, and a method integrated with QPLS and SVR. The results showed that the kQPLS-SVR model built with a ratio of training set to testing set equal to 3 : 1 based on the original spectra, when the number of the randomly selected wavelength points was 700, the number of principal components was 8, and the number of the built QPLS models was 5, was the best. The results indicated that quantitative detection of Pst DNA in leaves in the incubation period could be implemented using NIRS. A novel method for determination of latent infection levels of Pst and early detection of stripe rust was provided.

  10. APPLICATION OF THE MODEL CERNE FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF CRITERIA INCUBATION SELECTION IN TECHNOLOGY BASED BUSINESSES : A STUDY IN INCUBATORS OF TECHNOLOGICAL BASE OF THE COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clobert Jefferson Passoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Business incubators are a great source of encouragement for innovative projects, enabling the development of new technologies, providing infrastructure, advice and support, which are key elements for the success of new business. The technology-based firm incubators (TBFs, which are 154 in Brazil. Each one of them has its own mechanism for the selection of the incubation companies. Because of the different forms of management of incubators, the business model CERNE - Reference Center for Support for New Projects - was created by Anprotec and Sebrae, in order to standardize procedures and promote the increase of chances for success in the incubations. The objective of this study is to propose selection criteria for the incubation, considering CERNE’s five dimensions and aiming to help on the decision-making in the assessment of candidate companies in a TBF incubator. The research was conducted from the public notices of 20 TBF incubators, where 38 selection criteria were identified and classified. Managers of TBF incubators validated 26 criteria by its importance via online questionnaires. As a result, favorable ratings were obtained to 25 of them. Only one criterion differed from the others, with a unfavorable rating.

  11. Effects of solar eclipse on the electrodynamical processes of the equatorial ionosphere: a case study during 11 August 1999 dusk time total solar eclipse over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridharan

    Full Text Available The effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial E- and F-regions of the ionosphere, due to the occurrence of the solar eclipse during sunset hours on 11 August 1999, were investigated in a unique observational campaign involving ground based ionosondes, VHF and HF radars from the equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat. 0.5° N, India. The study revealed the nature of changes brought about by the eclipse in the evening time E- and F-regions in terms of (i the sudden intensification of a weak blanketing ES-layer and the associated large enhancement of the VHF backscattered returns, (ii significant increase in h' F immediately following the eclipse and (iii distinctly different spatial and temporal structures in the spread-F irregularity drift velocities as observed by the HF radar. The significantly large enhancement of the backscattered returns from the E-region coincident with the onset of the eclipse is attributed to the generation of steep electron density gradients associated with the blanketing ES , possibly triggered by the eclipse phenomena. The increase in F-region base height immediately after the eclipse is explained as due to the reduction in the conductivity of the conjugate E-region in the path of totality connected to the F-region over the equator along the magnetic field lines, and this, with the peculiar local and regional conditions, seems to have reduced the E-region loading of the F-region dynamo, resulting in a larger post sunset F-region height (h' F rise. These aspects of E-and F-region behaviour on the eclipse day are discussed in relation to those observed on the control day.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  12. Effects of solar eclipse on the electrodynamical processes of the equatorial ionosphere: a case study during 11 August 1999 dusk time total solar eclipse over India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridharan

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects on the electrodynamics of the equatorial E- and F-regions of the ionosphere, due to the occurrence of the solar eclipse during sunset hours on 11 August 1999, were investigated in a unique observational campaign involving ground based ionosondes, VHF and HF radars from the equatorial location of Trivandrum (8.5° N; 77° E; dip lat. 0.5° N, India. The study revealed the nature of changes brought about by the eclipse in the evening time E- and F-regions in terms of (i the sudden intensification of a weak blanketing ES-layer and the associated large enhancement of the VHF backscattered returns, (ii significant increase in h' F immediately following the eclipse and (iii distinctly different spatial and temporal structures in the spread-F irregularity drift velocities as observed by the HF radar. The significantly large enhancement of the backscattered returns from the E-region coincident with the onset of the eclipse is attributed to the generation of steep electron density gradients associated with the blanketing ES , possibly triggered by the eclipse phenomena. The increase in F-region base height immediately after the eclipse is explained as due to the reduction in the conductivity of the conjugate E-region in the path of totality connected to the F-region over the equator along the magnetic field lines, and this, with the peculiar local and regional conditions, seems to have reduced the E-region loading of the F-region dynamo, resulting in a larger post sunset F-region height (h' F rise. These aspects of E-and F-region behaviour on the eclipse day are discussed in relation to those observed on the control day.Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; equatorial ionosphere; ionospheric irregularities

  13. Total and cause-specific mortality before and after the onset of the Greek economic crisis: an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laliotis, Ioannis; Ioannidis, John P A; Stavropoulou, Charitini

    2016-12-01

    Greece was one of the countries hit the hardest by the 2008 financial crisis in Europe. Yet, evidence on the effect of the crisis on total and cause-specific mortality remains unclear. We explored whether the economic crisis affected the trend of overall and cause-specific mortality rates. We used regional panel data from the Hellenic Statistical Authority to assess mortality trends by age, sex, region, and cause in Greece between January, 2001, and December, 2013. We used Eurostat data to calculate monthly age-standardised mortality rates per 100 000 inhabitants for each region. Data were divided into two subperiods: before the crisis (January, 2001, to August, 2008) and after the onset of the crisis (September, 2008, to December, 2013). We tested for changes in the slope of mortality by doing an interrupted time-series analysis. Overall mortality continued to decline after the onset of the financial crisis (-0·065, 95% CI -0·080 to -0·049), but at a slower pace than before the crisis (-0·13, -0·15 to -0·10; trend difference 0·062, 95% CI 0·041 to 0·083; pperiod after the onset of the crisis with extrapolated values based on the period before the crisis, we estimate that an extra 242 deaths per month occurred after the onset of the crisis. Mortality trends have been interrupted after the onset of compared with before the crisis, but changes vary by age, sex, and cause of death. The increase in deaths due to adverse events during medical treatment might reflect the effects of deterioration in quality of care during economic recessions. None. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the incubation period in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Stenfeldt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen’s capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV during the incubation (preclinical phase of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation. Contact-exposed pigs were co-mingled with infected donors through successive eight-hour time slots spanning from 8 to 64 hours post inoculation (hpi of the donor pigs. The transition from latent to infectious periods in the donor pigs was clearly defined by successful transmission of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD to all contact pigs that were exposed to the donors from 24 hpi and later. This onset of infectiousness occurred concurrent with detection of viremia, but approximately 24 hours prior to the first appearance of clinical signs of FMD in the donors.Thus, the latent period of infection ended approximately 24 hours earlier than the end of the incubation period. There were significant differences between contact-exposed groups in the time elapsed from virus exposure to the first detection of FMDV shedding, viremia and clinical lesions. Specifically, the onset and progression of clinical FMD was more rapid in pigs that had been exposed to the donor pigs during more advanced phases of disease, suggesting that these animals had received a higher effective challenge dose. These results demonstrate transmission and dissemination of FMD within groups of pigs during the incubation period of infection. Furthermore, the findings suggest that under current conditions, shedding of FMDV in oropharyngeal fluids is a more precise proxy for FMDV infectiousness than clinical signs of infection. These findings may impact modeling of the propagation of

  15. Use of serum biochemistry to evaluate nutritional status and health of incubating common eiders (Somateria mollissima) in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmen, T.; Franson, J.C.; Hario, Martti; Sankari, S.; Kilpi, Mikael; Lindstrom, K.

    2001-01-01

    During 1997–1999, we collected serum samples from 156 common eider (Somateria mollissima) females incubating eggs in the Finnish archipelago of the Baltic Sea. We used serum chemistry profiles to evaluate metabolic changes in eiders during incubation and to compare the health and nutritional status of birds nesting at a breeding area where the eider population has declined by over 50% during the past decade, with birds nesting at two areas with stable populations. Several changes in serum chemistries were observed during incubation, including (1) decreases in serum glucose, total protein, albumin, β‐globulin, and γ‐globulin concentrations and (2) increases in serum uric acid, creatine kinase, and β‐hydroxybutyrate concentrations. However, these changes were not consistent throughout the 3‐yr period, suggesting differences among years in the rate of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein utilization during incubation. The mean serum concentrations of free fatty acids, glycerol, and albumin were lowest and the serum α‐ and γ‐globulin levels were highest in the area where the eider population has declined, suggesting a role for nutrition and diseases in the population dynamics of Baltic eiders.

  16. Hatch ability, growth and some blood biochemical parameters in hatching quails following the exposure of incubated eggs to red laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Taleb, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A total number of 600 Japanese quail eggs were used this study. The eggs were divided into three groups then incubated. Eggs of groups one (G1) and two (G2) were exposed to 30 and 60 minutes, respectively, to the red laser rays (Laser Pointer LD-300) at 0, 7 and 14 days of embryogenesis,while group three (G3) was not treated and served as control. Hatch ability body weight and mortality were recorded weekly for each group. Furthermore, five blood samples were collected from one day old chicks at hatching and at six weeks of age from each group to determine some hematological parameters including RBCs, WBCs, PCV and Hb. Liver enzyme activities (GPT and GOT), kidney function (uric acid and creatinine), cholesterol and total lipids were determined for the 6 weeks old chicks only. The present results indicated that exposure to red to significant increase in hatch ability percentage and promoted early hatch ability and decreased embryonic mortality in treated groups (G1) and (G2) than control (G3). Significant decreases in RBCs counts, cholesterol and total lipids were found in G1 and G2. Exposure of developing embryos to red laser radiation had no significant effect on PCV in one day old hatching chicks, or RBCs and WBCs counts, PCV, GOT, uric acid creatinine in six weeks old birds. At the same time, significant increases in Hb and WBCs counts were occurred in one day old chicks and Hb and GPT in six weeks old birds. It could be concluded from the reported findings that exposure to red laser radiation may affect some factors that accelerate hatch ability and cause changes in some biochemical parameters in Japanese quails

  17. Prions in milk from ewes incubating natural scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Since prion infectivity had never been reported in milk, dairy products originating from transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE-affected ruminant flocks currently enter unrestricted into the animal and human food chain. However, a recently published study brought the first evidence of the presence of prions in mammary secretions from scrapie-affected ewes. Here we report the detection of consistent levels of infectivity in colostrum and milk from sheep incubating natural scrapie, several months prior to clinical onset. Additionally, abnormal PrP was detected, by immunohistochemistry and PET blot, in lacteal ducts and mammary acini. This PrP(Sc accumulation was detected only in ewes harbouring mammary ectopic lymphoid follicles that developed consequent to Maedi lentivirus infection. However, bioassay revealed that prion infectivity was present in milk and colostrum, not only from ewes with such lympho-proliferative chronic mastitis, but also from those displaying lesion-free mammary glands. In milk and colostrum, infectivity could be recovered in the cellular, cream, and casein-whey fractions. In our samples, using a Tg 338 mouse model, the highest per ml infectious titre measured was found to be equivalent to that contained in 6 microg of a posterior brain stem from a terminally scrapie-affected ewe. These findings indicate that both colostrum and milk from small ruminants incubating TSE could contribute to the animal TSE transmission process, either directly or through the presence of milk-derived material in animal feedstuffs. It also raises some concern with regard to the risk to humans of TSE exposure associated with milk products from ovine and other TSE-susceptible dairy species.

  18. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  19. Changes in microbial and nutrient composition associated with rumen content compost incubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Adetutu, Eric M; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-02-01

    Physico-chemical and microbiological investigations were carried out on rumen content material composted for nine months, fresh vermicasts (obtained after passing the same compost through the guts of a mixture of three species of earthworms: Eisenia fetida, Lumbricus rubellus and Perionyx excavates) and microbially enhanced extracts derived from rumen compost, vermicast and vermicast leachate incubated for up to 48 h. Compared to composted rumen contents, vermicast was only improved in terms of microbial biomass C, while vermicast leached extract was significantly higher in NH(4)(+)-N,PO(4)(-)-P, humic acid, bacterial counts and total microbial activity compared to rumen compost extract. Although no difference between treatments was observed in genetic diversity as indicated by DGGE analysis, community level functional diversity of vermicast leached extract (Biolog™) was higher than that of composted rumen contents, vermicast and rumen compost extract indicating an enhancement of microbial activity rather than diversity due to liquid incubation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  1. Influences of explant type and enzyme incubation on isolated protoplast density and viability in two garlic cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, E.I.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports on optimizing protoplast isolation and fusion in two garlic cultivars Balady and Seds 40. Protoplast density and viability were investigated in four different explants (etiolated and green parts of the pseudostem and lower and upper parts of the leaves) under enzyme incubation for 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Among different explants, used for protoplast isolation in Balady cultivar, the upper and lower parts of the leaves produced the highest number of total protoplasts (70 and 66 pps/0.1 ml) at 4 and 3 h enzyme incubation, respectively. However, the etiolated part of pseudostem produced the highest number of viable protoplast in which 52.5 pps/0.1 ml were obtained at 3 h enzyme incubation. For protoplast isolation in Seds 40 cultivar, the highest number of total protoplasts (125 and 107.5 pps/0.1 ml) as well as viable protoplasts (105 and 107.5 pps/0.1 ml) was obtained from the etiolated and the green parts of pseudostem, respectively. The cultivar Seds 40 yielded higher total and viable protoplasts than Balady cultivar. Isolated protoplasts of Seds 40 and Balady were fused successfully at a protoplast density of 1 * 105 using either physical and/or electrical method. Optimization of the source of plant material as well as protoplast isolation conditions for garlic is a crucial step towards a successful protoplast fusion and subsequent colony formation. (author)

  2. Unpainting the black box : exploring mechanisms and practices of start-up incubators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Weele, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Although incubators have become one of the most prominent instruments to stimulate the emergence and growth of start-ups, questions are being raised about their effectiveness. One major obstacle to evaluate the effectiveness of incubators is that the incubator remains a ‘black box’: the extant

  3. Soil respiration is not limited by reductions in microbial biomass during long-term soil incubations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining rates of soil respiration are reliably observed during long-term laboratory incubations, but the cause is uncertain. We explored different controls on soil respiration during long-term soil incubations. Following a 707 day incubation (30 C) of soils from cultivated and forested plots at Ke...

  4. Network brokers or hit makers? Analyzing the influence of incubation on start-up investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Rijnsoever, Frank J.; Van Weele, Marijn A.; Eveleens, Chris P.

    Incubators are a prominent way to support technology based start-ups. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent these incubators enhance start-up performance, nor is it known through which mechanisms this would occur. In this paper we test two mechanisms to explain the relationship between incubation

  5. A study of knowledge supernetworks and network robustness in different business incubators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Wenqing; Zhao, Liming

    2016-04-01

    As the most important intangible resource of the new generation of business incubators, knowledge has been studied extensively, particularly with respect to how it spreads among incubating firms through knowledge networks. However, these homogeneous networks do not adequately describe the heterogeneity of incubating firms in different types of business incubators. To solve the problem of heterogeneity, the notion of a knowledge supernetwork has been used both to construct a knowledge interaction model among incubating firms and to distinguish social network relationships from knowledge network relationships. The process of knowledge interaction and network evolution can then be simulated with a few rules for incubating firms regarding knowledge innovation/absorption, social network connection, and entry and exit, among other aspects. Knowledge and networks have been used as performance indicators to evaluate the evolution of knowledge supernetworks. Moreover, we study the robustness of incubating firms' social networks by employing four types of attack strategies. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that there have been significant knowledge interaction and network evolution among incubating firms on a periodic basis and that both specialized and diversified business incubators have every advantage necessary in terms of both knowledge and networks to cultivate start-up companies. As far as network robustness is concerned, there is no obvious difference between the two types of business incubators with respect to the stability of their network structures, but specialized business incubators have stronger network communication abilities than diversified business incubators.

  6. [Effects of Total Alkaloids of Harmaline on Learning and Memory in Vascular Dementia Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-shuang; Sun, Jian-ning; Yu, Hui-ling

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effects of total alkaloids of harmaline on learning and memory in vascular dementia rats, and its mechanism. The model rats of vascular dementia were established with bilateral carotid artery ligation. After 30 days, the model rats were randomly divided into six groups: sham group, model group, nicergoline tablets 7 mg/kg group, and 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg/kg dose groups of total alkaloids of harmaline, the rats were given medicine for 30 days. Learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze, histomorphology in hippocampal CA1 area were observed by HE staining, BAX and BCL-2 protein expression in hippocampal CA1 area were detected by immunohistochemistry. Compared with model group, 25 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the third and fourth day significantly, 12.5 mg/kg group of total alkaloids of harmaline shortened the incubation period in the fourth day. 25 and 12.5 mg/kg groups of total alkaloids of harmaline significantly increased the times crossing the target. Total alkaloids of harmaline improved the neurons pathological changes of rat in the hippocampus CA1 area, 25 and 12.5 mg/kg of total alkaloids of harmaline downregulated the expression of apoptosis proteins BAX, upregulated the protein expression of BCL-2. Total alkaloids of harmaline can improve the learning and memory abilities in vascular dementia rats, which probably is related to inhibiting apoptosis of hippocampus cell.

  7. Studies on the Cold Incubation Method in the {sup 131}I-T3 Resin Sponge Uptake Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Takino, H.; Kurata, K.; Wakebayashi, T. [Dainabot Radioisotope Laboratory, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan); Ito, K.; Nishikawa, T.; Ino, E. [Ito Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Momotani, N. [Dept. of Internal Medicine, Keio University Medical School, Tokyo (Japan)

    1970-02-15

    An attempt was made to establish a new method that eliminates the correction factors in incubation time and temperature of T3 resin sponge uptake test. Each pooled serum in three different states of thyroid function, i.e. hyperthyroid, euthyroid and hypothyroid,was separately incubated for 20, 24 and 28 h with T3 resin sponge either in a cold room at 2 Degree-Sign C, 5 Degree-Sign C or 8 Degree-Sign C, or in a refrigerator adjusted to 5 Degree-Sign C. The T3 uptake values in each pooled serum were not affected by the difference in the temperature and the incubation time in the cold incubation method. Applicability of the present method (using refrigerator) was examined in about 200 cases of different states of thyroid function. The values obtained by the strictly controlled conventional method (25 Degree-Sign C, 1 h) showed a good correlation with those obtained by the new method. In cases of hypothyroidal state the present method yielded a wider range of uptake values than the conventional one, and hence provided a better method of distinguishing thyroidal function. (author)

  8. The Incubation Period of Primary Epstein-Barr Virus Infection: Viral Dynamics and Immunologic Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha K Dunmire

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human herpesvirus that causes acute infectious mononucleosis and is associated with cancer and autoimmune disease. While many studies have been performed examining acute disease in adults following primary infection, little is known about the virological and immunological events during EBV's lengthy 6 week incubation period owing to the challenge of collecting samples from this stage of infection. We conducted a prospective study in college students with special emphasis on frequent screening to capture blood and oral wash samples during the incubation period. Here we describe the viral dissemination and immune response in the 6 weeks prior to onset of acute infectious mononucleosis symptoms. While virus is presumed to be present in the oral cavity from time of transmission, we did not detect viral genomes in the oral wash until one week before symptom onset, at which time viral genomes were present in high copy numbers, suggesting loss of initial viral replication control. In contrast, using a sensitive nested PCR method, we detected viral genomes at low levels in blood about 3 weeks before symptoms. However, high levels of EBV in the blood were only observed close to symptom onset-coincident with or just after increased viral detection in the oral cavity. These data imply that B cells are the major reservoir of virus in the oral cavity prior to infectious mononucleosis. The early presence of viral genomes in the blood, even at low levels, correlated with a striking decrease in the number of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells well before symptom onset, which remained depressed throughout convalescence. On the other hand, natural killer cells expanded only after symptom onset. Likewise, CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells decreased two fold, but only after symptom onset. We observed no substantial virus specific CD8 T cell expansion during the incubation period, although polyclonal CD8 activation was detected in

  9. Structural changes in mammalian cell DNA induced by low-dose x-ray damage and subsequent postirradiation incubation in the presence and absence of caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, K.L.W.; Shafer, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    DNA damage and postirradiation incubation effects from X-ray doses of 30-2000 rad delivered to rat 9L cells in vitro were detemined by viscoelastic analysis of neutral (pH 7) cell lysates. Damage studies showed first an increase in the principal viscoelastic retardation time, T, with increasing dose, followed by a decrease, with the maximum retardation time occurring at 1000 rad. Also, the variation of retardation time with increasing postirradiation incubation time at 37 0 C was determined. At doses greater than 50 rad, this variation was quite complicated; e.g., following 100 rad, the retardation time showed a minimum followed by a maximum as a function of incubation time. All doses showed an initial return of T to close to control values at early times. Following 50 rad, control viscoelastic behavior was recovered in 1 hr. For doses of 100 rad and higher, 5 hr or more were required for complete return to control behavior has determined by both the value of T and the viscoelastic response to a probe dose of 200 rad immediately prior to lysis. These results are analyzed in terms of the dependence of the principal retardation time T on DNA molecular weight and conformation. Evidence is discussed indicating that the observed changes in T during postirradiation incubation reflect repair of DNA damage. Postirradiation incubation in the presence of 0.5 mM caffeine appeared to result in an inhibition of repair. In this case, both 30- and 50-rad doses required 5 hr for complete recovery of control behavior and showed the minimum and maximum in the T vs incubation time curve observed for incubation in the absence of caffeine following a dose of 100 rad

  10. Associations Between Sedentary Time, Physical Activity, and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measures of Total Body, Android, and Gynoid Fat Mass in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Lacey; Meendering, Jessica; Specker, Bonny; Binkley, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Negative health outcomes are associated with excess body fat, low levels of physical activity (PA), and high sedentary time (ST). Relationships between PA, ST, and body fat distribution, including android and gynoid fat, assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have not been measured in children. The purpose of this study was to test associations between levels of activity and body composition in children and to evaluate if levels of activity predict body composition by DXA and by body mass index percentile in a similar manner. PA, ST, and body composition from 87 children (8.8-11.8 yr, grades 3-5, 44 boys) were used to test the association among study variables. Accelerometers measured PA and ST. Body composition measured by DXA included bone mineral content (BMC) and fat and lean mass of the total body (TB, less head), android, and gynoid regions. ST (range: 409-685 min/wk) was positively associated with TB percent fat (0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-0.05) and android fat mass (1.5 g, 95% CI: 0.4-3.0), and inversely associated with the lean mass of the TB (-10.7 g, 95% CI: -20.8 to -0.63) and gynoid regions (-2.2 g, 95% CI: -4.3 to -0.2), and with BMC (-0.43 g, 95% CI: 0.77-0.09). Moderate-to-vigorous PA was associated with lower TB (-53 g, 95% CI: -87 to -18), android (-5 g, 95% CI: -8 to -2]), and gynoid fat (-6 g, 95% CI: -11 to -0.5). Vigorous activity results were similar. Light PA was associated with increased TB (17.1 g, 95% CI: 3.0-31.3) and gynoid lean mass (3.9 g, 95% CI: 1.0-6.8) and BMC (0.59 g, 95% CI: 0.10-1.07). In boys, there were significant associations between activity and DXA percent body fat measures that were not found with the body mass index percentile. Objective measures of PA were inversely associated with TB, android, and gynoid fat, whereas ST was directly associated with TB percent fat and, in particular, android fat. Activity levels predict body composition measures by DXA and, in

  11. Dynamics and complexity of body temperature in preterm infants nursed in incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Kerstin; Pramana, Isabelle; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Kumar, Nitin; Datta, Alexandre N; Frey, Urs; Schulzke, Sven M

    2017-01-01

    Poor control of body temperature is associated with mortality and major morbidity in preterm infants. We aimed to quantify its dynamics and complexity to evaluate whether indices from fluctuation analyses of temperature time series obtained within the first five days of life are associated with gestational age (GA) and body size at birth, and presence and severity of typical comorbidities of preterm birth. We recorded 3h-time series of body temperature using a skin electrode in incubator-nursed preterm infants. We calculated mean and coefficient of variation of body temperature, scaling exponent alpha (Talpha) derived from detrended fluctuation analysis, and sample entropy (TSampEn) of temperature fluctuations. Data were analysed by multilevel multivariable linear regression. Data of satisfactory technical quality were obtained from 285/357 measurements (80%) in 73/90 infants (81%) with a mean (range) GA of 30.1 (24.0-34.0) weeks. We found a positive association of Talpha with increasing levels of respiratory support after adjusting for GA and birth weight z-score (pbody temperature in incubator-nursed preterm infants show considerable associations with GA and respiratory morbidity. Talpha may be a useful marker of autonomic maturity and severity of disease in preterm infants.

  12. Correlates of Total Sedentary Time and Screen Time in 9-11 Year-Old Children around the World: The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Barreira, Tiago V; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (pcomputer in the bedroom. In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of culturally meaningful public health messages.

  13. Monitoring System and Temperature Controlling on PID Based Poultry Hatching Incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiudin, S.; Kholis, N.

    2018-04-01

    Poultry hatching cultivation is essential to be observed in terms of temperature stability by using artificial penetration incubator which applies On/Off control. The On/Off control produces relatively long response time to reach steady-state conditions. Moreover, how the system works makes the component worn out because the lamp is on-off periodically. Besides, the cultivation in the market is less suitable to be used in an environment which has fluctuating temperature because it may influence plant’s temperature stability. The study aims to design automatic poultry hatching cultivation that can repair the temperature’s response of plant incubator to keep stable and in line with the intended set-point temperature value by using PID controller. The method used in PID controlling is designed to identify plant using ARX (Auto Regressive eXogenous) MATLAB which is dynamic/non-linear to obtain mathematical model and PID constants value that is appropriate to system. The hardware design for PID-based egg incubator uses Arduino Uno R3, as the main controller that includes PID source, and PWM, to keep plant temperature stability, which is integrated with incandescent light actuators and sensors where DHTI 1 sensor as the reader as temperature condition and plant humidity. The result of the study showed that PID constants value of each plant is different. For parallel 15 Watt plant, Kp = 3.9956, Ki = 0.361, Kd = 0, while for parallel 25 Watt plant, the value of Kp = 5.714, Ki = 0.351, Kd = 0. The PID constants value were capable to produce stable system response which is based on set-point with steady state error’s value is around 5%, that is 2.7%. With hatching percentage of 70-80%, the hatching process is successful in air-conditioned environment (changeable).

  14. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting the denitrification capacity of sandy aquifers from shorter-term incubation experiments and sediment properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Eschenbach

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the spatial variability of denitrification rates and the lifetime of denitrification in nitrate-contaminated aquifers is crucial to predict the development of groundwater quality. Therefore, regression models were derived to estimate the measured cumulative denitrification of aquifer sediments after one year of incubation from initial denitrification rates and several sediment parameters, namely total sulphur, total organic carbon, extractable sulphate, extractable dissolved organic carbon, hot water soluble organic carbon and potassium permanganate labile organic carbon.

    For this purpose, we incubated aquifer material from two sandy Pleistocene aquifers in Northern Germany under anaerobic conditions in the laboratory using the 15N tracer technique. The measured amount of denitrification ranged from 0.19 to 56.2 mg N kg−1 yr−1. The laboratory incubations exhibited high differences between non-sulphidic and sulphidic aquifer material in both aquifers with respect to all investigated sediment parameters. Denitrification rates and the estimated lifetime of denitrification were higher in the sulphidic samples. For these samples, the cumulative denitrification measured during one year of incubation (Dcum(365 exhibited distinct linear regressions with the stock of reduced compounds in the investigated aquifer samples. Dcum(365 was predictable from sediment variables within a range of uncertainty of 0.5 to 2 (calculated Dcum(365/measured Dcum(365 for aquifer material with a Dcum(365 > 20 mg N kg−1 yr−1. Predictions were poor for samples with lower Dcum(365, such as samples from the NO3 bearing groundwater zone, which includes the non-sulphidic samples, from the upper part of both aquifers where denitrification is not sufficient to

  16. Continuous measurements of nitrous oxide isotopomers during incubation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Malte; Balslev-Harder, David; Christensen, Søren; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Crosson, Eric; Blunier, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important and strong greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. It is produced by microbes during nitrification and denitrification in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The main sinks for N2O are turnover by denitrification and photolysis and photo-oxidation in the stratosphere. In the linear N = N = O molecule 15N substitution is possible in two distinct positions: central and terminal. The respective molecules, 14N15N16O and 15N14N16O, are called isotopomers. It has been demonstrated that N2O produced by nitrifying or denitrifying microbes exhibits a different relative abundance of the isotopomers. Therefore, measurements of the site preference (difference in the abundance of the two isotopomers) in N2O can be used to determine the source of N2O, i.e., nitrification or denitrification. Recent instrument development allows for continuous position-dependent δ15N measurements at N2O concentrations relevant for studies of atmospheric chemistry. We present results from continuous incubation experiments with denitrifying bacteria, Pseudomonas fluorescens (producing and reducing N2O) and Pseudomonas chlororaphis (only producing N2O). The continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers reveals the transient isotope exchange among KNO3, N2O, and N2. We find bulk isotopic fractionation of -5.01 ‰ ± 1.20 for P. chlororaphis, in line with previous results for production from denitrification. For P. fluorescens, the bulk isotopic fractionation during production of N2O is -52.21 ‰ ± 9.28 and 8.77 ‰ ± 4.49 during N2O reduction.The site preference (SP) isotopic fractionation for P. chlororaphis is -3.42 ‰ ± 1.69. For P. fluorescens, the calculations result in SP isotopic fractionation values of 5.73 ‰ ± 5.26 during production of N2O and 2.41 ‰ ± 3.04 during reduction of N2O. In summary, we implemented continuous measurements of N2O isotopomers during incubation of denitrifying bacteria and believe that similar experiments will lead to a better

  17. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  18. How can the gap between educations and student incubators be bridged at higher educational institutes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Mette Lindahl; Rasmussen, Jan Erik Røjkjær; Brandt, Erika Zimmer

    2015-01-01

    ). It is in the DNA of some educational institutes like Babson and in some educational programs like the business degrees to work with entrepreneurship. But it comes natural for a minority of the total student body to see them self as entrepreneurs and act as such. At some educations and educational institutes...... are not naturally cultivated. At these educations and for these students there is a large gap between their education and the opportunity of becoming an entrepreneur or intrapreneur (a person who spots opportunities in existing organisations and act on them resulting in value creation), manifesting itself in a lack...... opportunities and as an extension of this clarify to the students the purpose and relevance of the student incubators increasing the likelihood of students joining them and getting support in acting on their entrepreneurial opportunities....

  19. Business Incubation as an Instrument of Innovation: The Experience of South America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the experience of business incubation as an innovative developmental instrument based on the recent experience of the South American countries of Brazil and Chile and the Caribbean island nation of Trinidad and Tobago. A qualitative research method was adopted involving a review of published reports, journal articles and relevant case studies; and face-to-face semi-structured interviews with incubator managerial staff. The major findings are that there are great similarities among the incubators studied in terms of their links to universities, services offered, and funding challenges, but there is growing acceptance of incubation as a potentially valid tool for promoting business development and innovation although most incubators are at the early stage. The paper is original because the case study application to incubation in Trinidad and Tobago is new with only one related article published, and this study therefore adds value to the body of research because business incubation has been under-researched in the study area. The research is limited to the extent that the case study focuses on a comparison of selected incubator features and did not include the views of clients. The practical implications of this study is that sponsors of incubators and managers need to obtain a deeper understanding of the incubation ecosystem especially with regard to innovation-based incubators, if successful innovative businesses are to emerge. The results of the study can also be generalized over the small island developing states of the Caribbean.

  20. Getting better integrated into foreign markets supported by the incubator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Gretzinger, Susanne; Hollensen, Svend

    The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness in the ind...... into the following two propositions: - The higher the level of the company’s accumulated experiential knowledge, the faster integration into the foreign market. - The use of incubator facilitates a faster integration into a specific high growth foreign market.......The challenges associated with entering foreign growth markets, like BRIC markets, remain significant, especially for inexperienced SMEs. These challenges can include inadequate knowledge about a host country’s culture, norms, values and business environment, and a lack of embeddedness...... in the industry networks abroad. Such barriers can often hinder successful foreign market entry. One concept to use for SMEs, which lack experiential knowledge when bridging new distant international growth markets, is the ‘incubator’. It is best described as a shared office-space facility, including a local...