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Sample records for total hydrogen production

  1. Determination of diffusible and total hydrogen concentration in coated and uncoated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabho, Nonhlangabezo

    2010-09-23

    The new trend in the steel industry demands thin, flexible, high strength steels with low internal embrittlement. It is a well known fact that the atomic hydrogen which is picked up during production, fabrication and service embrittles the steel. This has led to an extensive research towards the improvement of the quality of metallic materials by focusing on total and diffusible hydrogen concentrations which are responsible for hydrogen embrittlement. Since the internal embrittlement cannot be foreseen, the concentrations of diffusible hydrogen work as indicators while the total hydrogen characterizes the absorbed quantities and quality of that particular product. To meet these requirements, the analytical chemistry methods which include the already existing carrier gas melt (fusion) extraction methods that use infrared and thermal conductivity for total hydrogen detection were applied. The newly constructed carrier gas thermal desorption mass spectroscopy was applied to monitor the diffusible concentration at specific temperatures and desorption rates of hydrogen which will contribute towards the quality of materials during service. The TDMS method also involved the characterization of the energy quantity (activation energy) required by hydrogen to be removed from traps of which irreversible traps are preferred because they enhance the stability of the product by inhibiting the mobility of hydrogen which is detrimental to the metallic structures. The instrumentation for TDMS is quite simple, compact, costs less and applicable to routine analysis. To determine total and diffusible hydrogen, the influence of the following processes: chemical and mechanical zinc coating removal, sample cleaning with organic solvents, conditions for hydrogen absorption by electrolytic hydrogen charging, conditions of hydrogen desorption by storing the sample at room temperature, solid CO{sub 2} and at temperatures of the drier was analysed. The contribution of steel alloys towards

  2. Scenarios of hydrogen production from wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaric, Mario

    2010-09-15

    Since almost total amount of hydrogen is currently being produced from natural gas, other ways of cleaner and 'more renewable' production should be made feasible in order to make benchmarks for total 'hydrogen economy'. Hydrogen production from wind power combined with electrolysis imposes as one possible framework for new economy development. In this paper various wind-to-hydrogen scenarios were calculated. Cash flows of asset based project financing were used as decision making tool. Most important parameters were identified and strategies for further research and development and resource allocation are suggested.

  3. Bio-hydrogen Production Potential from Market Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanna Jaitalee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research studied bio-hydrogen production from vegetable waste from a fresh market in order to recover energy. A series of batch experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of initial volatile solids concentration on the bio-hydrogen production process. Lab bench scale anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR were used to study the effect of substrate and sludge inoculation on hydrogen production. Three different concentrations of initial total volatile solids (TVS of organic waste were varied from 2%, 3% and 5% respectively. The pH was controlled at 5.5 for all batches in the experiment. The results showed that bio-hydrogen production depended on feed-substrate concentration. At initial TVS content of 3%, the highest hydrogen production was achieved at a level of 0.59 L-H2/L at pH 5.5. The maximum hydrogen yield was 15.3 ml H2/g TVS or 8.5 ml H2/g COD. The composition of H2 in the biogas ranged from 28.1-30.9% and no CH4 was detected in all batch tests.

  4. New concepts in hydrogen production in Iceland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, B.; Sigfusson, T.I.; Jonsson, V.K.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents some new concepts of hydrogen production in Iceland for domestic use and export. A brief overview of the Icelandic energy consumption and available resources is given. The cost of producing hydrogen by electrolysis is calculated for various alternatives such as plant size, load factors and electricity cost. Comparison is made between the total cost of liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland and from Northern America, showing that liquid hydrogen delivered to Europe from Iceland would be 9% less expensive. This assumes conventional technology. New technologies are suggested in the paper and different scenarios for geothermally assisted hydrogen production and liquefaction are discussed. It is estimated that the use of geothermal steam would lead to 19% lower hydrogen gas production costs. By analysing the Icelandic fishing fleet, a very large consumer of imported fuel, it is argued that a transition of fuel technology from oil to hydrogen may be a feasible future option for Iceland and a testing ground for changing fuel technology. (Author)

  5. Sustainable hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, D.L.; Linkous, C.; Muradov, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the Sustainable Hydrogen Production research conducted at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) for the past year. The report presents the work done on the following four tasks: Task 1--production of hydrogen by photovoltaic-powered electrolysis; Task 2--solar photocatalytic hydrogen production from water using a dual-bed photosystem; Task 3--development of solid electrolytes for water electrolysis at intermediate temperatures; and Task 4--production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. For each task, this report presents a summary, introduction/description of project, and results.

  6. Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Via Photovoltaic Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis Via Photovoltaic Panel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen fuel is a good alternative to fossil fuels. It can be produced using a clean energy without contaminated emissions. This work is concerned with experimental study on hydrogen production via solar energy. Photovoltaic module is used to convert solar radiation to electrical energy. The electrical energy is used for electrolysis of water into hydrogen and oxygen by using alkaline water electrolyzer with stainless steel electrodes. A MATLAB computer program is developed to solve a four-parameter-model and predict the characteristics of PV module under Baghdad climate conditions. The hydrogen production system is tested at different NaOH mass concentration of (50,100, 200, 300 gram. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 153.3 ml/min, the efficiency of the system is 20.88% and the total amount of hydrogen produced in one day is 220.752 liter.

  7. Future hydrogen markets for large-scale hydrogen production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    The cost of delivered hydrogen includes production, storage, and distribution. For equal production costs, large users (>10 6 m 3 /day) will favor high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies to avoid collection costs for hydrogen from widely distributed sources. Potential hydrogen markets were examined to identify and characterize those markets that will favor large-scale hydrogen production technologies. The two high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies are nuclear energy and fossil energy with carbon dioxide sequestration. The potential markets for these technologies are: (1) production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel and jet) including liquid fuels with no net greenhouse gas emissions and (2) peak electricity production. The development of high-volume centralized hydrogen production technologies requires an understanding of the markets to (1) define hydrogen production requirements (purity, pressure, volumes, need for co-product oxygen, etc.); (2) define and develop technologies to use the hydrogen, and (3) create the industrial partnerships to commercialize such technologies. (author)

  8. Hydrogen production by Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhuri Surabhi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The limited fossil fuel prompts the prospecting of various unconventional energy sources to take over the traditional fossil fuel energy source. In this respect the use of hydrogen gas is an attractive alternate source. Attributed by its numerous advantages including those of environmentally clean, efficiency and renew ability, hydrogen gas is considered to be one of the most desired alternate. Cyanobacteria are highly promising microorganism for hydrogen production. In comparison to the traditional ways of hydrogen production (chemical, photoelectrical, Cyanobacterial hydrogen production is commercially viable. This review highlights the basic biology of cynobacterial hydrogen production, strains involved, large-scale hydrogen production and its future prospects. While integrating the existing knowledge and technology, much future improvement and progress is to be done before hydrogen is accepted as a commercial primary energy source.

  9. Solar hydrogen production: renewable hydrogen production by dry fuel reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakos, Jamie; Miyamoto, Henry K.

    2006-09-01

    SHEC LABS - Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation constructed a pilot-plant to demonstrate a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) system that is heated primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors. The pilot-plant consists of: 1) a solar mirror array and solar concentrator and shutter system; and 2) two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Water into Hydrogen. Results from the pilot study show that solar Hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional Hydrogen production. More than 95% of Hydrogen commercially produced today is by the Steam Methane Reformation (SMR) of natural gas, a process that liberates Carbon Dioxide to the atmosphere. The SMR process provides a net energy loss of 30 to 35% when converting from Methane to Hydrogen. Solar Hydrogen production provides a 14% net energy gain when converting Methane into Hydrogen since the energy used to drive the process is from the sun. The environmental benefits of generating Hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and criteria air contaminant reductions.

  10. Biomimetic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krassen, Henning

    2009-05-15

    Hydrogenases catalyze the reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen with outstanding efficiency. An electrode surface which is covered with active hydrogenase molecules becomes a promising alternative to platinum for electrochemical hydrogen production. To immobilize the hydrogenase on the electrode, the gold surface was modified by heterobifunctional molecules. A thiol headgroup on one side allowed the binding to the gold surface and the formation of a self-assembled monolayer. The other side of the molecules provided a surface with a high affinity for the hydrogenase CrHydA1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With methylviologen as a soluble energy carrier, electrons were transferred from carboxy-terminated electrodes to CrHydA1 and conducted to the active site (H-cluster), where they reduce protons to molecular hydrogen. A combined approach of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, and surface plasmon resonance allowed quantifying the hydrogen production on a molecular level. Hydrogen was produced with a rate of 85 mol H{sub 2} min{sup -1} mol{sup -1}. On a 1'- benzyl-4,4'-bipyridinum (BBP)-terminated surface, the electrons were mediated by the monolayer and no soluble electron carrier was necessary to achieve a comparable hydrogen production rate (approximately 50% of the former system). The hydrogen evolution potential was determined to be -335 mV for the BBP-bound hydrogenase and -290 mV for the hydrogenase which was immobilized on a carboxy-terminated mercaptopropionic acid SAM. Therefore, both systems significantly reduce the hydrogen production overpotential and allow electrochemical hydrogen production at an energy level which is close to the commercially applied platinum electrodes (hydrogen evolution potential of -270 mV). In order to couple hydrogen production and photosynthesis, photosystem I (PS1) from Synechocystis PCC 6803 and membrane-bound hydrogenase (MBH) from Ralstonia eutropha were bound to each other

  11. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon...... that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen...

  12. Enhanced thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by chemical pretreatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    Acid and alkaline pretreatments for enhanced hydrogen production from cassava stillage were investigated in the present study. The result showed that acid pretreatment was suitable for enhancement of soluble carbohydrate while alkaline pretreatment stimulated more soluble total organic carbon production from cassava stillage. Acid pretreatment thereby has higher capacity to promote hydrogen production compared with alkaline pretreatment. Effects of pretreatment temperature, time and acid concentration on hydrogen production were also revealed by response surface methodology. The results showed that the increase of all factors increased the soluble carbohydrate production, whereas hydrogen production was inhibited when the factors exceeded their optimal values. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were pretreatment temperature 89.5 °C, concentration 1.4% and time 69 min for the highest hydrogen production of 434 mL, 67% higher than raw cassava stillage.

  13. Hydrogen production by the iodine-sulphur thermochemical cycle. Total and partial pressure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D Doizi; V Dauvois; J L Roujou; V Delanne; P Fauvet; B Larousse; O Hercher; P Carles; C Moulin

    2006-01-01

    The iodine sulphur thermochemical cycle appears to be one of the most promising candidate for the massive production of hydrogen using nuclear energy. The key step in this cycle is the HI distillation section which must be optimized to get a good efficiency of the overall cycle. The concept of reactive versus extractive distillation of HI has been proposed because of its potentiality. The design and the optimization of the reactive distillation column requires the knowledge of the liquid vapour equilibrium over the ternary HI-I 2 -H 2 O mixtures up to 300 C and 100 bars. A general methodology based on three experimental devices imposed by the very corrosive and concentrated media will be described: 1) I1 for the total pressure measurement versus different ternary compositions. 2) I2 for the partial and total pressure measurements around 130 C and 2 bars to validate the choice of the analytical optical 'online' techniques we have proposed. 3) I3 for the partial and total pressures measurements in the process domain. The results obtained on pure samples, binary mixtures HI-H 2 O and ternary mixtures using an experimental design analysis in the experimental device I2 will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Hydrogen production by several cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Dhruv; Kumar, H.D. (Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1992-11-01

    Twenty species belonging to eleven genera of nitrogen-fixing and non-nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria were screened for production of hydrogen. Only one species each of Nostoc and Anabaena showed light-and nitrogenase-dependent aerobic hydrogen production. The highest rate of aerobic hydrogen production was recorded in Anabaena sp. strain CA. When incubated anaerobically under 99% Ar + 1% CO[sub 2], all the tested strains produced hydrogen. Nickel supplementation completely abolished hydrogen production both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, except in Anabaena sp. strain CA, where only the rate of production was decreased. Species of Plectonema, Oscillatoria and Spirulina showed methyl viologen-dependent (hydrogenase-dependent) hydrogen production. Other physiological activities were also studied with a view to selecting a suitable organism for large-scale production of hydrogen. (author)

  15. Modification of hydrogen determinator for total hydrogen analysis in irradiated zircaloy cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwnag Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen determinator was modified and installed in the glove box to analyse total hydrogen content in irradiated zircaloy tube. The analysis method of hydrogen is Inert Gas Fusion(IGF)-Thermal Conductivity Detection(TCD). The hydrogen recoveries of no tin method using Ti and Zr matrix standards, respectively, were available within 3 μg of hydrogen. Also the smaller size of sample showed the better hydrogen recovery. It was found that the hydrogen standard of Ti matrix is available to hydrogen analysis in zircaloy sample. The mean radioactivity of irradiated zircaloy sample was 10 mR/hr and hydrogen concentration was 130 ppm

  16. Carbon-free hydrogen production from low rank coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2018-02-01

    Novel carbon-free integrated system of hydrogen production and storage from low rank coal is proposed and evaluated. To measure the optimum energy efficiency, two different systems employing different chemical looping technologies are modeled. The first integrated system consists of coal drying, gasification, syngas chemical looping, and hydrogenation. On the other hand, the second system combines coal drying, coal direct chemical looping, and hydrogenation. In addition, in order to cover the consumed electricity and recover the energy, combined cycle is adopted as addition module for power generation. The objective of the study is to find the best system having the highest performance in terms of total energy efficiency, including hydrogen production efficiency and power generation efficiency. To achieve a thorough energy/heat circulation throughout each module and the whole integrated system, enhanced process integration technology is employed. It basically incorporates two core basic technologies: exergy recovery and process integration. Several operating parameters including target moisture content in drying module, operating pressure in chemical looping module, are observed in terms of their influence to energy efficiency. From process modeling and calculation, two integrated systems can realize high total energy efficiency, higher than 60%. However, the system employing coal direct chemical looping represents higher energy efficiency, including hydrogen production and power generation, which is about 83%. In addition, optimum target moisture content in drying and operating pressure in chemical looping also have been defined.

  17. Hydrogen production methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammerli, M.

    1982-07-01

    Old, present and new proceses for producing hydrogen are assessed critically. The emphasis throughout is placed on those processes which could be commercially viable before the turn of the century for large-scale hydrogen manufacture. Electrolysis of water is the only industrial process not dependent on fossil resources for large-scale hydrogen production and is likely to remain so for the next two or three decades. While many new processes, including those utilizing sunlight directly or indirectly, are presently not considered to be commercially viable for large-scale hydrogen production, research and development effort is needed to enhance our understanding of the nature of these processes. Water vapour electrolysis is compared with thermochemical processes: the former has the potential for displacing all other processes for producing hydrogen and oxygen from water

  18. Microalgal hydrogen production - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khetkorn, Wanthanee; Rastogi, Rajesh P; Incharoensakdi, Aran; Lindblad, Peter; Madamwar, Datta; Pandey, Ashok; Larroche, Christian

    2017-11-01

    Bio-hydrogen from microalgae including cyanobacteria has attracted commercial awareness due to its potential as an alternative, reliable and renewable energy source. Photosynthetic hydrogen production from microalgae can be interesting and promising options for clean energy. Advances in hydrogen-fuel-cell technology may attest an eco-friendly way of biofuel production, since, the use of H 2 to generate electricity releases only water as a by-product. Progress in genetic/metabolic engineering may significantly enhance the photobiological hydrogen production from microalgae. Manipulation of competing metabolic pathways by modulating the certain key enzymes such as hydrogenase and nitrogenase may enhance the evolution of H 2 from photoautotrophic cells. Moreover, biological H 2 production at low operating costs is requisite for economic viability. Several photobioreactors have been developed for large-scale biomass and hydrogen production. This review highlights the recent technological progress, enzymes involved and genetic as well as metabolic engineering approaches towards sustainable hydrogen production from microalgae. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  20. Microbial production of hydrogen from starch-manufacturing wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoi, H.; Maki, R.; Hirose, J.; Hayashi, S. [Miyazaki Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2002-05-01

    Effective hydrogen production from starch-manufacturing wastes by microorganisms was investigated. Continuous hydrogen production in high yield of 2.7 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was attained by a mixed culture of Clostridium butyricum and Enterobacter aerogenes HO-39 in the starch waste medium consisting of sweet potato starch residue as a carbon source and corn steep liquor as a nitrogen source in a repeated batch culture. Rhodobacter sp. M-19 could produce hydrogen from the supernatant of the culture broth obtained in the repeated batch culture of C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39. Hydrogen yield of 4.5 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose was obtained by culturing Rhodobacter sp. M-19 in the supernatant supplemented with 20{mu}gl{sup -1} Na{sub 2}MoO{sub 4} 2H{sub 2}O and 10mgl{sup -1} EDTA in a repeated batch culture with pH control at 7.5. Therefore, continuous hydrogen production with total hydrogen yield of 7.2 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose from the starch remaining in the starch residue was attained by the repeated batch culture with C. butyricum and E. aerogenes HO-39 and by the successive repeated batch culture with Rhodobacter sp. M-19. (Author)

  1. Biological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Biological hydrogen production can be accomplished by either thermochemical (gasification) conversion of woody biomass and agricultural residues or by microbiological processes that yield hydrogen gas from organic wastes or water. Biomass gasification is a well established technology; however, the synthesis gas produced, a mixture of CO and H{sub 2}, requires a shift reaction to convert the CO to H{sub 2}. Microbiological processes can carry out this reaction more efficiently than conventional catalysts, and may be more appropriate for the relatively small-scale of biomass gasification processes. Development of a microbial shift reaction may be a near-term practical application of microbial hydrogen production.

  2. Hydrogen production from formic acid in pH-stat fed-batch operation for direct supply to fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Seung Hoon; Park, Tai Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 harvested after cultivation was used as a whole cell biocatalyst, for the production of hydrogen. Formic acid was efficiently converted to hydrogen using the harvested cells with an initial hydrogen production rate and total hydrogen production of 491 ml/l/h and 6668 ml/l, respectively, when 1 g/l of whole cell enzyme was used. Moreover, new pH-stat fed-batch operation was conducted, and total hydrogen production was 1.4 times higher than that of batch operation. For practical application, bio-hydrogen produced from formic acid using harvested cells was directly applied to PEMFC for power generation.

  3. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of By-product Hydrogen from Chlor-Alkali Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong-Yeon [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Elgowainy, Amgad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division; Dai, Qiang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Systems Assessment Group, Energy Systems Division

    2017-12-01

    Current hydrogen production capacity in the U.S. is about 15.8 million tonne (or metric ton) per year (Brown 2016). Some of the hydrogen (2 million tonne) is combusted for its heating energy value, which makes total annual net production 13.8 million tonne (Table 1). If captive by-product hydrogen (3.3 million tonne) from catalytic reforming at oil refineries is excluded (Brown 2016; EIA 2008), approximately 11 million tonne is available from the conventional captive and merchant hydrogen market (DOE 2013). Captive hydrogen (owned by the refiner) is produced and consumed on site (e.g., process input at refineries), whereas merchant hydrogen is produced and sold as a commodity to external consumers. Whether it is merchant or captive, most hydrogen produced in the U.S. is on-purpose (not by-product)— around 10 million tonne/year.

  4. Hydrogen production by nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosbie, Leanne M.; Chapin, Douglas

    2003-01-01

    A major shift in the way the world obtains energy is on the horizon. For a new energy carrier to enter the market, several objectives must be met. New energy carriers must meet increasing production needs, reduce global pollution emissions, be distributed for availability worldwide, be produced and used safely, and be economically sustainable during all phases of the carrier lifecycle. Many believe that hydrogen will overtake electricity as the preferred energy carrier. Hydrogen can be burned cleanly and may be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. Its use could drastically reduce global CO 2 emissions. However, as an energy carrier, hydrogen is produced with input energy from other sources. Conventional hydrogen production methods are costly and most produce carbon dioxide, therefore, negating many of the benefits of using hydrogen. With growing concerns about global pollution, alternatives to fossil-based hydrogen production are being developed around the world. Nuclear energy offers unique benefits for near-term and economically viable production of hydrogen. Three candidate technologies, all nuclear-based, are examined. These include: advanced electrolysis of water, steam reforming of methane, and the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle. The underlying technology of each process, advantages and disadvantages, current status, and production cost estimates are given. (author)

  5. Natural gas usage as a heat source for integrated SMR and thermochemical hydrogen production technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaber, O.; Naterer, G.F.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates various usages of natural gas (NG) as an energy source for different hydrogen production technologies. A comparison is made between the different methods of hydrogen production, based on the total amount of natural gas needed to produce a specific quantity of hydrogen, carbon dioxide emissions per mole of hydrogen produced, water requirements per mole of hydrogen produced, and a cost sensitivity analysis that takes into account the fuel cost, carbon dioxide capture cost and a carbon tax. The methods examined are the copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) thermochemical cycle, steam methane reforming (SMR) and a modified sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical cycle. Also, an integrated Cu-Cl/SMR plant is examined to show the unique advantages of modifying existing SMR plants with new hydrogen production technology. The analysis shows that the thermochemical Cu-Cl cycle out-performs the other conventional methods with respect to fuel requirements, carbon dioxide emissions and total cost of production. (author)

  6. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocheleau, R.E.; Miller, E.; Misra, A. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing energy provided by a renewable source to split water is one of the most ambitious long-term goals of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. One promising option to meet this goal is direct photoelectrolysis in which light absorbed by semiconductor-based photoelectrodes produces electrical power internally to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Under this program, direct solar-to-chemical conversion efficiencies as high as 7.8 % have been demonstrated using low-cost, amorphous-silicon-based photoelectrodes. Detailed loss analysis models indicate that solar-to-chemical conversion greater than 10% can be achieved with amorphous-silicon-based structures optimized for hydrogen production. In this report, the authors describe the continuing progress in the development of thin-film catalytic/protective coatings, results of outdoor testing, and efforts to develop high efficiency, stable prototype systems.

  7. Universally applicable design concept of stably controlling an HTGR-hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko; Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1996-01-01

    An HTGR-hydrogen production system should be designed to have stable controllability because of a large difference in thermal dynamics between reactor and hydrogen production system and such a control design concept should be universally applicable to a variety of hydrogen production processes by the use of nuclear heat from HTGR. A transient response analysis of an HTGR-steam reforming hydrogen production system showed that a steam generator installed in a helium circuit for cooling the nuclear reactor provides stable controllability of the total system, resulting in avoiding a reactor scram. A survey of control design-related characteristics among several hydrogen production processes revealed the similarity of endothermic chemical reactions by the use of high temperature heat and that steam is required as a reactant of the endothermic reaction or for preheating a reactant. Based on these findings, a system design concept with stable controllability and universal applicability was proposed to install a steam generator as a downstream cooler of an endothermic reactor in the helium circuit of an HTGR-hydrogen production system. (author)

  8. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  9. Fermentative hydrogen production by diverse microflora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghchehsaraee, B.; Nakhla, G.; Karamanev, D.; Margaritis, A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': In this study of hydrogen production with activated sludge, a diverse bacterial source has been investigated and compared to microflora from anaerobic digester sludge, which is less diverse. Batch experiments were conducted at mesophilic (37 o C) and thermophilic (55 o C) temperatures. The hydrogen production yields with activated sludge at 37 o C and 55 o C were 0.25 and 0.93 mol H 2 /mol glucose, respectively. The maximum hydrogen production rates with activated sludge in both temperatures were 4.2 mL/h. Anaerobic digester sludge showed higher hydrogen production yields and rates at both mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. The results of repeated batch experiments with activated sludge showed an increase in the hydrogen production during the consecutive batches. However, hydrogen production was not stable along the repeated batches. The observed instability was due to the formation of lactic acid and ethanol. (author)

  10. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  11. Potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uqaili, M. A.; Harijan, K.; Memon, M.

    2007-01-01

    The transport sector consumes about 34% of the total commercial energy consumption in Pakistan. About 97% of fuel used in this sector is oil and the remaining 3% is CNG and electricity. The indigenous reserves of oil and gas are limited and the country is heavily dependent on the import of oil. The oil import bill is serious strain on the country's economy. The production, transportation and consumption of fossil fuels also degrade the environment. Therefore, it is important to explore the opportunities for clean renewable energy for long-term energy supply in the transport sector. Sindh, the second largest province of Pakistan, has about 250 km long coastline. The estimated average annual wind speed at 50 m height at almost all sites is about 6-7 m/s, indicating that Sindh has the potential to effectively utilize wind energy source for power generation and hydrogen production. A system consisting of wind turbines coupled with electrolyzers is a promising design to produce hydrogen. This paper presents an assessment of the potential of hydrogen production from wind energy in the coastal area of Sindh, Pakistan. The estimated technical potential of wind power is 386 TWh per year. If the wind electricity is used to power electrolyzers, 347.4 TWh hydrogen can be produced annually, which is about 1.2 times the total energy consumption in the transport sector of Pakistan in 2005. The substitution of oil with renewable hydrogen is essential to increase energy independence, improve domestic economies, and reduce greenhouse gas and other harmful emissions

  12. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  13. High-rate fermentative hydrogen production from beverage wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivagurunathan, Periyasamy; Sen, Biswarup; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid immobilized-bacterial cells show stable operation over 175 days. • Low HRT of 1.5 h shows peak hydrogen production rate of 55 L/L-d. • Electricity generation is 9024 kW-d from 55 L/L-d hydrogen using beverage wastewater. • Granular sludge formed only at 2–3 h HRT with presence of Selenomonas sp. - Abstract: Hydrogen production from beverage industry wastewater (20 g/L hexose equivalent ) using an immobilized cell reactor with a continuous mode of operation was studied at various hydraulic retention times (HRT, 8–1.5 h). Maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) of 55 L/L-d was obtained at HRT 1.5 h (an organic loading of 320 g/L-d hexose equivalent ). This HPR value is much higher than those of other industrial wastewaters employed in fermentative hydrogen production. The cell biomass concentration peaked at 3 h HRT with a volatile suspended solids (VSS) concentration of 6.31 g/L (with presence of self-flocculating Selenomonas sp.), but it dropped to 3.54 gVSS/L at 1.5 h HRT. With the shortening of HRT, lactate concentration increased but the concentration of the dominant metabolite butyrate did not vary significantly. The Clostridium species dynamics was not significantly affected, but total microbial community structure changed with respect to HRT variation as evident from PCR–DGGE analyses. Analysis of energy production rate suggests that beverage wastewater is a high energy yielding feedstock, and can replace 24% of electricity consumption in a model beverage industry

  14. Efficiency of hydrogen gas production in a stand-alone solar hydrogen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K.; Tamakloe, R.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Many photovoltaic systems operate in a decentralised electricity producing system, or stand-alone mode and the total energy demand is met by the output of the photovoltaic array. The output of the photovoltaic system fluctuates and is unpredictable for many applications making some forms of energy storage system necessary. The role of storage medium is to store the excess energy produced by the photovoltaic arry, to absorb momentary power peaks and to supply energy during sunless periods. One of the storage modes is the use of electrochemical techniques, with batteries and water electrolysis as the most important examples. The present study includes three main parts: the first one is the hydrogen production form the electrolysis of water depending on the DC output current of the photovoltaic (PV) energy source and the charging of the battery. The second part presents the influence of various parameters on the efficiency of hydrogen gas production. The final part includes simulation studies with focus on solar hydrogen efficiency under the influence of various physical and chemical parameters. For a 50W panel-battery-electrolyser system, the dependence of volume of hydrogen gas on voltage, current and power yielded a maximum efficiency of 13.6% (author)

  15. Production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmueller, R

    1984-03-01

    Hydrocarbons are the preferred starting materials for the industrial production of hydrogen. Most hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of light hydrocarbons. Partial oxidation of heavy oil and residue is used for the production of H/sub 2/ and synthesis gas in large plants. In both cases gas purification was improved. Hydrogen-rich gases like coke oven gas, refinery-offgas, and offgases from the chemical and petrochemical industry have high potential for becoming a major source of hydrogen. Processes for recovering H/sub 2/ (and by-products) are condensation and rectification at low temperatures and, most attractive and versatile for the production of very pure H/sub 2/, adsorption (PSA). The environmental impact of H/sub 2/ production lies mainly in the emission of CO/sub 2/ and heat. Other forms of pollution can be considerably reduced by conventional methods. The economy of H/sub 2/ production depends essentially on price and availability of the raw materials.

  16. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  17. Effect of some environmental parameters on fermentative hydrogen production by Enterobacter cloacae DM11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, K.; Kumar, A.; Das, D. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Biotechnology, Fermentation Technology Laboratory

    2006-06-15

    This study addressed the issue of using biological systems for hydrogen production as an environmentally sound alternative to conventional thermochemical and electrochemical processes. In particular, it examined the potential for anaerobic fermentation for biological hydrogen production and the possibility of coupling gaseous energy generation with simultaneous treatment of biodegradable waste materials. The study focused on hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation using Enterobacter cloacae DM11, a Gram-negative, motile facultative anaerobe. Although hydrogen production by these bacteria depends on many environmental parameters, there is very little information on the effects of these factors in the hydrogen production potential of this organism. For that reason, this study examined the effect of initial medium pH, reaction temperature, initial glucose concentration, and iron (Fe2+) concentration on the fermentative production of hydrogen. Fermentative hydrogen production was carried out by Enterobacter cloacae DM11, using glucose as the substrate. Batch cultivations were performed in a 500 ml custom-designed vertical tubular bioreactor. The maximum molar yield of hydrogen was 3.31 mol (mol glucose){sub 1}. The rate and cumulative volume of hydrogen production decreased at higher initial glucose concentration. The pH of 6.5 at a temperature of 37 degrees C was most suitable for maximum rate of production of hydrogen in batch fermentation. The addition of Fe2+ on hydrogen production had a marginal enhancing effect on total hydrogen production. A simple model developed from the modified Gompertz equation was used to fit the cumulative hydrogen production curve and to estimate the hydrogen production potential, maximum production rate, and lag time. It was concluded that these study results could be used in the development of a high rate continuous hydrogen production process. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Availability of steam generator against thermal disturbance of hydrogen production system coupled to HTGR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taiju; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hada, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Shusaku

    1996-01-01

    One of the safety issues to couple a hydrogen production system to an HTGR is how the reactor coolability can be maintained against anticipated abnormal reduction of heat removal (thermal disturbance) of the hydrogen production system. Since such a thermal disturbance is thought to frequently occur, it is desired against the thermal disturbance to keep reactor coolability by means other than reactor scram. Also, it is thought that the development of a passive cooling system for such a thermal disturbance will be necessary from a public acceptance point of view in a future HTGR-hydrogen production system. We propose a SG as the passive cooling system which can keep the reactor coolability during a thermal disturbance of a hydrogen production system. This paper describes the proposed steam generator (SG) for the HTGR-hydrogen production system and a result of transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of the total system, showing availability of the SG against a thermal disturbance of the hydrogen production system in case of the HTTR-steam reforming hydrogen production system. (author)

  19. Photovoltaic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiser, H.W.; Memory, S.B.; Veziroglu, T.N.; Padin, J. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This is a new project, which started in June 1995, and involves photovoltaic hydrogen production as a fuel production method for the future. In order to increase the hydrogen yield, it was decided to use hybrid solar collectors to generate D.C. electricity, as well as high temperature steam for input to the electrolyzer. In this way, some of the energy needed to dissociate the water is supplied in the form of heat (or low grade energy), to generate steam, which results in a reduction of electrical energy (or high grade energy) needed. As a result, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiency is increased. In the above stated system, the collector location, the collector tracking sub-system (i.e., orientation/rotation), and the steam temperature have been taken as variables. Five locations selected - in order to consider a variety of latitudes, altitudes, cloud coverage and atmospheric conditions - are Atlanta, Denver, Miami, Phoenix and Salt Lake City. Plain PV and hybrid solar collectors for a stationary south facing system and five different collector rotation systems have been analyzed. Steam temperatures have been varied between 200{degrees}C and 1200{degrees}C. During the first year, solar to hydrogen conversion efficiencies have been considered. The results show that higher steam temperatures, 2 dimensional tracking system, higher elevations and dryer climates causes higher conversion efficiencies. Cost effectiveness of the sub-systems and of the overall system will be analyzed during the second year. Also, initial studies will be made of an advanced high efficiency hybrid solar hydrogen production system.

  20. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M; Lien, S; Weaver, P F

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  1. Fusion Energy for Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J. A.; Powell, J. R.; Steinberg, M.; Salzano, F.; Benenati, R.; Dang, V.; Fogelson, S.; Isaacs, H.; Kouts, H.; Kushner, M.; Lazareth, O.; Majeski, S.; Makowitz, H.; Sheehan, T. V.

    1978-09-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approximately 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets.

  2. Comparison of pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, E.; Harvey, S.

    2007-01-01

    When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production, significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: (A) pulp-mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and (B) stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass. The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle (BLGCC) CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO 2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO 2 emissions reduction target levels. Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO 2 -lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor (Alternative A) is best from a CO 2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO 2 emissions associated with electricity production, hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor (Alternative B) is preferable. (author)

  3. Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutrouli, E.C.; Gavala, H.N.; Skiadas, I.V.; Lyberatos, G. [Patras Univ., Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C. This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.5 mmole of hydrogen per gram of total carbohydrates. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  4. Study on commercial HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2000-07-01

    The Japanese energy demand in 2030 will increase up to 117% in comparison with one in 2000. We have to avoid a large consumption of fossil fuel that induces a large CO 2 emission from viewpoint of global warming. Furthermore new energy resources expected to resolve global warming have difficulty to be introduced more because of their low energy density. As a result, nuclear power still has a possibility of large introduction to meet the increasing energy demand. On the other hand, in Japan, 40% of fossil fuels in the primary energy are utilized for power generation, and the remaining are utilized as a heat source. New clean energy is required to reduce the consumption of fossil fuels and hydrogen is expected as a alternative energy resource. Prediction of potential hydrogen demand in Japan is carried out and it is clarified that the demand will potentially increase up to 4% of total primary energy in 2050. In present, steam reforming method is the most economical among hydrogen generation processes and the cost of hydrogen production is about 7 to 8 yen/m 3 in Europe and the United States and about 13 yen/m 3 in Japan. JAERI has proposed for using the HTGR whose maximum core outlet temperature is at 950degC as a heat source in the steam reforming to reduced the consumption of fossil fuels and resulting CO 2 emission. Based on the survey of the production rate and the required thermal energy in conventional industry, it is clarified that a hydrogen production system by the steam reforming is the best process for the commercial HTGR nuclear heat utilization. The HTGR steam reforming system and other candidate nuclear heat utilization systems are considered from viewpoint of system layout and economy. From the results, the hydrogen production cost in the HTGR stream reforming system is expected to be about 13.5 yen/m 3 if the cost of nuclear heat of the HTGR is the same as one of the LWR. (author)

  5. New efficient hydrogen process production from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunel, Jean Michel [Unite URMITE, UMR 6236 CNRS, Faculte de Medecine et de Pharmacie, Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille 05 (France)

    2010-04-15

    While the source of hydrogen constitutes a significant scientific challenge, addressing issues of hydrogen storage, transport, and delivery is equally important. None of the current hydrogen storage options, liquefied or high pressure H{sub 2} gas, metal hydrides, etc.. satisfy criteria of size, costs, kinetics, and safety for use in transportation. In this context, we have discovered a methodology for the production of hydrogen on demand, in high yield, under kinetic control, from organosilane hydrogen carriers derivatives and methanol as co-reagent under mild conditions catalyzed by a cheap ammonium fluoride salt. Finally, the silicon by-products can be efficiently recycle leading to an environmentally friendly source of energy. (author)

  6. Solar to hydrogen: Compact and cost effective CPV field for rooftop operation and hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-11-25

    Current commercial CPV systems are designed as large units which are targeted to be installed in open desert fields with high DNI availability. It appeared that the CPV is among some of those technologies which gained very little attention of people, with less customers and market. For conventional PV systems, the installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings have a significant share in the total installed capacity of PV systems. That is why for most of the countries, the PV installations at the rooftop of commercial and residential buildings are aimed to be increased to half of total installed PV. On the other hand, there is no commercial CPV system available to be suitable for rooftop operation, giving motivation for the development of CPV field of compact systems. This paper discusses the development of a CPV field for the rooftop operation, comprising of compact CPV system with cost effective but highly accurate solar tracking sensor and wireless master slave control. In addition, the performance of the developed CPV systems is evaluated for production of hydrogen, which can be used as energy carrier or energy storage and a maximum solar to hydrogen efficiency of 18% is obtained. However, due to dynamic nature of the weather data and throughout the day variations in the performance of CPV and electrolyser, the solar to hydrogen performance is proposed to be reported as daily and long term average efficiency. The CPV-Hydrogen system showed daily average conversion efficiency of 15%, with solar to hydrogen production rate of 218 kW h/kg.

  7. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) methane (CH 4) reformation (H 2SMR) (2H 2S + CH 4 = CS 2 + 4H 2) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H 2S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H 2SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS 2), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure-a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H 2SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH 4 to H 2S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H 2SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H 2SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively.

  8. Nuclear energy for sustainable Hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyoshev, G.

    2004-01-01

    There is general agreement that hydrogen as an universal energy carrier could play increasingly important role in energy future as part of a set of solutions to a variety of energy and environmental problems. Given its abundant nature, hydrogen has been an important raw material in the organic chemical industry. At recent years strong competition has emerged between nations as diverse as the U.S., Japan, Germany, China and Iceland in the race to commercialize hydrogen energy vehicles in the beginning of 21st Century. Any form of energy - fossil, renewable or nuclear - can be used to generate hydrogen. The hydrogen production by nuclear electricity is considered as a sustainable method. By our presentation we are trying to evaluate possibilities for sustainable hydrogen production by nuclear energy at near, medium and long term on EC strategic documents basis. The main EC documents enter water electrolysis by nuclear electricity as only sustainable technology for hydrogen production in early stage of hydrogen economy. In long term as sustainable method is considered the splitting of water by thermochemical technology using heat from high temperature reactors too. We consider that at medium stage of hydrogen economy it is possible to optimize the sustainable hydrogen production by high temperature and high pressure water electrolysis by using a nuclear-solar energy system. (author)

  9. Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, M.; Lien, S.; Weaver, P.F.

    1979-01-01

    Hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms, which has been known since the 1930's, occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. Three classes of organisms, namely, photosynthetic bacteria, cyanobacteria, and algae carry out this function. The primary hydrogen-producing enzyme systems, hydrogenase and nitrogenase, will be discussed along with the manner in which they couple to light-driven electron transport. In addition, the feasibility of using in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen producing systems in future solar energy conversion applications will be examined.

  10. Biological hydrogen production from biomass by thermophilic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claassen, P.A.M.; Mars, A.E.; Budde, M.A.W.; Lai, M.; de Vrije, T.; van Niel, E.W.J.

    2006-01-01

    To meet the reduction of the emission of CO 2 imposed by the Kyoto protocol, hydrogen should be produced from renewable primary energy. Besides the indirect production of hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity from renewable resources, such as sunlight, wind and hydropower, hydrogen can be directly produced from biomass. At present, there are two strategies for the production of hydrogen from biomass: the thermochemical technology, such as gasification, and the biotechnological approach using micro-organisms. Biological hydrogen production delivers clean hydrogen with an environmental-friendly technology and is very suitable for the conversion of wet biomass in small-scale applications, thus having a high chance of becoming an economically feasible technology. Many micro-organisms are able to produce hydrogen from mono- and disaccharides, starch and (hemi)cellulose under anaerobic conditions. The anaerobic production of hydrogen is a common phenomenon, occurring during the process of anaerobic digestion. Here, hydrogen producing micro-organisms are in syn-trophy with methanogenic bacteria which consume the hydrogen as soon as it is produced. In this way, hydrogen production remains obscure and methane is the end-product. By uncoupling hydrogen production from methane production, hydrogen becomes available for recovery and exploitation. This study describes the use of extreme thermophilic bacteria, selected because of a higher hydrogen production efficiency as compared to mesophilic bacteria, for the production of hydrogen from renewable resources. As feedstock energy crops like Miscanthus and Sorghum bicolor and waste streams like domestic organic waste, paper sludge and potato steam peels were used. The feedstock was pretreated and/or enzymatically hydrolyzed prior to fermentation to make a fermentable substrate. Hydrogen production by Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus, Thermotoga elfii and T. neapolitana on all substrates was observed. Nutrient

  11. Hydrogen production using Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP 3-5 with hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi-Mei Lee; Kuo-Tsang Hung

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of utilizing the dark hydrogen fermentation stage effluents for photo hydrogen production using purple non-sulfur bacteria should be elucidated. In the previous experiments, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 was proven to efficiently produce hydrogen from the effluent of hydrogen fermentation reactors. The highest hydrogen production rate was obtained at a HRT value of 48 h when feeding a 5 fold effluent dilution from anaerobic hydrogen fermentation. Besides, hydrogen production occurred only when the NH 4 + concentration was below 17 mg-NH 4 + /l. Therefore, for successful fermentation effluent utilization, the most important things were to decrease the optimal HRT, increase the optimal substrate concentration and increase the tolerable ammonia concentration. In this study, a lab-scale serial photo-bioreactor was constructed. The reactor overall hydrogen production efficiency with synthetic wastewater exhibiting an organic acid profile identical to that of anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactor effluent and with effluent from two anaerobic hydrogen fermentation reactors was evaluated. (authors)

  12. Hydrogen production processes; Procedes de production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H{sub 2} question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H{sub 2} production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  13. HTTR workshop (workshop on hydrogen production technology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Yasuaki; Takizuka, Takakazu

    2004-12-01

    Various research and development efforts have been performed to solve the global energy and environmental problems caused by large consumption of fossil fuels. Research activities on advanced hydrogen production technology by the use of nuclear heat from high temperature gas cooled reactors, for example, have been flourished in universities, research institutes and companies in many countries. The Department of HTTR Project and the Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology of JAERI held the HTTR Workshop (Workshop on Hydrogen Production Technology) on July 5 and 6, 2004 to grasp the present status of R and D about the technology of HTGR and the nuclear hydrogen production in the world and to discuss about necessity of the nuclear hydrogen production and technical problems for the future development of the technology. More than 110 participants attended the Workshop including foreign participants from USA, France, Korea, Germany, Canada and United Kingdom. In the Workshop, the presentations were made on such topics as R and D programs for nuclear energy and hydrogen production technologies by thermo-chemical or other processes. Also, the possibility of the nuclear hydrogen production in the future society was discussed. The workshop showed that the R and D for the hydrogen production by the thermo-chemical process has been performed in many countries. The workshop affirmed that nuclear hydrogen production could be one of the competitive supplier of hydrogen in the future. The second HTTR Workshop will be held in the autumn next year. (author)

  14. Analysis of Production and Delivery Center Hydrogen Applied to the Southern Patagonian Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Fernando Medina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Desire department of the province of Santa Cruz, Argentina, presents the greatest potential electrolytic Hydrogen Production Country, From Three primary sources of sustainable energy: wind, solar, biomass. There, the Hydrogen Plant of Pico Truncado has capacity central production of hydrogen 100m3 of H2 / day, enough to supply 353 vehicles with hybrid fuel called HGNC, made by cutting 12% V / V of hydrogen in CNG (in situ at each station. Puerto Deseado, Fitz Roy, Caleta Olivia, Las Heras, Comodoro Rivadavia, Sarmiento and the Ancients: From the production cost, the cost of delivering hydrogen to the Southern Patagonian circuit comprised analyzed. Considering various local parameters are determined as a way of delivering more profitable virtual pipeline, with total cost of hydrogen estimated 6.5 USD / kg H2 and HGNC shipped in the station at 0.50 USD / Nm3.

  15. Nuclear hydrogen production and its safe handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Paek, Seungwoo; Kim, Kwang-Rag; Ahn, Do-Hee; Lee, Minsoo; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the hydrogen related research presently undertaken at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute are presented. These encompass nuclear hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, and the safe handling of hydrogen, High temperature gas-cooled reactors can play a significant role, with respect to large-scale hydrogen production, if used as the provider of high temperature heat in fossil fuel conversion or thermochemical cycles. A variety of potential hydrogen production methods for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed. They are steam reforming of natural gas, thermochemical cycles, etc. The produced hydrogen should be stored safely. Titanium metal was tested primarily because its hydride has very low dissociation pressures at normal storage temperatures and a high capacity for hydrogen, it is easy to prepare and is non-reactive with air in the expected storage conditions. There could be a number of potential sources of hydrogen evolution risk in a nuclear hydrogen production facility. In order to reduce the deflagration detonation it is necessary to develop hydrogen control methods that are capable of dealing with the hydrogen release rate. A series of experiments were conducted to assess the catalytic recombination characteristics of hydrogen in an air stream using palladium catalysts. (author)

  16. Liquid hydrogen production via hydrogen sulfide methane reformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [University of Central Florida, Florida Solar Energy Center, 1769 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) methane (CH{sub 4}) reformation (H{sub 2}SMR) (2H{sub 2}S + CH{sub 4} = CS{sub 2} + 4H{sub 2}) is a potentially viable process for the removal of H{sub 2}S from sour natural gas resources or other methane containing gases. Unlike steam methane reformation that generates carbon dioxide as a by-product, H{sub 2}SMR produces carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}), a liquid under ambient temperature and pressure - a commodity chemical that is also a feedstock for the synthesis of sulfuric acid. Pinch point analyses for H{sub 2}SMR were conducted to determine the reaction conditions necessary for no carbon lay down to occur. Calculations showed that to prevent solid carbon formation, low inlet CH{sub 4} to H{sub 2}S ratios are needed. In this paper, we analyze H{sub 2}SMR with either a cryogenic process or a membrane separation operation for production of either liquid or gaseous hydrogen. Of the three H{sub 2}SMR hydrogen production flowsheets analyzed, direct liquid hydrogen generation has higher first and second law efficiencies of exceeding 80% and 50%, respectively. (author)

  17. Optimization of Hydrogen Production in Anaerobic Digestion Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesar-Arturo Aceves-Lara; Eric Latrille; Thierry Conte; Nicolas Bernet; Pierre Buffiere; Jean-Philippe Steyer

    2006-01-01

    The hydrogen production using anaerobic digestion processes is strongly related to the operational conditions such as pH in the reactor, agitation of the liquid phase and hydraulic retention time (HRT). In this study, an experimental design has been carried out and the main effects and interactions between the three above mentioned factors have been evaluated. Experiments were performed in a continuous bioreactor with HRT of 6, 10 or 14 h, pH was regulated to 5.5, 5.75 or 6 and agitation speed was maintained at 150, 225 or 300 rpm. Molasses were used as substrate with a feeding concentration of 10 gCOD.L -1 . The maximum hydrogen rate production was 5.4 L.Lreactor -1 .d -1 . It was obtained for a pH of 5.5, a retention time of 6 h and an agitation speed of 300 rpm. The mathematical analysis of the experimental data revealed that two reactions could explain 89% of the total variance of the experimental data. Finally, the pseudo-stoichiometric coefficients were estimated and the effects of the operational conditions on the hydrogen production rates were calculated. (authors)

  18. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  19. Safe production and application of hydrogen at Munich airport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szamer, R.

    2005-07-01

    At Munich International Airport the world's first public filling station for liquid and gaseous hydrogen with on-site hydrogen gas production has been installed. In order to prove the safety, liability and economic feasibility of hydrogen this pilot project examined the complete sequence of hydrogen production and application: on-site production with pressurized electrolyser and steam reformer, storage and filling of gaseous and liquid hydrogen, application of hydrogen for propelling several vehicles, e.g. airport busses in day to day operation, cars, fork lifter. TUV SUD Group, one of the largest service provider for technical safety and quality, was involved in the safety evaluation of the hydrogen project from the very beginning with the following services: safety consultancy throughout all project phases, e.g. for licensing procedures, plant design and operation safety analysis of the overall plant and of subsystems (electrolyser, filling stations, storage tanks, control systems etc.) safety assessment and acceptance testing of CH2 busses, CH2 fork lifter and LH2 passenger cars inspections and tests The challenges of this complex project relating to safety will be presented in the lecture, e.g. identification of potential hazards, safety requirements for the design and operation of the hydrogen plant as wells as for the various applications. Project description The hydrogen plant (cf. Figure 1) comprises two supply paths, one for compressed gaseous hydrogen (CH2) and one for cryogenic liquid hydrogen. Gaseous hydrogen is produced via high-pressure electrolysis at an operating pressure of 3 MPa (30 bar) and/or steam reforming process. The hydrogen will be led into a compressor, compressed to 35 MPa (350 bar) and stored in high pressure cylinders with a total geometrical storage volume of 10 m. The cylinders supply the high-pressure filling stations which refuels the 3 hydrogen buses and the fork lifter. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is delivered in tank trucks and

  20. The hydrogen production; La production d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aujollet, P.; Goldstein, St. [CEA Cadarach, Dir. de l' Energie Nucleaire, 13 - Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Lucchese, P. [CEA Fontenay aux Roses, Dir. des Nouvelles Technologies de l' Energie, 92 (France)

    2002-07-01

    This paper gives an overview on the implementing of the hydrogen as substitution fuel in the transportation sector. It presents also the problems of this fuel storage and exploitation and describes the production modes and their safety. It also presents the main lines of the japan HTGR program. (A.L.B.)

  1. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U.

    2006-01-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm 2 of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm 3 /h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  2. Limits for hydrogen production of a solar - hydrogen system in Cuernavaca, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga, H.L.G.; Gutierrez, S.L.; Cano, U. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas Av. Reforma 113, col. Palmira c.p.62490 Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    In this work experimental data are used in order to estimate the production of hydrogen as a function of irradiance of a direct-interconnection of solar panel system with a SPE (Solid Polymer Electrolyte) electrolyzer (also Solar-Hydrogen system). The solar - hydrogen system, consists of a photovoltaic solar array of 36 panels (75 Watts each) of monocrystalline silicon interconnected with an electrolyzer stack of 25 cells (around 100 cm{sup 2} of geometrical area) with a maximum hydrogen production of 1 Nm{sup 3}/h. By the use of voltage, current density, energy consumption values of the whole solar-hydrogen system, an average efficiency up to 5% was estimated and an average of 3,800 NL of hydrogen per day can be expected. Also the maximum hydrogen production for the months of July and December (sunniest and least sunny months in the location) is predicted. (authors)

  3. Hydro-isomerization of n-hexane on bi-functional catalyst: Effect of total and hydrogen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoa, Dao Thi Kim; Loc, Luu Cam

    2017-09-01

    The effect of both total pressure and hydrogen partial pressure during n-hexane hydro-isomerization over platinum impregnated on HZSM-5 was studied. n-Hexane hydro-isomerization was conducted at atmospheric pressure and 0.7 MPa to observe the influence of total pressure. In order to see the effect of hydrogen partial pressure, the reaction was taken place at different partial pressure of hydrogen varied from 307 hPa to 718 hPa by dilution with nitrogen to keep the total pressure at 0.1 MPa. Physico-chemical characteristics of catalyst were determined by the methods of nitrogen physi-sorption BET, SEM, XRD, TEM, NH3-TPD, TPR, and Hydrogen Pulse Chemi-sorption. Activity of catalyst in the hydro-isomerization of n-hexane was studied in a micro-flow reactor in the temperature range of 225-325 °C; the molar ratio H2/ hydrocarbon: 5.92, concentration of n-hexane: 9.2 mol.%, GHSV 2698 h-1. The obtained catalyst expressed high acid density, good reducing property, high metal dispersion, and good balance between metallic and acidic sites. It is excellent contact for n-hexane hydro-isomerization. At 250 °C, n-hexane conversion and selectivity were as high as 59-76 % and 85-99 %, respectively. It was found that catalytic activity was promoted either by total pressure or hydrogen partial pressure. At total pressure of 0.7 MPa while hydrogen partial pressure of 718 hPa, catalyst produced 63 RON liquid product containing friendly environmental iso-paraffins which is superior blending stock for green gasoline. Hydrogen did not only preserve catalyst actives by depressing hydrocracking and removing coke precursors but also facilitated hydride transfer step in the bi-functional bi-molecular mechanism.

  4. Appraisal of bio-hydrogen production schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bent Sorensen

    2006-01-01

    Work is ongoing on several schemes of biological hydrogen production. At one end is the genetic modification of biological systems (such as algae or cyanobacteria) to produce hydrogen from photosynthesis, instead of the energy-rich compounds (such as NADPH 2 ) normally constituting the endpoint of the transformations through the photo-systems. A second route is to collect and use the biomass produced by normal plant growth processes in a separate step that produces hydrogen. This may be done similar to biogas production by fermentation, where the endpoint is methane (plus CO 2 and minor constituents). Hydrogen could be the outcome of a secondary process starting from methane, involving any of the conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas. An alternative to fermentation is gasification of the biomass, followed by a shift-reaction leading to hydrogen. I compare advantages and disadvantages of these three routes, notably factors such as system efficiency, cost and environmental impacts, and also compare them to liquid biofuels. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production characteristics of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Yu, Zhang [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)]|[Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhenhong, Yuan; Yongming, Sun; Xiaoying, Kong [Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2009-01-15

    The hydrogen production from the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) by anaerobic mixed culture fermentation was investigated using batch experiments at 37 C. Seven varieties of typical individual components of OFMSW including rice, potato, lettuce, lean meat, oil, fat and banyan leaves were selected to estimate the hydrogen production potential. Experimental results showed that the boiling treated anaerobic sludge was effective mixed inoculum for fermentative hydrogen production from OFMSW. Mechanism of fermentative hydrogen production indicates that, among the OFMSW, carbohydrates is the most optimal substrate for fermentative hydrogen production compared with proteins, lipids and lignocelluloses. This conclusion was also substantiated by experimental results of this study. The hydrogen production potentials of rice, potato and lettuce were 134 mL/g-VS, 106 mL/g-VS, and 50 mL/g-VS respectively. The hydrogen percentages of the total gas produced from rice, potato and lettuce were 57-70%, 41-55% and 37-67%. (author)

  6. Contribution to the determination of total hydrogen in oxide nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartscher, W.; Kutter, H.

    1979-01-01

    Normally the total hydrogen content of a fast breeder mixed oxide fuel is calculated from the results of the determinations of free hydrogen and water. Thermodynamic considerations, coupled with kinetic results for room temperature and 1000 0 C and taken from the literature indicate, that the normal method for the determination of water by heating in a carrier gas stream and subsequent coulometric determination of the expelled water must give low results. A modification of this method involving the introduction of a copper oxide furnace into the system for the oxidation of hydrogen has been studied. The resulting method for the determination of total hydrogen gives about ten times higher values than those calculated from the normal water determination. These total hydrogen values and the oxygen to metal ratios which are obtained by gravimetric methods and not corrected for the water content, reflect more realistically the in-pile conditions in the fuel pin. (Auth.)

  7. Preliminary Cost Estimates for Nuclear Hydrogen Production: HTSE System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, K. J.; Lee, K. Y.; Lee, T. H.

    2008-01-01

    KAERI is now focusing on the research and development of the key technologies required for the design and realization of a nuclear hydrogen production system. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GTMHR and PBMR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4-ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production of HTSE (High Temperature Steam Electrolysis) process with VHTR (Very High Temperature nuclear Reactor) as a thermal energy source. The estimated costs presented in this paper show that hydrogen production by the VHTR could be competitive with current techniques of hydrogen production from fossil fuels if CO 2 capture and sequestration is required. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow large-scale production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding the release of CO 2 . Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The major factors that would affect the cost of hydrogen were also discussed

  8. LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.; BROWN, L.C.; BESENBRUCH, G.E.; HAMILTON, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B202 LARGE-SCALE PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN BY NUCLEAR ENERGY FOR THE HYDROGEN ECONOMY. The ''Hydrogen Economy'' will reduce petroleum imports and greenhouse gas emissions. However, current commercial hydrogen production processes use fossil fuels and releases carbon dioxide. Hydrogen produced from nuclear energy could avoid these concerns. The authors have recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, by nuclear means, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-splitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen and to select one for further detailed consideration. The authors selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle, In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this paper

  9. Chemistry - Toward efficient hydrogen production at surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Christensen, Claus H.

    2006-01-01

    Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy.......Calculations are providing a molecular picture of hydrogen production on catalytic surfaces and within enzymes, knowledge that may guide the design of new, more efficient catalysts for the hydrogen economy....

  10. Hydrogen production by recombinant Escherichia coli strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Toshinari; Sanchez‐Torres, Viviana; Wood, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The production of hydrogen via microbial biotechnology is an active field of research. Given its ease of manipulation, the best‐studied bacterium Escherichia coli has become a workhorse for enhanced hydrogen production through metabolic engineering, heterologous gene expression, adaptive evolution, and protein engineering. Herein, the utility of E. coli strains to produce hydrogen, via native hydrogenases or heterologous ones, is reviewed. In addition, potential strategies for increasing hydrogen production are outlined and whole‐cell systems and cell‐free systems are compared. PMID:21895995

  11. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Chang, J. H.; Park, J. K.

    2007-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production system, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. To estimate the attainments of the key technologies in progress with the performance goals of GIF, itemized are the attainment indices based on SRP published in VHTR R and D steering committee of Gen-IV. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items conformed to the NHDD concepts established in a preconceptual design in 2005. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  12. Microwave plasma for hydrogen production from liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czylkowski Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen production by conversion of liquid compounds containing hydrogen was investigated experimentally. The waveguide-supplied metal cylinder-based microwave plasma source (MPS operated at frequency of 915 MHz at atmospheric pressure was used. The decomposition of ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene was performed employing plasma dry reforming process. The liquid was introduced into the plasma in the form of vapour. The amount of vapour ranged from 0.4 to 2.4 kg/h. Carbon dioxide with the flow rate ranged from 1200 to 2700 NL/h was used as a working gas. The absorbed microwave power was up to 6 kW. The effect of absorbed microwave power, liquid composition, liquid flow rate and working gas fl ow rate was analysed. All these parameters have a clear influence on the hydrogen production efficiency, which was described with such parameters as the hydrogen production rate [NL(H2/h] and the energy yield of hydrogen production [NL(H2/kWh]. The best achieved experimental results showed that the hydrogen production rate was up to 1116 NL(H2/h and the energy yield was 223 NL(H2 per kWh of absorbed microwave energy. The results were obtained in the case of isopropanol dry reforming. The presented catalyst-free microwave plasma method can be adapted for hydrogen production not only from ethanol, isopropanol and kerosene, but also from different other liquid compounds containing hydrogen, like gasoline, heavy oils and biofuels.

  13. Photo-fermentative bacteria aggregation triggered by L-cysteine during hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guo-Jun; Liu, Bing-Feng; Xing, De-Feng; Nan, Jun; Ding, Jie; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2013-05-03

    Hydrogen recovered from organic wastes and solar energy by photo-fermentative bacteria (PFB) has been suggested as a promising bioenergy strategy. However, the use of PFB for hydrogen production generally suffers from a serious biomass washout from photobioreactor, due to poor flocculation of PFB. In the continuous operation, PFB cells cannot be efficiently separated from supernatant and rush out with effluent from reactor continuously, which increased the effluent turbidity, meanwhile led to increases in pollutants. Moreover, to replenish the biomass washout, substrate was continuously utilized for cell growth rather than hydrogen production. Consequently, the poor flocculability not only deteriorated the effluent quality, but also decreased the potential yield of hydrogen from substrate. Therefore, enhancing the flocculability of PFB is urgent necessary to further develop photo-fermentative process. Here, we demonstrated that L-cysteine could improve hydrogen production of Rhodopseudomonas faecalis RLD-53, and more importantly, simultaneously trigger remarkable aggregation of PFB. Experiments showed that L-cysteine greatly promoted the production of extracellular polymeric substances, especially secretion of protein containing more disulfide bonds, and help for enhancement stability of floc of PFB. Through formation of disulfide bonds, L-cysteine not only promoted production of EPS, in particular the secretion of protein, but also stabilized the final confirmation of protein in EPS. In addition, the cell surface elements and functional groups, especially surface charged groups, have also been changed by L-cysteine. Consequently, absolute zeta potential reached a minimum value at 1.0 g/l of L-cysteine, which obviously decreased electrostatic repulsion interaction energy based on DLVO theory. Total interaction energy barrier decreased from 389.77 KT at 0.0 g/l of L-cysteine to 127.21 kT at 1.0 g/l. Thus, the strain RLD-53 overcame the total energy barrier and

  14. Solutions to commercializing metal hydride hydrogen storage products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Belanger, R.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Whilst the concept of a Hydrogen economy in the broad sense may for some analysts and Fuel Cell technology developers be an ever moving target the use of hydrogen exists and is growing in other markets today. The use of hydrogen is increasing. Who are the users? What are their unique needs? How can they better be served? As the use of hydrogen increases there are things we can do to improve the perception and handling of hydrogen as an industrial gas that will impact the future issues of hydrogen as a fuel thereby assisting the mainstream availability of hydrogen fuel a reality. Factors that will induce change in the way hydrogen is used, handled, transported and stored are the factors to concentrate development efforts on. Other factors include: cost; availability; safety; codes and standards; and regulatory authorities acceptance of new codes and standards. New methods of storage and new devices in which the hydrogen is stored will influence and bring about change and increased use. New innovative products based on Metal Hydride hydrogen storage will address some of the barriers to widely distributed hydrogen as a fuel or energy carrier to which successful fuel cell product commercialization is subject. Palcan has developed innovative products based on it's Rare Earth Metal Hydride alloy. Some of these innovations will aid the distribution of hydrogen as a fuel and offer alternatives to the existing hydrogen user and to the Fuel Cell product developer. An overview of the products and how these products will affect the distribution and use of hydrogen as an industrial gas and fuel is presented. (author)

  15. Present status of research on hydrogen energy and perspective of HTGR hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masuro; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-03-01

    A study was performed to make a clear positioning of research and development on hydrogen production systems with a High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) under currently promoting at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute through a grasp of the present status of hydrogen energy, focussing on its production and utilization as an energy in future. The study made clear that introduction of safe distance concept for hydrogen fire and explosion was practicable for a HTGR hydrogen production system, including hydrogen properties and need to provide regulations applying to handle hydrogen. And also generalization of hydrogen production processes showed technical issues of the HTGR system. Hydrogen with HTGR was competitive to one with fossil fired system due to evaluation of production cost. Hydrogen is expected to be used as promising fuel of fuel cell cars in future. In addition, the study indicated that there were a large amount of energy demand alternative to high efficiency power generation and fossil fuel with nuclear energy through the structure of energy demand and supply in Japan. Assuming that hydrogen with HTGR meets all demand of fuel cell cars, an estimation would show introduction of the maximum number of about 30 HTGRs with capacity of 100 MWt from 2020 to 2030. (author)

  16. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  17. Biological hydrogen production from industrial wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Zaiat, Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). School of Engineering. Dept. Hydraulics and Sanitation], Email: peixoto@sc.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    This research evaluates the potential for producing hydrogen in anaerobic reactors using industrial wastewaters (glycerol from bio diesel production, wastewater from the parboilization of rice, and vinasse from ethanol production). In a complementary experiment the soluble products formed during hydrogen production were evaluated for methane generation. The assays were performed in batch reactors with 2 liters volume, and sucrose was used as a control substrate. The acidogenic inoculum was taken from a packed-bed reactor used to produce hydrogen from a sucrose-based synthetic substrate. The methanogenic inoculum was taken from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating poultry slaughterhouse wastewater. Hydrogen was produced from rice parboilization wastewater (24.27 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) vinasse (22.75 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD) and sucrose (25.60 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} COD), while glycerol only showed potential for methane generation. (author)

  18. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Diogo M. F.; Sequeira, César A. C.; Figueiredo, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article...

  19. Renewable solar hydrogen production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakos, J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a tremendous opportunity to generate large quantities of hydrogen from low grade and economical sources of methane including landfill gas, biogas, flare gas, and coal bed methane. The environmental benefits of generating hydrogen using renewable energy include significant greenhouse gas and air contaminant reductions. Solar Hydrogen Energy Corporation (SHEC LABS) recently constructed and demonstrated a Dry Fuel Reforming (DFR) hydrogen generation system that is powered primarily by sunlight focusing-mirrors in Tempe, Arizona. The system comprises a solar mirror array, a temperature controlling shutter system, and two thermo-catalytic reactors to convert methane, carbon dioxide, and water into hydrogen. This process has shown that solar hydrogen generation is feasible and cost-competitive with traditional hydrogen production. The presentation will provide the following: An overview of the results of the testing conducted in Tempe, Arizona; A look at the design and installation of the scaled-up technology site at a landfill site in Canada; An examination of the economic and environmental benefits of renewable hydrogen production using solar energy

  20. Hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The goals of this first Gedepeon workshop on hydrogen production processes are: to stimulate the information exchange about research programs and research advances in the domain of hydrogen production processes, to indicate the domains of interest of these processes and the potentialities linked with the coupling of a nuclear reactor, to establish the actions of common interest for the CEA, the CNRS, and eventually EDF, that can be funded in the framework of the Gedepeon research group. This document gathers the slides of the 17 presentations given at this workshop and dealing with: the H 2 question and the international research programs (Lucchese P.); the CEA's research program (Lucchese P., Anzieu P.); processes based on the iodine/sulfur cycle: efficiency of a facility - flow-sheets, efficiencies, hard points (Borgard J.M.), R and D about the I/S cycle: Bunsen reaction (Colette S.), R and D about the I/S cycle: the HI/I 2 /H 2 O system (Doizi D.), demonstration loop/chemical engineering (Duhamet J.), materials and corrosion (Terlain A.); other processes under study: the Westinghouse cycle (Eysseric C.), other processes under study at the CEA (UT3, plasma,...) (Lemort F.), database about thermochemical cycles (Abanades S.), Zn/ZnO cycle (Broust F.), H 2 production by cracking, high temperature reforming with carbon trapping (Flamant G.), membrane technology (De Lamare J.); high-temperature electrolysis: SOFC used as electrolyzers (Grastien R.); generic aspects linked with hydrogen production: technical-economical evaluation of processes (Werkoff F.), thermodynamic tools (Neveu P.), the reactor-process coupling (Aujollet P.). (J.S.)

  1. Thermo-economic analysis of integrated membrane-SMR ITM-oxy-combustion hydrogen and power production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanusi, Yinka S.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.; Habib, Mohamed A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A methane reforming reactor integrated to an oxy-combustion plant is proposed. •Co-production of power and hydrogen was investigated and presented. •Optimal thermo-economic operating conditions of the system were identified and presented. •The ion transport membrane oxygen separation unit has the highest capital cost. •The combustor has the highest exergy destruction. -- Abstract: The demand for hydrogen has greatly increased in the last decade due to the stringent regulations enacted to address environmental pollution concerns. Natural gas reforming is currently the most mature technology for large-scale hydrogen production. However, it is usually associated with greenhouse gas emissions. As part of the strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, new designs need to be developed to integrate hydrogen production facilities that are based on natural gas reforming with carbon capture facilities. In this study, we carried out energy, exergy and economic analysis of hydrogen production in a steam methane reforming reactor integrated with an oxy-combustion plant for co-production of power and hydrogen. The results show that the overall system efficiency and hydrogen production efficiency monotonically increase with increasing the combustor exit temperature (CET), increasing the amount of hydrogen extracted and decreasing the auxiliary fuel added to the system. The optimal thermo-economic operating conditions of the system were obtained as reformer pressure of 15 bar, auxiliary fuel factor of 0.8 and hydrogen extraction factor of 0.6. The production cost of hydrogen using the proposed system, under these optimal operating conditions, is within the range suggested by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Further analysis shows that the capital cost of the membrane-air separation unit (ITM) has the major share in the total investment cost of the system and constitutes 37% of the total capital cost of the system at the CET of 1500 K. The exergy

  2. Once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    potential, the maximum efficiency is about 52 % under the conditions of 40% sulfur power plant efficiency and 60 w-% sulfuric acid concentration in electrolyzer The major factors that can affect the cycle efficiency are reducing the electrode over-potential Because the once-through process does not need a high temperature reactor for sulfuric acid decomposition, initial hydrogen feed for boosting the hydrogen economy can be provided by the currently available nuclear electricity which is carbon-free. After the initiation of the hydrogen economy, closed recycle of sulfuric acid using high temperature nuclear reactors can be pursued. Until the commercialization of closed nuclear hydrogen process, by using the once-through process, the initial hydrogen feed for the hydrogen economy can be provided by nuclear electricity. Fossil fuels provide 86% of total primary energy today. Considering the current energy mix, fossil fuels will inevitably play a major role and sulfur will flow out as a by product. The sulfur byproduct utilization for the nuclear hydrogen generation will make the transition to the hydrogen economy smooth. In addition, off-peak electricity can be converted into hydrogen by the once-through process and converted back to electricity for the peak load. Depending on the electrode potential and round trip efficiency, off-peak electricity can be stored very efficiently. (authors)

  3. Extremophile mediated hydrogen production for hydrogenation of substrates in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjom, Mouzhgun

    Catalytic hydrogenation reactions are pervasive throughout our economy, from production of margarine as food, liquid fuels for transportation and chiral drugs such as L-DOPA. H2 production from non-fossil fuel feedstocks is highly desirable for transition to the "Hydrogen Economy". Also, the rates of hydrogenation reactions that involve a substrate, H 2 gas and a catalyst are often limited by the solubility of H2 in solvent. The present research thus envisioned designing water-soluble catalysts that could effectively utilize biologically produced H2 in a coupled system to hydrogenate substrates in homogeneous mode (two-phase system). Biological production of H2 as an end product or byproduct of the metabolism of organisms that operate under strict anaerobic conditions has been proposed. However, contrary to what was previously observed, Thermotoga neapolitana, belonging to the order of Thermotogales efficiently produces H2 gas under microaerobic conditions (Van Ooteghem et al. 2004). For H2 production by T. neapolitana in the bacterial growth medium (DSM 5068) at an optimum temperature of 70 C, our results in batch mode show that: (1) H2 was produced from glucose though with 16% efficiency, the rest goes to biomass production, (2) H2 gas was produced even when the cultures were inoculated under microaerobic conditions (up to 8% (v/v) O2) suggesting a protective mechanism for one or more [Fe-Fe] hydrogenases in T. neapolitana, (3) H2 production was pH dependent but addition of simple, non-toxic physiological buffering additives such as Methylene succinic acid increased H2 production and (4) H2 production rate varied linearly in the 100--6800 kPa pressure range. We then screened various water-soluble metal catalysts in batch mode and selected the RhCl3.3H2O/TPPTS (TPPTS is a water-soluble ligand) system that achieved 86% hydrogenation of Methylene succinic acid (an olefin) in an aqueous medium pressurized with preformed H2. When water was replaced with the DSM 5068

  4. Efficient STEP (solar thermal electrochemical photo) production of hydrogen - an economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, Stuart [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Chitayat, Olivia; Bergmann, Harry; Dick, Andrew; Ayub, Hina [Solar Institute, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Ghosh, Susanta [Department of Chemistry, George Washington University, Ashburn, VA 20147 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan (India)

    2010-10-15

    A consideration of the economic viability of hydrogen fuel production is important in the STEP (Solar Thermal Electrochemical Photo) production of hydrogen fuel. STEP is an innovative way to decrease costs and increase the efficiency of hydrogen fuel production, which is a synergistic process that can use concentrating photovoltaics (CPV) and solar thermal energy to drive a high temperature, low voltage, electrolysis (water-splitting), resulting in H{sub 2} at decreased energy and higher solar efficiency. This study provides evidence that the STEP system is an economically viable solution for the production of hydrogen. STEP occurs at both higher electrolysis and solar conversion efficiencies than conventional room temperature photovoltaic (PV) generation of hydrogen. This paper probes the economic viability of this process, by comparing four different systems: (1) 10% or (2) 14% flat plate PV driven aqueous alkaline electrolysis H{sub 2} production, (3) 25% CPV driven molten electrolysis H{sub 2} production, and (4) 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis H{sub 2} production. The molten and solid oxide electrolysers are high temperature systems that can make use of light, normally discarded, for heating. This significantly increases system efficiency. Using levelized cost analysis, this study shows significant cost reduction using the STEP system. The total price per kg of hydrogen is shown to decrease from 5.74 to 4.96 to 3.01 to 2.61 with the four alternative systems. The advanced STEP plant requires less than one seventh of the land area of the 10% flat cell plant. To generate the 216 million kg H{sub 2}/year required by 1 million fuel cell vehicles, the 35% CPV driven solid oxide electrolysis requires a plant only 9.6 mi{sup 2} in area. While PV and electrolysis components dominate the cost of conventional PV generated hydrogen, they do not dominate the cost of the STEP-generated hydrogen. The lower cost of STEP hydrogen is driven by residual distribution and

  5. Microbial electrolysis cells as innovative technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chorbadzhiyska, Elitsa; Hristov, Georgi; Mitov, Mario; Hubenova, Yolina

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen production is becoming increasingly important in view of using hydrogen in fuel cells. However, most of the production of hydrogen so far comes from the combustion of fossil fuels and water electrolysis. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC), also known as Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor, is an ecologically clean, renewable and innovative technology for hydrogen production. Microbial electrolysis cells produce hydrogen mainly from waste biomass assisted by various bacteria strains. The principle of MECs and their constructional elements are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: microbial Electrolysis Cells, hydrogen production, waste biomass purification

  6. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang H [Idaho Falls, ID; Kim, Eung S [Ammon, ID; Sherman, Steven R [Augusta, GA

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  7. Biological hydrogen production by dark fermentation: challenges and prospects towards scaled-up production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RenNanqi; GuoWanqian; LiuBingfeng; CaoGuangli; DingJie

    2011-06-01

    Among different technologies of hydrogen production, bio-hydrogen production exhibits perhaps the greatest potential to replace fossil fuels. Based on recent research on dark fermentative hydrogen production, this article reviews the following aspects towards scaled-up application of this technology: bioreactor development and parameter optimization, process modeling and simulation, exploitation of cheaper raw materials and combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation. Bioreactors are necessary for dark-fermentation hydrogen production, so the design of reactor type and optimization of parameters are essential. Process modeling and simulation can help engineers design and optimize large-scale systems and operations. Use of cheaper raw materials will surely accelerate the pace of scaled-up production of biological hydrogen. And finally, combining dark-fermentation with photo-fermentation holds considerable promise, and has successfully achieved maximum overall hydrogen yield from a single substrate. Future development of bio-hydrogen production will also be discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of interface technology for nuclear hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2012-06-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production economy. The codes for analyzing the hydrogen production economy are developed for calculating the unit production cost of nuclear hydrogen. We developed basic R and D quality management methodology to meet design technology of VHTR's needs. By putting it in practice, we derived some problems and solutions. We distributed R and D QAP and Q and D QAM to each teams and these are in operation. Computer simulations are performed for estimating the thermal efficiency for the electrodialysis component likely to adapting as one of the hydrogen production system in Korea and EED-SI process known as the key components of the hydrogen production systems. Using the commercial codes, the process diagrams and the spread-sheets were produced for the Bunsen reaction process, Sulphuric Acid dissolution process and HI dissolution process, respectively, which are the key components composing of the SI process

  9. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, M. [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Wada, M. [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  10. Research and development of HTTR hydrogen production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku; Ogawa, Masuro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Onuki, Kaoru; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Kubo, Shinji; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has constructed the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) with a thermal output of 30MW and a reactor out let coolant temper at ure of 950 .deg. C. There search and development (R and D) program on nuclear production of hydrogen was started on January in 1997 as a study consigned by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. A hydrogen production system connected to the HTTR is being designed to be able to produce hydrogen of about 4000m 3 /h by steam reforming of natural gas, using a nuclear heat of 10MW supplied by the HTTR hydrogen production system. In order to confirm controllability, safety and performance of key components in the HTTR hydrogen production system, the facility for the out-of-pile test was constructed on the scale of approximately 1/30 of the HTTR hydrogen production system. In parallel to the out-of-pile test, the following tests as essential problem, a corrosion test of a reforming tube, a permeation test of hydrogen isotopes through heat exchanger and reforming tubes, and an integrity test of a high-temperature isolation valve are carried out to obtain detailed data for safety review and development of analytical codes. Other basis studies on the hydrogen production technology of thermochemical water splitting called an iodine sulfur (IS) process, has been carried out for more effective and various uses of nuclear heat. This paper describes the present status and a future plan on the R and D of the HTTR hydrogen production systems in JAERI

  11. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  12. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  13. Decentralized and direct solar hydrogen production: Towards a hydrogen economy in MENA region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bensebaa, Farid; Khalfallah, Mohamed; Ouchene, Majid

    2010-09-15

    Hydrogen has certainly some advantages in spite of its high cost and low efficiency when compared to other energy vectors. Solar energy is an abundant, clean and renewable source of energy, currently competing with fossil fuel for water heating without subsidy. Photo-electrochemical, thermo-chemicals and photo-biological processes for hydrogen production processes have been demonstrated. These decentralised hydrogen production processes using directly solar energy do not require expensive hydrogen infrastructure for packaging and delivery in the short and medium terms. MENA region could certainly be considered a key area for a new start to a global deployment of hydrogen economy.

  14. Pyrolysis of biomass for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinescu, Marius; David, Elena; Bucura, Felicia; Sisu, Claudia; Niculescu, Violeta

    2006-01-01

    Biomass processing is a new technology within the area of renewable energies. Current energy supplies in the world are dominated by fossil fuels (some 80% of the total use of over 400 EJ per year). Nevertheless, about 10-15% of this demand is covered by biomass resources, making biomass by far the most important renewable energy source used to date. On average, in the industrialized countries biomass contributes some 9-13% to the total energy supplies, but in developing countries the proportion is as high as a fifth to one third. In quite a number of countries biomass covers even over 50 to 90% of the total energy demand. Classic application of biomass combustion is heat production for domestic applications. A key issue for bio-energy is that its use should be modernized to fit into a sustainable development path. Especially promising are the production of electricity via advanced conversion concepts (i.e. gasification and state-of-the-art combustion and co-firing) and modern biomass derived fuels like methanol, hydrogen and ethanol from ligno-cellulosic biomass, which can reach competitive cost levels within 1-2 decades (partly depending on price developments with petroleum). (authors)

  15. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    the construction of the combined nuclear plant and hydrogen production facility. Operation and maintenance costs represent about 18% of the total cost ($0.57/kg). Variable costs (including the cost of nuclear fuel) contribute about 8.7% ($0.28/kg) to the total cost of hydrogen production, and decommissioning and raw material costs make up the remaining fractional cost

  16. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  17. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  18. Status of the Korean nuclear hydrogen production project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonghwa, Chang; Won-Jae, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The rapid climate changes and the heavy reliance on imported fuel in Korea have motivated interest in the hydrogen economy. The Korean government has set up a long-term vision for transition to the hydrogen economy. To meet the expected demand of hydrogen as a fuel, hydrogen production using nuclear energy was also discussed. Recently the Korean Atomic Energy Committee has approved nuclear hydrogen production development and demonstration which will lead to commercialisation in late 2030's. An extensive research and development programme for the production of hydrogen using nuclear power has been underway since 2004 in Korea. During the first three years, a technological area was identified for the economic and efficient production of hydrogen using a VHTR. A pre-conceptual design of the commercial nuclear hydrogen production plant was also performed. As a result, the key technology area in the core design, the hydrogen production process, the coupling between reactor and chemical side, and the coated fuel were identified. During last three years, research activities have been focused on the key technology areas. A nuclear hydrogen production demonstration plant (NHDD) consisting of a 200 MWth capacity VHTR and five trains of water-splitting plants was proposed for demonstration of the performance and the economics of nuclear hydrogen. The computer tools for the VHTR and the water-splitting process were created and validated to some extent. The TRISO-coated particle fuel was fabricated and qualified. The properties of high temperature materials, including nuclear graphite, were studied. The sulphur-iodine thermochemical process was proved on a 3 litre/ hour scale. A small gas loop with practical pressure and temperature with the secondary sulphur acid loop was successfully built and commissioned. The results of the first phase research increased the confidence in the nuclear hydrogen technology. From 2009, the government decided to support further key technology

  19. A Study on Methodology of Assessment for Hydrogen Explosion in Hydrogen Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gun Hyo

    2007-02-01

    Due to the exhaustion of fossil fuel as energy sources and international situation insecurity for political factor, unstability of world energy market is rising, consequently, a substitute energy development have been required. Among substitute energy to be discussed, producing hydrogen from water by nuclear energy which does not release carbon is a very promising technology. Very high temperature gas cooled reactor is expected to be utilized since the procedure of producing hydrogen requires high temperature over 1000 .deg. C. Hydrogen production facility using very high temperature gas cooled reactor lies in situation of high temperature and corrosion which makes hydrogen release easily. In case of hydrogen release, there lies a danger of explosion. Moreover explosion not only has a bad influence upon facility itself but very high temperature gas cooled reactor which also result in unsafe situation that might cause serious damage. However, from point of thermal-hydraulics view, long distance makes low efficiency result. In this study, therefore, outlines of hydrogen production using nuclear energy is researched. Several methods for analyzing the effects of hydrogen explosion upon high temperature gas cooled reactor are reviewed. Reliability physics model which is appropriate for assessment is used. Using this model, leakage probability, rupture probability and structure failure probability of very high temperature gas cooled reactor is evaluated classified by detonation volume and distance. Also based on standard safety criteria which is a value of 1x10 -6 , the safety distance between very high temperature and hydrogen production facility is calculated. In the future, assessment for characteristic of very high temperature gas cooled reactor, capacity to resist pressure from outside hydrogen explosion and overpressure for large amount of detonation volume in detail is expected to identify more precise distance using reliability physics model in this paper. This

  20. Status of hydrogen production by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Wa; Yoo, Kun Joong; Park, Chang Kue

    2001-07-01

    Hydrogen production methods, such as electrolysis, thermochemical method, biological method, and photochemical method, are introduced in this report. Also reviewed are current status of the development of High Temperatrue Gas Coooled Reactor, and it application for hydrogen production

  1. Evaluation of Nuclear Hydrogen Production System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Seok; Park, C. K.; Park, J. K. and others

    2006-04-01

    The major objective of this work is tow-fold: one is to develop a methodology to determine the best VHTR types for the nuclear hydrogen demonstration project and the other is to evaluate the various hydrogen production methods in terms of the technical feasibility and the effectiveness for the optimization of the nuclear hydrogen system. Both top-tier requirements and design requirements have been defined for the nuclear hydrogen system. For the determination of the VHTR type, a comparative study on the reference reactors, PBR and PBR, was conducted. Based on the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) method, a systematic methodology has been developed to compare the two VHTR types. Another scheme to determine the minimum reactor power was developed as well. Regarding the hydrogen production methods, comparison indices were defined and they were applied to the IS (Iodine-Sulfur) scheme, Westinghouse process, and the, high-temperature electrolysis method. For the HTE, IS, and MMI cycle, the thermal efficiency of hydrogen production were systematically evaluated. For the IS cycle, an overall process was identified and the functionality of some key components was identified. The economy of the nuclear hydrogen was evaluated, relative to various primary energy including natural gas coal, grid-electricity, and renewable. For the international collaborations, two joint research centers were established: NH-JRC between Korea and China and NH-JDC between Korea and US. Currently, several joint researches are underway through the research centers

  2. Annex 15 of the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement : Photobiological hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, P. [Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)]|[International Energy Agency, Paris (France)

    2004-07-01

    Task 15 of the Hydrogen Implementation Agreement of the International Energy Agency is to advance the science of biophotosynthesis of hydrogen, which is the biological production of hydrogen from water and sunlight using microalgal photosynthesis. A practical process for biophotolysis would result in an innovative biological source of sustainable and environmentally benign renewable energy source. Japan, Norway, Sweden and the United States initially committed to the project. Since then Canada, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom have joined. The current task is to produce hydrogen from both green algae and cyanobacteria with focus on early-stage applied research on biophotolysis processes with intermediate carbon dioxide fixation. Significant advances have also occurred in the scientific field of cyanobacterial biohydrogen. Cyanobacteria has enzymes that metabolise hydrogen. Photosynthetic cyanobacteria have simple nutritional requirements and can grow in air, water, or mineral salts with light as the only source of energy. This research will help provide the advances needed to achieve practical efficiencies and cost objectives of biological hydrogen production. tabs., figs.

  3. Numerical estimation of ultrasonic production of hydrogen: Effect of ideal and real gas based models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerboua, Kaouther; Hamdaoui, Oualid

    2018-01-01

    Based on two different assumptions regarding the equation describing the state of the gases within an acoustic cavitation bubble, this paper studies the sonochemical production of hydrogen, through two numerical models treating the evolution of a chemical mechanism within a single bubble saturated with oxygen during an oscillation cycle in water. The first approach is built on an ideal gas model, while the second one is founded on Van der Waals equation, and the main objective was to analyze the effect of the considered state equation on the ultrasonic hydrogen production retrieved by simulation under various operating conditions. The obtained results show that even when the second approach gives higher values of temperature, pressure and total free radicals production, yield of hydrogen does not follow the same trend. When comparing the results released by both models regarding hydrogen production, it was noticed that the ratio of the molar amount of hydrogen is frequency and acoustic amplitude dependent. The use of Van der Waals equation leads to higher quantities of hydrogen under low acoustic amplitude and high frequencies, while employing ideal gas law based model gains the upper hand regarding hydrogen production at low frequencies and high acoustic amplitudes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy via High Temperature Electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James E. O'Brien; Carl M. Stoots; J. Stephen Herring; Grant L. Hawkes

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical case for high-temperature nuclear hydrogen production. A general thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production based on high-temperature thermal water splitting processes is presented. Specific details of hydrogen production based on high-temperature electrolysis are also provided, including results of recent experiments performed at the Idaho National Laboratory. Based on these results, high-temperature electrolysis appears to be a promising technology for efficient large-scale hydrogen production

  5. Fusion reactors for hydrogen production via electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    1979-01-01

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and supplement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Depending on design, electric generation efficiencies of approx. 40 to 60% and hydrogen production efficiencies by high temperature electrolysis of approx. 50 to 70% are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  6. Zero emission distributed hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, J.; Rowe, A.; Bailey, R.; McDonald, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    The need for distributed production facilities has become a critical issue in developing a hydrogen infrastructure. Hydrogen generation using processes that make effective use of what would normally be considered waste streams or process inefficiencies can have more favorable economics than stand-alone technologies. Currently, natural gas is distributed to industrial and residential customers through a network of pipelines. High pressure main lines move gas to the vicinity of consumers where the pressure is reduced for local, low pressure distribution. Often, the practice is to use an isenthalpic expansion which results in a cooling of the gas stream. Some of the natural gas is burned to preheat the fuel so that the temperature after the expansion is near ambient. This results in the destruction of exergy in the high pressure gas stream and produces CO 2 in the process. If, instead, a turbo-expander is used to reduce the stream pressure, work can be recovered using a generator and hydrogen can be produced via electrolysis. This method of hydrogen production is free of green-house gas emissions, makes use of existing gas distribution facilities, and uses exergy that would otherwise be destroyed. Pressure reduction using the work producing process (turbo-expander) is accompanied by a large drop in temperature, on the average of 70 K. The local gas distributor requires the gas temperature to be raised again to near 8 o C to prevent damage to valve assemblies. The required heating power after expansion can be on the order of megawatts (site dependent.) Supplying the heat can be seen as a cost if energy is taken from the system to reheat the fuel; however, the low temperature stream may also be considered an asset if the cooling power can be used for a local process. This analysis is the second stage of a study to examine the technical and economic feasibility of using pressure let-down sites as hydrogen production facilities. This paper describes a proposed

  7. Production of Hydrogen from Bio-ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrice Giroudiere; Christophe Boyer; Stephane His; Robert Sanger; Kishore Doshi; Jijun Xu

    2006-01-01

    IFP and HyRadix are collaborating in the development of a new hydrogen production system from liquid feedstock such as bio-ethanol. Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions along with high hydrogen yield are the key objectives. Market application of the system will be hydrogen refueling stations as well as medium scale hydrogen consumers including the electronics, metals processing, and oils hydrogenation industries. The conversion of bio-ethanol to hydrogen will be performed within a co-developed process including an auto-thermal reformer working under pressure. The technology will produce high-purity hydrogen with ultralow CO content. The catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology combines the exothermic and endothermic reaction and leads to a highly efficient heat integration. The development strategy to reach a high hydrogen yield target with the bio-ethanol hydrogen generator is presented. (authors)

  8. Manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal hydrogenation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Maloletnev; M.A. Gyul' malieva [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-08-15

    The manufacture of aromatic hydrocarbons from coal distillates was experimentally studied. A flow chart for the production of benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes was designed, which comprised the hydrogen treatment of the total wide-cut (or preliminarily dephenolized) fraction with FBP 425{sup o}C; fractional distillation of the hydrotreated products into IBP-60, 60-180, 180-300, and 300-425{sup o}C fractions; the hydro-cracking of middle fractions for increasing the yield of gasoline fractions whenever necessary; the catalytic reform of the fractions with bp up to 180{sup o}C; and the extraction of aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Development of hydrogen production technology using FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Kiyoshi; Otaki, Akira; Chikazawa, Yoshitaka; Nakagiri, Toshio; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sekine, Takashi; Ooka, Makoto

    2004-06-01

    This report describes the features of technology, the schedule and the organization for the research and development regarding the hydrogen production technology using FBR thermal energy. Now, the hydrogen production system is proposed as one of new business models for FBR deployment. This system is the production of hydrogen either thermal energy at approximately from 500degC to 550degC or electricity produced by a sodium cooled FBR. Hydrogen is expected to be one of the future clean secondary energies without carbon-dioxide emission. Meanwhile the global energy demand will increase, especially in Asian countries, and the energy supply by fossil fuels is not the best choice considering the green house effect and the stability of energy supply. The development of the hydrogen technology using FBR that satisfies 'sustainable energy development' and 'utilization of energies free from environmental pollution' will be one of the promising options. Based on the above mentioned recognition, we propose the direction of the development, the issues to be solved, the time schedule, the budget, and the organization for R and D of three hydrogen production technologies, the thermochemical hybrid process, the low temperature steam reforming process, and the high temperature steam electrolysis process in JNC. (author)

  10. Cloning and knockout of formate hydrogen lyase and H{sub 2}-uptake hydrogenase genes in Enterobacter aerogenes for enhanced hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hongxin; Ma, Kun; Lu, Yuan; Zhang, Chong; Wang, Liyan; Xing, Xin-Hui [Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Tsinghua Yuan, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-01-15

    A 5431-bp DNA fragment partially encoding the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) gene cluster hycABCDE was isolated and identified from Enterobacter aerogenes IAM1183 chromosomal DNA. All the five putative gene products showed a high degree of homology to the reported bacterial FHL proteins. The gene hycA, encoding the FHL repressor protein, and hybO, encoding the small subunit of the uptake hydrogenase, were targeted for genetic knockout for improving the hydrogen production. The pYM-Red recombination system was adopted to form insertional mutations in the E. aerogenes genome, thereby creating mutant strains of IAM1183-A ({delta} hycA), IAM1183-O ({delta} hybO), and IAM1183-AO ({delta} hycA/ {delta} hybO double knockout). The hydrogen production experiments with these mutants showed that the maximum specific hydrogen productivities of IAM1183-A, IAM1183-O, and IAM1183-AO were 2879.466 {+-} 38.59, 2747.203 {+-} 13.25 and 3372.019 {+-} 4.39 (ml h{sup -1} g{sup -1}dry cell weight), respectively, higher than that of the wild strain (2321.861 {+-} 15.34 ml h{sup -1} g{sup -1}dry cell weight). The total H{sub 2} yields by the three mutants IAM1183-A, IAM1183-O and IAM1183-AO were 0.73, 0.78, and 0.83 mol-H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively, while the wild-type IAM1183 was only 0.65 mol-H{sub 2}/mol glucose. The metabolites of the mutants including acetate, ethanol, 2,3-butanediol and succinate were all increased compared with that of the wild type, implying the changed metabolic flux by the mutation. In the fermentor cultivation with IAM1183 {delta} hycA/ {delta} hybO, the total hydrogen volume after 16 h cultivation reached 4.4 L, while that for the wild type was only 2.9 L. (author)

  11. Conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2007-08-01

    Since hydrogen produced by nuclear should be economically competitive compared with other methods in a hydrogen society, it is important to build hydrogen production system to be coupled with the reactor as a conventional chemical plant. Japan Atomic Energy Agency started the safety study to establish a new safety philosophy to meet safety requirements for non-nuclear grade hydrogen production system. Also, structural concepts with integrating functions for the Bunsen reactor and sulphuric acid decomposer were proposed to reduce construction cost of the IS process hydrogen production system. In addition, HI decomposer which enables the process condition to be eased consisting of conventional materials and technologies was studied. Moreover, technical feasibility of the HTTR-IS system in which the hydrogen production rate of 1,000 Nm 3 /h by using the supplied heat of 10 MW from the intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR was confirmed. This paper describes the conceptual design of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system. (author)

  12. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verfondern, K. [Research Centre Juelich (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    world. In recent years, the scope of the IAEA's programme has been widened to include other more promising applications such as nuclear hydrogen production and higher temperature process heat applications. The OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Euratom and the Generation IV International Forum have also shown interest in the non-electric applications of nuclear power based on future generation advanced and innovative nuclear reactors. This report was developed under an IAEA project with the objective of providing updated, balanced and objective information on the current status of hydrogen production processes using nuclear energy. It documents the state of the art of the development of hydrogen as an energy carrier in many Member States, as well as its corresponding production through the use of nuclear power. The report includes an introduction to the technology of nuclear process heat reactors as a means of producing hydrogen or other upgraded fuels, with a focus on high temperature reactor technology to achieve simultaneous generation of electricity and high temperature process heat and steam. Special emphasis is placed on the safety aspects of nuclear hydrogen production systems.

  13. Comparative Analysis of Hydrogen Production Methods with Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Andrey

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen is highly effective and ecologically clean fuel. It can be produced by a variety of methods. Presently the most common are through electrolysis of water and through the steam reforming of natural gas. It is evident that the leading method for the future production of hydrogen is nuclear energy. Several types of reactors are being considered for hydrogen production, and several methods exist to produce hydrogen, including thermochemical cycles and high-temperature electrolysis. In the article the comparative analysis of various hydrogen production methods is submitted. It is considered the possibility of hydrogen production with the nuclear reactors and is proposed implementation of research program in this field at the IPPE sodium-potassium eutectic cooling high temperature experimental facility (VTS rig). (authors)

  14. How green are the hydrogen production processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miele, Ph.; Demirci, U.B.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen is recognised as being one of the most promising fuels alternate to fossil fuels. Unfortunately it only exists combined with other elements like e.g. oxygen in the case of water and therefore has to be produced. Today various methods for producing molecular hydrogen are being investigated. Besides its energy potential, molecular hydrogen is regarded as being a green energy carrier because it can be produced from renewable sources and its combustion/oxidation generates water. However as it has to be produced its greenness merits a deeper discussion especially stressing on its production routes. The goal of the present article is to discuss the relative greenness of the various hydrogen production processes on the basis of the twelve principles of green chemistry. It is mainly showed that the combination 'renewable raw materials, biological or electrochemical methods, and renewable energies (e.g. solar or wind)' undeniably makes the hydrogen production green. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Leon; Wade, Dave

    2003-07-01

    During the past decade the interest in hydrogen as transportation fuel has greatly escalated. This heighten interest is partly related to concerns surrounding local and regional air pollution from the combustion of fossil fuels along with carbon dioxide emissions adding to the enhanced greenhouse effect. More recently there has been a great sensitivity to the vulnerability of our oil supply. Thus, energy security and environmental concerns have driven the interest in hydrogen as the clean and secure alternative to fossil fuels. Remarkable advances in fuel-cell technology have made hydrogen fueled transportation a near-term possibility. However, copious quantities of hydrogen must be generated in a manner independent of fossil fuels if environmental benefits and energy security are to be achieved. The renewable technologies, wind, solar, and geothermal, although important contributors, simply do not comprise the energy density required to deliver enough hydrogen to displace much of the fossil transportation fuels. Nuclear energy is the only primary energy source that can generate enough hydrogen in an energy secure and environmentally benign fashion. Methods of production of hydrogen from nuclear energy, the relative cost of hydrogen, and possible transition schemes to a nuclear-hydrogen economy will be presented.

  16. Production of hydrogen from by-products of food industries by rhodospirillaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reh, U.

    1983-11-01

    The decomposition of organic substances from food-by-products as whey, beet sugar molasses, cane-sugar-molasses and potato-water by the Rhodospirillaceae Rp. capsulata, Rp. acidophila, Rm. vannielii, Rs. rubrum, and Rs. tenue to hydrogen and carbon dioxide were tested. In a pre-cultivation Lactobacillus bulgaricus converted the sugars of the by-products into lactic acid, which is easier in handling. Rs. rubrum was superior in producing hydrogen from this nutrient. It released from whey up to 56% of the substrate hydrogen, from beet sugar molasses 42%, from cane-sugar-molasses 89% and from potato-water 19%. Out-door-researches were made to evaluate the decrease of hydrogen yield under the influence of weather as well as day and night periods compared to the homogeneous conditions of the laboratory. From 200 m/sup 3/ whey, the daily output of a dairy, 4000 m/sup 3/ hydrogen corresponding to an energy equivalent of 1000 l fuel oil could be produced. To achieve this, 130 000 m/sup 2/ have to be covered with batch fermenters. These results show, that there is nearly no hope to decompose food by-products by Rhodospirillaceae in large scale technology, unless a new processing technology using a flow-fermenter and raising the hydrogen production significantly will be found.

  17. Continuous hydrogen production from starch by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Keigo; Tanisho, Shigeharu [Yokohama National Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This study was investigated the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on hydrogen production rate, hydrogen yield and the production rate of volatile fatty acid. The experiment was performed in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a working volume of 1 L by using a Clostridium sp. The temperature of the CSTR was regulated 37 C. The pH was controlled 6.0 by the addition of 3 M of NaOH solution. Starch was used as the carbon source with the concentration of 30 g L{sup -1}. Hydrogen production rate increased from 0.9 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} to 3.2 L-H{sub 2} L-culture{sup -1} h{sup -1} along with the decrease of HRT from 9 h to 1.5 h. Hydrogen yield decreased at low HRT. The major volatile fatty acids are acetic acid, butyric acid and lactic acid. The production rates of acetic acid and butyric acid increased along with the decrease of HRT. On the other hand, the rate of lactic acid was low at high HRT while it increased at HRT 1.5 h. The increase of the production rate of lactic acid suggested one of the reasons that hydrogen yield decreased. (orig.)

  18. Hydrogen production by the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima Part II: modeling and experimental approaches for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auria, Richard; Boileau, Céline; Davidson, Sylvain; Casalot, Laurence; Christen, Pierre; Liebgott, Pierre Pol; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    Thermotoga maritima is a hyperthermophilic bacterium known to produce hydrogen from a large variety of substrates. The aim of the present study is to propose a mathematical model incorporating kinetics of growth, consumption of substrates, product formations, and inhibition by hydrogen in order to predict hydrogen production depending on defined culture conditions. Our mathematical model, incorporating data concerning growth, substrates, and products, was developed to predict hydrogen production from batch fermentations of the hyperthermophilic bacterium, T. maritima . It includes the inhibition by hydrogen and the liquid-to-gas mass transfer of H 2 , CO 2 , and H 2 S. Most kinetic parameters of the model were obtained from batch experiments without any fitting. The mathematical model is adequate for glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 20 mmol/L, 0.2-0.5 g/L, or 0.01-0.06 mmol/L, respectively, corresponding to one of these compounds being the growth-limiting factor of T. maritima . When glucose, yeast extract, and thiosulfate concentrations are all higher than these ranges, the model overestimates all the variables. In the window of the model validity, predictions of the model show that the combination of both variables (increase in limiting factor concentration and in inlet gas stream) leads up to a twofold increase of the maximum H 2 -specific productivity with the lowest inhibition. A mathematical model predicting H 2 production in T. maritima was successfully designed and confirmed in this study. However, it shows the limit of validity of such mathematical models. Their limit of applicability must take into account the range of validity in which the parameters were established.

  19. Hydrogen production from solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstadt, M. M.; Cox, K. E.

    1975-01-01

    Three alternatives for hydrogen production from solar energy have been analyzed on both efficiency and economic grounds. The analysis shows that the alternative using solar energy followed by thermochemical decomposition of water to produce hydrogen is the optimum one. The other schemes considered were the direct conversion of solar energy to electricity by silicon cells and water electrolysis, and the use of solar energy to power a vapor cycle followed by electrical generation and electrolysis. The capital cost of hydrogen via the thermochemical alternative was estimated at $575/kW of hydrogen output or $3.15/million Btu. Although this cost appears high when compared with hydrogen from other primary energy sources or from fossil fuel, environmental and social costs which favor solar energy may prove this scheme feasible in the future.

  20. Nuclear hydrogen production: re-examining the fusion option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baindur, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a scheme for nuclear hydrogen production by fusion. The basic idea is to use nuclear energy of the fuel (hydrogen plasma) to produce molecular hydrogen fro carbon-free hydrogen compounds. The hydrogen is then stored and utilized electrochemically in fuel cells or chemically as molecular hydrogen in internal combustion engines

  1. Calculation of LUEC using HEEP Software for Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution by reducing the release of carbon dioxide. A Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is considered as an efficient reactor to couple with the thermo-chemical Sulfur Iodine (SI) cycle to achieve the hydrogen economy. HEEP(Hydrogen Economy Evaluation Program) is one of the software tools developed by IAEA to evaluate the economy of the nuclear hydrogen production system by estimating unit hydrogen production cost. In this paper, the LUHC (Levelized Unit Hydrogen Cost) is calculated by using HEEP for nuclear hydrogen production plant, which consists of 4 modules of 600 MWth VHTR coupled with SI process. The levelized unit hydrogen production cost(LUHC) was calculated by the HEEP software.

  2. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  3. Solar driven technologies for hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medojević Milovan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bearing in mind that the production of hydrogen based on renewable energy sources, without doubt, is an important aspect to be taken into account when considering the potential of this gas, where as particularly interesting technologies stand out the ones which are based on the use of solar energy to produce hydrogen. The goal of this paper provides basic technological trajectories, with the possibility of combining, for solar driven hydrogen production, such as: electrochemical, photochemical and thermochemical process. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of those technologies from a technical as well as economic point of view. In addition, the paper aims to draw attention to the fact that the generation of hydrogen using renewable energy should be imposed as a logical and proper way to store solar energy in the form of chemical energy.

  4. Biological hydrogen production by moderately thermophilic anaerobic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HP Goorissen; AJM Stams

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the biological production of hydrogen at moderate temperatures (65-75 C) by anaerobic bacteria. A survey was made to select the best (moderate) thermophiles for hydrogen production from cellulolytic biomass. From this survey we selected Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus (a gram-positive bacterium) and Thermotoga elfii (a gram-negative bacterium) as potential candidates for biological hydrogen production on mixtures of C 5 -C 6 sugars. Xylose and glucose were used as model substrates to describe growth and hydrogen production from hydrolyzed biomass. Mixed substrate utilization in batch cultures revealed differences in the sequence of substrate consumption and in catabolites repression of the two microorganisms. The regulatory mechanisms of catabolites repression in these microorganisms are not known yet. (authors)

  5. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Penev, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This study examines the energy resources required to produce 4-10 million metric tonnes of domestic, low-carbon hydrogen in order to fuel approximately 20-50 million fuel cell electric vehicles. These projected energy resource requirements are compared to current consumption levels, projected 2040 business as usual consumptions levels, and projected 2040 consumption levels within a carbonconstrained future for the following energy resources: coal (assuming carbon capture and storage), natural gas, nuclear (uranium), biomass, wind (on- and offshore), and solar (photovoltaics and concentrating solar power). The analysis framework builds upon previous analysis results estimating hydrogen production potentials and drawing comparisons with economy-wide resource production projections

  6. Cobalt Ferrite Nanocrystallites for Sustainable Hydrogen Production Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra S. Gaikwad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt ferrite, CoFe2O4, nanocrystalline films were deposited using electrostatic spray method and explored in sustainable hydrogen production application. Reflection planes in X-ray diffraction pattern confirm CoFe2O4 phase. The surface scanning microscopy photoimages reveal an agglomeration of closely-packed CoFe2O4 nanoflakes. Concentrated solar-panel, a two-step water splitting process, measurement technique was preferred for measuring the hydrogen generation rate. For about 5 hr sustainable, 440 mL/hr, hydrogen production activity was achieved, confirming the efficient use of cobalt ferrite nanocrystallites film in hydrogen production application.

  7. Hydrogen from algal biomass: A review of production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archita Sharma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

  8. Long-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on fermentative hydrogen production by repeated batch cultivations: homoacetogenesis and methanogenesis as competitors to hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Gang; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Xie, Li

    2011-01-01

    Long-term effects of inoculum pretreatments(heat, acid, loading-shock) on hydrogen production from glucose under different temperatures (378C, 558C) and initial pH (7 and 5.5) were studied by repeated batch cultivations. Results obtained showed that it was necessary to investigate the long......-term effect of inoculum pretreatment on hydrogen production since pretreatments may just temporarily inhibit the hydrogen consuming processes. After long-term cultivation, pretreated inocula did not enhance hydrogen production compared to untreated inocula under mesophilic conditions (initial pH 7 and pH 5.......5) and thermophilic conditions (initial pH 7). However, pretreatment could inhibit lactate production and lead to higher hydrogen yield under thermophilic conditions at initial pH 5.5. The results further demonstrated that inoculum pretreatment could not permanently inhibit either methanogenesis or homoacetogenesis...

  9. Hydrogen production in a PWR during LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassette, P.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen generation during a PWR LOCA has been estimated for design basis accident and for two more severe hypothetical accidents. Hydrogen production during design basis accident is a rather slow mechanism, allowing in the worst case, 15 days to connect a hydrogen recombining unit to the containment atmosphere monitoring system. Hydrogen generated by steam oxidation during more severe hypothetical accidents was found limited by steam availability and fuel melting phenomena. Uncertainty is, however, still remaining on corium-zirconium-steam interaction. In the worst case, calculations lead to the production of 500 kg of hydrogen, thus leading to a volume concentration of 15% in containment atmosphere, assuming homogeneous hydrogen distribution within the reactor building. This concentration is within flammability limits but not within detonation limits. However, hydrogen detonation due to local hydrogen accumulation cannot be discarded. A major uncertainty subsisting on hydrogen hazard is hydrogen distribution during the first hours of the accident. This point determines the effects and consequences of local detonation or deflagration which could possibly be harmful to safeguard systems, or induce missile generation in the reactor building. As electrical supply failures are identified as an important contributor to severe accident risk, corrective actions have been taken in France to improve their reliability, including the installation of a gas turbine on each site to supplement the existing sources. These actions are thus contributing to hydrogen hazard reduction

  10. Technology selection for hydrogen production using nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Alimah; Erlan Dewita

    2008-01-01

    The NPP can either be used to produce electricity, or as heat source for non-electric applications (cogeneration). High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with high outlet coolant temperature around 900~1000 o C, is a reactor type potential for cogeneration purposes such as hydrogen production and other chemical industry processes that need high heat. Considering the national energy policy that a balanced arrangement of renewable and unrenewable natural resources has to be made to keep environmental conservation for the sake of society prosperity in the future, hydrogen gas production using nuclear heat is an appropriate choice. Hydrogen gas is a new energy which is environmentally friendly that it is a prospecting alternative energy source in the future. Within the study, a comparison of three processes of hydrogen gas production covering electrolysis, steam reforming and sulfur-iodine cycle, have been conducted. The parameters that considered are the production cost, capital cost and energy cost, technological status, the independence of fossil fuel, the environmental friendly aspect, as well as the efficiency and the independence of corrosion-resistance material. The study result showed that hydrogen gas production by steam reforming is a better process compared to electrolysis and sulfur-iodine process. Therefore, steam reforming process can be a good choice for hydrogen gas production using nuclear energy in Indonesia. (author)

  11. Advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Marc A.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen demand as an energy currency is anticipated to rise significantly in the future, with the emergence of a hydrogen economy. Hydrogen production is a key component of a hydrogen economy. Several production processes are commercially available, while others are under development including thermochemical water decomposition, which has numerous advantages over other hydrogen production processes. Recent advances in hydrogen production by thermochemical water decomposition are reviewed here. Hydrogen production from non-fossil energy sources such as nuclear and solar is emphasized, as are efforts to lower the temperatures required in thermochemical cycles so as to expand the range of potential heat supplies. Limiting efficiencies are explained and the need to apply exergy analysis is illustrated. The copper-chlorine thermochemical cycle is considered as a case study. It is concluded that developments of improved processes for hydrogen production via thermochemical water decomposition are likely to continue, thermochemical hydrogen production using such non-fossil energy will likely become commercial, and improved efficiencies are expected to be obtained with advanced methodologies like exergy analysis. Although numerous advances have been made on sulphur-iodine cycles, the copper-chlorine cycle has significant potential due to its requirement for process heat at lower temperatures than most other thermochemical processes.

  12. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  13. Hydrogen production by high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. Conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hara, Teruo; Kato, Ryoma; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear hydrogen production is necessary in an anticipated hydrogen society that demands a massive quantity of hydrogen without economic disadvantage. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has launched the conceptual design study of a hydrogen production system with a near-term plan to connect it to Japan's first high-temperature gas-cooled reactor HTTR. The candidate hydrogen production system is based on the thermochemical water-splitting iodine sulphur (IS) process.The heat of 10 MWth at approximately 900degC, which can be provided by the secondary helium from the intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR, is the energy input to the hydrogen production system. In this paper, we describe the recent progresses made in the conceptual design of advanced process heat exchangers of the HTTR-IS hydrogen production system. A new concept of sulphuric acid decomposer is proposed. This involves the integration of three separate functions of sulphuric acid decomposer, sulphur trioxide decomposer, and process heat exchanger. A new mixer-settler type of Bunsen reactor is also designed. This integrates three separate functions of Bunsen reactor, phase separator, and pump. The new concepts are expected to result in improved economics through construction and operation cost reductions because the number of process equipment and complicated connections between the equipment has been substantially reduced. (author)

  14. A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) for enhanced hydrogen production

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-12-01

    A microbial fluidized electrode electrolysis cell (MFEEC) was used to enhance hydrogen gas production from dissolved organic matter. Flowable granular activated carbon (GAC) particles were used to provide additional surface area for growth of exoelectrogenic bacteria. The use of this exoelectrogenic biofilm on the GAC particles with fluidization produced higher current densities and hydrogen gas recoveries than controls (no recirculation or no GAC), due to intermittent contact of the capacitive particles with the anode. The total cumulative charge of 1688C m-2 with the MFEEC reactor (a recirculation flow rate of 19 mL min-1) was 20% higher than that of the control reactor (no GAC). The highest hydrogen gas yield of 0.82 ± 0.01 mol-H2/mol-acetate (17 mL min-1) was 39% higher than that obtained without recirculation (0.59 ± 0.01 mol-H 2/mol-acetate), and 116% higher than that of the control (no GAC, without recirculation). These results show that flowable GAC particles provide a useful approach for enhancing hydrogen gas production in bioelectrochemical systems. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogen production from hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docekal, J

    1986-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important feed stock for chemical and petroleum industries, in addition to being considered as the energy carrier of the future. At the present time the feed stock hydrogen is mainly manufactured from hydrocarbons using steam reforming. In steam reforming two processes are employed, the conventional process and PSA (pressure swing adsorption) process. These two processes are described and compared. The results show that the total costs and the maintenance costs are lower for the PSA process, the capital outlay is lower for the conventional process, and the operating costs are similar for the two processes.

  16. Co-production of hydrogen and methane from herbal medicine wastewater by a combined UASB system with immobilized sludge (H2 production) and UASB system with suspended sludge (CH4 production).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Caiyu; Hao, Ping; Qin, Bida; Wang, Bing; Di, Xueying; Li, Yongfeng

    2016-01-01

    An upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) system with sludge immobilized on granular activated carbon was developed for fermentative hydrogen production continuously from herbal medicine wastewater at various organic loading rates (8-40 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) L(-1) d(-1)). The maximum hydrogen production rate reached 10.0 (±0.17) mmol L(-1) hr(-1) at organic loading rate of 24 g COD L(-1) d(-1), which was 19.9% higher than that of suspended sludge system. The effluents of hydrogen fermentation were used for continuous methane production in the subsequent UASB system. At hydraulic retention time of 15 h, the maximum methane production rate of 5.49 (±0.03) mmol L(-1) hr(-1) was obtained. The total energy recovery rate by co-production of hydrogen and methane was evaluated to be 7.26 kJ L(-1) hr(-1).

  17. South Africa's nuclear hydrogen production development programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ravenswaay, J.P.; Van Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R.J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H.M.; Van Niekerk, W.M.K.; Van der Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for: i) wealth creation through high value-added manufacturing and developing platinum group metals catalysis; ii) building on the existing knowledge in high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production solutions; iii) to promote equity and inclusion in the economic benefits from South Africa's natural resource base. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centres (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing hydrogen production, storage, distribution as well as codes and standards programmes within the framework of the DST strategic objectives to ensure strategic national innovation over the next fifteen years. One of the focus areas of the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC will be on large scale CO 2 free hydrogen production through thermochemical water-splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR and the subsequent use of the hydrogen in applications such as the coal-to-liquid process and the steel industry. This paper will report on the status of the programme for thermochemical water-splitting as well as the associated projects for component and technology development envisaged in the Hydrogen Infrastructure CC. The paper will further elaborate on current and future collaboration opportunities as well as expected outputs and deliverables. (authors)

  18. 40 CFR 415.330 - Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. 415.330 Section 415.330 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Carbon Monoxide and By-Product Hydrogen Production Subcategory § 415.330 Applicability; description of the carbon monoxide and by-product hydrogen production subcategory. The provisions...

  19. Hydrogen production from the monomeric sugars hydrolyzed from hemicellulose by Enterobacter aerogenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yunli; Wang, Jianji; Liu, Zhen; Ren, Yunlai; Li, Guozhi [School of Chemical Engineering and Pharmaceutics, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471039, Henan (China)

    2009-12-15

    Relatively large percentages of xylose with glucose, arabinose, mannose, galactose and rhamnose constitute the hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. In this paper, hydrogen production performance of facultative anaerobe (Enterobacter aerogenes) has been investigated from these different monomeric sugars except glucose. It was shown that the stereoisomers of mannose and galactose were more effective for hydrogen production than those of xylose and arabinose. The substrate of 5 g/l xylose resulted in a relative high level of hydrogen yield (73.8 mmol/l), hydrogen production efficiency (2.2 mol/mol) and a maximum hydrogen production rate (249 ml/l/h). The hydrogen yield, hydrogen production efficiency and the maximum hydrogen production rate reached 104 mmol/l, 2.35 mol/mol and 290 ml/l/h, respectively, on a substrate of 10 g/l galactose. The hydrogen yields and the maximum hydrogen production rates increased with an increase of mannose concentrations and reached 119 mmol/l and 518 ml/l/h on the culture of 25 g/l mannose. However, rhamnose was a relative poor carbon resource for E. aerogenes to produce hydrogen, from which the hydrogen yield and hydrogen production efficiency were about one half of that from the mannose substrate. E. aerogenes was found to be a promising strain for hydrogen production from hydrolysis products of hemicellulose. (author)

  20. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  1. Hydrogen production as a promising nuclear energy application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, V.

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen production from nuclear is a field of application which eventually can outweigh power production by nuclear power plants. There are two feasible routes of hydrogen production. The one uses heat to obtain hydrogen from natural gas through steam reforming of methane. This is an highly energy-consuming process requiring temperatures up to 900 deg C and producing carbon dioxide as a by-product. The other method includes direct thermochemical processes to obtain hydrogen, using sulfuric acid for instance. Sulfuric acid is decomposed thermally by the reaction: H 2 SO 4 -> H 2 O = SO 2 + (1/2) O 2 , followed by the processes I 2 + SO 2 + 2H O -> 2HI + H 2 SO 4 and 2HI -> H 2 + I 2 . The use of nuclear for this purpose is currently examined in Japan and in the US. (P.A.)

  2. Hydrogen production from sewage sludge by steam gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aye, L.; Klinkajorn, P. [Melbourne Univ. International Technologies Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Because of the shortage of energy sources in the near future, renewable energy, such as biomass, has become an important source of energy. One of the most common approaches for producing gaseous fuels from biomass is gasification. The main product gases of gasification are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane and low molecular weight hydrocarbons. Because of the capability of very low emission at the point of use, the interest in using hydrogen for electrical power generation and in electric-vehicles has been increasing. Hydrogen from biomass steam gasification (SG) is a net zero green house gas emission fuel. Sewage sludge (SS) has a potential to produce hydrogen-rich gaseous fuel. Therefore, hydrogen production from sewage sludge may be a solution for cleaner fuel and the sewage sludge disposal problem. This paper presented the results of a computer model for SSSG by using Gibbs free energy minimization (GFEM) method. The computer model developed was used to determine the hydrogen production limits for various steam to biomass ratios. The paper presented an introduction to renewable energy and gasification and discussed the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The study used a RAND algorithm. It presented the computer model input parameters and discussed the results of the stoichiometric analysis and Gibbs free energy minimization. The energy requirement for hydrogen production was also presented. 17 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. IEA hydrogen agreement, task 15: photobiological hydrogen production - an international collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, P.; Asada, Y.; Benemann, J.; Hallenbeck, P.; Melis, A.; Miyake, J.; Seibert, M.; Skulberg, O.

    2000-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production, the production of H 2 by microorganisms, has been an active field of basic and applied research for many years. Realization of practical processes for photobiological hydrogen production from water using solar energy would result in a major, novel source of sustainable and renewable energy, without greenhouse gas emissions or environmental pollution. However, development of such processes requires significant scientific and technological advances, and long-term basic and applied R and D. This International Energy Agency (lEA) Task covers research areas and needs at the interface of basic and applied R and D which are of mutual interest to the countries and researchers participating in the lEA Hydrogen Agreement. The overall objective is to sufficiently advance the basic and early-stage applied science in this area of research over the next five years to allow an evaluation of the potential of such a technology to be developed as a practical renewable energy source for the 21st Century. (author)

  4. Photobiological hydrogen production : photochemical efficiency and bioreactor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, I.; Janssen, M.; Rocha, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen can be carried out by photoautotrophic or photoheterotrophic organisms. Here, the photosystems of both processes are described. The main drawback of the photoautotrophic hydrogen production process is oxygen inhibition. The few efficiencies reported on the

  5. Two dimensional simulation of hydrogen iodide decomposition reaction using fluent code for hydrogen production using nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Jung Sik [The Institute of Machinery and Electronic Technology, Mokpo National Maritime University, Mokpo (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Joon; Lee, Ki Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jae Hyuk [Division of Marine Engineering System, Korea Maritime and Ocean University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The operating characteristics of hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition for hydrogen production were investigated using the commercial computational fluid dynamics code, and various factors, such as hydrogen production, heat of reaction, and temperature distribution, were studied to compare device performance with that expected for device development. Hydrogen production increased with an increase of the surface-to-volume (STV) ratio. With an increase of hydrogen production, the reaction heat increased. The internal pressure and velocity of the HI decomposer were estimated through pressure drop and reducing velocity from the preheating zone. The mass of H2O was independent of the STV ratio, whereas that of HI decreased with increasing STV ratio.

  6. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K. [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  7. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  8. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tafticht, T.; Agbossou, K.

    2006-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyser, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  9. Hydrogen Production from Optimal Wind-PV Energies Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T Tafticht; K Agbossou [Institut de recherche sur l hydrogene, Universite du Quebec - Trois-Rivieres, C.P. 500, Trois-Rivieres, (Ciheam), G9A 5H7, (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen offers a promising alternative for long-term energy storage of renewable energies (RE). A stand-alone RE system based on hydrogen production has been developed at the Hydrogen Research Institute and successfully tested for automatic operation with designed control devices. The system is composed of a wind turbine, a photovoltaic (PV) array, an electrolyzer, batteries for buffer energy storage, hydrogen and oxygen storage tanks, a fuel cell, AC and DC loads, power conditioning devices and different sensors. The long-term excess energy with respect to load demand has been sent to the electrolyser for hydrogen production and then the fuel cell has utilised this stored hydrogen to produce electricity when there were insufficient wind and solar energies with respect to load requirements. The RE system components have substantially different voltage-current characteristics and they are integrated on the DC bus through power conditioning devices for optimal operation by using the developed Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) control method. The experimental results show that the power gain obtained by this method clearly increases the hydrogen production and storage rate from wind-PV systems. (authors)

  10. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  11. Nuclear hydrogen: An assessment of product flexibility and market viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear energy has the potential to play an important role in the future energy system as a large-scale source of hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. Thus far, economic studies of nuclear hydrogen tend to focus on the levelized cost of hydrogen without accounting for the risks and uncertainties that potential investors would face. We present a financial model based on real options theory to assess the profitability of different nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. The model uses Monte Carlo simulations to represent uncertainty in future hydrogen and electricity prices. It computes the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from nuclear hydrogen production plants. Moreover, the model quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production, depending on what is more profitable to sell. We use the model to analyze the market viability of four potential nuclear hydrogen technologies and conclude that flexibility in output product is likely to add significant economic value for an investor in nuclear hydrogen. This should be taken into account in the development phase of nuclear hydrogen technologies

  12. Hydrogen production by alkaline water electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo M. F. Santos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water electrolysis is one of the simplest methods used for hydrogen production. It has the advantage of being able to produce hydrogen using only renewable energy. To expand the use of water electrolysis, it is mandatory to reduce energy consumption, cost, and maintenance of current electrolyzers, and, on the other hand, to increase their efficiency, durability, and safety. In this study, modern technologies for hydrogen production by water electrolysis have been investigated. In this article, the electrochemical fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis are explained and the main process constraints (e.g., electrical, reaction, and transport are analyzed. The historical background of water electrolysis is described, different technologies are compared, and main research needs for the development of water electrolysis technologies are discussed.

  13. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  14. Concepts for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsen, Daniel; Åtland, Vegar

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to perform a techno-economic analysis of large-scale, carbon-lean hydrogen production in Norway, in order to evaluate various production methods and estimate a breakeven price level. Norway possesses vast energy resources and the export of oil and gas is vital to the country s economy. The results of this thesis indicate that hydrogen represents a viable, carbon-lean opportunity to utilize these resources, which can prove key in the future of Norwegian energy e...

  15. Fermentative hydrogen production from Jerusalem artichoke by Clostridium tyrobutyricum expressing exo-inulinase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ling; Wu, Qian; Xu, Qing; Zhu, Liying; Huang, He

    2017-08-11

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC25755 has been reported as being able to produce significant quantities of hydrogen. In this study, the exo-inulinase encoding gene cloned from Paenibacillus polymyxa SC-2 was into the expression plasmid pSY6 and expressed in the cells of C. tyrobutyricum. The engineered C. tyrobutyricum strain efficiently fermented the inulin-type carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichoke, without any pretreatment being necessary for the production of hydrogen. A comparatively high hydrogen yield (3.7 mol/mol inulin-type sugar) was achieved after 96 h in a batch process with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), with an overall volumetric productivity rate of 620 ± 60 mL/h/L when the initial total sugar concentration of the inulin extract was increased to 100 g/L. Synthesis of inulinase in the batch SSF culture was closely associated with strain growth until the end of the exponential phase, reaching a maximum activity of 28.4 ± 0.26 U/mL. The overall results show that the highly productive and abundant biomass crop Jerusalem artichoke can be a good substrate for hydrogen production, and that the application of batch SSF for its conversion has the potential to become a cost-effective process in the near future.

  16. Technical Integration of Nuclear Hydrogen Production Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ki Young; Park, J. K.; Chang, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    These works focus on the development of attainment indices for nuclear hydrogen key technologies, the analysis of the hydrogen production process and the performance estimation for hydrogen production systems, and the assessment of the nuclear hydrogen production cost. For assessing the degree of attainments in comparison with the final goals of VHTR technologies in progress of researches, subdivided are the prerequisite items confirmed to the NHDD concepts. We developed and applied R and D quality management methodology to meet 'Development of Key Technologies for Nuclear Hydrogen' project. And we also distributed R and D QAM and R and D QAP to each teams and are in operation. The preconceptual flow diagrams of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes are introduced and their material and energy balances have been proposed. The hydrogen production thermal efficiencies of not only the SI process as a reference process but also the HTSE and HyS processes were also estimated. Technical feasibility assessments of SI, HTSE, and HyS processes have been carried out by using the pair-wise comparison and analytic hierarchy process, and it is revealed that the experts are considering the SI process as the most feasible process. The secondary helium pathway across the SI process is introduced. Dynamic simulation codes for the H2S04vaporizer, sulfuric acid and sulfur trioxide decomposers, and HI decomposer on the secondary helium pathway and for the primary and secondary sulfuric acid distillation columns, HIx solution distillation column, and preheater for HI vapor have been developed and integrated

  17. Hydrogen production by aqueous phase catalytic reforming of glycerine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozguer, Derya Oncel; Uysal, Bekir Zuehtue

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is believed to be the one of the main energy carriers in the near future. In this research glycerine, which is produced in large quantities as a by-product of biodiesel process, was converted to hydrogen aiming to contribute to clean energy initiative. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen was achieved via aqueous-phase reforming (APR) with Pt/Al 2 O 3 catalyst. The experiments were carried out in an autoclave reactor and a continuous fixed-bed reactor. The effects of reaction temperature (160-280 o C), feed flow rate (0.05-0.5 mL/dak) and feed concentration (5-85 wt-% glycerine) on product distribution were investigated. Optimum temperature for hydrogen production with APR was determined as 230 o C. Maximum gas production rate was found at the feed flow rates around 0.1 mL/min. It was also found that hydrogen concentration in the gas product increased with decreasing glycerol concentration in the feed.

  18. Hydrogen production from steam methane reforming and electrolysis as part of a near-term hydrogen infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, K.

    2003-01-01

    Building a complete hydrogen infrastructure for a transportation system based on Fuel Cells (FC) and hydrogen is a risky and expensive ordeal, especially given that it is not known with complete certainty that Fuel Cells will indeed replace the gasoline ICE. But how can we expect the diffusion of an automotive technology if there is no infrastructure to support its fuel needs? This gives rise to a chicken and egg type problem. One way to get around this problem is to produce hydrogen when and where it is needed. This solves the problems of high costs associated with expensive pipeline distribution networks, the high energy-intensities associated with liquefaction of hydrogen and the high costs of cryogenic equipment. This paper will consider the advantages and disadvantages of two such hydrogen production mechanisms, namely, onsite production of hydrogen from Electrolysis and onsite production of hydrogen from Steam Methane Reforming (SMR). Although SMR hydrogen may be more economical due to the availability and low cost of methane, under certain market and technological conditions onsite electrolytic hydrogen can be more attractive. The paper analyses the final price of delivered hydrogen based on its sensitivity to market conditions and technology developments. (author)

  19. Hydrogen production from small hyropower sites. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    A synergistic relationship was not found to exist between low-head hydropower and electrolytic hydrogen production. The storageability of hydrogen was expected to mitigate problems of hydrogen generation variability associated with the use of low-head hydropower as the power source. The expense of gaseous hydrogen storage equipment effectively eliminates storage as a means to decouple hydrogen demand and power/hydrogen production. From the opposite perspective, the availability of a low and stable cost of power from low-head hydro was expected to improve the competitiveness of electrolysis. In actuality, the results indicated that hydroelectric power from small dams would be comparatively expensive by current grid power standards (mid-1979). Electrolysis, in the capacity range considered here, is less sensitive to the cost of the power than originally presumed. Other costs including depreciation and capital related charges are more significant. Due to power generation variability, sole reliance on low-head hydropower to provide electricity to the cells would reduce the utilization of the hydrogen production investment, resulting in an increase in unit production costs. These factors were paramount in the Air Products recommendation to discontinue the study before continuing to more detailed stages of analysis, including an analysis of a site specific facility and the construction of a demonstration facility. Another major factor was the unavailability of a pipeline hydrogen supply situation which, because of lower distribution and capital costs, could have been commercially viable. An unfavorable judgment on the combined facility should not be misinterpreted and extended to the component systems. Although a detailed analysis of the individual prospects for electrolysis and low-head hydropower was beyond the study scope, the reader will realize, as the study is reviewed, that each is worthy of individual consideration.

  20. Hydrogen and methane production from condensed molasses fermentation soluble by a two-stage anaerobic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chiu-Yue; Liang, You-Chyuan; Lay, Chyi-How [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Science; Chen, Chin-Chao [Chungchou Institute of Technology, Taiwan (China). Environmental Resources Lab.; Chang, Feng-Yuan [Feng Chia Univ., Taichung, Taiwan (China). Research Center for Energy and Resources

    2010-07-01

    The treatment of condensed molasses fermentation soluble (CMS) is a troublesome problem for glutamate manufacturing factory. However, CMS contains high carbohydrate and nutrient contents and is an attractive and commercially potential feedstock for bioenergy production. The aim of this paper is to produce hydrogen and methane by two-stage anaerobic fermentation process. The fermentative hydrogen production from CMS was conducted in a continuously-stirred tank bioreactor (working volume 4 L) which was operated at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 8 h, organic loading rate (OLR) of 120 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 5.5 and sewage sludge as seed. The anaerobic methane production was conducted in an up-flow bioreactor (working volume 11 L) which was operated at a HRT of 24 -60 hrs, OLR of 4.0-10 kg COD/m{sup 3}-d, temperature of 35 C, pH 7.0 with using anaerobic granule sludge from fructose manufacturing factory as the seed and the effluent from hydrogen production process as the substrate. These two reactors have been operated successfully for more than 400 days. The steady-state hydrogen content, hydrogen production rate and hydrogen production yield in the hydrogen fermentation system were 37%, 169 mmol-H{sub 2}/L-d and 93 mmol-H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate{sub removed}, respectively. In the methane fermentation system, the peak methane content and methane production rate were 66.5 and 86.8 mmol-CH{sub 4}/L-d with methane production yield of 189.3 mmol-CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub removed} at an OLR 10 kg/m{sup 3}-d. The energy production rate was used to elucidate the energy efficiency for this two-stage process. The total energy production rate of 133.3 kJ/L/d was obtained with 5.5 kJ/L/d from hydrogen fermentation and 127.8 kJ/L/d from methane fermentation. (orig.)

  1. Production, storage, transporation and utilization of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, E.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced from water and it can be used for fuel. Water is formed again by combustion of hydrogen with oxygen in the air. Hydrogen is an ideal fuel because hydrogen itself and gases formed by the combustion of hydrogen are not greenhouse and ozone layer damaging gases. Therefore, hydrogen is the most environmental friendly fuel that we have ever had. Hydrogen gas does not naturally exist. Therefore, hydrogen must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds such as water and hydrocarbons by adding energy. At present, hydrogen is produced in large scale as a raw material for the synthesis of ammonia, methanol and other chemicals but not for fuel. In other words, hydrogen fuel has not been realized but will be actualized in the near future. In this paper hydrogen will be discussed as fuel which will be used for aircraft, space application, power generation, combustion, etc. Especially, production of hydrogen is a very important technology for achieving hydrogen energy systems. Storage, transportation and utilization of hydrogen fuel will also be discussed in this paper

  2. French hydrogen markets in 2008-Overview and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, A.; Amalric, Y.; Miguet, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the current industrial hydrogen markets in France on both a European and international scale, while endeavouring to assess future prospects by 2030. Hydrogen is produced either on purpose or unintentionally as a co-product. Intentional production of hydrogen, generally from natural gas, is classified as captive or merchant hydrogen. France produces about 920,000 metric tons of hydrogen annually. The producer and consumer industries are, in decreasing order of importance are: oil for refinery and petrochemicals, ammonia, iron and steel (co-production), chemicals, and chlorine (co-production). The intentional production of hydrogen from natural gas amounts to less than that co-produced: 40% compared with 60%. The amount of burned hydrogen is about 25% of the total. Production-related carbon dioxide emissions range between 1% and 2% of the total emissions in France. There is an increasing trend in the industrial hydrogen production, essentially due to the oil industry whereas a decline in production is expected in the ammonia industry. The annual production around 2030 should therefore be greater than 1 million metric tons (MMT) per year. If the iron and steel industry were to use hydrogen in every possible situation, it would double the total quantity of hydrogen produced and consumed in France. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-11-01

    Many studies on the economical aspects of hydrogen energy technologies have been conducted with the increase of the technical and socioeconomic importance of the hydrogen energy. However, there is still no research which evaluates the economy of hydrogen production from the primary energy sources in consideration of Korean situations. In this study, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations such as feedstock price, electricity rate, and load factor. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S. The present study focuses on the possible future technology scenario defined by NAS. The scenario assumes technological improvement that may be achieved if present research and development (R and D) programs are successful. The production costs by the coal and natural gas are 1.1 $/kgH 2 and 1.36 $/kgH 2 , respectively. However, the fossil fuels are susceptible to the price variation depending on the oil and the raw material prices, and the hydrogen production cost also depends on the carbon tax. The economic competitiveness of the renewable energy sources such as the wind, solar, and biomass are relatively low when compared with that of the other energy sources. The estimated hydrogen production costs from the renewable energy sources range from 2.35 $/kgH 2 to 6.03 $/kgH 2 . On the other hand, the production cost by nuclear energy is lower than that of natural gas or coal when the prices of the oil and soft coal are above $50/barrel and 138 $/ton, respectively. Taking into consideration the recent rapid increase of the oil and soft coal prices and the limited fossil resource, the nuclear-hydrogen option appears to be the most economical way in the future

  4. Economical hydrogen production by electrolysis using nano pulsed DC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharmaraj, C.H. [Tangedco, Tirunelveli, ME Environmental Engineering (India); Adshkumar, S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Anna University of Technology Tirunelveli, Tirunelveli - 627007 (India)

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogen is an alternate renewable eco fuel. The environmental friendly hydrogen production method is electrolysis. The cost of electrical energy input is major role while fixing hydrogen cost in the conventional direct current Electrolysis. Using nano pulse DC input makes the input power less and economical hydrogen production can be established. In this investigation, a lab scale electrolytic cell developed and 0.58 mL/sec hydrogen/oxygen output is obtained using conventional and nano pulsed DC. The result shows that the nano pulsed DC gives 96.8 % energy saving.

  5. Bio-hydrogen production by Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 isolated from a landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jong-Hwan Shin; Jong Hyun Yoon; Tai Hyun Park [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744, (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a landfill, and it was identified as Enterobacter asburiae strain using a genomic DNA hybridization method. Environmental factors and metabolic flux influencing the hydrogen production were investigated, including pH, initial glucose and formate concentrations. The major hydrogen production pathway of this strain is considered to be a formate pathway by using formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). Optimum pH for the hydrogen production was pH 7.0 in PYG medium, at which hydrogen production/unit volume and overall hydrogen productivity were 2615 ml/l and 174 ml H{sub 2}/l/hr, respectively, at 25 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen productivity was estimated to be 417 ml H{sub 2}/l/hr at 15 g glucose/l. This strain produced bio-hydrogen mostly in the stationary phase, in which formate concentration was high. In this paper, hydrogen production was tried in formate medium after cell harvest. (authors)

  6. Bio-hydrogen production by Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1 isolated from a landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Hwan Shin; Jong Hyun Yoon; Tai Hyun Park

    2006-01-01

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a landfill, and it was identified as Enterobacter asburiae strain using a genomic DNA hybridization method. Environmental factors and metabolic flux influencing the hydrogen production were investigated, including pH, initial glucose and formate concentrations. The major hydrogen production pathway of this strain is considered to be a formate pathway by using formate hydrogen lyase (FHL). Optimum pH for the hydrogen production was pH 7.0 in PYG medium, at which hydrogen production/unit volume and overall hydrogen productivity were 2615 ml/l and 174 ml H 2 /l/hr, respectively, at 25 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen productivity was estimated to be 417 ml H 2 /l/hr at 15 g glucose/l. This strain produced bio-hydrogen mostly in the stationary phase, in which formate concentration was high. In this paper, hydrogen production was tried in formate medium after cell harvest. (authors)

  7. Solar photochemical production of HBr for off-peak electrolytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaton, H. [Solar Reactor Technologies Inc., Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Progress is reported on the development of a unique and innovative hydrogen production concept utilizing renewable (Solar) energy and incorporating energy storage. The concept is based on a solar-electrolytic system for production of hydrogen and oxygen. It employs water, bromine, solar energy, and supplemental electrical power. The process consumes only water, sunlight and off-peak electricity, and produces only hydrogen, oxygen, and peaking electrical power. No pollutants are emitted, and fossil fuels are not consumed. The concept is being developed by Solar Reactor Technologies, Inc., (SRT) under the auspices of a Cooperative Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE).

  8. Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production by the extreme thermophile, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Substrate and product inhibition of hydrogen production during sucrose fermentation by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was studied. The inhibition kinetics were analyzed with a noncompetitive, nonlinear inhibition model. Hydrogen was the most severe

  9. Use of nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The potentials of three hydrogen production processes under development for the industrial production of hydrogen using nuclear energy, namely the advanced electrolysis the steam reforming, the sulfur-iodine water splitting cycle, are compared and evaluated in this paper. Water electrolysis and steam reforming of methane are proven and used extensively today for the production of hydrogen. The overall thermal efficiency of the electrolysis includes the efficiency of the electrical power generation and of the electrolysis itself. The electrolysis process efficiency is about 75 % and of electrical power generation is only about 30 %, the overall thermal efficiency for H 2 generation being about 25 %. Steam reforming process consists of reacting methane (or natural gas) and steam in a chemical reactor at 800-900 deg. C, with a thermal efficiency of about 70 %. In a reforming process, with heat supplied by nuclear reactor, the heat must be supplied by a secondary loop from the nuclear side and be transferred to the methane/steam mixture, via a heat exchanger type reactor. The sulfur-iodine cycle, a thermochemical water splitting, is of particular interest because it produces hydrogen efficiently with no CO 2 as byproduct. If heated with a nuclear source it could prove to be an ideal environmental solution to hydrogen production. Steam reforming remains the cheapest hydrogen production method based on the latest estimates, even when implemented with nuclear reactor. The S-I cycle offers a close second solution and the electrolysis is the most expensive of the options for industrial H 2 production. The nuclear plant could power electrolysis operations right away; steam reforming with nuclear power is a little bit further off into the future, the first operation with nuclear facility is expected to have place in Japan in 2008. The S-I cycle implementation is still over the horizon, it will be more than 10 years until we will see that cycle in full scale

  10. Primary energy sources for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassmann, K.; Kuehne, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The costs for hydrogen production through water electrolysis are estimated, assuming the electricity is produced from solar, hydro-, fossil, or nuclear power. The costs for hydrogen end-use in the power generation, heat and transportation sectors are also calculated, based on a state of the art technology and a more advanced technology expected to represent the state by the year 2010. The costs for hydrogen utilization (without energy taxes) are shown to be higher than current prices for fossil fuels (including taxes). Without restrictions imposed on fossil fuel consumption, hydrogen shall not gain a significant market share in either of the cases discussed. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 4 refs

  11. Production of hydrogen by microbial fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roychowdhury, S.; Cox, D.; Levandowsky, M.

    1988-01-01

    Production of hydrogen by defined and undefined bacterial cultures was studied, using pure sugars (glucose and maltose) or natural sources rich in either pure sugars or polysaccharides. The latter included sugar cane juice, corn pulp (enzymatically treated or untreated), and enzymatically treated paper. Mixed microbial flora from sewage and landfill sediments, as well as pure and mixed cultures of known coliform bacteria produced mixtures of hydrogen and carbon dioxide at 37/sup 0/C and 55/sup 0/C, with hydrogen concentrations as high as 87%. In the case of the pure glucose substrate, an average yield of 0.7 mol hydrogen per mol glucose was obtained.

  12. The US department of energy programme on hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paster, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Clean forms of energy are needed to support sustainable global economic growth while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and impacts on air quality. To address these challenges, the U.S. President's National Energy Policy and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Plan call for expanding the development of diverse domestic energy supplies. Working with industry, the Department developed a national vision for moving toward a hydrogen economy - a solution that holds the potential to provide sustainable clean, safe, secure, affordable, and reliable energy. In February 2003, President George W. Bush announced a new Hydrogen Fuel Initiative to achieve this vision. To realize this vision, the U.S. must develop and demonstrate advanced technologies for hydrogen production, delivery, storage, conversion, and applications. Toward this end, the DOE has worked with public and private organizations to develop a National Hydrogen Energy Technology Road-map. The Road-map identifies the technological research, development, and demonstration steps required to make a successful transition to a hydrogen economy. One of the advantages of hydrogen is that it can utilize a variety of feedstocks and a variety of production technologies. Feedstock options include fossil resources such as coal, natural gas, and oil, and non-fossil resources such as biomass and water. Production technologies include thermochemical, biological, electrolytic and photolytic processes. Energy needed for these processes can be supplied through fossil, renewable, or nuclear sources. Hydrogen can be produced in large central facilities and distributed to its point of use or it can be produced in a distributed manner in small volumes at the point of use such as a refueling station or stationary power facility. In the shorter term, distributed production will play an important role in initiating the use of hydrogen due to its lower capital investment. In the longer term, it is likely that centralized

  13. VHTR-based Nuclear Hydrogen Plant Analysis for Hydrogen Production with SI, HyS, and HTSE Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Youngjoon; Lee, Taehoon; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Minhwan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, analyses of material and heat balances on the SI, HyS, and HTSE processes coupled to a Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) were performed. The hydrogen production efficiency including the thermal to electric energy ratio demanded from each process is found and the normalized evaluation results obtained from three processes are compared to each other. The currently technological issues to maintain the long term continuous operation of each process will be discussed at the conference site. VHTR-based nuclear hydrogen plant analysis for hydrogen production with SI, HyS, and HTSE facilities has been carried out to determine the thermal efficiency. It is evident that the thermal to electrical energy ratio demanded from each hydrogen production process is an important parameter to select the adequate process for hydrogen production. To improve the hydrogen production efficiency in the SI process coupled to the VHTR without electrical power generation, the demand of electrical energy in the SI process should be minimized by eliminating an electrodialysis step to break through the azeotrope of the HI/I_2/H_2O ternary aqueous solution

  14. A hydrogen production experiment by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production in lower temperature range. System viability and preliminary thermal efficiency estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Toshihide; Nakagiri, Toshio; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2008-10-01

    A new experimental apparatus by the thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid-Hydrogen production in Lower Temperature range (HHLT) was developed and hydrogen production experiment was performed to confirm the system operability. Hydrogen production efficiency was estimated and technical problems were clarified through the experimental results. Stable operation of the SO 3 electrolysis cell and the sulfur dioxide solution electrolysis cell were confirmed during experimental operation and any damage which would be affected solid operation was not detected under post operation inspection. To improve hydrogen production efficiency, it was found that the reduction of sulfuric acid circulation and the decrease in the cell voltage were key issues. (author)

  15. Conceptual design of a hydrogen production system by DME steam reforming and high-efficiency nuclear reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Ogawa, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Hydrogen is a potential alternative energy source and produced commercially by methane (natural gas) or LPG steam reforming, a process that requires high temperatures, which are produced by burning fossil fuels. However, since this process emits large amounts of CO 2 , replacement of the combustion heat source with a nuclear heat source for 773-1173 K processes has been proposed in order to eliminate these CO 2 emissions. This paper proposes a novel method of low-temperature nuclear hydrogen production by reforming dimethyl ether (DME) with steam produced by a low-temperature nuclear reactor at about 573 K. The authors identified conditions that provide high hydrogen production fraction at low pressure and temperatures of about 523-573 K. By setting this low-temperature hydrogen production process at about 573K upstream from a turbine, it was found theoretically that the total energy utilization efficiency is about 50% and very high. By setting a turbine upstream of the hydrogen production plant, an overall efficiency of is 75% for an FBR and 76% for a supercritical-water cooled power reactor (SCPR). (author)

  16. Hydrogen Production from Semiconductor-based Photocatalysis via Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. S. Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is the ideal fuel for the future because it is clean, energy efficient, and abundant in nature. While various technologies can be used to generate hydrogen, only some of them can be considered environmentally friendly. Recently, solar hydrogen generated via photocatalytic water splitting has attracted tremendous attention and has been extensively studied because of its great potential for low-cost and clean hydrogen production. This paper gives a comprehensive review of the development of photocatalytic water splitting for generating hydrogen, particularly under visible-light irradiation. The topics covered include an introduction of hydrogen production technologies, a review of photocatalytic water splitting over titania and non-titania based photocatalysts, a discussion of the types of photocatalytic water-splitting approaches, and a conclusion for the current challenges and future prospects of photocatalytic water splitting. Based on the literatures reported here, the development of highly stable visible–light-active photocatalytic materials, and the design of efficient, low-cost photoreactor systems are the key for the advancement of solar-hydrogen production via photocatalytic water splitting in the future.

  17. Co-production of hydrogen and electricity with CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arienti, S.; Cotone, P.; Davison, J. [Foster Wheeler Italiana (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a study carried out by Foster Wheeler for the IEA Greenhouse Gas R & D Programme that focused on different IGCC configurations with CO{sub 2} capture and H{sub 2} production. The three following main cases are compared: production of hydrogen, with minimum amount of electricity for a stand-alone plant production; co-production of the optimum hydrogen/electricity ratio; and co-production of hydrogen and electricity in a flexible plant that varies the hydrogen/electricity ratio. The paper reviews three available gasification technologies and presents the results of a more detailed evaluation of the selected one. The scope of this paper is to underline possible advantages of hydrogen and electricity co-production from coal, that is likely going to replace natural gas and petroleum as a source of hydrogen in the long term. Expected advantage of co-production will be the ability to vary the hydrogen/electricity ratio to meet market demands. A natural gas, diesel and gasoline demand market analysis has been performed for the Netherlands and the USA to determine the expected future hydrogen demand. Plant performance and costs are established and electric power production costs are evaluated. Electricity and hydrogen co-production plants are compared to plants that produce electricity only, with and without CO{sub 2} capture, to evaluate the costs of CO{sub 2} avoidance. 4 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Efficiency analysis of hydrogen production methods from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ptasinski, K.J.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Hydrogen is considered as a universal energy carrier for the future, and biomass has the potential to become a sustainable source of hydrogen. This article presents an efficiency analysis of hydrogen production processes from a variety of biomass feedstocks by a thermochemical method –

  19. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25mL) connected in series to an MEC (72mL) produced a maximum of 0.43V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48m 3 H 2/m 3/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2mmol H 2/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3mmol H 2/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24m 3 H 2/m 3/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijie; Sun, Dan; Cao, Guangli; Wang, Haoyu; Ren, Nanqi; Wu, Wei-Min; Logan, Bruce E

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25 mL) connected in series to an MEC (72 mL) produced a maximum of 0.43 V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2 mmol H(2)/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3 mmol H(2)/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24 m(3) H(2)/m(3)/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen production from biomass gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohce, M.K.; Dincer, I.; Rosen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    'Full Text': Biomass resources have the advantage of being renewable and can therefore contribute to renewable hydrogen production. In this study, an overview is presented of hydrogen production methods in general, and biomass-based hydrogen production in particular. For two methods in the latter category (direct gasification and pyrolysis), assessments are carried out, with the aim of investigating the feasibility of producing hydrogen from biomass and better understanding the potential of biomass as a renewable energy source. A simplified model is presented here for biomass gasification based on chemical equilibrium considerations, and the effects of temperature, pressure and the Gibbs free energy on the equilibrium hydrogen yield are studied. Palm oil (designated C 6 H 10 O 5 ), one of the most common biomass resources in the world, is considered in the analyses. The gasifier is observed to be one of the most critical components of a biomass gasification system, and is modeled using stoichiometric reactions. Various thermodynamic efficiencies are evaluated, and both methods are observed to have reasonably high efficiencies. (author)

  2. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-01-01

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR

  3. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  4. Microstructured reactors for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartun, Ingrid

    2005-07-01

    Small scale hydrogen production by partial oxidation (POX) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) have been studied over Rh-impregnated microchannel Fecralloy reactors and alumina foams. Trying to establish whether metallic microchannel reactors have special advantages for hydrogen production via catalytic POX or OSR with respect to activity, selectivity and stability was of special interest. The microchannel Fecralloy reactors were oxidised at 1000 deg C to form a {alpha}-Al2O3 layer in the channels in order to enhance the surface area prior to impregnation. Kr-BET measurements showed that the specific surface area after oxidation was approximately 10 times higher than the calculated geometric surface area. Approximately 1 mg Rh was deposited in the channels by impregnation with an aqueous solution of RhCl3. Annular pieces (15 mm o.d.,4 mm i.d., 14 mm length) of extruded {alpha}-Al2O3 foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of Rh(NO3)3 to obtain 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 wt.% loadings, as predicted by solution uptake. ICP-AES analyses showed that the actual Rh loadings probably were higher, 0.025, 0.077 and 0.169 wt.% respectively. One of the microchannel Fecralloy reactors and all Al2O3 foams were equipped with a channel to allow for temperature measurement inside the catalytic system. Temperature profiles obtained along the reactor axes show that the metallic microchannel reactor is able to minimize temperature gradients as compared to the alumina foams. At sufficiently high furnace temperature, the gas phase in front of the Rh/Al2O3/Frecralloy microchannel reactor and the 0.025 wt.% Rh/Al2O3 foams ignites. Gas phase ignition leads to lower syngas selectivity and higher selectivity to total oxidation products and hydrocarbon by-products. Before ignition of the gas phase the hydrogen selectivity is increased in OSR as compared to POX, the main contribution being the water-gas shift reaction. After gas phase ignition, increased formation of hydrocarbon by-products

  5. Hydrogen production by sodium borohydride in NaOH aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Zhang, L. F.; Zhao, Z. G.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetics of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 in NaOH aqueous solution is studied. The influence of pH of the NaOH aqueous solution on the rate of hydrogen production and the hydrogen production efficiency are studied for the hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4. The results show that the activation energy of hydrolysis reaction of NaBH4 increased with the increase of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution.With the increasing of the initial pH of NaOH aqueous solution, the rate of hydrogen production and hydrogen production efficiency of NaBH4 hydrolysis decrease.

  6. Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH) - low temperature hydrogen production from renewable fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichman, B.; Mays, W.; Strebe, J.; Fetcenko, M.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': ECD has developed a new technology to produce hydrogen from various organic matters. In this technology termed Ovonic Renewable Hydrogen (ORH), base material such as NaOH is used as a reactant to facilitate the reforming of the organic matters to hydrogen gas. This Base-Facilitated Reforming (BFR) process is a one-step process and has number of advantages over the conventional steam reforming and gasification processes including lower operation temperature and lower heat consumption. This paper will describe the ORH process and discuss its technological and economics advantages over the conventional hydrogen production processes. ORH process has been studied and demonstrated on variety of renewable fuels including liquid biofuels and solid biomass materials. Results of these studies will be presented. (author)

  7. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O' Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    spreadsheets when better information is available or to allow the performance of sensitivity studies. The selected reference plant design for this study was a 1500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant operating in the thermal-neutral mode. The plant utilized industrial natural gas-fired heaters to provide process heat, and grid electricity to supply power to the electrolyzer modules and system components. Modifications to the reference design included replacing the gas-fired heaters with electric resistance heaters, changing the operating mode of the electrolyzer (to operate below the thermal-neutral voltage), and considering a larger 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant design. Total H2A-calculated hydrogen production costs for the reference 1,500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant were $3.42/kg. The all-electric plant design using electric resistance heaters for process heat, and the reference design operating below the thermal-neutral voltage had calculated lifecycle hydrogen productions costs of $3.55/kg and $5.29/kg, respectively. Because of its larger size and associated economies of scale, the 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant was able to produce hydrogen at a cost of only $2.89/kg.

  8. Compact hydrogen production systems for solid polymer fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Formanski, V.; Kalk, Th.; Roes, J.

    Generally there are several ways to produce hydrogen gas from carbonaceous fuels like natural gas, oil or alcohols. Most of these processes are designed for large-scale industrial production and are not suitable for a compact hydrogen production system (CHYPS) in the power range of 1 kW. In order to supply solid polymer fuel cells (SPFC) with hydrogen, a compact fuel processor is required for mobile applications. The produced hydrogen-rich gas has to have a low level of harmful impurities; in particular the carbon monoxide content has to be lower than 20 ppmv. Integrating the reaction step, the gas purification and the heat supply leads to small-scale hydrogen production systems. The steam reforming of methanol is feasible at copper catalysts in a low temperature range of 200-350°C. The combination of a small-scale methanol reformer and a metal membrane as purification step forms a compact system producing high-purity hydrogen. The generation of a SPFC hydrogen fuel gas can also be performed by thermal or catalytic cracking of liquid hydrocarbons such as propane. At a temperature of 900°C the decomposition of propane into carbon and hydrogen takes place. A fuel processor based on this simple concept produces a gas stream with a hydrogen content of more than 90 vol.% and without CO and CO2.

  9. Hydrogen production and storage: R & D priorities and gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-05-04

    This review of priorities and gaps in hydrogen production and storage R & D has been prepared by the IEA Hydrogen Implementing Agreement in the context of the activities of the IEA Hydrogen Co-ordination Group. It includes two papers. The first is by Trygve Riis, Elisabet F. Hagen, Preben J.S. Vie and Oeystein Ulleberg. This offers an overview of the technologies for hydrogen production. The technologies discussed are reforming of natural gas; gasification of coal and biomass; and the splitting of water by water-electrolysis, photo-electrolysis, photo-biological production and high-temperature decomposition. The second paper is by Trygve Riis, Gary Sandrock, Oeystein Ulleberg and Preben J.S. Vie. The objective of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the possible hydrogen storage options available today and in the foreseeable future. Hydrogen storage can be considered for onboard vehicular, portable, stationary, bulk, and transport applications, but the main focus of this paper is on vehicular storage, namely fuel cell or ICE/electric hybrid vehicles. 7 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

  10. Developments and constraints in fermentative hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartacek, J.; Zabranska, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2007-01-01

    Fermentative hydrogen production is a novel aspect of anaerobic digestion. The main advantage of hydrogen is that it is a clean and renewable energy source/carrier with high specific heat of combustion and no contribution to the Greenhouse effect, and can be used in many industrial applications.

  11. Fermentative hydrogen production from liquid swine manure with glucose supplement using an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao

    2009-12-01

    The idea of coupling renewable energy production and agricultural waste management inspired this thesis. The production of an important future fuel---hydrogen gas---from high strength waste stream-liquid swine manure---using anaerobic treatment processes makes the most sustainable sense for both wastewater utilization and energy generation. The objectives of this thesis were to develop a fermentation process for converting liquid swine manure to hydrogen and to maximize hydrogen productivity. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) systems were constructed to carry out this fermentation process, and seed sludge obtained from a dairy manure anaerobic digester and pretreated by nutrient acclimation, heat and pH treatment was used as inoculum. High system stability was indicated by a short startup period of 12 days followed by stable hydrogen production, and successful sludge granulation occurred within 23 days of startup at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 hours. Operation at a progressively decreasing HRT from 24 to 8h gave rise to an increasing biogas production rate from 15.2-34.4L/d, while good linear relationships were observed between both total biogas and hydrogen production rates correlated to HRT, with R2 values of 0.993 and 0.997, respectively. The maximum hydrogen yield of 1.63 mol-H 2/mol-hexose-feed occurred at HRT of 16h, while the HRT of 12h was highly suggested to achieve both high production rate and efficient yield. Hexose utilization efficiencies over 98%, considerable hydrogen production rate up to 14.3 L/d and hydrogen percentage of off-gas up to 43% (i.e., a CO 2/H2 ratio of 1.2) with the absence of CH4 production throughout the whole course of experiment at a pH of 5.0 strongly validated the feasibility of the fermentative H2 production from liquid swine manure using an ASBR system. Ethanol as well as acetic, butyric and valeric acids were produced in the system accompanying the hydrogen production, with acetic acid being the dominant

  12. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1978. Studies on a hydrogen energy total system; 1978 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1979-03-01

    Analysis was made on timing, patterns and scales of introducing hydrogen energy into the Japan's total energy system, and case studies were made on transfer of the comprehensive systems that can be realized in the years of 1985, 2000 and 2025. The basic conception for the analytic method employed a method to analyze and present theoretically the conditions in which prerequisites or results of the estimation can be established, rather than intending elucidation of the estimation itself. An energy model was used for the theoretical means thereof. The objective function to be optimized was assumed to maximize (estimate over the planned period of time) the total effectiveness of the hydrogen energy system converted into the present value being given appropriate discount. The economic performance measures for different secondary energies working as the comparison measures are the limiting production cost of each energy. A consideration was given to the point that the electrolytic hydrogen cannot compete with that made by using the thermo-chemical method (if developed successfully) using heat from high-temperature gas reactor if the fossil fuel price rises sharply. Considerations are also required in replaceability of hydrogen energy with other energies, and hydrogen utilization in petroleum refining. (NEDO)

  13. Renewable hydrogen production by catalytic steam reforming of peanut shells pyrolysis products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.J.; Chornet, E.; Czernik, S.; Feik, C.; French, R.; Phillips, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Abedi, J.; Yeboah, Y.D. [Clark Atlanta Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States); Day, D.; Howard, J. [Scientific Carbons Inc., Blakely, GA (United States); McGee, D. [Enviro-Tech Enterprises Inc., Matthews, NC (United States); Realff, M.J. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2002-07-01

    A project was initiated to determine the feasibility of producing hydrogen from agricultural wastes at a cost comparable to methane-reforming technologies. It is possible that hydrogen can be produced cost competitively with natural gas reforming by integrating hydrogen production with existing waste product utilization processes. This report presents initial results of an engineering demonstration project involving the development of a steam reforming process by a team of government, industrial and academic organizations working at the thermochemical facility at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The process is to be used on the gaseous byproducts from a process for making activated carbon from densified peanut shells. The reactor is interfaced with a 20 kg/hour fluidized-bed fast pyrolysis system and takes advantage of process chemical analysis and computer control and monitoring capacity. The reactor will be tested on the pyrolysis vapors produced in the activated carbon process. The final phase of the project will look at the production of hydrogen through the conversion of residual CO to H{sub 2} over a shift catalyst and separating hydrogen from CO{sub 2} using pressure swing adsorption. The purified oxygen will be mixed with natural gas and used for transportation purposes. The study demonstrates the potential impact of hydrogen and bioenergy on the economic development and diversification of rural areas. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  14. Principle and perspectives of hydrogen production through biocatalyzed electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendal, R.A.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Metz, S.J.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biocatalyzed electrolysis is a novel biological hydrogen production process with the potential to efficiently convert a wide range of dissolved organic materials in wastewaters. Even substrates formerly regarded to be unsuitable for hydrogen production due to the endothermic nature of the involved

  15. Composition of hydrogenation products of Borodino brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Gyul' malieva; A.S. Maloletnev; G.A. Kalabin; A.M. Gyul' maliev [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2008-02-15

    The composition of liquid products of hydrogenation of brown coal from the Borodino deposit was determined by means of {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and chemical thermodynamics methods. It was shown that the group composition of the liquid hydrogenation products at thermodynamic equilibrium is predictable from the elemental composition of the organic matter of parent coal. 9 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  17. Hydrogen - High pressure production and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauretta, J.R

    2005-01-01

    The development of simple, safe and more and more efficient technologies for the production and the storage of hydrogen is necessary condition for the transition towards the economy of hydrogen.In this work the hydrogen production studies experimentally to high pressure by electrolysis of alkaline solutions without the intervention of compressing systems and its direct storage in safe containers.The made tests show that the process of electrolysis to high pressure is feasible and has better yield than to low pressure, and that is possible to solve the operation problems, with relatively simple technology.The preliminary studies and tests indicate that the system container that studied is immune to the outbreak and can have forms and very different sizes, nevertheless, to reach or to surpass the efficiency of storage of the conventional systems the investments necessary will be due to make to be able to produce aluminum alloy tubes of high resistance

  18. Optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic systems with hydrogen storage for total energy self-sufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, P D [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Technical Physics

    1991-01-01

    A new method for optimization of stand-alone photovoltaic-hydrogen energy systems is presented. The methodology gives the optimum values for the solar array and hydrogen storage size for any given system configuration and geographical site. Sensitivity analyses have been performed to study the effect of subsystem efficiencies on the total system performance and sizing, and also to identify possibilities for further improvements. Optimum system configurations have also been derived. The results indicate that a solar-hydrogen energy system is a very promising potential alternative for low power applications requiring a total electricity self-sufficiency. (Author).

  19. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  1. Nuclear energy for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the long term, H 2 production technologies will be strongly focusing on CO 2 -neutral or CO 2 -free methods. Nuclear with its virtually no air-borne pollutants emissions appears to be an ideal option for large-scale centralized H 2 production. It will be driven by major factors such as production rates of fossil fuels, political decisions on greenhouse gas emissions, energy security and independence of foreign oil uncertainties, or the economics of large-scale hydrogen production and transmission. A nuclear reactor operated in the heat and power cogeneration mode must be located in close vicinity to the consumer's site, i.e., it must have a convincing safety concept of the combined nuclear/ chemical production plant. A near-term option of nuclear hydrogen production which is readily available is conventional low temperature electrolysis using cheap off-peak electricity from present nuclear power plants. This, however, is available only if the share of nuclear in power production is large. But as fossil fuel prices will increase, the use of nuclear outside base-load becomes more attractive. Nuclear steam reforming is another important near-term option for both the industrial and the transportation sector, since principal technologies were developed, with a saving potential of some 35 % of methane feedstock. Competitiveness will benefit from increasing cost level of natural gas. The HTGR heated steam reforming process which was simulated in pilot plants both in Germany and Japan, appears to be feasible for industrial application around 2015. A CO 2 emission free option is high temperature electrolysis which reduces the electricity needs up to about 30 % and could make use of high temperature heat and steam from an HTGR. With respect to thermochemical water splitting cycles, the processes which are receiving presently most attention are the sulfur-iodine, the Westinghouse hybrid, and the calcium-bromine (UT-3) cycles. Efficiencies of the S-I process are in the

  2. Potential of biogenic hydrogen production for hydrogen driven remediation strategies in marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Hennebel, Tom; Boon, Nico

    2014-09-25

    Fermentative production of bio-hydrogen (bio-H2) from organic residues has emerged as a promising alternative for providing the required electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Unlike the widely used production of H2 by bacteria in fresh water systems, few reports are available regarding the generation of biogenic H2 and optimisation processes in marine systems. The present research aims to optimise the capability of an indigenous marine bacterium for the production of bio-H2 in marine environments and subsequently develop this process for hydrogen driven remediation strategies. Fermentative conversion of organics in marine media to H2 using a marine isolate, Pseudoalteromonas sp. BH11, was determined. A Taguchi design of experimental methodology was employed to evaluate the optimal nutritional composition in batch tests to improve bio-H2 yields. Further optimisation experiments showed that alginate-immobilised bacterial cells were able to produce bio-H2 at the same rate as suspended cells over a period of several weeks. Finally, bio-H2 was used as electron donor to successfully dehalogenate trichloroethylene (TCE) using biogenic palladium nanoparticles as a catalyst. Fermentative production of bio-H2 can be a promising technique for concomitant generation of an electron source for hydrogen driven remediation strategies and treatment of organic residue in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogenation of rapeseed oil for production of liquid bio-chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, F.; Martins, S.; Gonçalves, M.; Costa, P.; Gulyurtlu, I.; Alves, A.; Mendes, B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Production of renewable liquid hydrocarbons through rapeseed oil hydrogenation. ► Hydrogenation at lower temperature and lower hydrogen pressures. ► Test of a catalyst commonly employed in petrochemical industry. ► Improve of hydrogenation process viability by decreasing operational costs. ► Analysis of hydrogenated product applications as bio-chemicals. -- Abstract: The main objective of rapeseed oil hydrogenation tests was the production of liquid bio-chemicals to be used as renewable raw material for the production of several chemicals and in chemical synthesis to substitute petroleum derived stuff. As, hydrogenation of vegetable oils is already applied for the production of biofuels, the work done focused in producing aromatic compounds, due to their economic value. The effect of experimental conditions on rapeseed oil hydrogenation was studied, namely, reaction temperature and time with the aim of selecting the most favourable conditions to convert rapeseed oil into liquid valuable bio-chemicals. Rapeseed oil was hydrogenated at a hydrogen initial pressure of 1.10 MPa. Reaction temperature varied in the range from 200 °C to 400 °C, while reaction times between 6 and 180 min were tested. The performance of a commercial cobalt and molybdenum catalyst was also studied. The highest hydrocarbons yields were obtained at the highest temperature and reaction times tested. At a temperature of 400 °C and at the reaction time of 120 min hydrocarbons yield was about 92% in catalyst presence, while in the absence of the catalyst this value decreased to 85%. Hydrocarbons yield was even higher when the reaction time of 180 min was used in the presence of catalyst, as the yield of 97% was observed. At these conditions hydrocarbons formed had a high content of aromatic compounds, around 50%. For this reason, the viscosity values of hydrogenated oils were lower than that established by EN590, which together with hydrogenated liquids composition

  4. Hydrogen production from anaerobic treatment of vinasse using a UASB reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Ugalde, Cesar Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Production of hydrogen in a UASB reactor is assessed in the laboratory through anaerobic fermentation of vinasses. Physico-chemical characterization of vinasse was made, through which it was determined that the same has an acid pH, high concentration of dissolved solids, low amount of total suspended solids and high organic load; likewise, potassium, nitrogen, calcium and iron contained within of the macro and micronutrients with higher concentrations, while copper and zinc are found in low concentrations. All these features have made the vinasse a substrate feasible for hydrogen fermentative production. The sulfate was found as the second compound in higher concentration, which can promote the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which consume H 2 and generate hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S). Heat treatment was conducted to the anaerobic sludges in a water bath at 100 degrees for 30 minutes, which was achieved inhibit the growth of methanogenic bacteria. Likewise, total nonviable or viable matter growth curves were generated, with which it was determined that the exponential growth phase of bacteria in mixed culture thermally pretreated was found between 20 and 120 h. A CSTR reactor was used to decrease the time of formation of Hydrogen Producing Granules (GPH), which has resulted successful. Granules with an average size of 1,28 mm long and 1,18 mm wide after 7 days of operation were obtained. Under mesophilic conditions, operating pH of about 5,50 and substrate concentration of 20,000 mg COD/L, the hydrogen quantity produced in the UASB reactor was influenced by Hydraulic retention time (HRT). HRT for 12 hours was obtained a maximum of 2,31 mL/h of H 2 (0,789 mL/h/L reaccion ) whereas for HRT of 6 hours the maximum amount of hydrogen obtained has been 12,0 mL/h (13,4 mL/h/L reaction ); however, without possibility to assert that the average values of these variables has been statistically different. After 45 days of operation GHP were achieved with an average size of 0

  5. Hydrogen and fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the hydrogen and fuel cells. It presents the hydrogen technology from the production to the distribution and storage, the issues as motor fuel and fuel cells, the challenge for vehicles applications and the Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  6. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  7. Design of a microbial fuel cell and its transition to microbial electrolytic cell for hydrogen production by electrohydrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Parkhey, Piyush; Joshi, Komal; Mahilkar, Anjali

    2013-10-01

    Anaerobic bacteria were isolated from industrial wastewater and soil samples and tested for exoelectrogenic activity by current production in double chambered microbial fuel cell (MFC), which was further transitioned into a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell to test hydrogen production by electrohydrogenesis. Of all the cultures, the isolate from industrial water sample showed the maximum values for current = 0.161 mA, current density = 108.57 mA/m2 and power density = 48.85 mW/m2 with graphite electrode. Maximum voltage across the cell, however, was reported by the isolate from sewage water sample (506 mv) with copper as electrode. Tap water with KMnO4 was the best cathodic electrolyte as the highest values for all the measured MFC parameters were reported with it. Once the exoelectrogenic activity of the isolates was confirmed by current production, these were tested for hydrogen production in a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell (MEC) modified from the MFC. Hydrogen production was reported positive from co-culture of isolates of both the water samples and co-culture of one soil and one water sample. The maximum rate and yield of hydrogen production was 0.18 m3H2/m3/d and 3.2 mol H2/mol glucose respectively with total hydrogen production of 42.4 mL and energy recovery of 57.4%. Cumulative hydrogen production for a five day cycle of MEC operation was 0.16 m3H2/m3/d.

  8. Hydrogen production from fusion reactors coupled with high temperature electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.

    The decreasing availability of fossil fuels emphasizes the need to develop systems which will produce synthetic fuel to substitute for and complement the natural supply. An important first step in the synthesis of liquid and gaseous fuels is the production of hydrogen. Thermonuclear fusion offers an inexhaustible source of energy for the production of hydrogen from water. Processes which may be considered for this purpose include electrolysis, thermochemical decomposition or thermochemical-electrochemical hybrid cycles. Preliminary studies at Brookhaven indicate that high temperature electrolysis has the highest potential efficiency for production of hydrogen from fusion. Depending on design electric generation efficiencies of approximately 40 to 60 percent and hydrogen production efficiencies of approximately 50 to 70 percent are projected for fusion reactors using high temperature blankets

  9. Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage by mixed anaerobic microflora: Effects of temperature and pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Xie, Li; Zou, Zhonghai; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education (Tongji University), UNEP-Tongji, Tongji University, Siping Road No. 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Jing-Yuan (School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N1-01b-45, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 Singapore)

    2010-12-15

    Fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage was conducted to investigate the influences of temperature (37 C, 60 C, 70 C) and initial pH (4-10) in batch experiments. Although the seed sludge was mesophilic anaerobic sludge, maximum hydrogen yield (53.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS) was obtained under thermophilic condition (60 C), 53.5% and 198% higher than the values under mesophilic (37 C) and extreme-thermophilic (70 C) conditions respectively. The difference was mainly due to the different VFA and ethanol distributions. Higher hydrogen production corresponded with higher ratios of butyrate/acetate and butyrate/propionate. Similar hydrogen yields of 66.3 and 67.8 ml H{sub 2}/gVS were obtained at initial pH 5 and 6 respectively under thermophilic condition. The total amount of VFA and ethanol increased from 3536 to 7899 mg/l with the increase of initial pH from 4 to 10. Initial pH 6 was considered as the optimal pH due to its 19% higher total VFA and ethanol concentration than that of pH 5. Homoacetogenesis and methonogenesis were very dependent on the initial pH and temperature even when the inoculum was heat-pretreated. Moreover, a difference between measured and theoretical hydrogen was observed in this study, which could be attributed to homoacetogenesis, methanogenesis and the degradation of protein. (author)

  10. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  11. Hydrogen production from algal biomass - Advances, challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Yan, Yuegen; Ling, Ming; Ye, Guoxiang; Li, Ting; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2018-06-01

    Extensive effort is being made to explore renewable energy in replacing fossil fuels. Biohydrogen is a promising future fuel because of its clean and high energy content. A challenging issue in establishing hydrogen economy is sustainability. Biohydrogen has the potential for renewable biofuel, and could replace current hydrogen production through fossil fuel thermo-chemical processes. A promising source of biohydrogen is conversion from algal biomass, which is abundant, clean and renewable. Unlike other well-developed biofuels such as bioethanol and biodiesel, production of hydrogen from algal biomass is still in the early stage of development. There are a variety of technologies for algal hydrogen production, and some laboratory- and pilot-scale systems have demonstrated a good potential for full-scale implementation. This work presents an elucidation on development in biohydrogen encompassing biological pathways, bioreactor designs and operation and techno-economic evaluation. Challenges and prospects of biohydrogen production are also outlined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring optimal conditions for thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Gang; Zou, Zhonghai; Wang, Wen [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry(Tongji University), Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xie, Li; Zhou, Qi [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry(Tongji University), Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China); UNEP-Tongji University Institute of Environment for Sustainable Development, Siping Road no 1239, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated the effects of seed sludges, alkalinity and HRT on the thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from cassava stillage. Five different kinds of sludges were used as inocula without any pretreatment. Though batch experiments showed that mesophilic anaerobic sludge was the best inoculum, the hydrogen yields with different seed sludges were quite similar in continuous experiments in the range of 82.9-92.3 ml H{sub 2}/gVS without significant differences which could be attributed to the establishment of Uncultured Thermoanaerobacteriaceae bacterium-dominant microbial communities in all reactors. It is indicated that results obtained from batch experiments are not consistent with those from continuous experiments and all the tested seed sludges are good sources for continuous thermophilic hydrogen production from cassava stillage. The influent alkalinity of 6 g NaHCO{sub 3}/L and HRT 24 h were optimal for hydrogen production with hydrogen yield of 76 ml H{sub 2}/gVS and hydrogen production rate of 3215 ml H{sub 2}/L/d. Butyrate was the predominant metabolite in all experiments. With the increase in alkalinity of more than 6 g/L, the concentration of VFA/ethanol increased while hydrogen yield decreased due to the higher concentration of acetate and propionate. The decrease in HRT resulted in the higher hydrogen production rate but lower hydrogen yield. Variation of hydrogen yields were quite correlated with butyrate/acetate (B/A) ratio with different influent alkalinities, however, butyrate was important parameter to justify the hydrogen yields with various HRTs. (author)

  13. Potential Fusion Market for Hydrogen Production Under Environmental Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    Potential future hydrogen market and possible applications of fusion were analyzed. Hydrogen is expected as a major energy and fuel mediun for the future, and various processes for hydrogen production can be considered as candidates for the use of fusion energy. In order to significantly contribute to reduction of CO 2 emission, fusion must be deployed in developing countries, and must substitute fossil based energy with synthetic fuel such as hydrogen. Hydrogen production processes will have to evaluated and compared from the aspects of energy efficiency and CO 2 emission. Fusion can provide high temperature heat that is suitable for vapor electrolysis, thermo-chemical water decomposition and steam reforming with biomass waste. That is a possible advantage of fusion over renewables and Light water power reactor. Despite of its technical difficulty, fusion is also expected to have less limitation for siting location in the developing countries. Under environmental constraints, fusion has a chance to be a major primary energy source, and production of hydrogen enhances its contribution, while in 'business as usual', fusion will not be selected in the market. Thus if fusion is to be largely used in the future, meeting socio-economic requirements would be important

  14. Assessing the Life-Cycle Performance of Hydrogen Production via Biofuel Reforming in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Susmozas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, hydrogen is mainly produced through steam reforming of natural gas. However, this conventional process involves environmental and energy security concerns. This has led to the development of alternative technologies for (potentially green hydrogen production. In this work, the environmental and energy performance of biohydrogen produced in Europe via steam reforming of glycerol and bio-oil is evaluated from a life-cycle perspective, and contrasted with that of conventional hydrogen from steam methane reforming. Glycerol as a by-product from the production of rapeseed biodiesel and bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of poplar biomass are considered. The processing plants are simulated in Aspen Plus® to provide inventory data for the life cycle assessment. The environmental impact potentials evaluated include abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, land competition, acidification and eutrophication. Furthermore, the cumulative (total and non-renewable energy demand is calculated, as well as the corresponding renewability scores and life-cycle energy balances and efficiencies of the biohydrogen products. In addition to quantitative evidence of the (expected relevance of the feedstock and impact categories considered, results show that poplar-derived bio-oil could be a suitable feedstock for steam reforming, in contrast to first-generation bioglycerol.

  15. Evaluation of hydrogen production using CATHENA-ELOCA during a LOCA/LOECC scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, G.; Parent, G.; Huynh, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    A 20% RIH break with loss of ECC and boiler crash cooldown is simulated with CATHENA-ELOCA and CATHENA to assess the fuel and pressure tube temperatures as well as the hydrogen production. Six representative channels are selected to represent six power groups of channels for each core pass. The maximum temperatures predicted (1446 o C for the central element sheath of bundle 6 in channel O6 of the broken pass - 5 g/s) are largely lower than those shown in the 2002 Gentilly-2 Safety Report. The total amount of predicted hydrogen produced is also much lower than the values shown in the 2002 Gentilly-2 Safety Report. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 415.420 - Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. 415.420 Section 415.420 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Hydrogen Cyanide Production Subcategory § 415.420 Applicability; description of the hydrogen cyanide production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  17. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Monica; Mihet, Maria; Lazar, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H 2 . In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al 2 O 3 . The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N 2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H 2 , CH 4 , CO, CO 2 . The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H 2 O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%

  18. Economics and synergies of electrolytic and thermochemical methods of environmentally benign hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naterer, G.F.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the world's hydrogen (about 97%) is currently derived from fossil fuels. For reduction of greenhouse gases, improvement of urban air quality, and energy security, among other reasons, carbon-free sources of hydrogen production are crucial to hydrogen becoming a significant energy carrier. Nuclear hydrogen production is a promising carbon-free alternative for large-scale, low-cost production of hydrogen in the future. Two nuclear technologies, applied in tandem, have a promising potential to generate hydrogen economically without leading to greenhouse gas emissions: 1) electrolysis and 2) thermochemical decomposition of water. This paper will investigate their unique complementary roles and economics of producing hydrogen, from a Canadian perspective. Together they can serve a unique potential for both de-centralized hydrogen needs in periods of low-demand electricity, and centralized base-load production from a nuclear station. Hydrogen production has a significantly higher thermal efficiency, but electrolysis can take advantage of low electricity prices during off-peak hours. By effectively linking these systems, water-based production of hydrogen can become more competitive against the predominant existing technology, SMR (steam-methane reforming). (orig.)

  19. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Biris, A. S. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Mazumder, M. K. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Karabacak, T. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Kannarpady, Ganesh [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States); Sharma, R. [Univ. of Arkansas, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  20. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  1. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1985 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed, and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 F. A possible scenario combining the relatively abundant and low-cost Western coal deposits with the Gulf Coast hydrogen users is presented which provides high-energy density transportation utilizing coal liquids and uranium.

  2. Out-of-pile demonstration test of hydrogen production system coupling with HTTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Koji

    1999-01-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of a steam reforming process of natural gas using nuclear heat (10 MW, 905degC) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The safety principle and criteria are also being investigated in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 to 30 has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm 3 /h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is under manufacturing aiming at completion in 2000 and followed by the test till 2004. In parallel to this, a hydrogen permeation test and a corrosion test of a catalyst tube of a steam reformer are being carried out to obtain data necessary for the design of the system. This report describes outline of the out-of-pile hydrogen production facility and demonstration test program for the HTTR hydrogen production system at present status. (author)

  3. Out-of-pile demonstration test of hydrogen production system coupling with HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Koji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-07-01

    In Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of a steam reforming process of natural gas using nuclear heat (10 MW, 905degC) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). The safety principle and criteria are also being investigated in the HTTR hydrogen production system. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the HTTR hydrogen production system. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 to 30 has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm{sup 3}/h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is under manufacturing aiming at completion in 2000 and followed by the test till 2004. In parallel to this, a hydrogen permeation test and a corrosion test of a catalyst tube of a steam reformer are being carried out to obtain data necessary for the design of the system. This report describes outline of the out-of-pile hydrogen production facility and demonstration test program for the HTTR hydrogen production system at present status. (author)

  4. Performance requirements of an inertial-fusion-energy source for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovingh, J.

    1983-01-01

    Performance of an inertial fusion system for the production of hydrogen is compared to a tandem-mirror-system hydrogen producer. Both systems use the General Atomic sulfur-iodine hydrogen-production cycle and produce no net electric power to the grid. An ICF-driven hydrogen producer will have higher system gains and lower electrical-consumption ratios than the design point for the tandem-mirror system if the inertial-fusion-energy gain eta Q > 8.8. For the ICF system to have a higher hydrogen production rate per unit fusion power than the tandem-mirror system requires that eta Q > 17. These can be achieved utilizing realistic laser and pellet performances

  5. Thermochemical hydrogen production based on magnetic fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.; Brown, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual design studies have been carried out on an integrated fusion/chemical plant system using a Tandem Mirror Reactor fusion energy source to drive the General Atomic Sulfur-Iodine Water-Splitting Cycle and produce hydrogen as a future feedstock for synthetic fuels. Blanket design studies for the Tandem Mirror Reactor show that several design alternatives are available for providing heat at sufficiently high temperatures to drive the General Atomic Cycle. The concept of a Joule-boosted decomposer is introduced in one of the systems investigated to provide heat electrically for the highest temperature step in the cycle (the SO 3 decomposition step), and thus lower blanket design requirements and costs. Flowsheeting and conceptual process designs have been developed for a complete fusion-driven hydrogen plant, and the information has been used to develop a plot plan for the plant and to estimate hydrogen production costs. Both public and private utility financing approaches have been used to obtain hydrogen production costs of $12-14/GJ based on July 1980 dollars

  6. Renewable hydrogen production via thermochemical/electrochemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosini, Andrea [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babiniec, Sean Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, James E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    A coupled electrochemical/thermochemical cycle was investigated to produce hydrogen from renewable resources. Like a conventional thermochemical cycle, this cycle leverages chemical energy stored in a thermochemical working material that is reduced thermally by solar energy. However, in this concept, the stored chemical energy only needs to be partially, but not fully, capable of splitting steam to produce hydrogen. To complete the process, a proton-conducting membrane is driven to separate hydrogen as it is produced, thus shifting the thermodynamics toward further hydrogen production. This novel coupled-cycle concept provides several benefits. First, the required oxidation enthalpy of the reversible thermochemical material is reduced, enabling the process to occur at lower temperatures. Second, removing the requirement for spontaneous steam-splitting widens the scope of materials compositions, allowing for less expensive/more abundant elements to be used. Lastly, thermodynamics calculations suggest that this concept can potentially reach higher efficiencies than photovoltaic-to-electrolysis hydrogen production methods. This Exploratory Express LDRD involved assessing the practical feasibility of the proposed coupled cycle. A test stand was designed and constructed and proton-conducting membranes were synthesized. While the full proof of concept was not achieved, the individual components of the experiment were validated and new capabilities that can be leveraged by a variety of programs were developed.

  7. Hydrogen production system coupled with high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiozawa, Shusaku

    2003-01-01

    On the HTTR program, R and D on nuclear reactor technology and R and D on thermal application technology such as hydrogen production and so on, are advanced. When carrying out power generation and thermal application such as hydrogen production and so on, it is, at first, necessary to supply nuclear heat safely, stably and in low cost, JAERI carries out some R and Ds on nuclear reactor technology using HTTR. In parallel to this, JAERI also carries out R and D for jointing nuclear reactor system with thermal application systems because of no experience in the world on high temperature heat of about 1,000 centigrade supplied by nuclear reactor except power generation, and R and D on thermochemical decomposition method IS process for producing hydrogen from water without exhaust of carbon dioxide. Here were described summaries on R and D on nuclear reactor technology, R and D on jointing technology using HTTR hydrogen production system, R and D on IS process hydrogen production, and comparison hydrogen production with other processes. (G.K.)

  8. Electrocatalysis research for fuel cells and hydrogen production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathe, MK

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The CSIR undertakes research in the Electrocatalysis of fuel cells and for hydrogen production. The Hydrogen South Africa (HySA) strategy supports research on electrocatalysts due to their importance to the national beneficiation strategy. The work...

  9. USE OF THE MODULAR HELIUM REACTOR FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHULTZ, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 A significant ''Hydrogen Economy'' is predicted that will reduce our dependence on petroleum imports and reduce pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels, but contemporary hydrogen production is primarily based on fossil fuels. The author has recently completed a three-year project for the US Department of Energy (DOE) whose objective was to ''define an economically feasible concept for production of hydrogen, using an advanced high-temperature nuclear reactor as the energy source''. Thermochemical water-slitting, a chemical process that accomplishes the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen, met this objective. The goal of the first phase of this study was to evaluate thermochemical processes which offer the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen, and to select one for further detailed consideration. They selected the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In the second phase, they reviewed all the basic reactor types for suitability to provide the high temperature heat needed by the selected thermochemical water splitting cycle and chose the helium gas-cooled reactor. In the third phase they designed the chemical flowsheet for the thermochemical process and estimated the efficiency and cost of the process and the projected cost of producing hydrogen. These results are summarized in this report

  10. An Overview of Natural Gas Conversion Technologies for Co-Production of Hydrogen and Value-Added Solid Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Vanessa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krause, Theodore R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This report was prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Congressional Appropriation language to support research on carbon-free production of hydrogen using new chemical processes that utilize natural gas to produce solid carbon and hydrogen. The U.S. produces 9-10 million tons of hydrogen annually with more than 95% of the hydrogen produced by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas. SMR is attractive because of its high hydrogen yield; but it also converts the carbon to carbon dioxide. Non-oxidative thermal decomposition of methane to carbon and hydrogen is an alternative to SMR and produces CO2-free hydrogen. The produced carbon can be sold as a co-product, thus providing economic credit that reduces the delivered net cost of hydrogen. The combination of producing hydrogen with potentially valuable carbon byproducts has market value in that this allows greater flexibility to match the market prices of hydrogen and carbon. That is, the higher value product can subsidize the other in pricing decisions. In this report we highlight the relevant technologies reported in the literature—primarily thermochemical and plasma conversion processes—and recent research progress and commercial activities. Longstanding technical challenges include the high energetic requirements (e.g., high temperatures and/or electricity requirements) necessary for methane activation and, for some catalytic processes, the separation of solid carbon product from the spent catalyst. We assess current and new carbon product markets that could be served given technological advances, and we discuss technical barriers and potential areas of research to address these needs. We provide preliminary economic analysis for these processes and compare to other emerging (e.g., electrolysis) and conventional (e.g., SMR) processes for hydrogen production. The overarching conclusion of this study is that the cost of hydrogen can be potentially

  11. In vitro hydrogen production by glucose dehydrogenase and hydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    A new in vitro enzymatic pathway for the generation of molecular hydrogen from glucose has been demonstrated. The reaction is based upon the oxidation of glucose by Thermoplasma acidophilum glucose dehydrogenase with the concomitant oxidation of NADPH by Pyrococcus furiosus hydrogenase. Stoichiometric yields of hydrogen were produced from glucose with continuous cofactor recycle. This simple system may provide a method for the biological production of hydrogen from renewable sources. In addition, the other product of this reaction, gluconic acid, is a high-value commodity chemical.

  12. Optical pumping production of spin polarized hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knize, R.J.; Happer, W.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    There has been much interest recently in the production of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen in various fields including controlled fusion, quantum fluids, high energy, and nuclear physics. One promising method for the development of large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen is the utilization of optical pumping with a laser. Optical pumping is a process where photon angular momentum is converted into electron and nuclear spin. The advent of tunable CW dye lasers (approx. 1 watt) allow the production of greater than 10 18 polarized atoms/sec. We have begun a program at Princeton to investigate the physics and technology of using optical pumping to produce large quantities of spin polarized hydrogen. Initial experiments have been done in small closed glass cells. Eventually, a flowing system, open target, or polarized ion source could be constructed

  13. Evaluation of hydrogen production system coupling with HTTR using dynamic analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Koji; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki

    2006-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was entrusted 'Development of Nuclear Heat Utilization Technology' by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. In this development, the JAEA investigated the system integration technology to couple the hydrogen production system by steam reforming with the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to the construction of the hydrogen production system coupling with the HTTR, a dynamic analysis code had to be developed to evaluate the system transient behaviour of the hydrogen production system because there are no examples of chemical facilities coupled with nuclear reactor in the world. This report describes the evaluation of the hydrogen production system coupling with HTTR using analysis code, N-HYPAC, which can estimate transient behaviour of the hydrogen production system by steam reforming. The results of this investigation provide that the influence of the thermal disturbance caused by the hydrogen production system on the HTTR can be estimated well. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production from palm oil mill effluent by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanisho, S.; Shimazaki, T. [Yokohama National Univ., Shigeharu TANISHO and Tsuruyo SHIMAZAKI, Yokohama (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    Hydrogen production by fermentation was examined by using palm oil mill effluent. Clostridium butyricum produced more than 2.2 NL of hydrogen from 1 L of raw POME at pH 5.0, and Enterobacter aerogenes produced ca. 1.9 NL at pH 6.0. While from the culture liquid added 1% of peptone on the raw POME, C. butyricum produced more than 3.3 NL and also E. aerogenes 3.4 NL at pH 6.0 and 5.0, respectively. In this manner, the addition of nitrogen source to the POME liquid exerted an influence on the volume of hydrogen production. Since Aspergillus niger has ability to produce cellulase, co-cultivation of C.butyricum with A. niger was tried to utilize celluloses in the POME. Against our expectations, however, the results were lower productivities than pure cultivation's. We analyzed the components of POME by liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis before and after cultivation. The main substrate for hydrogen production was found to be glycerol. (authors)

  15. Performance test results of mock-up test facility of HTTR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Nishihara, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    For the purpose to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing a hydrogen production system and has planned to connect the hydrogen production system to High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to construction of a HTTR hydrogen production system, a mock-up test facility was constructed to investigate transient behavior of the hydrogen production system and to establish system controllability. The Mock-up test facility with a full-scale reaction tube is an approximately 1/30-scale model of the HTTR hydrogen production system and an electric heater is used as a heat source instead of a reactor. After its construction, a performance test of the test facility was carried out in the same pressure and temperature conditions as those of the HTTR hydrogen production system to investigate its performance such as hydrogen production ability, controllability and so on. It was confirmed that hydrogen was stably produced with a hot helium gas about 120m 3 /h, which satisfy the design value, and thermal disturbance of helium gas during the start-up could be mitigated within the design value by using a steam generator. The mock-up test of the HTTR hydrogen production system using this facility will continue until 2004. (author)

  16. Liquid hydrogen production and economics for NASA Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, D. L.

    1985-12-01

    Detailed economic analyses for the production of liquid hydrogen used to power the Space Shuttle are presented. The hydrogen production and energy needs of the NASA Kennedy Space Center are reviewed, and steam reformation, polygeneration, and electrolysis for liquid hydrogen production are examined on an equal economic basis. The use of photovoltaics as an electrolysis power source is considered. The 1985 present worth is calculated based on life cycle costs over a 21-year period beginning with full operation in 1990. Two different sets of escalation, inflation, and discount rates are used, with revenue credit being given for energy or other products of the hydrogen production process. The results show that the economic analyses are very dependent on the escalation rates used. The least net present value is found for steam reformation of natural gas, while the best net present value is found for the electrolysis process which includes the phasing of photovoltaics.

  17. Life cycle costs for the optimized production of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Markus A.; Weiss, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Despite the known advantages of microalgae compared with other biomass providers or fossil fuels, microalgae are predominately produced for high-value products. Economic constraints might limit the commercial energetic use of microalgae. Therefore, we identify the LCCs (life cycle costs) and economic hot spots for photoautotrophic hydrogen generation from photoautotrophically grown Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in a novel staggered PBR (photobioreactor) and the anaerobic digestion of the residual biomass to obtain biogas. The novel PBR aims at minimizing energy consumption for mixing and aeration and at optimizing the light conditions for algal growth. The LCCs per MJ amounted to 12.17 Euro for hydrogen and 0.99 Euro for biogas in 2011 for Germany. Market prices per MJ of 0.02 Euro for biogas and 0.04 Euro for hydrogen are considerably exceeded. Major contributors to operating costs, about 70% of total LCCs, are personnel and overhead costs. The investment costs consist to about 92% of those for the PBR with a share of 61% membrane costs. The choice of Madrid as another production location with higher incident solar irradiation and lower personnel costs reduces LCCs by about 40%. Projecting LCCs to 2030 with experience curves, the LCCs still exceed future market prices. - Highlights: • Life cycle cost assessment of hydrogen and biogas from microalgae in a novel photobioreactor. • Current and future (2030) economically viable production unlikely in Germany. • Personnel and photobioreactor costs are major cost drivers. • Changing the production location may significantly reduce the life cycle costs

  18. Contribution to the study of new hydrogen production, purification and storage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaud, Jean-Pierre

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the various aspects of hydrogen production, purification and process within the scope of hydrogen-based energy production. Hydrogen production is achieved by water decomposition through a thermo-chemical process. The author reports the thermodynamic assessment of a water decomposition thermo-chemical cycle for chlorine and sulphur-related cycles. He reports the experimental investigation of hydrogen purification by selective diffusion, the study of contamination of a CeMg12 alloy by nitrogen, oxygen and water vapour with application to hydrogen storage under the form of hydrides [fr

  19. Startech Hydrogen Production Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Startech Engineering Department

    2007-11-27

    The assigned work scope includes the modification and utilization of the Plasma Converter System, Integration of a StarCell{trademark} Multistage Ceramic Membrane System (StarCell), and testing of the integrated systems towards DOE targets for gasification and membrane separation. Testing and evaluation was performed at the Startech Engineering and Demonstration Test Center in Bristol, CT. The Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) Characterize the performance of the integrated Plasma Converter and StarCell{trademark} Systems for hydrogen production and purification from abundant and inexpensive feedstocks; (2) Compare integrated hydrogen production performance to conventional technologies and DOE benchmarks; (3) Run pressure and temperature testing to baseline StarCell's performance; and (4) Determine the effect of process contaminants on the StarCell{trademark} system.

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William E [Naperville, IL; Maroni, Victor A [Naperville, IL; Willit, James L [Batavia, IL

    2010-05-25

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  1. The hydrogen resource. Productive, technical and economic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Fronzo, G.

    2000-01-01

    Diffusion of hydrogen as an energetic vector meets with a lot of obstacles that don't depend on available raw material, but on hydrogen combination with other elements. It is necessary, therefore, to separate hydrogen picking out the available different technologies to have different pure hydrogen of variable quantities. Besides, its diffusion as fuel is limited because of the great production cost compared to fuels sprung from petroleum. Hydrogen used on a large scale could have advantages on the environment and occupation, but there are economic and politic obstacles to limit its diffusion. Future of economic system, based on hydrogen as the main energetic vector, will depend on the programme that national and international qualified governing bodies will be able to do [it

  2. Achievements of European projects on membrane reactor for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    di Marcoberardino, G.; Binotti, M.; Manzolini, G.; Viviente, J.L.; Arratibel Plazaola, A.; Roses, L.; Gallucci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Membrane reactors for hydrogen production can increase both the hydrogen production efficiency at small scale and the electric efficiency in micro-cogeneration systems when coupled with Polymeric Electrolyte Membrane fuel cells. This paper discusses the achievements of three European projects

  3. Renewable hydrogen utilisation for the production of methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galindo Cifre, P.; Badr, O.

    2007-01-01

    Electrolytic hydrogen production is an efficient way of storing renewable energy generated electricity and securing the contribution of renewables in the future electricity supply. The use of this hydrogen for the production of methanol results in a liquid fuel that can be utilised directly with minor changes in the existing infrastructure. To utilise the renewable generated hydrogen for production of renewable methanol, a sustainable carbon source is needed. This carbon can be provided by biomass or CO 2 in the flue gases of fossil fuel-fired power stations, cement factories, fermentation processes and water purification plants. Methanol production pathways via biomass gasification and CO 2 recovery from the flue gasses of a fossil fuel-fired power station have been reviewed in this study. The cost of methanol production from biomass was found to lie in the range of 300-400 EUR/tonne of methanol, and the production cost of CO 2 based methanol was between 500 and 600 EUR/tonne. Despite the higher production costs compared with methanol produced by conventional natural gas reforming (i.e. 100-200 EUR/tonne, aided by the low current price of natural gas), these new processes incorporate environmentally beneficial aspects that have to be taken into account. (author)

  4. Analysis of economic and infrastructure issues associated with hydrogen production from nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W.A.; Gorensek, M.B.; Danko, E.; Schultz, K.R.; Richards, M.B.; Brown, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Consideration is being given to the large-scale transition of the world's energy system from one based on carbon fuels to one based on the use of hydrogen as the carrier. This transition is necessitated by the declining resource base of conventional oil and gas, air quality concerns, and the threat of global climate change linked to greenhouse gas emissions. Since hydrogen can be produced from water using non-carbon primary energy sources, it is the ideal sustainable fuel. The options for producing the hydrogen include renewables (e.g. solar and wind), fossil fuels with carbon sequestration, and nuclear energy. A comprehensive study has been initiated to define economically feasible concepts and to determine estimates of efficiency and cost for hydrogen production using next generation nuclear reactors. A unique aspect of the study is the assessment of the integration of a nuclear plant, a hydrogen production process and the broader infrastructure requirements. Hydrogen infrastructure issues directly related to nuclear hydrogen production are being addressed, and the projected cost, value and end-use market for hydrogen will be determined. The infrastructure issues are critical, since the combined cost of storing, transporting, distributing, and retailing the hydrogen product could well exceed the cost of hydrogen production measured at the plant gate. The results are expected to be useful in establishing the potential role that nuclear hydrogen can play in the future hydrogen economy. Approximately half of the three-year study has been completed. Results to date indicate that nuclear produced hydrogen can be competitive with hydrogen produced from natural gas for use at oil refineries or ammonia plants, indicating a potential early market opportunity for large-scale centralized hydrogen production. Extension of the hydrogen infrastructure from these large industrial users to distributed hydrogen users such as refueling stations and fuel cell generators could

  5. Catalytic glycerol steam reforming for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Monica, E-mail: monica.dan@itim-cj.ro; Mihet, Maria, E-mail: maria.mihet@itim-cj.ro; Lazar, Mihaela D., E-mail: diana.lazar@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 67-103 Donat Street, 400293 Cluj Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen production from glycerol by steam reforming combine two major advantages: (i) using glycerol as raw material add value to this by product of bio-diesel production which is obtained in large quantities around the world and have a very limited utilization now, and (ii) by implication of water molecules in the reaction the efficiency of hydrogen generation is increased as each mol of glycerol produces 7 mol of H{sub 2}. In this work we present the results obtained in the process of steam reforming of glycerol on Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The catalyst was prepared by wet impregnation method and characterized through different methods: N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR. The catalytic study was performed in a stainless steel tubular reactor at atmospheric pressure by varying the reaction conditions: steam/carbon ratio (1-9), gas flow (35 ml/min -133 ml/min), temperature (450-650°C). The gaseous fraction of the reaction products contain: H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}. The optimum reaction conditions as resulted from this study are: temperature 550°C, Gly:H{sub 2}O ratio 9:1 and Ar flow 133 ml/min. In these conditions the glycerol conversion to gaseous products was 43% and the hydrogen yield was 30%.

  6. Timeline of bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic digestion of biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette E. TELEKY

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion of biomass is a process capable to produce biohydrogen, a clean source of alternative energy. Lignocellulosic biomass from agricultural waste is considered a renewable energy source; therefore its utilization also contributes to the reduction of water, soil and air pollution. The study consists in five consecutive experiments designed to utilize anaerobic bacterial enrichment cultures originating from the Hungarian Lake, Hévíz. Wheat straw was used as complex substrate to produce hydrogen. The timeline evolution of hydrogen production was analyzed and modelled by two functions: Logistic and Boltzmann. The results proved that hydrogen production is significant, with a maximum of 0.24 mlN/ml and the highest hydrogen production occurs between the days 4-10 of the experiment.

  7. Hydrogen sulfide production from cysteine and homocysteine by periodontal and oral bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Mamiko; Ohara, Naoya; Yoshimura, Shigeru; Nagashima, Shiori; Takehara, Tadamichi; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-11-01

    Hydrogen sulfide is one of the predominant volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) produced by oral bacteria. This study developed and evaluated a system for detecting hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria. L-methionine-alpha-deamino-gamma-mercaptomethane-lyase (METase) and beta carbon-sulfur (beta C-S) lyase were used to degrade homocysteine and cysteine, respectively, to produce hydrogen sulfide. Enzymatic reactions resulting in hydrogen sulfide production were assayed by reaction with bismuth trichloride, which forms a black precipitate when mixed with hydrogen sulfide. The enzymatic activities of various oral bacteria that result in hydrogen sulfide production and the capacity of bacteria from periodontal sites to form hydrogen sulfide in reaction mixtures containing L-cysteine or DL-homocysteine were assayed. With L-cysteine as the substrate, Streptococcus anginosus FW73 produced the most hydrogen sulfide, whereas Porphyromonas gingivalis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 33277 and W83 and Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 produced approximately 35% of the amount produced by the P. gingivalis strains. Finally, the hydrogen sulfide found in subgingival plaque was analyzed. Using bismuth trichloride, the hydrogen sulfide produced by oral bacteria was visually detectable as a black precipitate. Hydrogen sulfide production by oral bacteria was easily analyzed using bismuth trichloride. However, further innovation is required for practical use.

  8. Effects of ionophores and antibiotics on in vitro hydrogen sulfide production, dry matter disappearance, and total gas production in cultures with a steam-flaked corn-based substrate with or without added sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; May, M L; Hales, K E; DiLorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; Smith, D R; Galyean, M L

    2009-05-01

    Effects of 3 ionophores and 2 antibiotics on in vitro H(2)S production, IVDMD, total gas production, and VFA profile with or without added S were examined. In Exp. 1, ruminal fluid from 2 ruminally cannulated steers fed a steam-flaked corn-based diet (75% concentrate) without ionophore and antibiotics for 28 d before collection was used to inoculate in vitro cultures. Treatments were control (no ionophore or antibiotic), 3 ionophores (lasalocid sodium and monensin sodium at 5 mg/L or laidlomycin propionate at 1.65 mg/L), and 2 antibiotics (chlortetracycline hydrochloride at 5 mg/L and tylosin tartarate at 1.25 mg/L). Cultures also had 0 or 1.75 mg of S/L (from sodium sulfate). No S x ionophore-antibiotic treatment interactions were noted (P > 0.53) for IVDMD, total gas production, and H(2)S production. Hydrogen sulfide (mumol/g of fermentable DM) was increased (P production tended (P = 0.09) to be increased with additional S; however, IVDMD was not affected by added S (P = 0.90). Production of H(2)S was not affected by ionophores or antibiotics (P > 0.18). On average, IVDMD (P = 0.05) was greater for ionophores than for antibiotics, whereas total gas production was less for ionophores than for control (P antibiotics (P 0.20) in acetate, propionate, or acetate:propionate between ionophores and control (S x treatment interaction, P = 0.03). In Exp. 2, the effects of ionophore-antibiotic combinations with added S were examined using the same procedures as in Exp. 1. Treatments were control, monensin plus tylosin (MT), and lasalocid plus chlortetracycline (LCTC), with concentrations of the ionophores and antibiotics as in Exp. 1. No differences were observed among treatments for H(2)S production (P > 0.55). Treatments MT and LCTC tended (P = 0.06) to increase IVDMD and decreased (P = 0.02) gas production vs. control. Proportion of acetate (P = 0.01) and acetate:propionate (P antibiotics we evaluated did not affect production of H(2)S gas in an in vitro rumen culture

  9. Improved hydrogen production by uptake hydrogenase deficient mutant strain of Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kars, Goekhan; Guenduez, Ufuk; Yuecel, Meral [Department of Biological Sciences, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Rakhely, Gabor; Kovacs, Kornel L. [Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged (Hungary); Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U.001 is a purple non-sulfur bacterium producing hydrogen under photoheterotrophic conditions. Hydrogen is produced by Mo-nitrogenase enzyme and substantial amount of H{sub 2} is reoxidized by a membrane-bound uptake hydrogenase in the wild type strain. To improve the hydrogen producing capacity of the cells, a suicide vector containing a gentamicin cassette in the hupSL genes was introduced into R. sphaeroiodes O.U.001 and the uptake hydrogenase genes were destroyed by site directed mutagenesis. The correct integration of the construct was confirmed by uptake hydrogenase activity measurement, PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. The wild type and the mutant cells showed similar growth patterns but the total volume of hydrogen gas evolved by the mutant was 20% higher than that of the wild type strain. This result demonstrated that the hydrogen produced by the nitrogenase was not consumed by uptake hydrogenase leading to higher hydrogen production. (author)

  10. Photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Halil

    Photobiological hydrogen production is an alternative to thermochemical and electrolytic technologies with the advantage of carbon dioxide sequestration. However, it suffers from low solar to hydrogen energy conversion efficiency due to limited light transfer, mass transfer, and nutrient medium composition. The present study aims at addressing these limitations and can be divided in three parts: (1) experimental measurements of the radiation characteristics of hydrogen producing and carbon dioxide consuming microorganisms, (2) solar radiation transfer modeling and simulation in photobioreactors, and (3) parametric experiments of photobiological hydrogen production and carbon dioxide sequestration. First, solar radiation transfer in photobioreactors containing microorganisms and bubbles was modeled using the radiative transport equation (RTE) and solved using the modified method of characteristics. The study concluded that Beer-Lambert's law gives inaccurate results and anisotropic scattering must be accounted for to predict the local irradiance inside a photobioreactor. The need for accurate measurement of the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms was established. Then, experimental setup and analysis methods for measuring the complete set of radiation characteristics of microorganisms have been developed and successfully validated experimentally. A database of the radiation characteristics of representative microorganisms have been created including the cyanobacteria Anabaena variabilis, the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodobacter sphaeroides and the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii along with its three genetically engineered strains. This enabled, for the first time, quantitative assessment of the effect of genetic engineering on the radiation characteristics of microorganisms. In addition, a parametric experimental study has been performed to model the growth, CO2 consumption, and H 2 production of Anabaena variabilis as functions of

  11. Formate detection by potassium permanganate for enhanced hydrogen production in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshinari [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Wood, Thomas K. [Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, 220 Jack E. Brown Building, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Department of Biology, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3258 (United States); Zachry Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3136 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Mutagenesis of Escherichia coli for hydrogen production is difficult since there is no high-throughput screen. Here we describe a method for rapid detection of enhanced hydrogen production by engineered strains by detecting formate via potassium permanganate; in E. coli, hydrogen is synthesized from formate using the formate hydrogen lyase system. (author)

  12. Evaluation of hydrogen production using CATHENA-ELOCA during a LOCA/LOECC scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited., Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Parent, G.; Huynh, H.M. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A 20% RIH break with loss of ECC and boiler crash cooldown is simulated with CATHENA-ELOCA and CATHENA to assess the fuel and pressure tube temperatures as well as the hydrogen production. Six representative channels are selected to represent six power groups of channels for each core pass. The maximum temperatures predicted (1446 {sup o}C for the central element sheath of bundle 6 in channel O6 of the broken pass - 5 g/s) are largely lower than those shown in the 2002 Gentilly-2 Safety Report. The total amount of predicted hydrogen produced is also much lower than the values shown in the 2002 Gentilly-2 Safety Report. (author)

  13. HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCTION ACTIVITY AND ADHESIVE PROPERTIES OF AEROCOCCI, ISOLATED IN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepanskyi D.O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antagonistic activity of probiotic microorganisms against other species of bacteria is an important mechanism of their ecology and it is widely used in practice. This activity is inherent in many heme-deficient bacteria, which include aerococci, and can be composed of several components: the production of organic acids, antibiotics, lysozyme, hydrogen peroxide and others. Ability to produce hydrogen peroxide under aerobic conditions and in a state of relative anaerobiosis was established in aerococci. They were divided into strong and weak producers, depending on the amount of peroxides. Lack of data about peroxide-productive ability of aerococci, isolated from the lower genital tract of women, as well as a proven mechanism of hydrogen peroxide excretion in the oxidation of lactic acid, led to need in studying the aerococci hydrogen peroxide production level, to create autobacterial drugs, based on aerococci symbiont strains for sanitation of birth canal. Colonization resistance of the vaginal mucous and normal microflora value depends largely on the degree of adhesion of microbial cells to the mucosal surface. Along with numerous studies of lactobacilli adhesive properties to the vaginal epithelium, there are no data on the adsorption capacity of aerococci to the vaginal epithelial cells. Material and methods. 18 aerococci resident strains and 1 museum strain were explored in total. Presence and quantity of autosymbiont aerococci content in different parts of the birth tract (cervical canal, vagina, external genitalia skin (EGS and perineum was studied in 44 healthy women. Isolation and identification of aerococci from the women body was conducted by the method, taking into account growth on selective indicator medium, growth and biochemical activity in environments with selenium and tellurium salts, lactate oxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Hydrogen peroxide was determined by iodometric method. Hydrogen peroxide

  14. Estimating Hydrogen Production Potential in Biorefineries Using Microbial Electrolysis Cell Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [ORNL; Mielenz, Jonathan R [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are devices that use a hybrid biocatalysis-electrolysis process for production of hydrogen from organic matter. Future biofuel and bioproducts industries are expected to generate significant volumes of waste streams containing easily degradable organic matter. The emerging MEC technology has potential to derive added- value from these waste streams via production of hydrogen. Biorefinery process streams, particularly the stillage or distillation bottoms contain underutilized sugars as well as fermentation and pretreatment byproducts. In a lignocellulosic biorefinery designed for producing 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, up to 7200 m3/hr of hydrogen can be generated. The hydrogen can either be used as an energy source or a chemical reagent for upgrading and other reactions. The energy content of the hydrogen generated is sufficient to meet 57% of the distillation energy needs. We also report on the potential for hydrogen production in existing corn mills and sugar-based biorefineries. Removal of the organics from stillage has potential to facilitate water recycle. Pretreatment and fermentation byproducts generated in lignocellulosic biorefinery processes can accumulate to highly inhibitory levels in the process streams, if water is recycled. The byproducts of concern including sugar- and lignin- degradation products such as furans and phenolics can also be converted to hydrogen in MECs. We evaluate hydrogen production from various inhibitory byproducts generated during pretreatment of various types of biomass. Finally, the research needs for development of the MEC technology and aspects particularly relevant to the biorefineries are discussed.

  15. Catalytic heat exchangers for small-scale production of hydrogen - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    A feasibility study concerning heat-exchanger reactors in small-scale production of hydrogen has been performed on the request of Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and SWEP International AB. The basic idea is to implement different catalysts into brazed plate-type heat exchangers. This can be achieved by installing catalytic cylinders in the inlet-and outlet ports of the heat exchangers or through treatment of the plates to render them catalytically active. It is also possible to sandwich catalytically active wire meshes between the plates. Experiments concerning steam reforming of methanol and methane have been performed in a micro-reactor to gather kinetic data for modelling purposes. Performance calculations concerning heat exchanger reactors have then been conducted with Catator's generic simulation code for catalytic reactors (CatalystExplorer). The simulations clearly demonstrate the technical performance of these reactors. Indeed, the production rate of hydrogen is expected to be about 10 nm{sup 3}/h per litre of heat exchanger. The corresponding value for a conventional steam-reforming unit is about 1 nm{sup 3}/h or less per litre of reactor volume. Also, the compactness and the high degree of integration together with the possibilities of mass production will give an attractive cost for such units. Depending on the demands concerning the purity of the hydrogen it is possible to add secondary catalytic steps like water-gas shifters, methanation and selective oxidation, into a one-train unit, i.e. to design an all-inclusive design. Such reactors can be used for the supply of hydrogen to fuel cells. The production cost for hydrogen can be cut by 60 - 70% through the utilisation of heat exchanger reactors instead of conventional electrolysis. This result is primarily a result of the high price for electricity compared to the feed stock prices in steam reforming. It is important to verify the performance calculations and the simulation results through experimental

  16. Catalytic heat exchangers for small-scale production of hydrogen - feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, F. [Catator AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2002-02-01

    A feasibility study concerning heat-exchanger reactors in small-scale production of hydrogen has been performed on the request of Svenskt Gastekniskt Center AB and SWEP International AB. The basic idea is to implement different catalysts into brazed plate-type heat exchangers. This can be achieved by installing catalytic cylinders in the inlet-and outlet ports of the heat exchangers or through treatment of the plates to render them catalytically active. It is also possible to sandwich catalytically active wire meshes between the plates. Experiments concerning steam reforming of methanol and methane have been performed in a micro-reactor to gather kinetic data for modelling purposes. Performance calculations concerning heat exchanger reactors have then been conducted with Catator's generic simulation code for catalytic reactors (CatalystExplorer). The simulations clearly demonstrate the technical performance of these reactors. Indeed, the production rate of hydrogen is expected to be about 10 nm{sup 3}/h per litre of heat exchanger. The corresponding value for a conventional steam-reforming unit is about 1 nm{sup 3}/h or less per litre of reactor volume. Also, the compactness and the high degree of integration together with the possibilities of mass production will give an attractive cost for such units. Depending on the demands concerning the purity of the hydrogen it is possible to add secondary catalytic steps like water-gas shifters, methanation and selective oxidation, into a one-train unit, i.e. to design an all-inclusive design. Such reactors can be used for the supply of hydrogen to fuel cells. The production cost for hydrogen can be cut by 60 - 70% through the utilisation of heat exchanger reactors instead of conventional electrolysis. This result is primarily a result of the high price for electricity compared to the feed stock prices in steam reforming. It is important to verify the performance calculations and the simulation results through

  17. Rubisco mutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii enhance photosynthetic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, T S; Malcata, F X; Arrabaça, J D; Silva, J M; Spreitzer, R J; Esquível, M G

    2013-06-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is an ideal fuel characterized by high enthalpy change and lack of greenhouse effects. This biofuel can be released by microalgae via reduction of protons to molecular hydrogen catalyzed by hydrogenases. The main competitor for the reducing power required by the hydrogenases is the Calvin cycle, and rubisco plays a key role therein. Engineered Chlamydomonas with reduced rubisco levels, activity and stability was used as the basis of this research effort aimed at increasing hydrogen production. Biochemical monitoring in such metabolically engineered mutant cells proceeded in Tris/acetate/phosphate culture medium with S-depletion or repletion, both under hypoxia. Photosynthetic activity, maximum photochemical efficiency, chlorophyll and protein levels were all measured. In addition, expression of rubisco, hydrogenase, D1 and Lhcb were investigated, and H2 was quantified. At the beginning of the experiments, rubisco increased followed by intense degradation. Lhcb proteins exhibited monomeric isoforms during the first 24 to 48 h, and D1 displayed sensitivity under S-depletion. Rubisco mutants exhibited a significant decrease in O2 evolution compared with the control. Although the S-depleted medium was much more suitable than its complete counterpart for H2 production, hydrogen release was observed also in sealed S-repleted cultures of rubisco mutated cells under low-moderate light conditions. In particular, the rubisco mutant Y67A accounted for 10-15-fold higher hydrogen production than the wild type under the same conditions and also displayed divergent metabolic parameters. These results indicate that rubisco is a promising target for improving hydrogen production rates in engineered microalgae.

  18. Thermodynamic comparison of two processes of hydrogen production: steam methane reforming-A solar thermochemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomri, Rabah; Boumaza, Mourad

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is mainly employed like primary product, for the synthesis of ammonia. The ammonia is synthesized by chemically combining hydrogen and nitrogen under pressure, in the presence of a catalyst. This ammonia is used, for the production of the nitrate fertilizers. Nowadays hydrogen gains more attention mainly because, it is regarded as a future significant fuel by much of experts. The widespread use of hydrogen as source of energy could help to reduce the concern concerning the safety of energy, the total change of climate and the quality of air. Hydrogen is presented then as an excellent alternate initially and as substitute thereafter. It can play a role even more significant than conventional energies. Indeed, it has the advantage of being nonpolluting and it can use the same means of transport as conventional energies. For Algeria, it proves of importance capital. It not only makes it possible to increase and diversify its energy reserves and its exports but also to provide for its energy needs which become increasingly significant. Although hydrogen can be produced starting from a large variety of resources using a range of various technologies, the natural gas is generally preferred and will remain in the near future the principal primary product for the manufacture of hydrogen. Currently the most effective means of production of hydrogen is the Steam Reforming of Natural Gas (SMR). This process is seen as a one of principal technologies for the production of hydrogen. The disadvantages of this process it's that it consumes a great quantity of primary energy and that it releases in the atmosphere the gases that contribute to the warming of the plane. Among the alternatives processes of hydrogen production one can quote solar thermochemical processes. In this study, an exergetic analysis of the process of hydrogen production based on Zn/ZnO redox reactions is presented. In the first part of this study, an exergetic analysis is made for a temperature of the

  19. Hydrogen Production Costs of Various Primary Energy Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyuk; Tak, Nam Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Park, Won Seok

    2005-01-01

    The limited resource and environmental impacts of fossil fuels are becoming more and more serious problems in the world. Consequently, hydrogen is in the limelight as a future alternative energy due to its clean combustion and inexhaustibility and a transition from the traditional fossil fuel system to a hydrogen-based energy system is under considerations. Several countries are already gearing the industries to the hydrogen economy to cope with the limitations of the current fossil fuels. Unfortunately, hydrogen has to be chemically separated from the hydrogen compounds in nature such as water by using some energy sources. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs of major primary energy sources are compared in consideration of the Korean situations. The evaluation methodology is based on the report of the National Academy of Science (NAS) of U.S

  20. Cea assessment of the sulphur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caries, Ph.; Vitart, X.; Yvon, P.

    2010-01-01

    The sulphur-iodine cycle is a promising process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat: - it is a purely thermochemical cycle, implying that hydrogen production will scale with volume rather than surface; - it only involves fluids, thus avoiding the often difficult handling of solids; - its heat requirements are well matched to the temperatures available from a Generation IV very/high temperature reactor. These characteristics seem very attractive for high efficiency and low cost massive hydrogen production. On the other hand, the efficiency of the cycle may suffer from the large over-stoichiometries of water and iodine and the very important heat exchanges it involves; furthermore, due to lack of adequate thermodynamic models, its efficiency is difficult to assess with confidence. Besides, the large quantities of chemicals that need to be handled, and the corrosiveness of these chemicals, are factors not to be overlooked in terms of investment and operation costs. In order to assess the actual potential of the sulphur-iodine cycle for massive hydrogen production at a competitive cost, CEA has been conducting an important programme on this cycle, ranging from thermodynamic measurements to hydrogen production cost evaluation, with flow sheet optimisation, component sizing and investment cost estimation as intermediate steps. The paper will present the method used, the status of both efficiency and production cost estimations, and discuss perspectives for improvement. (authors)

  1. A new concept of hydrogen production system for sodium cooled FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio; Aoto, Kazumi; Hoshiya, Taiji

    2004-01-01

    A new thermo-chemical and electrolytic hybrid hydrogen production process (thermo-chemical and electrolytic Hybrid Hydrogen process in Lower Temperature range: HHLT) is newly proposed by the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) to realize the hydrogen production from water by using the heat generation of sodium cooled Fast Breeding Reactor (FBR). The HHLT process is based on the sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) synthesis and decomposition processes developed earlier (Westinghouse process), and sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposition process of HHLT is facilitated by electrolysis with ionic oxygen conductive solid electrolyte to reduce operating temperature 200degC-300degC lower than Westinghouse process. Decomposition processes of SO 3 were confirmed with the cell voltage lower than 0.5 V at 500degC-600degC using 8mol yttria stabilized zirconia (8molYSZ) solid electrolyte and platinum electrode. Therefore, total voltage required for HHLT is expected to be lower than 1.0 V, because the voltage required for sulfuric acid synthesis is about 0.5V. Thermal efficiency of HHLT based on chemical reactions was roughly estimated to be within the range of 35% to 55% under the influence of H 2 SO 4 concentration and heat recovery. These results show the possibility of development of a new hydrogen production process which needs low splitting voltage and has high efficiency at around 500degC, utilizing the heat generation of sodium cooled FBR. SO 3 splitting with the voltage lower than 0.5V was confirmed at about 500degC experimentally, and ideal thermal efficiency of the cycle based on chemical reactions was evaluated. Furthermore, test apparatus to substantiate whole process of HHLT was manufactured. (author)

  2. A techno-economic analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoate and hydrogen production from syngas fermentation of gasified biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, DongWon; Chipman, David C; Bents, Scott C; Brown, Robert C

    2010-02-01

    A techno-economic analysis was conducted to investigate the feasibility of a gasification-based hybrid biorefinery producing both hydrogen gas and polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), biodegradable polymer materials that can be an attractive substitute for conventional petrochemical plastics. The biorefinery considered used switchgrass as a feedstock and converted that raw material through thermochemical methods into syngas, a gaseous mixture composed mainly of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The syngas was then fermented using Rhodospirillum rubrum, a purple non-sulfur bacterium, to produce PHA and to enrich hydrogen in the syngas. Total daily production of the biorefinery was assumed to be 12 Mg of PHA and 50 Mg of hydrogen gas. Grassroots capital for the biorefinery was estimated to be $55 million, with annual operating costs at $6.7 million. With a market value of $2.00/kg assumed for the hydrogen, the cost of producing PHA was determined to be $1.65/kg.

  3. Hydrogen production from palm kernel shell via integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Zakir; Yusup, Suzana; Ahmad, Murni Melati; Chin, Bridgid Lai Fui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper presents integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification for H 2 yield. • Effects of adsorbent to biomass, biomass particle size and fluidization velocity on H 2 yield are examined. • The present study produces higher H 2 yield as compared to that obtained in literatures. • The ICA provides enhancement of H 2 yield as compared to independent catalytic and CO 2 adsorption gasification systems. - Abstract: The present study investigates the integrated catalytic adsorption (ICA) steam gasification of palm kernel shell for hydrogen production in a pilot scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The biomass steam gasification is performed in the presence of an adsorbent and a catalyst in the system. The effect of adsorbent to biomass (A/B) ratio (0.5–1.5 wt/wt), fluidization velocity (0.15–0.26 m/s) and biomass particle size (0.355–2.0 mm) are studied at temperature of 675 °C, steam to biomass (S/B) ratio of 2.0 (wt/wt) and biomass to catalyst ratio of 0.1 (wt/wt). Hydrogen composition and yield, total gas yield, and lower product gas heating values (LHV gas ) increases with increasing A/B ratio, while particle size has no significant effect on hydrogen composition and yield, total gas and char yield, gasification and carbon conversion efficiency. However, gas heating values increased with increasing biomass particle size which is due to presence of high methane content in product gas. Meanwhile, medium fluidization velocity of 0.21 m/s favoured hydrogen composition and yield. The results showed that the maximum hydrogen composition and yield of 84.62 vol% and 91.11 g H 2 /kg biomass are observed at A/B ratio of 1.5, S/B ratio of 2.0, catalyst to biomass ratio of 0.1 and temperature of 675 °C. The product gas heating values are observed in the range of 10.92–17.02 MJ/N m 3 . Gasification and carbon conversion efficiency are observed in the range of 25.66–42.95% and 20.61–41.95%, respectively. These lower

  4. Cost Evaluation with G4-ECONS Program for SI based Nuclear Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-ho; Lee, Ki-young; Kim, Yong-wan

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary hydrogen is production is primarily based on fossil fuels, which is not considered as environments friendly and economically efficient. To achieve the hydrogen economy, it is very important to produce a massive amount of hydrogen in a clean, safe and efficient way. Nuclear production of hydrogen would allow massive production of hydrogen at economic prices while avoiding environments pollution reducing the release of carbon dioxide. Nuclear production of hydrogen could thus become the enabling technology for the hydrogen economy. The economic assessment was performed for nuclear hydrogen production plant consisting of VHTR coupled with SI cycle. For the study, G4-ECONS developed by EMWG of GIF was appropriately modified to calculate the LUHC, assuming 36 months of plant construction time, 5 % of annual interest rate and 12.6 % of fixed charge rate. In G4-ECONS program, LUHC is calculated by the following formula; LUHC = (Annualized TCIC + Annualized O-M Cost + Annualized Fuel Cycle Cost + Annualized D-D Cost) / Annual Hydrogen Production Rate

  5. Hydrogen production and purification for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Soo Yin

    The increased utilization of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as an alternative to internal combustion engines is expected to increase the demand for hydrogen, which is used as the energy source in these systems. Currently, production of hydrogen for fuel cells is primarily achieved via steam reforming, partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of natural gas, or steam reforming of methanol. However, in all of these processes CO is a by-product that must be subsequently removed due to its adverse effects on the Pt-based electrocatalysts of the PEM fuel cell. Our efforts have focused on production of CO-free hydrogen via catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons and purification of H2 via the preferential oxidation of CO. The catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons is an attractive alternative for the production of H2. Previous studies utilizing methane have shown that this approach can indeed produce CO-free hydrogen, with filamentous carbon formed as the by-product and deposited on the catalyst. We have further extended this approach to the decomposition of ethane. In addition to hydrogen and filamentous carbon however, methane is also formed in this case as a by-product. Studies conducted at different temperatures and space velocities suggest that hydrogen is the primary product while methane is formed in a secondary step. Ni/SiO2 catalysts are active for ethane decomposition at temperatures above 500°C. Although the yield of hydrogen increases with temperature, the catalyst deactivation rate also accelerates at higher temperatures. The preferential oxidation of CO is currently used for the purification of CO-contaminated hydrogen streams due to its efficiency and simplicity. Conventional Pt catalysts used for this reaction have been shown to effectively remove CO, but have limited selectivity (i.e., substantial amounts of H 2 also react with O2). Our work focused on alternative catalytic materials, such as Ru and bimetallic Ru-based catalysts (Pt-Ru, Ru

  6. Safety considerations for continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onuki, Kaoru; Akino, Norio; Shimizu, Saburo; Nakajima, Hayato; Higashi, Shunichi; Kubo, Shinji

    2001-03-01

    Since the thermochemical hydrogen production Iodine-Sulfur process decomposes water into hydrogen and oxygen using toxic chemicals such as sulfuric acid, iodine and hydriodic acid, safety considerations are very important in its research and development. Therefore, before construction of continuous hydrogen production test apparatus with capacity of 50 N-litter hydrogen per hour, comprehensive safety considerations were carried out to examine the design and construction works of the test apparatus, and the experimental plans using the apparatus. Emphasis was given on the safety considerations on prevention of breakage of glasswares and presumable abnormalities, accidents and their countermeasures. This report summarizes the results of the considerations. (author)

  7. Basic study on high temperature gas cooled reactor technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jong Hwa; Lee, W. J.; Lee, H. M.

    2003-01-01

    The annual production of hydrogen in the world is about 500 billion m 3 . Currently hydrogen is consumed mainly in chemical industries. However hydrogen has huge potential to be consumed in transportation sector in coming decades. Assuming that 10% of fossil energy in transportation sector is substituted by hydrogen in 2020, the hydrogen in the sector will exceed current hydrogen consumption by more than 2.5 times. Currently hydrogen is mainly produced by steam reforming of natural gas. Steam reforming process is chiefest way to produce hydrogen for mass production. In the future, hydrogen has to be produced in a way to minimize CO2 emission during its production process as well as to satisfy economic competition. One of the alternatives to produce hydrogen under such criteria is using heat source of high-temperature gas-cooled reactor. The high-temperature gas-cooled reactor represents one type of the next generation of nuclear reactors for safe and reliable operation as well as for efficient and economic generation of energy

  8. Hydrogen co-production from subcritical water-cooled nuclear power plants in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, N.; Ryland, D.; Suppiah, S., E-mail: gnanapragasamn@aecl.ca [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Subcritical water-cooled nuclear reactors (Sub-WCR) operate in several countries including Canada providing electricity to the civilian population. The high-temperature-steam-electrolysis process (HTSEP) is a feasible and laboratory-demonstrated large-scale hydrogen-production process. The thermal and electrical integration of the HTSEP with Sub-WCR-based nuclear-power plants (NPPs) is compared for best integration point, HTSEP operating condition and hydrogen production rate based on thermal energy efficiency. Analysis on integrated thermal efficiency suggests that the Sub-WCR NPP is ideal for hydrogen co-production with a combined efficiency of 36%. HTSEP operation analysis suggests that higher product hydrogen pressure reduces hydrogen and integrated efficiencies. The best integration point for the HTSEP with Sub-WCR NPP is upstream of the high-pressure turbine. (author)

  9. Recent advances on membranes and membrane reactors for hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallucci, F.; Fernandez Gesalaga, E.; Corengia, P.; Sint Annaland, van M.

    2013-01-01

    Membranes and membrane reactors for pure hydrogen production are widely investigated not only because of the important application areas of hydrogen, but especially because mechanically and chemically stable membranes with high perm-selectivity towards hydrogen are available and are continuously

  10. Bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jun; Zhou Junhu; Qi Feng; Xie Binfei; Cen Kefa

    2006-01-01

    The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth by anaerobic fermentation of digested sludge is studied in this paper. The compositions of bio-gases and volatile fatty acids in fermentation liquids are determined on TRACE 2000 gas chromatography. It is found that the H 2 concentration in the biogas is 10%-20% and no CH 4 is detected. The bio-hydrogen production from hyacinth with the initial pH value of 5.5 is higher than that with the initial pH value of 4.5. The fermentation temperature of 55 C is better than that of 35 C, while the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism of 1:1 is better than that of 3:7. The highest hydrogen production of 122.3 mL/g is obtained when the initial pH value of fermentation solution is 5.5, the fermentation temperature is 55 C and the weight ratio of hyacinth to microorganism is 1:1. (authors)

  11. ARGAZ: a new device for experimental study of the coupling between hydrogen production and hydrogen transfer through saturated Callovian-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, C.; Bataillon, C.; Touze, G.; Vigier, P.; Talandier, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. A specific experimental device has been designed to produce hydrogen at the metal-argillite interface by electrochemistry. The target is for one hand to reproduce the production of hydrogen occurring when a metal is corroded by the water contained in the porosity of the mud-stone. On the other hand, the transfer of the hydrogen through the mud-stone can be studied. The specific features of the experiment are the following: - Hydrogen is generated inside a cell by electrochemistry, at the interface between the argillite and a metallic surface; no gas injection is required; - Electrochemistry gives the possibility to control the hydrogen production rate; - Hydrogen generation implies water consumption: the water comes from the porosity of the bulk argillite, near the interface; - That one-dimensional experiment has been built around a cylindrical sample of bulk and undamaged argillite coming from the Callovian-Oxfordian formation. Inside the device a cylindrical sample of argillite is placed above a nickel plate. Around the argillite, a ring of compacted bentonite ensures a mechanical confinement. When saturated, the bentonite will apply a swelling pressure close to the total pressure encountered by the sample in the geological formation. The hydrogen is generated at the interface nickel-argillite. The nickel plate is one of the two electrodes required for electrochemistry. At the top face of bentonite, iron electrode is used to close the electrical circuit. The hydrogen produced at the bottom face of the mud-stone is expected to go across the argillite towards the top face. A porous plate connected with a sampling bottle allows the capture of hydrogen. The argillite sample has a diameter of 50 mm, and a height of 50 mm. It is obtained by over-coring a core sample, and by a careful machining leading to a perfect geometry and surface quality. The production rate of hydrogen can be calculated from the current intensity

  12. Accident sequences and causes analysis in a hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Moo Sung; Hwang, Seok Won; Kang, Kyong Min; Ryu, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Soo; Cho, Nam Chul; Jeon, Ho Jun; Jung, Gun Hyo; Han, Kyu Min; Lee, Seng Woo [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    Since hydrogen production facility using IS process requires high temperature of nuclear power plant, safety assessment should be performed to guarantee the safety of facility. First of all, accident cases of hydrogen production and utilization has been surveyed. Based on the results, risk factors which can be derived from hydrogen production facility were identified. Besides the correlation between risk factors are schematized using influence diagram. Also initiating events of hydrogen production facility were identified and accident scenario development and quantification were performed. PSA methodology was used for identification of initiating event and master logic diagram was used for selection method of initiating event. Event tree analysis was used for quantification of accident scenario. The sum of all the leakage frequencies is 1.22x10{sup -4} which is similar value (1.0x10{sup -4}) for core damage frequency that International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group of IAEA suggested as a criteria.

  13. Study on hydrogen production using the fast breeder reactors (FBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    As the fast breeder reactor (FBR) can effectively convert uranium-238 difficult to carry out nuclear fission at thermal neutron reactors to nuclear fissionable plutonium-239 to use it remarkable upgrading of application on uranium can be performed, to be expected for sustainable energy source. And, by reuse minor actinides of long half-life nuclides in reprocessed high level wasted solutions for fuels of nuclear reactors, reduction of radioactive poison based on high level radioactive wastes was enabled. As high temperature of about 800 centigrade was required on conventional hydrogen production, by new hydrogen production technique even at operation temperature of sodium-cooled FBR it can be enabled. Here were described for new hydrogen production methods applicable to FBR on palladium membrane hydrogen separation method carrying out natural gas/steam modification at reaction temperature of about 500 centigrade, low temperature thermo-chemical method expectable simultaneous simplification of production process, and electrolysis method expected on power load balancing. (G.K.)

  14. Large-scale hydrogen production using nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryland, D.; Stolberg, L.; Kettner, A.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Suppiah, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    For many years, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been studying the feasibility of using nuclear reactors, such as the Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor, as an energy source for large scale hydrogen production processes such as High Temperature Steam Electrolysis and the Copper-Chlorine thermochemical cycle. Recent progress includes the augmentation of AECL's experimental capabilities by the construction of experimental systems to test high temperature steam electrolysis button cells at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 850{sup o}C and CuCl/HCl electrolysis cells at pressures up to 7 bar and temperatures up to 100{sup o}C. In parallel, detailed models of solid oxide electrolysis cells and the CuCl/HCl electrolysis cell are being refined and validated using experimental data. Process models are also under development to assess options for economic integration of these hydrogen production processes with nuclear reactors. Options for large-scale energy storage, including hydrogen storage, are also under study. (author)

  15. Construction apparatus for thermochemical hydrogen production process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, S.; Nakajima, H.; Higashi, S.; Onuki, K.; Akino, S.S.N. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki-ken (Japan). Nuclear Heat Utilization Engineering Lab

    2001-06-01

    Studies have been carried out at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) on hydrogen production through thermochemical processes such as water-splitting. These studies are classified with iodine-sulphur cycle studies using heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. An experimental apparatus was constructed with fluorine resin, glass and quartz. It can produce hydrogen at a rate of 50 litres per hour. Electricity provides the heat required for the operation. The closed chemical process requires special control techniques. The process flow diagram for the apparatus was designed based on the results of previous studies including one where hydrogen production was successfully achieved at a rate of one liter per hour for 48 hours. Experimental operations under atmospheric pressure will be carried out for the next four years to develop the process. The data will be used in the next research and development programs aimed at designing a bench-scale apparatus. 7 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  16. Comparative environmental impact and efficiency assessment of selected hydrogen production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozbilen, Ahmet, E-mail: Ahmet.Ozbilen@uoit.ca; Dincer, Ibrahim, E-mail: Ibrahim.Dincer@uoit.ca; Rosen, Marc A., E-mail: Marc.Rosen@uoit.ca

    2013-09-15

    The environmental impacts of various hydrogen production processes are evaluated and compared, considering several energy sources and using life cycle analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen produced by thermochemical water decomposition cycles are more environmentally benign options compared to conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The nuclear based four-step Cu–Cl cycle has the lowest global warming potential (0.559 kg CO{sub 2}-eq per kg hydrogen production), mainly because it requires the lowest quantity of energy of the considered processes. The acidification potential results show that biomass gasification has the highest impact on environment, while wind based electrolysis has the lowest. The relation is also investigated between efficiency and environmental impacts. -- Highlights: • Environmental performance of nuclear-based hydrogen production is investigated. • The GWP and AP results are compared with various hydrogen production processes. • Nuclear based 4-step Cu–Cl cycle is found to be an environmentally benign process. • Wind-based electrolysis has the lowest AP value.

  17. Decentralized production of hydrogen from hydrocarbons with reduced CO2 emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Cunping Huang; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Currently, most of the industrial hydrogen production is based on steam methane reforming process that releases significant amount of CO 2 into the atmosphere. CO 2 sequestration is one approach to solving the CO 2 emission problem for large centralized hydrogen plants, but it would be impractical for decentralized H 2 production units. The objective of this paper is to explore new routes to hydrogen production from natural gas without (or drastically reduced) CO 2 emissions. One approach analyzed in this paper is based on thermo-catalytic decomposition (TCD) of hydrocarbons (e.g., methane) to hydrogen gas and elemental carbon. The paper discusses some technological aspects of the TCD process development: (1) thermodynamic analysis of TCD using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (2) heat input options to the endothermic process, (3) catalyst activity issues, etc. Production of hydrogen and carbon via TCD of methane was experimentally verified using carbon-based catalysts. (authors)

  18. Hydrogen production from biomass by thermochemical recuperative energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fushimi, C.; Araki, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Tsutsumi, A. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical System Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The authors conducted, using a thermogravimetric reactor, a kinetic study of production of thermochemical recuperative hydrogen from biomass. The four different biomass materials used were: cellulose, lignin, metroxylon stem, and coconut husk. Under both rapid heating and slow heating conditions, the weight changes of the biomass samples during the steam gasification or pyrolysis were measured at 973 Kelvin. Simultaneously, measurements of the evolution rates of low-molecular-weight gas products such as hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were taken with the help of a mass spectrometer and a micro gas chromatograph (GC). The steam gasification of char significantly increased the amount of hydrogen and carbon dioxide production. The results also indicated that at higher heating rate, the cold gas efficiency of steam gasification was increased. This can be explained by the suppression of the tar production at lower temperature. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  19. Hydrogen production by methane reforming based on micro-gap discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N N; Wang, M X; Liu, K Y; Bai, M D

    2013-01-01

    Based on micro-gap strong ionization discharge, this paper presents a study of hydrogen production by methane reforming at room temperature and atmospheric pressure without catalyst. Influence rules of conversion of methane and production of hydrogen were studied by changing discharge power and feed gas flow rate. Results show that when the discharge power was about 341 W, the discharge gap was 0.47 mm and the flow rate of feed gas was 100 mL min −1 , the conversion of methane and yield of hydrogen reached optimization. The conversion rate of methane and the highest yield of hydrogen were 68.14 % and 51.34 %, respectively.

  20. A method of hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulten, R.; Teggers, H.; Schulze-Bentrop, R.

    1975-01-01

    This method of producing hydrogen from water in a multistage cycle process works without anorganic salts and requires only gases and liquids. Carbon oxide is catalytically converted into carbon dioxide and water by means of water vapour. The carbon dioxide is then converted into sulphuric acid and carbon oxide using water and sulphur dioxide at high temperatures and pressures, and the sulphuric acid is separated into sulphur dioxide, oxygen and water via the intermediate SO 2 . The SO 2 and CO 2 thus obtained are led back into the appropriate reaction stages, and hydrogen and oxygen are removed from the process as end products. (A schematic flow diagram is given.) (UWI) [de

  1. Effect of light intensity and initial pH during hydrogen production by an integrated dark and photofermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Kaushik [Department of Chemical Engineering, GH Patel College of Engineering and Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India); Das, Debabrata [Fermentation Technology Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Photofermentation was carried out with the spent fermentation broth obtained from the anaerobic dark fermentation in a two-stage process. For the first stage, i.e. dark fermentation Enterobacter cloacae DM 11 was used as hydrogen producing microorganism. For photofermentation Rhodobacter sphaeroides O.U. 001, a photo-heterotrophic purple non-sulfur bacterium, was used. pH study revealed that cumulative hydrogen production was maximum at initial medium pH of 7.0 {+-} 0.2. Biomass yield was also high at the vicinity of pH 7.0 and it decreased as the pH increased from 7.0 to 8.0. Increased light intensity resulted in an increase in the total volume of hydrogen evolved and also hydrogen production rate. However, light conversion efficiency decreased by increasing light intensity. A four-fold increase in light intensity resulted in a three-fold decrease in light conversion efficiency although the cumulative volume of hydrogen gas production increased. It was observed that only a maximum of 0.51% light conversion efficiency could be achieved but at the expense of very low light intensity of 2500 lux (3.75 W m{sup -2}). (author)

  2. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melis, Anastasios [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  3. Hydrogen production via catalytic processing of renewable feedstocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazim Muradov; Franklyn Smith; Ali T-Raissi

    2006-01-01

    Landfill gas (LFG) and biogas can potentially become important feedstocks for renewable hydrogen production. The objectives of this work were: (1) to develop a catalytic process for direct reforming of CH 4 -CO 2 gaseous mixture mimicking LFG, (2) perform thermodynamic analysis of the reforming process using AspenPlus chemical process simulator, (3) determine operational conditions for auto-thermal (or thermo-neutral) reforming of a model CH 4 -CO 2 feedstock, and (4) fabricate and test a bench-scale hydrogen production unit. Experimental data obtained from catalytic reformation of the CH 4 -CO 2 and CH 4 -CO 2 -O 2 gaseous mixtures using Ni-catalyst were in a good agreement with the simulation results. It was demonstrated that catalytic reforming of LFG-mimicking gas produced hydrogen with the purity of 99.9 vol.%. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen production from nano-porous Si powder formed by stain etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, S.; Alekseev, S.; Kuznetsov, G.; Skryshevsky, V. [Institute of High Technology of National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Volodymyrs' ka 64, Kyiv 01601 (Ukraine); Lysenko, V.; Barbier, D. [Lyon Institute of Nanotechnologies (INL), CNRS UMR-5270, University of Lyon, INSA de Lyon, 7 avenue Jean Capelle, Bat. Blaise Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Venturello, A.; Geobaldo, F.; Garrone, E. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, 10129 Torino (Italy); Gulina, L.; Tolstoy, V. [St-Petersburg State University, Chemical Department (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-15

    Hydrogen reservoirs based on porous silicon (PS) nanostructures are considered. Silicon-based hydrogen tanks are believed to be applicable for portable device energy supply and compatible with micro-sources of energy of new generation. Stain etching of silicon powder to produce PS is studied as a technology alternative to conventional electrochemical etching and application of the PS powder for hydrogen production is also described. Size selection of initial Si micro-particles constituting the powders was carried out by sedimentation technique. Hydrogen content in PS was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. Extraction of hydrogen in water environment in presence of small amount of NH{sub 3} as catalyst was shown to have advantages such as safety and tunability, additional production of hydrogen from water dissociation, and a possibility to characterize PS as a hydrogen source material in terms of hydrogen effective shell and crystalline core conception. (author)

  5. Safety assessment of VHTR hydrogen production system against fire, explosion and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing a nuclear hydrogen production system by using heat from the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This system will handle a large amount of combustible gas and toxic gas. The risk from fire, explosion and acute toxic exposure caused by an accident involving chemical material release in a hydrogen production system is assessed. It is important to ensure the safety of the nuclear plant, and the risks for public health should be sufficiently small. This report provides the basic policy for the safety evaluation in cases of accident involving fire, explosion and toxic material release in a hydrogen production system. Preliminary safety analysis of a commercial-sized VHTR hydrogen production system, GTHTR300C, is performed. This analysis provides us with useful information on the separation distance between a nuclear plant and a hydrogen production system and a prospect that an accident in a hydrogen production system does not significantly increase the risks of the public. (author)

  6. A proposal for safety design philosophy of HTGR for coupling hydrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tazawa, Yujiro; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Shigeaki; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2013-06-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been conducting research and development for hydrogen production utilizing heat from High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). Towards the realization of nuclear hydrogen production, coupled hydrogen production plants should not be treated as an extension of a nuclear plant in order to open the door for the entry of non-nuclear industries as well as assuring reactor safety against postulated abnormal events initiated in the hydrogen production plants. Since hydrogen production plant utilizing nuclear heat has never been built in the world, little attention has been given to the establishment of a safety design for such system including the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). In the present study, requirements in order to design, construct and operate hydrogen production plants under conventional chemical plant standards are identified. In addition, design considerations for safety design of nuclear facility are suggested. Furthermore, feasibility of proposed safety design and design considerations are evaluated. (author)

  7. Selecting appropriate technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamhankar, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Technologies for the production of synthesis gas (H2 + CO), a precursor to hydrogen, from a variety of fossil fuels are well known in industrial applications at relatively large scale. These include Steam Reforming (SR), Auto-Thermal Reforming (ATR) and Partial Oxidation (POX). A particular technology is selected based on the feed type and the desired products. Steam reforming is a mature technology, and is most prevalent for hydrogen production because of its high efficiency. However, at the smaller scale, the capital cost becomes a more significant factor, and a substantial reduction in this cost is necessary to meet the overall H2 gas cost targets, such as that stated by DOE ($1.50/kg). In developing small-scale H2 technologies, often, incremental improvements are incorporated. While useful, these are not adequate for the desired cost reduction. Also, for effective cost reduction, the whole system, including production, purification and associated equipment needs to be evaluated; cost reduction in just one of the units is not sufficient. This paper provides a critical assessment of the existing as well as novel technology options, specifically targeted at small scale H2 production. The technology options are evaluated to clearly point out which may or may not work and why. (author)

  8. Prospect of HTGRs for hydrogen production in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusli, A.; Dasuki, A.S.; Rahman, M.; Nuriman; Sudarto

    1997-01-01

    Hydrogen energy system is interesting to many people of the world that because of hydrogen promised to save our planet earth from destroying of burning of fossil fuels. The selected development of hydrogen production from water such as electrolysis and thermochemical cycles are evaluated. These processes are allowed to split the water at lower temperature, still in the range of HTGRs' working temperature. An overview of related studies in recent years enables the development of research to be followed, studied and evaluated are mentioned. The prospect of hydrogen market in Indonesia and economic consideration based on previous studied are also analyzed and evaluated. (author). 11 refs, 5 figs, 13 tabs

  9. Photochemical Production of Hydrogen from Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1978-01-01

    The energy flux in sunlight is 40 000 kW per head of the world population. Theoretically much of this energy can be used to photolyze water, in presence of a sensitizer, to H2 (and 02) for a hydrogen economy. The main difficulty in a homogeneous medium is the back-reaction of the primary products. According to the 'membrane principle', the reducing and the oxidizing primary products are released on opposite sides of asymmetric membranes, and so prevented from back-reacting. In essence, this is the mechanism of the photosynthetic machinery in plants and bacteria. This therefore serves as an example in the artificial construction of suitable asymmetric, 'vectorial', membranes. Relatively small areas of photolytic collectors, e.g. in tropical deserts, could cover the energy needs of large populations through hydrogen. (author)

  10. Study on hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Aita, Hideki; Sekita, Kenji; Haga, Katsuhiro; Iwata, Tomo-o.

    1997-09-01

    In JAERI, design and R and D works on hydrogen production process have been conducted for connecting to the HTTR under construction at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI as a nuclear heat utilization system. As for a hydrogen production process by high-temperature electrolysis of steam, laboratory-scale experiments were carried out with a practical electrolysis tube with 12 cells connected in series. Hydrogen was produced at a maximum density of 44 Nml/cm 2 h at 950degC, and know-how of operational procedures and operational experience were also accumulated. Thereafter, a planar electrolysis cell supported by a metallic plate was fabricated in order to improve hydrogen production performance and durability against thermal cycles. In the preliminary test with the planar cell, hydrogen has been produced continuously at a maximum density of 33.6 Nml/cm 2 h at an electrolysis temperature of 950degC. This report presents typical test results mentioned above, a review of previous studies conducted in the world and R and D items required for connecting to the HTTR. (author)

  11. Economical analysis of biofuel products and nuclear plant hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwaren Liun

    2011-01-01

    The increasing in oil prices over the last six years is unprecedented that should be seen as a spur to increased efficiency. The surge in oil prices on the world market today is driven by strong demand factors in the depletion of world oil reserves. To replace the fuel oil from the bowels of the earth the various alternatives should be considered, including other crops or vegetable oil production of bio-fuels and hydrogen are produced by high temperature nuclear reactors. Biofuels in the form of ethanol made from corn or sugar cane and biodiesel made from palm oil or jatropha. With the latest world oil prices, future fuel vegetable oil and nuclear hydrogen-based energy technologies become popular in various parts of the world. Economics of biodiesel will be changed in accordance with world oil prices and subsidy regulations which apply to fuel products. On the other hand the role of nuclear energy in hydrogen production with the most potential in the techno-economics is a form of high temperature steam electrolysis, using heat and electricity from nuclear reactors. The production cost of biodiesel fuel on the basis of ADO type subsidy is 10.49 US$/MMBTU, while the production cost of hydrogen as an energy carrier of high temperature reactor is 15.30 US$/MMBTU. Thus, both types seem to have strong competitiveness. (author)

  12. Achievement report for fiscal 1982 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1982 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-03-01

    In this research on a hydrogen energy total system, studies are conducted on the plan of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base and on hydrogen as fuel for automobiles. It is estimated that the construction of a hydrogen energy proving pilot base will cost 7.125-billion yen in total. The sum includes 6.410-billion yen for the construction of a system on an island named Island A, 500-million yen for structures on an island named Island B, and 215-million yen for the construction of a marine transportation system between the two islands. Large shares will go to a hydroelectric power plant and a hydrogen liquefaction system, the two occupying approximately half of the total sum. In the study of hydrogen as fuel for automobiles, it is concluded that hydrogen is advantageously employed as fuel for automobiles. When comparison is made in terms of heat value, it is found that even a hydrogen engine which is a mere modification of a currently used engine is comparable to the currently used engine in terms of performance. As for abnormal combustion, a hydrogen/air 2-system injection method is contrived, and this solves the problem almost completely. Cryogenic hydrogen is advantageous in both NOx emission and heat efficiency though within certain limitations. From the viewpoint of safety, the recommended automobile fuel structural formula is GH{sub 2}(MH). (NEDO)

  13. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  14. Processes of hydrogen production, coupled with nuclear reactors: Economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkoff, Francois; Avril, Sophie; Mansilla, Christine; Sigurvinsson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen production, using nuclear power is considered from a technic-economic (TE) point of view. Three different processes are examined: Alkaline electrolysis, High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTE) and the thermochemical Sulphur-Iodine (S/I) cycle. The three processes differ, in the sense that the first one is operational and both last ones are still at demonstration stages. For them, it is at present only possible to identify key points and limits of competitiveness. The cost of producing hydrogen by alkaline electrolysis is analysed. Three major contributions to the production costs are examined: the electricity consumption, the operation and maintenance expenditures and the depreciation capital expenditures. A technic-economic evaluation of hydrogen production by HTE coupled to a high-temperature reactor (HTR) is presented. Key points appear to be the electrolyser and the high temperature heat exchangers. The S/I thermochemical cycle is based on the decomposition and the re-composition of H 2 SO 4 and HI acids. The energy consumption and the recovery of iodine are key points of the S/I cycle. With the hypothesis that the hydrogen energy will progressively replace the fossil fuels, we give a first estimate of the numbers of nuclear reactors (EPR or HTR) that would be needed for a massive nuclear hydrogen production. (authors)

  15. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  16. Prospects of sugarcane milling waste utilization for hydrogen production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Asthana, R.K.; Singh, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    Cane-sugar producing countries also generate sufficient waste (bagasse) that is mostly utilized ''on-site'' as a replacement to coal in specialized boilers. In addition to sugar and molasses, about 25% by-product of the cane milling is bagasse that still retains 2.5% sugar on dry wt. basis.This paper deals with the prospects of bagasse fermentation for hydrogen production. It seems relevant, as India and Brazil are the major sugarcane producers in the world. The results obtained confirm bagasse, annually generated to a tune of 40 Mt (million tons) in India, can be diverted from the conventional burning or composting to fermentative hydrogen production in a cost-effective way. The processing cost of bagasse for hydrogen production (3Nm 3 ) equivalent to 1L petrol is about half. The system optimization for accessibility of polysaccharides in bagasse and the use of genetically efficient bacterial strains for agrowaste-based hydrogen production seems the ideal option for clean energy generation

  17. Synfuel (hydrogen) production from fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Cox, K.E.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Booth, L.A.

    1979-01-01

    A potential use of fusion energy for the production of synthetic fuel (hydrogen) is described. The hybrid-thermochemical bismuth-sulfate cycle is used as a vehicle to assess the technological and economic merits of this potential nonelectric application of fusion power

  18. Hydrogen production from coal using a nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1977-01-01

    A strong candidate for hydrogen production in the intermediate time frame of 1990 to 1995 is a coal-based process using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as a heat source. Expected process efficiencies in the range of 60 to 70% are considerably higher than all other hydrogen production processes except steam reforming of a natural gas - a feedstock which may not be available in large quantities in this time frame. The process involves the preparation of a coal liquid, hydrogasification of that liquid, and steam reforming of the resulting gaseous or light liquid product. Bench-scale experimental work on the hydrogasification of coal liquids is being carried out. A study showing process efficiency and cost of hydrogen vs nuclear reactor core outlet temperature has been completed and shows diminishing returns at process temperatures above about 1500 0 F. (author)

  19. Hydrogen production with a solar steam–methanol reformer and colloid nanocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang; Werhahn, Michael; Hwang, David J.; Hotz, Nico; Greif, Ralph; Poulikakos, Dimos; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.

    2010-01-01

    of the reformer and thereby increase hydrogen production. The hydrogen production output efficiency is determined and a value of 5% is achieved. Experiments using concentrated solar simulator light as the radiation source are also carried out. The results show

  20. Thermophilic fermentative hydrogen production from starch-wastewater with bio-granules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akutsu, Yohei; Harada, Hideki [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Lee, Dong-Yeol [Research Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Chi, Yong-Zhi [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Jinjinggonglu 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Yu-You [Department of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Tianjin Institute of Urban Construction, Jinjinggonglu 26, Tianjin 300384 (China); Department of Environmental Science, Tohoku University, 6-6-06 Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan); Yu, Han-Qing [School of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2009-06-15

    In this study, the effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT), pH and substrate concentration on the thermophilic hydrogen production of starch with an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor were investigated. Starch was used as a sole substrate. Continuous hydrogen production was stably attained with a maximum H{sub 2} yield of 1.7 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose. A H{sub 2}-producing thermophilic granule was successfully formed with diameter in the range of 0.5-4.0 mm with thermally pretreated methanogenic granules as the nuclei. The metabolic pathway of the granules was drastically changed at each operational parameter. The production of formic or lactic acids is an indication of the deterioration of hydrogen production for H{sub 2}-producing thermophilic granular sludge. (author)

  1. Efficient hydrogen production from the lignocellulosic energy crop Miscanthus by the extreme thermophilic bacteria Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vrije Truus

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentation is one of the routes that can contribute to a future sustainable hydrogen economy. Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive feedstock because of its abundance, low production costs and high polysaccharide content. Results Batch cultures of Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana produced hydrogen, carbon dioxide and acetic acid as the main products from soluble saccharides in Miscanthus hydrolysate. The presence of fermentation inhibitors, such as furfural and 5-hydroxylmethyl furfural, in this lignocellulosic hydrolysate was avoided by the mild alkaline-pretreatment conditions at a low temperature of 75°C. Both microorganisms simultaneously and completely utilized all pentoses, hexoses and oligomeric saccharides up to a total concentration of 17 g l-1 in pH-controlled batch cultures. T. neapolitana showed a preference for glucose over xylose, which are the main sugars in the hydrolysate. Hydrogen yields of 2.9 to 3.4 mol H2 per mol of hexose, corresponding to 74 to 85% of the theoretical yield, were obtained in these batch fermentations. The yields were higher with cultures of C. saccharolyticus compared to T. neapolitana. In contrast, the rate of substrate consumption and hydrogen production was higher with T. neapolitana. At substrate concentrations exceeding 30 g l-1, sugar consumption was incomplete, and lower hydrogen yields of 2.0 to 2.4 mol per mol of consumed hexose were obtained. Conclusion Efficient hydrogen production in combination with simultaneous and complete utilization of all saccharides has been obtained during the growth of thermophilic bacteria on hydrolysate of the lignocellulosic feedstock Miscanthus. The use of thermophilic bacteria will therefore significantly contribute to the energy efficiency of a bioprocess for hydrogen production from biomass.

  2. Design and construction of a photobioreactor for hydrogen production, including status in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjånes, Kari; Andersen, Uno; Heidorn, Thorsten; Borgvang, Stig A

    Several species of microalgae and phototrophic bacteria are able to produce hydrogen under certain conditions. A range of different photobioreactor systems have been used by different research groups for lab-scale hydrogen production experiments, and some few attempts have been made to upscale the hydrogen production process. Even though a photobioreactor system for hydrogen production does require special construction properties (e.g., hydrogen tight, mixing by other means than bubbling with air), only very few attempts have been made to design photobioreactors specifically for the purpose of hydrogen production. We have constructed a flat panel photobioreactor system that can be used in two modes: either for the cultivation of phototrophic microorganisms (upright and bubbling) or for the production of hydrogen or other anaerobic products (mixing by "rocking motion"). Special emphasis has been taken to avoid any hydrogen leakages, both by means of constructional and material choices. The flat plate photobioreactor system is controlled by a custom-built control system that can log and control temperature, pH, and optical density and additionally log the amount of produced gas and dissolved oxygen concentration. This paper summarizes the status in the field of photobioreactors for hydrogen production and describes in detail the design and construction of a purpose-built flat panel photobioreactor system, optimized for hydrogen production in terms of structural functionality, durability, performance, and selection of materials. The motivations for the choices made during the design process and advantages/disadvantages of previous designs are discussed.

  3. Solar pumped laser and its application to hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imasaki, K.; Saiki, T.; Li, D.; Motokosi, S.; Nakatsuka, M.

    2007-01-01

    Solar pumped laser has been studied. Recently, a small ceramic laser pumped by pseudo solar light shows high efficiency of more than 40% which exceeds a solar cell. Such solar pumped laser can concentrate the large area of solar energy in a focused spot of small area. This fact implies the application of such laser for clean and future renewable energy source as hydrogen. For this purpose, 100 W level laboratory solar laser HELIOS is completed using disk ceramic active mirror laser to achieve high temperature. This laser is a kind of MOPA system. Oscillator of additional small laser is used. Laser light is generated in oscillator and is amplified in ceramic disks of solar pumped. The temperature from this system is to be more than 1500 K. We will use a simple graphite cavity for laser power absorption and to get a high temperature. We are also designing a 10 MW CW laser based on this technology. This may be expected an application of solar energy for hydrogen production with total efficiency of 30%

  4. An Efficiency Model For Hydrogen Production In A Pressurized Electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoglie, Cecilia; Lauretta, Ricardo

    2010-09-15

    The use of Hydrogen as clean fuel at a world wide scale requires the development of simple, safe and efficient production and storage technologies. In this work, a methodology is proposed to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen in a self pressurized electrolyzer connected to separate containers that store each of these gases. A mathematical model for Hydrogen production efficiency is proposed to evaluate how such efficiency is affected by parasitic currents in the electrolytic solution. Experimental set-up and results for an electrolyzer are also presented. Comparison of empirical and analytical results shows good agreement.

  5. Economic Analysis for Nuclear Hydrogen Production System Based on HyS Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyeong Jin; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Tae Hoon; Chang, Jong Hwa

    2009-01-01

    The current promising base for massive hydrogen production on high temperature environment derives primarily from three sources: the commercial production of chemicals for the sulfur-iodine (SI) process, the development of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and the hybrid method of chemicals and fuel cells. The three kinds of process requires high temperature heat energy over 850∼950 .deg. C for the efficient and economic hydrogen production. One of the clean, economic, and moreover promising heat sources supplied to the process is nuclear plants. The nuclear plants producing high temperature heat energy over 950 .deg. C are well known as Very High Temperature Reactors (VHTR) which could have two types of prismatic and pebble-bed cores along reactor core shape. In this paper, we report on the Hybrid Sulfur Process (HyS), and the estimated costs for the system which composes of VHTR of prismatic core type and HyS plant. Nuclear hydrogen production system based on HyS process has been configured to optimally use the thermal energy from VHTR and electric energy to produce hydrogen and oxygen from clean water. High temperature thermal energy is transferred to the HyS process by way of intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) with associated piping. In this paper, the hydrogen production costs for a system composed of a VHTR with six 600MWth module, a power conversion unit (PCU) and a HyS plant are presented, where the thermal energy produced in two module was converted to electric energy in PCU and then transferred to the electrolysis cells for hydrogen production and circulating units on HyS plant, and the remaining thermal energy was supplied to chemical process on HyS plants. As a preliminary study of cost estimates for nuclear hydrogen systems, the hydrogen production costs of the nuclear energy sources benchmarking GT-MHR are estimated in the necessary input data on a Korean specific basis. G4- ECONS was appropriately modified to calculate the cost for hydrogen production

  6. Modelling and sequential simulation of multi-tubular metallic membrane and techno-economics of a hydrogen production process employing thin-layer membrane reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Shafiee, Alireza

    2016-09-24

    A theoretical model for multi-tubular palladium-based membrane is proposed in this paper and validated against experimental data for two different sized membrane modules that operate at high temperatures. The model is used in a sequential simulation format to describe and analyse pure hydrogen and hydrogen binary mixture separations, and then extended to simulate an industrial scale membrane unit. This model is used as a sub-routine within an ASPEN Plus model to simulate a membrane reactor in a steam reforming hydrogen production plant. A techno-economic analysis is then conducted using the validated model for a plant producing 300 TPD of hydrogen. The plant utilises a thin (2.5 μm) defect-free and selective layer (Pd75Ag25 alloy) membrane reactor. The economic sensitivity analysis results show usefulness in finding the optimum operating condition that achieves minimum hydrogen production cost at break-even point. A hydrogen production cost of 1.98 $/kg is estimated while the cost of the thin-layer selective membrane is found to constitute 29% of total process capital cost. These results indicate the competiveness of this thin-layer membrane process against conventional methods of hydrogen production. © 2016 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC

  7. Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of Hydrogen Production Process from Glycerol using Steam Reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeongpil; Cho, Sunghyun; Kim, Tae-Ok; Shin, Dongil; Lee, Seunghwan; Moon, Dong Ju

    2014-01-01

    For improved sustainability of the biorefinery industry, biorefinery-byproduct glycerol is being investigated as an alternate source for hydrogen production. This research designs and optimizes a hydrogen-production process for small hydrogen stations using steam reforming of purified glycerol as the main reaction, replacing existing processes relying on steam methane reforming. Modeling, simulation and optimization using a commercial process simulator are performed for the proposed hydrogen production process from glycerol. The mixture of glycerol and steam are used for making syngas in the reforming process. Then hydrogen are produced from carbon monoxide and steam through the water-gas shift reaction. Finally, hydrogen is separated from carbon dioxide using PSA. This study shows higher yield than former U.S.. DOE and Linde studies. Economic evaluations are performed for optimal planning of constructing domestic hydrogen energy infrastructure based on the proposed glycerol-based hydrogen station

  8. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B., E-mail: sunb88@dlmu.edu.cn; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  9. Hydrogen Production for Refuelling Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulteberg, Christian; Aagesen, Diane (Intelligent Energy, Long Beach, CA (United States))

    2009-08-15

    /day); Feedstock Cost (USD 0.15 - USD 0.45 per kg); Availability (85% - 95%). The return-on-investment is between USD 90 000 and USD 180 000 in 60 % of the 5 000 simulation runs, which leads to the conclusion that given these assumptions the owning and operation of such a unit can be profitable. As for the performance of the system, it is concluded to be within targets based on the different performance measures reported above. The conversion is in the expected range (80-85%), given the throughput of 16 kg of hydrogen per day. The efficiency as reported is in the acceptable range (approx65%), with some room for improvement within the given system architecture, if desired. However, there is a trade-off between throughput, efficiency and cost that will have to be considered in every redesign of the system. The PSA chosen for the task has performed well during the 200+ hours of operation and there is no doubt that it will be sufficient for the task. The same thing can be said with respect to the system performance with respect to thermo-mechanical stress; which was proven by operating the system for more than 500 hours and performing 58 start-and-stop cycles during the testing. There does not seem to be any major differences between operating on natural gas or methane, based on the testing performed. The slight decrease in hydrogen production can be due to a difference in the H{sub 2}/CO ratio between the various fuels. As expected the efficiency increases with load as well as the hydrogen production rate. Based on the results disseminated above, there is no indication why the current reactor system cannot be configured into a field deployable system. The operation of the system has given valuable experience that will be embedded into any field deployed unit

  10. The value of product flexibility in nuclear hydrogen technologies: A real options analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botterud, Audun; Yildiz, Bilge; Conzelmann, Guenter; Petri, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Previous economic studies of nuclear hydrogen technologies focused on levelized costs without accounting for risks and uncertainties faced by potential investors. To address some of these risks and uncertainties, we used real options theory to assess the profitability of three nuclear hydrogen production technologies in evolving electricity and hydrogen markets. Monte-Carlo simulations are used to represent the uncertainty in hydrogen and electricity prices. The model computes both the expected value and the distribution of discounted profits from the production plant. It also quantifies the value of the option to switch between hydrogen and electricity production. Under these assumptions, we conclude that investors will find significant value in the capability to switch plant output between electricity and hydrogen. (author)

  11. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... Furthermore, this study also provided direct evidence in the dynamic fermentation process that, hydrogen production increase was reflected by acetate to butyrate ratio increase in liquid phase. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. Fermentative hydrogen production by the newly isolated Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Hyun Yoon, Jong; Eun Kyoung Ahn; Park, Tai Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea); Kim, Mi-Sun [Biomass Research Team, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea); Jun Sim, Sang [Department of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea)

    2007-02-15

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from a domestic landfill and identified as Enterobacter asburiae using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and DNA-DNA hybridization methods. The isolated bacterium, designated as Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1, is a new species that has never been examined as a potential hydrogen-producing bacterium. This study examined the hydrogen-producing ability of Enterobacter asburiae SNU-1. During fermentation, the hydrogen was mainly produced in the stationary phase. The hydrogen yield based on the formate consumption was 0.43 mol hydrogen/mol formate. This strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of pH (4-7.5), with the optimum pH being pH 7. The level of hydrogen production was also affected by the initial glucose concentration, and the optimum value was found to be 25 g glucose/l. The maximum and overall hydrogen productivities were 398 and 174 ml/l/hr, respectively, at pH 7 with an initial glucose concentration of 25 g/l. This strain could produce hydrogen from glucose and many other carbon sources such as fructose, sucrose, and sorbitol. (author)

  13. Effects of methanogenic effluent recycle on fermentative hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, J.T.; Bagley, D.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Most research on fermentative hydrogen production has focused on optimizing the process and not on the practicalities of pH control although active pH control in a hydrogen reactor is necessary for stable and efficient performance. Batch experiments have shown that hydrogen ceases to be produced when there is no pH control. This study determined if recycle effluent from the methane reactor of a two-phase hydrogen-producing system would reduce the external alkali needed for pH control in a hydrogen reactor. It also determined if recycle affected the performance of the hydrogen reactor and the overall two-phase system. This paper describes the experimental laboratory-scale, two-phase hydrogen producing system which was operated alternately with and without effluent recycle from a methane reactor to the hydrogen reactor. The two-phase hydrogen producing system yielded 5.7 times more energy recovery than that obtained by the fermentative hydrogen producing reactor alone. The use of effluent from the methane reactor can reduce the operational cost of external alkali for pH control. 6 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Technical suitability mapping of feedstocks for biological hydrogen production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Karaoglanoglou, L.S.; Koullas, D.P.; Bakker, R.R.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to map and compare the technical suitability of different raw materials for biological hydrogen production. Our model was based on hydrogen yield potential, sugar mobilization efficiency, fermentability and coproduct yield and value. The suitability of the studied

  15. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production and Consumption in an Isolated Territory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2018-01-01

    cylinder by road and ferry. The hydrogen is used to provide electricity and heat through fuel cell stacks as well as hydrogen fuel for fuel cell vehicles. In order to evaluate the environmental impacts related to the hydrogen production and utilisation, this work conducts an investigation of the entire...... life cycle of the described hydrogen production, transportation, and utilisation. All the processes related to the equipment manufacture, operation, maintenance, and disposal are considered in this study....

  16. A versatile, steam reforming based small-scale hydrogen production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P C Hulteberg; F A Silversand; B Porter; R Woods

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new design methodology and process is proposed for small scale pure hydrogen production capable of serving energy markets ranging from distributed generation to vehicular refuelling. The system was designed for producing 7 Nm 3 /hr pure hydrogen (purity of ≤ 1 ppm CO dry), yielding 10 kWe net power from a fuel cell system with an overall parasitic power loss ≤ 10 %. The discussion of this process includes a detailed description of the design methodology and operational results of the catalytic converter, the hydrogen purification system and the fuel cell system. This paper will discuss the design methodology of the overall system, as well as the specific design of the catalytic converter, the catalysts used within, and the hydrogen purification system. It will also report the system performance including gas purity, recovery rate, overall hydrogen production efficiencies, and electrical efficiencies during fuel cell operation. (authors)

  17. Influence of activated carbon amended ASBR on anaerobic fermentative hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xie, Li; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The effect of activated carbon amended ASBR on fermentative bio-hydgrogen production from glucose was evaluated at hydraulic retention time (HRTs) ranging from 48 h to 12 h with initial pH of 6.0 at the system temperature of 60°C. Experimental results showed that the performance of activated carbon...... amended anazrobic seguencs batch reactor (ASBRs) was more stable than that of ASBRs without activated carbon addition regarding on hydrogen production and pH. Higher hydrogen yield(HY) and hydrogen producing rate(HPR) were observed in the activated carbon amended ASBRs, with 65%, 63%, 54%, 56% enhancement...... of hydrogen yield in smaller size activated carbon amended reactor under the tested HRT ranges, and the maximum HPR of (7.09±0.31)L·(L·d)-1 and HY of (1.42±0.03) mol·mol-1 was obtained at HRT of 12h. The major soluble products form hydrogen fermentation were n-butyric acid and acetic acid, accounting for 46...

  18. Estimation of bacterial hydrogen sulfide production in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina Basic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral bacterial hydrogen sulfide (H2S production was estimated comparing two different colorimetric methods in microtiter plate format. High H2S production was seen for Fusobacterium spp., Treponema denticola, and Prevotella tannerae, associated with periodontal disease. The production differed between the methods indicating that H2S production may follow different pathways.

  19. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a 'hydrogen economy.' The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  20. Development of a combined bio-hydrogen- and methane-production unit using dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstermann, R.; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Urban Water and Waste Management

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen is regarded as a source of energy of the future. Currently, hydrogen is produced, predominantly, by electrolysis of water by using electricity or by stream reforming of natural gas. So both methods are based on fossil fuels. If the used electricity is recovered from renewable recourses, hydrogen produced by water electrolysis may be a clean solution. At present, the production of hydrogen by biological processes finds more and more attention world far. The biology provides a wide range of approaches to produce hydrogen, including bio-photolysis as well as photo-fermentation and dark-fermentation. Currently these biological technologies are not suitable for solving every day energy problems [1]. But the dark-fermentation is a promising approach to produce hydrogen in a sustainable way and was already examined in some projects. At mesophilic conditions this process provides a high yield of hydrogen by less energy demand, [2]. Short hydraulic retention times (HRT) and high metabolic rates are advantages of the process. The incomplete transformation of the organic components into various organic acids is a disadvantage. Thus a second process step is required. Therefore the well known biogas-technique is used to degrade the organic acids predominantly acetic and butyric acid from the hydrogen-production unit into CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}. This paper deals with the development of a combined hydrogen and methane production unit using dark fermentation at mesophilic conditions. The continuous operation of the combined hydrogen and methane production out of DOC loaded sewages and carbohydrate rich biowaste is necessary for the examination of the technical and economical implementation. The hydrogen step shows as first results hydrogen concentration in the biogas between 40 % and 60 %.The operating efficiency of the combined production of hydrogen and methane shall be checked as a complete system. (orig.)

  1. JAEA’s R&D on the Thermochemical Hydrogen Production IS Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasahara, Seiji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Noguchi, Hiroki; Iwatsuki, Jin; Takegami, Hiroaki; Yan, Xing L.; Kubo, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has studied iodine-sulfur (IS) process, a thermochemical cycle to produce hydrogen by water splitting. This process is a candidate application of high temperature heat from high temperature gas-cooled reactors. This paper outlines the IS process study in JAEA, in particular recent situation of the R&D. Reactor components and a total process facility are tested to evaluate their integrity. A Bunsen reactor, a H_2SO_4 decomposer and a HI decomposer made of industrial materials such as SiC ceramic, fluoroplastic and lining materials have been examined separately as reactor components. A semibatch test and a thermal cycle test were operated in the Bunsen reactor. H_2SO_4 decomposition test is in a bayonet type reactor and HI decomposition test in an adiabatic radial flow type reactor are now under way. On the basis of a demonstration of continuous hydrogen production of 31 NL/h by a glass apparatus, an experimental apparatus of the total IS process has just been constructed to verify integrity of process components of industrial materials, H_2 production scale of which is 200 NL/h. Electro-electrodialysis (EED) cells to concentrate HI before distillation and a SiC-made bayonet type H_2SO_4 decomposer are applied in the facility. Process data of EED cells has been collected aiming to improve H_2 production thermal efficiency. Influence of temperature, composition in solution and existence of impurities on the cell properties has been investigated. Reduction of heat input to a HI separation step by applying the results of the study was shown. (author)

  2. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540 C and 900 C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%

  3. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production from cheese whey wastewater under thermophilic anaerobic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, Nuri; Cetinkaya Dokgoez, F. Tuba; Keskin, Tugba; Korkmaz, Kemal S.; Syed, Hamid M. [Bioengineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University, EBILTEM, Bornova, 35100 Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production from cheese processing wastewater via dark anaerobic fermentation was conducted using mixed microbial communities under thermophilic conditions. The effects of varying hydraulic retention time (HRT: 1, 2 and 3.5 days) and especially high organic load rates (OLR: 21, 35 and 47 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) on biohydrogen production in a continuous stirred tank reactor were investigated. The biogas contained 5-82% (45% on average) hydrogen and the hydrogen production rate ranged from 0.3 to 7.9 l H{sub 2}/l/day (2.5 l/l/day on average). H{sub 2} yields of 22, 15 and 5 mmol/g COD (at a constant influent COD of 40 g/l) were achieved at HRT values of 3.5, 2, and 1 days, respectively. On the other hand, H{sub 2} yields were monitored to be 3, 9 and 6 mmol/g COD, for OLR values of 47, 35 and 21 g COD/l/day, when HRT was kept constant at 1 day. The total measurable volatile fatty acid concentration in the effluent (as a function of influent COD) ranged between 118 and 27,012 mg/l, which was mainly composed of acetic acid, iso-butyric acid, butyric acid, propionic acid, formate and lactate. Ethanol and acetone production was also monitored from time to time. To characterize the microbial community in the bioreactor at different HRTs, DNA in mixed liquor samples was extracted immediately for PCR amplification of 16S RNA gene using eubacterial primers corresponding to 8F and 518R. The PCR product was cloned and subjected to DNA sequencing. The sequencing results were analyzed by using MegaBlast available on NCBI website which showed 99% identity to uncultured Thermoanaerobacteriaceae bacterium. (author)

  4. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-01-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen

  5. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Carolyn C. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (US)] (ed.)

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  6. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Carolyn C. (National Renewable Energy Lab, Golden, CO (US)) (ed.)

    2000-01-31

    The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.

  7. GAT 4 production and storage of hydrogen. Report July 2004; GAT 4 procduction et stockage de l'hydrogene. Rapport juillet 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This paper concerns two aspects of the hydrogen: the production and the storage. For both parts the challenges and a state of the art are presented. It discusses also the hydrogen production by renewable energies, by solar energy, the hydrogen of hydrocarbons reforming purification, active phases development, thermal transfer simulation. Concerning the hydrogen storage the hydrogen adsorption by large surface solid, the storage by metallic hydrides, the alanates and light hydrides, the adsorption on carbon nano-tubes, the storage in nano-structures, the thermal and mechanical simulation of the hydrogen are presented. (A.L.B.)

  8. Hydrogen - From hydrogen to energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    More than a century ago, Jules Verne wrote in 'The Mysterious Island' that water would one day be employed as fuel: 'Hydrogen and oxygen, which constitute it, used singly or together, will furnish an inexhaustible source of heat and light'. Today, the 'water motor' is not entirely the dream of a writer. Fiction is about to become fact thanks to hydrogen, which can be produced from water and when burned in air itself produces water. Hydrogen is now at the heart of international research. So why do we have such great expectations of hydrogen? 'Hydrogen as an energy system is now a major challenge, both scientifically and from an environmental and economic point of view'. Dominated as it is by fossil fuels (oil, gas and coal), our current energy system has left a dual threat hovering over our environment, exposing the planet to the exhaustion of its natural reserves and contributing to the greenhouse effect. If we want sustainable development for future generations, it is becoming necessary to diversify our methods of producing energy. Hydrogen is not, of course, a source of energy, because first it has to be produced. But it has the twofold advantage of being both inexhaustible and non-polluting. So in the future, it should have a very important role to play. (author)

  9. Hydrogen production by catalytic processing of renewable methane-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Smith, Franklyn; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, Cocoa, FL 32922-5703 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Biomass-derived methane-rich gases such as landfill gas (LFG), biogas and digester gas are promising renewable resources for near-future production of hydrogen. The technical and economical feasibility of hydrogen production via catalytic reforming of LFG and other methane-rich gases is evaluated in this paper. The thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and experimental measurements of reformation of methane-rich CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixtures over Ni-based catalyst were conducted. The problems associated with the catalyst deactivation due to carbon lay down and effects of steam and oxygen on the process sustainability were explored. Two technological approaches distinguished by the mode of heat input to the endothermic process (i.e., external vs autothermal) were modeled using AspenPlus trademark chemical process simulator and validated experimentally. A 5 kW{sub th} pilot unit for hydrogen production from LFG-mimicking CH{sub 4}-CO{sub 2} mixture was fabricated and operated. A preliminary techno-economic assessment indicates that the liquid hydrogen production costs are in the range of 3.00-7.00 per kilogram depending upon the plant capacity, the process heat input option and whether or not carbon sequestration is included in the process. (author)

  10. Hydrogen production from paper sludge hydrolysate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kádár, Z.; Vrije, de G.J.; Budde, M.A.W.; Szengyel, Z.; Reczey, K.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a system for the production of 'renewable' hydrogen. Paper sludge is a solid industrial waste yielding mainly cellulose, which can be used, after hydrolysis, as a feedstock in anaerobic fermentation by (hyper)thermophilic organisms, such as Thermotoga

  11. Hydrogen production under salt stress conditions by a freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adessi, Alessandra; Concato, Margherita; Sanchini, Andrea; Rossi, Federico; De Philippis, Roberto

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogen represents a possible alternative energy carrier to face the growing request for energy and the shortage of fossil fuels. Photofermentation for the production of H2 constitutes a promising way for integrating the production of energy with waste treatments. Many wastes are characterized by high salinity, and polluted seawater can as well be considered as a substrate. Moreover, the application of seawater for bacterial culturing is considered cost-effective. The aims of this study were to assess the capability of the metabolically versatile freshwater Rhodopseudomonas palustris 42OL of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates and to investigate its salt stress response strategy, never described before. R. palustris 42OL was able to produce hydrogen in media containing up to 3 % added salt concentration and to grow in media containing up to 4.5 % salinity without the addition of exogenous osmoprotectants. While the hydrogen production performances in absence of sea salts were higher than in their presence, there was no significant difference in performances between 1 and 2 % of added sea salts. Nitrogenase expression levels indicated that the enzyme was not directly inhibited during salt stress, but a regulation of its expression may have occurred in response to salt concentration increase. During cell growth and hydrogen production in the presence of salts, trehalose was accumulated as a compatible solute; it protected the enzymatic functionality against salt stress, thus allowing hydrogen production. The possibility of producing hydrogen on salt-containing substrates widens the range of wastes that can be efficiently used in production processes.

  12. 40 CFR 63.7507 - What are the health-based compliance alternatives for the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... alternatives for the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total selected metals (TSM) standards? 63.7507 Section 63.7507... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process... the hydrogen chloride (HCl) and total selected metals (TSM) standards? (a) As an alternative to the...

  13. The safe production of hydrogen by nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verfondern, Karl

    2009-01-01

    One of the most promising 'GEN-IV' nuclear reactor concepts is the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). It is characterized by a helium-cooled, graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor core of 400-600 MW(th). Coolant outlet temperatures of 900-1000 .deg. C ideally suited for a wide spectrum of high temperature process heat or process steam applications, which allow to deliver, besides the classical electricity, also non-electrical products such as hydrogen or other fuels. In a future energy economy, hydrogen as a storable medium could adjust a variable demand for electricity by means of fuel cell power plants providing much more flexibility in optimized energy structures. The mass production of hydrogen is a major goal for Gen-IV systems. In a nuclear hydrogen production facility, the coupling between the nuclear plant and the process heat/steam application side is given by an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), a component which provides a clear separation preventing the primary coolant from accessing the heat application plant and, vice versa, any process gases from being routed through the reactor containment. The physical separation has the advantage that the heat application facility can be conventionally designed, and repair works can be conducted under non-nuclear conditions. With regard to the safety of combined nuclear and chemical facilities, apart from their own specific categories of hazards, a qualitatively new class of events will have to be taken into account characterized by interacting influences. Arising problems to be covered by a decent overall safety concept are the questions of safety of the nuclear plant in case of fire and explosion hazards resulting from the leakage of flammable substances, the tolerable tritium contamination of the product hydrogen, or the situations of thermo-dynamic feedback in case of a loss of heat source (nuclear) or heat sink (chemical) resulting in thermal turbulences. A safety-related issue is the

  14. Hydrogen production from wind energy in Western Canada for upgrading bitumen from oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olateju, Babatunde; Kumar, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is produced via steam methane reforming (SMR) for bitumen upgrading which results in significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Wind energy based hydrogen can reduce the GHG footprint of the bitumen upgrading industry. This paper is aimed at developing a detailed data-intensive techno-economic model for assessment of hydrogen production from wind energy via the electrolysis of water. The proposed wind/hydrogen plant is based on an expansion of an existing wind farm with unit wind turbine size of 1.8 MW and with a dual functionality of hydrogen production and electricity generation. An electrolyser size of 240 kW (50 Nm 3 H 2 /h) and 360 kW (90 Nm 3 H 2 /h) proved to be the optimal sizes for constant and variable flow rate electrolysers, respectively. The electrolyser sizes aforementioned yielded a minimum hydrogen production price at base case conditions of $10.15/kg H 2 and $7.55/kg H 2 . The inclusion of a Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) of $0.13/kWh renders the production price of hydrogen equal to SMR i.e. $0.96/kg H 2, with an internal rate of return (IRR) of 24%. The minimum hydrogen delivery cost was $4.96/kg H 2 at base case conditions. The life cycle CO 2 emissions is 6.35 kg CO 2 /kg H 2 including hydrogen delivery to the upgrader via compressed gas trucks. -- Highlights: ► This study involves development of a data intensive techno-economic model for estimation cost of hydrogen production from wind energy. ► Wind energy based electricity is used for electrolysis to produce hydrogen in Western Canada for bitumen upgrading for oil sands. ► Several scenarios were developed to study the electricity generation and hydrogen production from wind energy. ► The cost of production of hydrogen is significantly higher than natural based hydrogen in Western Canada.

  15. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  16. Efficient production and economics of the clean fuel hydrogen. Paper no. IGEC-1-Keynote-Elnashaie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnashaie, S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper/plenary lecture to this green energy conference briefly discusses six main issues: 1) The future of hydrogen economy; 2) Thermo-chemistry of hydrogen production for different techniques of autothermic operation using different feedstocks; 3) Improvement of the hydrogen yield and minimization of reformer size through combining fast fluidization with hydrogen and oxygen membranes together with CO 2 sequestration; 4) Efficient production of hydrogen using novel Autothermal Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer (ACFBMR); 5) Economics of hydrogen production; and, 6) Novel gasification process for hydrogen production from biomass. It is shown that hydrogen economy is not a Myth as some people advocate, and that with well-directed research it will represent a bright future for humanity utilizing such a clean, everlasting fuel, which is also free of deadly conflicts for the control of energy sources. It is shown that autothermic production of hydrogen using novel reformers configurations and wide range of feedstocks is a very promising route towards achieving a successful hydrogen economy. A novel process for the production of hydrogen from different renewable biomass sources is presented and discussed. The process combines the principles of pyrolysis with the simultaneous use of catalyst, membranes and CO 2 sequestration to produce pure hydrogen directly from the unit. Some of the novel processes presented are essential components of modern bio-refineries. (author)

  17. Status and Planning of South Africa's Nuclear Hydrogen Production Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravenswaay, J. P.; Niekerk, F.; Kriek, R. J.; Blom, E.; Krieg, H. M.; Niekerk, W. M. K.; Merwe, F.; Vosloo, H. C. M. [North-West University, Potchefstroom (South Africa)

    2009-05-15

    In May 2007 the South African Cabinet approved a National Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technologies R and D and Innovation Strategy. The Strategy will focus on research, development and innovation for (amongst others) by building on the existing knowledge in High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactors (HTGR) and coal gasification Fischer-Tropsch technology, to develop local cost-competitive hydrogen production methods. As part of the roll-out strategy, the South African Department of Science and Technology (DST) created three Competence Centers (CC), including a Hydrogen Infrastructure Competence Centre hosted by the North-West University (NWU) and the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). The Hydrogen Infrastructure CC is tasked with developing Hydrogen Production, Storage, Distribution as well as Codes and Standards programs within the framework of the DST strategic objectives. A 700kW Heliostat field is to be constructed at the CSIR. It is planned that the following processes will be investigated there: Steam Methane Reforming, High Temperature Steam Electrolysis, Metal-oxide redox process. At the NWU the main focus will be on the large scale, CO{sub 2} free, hydrogen production through thermo-chemical water splitting using nuclear heat from a suitable heat source such as a HTGR. The following will be investigated: Plasma-arc reforming of methane, Investigating the integration of a HTGR with a coal-to-liquid process, steel manufacture and ammonia production, The Hybrid-Sulphur process for the production of hydrogen.

  18. Hydrogen production with a solar steam–methanol reformer and colloid nanocatalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2010-01-01

    In the present study a small steam-methanol reformer with a colloid nanocatalyst is utilized to produce hydrogen. Radiation from a focused continuous green light laser (514 nm wavelength) is used to provide the energy for steam-methanol reforming. Nanocatalyst particles, fabricated by using pulsed laser ablation technology, result in a highly active catalyst with high surface to volume ratio. A small novel reformer fabricated with a borosilicate capillary is employed to increase the local temperature of the reformer and thereby increase hydrogen production. The hydrogen production output efficiency is determined and a value of 5% is achieved. Experiments using concentrated solar simulator light as the radiation source are also carried out. The results show that hydrogen production by solar steam-methanol colloid nanocatalyst reforming is both feasible and promising. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.

  19. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  20. Anaerobic fluidized bed reactor with expanded clay as support for hydrogen production through dark fermentation of glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante de Amorim, Eduardo Lucena [Department of Hydraulic and Sanitation, University of Sao Paulo. Av. Trabalhador Saocarlense, 400 Centro, CEP 13566-590 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Barros, Aruana Rocha; Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, Marcia Helena; Silva, Edson Luiz [Department of Chemical Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2009-01-15

    This study evaluated hydrogen production in an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) fed with glucose-based synthetic wastewater. Particles of expanded clay (2.8-3.35 mm) were used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with hydraulic retention times (HRT) ranging from 8 to 1 h. The hydrogen yield production increased from 1.41 to 2.49 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose as HRT decreased from 8 to 2 h. However, when HRT was 1 h, there was a slight decrease to 2.41 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose. The biogas produced was composed of H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, and the H{sub 2} content increased from 8% to 35% as HRT decreased. The major soluble metabolites during H{sub 2} fermentation were acetic acid (HAc) and butyric acid (HBu), accounting for 36.1-53.3% and 37.7-44.9% of total soluble metabolites, respectively. Overall, the results demonstrate the potential of using expanded clay as support material for hydrogen production in AFBRs. (author)

  1. Biological hydrogen production from probiotic wastewater as substrate by selectively enriched anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishna, D.; Sreekanth, D.; Himabindu, V. [Centre for Environment, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Kukatpally, Hyderabad 500072, Andhra Pradesh (India); Anjaneyulu, Y. [TLGVRC, JSU Box 18739, JSU, Jackson, MS 32917-0939 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Biohydrogen production from probiotic wastewater using mixed anaerobic consortia is reported in this paper. Batch tests are carried out in a 5.0 L batch reactor under constant mesophillic temperature (37 C). The maximum hydrogen yield 1.8 mol-hydrogen/mol-carbohydrate is obtained at an optimum pH of 5.5 and substrate concentration 5 g/L. The maximum hydrogen production rate is 168 ml/h. The hydrogen content in the biogas is more than 65% and no significant methane is observed throughout the study. In addition to hydrogen, acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol are found to be the main by-products in the metabolism of hydrogen fermentation. (author)

  2. Hydrogen production from wastes. State-of-the-art and development potential. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megret, O.; Hubert, L.; Calbry, M.; Trably, E.; Carrere, H.; Garcia-Bernet, D.; Bernet, N.

    2015-09-01

    show promising results although economic profitability on a large scale is not yet evaluable. By considering the whole hydrogen market (presented at the beginning of the study), it appears inappropriate to consider that these technologies can compete on a large scale with the traditional processes of production of hydrogen. Indeed, the traditional processes are currently strongly competitive and are inserted in a total diagram of production - distribution - consumption, balanced and controlled by only few powerful gas actors. Moreover, the economic preliminary studies carried out show that the competitiveness of such a sector, with respect to the classical processes like the steam reforming or electrolysis, seems difficult to reach without energy optimization of the processes. However, a cost-distances analysis between classical producer classical and consumer highlights advantageous areas for competitiveness achievement. Microbial electrolysis cells appear then as a promising track because they enable to almost completely get rid of the purity issues that the other processes meet. For this reason, it constitutes a strong track of development which will get even more interesting as the cost of electricity increases (impacting negatively the cost of classical alkaline electrolysis). Availability of wind mills, photovoltaic, etc. power plants can punctually generate negative electricity costs and thus delay the development of the microbial electrolysis cell. However, the increase in the electrolysis output by these micro-organisms can be very attractive within the framework of an electricity market in rise on average. Also, the resource 'biogas' being available on existing units or project, it is relevant to consider the coupling of the processes of H 2 production and valorization of the residues in CH 4 starting from lignocellulosic substrates to reduce the environmental impacts of production of renewable energy. This is valid at the same time if the objective

  3. Artificial photosynthesis for production of hydrogen peroxide and its fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2016-05-01

    The reducing power released from photosystem I (PSI) via ferredoxin enables the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, which is essential in the Calvin-Benson cycle to make sugars in photosynthesis. Alternatively, PSI can reduce O2 to produce hydrogen peroxide as a fuel. This article describes the artificial version of the photocatalytic production of hydrogen peroxide from water and O2 using solar energy. Hydrogen peroxide is used as a fuel in hydrogen peroxide fuel cells to make electricity. The combination of the photocatalytic H2O2 production from water and O2 using solar energy with one-compartment H2O2 fuel cells provides on-site production and usage of H2O2 as a more useful and promising solar fuel than hydrogen. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--The design and engineering of electronc transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence For The Production Of Slow Antiprotonic Hydrogen In Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Zurlo, N.; Amsler, C.; Bonomi, G.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Funakoshi, R.; Genova, P.; Hayano, R.S.; Jorgensen, L.V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macri, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Mitchard, D.; Montagna, P.; Posada, L.G.; Pruys, H.; Regenfus, C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; der Werf, D.P.Van; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; Yamazaki, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence showing how antiprotonic hydrogen, the quasistable antiproton-proton (pbar-p) bound system, has been synthesized following the interaction of antiprotons with the hydrogen molecular ion (H2+) in a nested Penning trap environment. From a careful analysis of the spatial distributions of antiproton annihilation events, evidence is presented for antiprotonic hydrogen production with sub-eV kinetic energies in states around n=70, and with low angular momenta. The slow antiprotonic hydrogen may be studied using laser spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Development program of hydrogen production by thermo-chemical water splitting is process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutaro Hino

    2005-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been conducting R and D on the HTGR and also on thermo-chemical water splitting hydrogen production by using a iodine-sulfur cycle (IS process) in the HTTR project. The continuous hydrogen production for one week was demonstrated with a bench-scale test apparatus made of glass, and the hydrogen production rare was about 31 NL/h. Based on the test results and know-how obtained through the bench-scale test, a pilot test plant, which has a hydrogen production performance of 30 Nm 3 /h and will be operated under the high pressure up to 2 MPa, is being designed conceptually as the next step of the IS process development aiming to realize a future nuclear hydrogen production coupled with the HTGR. In this paper, we will introduce one-week continuous hydrogen production conducted with the bench-scale test apparatus and the pilot test program including R and D and an analytical system necessary for designing the pilot test plant. MW. Figure 1 shows an overview of the HTTR-IS plant. In this paper, we will introduce latest test results obtained with the bench-scale test apparatus and concepts of key components of the IS process, a sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) and a sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ) decomposers working under high-temperature corrosive circumstance, are also introduced as well as relating R and D and an analytical system for the pilot plant design. (authors)

  6. An experimental study of the growth and hydrogen production of C. reinhardtii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburic, B.; Burgess, S.; Nixon, P.J.; Hellgardt, K. [Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Some unicellular green algae, such as C. reinhardtii, have the ability to photosynthetically produce molecular hydrogen under anaerobic conditions. They offer a biological route to renewable, carbon-neutral hydrogen production from two of nature's most plentiful resources - sunlight and water. This process provides the additional benefit of carbon dioxide sequestration and the option of deriving valuable products from algal biomass. The growth of dense and healthy algal biomass is a prerequisite for efficient hydrogen production. This study investigates the growth of C. reinhardtii under different cyclic light regimes and at various continuous light intensities. Algal growth is characterised in terms of the cell count, chlorophyll content and optical density of the culture. The consumption of critical nutrients such as acetate and sulphate is measured by chromatography techniques. C. reinhardtii wild-type CC-124 strain is analysed in a 3 litre tubular flow photobioreactor featuring a large surface-to-volume ratio and excellent light penetration through the culture. Key parameters of the hydrogen production process are continuously monitored and controlled; these include pH, pO{sub 2}, optical density, temperature, agitation and light intensity. Gas phase hydrogen production is determined by mass spectrometry. (orig.)

  7. Potential use of thermophilic dark fermentation effluents in photofermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozgura, E.; Afsar, N.; Eroglu, I. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); De Vrije, T.; Claassen, P.A.M. [Wageningen UR, Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 17, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Yucel, M.; Gunduz, U. [Middle East Technical University, Department of Biology, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production by a sequential operation of dark and photofermentation is a promising route to produce hydrogen. The possibility of using renewable resources, like biomass and agro-industrial wastes, provides a dual effect of sustainability in biohydrogen production and simultaneous waste removal. In this study, photofermentative hydrogen production on effluents of thermophilic dark fermentations on glucose, potato steam peels (PSP) hydrolysate and molasses was investigated in indoor, batch operated bioreactors. An extreme thermophile Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus was used in the dark fermentation step, and Rhodobacter capsulatus (DSM1710) was used in the photofermentation step. Addition of buffer, Fe and Mo to dark fermentor effluents (DFEs) improved the overall efficiency of hydrogen production. The initial acetate concentration in the DFE needed to be adjusted to 30-40 mM by dilution to increase the yield of hydrogen in batch light-supported fermentations. The thermophilic DFEs are suitable for photofermentative hydrogen production, provided that they are supplemented with buffer and nutrients. The overall hydrogen yield of the two-step fermentations was higher than the yield of single step dark fermentations.

  8. Production of hydrogen from fermentation of pina agroindustrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Perez, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    The performance of biohydrogen production was assesed a laboratory level, by anaerobic fermentation using agroindustrial residue of pineapple heart and employing microorganisms own of sludges from the bottom of an anaerobic digester belonging to a wastewater treatment plant from a seafood processor. Residue of pineapple heart was characterized physicochemically. The amounts were quantified: moisture, ashes, crude fiber, glucose, reducing sugars, hydrogen potential, soluble solids (Brix grades), boron, nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, zinc, iron, copper and manganese. Per gram of pineapple heart is obtained 0,113 g of reducing sugars and 0,0114 g of glucose, which has made it a carbohydrate rich material that could ferment and produce hydrogen or other metabolites of commercial interest. A maximum yield was obtained of 0,0484 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed with a hydrogen maximum output of 1,260 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 0.070 mmol/h with a time lag in the production of hydrogen to 7,833 h under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a medium of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum, in a container 125 mL where was consumed 88,4% of the initial glucose. A maximum yield of 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of consumed glucose was obtained, in a fermentation time of 30 h, with a maximum hydrogen production of 41,227 mmol, at a maximum production rate of 6,740 mmol/h with a lag time in the production of hydrogen for 16 h, under the following conditions: initial pH of 5,5, substrate initial concentration of 5 g/L and using a middle of mineral formulation based on sodium, calcium, iodine, zinc, nickel and molybdenum in a fermentor of 5 L where 96,39% was consumed of the initial glucose. The maximum yield from 1,541 mol H 2 / mol of glucose consumed has corresponded to 38% of the target value of the United States Department of Energy equivalent

  9. Bibliographic Review about Solar Hydrogen Production Through Thermochemical Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Saavedra, R.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the different thermical processes used to obtain hydrogen through solar energy, paying more attention to the production of hydrogen from water through thermochemical cycles. In this aspect, it is briefly described the most interesting thermochemical cycles, focusing on thermochemical cycles based on oxides. (Author) 25 refs

  10. Production of hydrogen via conversion of hydrocarbons using a microwave plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasinski, Mariusz; Dors, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Helena; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Nichipor, Gerietta V

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, results of hydrogen production from hydrocarbons in an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma are presented. As sources of hydrogen, both methane CH 4 and tetrafluoroethane C 2 H 2 F 4 were tested. A new waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type microwave plasma source was used to convert hydrocarbons into hydrogen. The processed gaseous hydrocarbons were introduced into the plasma by four gas ducts which formed a swirl flow in the plasma reactor. The absorbed microwave power was up to 5 kW. The gas flow rate was up to 212 L min -1 . The hydrogen mass yield rate and the corresponding energetic hydrogen mass yield were up to 866 g[H 2 ] h -1 and 577 g [H 2 ] kWh -1 of microwave energy absorbed by the plasma, respectively. These parameters are better than our previous results when nitrogen was used as a swirl gas and much better than those typical for other plasma methods of hydrogen production (electron beam, gliding arc, plasmatron).

  11. Techno-economic study of hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis coupled with an EPR-water steam production and coupling possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, R. R.; Bouallou, C.; Mansilla, C.; Werkoff, F.

    2007-01-01

    the emission of hazard materials and electrolyser damage. Further information about electric and thermal energy production cost, electrolyser cost, heat exchangers costs, etc. has been considered and used in the technoeconomic study. Concerning the electrolyser, we considered that electric needs are supplied by the electric network. An optimisation method, based on genetic algorithms has been used to estimate the lowest hydrogen production cost. Results from the optimisation method were confronted with potential steam water production, using or drawing off an EPR, to find the best coupling for hydrogen production. The drawing off of EPR secondary circuit seems to be more viable than total water production. Even pilot plant court-dated construction could be considered. Besides, the cost of 1 kilogramme of hydrogen for different water steam conditions has been estimated, being between 2.26 and 2.50 euros. This cost production seems to be near to the international goal of 2 euros. References (1) Palier W-1300, Centrale de Nogent, Tranches 1-2, Region d'equipement Paris. EDF, France. December 1986 (2) L'EPR, AREVA, France. January 2006, (3) http://www.areva-np.com/scripts/info/publigen/content/templates/show.asp? P=494 and LFR and SYNC=Y and ID C AT=305, date accessed: 15/11/2006 (4) IAEA-TECDOC-1505 Data processing technologies and diagnostics for water chemistry and corrosion control in nuclear power plants (DAWAC) Report of a coordinated research project 2001-2005, Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Materials Section, Austria. June 2006 (5) Jon SIGURVINSSON, Christine MANSILLA et al. Heat transfer problems for the production of hydrogen from geothermal energy. Energy Conversion and Management 47 (2006) 3543-3551 (6) Christine MANSILLA et al. Heat management for hydrogen production by high temperature steam electrolysis, Energy (2006), doi:10.1016/j.energy.2006.07.033 (7) DGEMP-DIDEME. Couts de reference de la production electrique. Secretariat d'Etat a l'Industrie-Ministere de l

  12. Production of hydrogen from bio-ethanol in catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gernot, E.; Aupretre, F.; Deschamps, A.; Etievant, C.; Epron, F.; Marecot, P.; Duprez, D.

    2006-01-01

    Production of hydrogen from renewable energy sources offers a great potential for CO 2 emission reduction, responsible for global warming. Among renewable energies, liquid biofuels are very convenient hydrogen carriers for decentralized applications such as micro-cogeneration and transports. Ethanol, produced from sugar plants and cereals, allows a reduction of more than 60% of CO 2 emissions in comparison to gasoline. BIOSTAR is an R and D project, co-funded by the French Agency for Environment and Energy Management (ADEME) which aims at developing an efficient source of hydrogen from bio-ethanol, suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems. The objectives are to obtain, through catalytic process at medium temperature range, an efficient conversion of bio-ethanol into pure hydrogen directly usable for PEMFC. CETH has developed a catalytic membrane reformer (CMR), based on a patented technology, integrating a steam reforming catalyst as well as a combustion catalyst. Both catalysts have been developed and optimized for membrane reactor in partnership with the University of Poitiers. The composite metallic membrane developed by CETH allows hydrogen extraction near the hydrogen production sites, which enhances both efficiency and compactness. (authors)

  13. Hydrogen isotope double differential production cross sections induced by 62.7 MeV neutrons on a lead target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerveno, M.; Haddad, F.; Eudes, Ph.; Kirchner, T.; Lebrun, C.; Slypen, I.; Meulders, J.P.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, F.R.; Lecolley, J.F.; Louvel, M.; Lefebvres, F.; Hilaire, S.; Koning, A.J.

    2002-01-01

    Double differential hydrogen isotope production cross sections have been extracted in 62.7 MeV neutron induced reactions on a lead target. The angular distribution was measured at eight angles from 20 deg. to 160 deg. allowing the extraction of angle-differential, energy differential, and total production cross sections. A first set of comparisons with several theoretical calculations is also presented

  14. Modeling of combustion products composition of hydrogen-containing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assad, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the usage of entropy maximum principal the algorithm and the program of chemical equilibrium calculation concerning hydrogen--containing fuels are devised. The program enables to estimate the composition of combustion products generated in the conditions similar to combustion conditions in heat engines. The program also enables to reveal the way hydrogen fraction in the conditional composition of the hydrocarbon-hydrogen-air mixture influences the harmful components content. It is proven that molecular hydrogen in the mixture is conductive to the decrease of CO, CO 2 and CH x concentration. NO outlet increases due to higher combustion temperature and N, O, OH concentrations in burnt gases. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen production of Enterobacter aerogenes altered by extracellular and intracellular redox states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashimada, Y.; Rachman, M.A.; Kakizono, T.; Nishio, N. [Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima (Japan). Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter, Department of Molecular Biotechnology

    2002-12-01

    Enterobacter aerogenes HU-101, tested for its hydrogen production in batch cultures on various substrates, produced the highest amount of hydrogen when the substrate was glycerol. The yield of hydrogen is a function of the degree to which the substrates are reduced. To examine the effect of intracellular redox state on hydrogen yield, glucose-limiting chemostat cultures were carried out at various pH using strain HU-101 and its mutant AY-2. For both strains, the molar yield and the production rate of hydrogen and the hydrogenase activity in the cell-free extract were optimal at the culture pH of 6.3. The highest NADH/NAD ratio in both strains was also observed at pH 6.3, at which the ratio in AY-2 was more than two-fold that of HU-101. Furthermore, NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogen formation was observed in the cell-free extract of AY-2, and hydrogenase activity was found not in the cytoplasmic but in the cell membrane fraction, suggesting that a high intracellular redox state, that is a high NADH/NAD ratio, would accelerate hydrogen production by driving membrane-bound NAD(P)H-dependent hydrogenase. (author)

  16. New advances in hydrogen production via the catalytic decomposition of wax by-products using nanoparticles of SBA frame-worked MoO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, Ahmed M.A.; Gobara, Heba M.; El Sayed, Hussien A.; Soliman, Fathi S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Feedstock-to-gases & hydrogen conversion using the Mo-SBA15 catalyst compared to commercial catalysts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of meso-porous molybdenum oxide catalyst in SBA framework. • Confirming the structural characteristics of this catalyst by different analyses. • New trend for the H_2 & CH_4, production is revealed in this work. • Nano-carbon species of well-ordered structure was produced. • In-situ non-pressurized-low temperature wax isomerization was imposed. - Abstract: The alternative energy sources in general and hydrogen based energy in particular have been currently grabbing great attention. Hydrogen is an efficient green source for power generation owing to its huge energy content. The operational costs and the hydrogen output are the key factors in the selection of a certain technique for the hydrogen production industrially. This study summarizes a new route for hydrogen production starting from a bit complicated hydrogen-containing molecules. Particular attention is given during this work towards a direct pyrrolysis catalytic conversion of long chains n-paraffin into hydrogen with in-situ production of nano-structured carbon particles. The simultaneous isomerization of the n-paraffin contented in the feedstock is also discussed during this process. This research study had provided new advances in the hydrogen production based on carrying out the production process at non-severe conditions namely; low operational temperatures and no pressure was applied. The introduction of a meso-porous molybdenum oxide catalyst for the catalytic hydrogen production is also a point of novelty for the presented work. Promising results have been disclosed at the end of this investigation; approximately 60 wt.% of the feedstock was converted to fuel gases while nearly 30 wt.% of the feed had turned as nano-carbon species. The hydrogen productivity had been detected as high as 42 wt.% of the original feedstock. This in fact might

  17. Maximizing renewable hydrogen production from biomass in a bio/catalytic refinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westermann, Peter; Jørgensen, Betina; Lange, L.

    2007-01-01

    Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary for photo......Biological production of hydrogen from biomass by fermentative or photofermentative microorganisms has been described in numerous research articles and reviews. The major challenge of these techniques is the low yield from fermentative production, and the large reactor volumes necessary...

  18. Uncertainty propagation in modeling of plasma-assisted hydrogen production from biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaherisarabi, Shadi; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2016-10-01

    With the growing concern of global warming and the resulting emphasis on decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there is an ever-increasing need to utilize energy-production strategies that can decrease the burning of fossil fuels. In this context, hydrogen remains an attractive clean-energy fuel that can be oxidized to produce water as a by-product. In spite of being an abundant species, hydrogen is seldom found in a form that is directly usable for energy-production. While steam reforming of methane is one popular technique for hydrogen production, plasma-assisted conversion of biogas (carbon dioxide + methane) to hydrogen is an attractive alternative. Apart from producing hydrogen, the other advantage of using biogas as raw material is the fact that two potent greenhouse gases are consumed. In this regard, modeling is an important tool to understand and optimize plasma-assisted conversion of biogas. The primary goal of this work is to perform a comprehensive statistical study that quantifies the influence of uncertain rate constants thereby determining the key reaction pathways. A 0-D chemical kinetics solver in the OpenFOAM suite is used to perform a series of simulations to propagate the uncertainty in rate constants and the resulting mean and standard deviation of outcomes.

  19. Gamma irradiation induced disintegration of waste activated sludge for biological hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Yanan; Wang, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, gamma irradiation was applied for the disintegration and dissolution of waste activated sludge produced during the biological wastewater treatment, and the solubilized sludge was used as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. The experimental results showed that the solubilization of waste activated sludge was 53.7% at 20 kGy and pH=12, and the SCOD, polysaccharides, protein, TN and TP contents in the irradiated sludge solutions was 3789.6 mg/L, 268.3 mg/L, 1881.5 mg/L, 132.3 mg/L and 80.4 mg/L, respectively. The irradiated sludge was used for fermentative hydrogen production, and the hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed . It can be concluded that the irradiated waste activated sludge could be used as a low-cost substrate for fermentative hydrogen production. - Highlights: • The waste activated sludge could be disintegrated by gamma irradiation. • The disintegrated sludge could be used for biohydrogen production. • The hydrogen yield was 10.5±0.7 mL/g SCOD consumed .

  20. Hydrogen production by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Lee, M. J.; Jin, J. H.; Park, K. B.; Cho, Y. H.; Jeong, H. S.; Chung, H. H.; Jeong, Y. S.; Ahn, S. S.

    2001-04-01

    In this work, various kinds of catalysts including a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production by gamma rays.The different activity of catalysts was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). A combination of EPR and spin-trapping method was also used to detect unstable radicals such as hydroxyl radicals and hydrogen atoms to investigate the effect of catalysts and additives on the efficiency of H2 production. A nanosize TiO 2 (nTiO 2 ) catalyst that showed an excellent activity in the production of H2 from water by gamma rays were examined in respect to the efficiency of H2 production with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes that are main wastes of chemical cleaning wastewater. As a result, among the catalysts examined in this work, a nanosize TiO2 (nTiO 2 ) showed the most efficient H2 production and the efficiency increased upon reapplication. This catalyst was also successfully used to produce H2 with concomitant treatment of metal-EDTA complexes

  1. Safety issues of nuclear production of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piera, Mireia; Martinez-Val, Jose M.; Jose Montes, Ma

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen is not an uncommon issue in Nuclear Safety analysis, particularly in relation to severe accidents. On the other hand, hydrogen is a household name in the chemical industry, particularly in oil refineries, and is also a well known chemical element currently produced by steam reforming of natural gas, and other methods (such as coal gasification). In the not-too-distant future, hydrogen will have to be produced (by chemical reduction of water) using renewable and nuclear energy sources. In particular, nuclear fission seems to offer the cheapest way to provide the primary energy in the medium-term. Safety principles are fundamental guidelines in the design, construction and operation both of hydrogen facilities and nuclear power plants. When these two technologies are integrated, a complete safety analysis must consider not only the safety practices of each industry, but any interaction that could be established between them. In particular, any accident involving a sudden energy release from one of the facilities can affect the other. Release of dangerous substances (chemicals, radiotoxic effluents) can also pose safety problems. Although nuclear-produced hydrogen facilities will need specific approaches and detailed analysis on their safety features, a preliminary approach is presented in this paper. No significant roadblocks are identified that could hamper the deployment of this new industry, but some of the hydrogen production methods will involve very demanding safety standards

  2. Bio-immobilization of dark fermentative bacteria for enhancing continuous hydrogen production from cornstalk hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Cao, Guang-Li; Sheng, Tao; Ren, Hong-Yu; Wang, Ai-Jie; Zhang, Jian; Zhong, Ying-Juan; Ren, Nan-Qi

    2017-11-01

    Mycelia pellets were employed as biological carrier in a continuous stirred tank reactor to reduce biomass washout and enhance hydrogen production from cornstalk hydrolysate. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) and influent substrate concentration played critical roles on hydrogen production of the bioreactor. The maximum hydrogen production rate of 14.2mmol H 2 L -1 h -1 was obtained at optimized HRT of 6h and influent concentration of 20g/L, 2.6 times higher than the counterpart without mycelia pellets. With excellent immobilization ability, biomass accumulated in the reactor and reached 1.6g/L under the optimum conditions. Upon further energy conversion analysis, continuous hydrogen production with mycelia pellets gave the maximum energy conversion efficiency of 17.8%. These results indicate mycelia pellet is an ideal biological carrier to improve biomass retention capacity of the reactor and enhance hydrogen recovery efficiency from lignocellulosic biomass, and meanwhile provides a new direction for economic and efficient hydrogen production process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nuclear Production of Hydrogen Using Thermochemical Water-Splitting Cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.C.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Schultz, K.R.; Marshall, A.C.; Showalter, S.K.; Pickard, P.S.; Funk, J.F.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the potential for efficient, cost-effective, large-scale production of hydrogen utilizing high-temperature heat from an advanced nuclear power station in a thermochemical water-splitting cycle. We carried out a detailed literature search to create a searchable database with 115 cycles and 822 references. We developed screening criteria to reduce the list to 25 cycles. We used detailed evaluation to select two cycles that appear most promising, the Adiabatic UT-3 cycle and the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. We have selected the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle for further development. We then assessed the suitability of various nuclear reactor types to the production of hydrogen from water using the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. A basic requirement is to deliver heat to the process interface heat exchanger at temperatures up to 900 deg. C. We considered nine categories of reactors: pressurized water-cooled, boiling water-cooled, organic-cooled, alkali metal-cooled, heavy metal-cooled, gas-cooled, molten salt-cooled, liquid-core and gas-core reactors. We developed requirements and criteria to carry out the assessment, considering design, safety, operational, economic and development issues. This assessment process led to our choice of the helium gas-cooled reactor for coupling to the Sulfur-Iodine cycle. In continuing work, we are investigating the improvements that have been proposed to the Sulfur-Iodine cycle and will generate an integrated flowsheet describing a hydrogen production plant powered by a high-temperature helium gas-cooled nuclear reactor. This will allow us to size process equipment and calculate hydrogen production efficiency and capital cost, and to estimate the cost of the hydrogen produced as a function of nuclear reactor cost. (authors)

  4. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of the methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors (that do not include a conventional turbine-type generator), the efficient use of fusion-reactor radiation and semiconductors to supply clean fuel in the form of hydrogen gas is studied. Taking the reactor candidates such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a plant system concept are investigated.

  5. Research and development program of hydrogen production system with high temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Y.; Shiozawa, S.; Ogawa, M.; Inagaki, Y.; Nishihara, T.; Shimizu, S.

    2000-01-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been developing a hydrogen production system with a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). While the HTGR hydrogen production system has the following advantages compared with a fossil-fired hydrogen production system; low operation cost (economical fuel cost), low CO 2 emission and saving of fossil fuel by use of nuclear heat, it requires some items to be solved as follows; cost reduction of facility such as a reactor, coolant circulation system and so on, development of control and safety technologies. As for the control and safety technologies, JAERI plans demonstration test with hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane coupling to 30 Wt HTGR, named high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Prior to the demonstration test, a 1/30-scale out-of-pile test facility is in construction for safety review and detailed design of the HTTR hydrogen production system. Also, design study will start for reduction of facility cost. Moreover, basic study on hydrogen production process without CO 2 emission is in progress by thermochemical water splitting. (orig.)

  6. Thermodynamic analyses of hydrogen production from sub-quality natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida, 1679 Clearlake Road, Cocoa, FL 32922-5403 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Part I of this paper analyzed sub-quality natural gas (SQNG) pyrolysis and autothermal pyrolysis. Production of hydrogen via direct thermolysis of SQNGs produces only 2mol of hydrogen and 1mol of carbon per mole of methane (CH{sub 4}). Steam reforming of SQNG (SRSQNG) could become a more effective approach because the processes produce two more moles of hydrogen via water splitting. A Gibbs reactor unit operation in the AspenPlus(TM) chemical process simulator was employed to accomplish equilibrium calculations for the SQNG+H{sub 2}O and SQNG+H{sub 2}O+O{sub 2} systems. The results indicate that water and oxygen inlet flow rates do not significantly affect the decomposition of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) at temperatures lower than 1000{sup o}C. The major co-product of the processes is carbonyl sulfide (COS) while sulfur dimer (S{sub 2}) and carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) are minor by-products within this temperature range. At higher temperatures (>1300{sup o}C), CS{sub 2} and S{sub 2} become major co-products. No sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) or sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) is formed during either SRSQNG or autothermal SRSQNG processes, indicating that no environmentally harmful acidic gases are generated. (author)

  7. Methane and hydrogen production from crop biomass through anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, O.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of methane and hydrogen production from energy crops through anaerobic digestion was evaluated in this thesis. The effects of environmental conditions, e.g. pH and temperature, as well as inoculum source on H{sub 2} yield were studied in batch assays. In addition, the effects of pre-treatments on methane and hydrogen yield as well as the feasibility of two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} production was evaluated. Moreover, the effect of storage on methane yield of grasses was evaluated. Monodigestion of grass silage for methane production was studied, as well as shifting the methanogenic process to hydrogenic. Hydrogen production from grass silage and maize was shown to be possible with heat-treated inoculum in batch assays, with highest H{sub 2} yields of 16.0 and 9.9 ml gVS{sub added}-1 from untreated grass silage and maize, respectively. Pre-treatments (NaOH, HCl and water-extraction) showed some potential in increasing H{sub 2} yields, while methane yields were not affected. Two-stage H{sub 2} + CH{sub 4} producing process was shown to improve CH{sub 4} yields when compared to traditional one-stage CH{sub 4} process. Methane yield from grass silage monodigestion in continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with organic loading rate (OLR) of 2 kgVS (m3d)-1 and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 30 days was at most 218 l kgVS{sub fed}-1. Methanogenic process was shifted to hydrogenic by increasing the OLR to 10 kgVS (m3d)-1 and shortening the HRT to 6 days. Highest H{sub 2} yield from grass silage was 42 l kgVS{sub fed}-1 with a maximum H{sub 2} content of 24 %. Energy crops can be successfully stored even for prolonged periods without decrease in methane yield. However, under sub-optimal storage conditions loss in volatile solids (VS) content and methane yield can occur. According to present results energy crops such as grass silage and maize can be converted to hydrogen or methane in AD process. Hydrogen energy yields are typically only 2-5 % of the

  8. Design and optimization of a fixed - bed reactor for hydrogen production via bio-ethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria A Goula; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos; Olga A Bereketidou; Costas G Economopoulos

    2006-01-01

    Global climate changes caused by CO 2 emissions are currently debated around the world. Renewable sources of energy are being sought as alternatives to replace fossil fuels. Hydrogen is theoretically the best fuel, environmentally friendly and its combustion reaction leads only to the production of water. Bio-ethanol has been proven to be effective in the production of hydrogen via steam reforming reaction. In this research the steam reforming reaction of bio-ethanol is studied at low temperatures over 15,3 % Ni/La 2 O 3 catalyst. The reaction and kinetic analysis takes place in a fixed - bed reactor in 130 - 250 C in atmospheric pressure. This study lays emphasis on the design and the optimization of the fixed - bed reactor, including the total volume of the reactor, the number and length of the tubes and the degree of ethanol conversion. Finally, it is represented an approach of the total cost of the reactor, according to the design characteristics and the materials that can be used for its construction. (authors)

  9. Hydrogen system (hydrogen fuels feasibility)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarna, S.

    1991-07-01

    This feasibility study on the production and use of hydrogen fuels for industry and domestic purposes includes the following aspects: physical and chemical properties of hydrogen; production methods steam reforming of natural gas, hydrolysis of water; liquid and gaseous hydrogen transportation and storage (hydrogen-hydride technology); environmental impacts, safety and economics of hydrogen fuel cells for power generation and hydrogen automotive fuels; relevant international research programs

  10. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, Michael G.; Harvego, Edwin A.; Gandrik, Anastasia A.

    2010-01-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322 C and 750 C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  11. Effects of three methane mitigation agents on parameters of kinetics of total and hydrogen gas production, ruminal fermentation and hydrogen balance using in vitro technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Wang, Rong; Yang, Shan; Deng, Jin Ping; Tang, Shao Xun; Tan, Zhi Liang

    2016-02-01

    Methane (CH4 ) can be mitigated through directly inhibiting methanogen activity and starving methanogens by hydrogen (H2 ) sink. Three types of mechanism (i.e. bromoethanesulphonate (BES), nitrate and emodin) and doses of CH4 mitigation agents were employed to investigate their pathways of CH4 inhibition. Results indicated that both BES and emodin inhibited CH4 production and altered H2 balance, which could be accompanied by decreased dry matter disappearance (DMD), fractional rate of gH2 formation, volatile fatty acid (VFA) production, ability to produce and use reducing equivalences and molecular H2 , and increased final asymptotic gH2 production, time to the peak of gH2 , discrete lag time of gH2 production and fermentation efficiency. However, emodin decreased gas volume produced by rapidly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at early stage of incubation, while BES supplementation inhibited gas volume produced by both rapidly and slowly fermentable components of substrate and the rate of fermentation at middle or late stage of incubation. The nitrate supplementation inhibited CH4 production without affecting VFA profile, because of its dual role as H2 sink and being toxic to methanogens. Nitrate supplementation had more complicated pattern of fermentation, VFA production and profile and H2 balance in comparison to BES and emodin supplementation. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Continuous Hydrogen Production from Agricultural Wastewaters at Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Lucas Rodrigues; Silva, Edson Luiz

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hydraulic retention time (HRT) (8 to 0.5 h) and temperature (55 to 75 °C) in two anaerobic fluidized bed reactors (AFBR) using cheese whey (AFBR-CW = 10,000 mg sugars L -1 ) and vinasse (AFBR-V = 10,000 mg COD L -1 ) as substrates. Decreasing the HRT to 0.5 h increased the hydrogen production rates in both reactors, with maximum values of 5.36 ± 0.81 L H 2 h -1 L -1 in AFBR-CW and 0.71 ± 0.16 L H 2 h -1 L -1 in AFBR-V. The optimal conditions for hydrogen production were the HRT of 4 h and temperature of 65 °C in AFBR-CW, observing maximum hydrogen yield (HY) of 5.51 ± 0.37 mmol H 2 g COD -1 . Still, the maximum HY in AFBR-V was 1.64 ± 0.22 mmol H 2 g COD -1 at 4 h and 55 °C. However, increasing the temperature to 75 °C reduced the hydrogen production in both reactors. Methanol and butyric, acetic, and lactic acids were the main metabolites at temperatures of 55 and 65 °C, favoring the butyric and acetic metabolic pathways of hydrogen production. The increased productions of lactate, propionate, and methanol at 75 °C indicate that the hydrogen-producing bacteria in the thermophilic inoculum were inhibited under hyperthermophilic conditions.

  13. Basic principles on the safety evaluation of the HTGR hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Kazutaka; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Tazawa, Yujiro; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2009-03-01

    As HTGR hydrogen production systems, such as HTTR-IS system or GTHTR300C currently being developed by Japan Atomic Energy Agency, consists of nuclear reactor and chemical plant, which are without a precedent in the world, safety design philosophy and regulatory framework should be newly developed. In this report, phenomena to be considered and events to be postulated in the safety evaluation of the HTGR hydrogen production systems were investigated and basic principles to establish acceptance criteria for the explosion and toxic gas release accidents were provided. Especially for the explosion accident, quantitative criteria to the reactor building are proposed with relating sample calculation results. It is necessary to treat abnormal events occurred in the hydrogen production system as an 'external events to the nuclear plant' in order to classify the hydrogen production system as no-nuclear facility' and basic policy to meet such requirement was also provided. (author)

  14. Hydrogen production through nuclear energy, a sustainable scenario in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega V, E.; Francois L, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The energy is a key point in the social and economic development of a country, for such motive to assure the energy supply in Mexico it is of vital importance. The hydrogen it is without a doubt some one of the alternating promising fuels before the visible one necessity to decentralize the energy production based on hydrocarbons. The versatility of their applications, it high heating power and having with the more clean fuel cycle of the energy basket with which count at the moment, they are only some examples of their development potential. However the more abundant element of the universe it is not in their elementary form in our planet, it forms molecules like in the hydrocarbons or water and it stops their use it should be extracted. At the present time different methods are known for the extraction of hydrogen, there is thermal, electric, chemical, photovoltaic among others. The election of the extraction method and the primary energy source to carry out it are decisive to judge the sustainability of the hydrogen production. The sustainable development is defined as development that covers the present necessities without committing the necessity to cover the necessities of the future generations, and in the mark of this definition four indicators of the sustainable development of the different cycles of fuel were evaluated in the hydrogen production in Mexico. These indicators take in consideration the emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (environment), the readiness of the energy resources (technology), the impacts in the floor use (social) and the production costs of the cycles (economy). In this work the processes were studied at the moment available for the generation of hydrogen, those that use coal, natural gas, hydraulic, eolic energy, biomass and nuclear, as primary energy sources. These processes were evaluated with energy references of Mexico to obtain the best alternative for hydrogen production. (Author)

  15. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-07-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  16. Improvements in Fermentative Biological Hydrogen Production Through Metabolic Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallenbeck, P. C.; Ghosh, D.; Sabourin-Provost, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dramatically rising oil prices and increasing awareness of the dire environmental consequences of fossil fuel use, including startling effects of climate change, are refocusing attention world-wide on the search for alternative fuels. Hydrogen is poised to become an important future energy carrier. Renewable hydrogen production is pivotal in making it a truly sustainable replacement for fossil fuels. (Author)

  17. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  18. EVALUATING HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN BIOGAS REFORMING IN A MEMBRANE REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. S. A. Silva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syngas and hydrogen production by methane reforming of a biogas (CH4/CO2 = 2.85 using carbon dioxide was evaluated in a fixed bed reactor with a Pd-Ag membrane in the presence of a nickel catalyst (Ni 3.31% weight/γ-Al2O3 at 773 K, 823 K, and 873 K and 1.01×105 Pa. Operation with hydrogen permeation at 873 K increased the methane conversion to approximately 83% and doubled the hydrogen yield relative to operation without hydrogen permeation. A mathematical model was formulated to predict the evolution of the effluent concentrations. Predictions based on the model showed similar evolutions for yields of hydrogen and carbon monoxide at temperatures below 823 K for operations with and without the hydrogen permeation. The hydrogen yield reached approximately 21% at 823 K and 47% at 873 K under hydrogen permeation conditions.

  19. Achievement report for fiscal 1981 on Sunshine Program-entrusted research and development. Research on hydrogen energy total system; 1981 nendo suiso energy total system no kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    In this research, studies are conducted relative to the time point, form, and magnitude of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's total energy system. The research aims to construct a hydrogen energy total system consisting of hydrogen energy subsystems to be available in the future and to clearly define the stage at which transfer to the target system will be carried out. In the research for fiscal 1981, studies continue about the feasibility of hydrogen as automobile and aviation fuels and as a material for use in chemical engineering, about conversion into each other of hydrogen and various synthetic fuels and electric power with which hydrogen will have to compete in the domain into which it will be supplied, and about technologies of their utilization for comparison between such energies in the search for their interchangeability. Surveys are conducted on technical data about local energies. The Yakushima island is chosen, for instance, and a conceptual hydrogen energy base is constructed there and the cost for the construction is estimated. At the last part, the feasibility of the introduction of hydrogen into Japan's energy system in the future is discussed for assessment. (NEDO)

  20. Bio-hydrogen production from molasses by anaerobic fermentation in continuous stirred tank reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Li, Yong-feng; Chen, Hong; Deng, Jie-xuan; Yang, Chuan-ping

    2010-11-01

    A study of bio-hydrogen production was performed in a continuous flow anaerobic fermentation reactor (with an available volume of 5.4 L). The continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for bio-hydrogen production was operated under the organic loading rates (OLR) of 8-32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d (COD: chemical oxygen demand) with molasses as the substrate. The maximum hydrogen production yield of 8.19 L/d was obtained in the reactor with the OLR increased from 8 kg COD/m3 reactor/d to 24 kg COD/m3 d. However, the hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) drastically decreased at an OLR of 32 kg COD/m3 reactor/d. Ethanoi, acetic, butyric and propionic were the main liquid fermentation products with the percentages of 31%, 24%, 20% and 18%, which formed the mixed-type fermentation.

  1. Multi-criteria analysis on how to select solar radiation hydrogen production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Naghiu, G. S., E-mail: naghiu.george@gmail.com; Felseghi, R.-A.; Giurca, I., E-mail: giurca-ioan@yahoo.com [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Faculty of Building Services Engineering, Boulevard December 21, no. 128-130, Cluj-Napoca, 400604 (Romania); Răboacă, S. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, Cluj-Napoca, 400609 (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    The purpose of this article is to present a method of selecting hydrogen-production systems using the electric power obtained in photovoltaic systems, and as a selecting method, we suggest the use of the Advanced Multi-Criteria Analysis based on the FRISCO formula. According to the case study on how to select the solar radiation hydrogen production system, the most convenient alternative is the alternative A4, namely the technical solution involving a hydrogen production system based on the electrolysis of water vapor obtained with concentrated solar thermal systems and electrical power obtained using concentrating photovoltaic systems.

  2. Hydrogen production by high temperature electrolysis of water vapour and nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean-Pierre Py; Alain Capitaine

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents hydrogen production by a nuclear reactor (High Temperature Reactor, HTR or Pressurized Water Reactor, PWR) coupled to a High Temperature Electrolyser (HTE) plant. With respect to the coupling of a HTR with a HTE plant, EDF and AREVA NP had previously selected a combined cycle HTR scheme to convert the reactor heat into electricity. In that case, the steam required for the electrolyser plant is provided either directly from the steam turbine cycle or from a heat exchanger connected with such cycle. Hydrogen efficiency production is valued using high temperature electrolysis. Electrolysis production of hydrogen can be performed with significantly higher thermal efficiencies by operating in the steam phase than in the water phase. The electrolysis performance is assessed with solid oxide and solid proton electrolysis cells. The efficiency from the three operating conditions (endo-thermal, auto-thermal and thermo-neutral) of a high temperature electrolysis process is evaluated. The technical difficulties to use the gases enthalpy to heat the water are analyzed, taking into account efficiency and technological challenges. EDF and AREVA NP have performed an analysis to select an optimized process giving consideration to plant efficiency, plant operation, investment and production costs. The paper provides pathways and identifies R and D actions to reach hydrogen production costs competitive with those of other hydrogen production processes. (authors)

  3. Process simulation of nuclear-based thermochemical hydrogen production with a copper-chlorine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwu, C.C.; Naterer, G.F.; Rosen, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Thermochemical processes for hydrogen production driven by nuclear energy are promising alternatives to existing technologies for large-scale commercial production of hydrogen without fossil fuels. The copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl) cycle, in which water is decomposed into hydrogen and oxygen, is promising for thermochemical hydrogen production in conjunction with a Supercritical Water Cooled Reactor. Here, the cycle efficiency is examined using the Aspen Plus process simulation code. Possible efficiency improvements are discussed. The results are expected to assist the development of a lab-scale cycle demonstration, which is currently being undertaken at University of Ontario Institute of Technology in collaboration with numerous partners. (author)

  4. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated. (author)

  5. Hydrogen production in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, S.; Tomita, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Iiyoshi, A.; Momota, H.; Motojima, O.; Okamoto, M.; Ohnishi, M.; Onozuka, M.; Uenosono, C.

    1993-11-01

    As one of methods of innovative energy production in fusion reactors without having a conventional turbine-type generator, an efficient use of radiation produced in a fusion reactor with utilizing semiconductor and supplying clean fuel in a form of hydrogen gas are studied. Taking the candidates of reactors such as a toroidal system and an open system for application of the new concepts, the expected efficiency and a concept of plant system are investigated. (author).

  6. High temperature corrosion in the thermochemical hydrogen production from nuclear heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen-Porisini, F.; Imarisio, G.

    1976-01-01

    In the production of hydrogen by water decomposition utilizing nuclear heat, a multistep process has to be employed. Water and the intermediate chemical products reach in chemical cycles giving hydrogen and oxygen with regeneration of the primary products used. Three cycles are examined, characterized by the presence of halide compounds and particularly hydracids at temperatures up to 800 0 C. Corrosion tests were carried out in hydrobromic acid, hydrochloric acid, ferric chloride solutions, and hydriodic acid

  7. Hydrogen production by Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under light driven sulfur deprived condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krishnan; Karthik, Rajendran [Biotechnology Research Division, Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Institute of Technology and Management, Aranvoyalkuppam, Thiruvallur District 602025, Tamil Nadu (India); Kamala Nalini, S.P. [Department of Biotechnology, Vel Group of Educational Institutions, Avadi, Alamadhi Road, Chennai 600062, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2009-10-15

    This article explores the possibility of demonstrating sustainable photohydrogen production using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii when grown in sulfur deprived photoautotrophic condition. The hydrogen evolving capability of the algal species was monitored based on alternating light and dark period. Investigation was carried out during the day time in order to exploit the solar energy for meeting the demand of the light period. The results showed that when the reactor was operated at varying photoperiod namely 2, 3 and 4 h of alternating light and dark period, the gas generation was found to be 32 {+-} 4, 63 {+-} 7 and 52 {+-} 5 mL/h, while the corresponding hydrogen content was 47, 86 and 87% respectively. Functional components of hydrogen generation reaction centers were also analyzed, which showed that the PS(I) reaction centers were involved in hydrogen production pathway, as the light absorption by PS(I) was prerequisite for hydrogen generation under sulfur deprived photoautotrophic condition. The findings showed a higher gas yield and hydrogen content under dark period, whereas under light period the gas content was below detectable level for hydrogen due to the reversible hydrogenase reaction. (author)

  8. Hydrogen sulfide oxidation without oxygen - oxidation products and pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossing, H.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide oxidation was studied in anoxic marine sediments-both in undisturbed sediment cores and in sediment slurries. The turn over of hydrogen sulfide was followed using 35 S-radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide which was injected into the sediment. However, isotope exchange reactions between the reduced sulfur compounds, in particular between elemental sulfur and hydrogen sulfide, influenced on the specific radioactivity of these pools. It was, therefore, not possible to measure the turn over rates of the reduced sulfur pools by the radiotracer technique but merely to use the radioisotope to demonstrate some of the oxidation products. Thiosulfate was one important intermediate in the anoxic oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and was continuously turned over by reduction, oxidation and disproportionation. The author discusses the importance of isotope exchange and also presents the results from experiments in which both 35 S-radiolabeled elemental sulfur, radiolabeled hydrogen sulfide and radiolabeled thiosulfate were used to study the intermediates in the oxidative pathways of the sulfur cycle

  9. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston

  10. Hydrogen production by using Rhodobacter capsulatus mutants with genetically modified electron transfer chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OEztuerk, Yavuz; Yuecel, Meral; Guenduez, Ufuk [Department of Biology, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Daldal, Fevzi [Department of Biology, Plant Science Institute, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6018 (United States); Mandaci, Sevnur [TUEBITAK Research Institute for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Gebze Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Tuerker, Lemi [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Eroglu, Inci [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    In Rhodobacter capsulatus excess reducing equivalents generated by organic acid oxidation is consumed to reduce protons into hydrogen by the activity of nitrogenase. Nitrogenase serves as a redox-balancing tool and is activated by the RegB/RegA global regulatory system during photosynthetic growth. The terminal cytochrome cbb{sub 3} oxidase and the redox state of the cyclic photosynthetic electron transfer chain serve redox signaling to the RegB/RegA regulatory systems in Rhodobacter. In this study, hydrogen production of various R. capsulatus strains harboring the genetically modified electron carrier cytochromes or lacking the cyt cbb{sub 3} oxidase or the quinol oxidase were compared with the wild type. The results indicated that hydrogen production of mutant strains with modified electron carrier cytochromes decreased 3- to 4-fold, but the rate of hydrogen production increased significantly in a cbb{sub 3}{sup -} mutant. Moreover, hydrogen production efficiency of various R. capsulatus strains further increased by inactivation of uptake hydrogenase genes. (author)

  11. Thermal energy distribution analysis for hydrogen production in RGTT200K conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumpal Pandiangan; Ign Djoko Irianto

    2011-01-01

    RGTT200K is a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) which conceptually designed for power generation, hydrogen production and desalination. Hydrogen production process in this design uses thermochemical method of Iodine-Sulphur. To increase the thermal conversion efficiency in hydrogen production installations, it needs to design a thermal energy distribution and temperature associated with the process of thermo-chemical processes in the method of Iodine-Sulphur. In this method there are 7 kinds of processes: (i) H 2 SO4 decomposition reaction (ii) treatment of vaporization (iii) treatment of pre vaporizer (iv) treatment of flash 4 (v) treatment of decomposition of HI (vi) treatment of the flash 1-3 and (vii) Bunsen reaction. To regulate the distribution of energy and temperature appropriate to the needs of each process used 3 pieces of heat exchanger (HE). Calculation of energy distribution through the distribution of helium gas flow has been done with Scilab application programs, so that can know the distribution of thermal energy for production of 1 mole of hydrogen. From this model, it can calculate the thermal energy requirement for production of hydrogen at the desired capacity. In the conceptual design of RGTT200K, helium discharge has been designed by 20 kg/s, so that an efficient hydrogen production capacity needed to produce 15347.8 for 21.74 mole of H 2 . (author)

  12. High-temperature nuclear reactor power plant cycle for hydrogen and electricity production – numerical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek Michał

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor (called HTR or HTGR for both electricity generation and hydrogen production is analysed. The HTR reactor because of the relatively high temperature of coolant could be combined with a steam or gas turbine, as well as with the system for heat delivery for high-temperature hydrogen production. However, the current development of HTR’s allows us to consider achievable working temperature up to 750°C. Due to this fact, industrial-scale hydrogen production using copper-chlorine (Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle is considered and compared with high-temperature electrolysis. Presented calculations show and confirm the potential of HTR’s as a future solution for hydrogen production without CO2 emission. Furthermore, integration of a hightemperature nuclear reactor with a combined cycle for electricity and hydrogen production may reach very high efficiency and could possibly lead to a significant decrease of hydrogen production costs.

  13. Production of hydrogen via conversion of hydrocarbons using a microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, Mariusz; Dors, Miroslaw; Nowakowska, Helena; Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Nichipor, Gerietta V, E-mail: mj@imp.gda.pl [Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk, Sosny 220109 (Belarus)

    2011-05-18

    In this paper, results of hydrogen production from hydrocarbons in an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma are presented. As sources of hydrogen, both methane CH{sub 4} and tetrafluoroethane C{sub 2}H{sub 2}F{sub 4} were tested. A new waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type microwave plasma source was used to convert hydrocarbons into hydrogen. The processed gaseous hydrocarbons were introduced into the plasma by four gas ducts which formed a swirl flow in the plasma reactor. The absorbed microwave power was up to 5 kW. The gas flow rate was up to 212 L min{sup -1}. The hydrogen mass yield rate and the corresponding energetic hydrogen mass yield were up to 866 g[H{sub 2}] h{sup -1} and 577 g [H{sub 2}] kWh{sup -1} of microwave energy absorbed by the plasma, respectively. These parameters are better than our previous results when nitrogen was used as a swirl gas and much better than those typical for other plasma methods of hydrogen production (electron beam, gliding arc, plasmatron).

  14. Application of rice rhizosphere microflora for hydrogen production from apple pomace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doi, Tetsuya [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan); Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Matsumoto, Hisami [Nishihara Environment Technology Inc., Tokyo 108-0023 (Japan); Abe, Jun [AE-Bio, Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Morita, Shigenori [Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services (ISAS), Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Nishitokyo, Tokyo 188-0002 (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The combination of substrate materials and bacteria is an important factor affecting conversion technology for biological hydrogen production. We performed anaerobic hydrogen fermentation of apple pomace wastes using rhizosphere bacterial microflora of rice as the parent inoculum. In the vial test, the optimal condition for hydrogen fermentation was initial pH 6.0, 35 C, and 73.4 g pomace per liter of medium (equivalent to 10 g-hexose/L). In the batch experiment (pH 6.0, temperature 35 C) the hydrogen yield reached 2.3 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-hexose. The time course of biogas production and PCR-DGGE analysis suggest that Clostridium spp. decomposed degradable carbohydrates rapidly and a part of the refractory carbohydrate (e.g. pectin) gradually in the apple pomace slurry. In addition to hydrogen, volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were produced in the anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace, which can be a substrate for methane fermentation. The rice rhizosphere can be a promising source of inoculum bacteria for hydrogen fermentation in combination with plant material waste like apple pomace. (author)

  15. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    OpenAIRE

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  16. Hydrogen production by the engineered cyanobacterial strain Nostoc PCC 7120 ΔhupW examined in a flat panel photobioreactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Marcus; Heidorn, Thorsten; Lindblad, Peter

    2015-12-10

    Nitrogenase based hydrogen production was examined in a ΔhupW strain of the filamentous heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc PCC 7120, i.e., cells lacking the last step in the maturation system of the large subunit of the uptake hydrogenase and as a consequence with a non-functional uptake hydrogenase. The cells were grown in a developed flat panel photobioreactor system with 3.0L culture volume either aerobically (air) or anaerobically (Ar or 80% N2/20% Ar) and illuminated with a mixture of red and white LED. Aerobic growth of the ΔhupW strain of Nostoc PCC 7120 at 44μmolar photons m(-2)s(-1) PAR gave the highest hydrogen production of 0.7mL H2 L(-1)h(-1), 0.53mmol H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 1.2%. Anaerobic growth using 100% argon showed a maximal hydrogen production of 1.7mLL(-1)h(-1), 0.85mmol per mg chlorophyll a(-1) h(-1), and a light energy conversion efficiency of 2.7%. Altering between argon/N2 (20/80) and 100% argon phases resulted in a maximal hydrogen production at hour 128 (100% argon phase) with 6.2mL H2L(-1)h(-1), 0.71mL H2 mg chlorophyll a(-1)h(-1), and a light energy efficiency conversion of 4.0%. The highest buildup of hydrogen gas observed was 6.89% H2 (100% argon phase) of the total photobioreactor system with a maximal production of 4.85mL H2 L(-1)h(-1). The present study clearly demonstrates the potential to use purpose design cyanobacteria in developed flat panel photobioreactor systems for the direct production of the solar fuel hydrogen. Further improvements in the strain used, environmental conditions employed, and growth, production and collection systems used, are needed before a sustainable and economical cyanobacterial based hydrogen production can be realized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Regulation of hydrogen production by Enterobacter aerogenes by external NADH and NAD{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chong; Ma, Kun; Xing, Xin-Hui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    Experiments involving the addition of external nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form (NADH) or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD{sup +}) have been designed to examine how the hydrogen in Enterobacter aerogenes is liberated by NADH or NAD{sup +}. The addition of external NADH or NAD{sup +} was found to regulate hydrogen production by E. aerogenes in resting cells, batch cultures, and chemostat cultures. Particularly in chemostat cultivation, with the external addition of NADH, hydrogen production via the NADH pathway was decreased, while that via the formate pathway was increased; in the end, the overall hydrogen p was decreased. The addition of NAD{sup +}, on the other hand, gave the opposite results. The membrane-bound hydrogenase was found to play a central role in regulating hydrogen production. The occurrence of NADH oxidation (NAD{sup +} reduction) on the cell membrane resulted in an electron flow across the membrane; this changed the oxidation state and metabolic pattern of the cells, which eventually affected the hydrogen evolution. (author)

  18. Technoeconomic analysis of renewable hydrogen production, storage, and detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, M.K.; Spath, P.L.; Kadam, K. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Technical and economic feasibility studies of different degrees of completeness and detail have been performed on several projects being funded by the Department of Energy`s Hydrogen Program. Work this year focused on projects at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, although analyses of projects at other institutions are underway or planned. Highly detailed analyses were completed on a fiber optic hydrogen leak detector and a process to produce hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis followed by steam reforming of the pyrolysis oil. Less detailed economic assessments of solar and biologically-based hydrogen production processes have been performed and focused on the steps that need to be taken to improve the competitive position of these technologies. Sensitivity analyses were conducted on all analyses to reveal the degree to which the cost results are affected by market changes and technological advances. For hydrogen storage by carbon nanotubes, a survey of the competing storage technologies was made in order to set a baseline for cost goals. A determination of the likelihood of commercialization was made for nearly all systems examined. Hydrogen from biomass via pyrolysis and steam reforming was found to have significant economic potential if a coproduct option could be co-commercialized. Photoelectrochemical hydrogen production may have economic potential, but only if low-cost cells can be modified to split water and to avoid surface oxidation. The use of bacteria to convert the carbon monoxide in biomass syngas to hydrogen was found to be slightly more expensive than the high end of currently commercial hydrogen, although there are significant opportunities to reduce costs. Finally, the cost of installing a fiber-optic chemochromic hydrogen detection system in passenger vehicles was found to be very low and competitive with alternative sensor systems.

  19. Fermentative hydrogen production by the new marine Pantoea agglomerans isolated from the mangrove sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Daling [College of Marine Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Wang, Guangce [College of Marine Science and Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Qiao, Hongjin; Cai, Jinling [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A new fermentative hydrogen-producing bacterium was isolated from mangrove sludge and identified as Pantoea agglomerans using light microscopic examination, biological tests and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The isolated bacterium, designated as P. agglomerans BH-18, is a new strain that has never been optimized as a potential hydrogen-producing bacterium. In this study, the culture conditions and the hydrogen-producing ability of P. agglomerans BH-18 were examined. The strain was a salt-tolerant facultative anaerobe with the initial optimum pH value at 8.0-9.0 and temperature at 30 C on cell growth. During fermentation, hydrogen started to evolve when cell growth entered late-exponential phase and was mainly produced in the stationary phase. The strain was able to produce hydrogen over a wide range of initial pH from 5 to 10, with an optimum initial pH of 6. The level of hydrogen production was affected by the initial glucose concentration, and the optimum value was found to be 10 g glucose/l. The maximum hydrogen-producing yield (2246 ml/l) and overall hydrogen production rate (160 ml/l/h) were obtained at an initial glucose concentration of 10 g/l and an initial pH value of 7.2 in marine culture conditions. In particular, the level of hydrogen production was also affected by the salt concentration. Hydrogen production reached a higher level in fresh culture conditions than in marine ones. In marine conditions, hydrogen productivity was 108 ml/l/h at an initial glucose concentration of 20 g/l and pH value of 7.2, whereas, it increased by 27% in fresh conditions. In addition, this strain could produce hydrogen using glucose and many other carbon sources such as fructose, sucrose, sorbitol and so on. As a result, it is possible that P. agglomerans BH-18 is used for biohydrogen production and biological treatment of mariculture wastewater and marine organic waste. (author)

  20. Total hydrogen and oxygen fluxes in the edge plasma of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastelewicz, H.

    1988-01-01

    A relativistic model of the edge plasma of tokamaks is described considering the primary neutral fluxes emitted from limiter and wall. The primary neutrals, which determine essentially the particle flux balance in the plasma edge, the scrape-off layer plasma and the particles adsorbed at limiter and wall are treated as separate subsystems which are iteratively coupled through the mutual particle sinks and sources. The model is used for the calculation of total hydrogen and oxygen fluxes in edge plasma of tokamaks. The results for different fractions of and contributions to the total fluxes are illustrated and discussed

  1. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M. [Foster Wheeler Italiana Spa, via Caboto 1, 20094 Corsico (Milano) (Italy); Lazzaretto, A. [University of Padova, Department of Mechanical Engineering, via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-05-15

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO{sub 2} avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO{sub 2} capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price. (author)

  2. Combined production of hydrogen and power from heavy oil gasification: Pinch analysis, thermodynamic and economic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenichini, R.; Gallio, M.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) represents a commercially proven technology available for the combined production of hydrogen and electricity power from coal and heavy residue oils. When associated with CO 2 capture and sequestration facilities, the IGCC plant gives an answer to the search for a clean and environmentally compatible use of high sulphur and heavy metal contents fuels, the possibility of installing large size plants for competitive electric power and hydrogen production, and a low cost of CO 2 avoidance. The paper describes two new and realistic configurations of IGCC plant fed by refinery heavy residues and including a CO 2 capture section, which are proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the construction of similar plants. They are based on oxygen blown entrained bed gasification and sized to produce a large amount of hydrogen and to feed one or two gas turbines of the combined cycle unit. The main thermodynamic and technological characteristics of the total plants are evaluated focusing on the heat integration between syngas cooling and combined cycle sections. Moreover, the overall performance characteristics and investment cost are estimated to supply a reliable estimate for the cost of electricity, given a value for the hydrogen selling price.

  3. Hydrogen production from electrolysis in LHD-type helical reactor FFHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.; Sagara, A.; Imagawa, S.; Mito, T.; Motojima, O.

    2007-01-01

    The LHD-type helical power reactor, FFHR, is proposed by the National Institute for Fusion Science on the basis of the engineering achievements and confinement properties of the LHD. The output of the thermal power and electric power of the FFHR2m2 are optimized to 3 GW and 1 GW, respectively. To assess the technical potential of the FFHR2m2 operation style, hydrogen production from electrolysis is investigated in this report. Gaseous hydrogen of 700 tons per day can be produced by the electric power of 1 GW. The steam of 6,354 tons per day at 150 degree C is necessary in this case. Required heating power to produce the stem from the water at 20 degree C is 198 MW. In FFHR2m2, about 450 MW of thermal power is delivered via the scrape-off layer plasma to the divertors with double-null structure. The divertor may be one of the potential heat sources to produce the steam for the electrolysis. Hydrogen has to be packaged by compression or liquefaction, transported by trailer or pipeline, stored, and transferred to the end users. The four different styles of plant outputs were estimated: (A) 1 GW of power generation, (B) pressurized hydrogen gas of 625 tons per day, (C) liquid hydrogen of 574 tons per day, and (D) 0.824 GW of electricity plus 100 tons per day of liquid hydrogen. Case (A) is suitable for a largely constant level of power demand as well as a nuclear fission power plant. Case (B) and case (C) are dedicated hydrogen production and these cases are desirable as the infrastructure for the future fuel cell society. Case (D) has the flexibility in plant operation. Electrical power to the grid can be modulated if the excess electricity were used for the hydrogen production, at the constant power generation. This fraction rate of case (D) is appropriate for the levelization between on-peak and off-peak demand. Energy conversion efficiencies of these four cases are also discussed in this paper. (authors)

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Arany Janos 11, RO-400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  5. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production Using New Combinatorial Chemistry Derived Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Baeck, Sung-Hyeon; Kleiman-Shwarsctein, Alan; Stucky, Galen D. (PI); McFarland, Eric W. (PI)

    2004-10-25

    Solar photoelectrochemical water-splitting has long been viewed as one of the “holy grails” of chemistry because of its potential impact as a clean, renewable method of fuel production. Several known photocatalytic semiconductors can be used; however, the fundamental mechanisms of the process remain poorly understood and no known material has the required properties for cost effective hydrogen production. In order to investigate morphological and compositional variations in metal oxides as they relate to opto-electrochemical properties, we have employed a combinatorial methodology using automated, high-throughput, electrochemical synthesis and screening together with conventional solid-state methods. This report discusses a number of novel, high-throughput instruments developed during this project for the expeditious discovery of improved materials for photoelectrochemical hydrogen production. Also described within this report are results from a variety of materials (primarily tungsten oxide, zinc oxide, molybdenum oxide, copper oxide and titanium dioxide) whose properties were modified and improved by either layering, inter-mixing, or doping with one or more transition metals. Furthermore, the morphologies of certain materials were also modified through the use of structure directing agents (SDA) during synthesis to create mesostructures (features 2-50 nm) that increased surface area and improved rates of hydrogen production.

  6. Total Productive Maintenance at Paccar INC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Farkas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the application of total productive maintenance method at Paccar Inc. truck’s plant in Victoria, Australia. The total productive maintenance method and total productive maintenance house are presented. The global equipment effectiveness is computed and exemplified. The production structure and organising maintenance are presented. Resultas of the variation of global equipment effectiveness and autonomous maintenance in a two weeks period of time are reported.

  7. High hydrogen production from glycerol or glucose by electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Selembo, Priscilla A.

    2009-07-01

    The use of glycerol for hydrogen gas production was examined via electrohydrogenesis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). A hydrogen yield of 3.9 mol-H2/mol was obtained using glycerol, which is higher than that possible by fermentation, at relatively high rates of 2.0 ± 0.4 m3/m3 d (Eap = 0.9 V). Under the same conditions, hydrogen was produced from glucose at a yield of 7.2 mol-H2/mol and a rate of 1.9 ± 0.3 m3/m3 d. Glycerol was completely removed within 6 h, with 56% of the electrons in intermediates (primarily 1,3-propanediol), with the balance converted to current, intracellular storage products or biomass. Glucose was removed within 5 h, but intermediates (mainly propionate) accounted for only 19% of the electrons. Hydrogen was also produced using the glycerol byproduct of biodiesel fuel production at a rate of 0.41 ± 0.1 m3/m3 d. These results demonstrate that electrohydrogenesis is an effective method for producing hydrogen from either pure glycerol or glycerol byproducts of biodiesel fuel production. © 2009 International Association for Hydrogen Energy.

  8. Liquid hydrogen production and commercial demand in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center, the single largest purchaser of liquid hydrogen (LH2) in the United States, evaluated current and anticipated hydrogen production and consumption in the government and commercial sectors. Specific objectives of the study are as follows: (1) identify LH2 producers in the United States and Canada during 1980-1989 period; (2) compile information in expected changes in LH2 production capabilities over the 1990-2000 period; (3) describe how hydrogen is used in each consuming industry and estimate U.S. LH2 consumption for the chemicals, metals, electronics, fats and oil, and glass industries, and report data on a regional basis; (4) estimate historical and future consumption; and (5) assess the influence of international demands on U.S. plants.

  9. Photobiological production of hydrogen: a solar energy conversion option

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, P.; Lien, S.; Seibert, M.

    1979-01-01

    This literature survey of photobiological hydrogen production covers the period from its discovery in relatively pure cultures during the early 1930s to the present. The focus is hydrogen production by phototrophic organisms (and their components) which occurs at the expense of light energy and electron-donating substrates. The survey covers the major contributions in the area; however, in many cases, space has limited the degree of detail provided. Among the topics included is a brief historical overview of hydrogen metabolism in photosynthetic bacteria, eucaryotic algae, and cyanobacteria (blue--green algae). The primary enzyme systems, including hydrogenase and nitrogenase, are discussed along with the manner in which they are coupled to electron transport and the primary photochemistry of photosynthesis. A number of in vivo and in vitro photobiological hydrogen evolving schemes including photosynthetic bacterial, green algal, cyanobacterial, two-stage, and cell-free systems are examined in some detail. The remainder of the review discusses specific technical problem areas that currently limit the yield and duration of many of the systems and research that might lead to progress in these specific areas. The final section outlines, in broadest terms, future research directions necessary to develop practical photobiological hydrogen-producing systems. Both whole cell (near- to mid-term) and cell-free (long-term) systems should be emphasized. Photosynthetic bacteria currently show the most promise for near-term applied systems.

  10. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das [Fermentation Technology Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, W.B., INDIA-721302 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H{sub 2} production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H{sub 2}/g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H{sub 2} g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H{sub 2}/g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H{sub 2}/g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from sludge

  11. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das [Fermentation Technology Lab., Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, W.B., INDIA-721302 (India)

    2006-07-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H{sub 2} production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5% w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H{sub 2}/ g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H{sub 2} / g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H{sub 2}/ g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from

  12. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das

    2006-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H 2 production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H 2 / g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H 2 /g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5%w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H 2 / g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H 2 g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H 2 /g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H 2 /g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from sludge. (authors)

  13. Feasibility of bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge using defined microbial consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shireen Meher Kotay; Debabrata Das

    2006-01-01

    Biological hydrogen production potential of a defined microbial consortium consisting of three facultative anaerobes, Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08, Citrobacter freundii IIT-BT L139 and Bacillus coagulans IIT-BT S1 was studied. In this investigation their individual and combinatorial H 2 production capabilities have been studied on defined media and pretreated sewage sludge. Defined medium, MYG (1% w/v Malt extract, 0.4% w/v yeast extract and 1% w/v glucose) with glucose as limiting substrate has been found to be most suitable for hydrogen production. Individually E. cloacae clearly gave higher yield (276 ml H 2 / g COD reduced) using defined medium than the other two strains. There was no considerable difference in maximal yield of hydrogen from individual and combinatorial (1:1:1 consortium) modes suggesting that E. cloacae dominated in the consortia on defined medium. Contradictorily, B. coagulans gave better bio-hydrogen yield (37.16 ml H 2 / g COD consumed) than the other two strains when activated sewage sludge was used as substrate. The pretreatment of sludge included sterilization, (15% v/v) dilution and supplementation with 0.5% w/v glucose which was found to be essential to screen out the hydrogen consuming bacteria and ameliorate the hydrogenation. Considering (1:1:1) consortium as inoculum, interestingly yield of hydrogen was recorded to increase to 41.23 ml H 2 / g COD reduced inferring that in consortium, the substrate utilization was significantly higher. The hydrogen yield from pretreated sludge obtained in this study (35.54 ml H 2 / g sludge) has been found to be distinctively higher than the earlier reports (8.1 - 16.9 ml H 2 / g sludge). However it was lower compared to the yield obtained from co-digestion of (83:17) food waste and sewage sludge (122 ml H 2 / g carbohydrate COD). Employing formulated microbial consortia for bio-hydrogen production from sewage sludge was an attempt to augment the hydrogen yield from sludge. (authors)

  14. Selective production of hydrogen peroxide and oxidation of hydrogen sulfide in an unbiased solar photoelectrochemical cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zong, Xu; Chen, Hongjun; Seger, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A solar-to-chemical conversion process is demonstrated using a photoelectrochemical cell without external bias for selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sulfur (S). The process integrates two redox couples anthraquinone/anthrahydroquinone and I−/I3......−, and conceptually illustrates the remediation of a waste product for producing valuable chemicals....

  15. Estimation of hydrogen production in genetically modified E. coli fermentations using an artificial neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales-Colunga, Luis Manuel; De Leon Rodriguez, Antonio [Division de Biologia Molecular, Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, Camino a la Presa San Jose 2055, Col. Lomas 4a secc, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78216 (Mexico); Garcia, Raul Gonzalez [Centro de Investigacion y Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Av. Dr. Manuel Nava 6, San Luis Potosi, SLP 78210 (Mexico)

    2010-12-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an active research area due to the importance of this gas as an energy carrier and the advantages of using biological systems to produce it. A cheap and practical on-line hydrogen determination is desired in those processes. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to estimate the hydrogen production in fermentative processes. A back propagation neural network (BPNN) of one hidden layer with 12 nodes was selected. The BPNN training was done using the conjugated gradient algorithm and on-line measurements of dissolved CO{sub 2}, pH and oxidation-reduction potential during the fermentations of cheese whey by Escherichia coli {delta}hycA {delta}lacI (WDHL) strain with or without pH control. The correlation coefficient between the hydrogen production determined by gas chromatography and the hydrogen production estimated by the BPNN was 0.955. Results showed that the BPNN successfully estimated the hydrogen production using only on-line parameters in genetically modified E. coli fermentations either with or without pH control. This approach could be used for other hydrogen production systems. (author)

  16. Temperature dependence of anti-hydrogen production in the ATHENA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bonomi, G; Amsler, Claude; Bouchta, A; Bowe, P; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, Michael; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, Rolf; Lindelöf, D; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macri, M; Madsen, N; Montagna, P; Pruys, H S; Regenfus, C; Riedler, P; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Van der Werf, D P

    2004-01-01

    The ATHENA experiment recently produced the first sample of cold anti-hydrogen atoms by mixing cold plasmas of anti-protons and positrons. The temperature of the positron plasma was increased by controlled RF heating and the anti-hydrogen production rate was measured. Preliminary results are presented. (8 refs).

  17. Experimental measurements of negative hydrogen ion production from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, W.G.

    1977-09-01

    Experimental measurements of the production of H - from surfaces bombarded with hydrogen are reviewed. Some measurements of H + and H 0 production from surfaces are also discussed with particular emphasis on work which might be relevant to ion source applications

  18. Well-to-Wheel Analysis of Solar Hydrogen Production and Utilization for Passenger Car Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, R.; Meier, A.

    2006-07-01

    A well-to-wheel analysis is conducted for solar hydrogen production, transport, and usage in future passenger car transportation. Solar hydrogen production methods and selected conventional production Technologies are examined using a life cycle assessment (LCA). Utilization of hydrogen in fuel cells is compared with advanced gasoline and diesel power trains. Solar scenarios show distinctly lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than fossil-based scenarios. For example, using solar hydrogen in fuel cell cars reduces life cycle GHG emissions by 75% compared to advanced fossil fuel power trains and by more than 90% if car and road infrastructure are not considered. Solar hydrogen production allows a reduction of fossil energy requirements by a factor of up to 10 compared to using conventional Technologies. Major environmental impacts are associated with the construction of the steel-intensive infrastructure for solar energy collection due to mineral and fossil resource consumption as well as discharge of pollutants related to today's steel production technology. (Author)

  19. Achievement report on research and development in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1977. Studies on hydrogen energy total systems and the safety assuring technologies thereon (Studies on hydrogen energy total systems); 1977 nendo suiso energy total system to sono hoan gijutsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Suiso energy total system no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-03-01

    A numerical model was prepared to express fields and size of hydrogen energy introduction in Japan's energy systems in the future. Dividing Japan into 13 weather sections, one to two energy bases (import and secondary production bases in coastal areas) were assumed on each section. Secondary energies produced in these energy bases are transported to intermediate bases, from which the energies are distributed into cities and consumed. For the purpose of simplification, final consumption departments are hypothesized to exist in these intermediate bases. Parameters that characterize the flows on networks in the processes of supply, distribution, production, storage, transportation and utilization are divided largely into energy efficiency and cost of the processes. The amount of energy demand in each final consumption department was defined as an amount to maximize the expected effects as a result of having satisfied the demand. The result of trial calculations revealed that, as long as the hydrogen to be introduced is limited to hydrogen produced via electrolysis using thermally generated power, the hydrogen introduction into the future energy systems is difficult in terms of economic performance. (NEDO)

  20. Catalytic activation of molecular hydrogen in alkyne hydrogenation reactions by lanthanide metal vapor reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, W.J.; Bloom, I.; Engerer, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary metal vapor was used in the synthesis of Lu, Er, Nd, Sm, Yb, and La alkyne, diene, and phosphine complexes. A typical catalytic hydrogenation experiment is described. The lanthanide metal vapor product is dissolved in tetrahydrofuran or toluene and placed in a pressure reaction vessel 3-hexyne (or another substrate) is added, the chamber attached to a high vacuum line, cooled to -196 0 C, evacuated, warmed to ambient temperature and hydrogen is added. The solution is stirred magnetically while the pressure in monitored. The reaction products were analyzed by gas chromatography. Rates and products of various systems are listed. This preliminary survey indicates that catalytic reaction chemistry is available to these metals in a wide range of coordination environments. Attempts to characterize these compounds are hampered by their paramagnetic nature and their tendency to polymerize

  1. Challenges for renewable hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, D.B.; Chahine, R.

    2009-01-01

    The increasing demand for H 2 for heavy oil upgrading, desulfurization and upgrading of conventional petroleum, and for production of ammonium, in addition to the projected demand for H 2 as a transportation fuel and portable power, will require H 2 production on a massive scale. Increased production of H 2 by current technologies will consume greater amounts of conventional hydrocarbons (primarily natural gas) which in turn will generate greater greenhouse gas emissions. Production of H 2 from renewable sources derived from agricultural or other waste streams offers the possibility to contribute to the production capacity with lower or no net greenhouse gas emissions (without carbon sequestration technologies), increasing the flexibility and improving the economics of distributed and semi-centralized reforming. Electrolysis, thermo-catalytic, and biological production can be easily adapted to on-site decentralized production of H 2 , circumventing the need to establish a large and costly distribution infrastructure. Each of these H 2 production technologies, however, faces technical challenges, including conversion efficiencies, feedstock type, and the need to safely integrate H 2 production systems with H 2 purification and storage technologies. These issues are being addressed by H2CAN, a recently launched NSERC funded national strategic network in hydrogen production, purification, storage, infrastructure and safety. (author)

  2. Dinamics of hydrogen in terrestrial atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roamntan, A.; Mercea, V.; Ristoiu, D.; Ursu, D.

    1981-01-01

    Thishs monographic study presents the dynamics of hydrogen in t e Earth's atmosphere. Atomic hydrogen is produced in the homosphere through a complex system of chemical reaction in wich molecules of 2 , H 2 O, C 4 s ''parent '' molecules are involved. The maximum production of H appears at 8O km resulting a concentration of the order of 10 8 cm -3 . There is a correlation between the total mixing ratio of hydrogen in the homosphere and the global escape flux from the Earth's atmosphere. Two new physical mechanisms which may have a substantial contribution to the total escape flux are presented: ''polar wind'' and charge exchange of H with ''hot'' protons. The possibilities of accretion of hydrogen, as atomic hydrogen or as water from the Earth's atmosphere, are analysed in brief. (authors)

  3. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with food waste (FW): Enhancement of bio-hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeriz-Campoy, Rubén; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos J; Romero-García, Luis I

    2015-10-01

    Bio-hydrogen production from dry thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion (55°C and 20% total solids) of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and food waste (FW) was studied. OFMSW coming from mechanical-biological treatment plants (MBT plants) presents a low organic matter concentration. However, FW has a high organic matter content but several problems by accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and system acidification. Tests were conducted using a mixture ratio of 80:20 (OFSMW:FW), to avoid the aforementioned problems. Different solid retention times (SRTs) - 6.6, 4.4, 2.4 and 1.9 days - were tested. It was noted that addition of food waste enhances the hydrogen production in all the SRTs tested. Best results were obtained at 1.9-day SRT. It was observed an increase from 0.64 to 2.51 L H2/L(reactor) day in hydrogen productivity when SRTs decrease from 6.6 to 1.9 days. However, the hydrogen yield increases slightly from 33.7 to 38 mL H2/gVS(added). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Heating Method on Hydrogen Production by Biomass Gasification in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuhui Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The glucose as a test sample of biomass is gasified in supercritical water with different heating methods driven by renewable solar energy. The performance comparisons of hydrogen production of glucose gasification are investigated. The relations between temperature raising speed of reactant fluid, variation of volume fraction, combustion enthalpy, and chemical exergy of H2 of the product gases with reactant solution concentration are presented, respectively. The results show that the energy quality of product gases with preheating process is higher than that with no preheating unit for hydrogen production. Hydrogen production quantity and gasification rate of glucose decrease obviously with the increase of concentration of material in no preheating system.

  5. Hydrogen Car Cartridges: A New Strategy for Hydrogen Storage, Delivering and Refueling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosini, Pier Paolo

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of the project is to introduce a sustainable model in the automotive field, guarantying the Kyoto agreements. The aim of the project is to develop an innovative hydrogen tank able to power an hydrogen fuel cell car with the same performance of liquid fuelled cars. Most of the system performance are expected to satisfy the Department of Energy (DOE) goals for 2015. The hydrogen releasing system is based on solid NaBH4 which is hydrolyzed with water or steam to obtain hydrogen. Sodium borate is obtained as by-product and it has to be recycled. Pure and humidified hydrogen, ready to be utilized in a fuel cell, is obtained by a simple and sure way. Hydrogen is produced only when it is requested and therefore there is never pressurized hydrogen or hydrogen overproduction The system works at atmospheric pressure avoiding the problems related to handling and storing pressurized gas. The car fuelling could be performed in area like the present service stations. The used cartridges can be removed and substituted by new cartridges. Contemporarily a water tank should be refilled. To improve the total energetic yield it was also proposed a NaBH4 regeneration process directly starting from the products of hydrolysis. (auth)

  6. Long term hydrogen production potential of concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system in tropical weather of Singapore

    KAUST Repository

    Burhan, Muhammad

    2016-08-23

    Concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) system provides highest solar energy conversion efficiency among all the photovoltaic technologies and provides the most suitable option to convert solar energy into hydrogen, as future sustainable energy carrier. So far, only conventional flat plate PV systems are being used for almost all of the commercial applications. However, most of the studies have only shown the maximum efficiency of hydrogen production using CPV. In actual field conditions, the performance of CPV-Hydrogen system is affected by many parameter and it changes continuously during whole day operation. In this paper, the daily average and long term performances are proposed to analyze the real field potential of the CPV-Hydrogen system, which is of main interest for designers and consumers. An experimental setup is developed and a performance model is proposed to investigate the average and long term production potential of CPV-Hydrogen system. The study is carried out in tropical weather of Singapore. The maximum CPV efficiency of 27-28% and solar to hydrogen (STH) efficiency of 18%, were recorded. In addition, the CPV-Hydrogen system showed the long term average efficiency of 15.5%, for period of one year (12-months), with electrolyser rating of 47 kWh/kg and STH production potential of 218 kWh/kg. Based upon the DNI availability, the system showed hydrogen production potential of 0.153-0.553 kg/m/month, with average production of 0.43 kg/m/month. However, CPV-Hydrogen system has shown annual hydrogen production potential of 5.162 kg/m/year in tropical weather of Singapore.

  7. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  8. Hydrogen production by hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea: mechanisms for reductant disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaart, Marcel R A; Bielen, Abraham A M; van der Oost, John; Stams, Alfons J M; Kengen, Servé W M

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen produced from biomass by bacteria and archaea is an attractive renewable energy source. However, to make its application more feasible, microorganisms are needed with high hydrogen productivities. For several reasons, hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea are promising is this respect. In addition to the high polysaccharide-hydrolysing capacities of many of these organisms, an important advantage is their ability to use most of the reducing equivalents (e.g. NADH, reduced ferredoxin) formed during glycolysis for the production of hydrogen, enabling H2/hexose ratios of between 3.0 and 4.0. So, despite the fact that the hydrogen-yielding reactions, especially the one from NADH, are thermodynamically unfavourable, high hydrogen yields are obtained. In this review we focus on three different mechanisms that are employed by a few model organisms, viz. Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermoanaerobacter tengcongensis, Thermotoga maritima, and Pyrococcus furiosus, to efficiently produce hydrogen. In addition, recent developments to improve hydrogen production by hyperthermophilic and extremely thermophilic bacteria and archaea are discussed.

  9. Dark hydrogen production in nitrogen atmosphere - An approach for sustainability by marine cyanobacterium Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabaharan, D.; Arun Kumar, D.; Uma, L.; Subramanian, G. [National Facility for Marine Cyanobacteria (Sponsored by DBT, Govt. of India), Department of Marine Biotechnology, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirapalli 620 024 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Biological hydrogen production is an ideal system for three main reasons i) forms a renewable energy source, ii) gives clean fuel and iii) serves as a good supplement to oil reserves. The major challenges faced in biological hydrogen production are the presence of uptake hydrogenase and lack of sustainability in the cyanobacterial hydrogen production system. Three different marine cyanobacterial species viz. Leptolyngbya valderiana BDU 20041, Dichothrix baueriana BDU 40481 and Nostoc calcicola BDU 40302 were studied for their potential use in hydrogen production. Among these, L. valderiana BDU 20041, was found to produce hydrogen even in 100% nitrogen atmosphere which was 85% of the hydrogen produced in argon atmosphere. This is the first report of such a high rate of production of hydrogen in a nitrogen atmosphere by a cyanobacterium, which makes it possible to develop sustained hydrogen production systems. L. valderiana BDU 20041, a dark hydrogen producer uses the reductant essentially supplied by the respiratory pathway for hydrogen production. Using inhibitors, this organism was found to produce hydrogen due to the activities of both nitrogenase and bidirectional hydrogenase, while it had no 'uptake' hydrogenase activity. The other two organisms though had low levels of bidirectional hydrogenase, possessed considerable 'uptake' hydrogenase activity and hence could not release much hydrogen either in argon or nitrogen atmosphere. (author)

  10. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  11. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy - Technology Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.E.; Stoots, C.M.; Herring, J.S.; McKellar, M.G.; Harvego, E.A.; Sohal, M.S.; Condie, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  12. Hydrogen production through sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming and membrane technology: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Servili, S.

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of industry, more and more waste gases are emitted into the atmosphere. In terms of total air emissions, CO 2 is emitted in the greatest amount, accounting for 99 wt% of the total air emissions, therefore contributing to global warming, the so-called 'Greenhouse Effect'. The recovery and disposal of CO 2 from flue gas is currently the object of great international interest. Most of the CO 2 comes from the combustion of fossil fuels in power generation, industrial boilers, residential and commercial heating, and transportation sectors. Consequently, in the last years' interest in hydrogen as an energy carrier has significantly increased both for vehicle fuelling and stationary energy production from fuel cells. The benefits of a hydrogen energy policy are the reduction of the greenhouse effect, principally due to the centralization of the emission sources. Moreover, an improvement to the environmental benefits can be achieved if hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, as biomass. The present paper provides an overview of the steam methane reforming (SMR) process and methodologies for performances improvement such as hydrogen removal, by selective permeation through a membrane or simultaneous reaction of the targeted molecule with a chemical acceptor, and equilibrium shift by the addition of a CO 2 acceptor to the reactor. In particular, attention was focused on the sorption-enhanced steam methane reforming (SE-SMR) process in which sorbents are added in order to enhance the reactions and realize in situ CO 2 separation. The major operating parameters of SE-SMR are described by the authors in order to project and then realize the innovative carbonation reactor developed in previous studies

  13. A Simulation Study of Inter Heat Exchanger Process in SI Cycle Process for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Sun; Cho, Sung Jin; Choi, Suk Hoon; Qasim, Faraz; Lee, Euy Soo; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Heung N.; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    SI Cyclic process is one of the thermochemical hydrogen production processes using iodine and sulfur for producing hydrogen molecules from water. VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) can be used to supply heat to hydrogen production process, which is a high temperature nuclear reactor. IHX (Intermediate Heat Exchanger) is necessary to transfer heat to hydrogen production process safely without radioactivity. In this study, the strategy for the optimum design of IHX between SI hydrogen process and VHTR is proposed for various operating pressures of the reactor, and the different cooling fluids. Most economical efficiency of IHX is also proposed along with process conditions

  14. Metabolic flux analysis of the hydrogen production potential in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, E. [Departamento de Lenguajes y Ciencias de la Computacion, Campus de Teatrinos, Universidad de Malaga, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Montagud, A.; Fernandez de Cordoba, P.; Urchueguia, J.F. [Instituto Universitario de Matematica Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-11-15

    Hydrogen is a promising energy vector; however, finding methods to produce it from renewable sources is essential to allow its wide-scale use. In that line, biological hydrogen production, although it is considered as a possible alternative, requires substantial improvements to overcome its present low yields. In that direction, genetic manipulation probably will play a central role and from that point of view metabolic flux analysis (MFA) constitutes an important tool to guide a priori most suitable genetic modifications oriented to a hydrogen yield increase. In this work MFA has been applied to analyze hydrogen photoproduction of Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Flux analysis was carried out based on literature data and several basic fluxes were estimated in different growing conditions of the system. From this analysis, an upper limit for hydrogen photoproduction has been determined indicating a wide margin for improvement. MFA was also used to find a feasible operating space for hydrogen production, which avoids oxygen inhibition, one of the most important limitations to make hydrogen production cost effective. In addition, a set of biotechnological strategies are proposed that would be consistent with the performed mathematical analysis. (author)

  15. Production of hydrogen via methane reforming using atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, Mariusz; Dors, Miroslaw [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Mizeraczyk, Jerzy [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Department of Marine Electronics, Gdynia Maritime University, Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, results of hydrogen production via methane reforming in the atmospheric pressure microwave plasma are presented. A waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type microwave plasma source (MPS) was used to convert methane into hydrogen. Important advantages of the presented waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS are: stable operation in various gases (including air) at high flow rates, no need for a cooling system, and impedance matching. The plasma generation was stabilized by an additional swirled nitrogen flow (50 or 100 l min{sup -1}). The methane flow rate was up to 175 l min{sup -1}. The absorbed microwave power could be changed from 3000 to 5000 W. The hydrogen production rate and the corresponding energy efficiency in the presented methane reforming by the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS were up to 255 g[H{sub 2}] h{sup -1} and 85 g[H{sub 2}] kWh{sup -1}, respectively. These parameters are better than those typical of the conventional methods of hydrogen production (steam reforming of methane and water electrolysis). (author)

  16. Specificities of micro-reactors for hydrogen production and purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirodatos, C.; Dupont, N.; Germani, G.; Veen, A. C. ven; Schuurman, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Sustainable chemistry and exploitation of energy sources for the next decades requires considerable progress in process intensification. A development of new tools and equipments meeting the objectives of high efficiency, improved safety, compactness and low implementation costs is therefore subject of intensive research effort. Among the various scenarios tested in R and D, micro-structured reactors appear as a highly promising technology 1 and perspectives of mass production are already announced by technology providers 2. These reactors are based on assembly/stacking of micro structured plates or fibres. Due to their high heat and/or mass transfer, low pressure drop and good phase contacting, they sound particularly adapted to the large domain of hydrogen production by fuel reforming and purification. This presentation aims at outlining the state of the art, the advantages and drawbacks of using micro-structured reactors to intensify hydrogen production and purification. Two case studies will illustrate this approach: i) comparison between fixed bed and micro-structured reactor for the reforming of methanol into hydrogen and carbon oxides and ii) use of those devices in kinetic studies on the WGS reaction. (Author)

  17. Studies on membrane acid electrolysis for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marco Antonio Oliveira da; Linardi, Marcelo; Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Celulas a Combustivel e Hidrogenio], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2010-07-01

    Hydrogen represents great opportunity to be a substitute for fossil fuels in the future. Water as a renewable source of hydrogen is of great interest, since it is abundant and can decompose, producing only pure H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. This decomposition of water can be accomplished by processes such as electrolysis, thermal decomposition and thermochemical cycles. The electrolysis by membrane has been proposed as a viable process for hydrogen production using thermal and electrical energy derived from nuclear energy or any renewable source like solar energy. In this work, within the context of optimization of the electrolysis process, it is intended to develop a mathematical model that can simulate and assist in parameterization of the electrolysis performed by polymer membrane electrolytic cell. The experimental process to produce hydrogen via the cell membrane, aims to optimize the amount of gas produced using renewable energy with noncarbogenic causing no harm by producing gases deleterious to the environment. (author)

  18. Where does the energy for hydrogen production come from? Status and alternatives. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, J.; Wurster, R.; Zerta, M.; Blandow, V.; Zittel, W.

    2011-05-01

    This brochure addresses and endeavours to find answers to the question as to the future availability of energy commodities. One point requiring clarification here is how long the production rates of crude oil, natural gas and coal will keep pace with and satisfy the rising demand. Particularly with regard to coal, it further needs to be clarified when, to what extent and for what period of time the separation and safe storage of carbon dioxide from fossil combustion will be possible, this being a prerequisite for the production of energy from coal. Then it needs to be clarified what contribution can realistically be expected from nuclear energy. The brochure also assesses the potentials of renewable energies for covering energy demand. It presents the cost reduction potentials in wind power and photovoltaics and the potential for producing motor fuels from renewable energy. Here it places a special emphasis on hydrogen. In conclusion it can be said that the downturn in oil production soon to be expected will leave a gap which can be closed neither by other fossil fuels nor by nuclear energy resources. On the other side, even though renewable energies will grow rapidly over the coming decades, their contribution will for some time yet be too small to be able to close this gap. This means that there is no way around making more efficient use of energy across all stages of production and use. It is also seen that biofuels will not keep the world moving as it is now and that hydrogen will therefore become a significant motor fuel. The use of hydrogen will only become dispensable if it proves possible to develop electromobiles with acceptable properties (storage density, service life, cold start behaviour, price). However, this appears improbable from today's perspective. One rollout strategy available at short term in Germany would be to use byproduct hydrogen from the chemical industry for the first vehicle fleets. Today, this hydrogen is mainly used thermally by co

  19. Biological production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of OFMSW and co-fermentation with slaughterhouse wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran, A.; Gomez, X.; Cuestos, M. J.

    2005-07-01

    Hydrogen is an ideal, clean and sustainable energy source for the future because of its high conversion and nonpolluting nature (Lin and Lay, 2003). There are different methods for the production of hydrogen, the traditional ones, are the production from fossil fuels. Aiming to reach a development based on sustainable principles the production of hydrogen from renewable sources is a desirable goal. Among the environmental friendly alternatives for the production of hydrogen are the biological means. Dark fermentation as it is known the process when light is not used; it is a preferable option thanks to the knowledge already collected from its homologous process, the anaerobic digestion for the production of methane. There are several studies intended to the evaluation of the production of hydrogen, many are dedicated to the use of pure cultures or the utilization of basic substrates as glucose or sucrose (Lin and Lay, 2003; Chang et al., 2002, Kim et al., 2005). This study is performed to evaluate the fermentation of a mixture of wastes for the production of hydrogen. It is used as substrate the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and a mixture of this residue with slaughterhouse waste. (Author)

  20. Novel Auto thermal Reforming Process for Pure Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Elnashaie, S.S.E.H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of heptane for hydrogen production is investigated in a novel Circulating Fluidized Bed Membrane Reformer-Regenerator system (CFBMRR) utilizing a number of hydrogen and oxygen selective membranes. It is shown that although the amount of carbon deposition is significant, the effect on catalyst deactivation is negligible due to the large solid to gas mass feed ratio and the continuous catalyst regeneration in the system. The combustion of the deposited carbon in the catalyst regenerator supplies the heat needed for the endothermic steam reforming as well as the combustion of flammable gases from the riser reformer. Auto thermal operation is achievable for the entire adiabatic reformer-regenerator system when the exothermic heat generated from the regenerator is sufficient to compensate the endothermic heat consumed in the reformer. Multiplicity of the steady states exists in the range of steam to carbon feed ratio of 1.4442.251 mol/mol. The novel configuration has the potential advantages not only with respect to hydrogen production but also energy minimization

  1. A critical review on factors influencing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Richa; Kumar, Virendra; Pathak, Vinayak V; Ahmad, Shamshad; Aoyi, Ochieng; Tyagi, V V

    2017-03-01

    Biohydrogen production by dark fermentation of different waste materials is a promising approach to produce bio-energy in terms of renewable energy exploration. This communication has reviewed various influencing factors of dark fermentation process with detailed account of determinants in biohydrogen production. It has also focused on different factors such as improved bacterial strain, reactor design, metabolic engineering and two stage processes to enhance the bioenergy productivity from substrate. The study also suggest that complete utilization of substrates for biological hydrogen production requires the concentrated research and development for efficient functioning of microorganism with integrated application for energy production and bioremediation. Various studies have been taken into account here, to show the comparative efficiency of different substrates and operating conditions with inhibitory factors and pretreatment option for biohydrogen production. The study reveals that an extensive research is needed to observe field efficiency of process using low cost substrates and integration of dark and photo fermentation process. Integrated approach of fermentation process will surely compete with conventional hydrogen process and replace it completely in future.

  2. Nuclear hydrogen production programme in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sink, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is focused on demonstrating the economic, commercial-scale production of hydrogen using process heat derived from nuclear energy. NHI-supported research has concentrated to date on three technologies compatible with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP): high temperature steam electrolysis (HTE); sulphur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical; and hybrid sulphur (HyS) thermochemical. In 2009 NHI will down select to a single technology on which to focus its future development efforts, for which the next step will be a pilot-scale experiment. (author)

  3. Possibilities of Production and Storage of Hydrogen in the Black Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmet Haklidir; Fusun Servin Tut; Sule Kapkin

    2006-01-01

    Black Sea, a highly-isolated inland sea, is the largest anoxic zone in the world. Since the hydrogen sulphide zone was discovered in early 19. century in the Black Sea, it has been adopted that there is no life in the depths of the Black Sea and there are only bacteria live in the hydrogen sulphide layer. High content of organic matter, with maximum processes of bacterial sulfate reduction is the major source of this hydrogen sulphide zone. Hydrogen sulphide is one of the most poisonous gases in the world but it has great economic value to obtain hydrogen via dissociated into hydrogen and sulphur. Thus the Black Sea is not only has a serious environmental contamination but also has potential source of hydrogen energy, if a decomposition process can be developed. In this study, the sources of hydrogen sulphide, environmental impact of hydrogen sulphide in the Black Sea, the available techniques of hydrogen production from hydrogen sulphide and the possibilities of hydrogen storage by the natural sources in the Black Sea have been investigated. (authors)

  4. Perturbation of formate pathway for hydrogen production by expressions of formate hydrogen lyase and its transcriptional activator in wild Enterobacter aerogenes and its mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yuan; Zhao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chong; Lai, Qiheng; Xing, Xin-Hui [Institute of Biochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-06-15

    To examine perturbation effects of formate pathway on hydrogen productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes (Ea), formate dehydrogenase FDH-H gene (fdhF) and formate hydrogen lyase activator protein FHLA gene (fhlA) originated from Escherichia coli, were overexpressed in the wild strain Ea, its hycA-deleted mutant (A) by knockout the formate hydrogen lyase repressor and hybO-deleted mutant (O) by knockout of the uptake hydrogenase, respectively. Overexpression of fdhF and fhlA promoted cell growth and volumetric hydrogen production rates of all the strains, and the hydrogen production per gram cell dry weight (CDW) for Ea, A and O was increased by 38.5%, 21.8% and 5.25%, respectively. The fdhF and fhlA overexpression improved the hydrogen yield per mol glucose of strains Ea and A, but declined that of strain O. The increase of hydrogen yield of the strain Ea with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly attributed to the increase of formate pathway, while for the mutant A, the improved hydrogen yield with fdhF and fhlA expression was mainly due to the increase of NADH pathway. Analysis of the metabolites and ratio of ethanol-to-acetate showed that the cellular redox state balance and energy level were also changed for these strains by fdhF and fhlA expression. These findings demonstrated that the hydrogen production was not only dependent on the hydrogenase genes, but was also affected by the regulation of the whole metabolism. Therefore, fdhF and fhlA expression in different strains of E. aerogenes could exhibit different perturbation effects on the metabolism and the hydrogen productivity. (author)

  5. Microbial culture selection for bio-hydrogen production from waste ground wheat by dark fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argun, Hidayet; Kargi, Fikret; Kapdan, Ilgi K. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    Hydrogen formation performances of different anaerobic bacteria were investigated in batch dark fermentation of waste wheat powder solution (WPS). Serum bottles containing wheat powder were inoculated with pure cultures of Clostridium acetobutylicum (CAB), Clostridium butyricum (CB), Enterobacter aerogenes (EA), heat-treated anaerobic sludge (ANS) and a mixture of those cultures (MIX). Cumulative hydrogen formation (CHF), hydrogen yield (HY) and specific hydrogen production rate (SHPR) were determined for every culture. The heat-treated anaerobic sludge was found to be the most effective culture with a cumulative hydrogen formation of 560 ml, hydrogen yield of 223 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} starch and a specific hydrogen production rate of 32.1 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} h{sup -1}. (author)

  6. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  7. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  8. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loubette, N.; Junker, M.

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water biophotolysis, photo- fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are exp/aired. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  9. State of the art of biological hydrogen production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas Loubette; Michel Junker

    2006-01-01

    Our report gives an overview of hydrogen production processes with bacteria or algae. 4 main processes are described: water bio-photolysis, photo-fermentation biological CO conversion and dark fermentation. Chemical phenomena which lead to hydrogen generation are explained. Performances, limits and outlook are given for each process. Main projects, programs and key players involved in this field of research have been listed. This paper resumes few results of this report. (authors)

  10. Dynamic simulation of pure hydrogen production via ethanol steam reforming in a catalytic membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedayati, Ali; Le Corre, Olivier; Lacarrière, Bruno; Llorca, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) was performed over Pd-Rh/CeO 2 catalyst in a catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) as a reformer unit for production of fuel cell grade pure hydrogen. Experiments were performed at 923 K, 6–10 bar, and fuel flow rates of 50–200 μl/min using a mixture of ethanol and distilled water with steam to carbon ratio of 3. A static model for the catalytic zone was derived from the Arrhenius law to calculate the total molar production rates of ESR products, i.e. CO, CO 2 , CH 4 , H 2 , and H 2 O in the catalytic zone of the CMR (coefficient of determination R 2  = 0.993). The pure hydrogen production rate at steady state conditions was modeled by means of a static model based on the Sieverts' law. Finally, a dynamic model was developed under ideal gas law assumptions to simulate the dynamics of pure hydrogen production rate in the case of the fuel flow rate or the operating pressure set point adjustment (transient state) at isothermal conditions. The simulation of fuel flow rate change dynamics was more essential compared to the pressure change one, as the system responded much faster to such an adjustment. The results of the dynamic simulation fitted very well to the experimental values at P = 7–10 bar, which proved the robustness of the simulation based on the Sieverts' law. The simulation presented in this work is similar to the hydrogen flow rate adjustments needed to set the electrical load of a fuel cell, when fed online by the pure hydrogen generating reformer studied. - Highlights: • Ethanol steam reforming (ESR) experiments were performed in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. • The model of the catalytic zone of the reactor was derived from the Arrhenius law. • The permeation zone (membrane) was modeled based on the Sieverts' law. • The Sieverts' law model showed good results for the range of P = 7–10 bar. • Pressure and fuel flow rate adjustments were considered for dynamic simulation.

  11. Analysis of total hydrogen content in palm oil and palm kernel oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fast and non-destructive technique based on thermal neutron moderation has been used for determining the total hydrogen content in two types of red palm oil (dzomi and amidze) and palm kernel oil produced by traditio-nal methods in Ghana. An equipment consisting of an 241Am-Be neutron source and 3He neutron ...

  12. Design consideration on hydrogen production demonstration plant of thermochemical IS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwatsuki, Jin; Noguchi, Hiroki; Terada, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Shinji; Sakaba, Nariaki; Onuki, Kaoru; Hino, Ryutaro

    2009-03-01

    Preliminary design study was carried out on the hydrogen production demonstration plant of thermochemical IS process. In the pilot test, hydrogen production will be examined under prototypical condition using an apparatus made of industrial materials, which is driven by the sensible heat of helium gas heated by an electric heater that simulates the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Tentative system condition was defined considering the HTTR specification and the experience on the construction and the operation of the mock-up test facility using methane reforming for hydrogen production. The process condition and the system flow diagram were discussed to meet the system condition. Based on the defined process condition, types of the main components were discussed taking the corrosion resistance of the structural materials into consideration. Applicable rules and regulations were also surveyed regarding the plant construction and operation. (author)

  13. Hydrogenation of intermediate products of furfural production at promoted nickel catalyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beysekov, T.

    1980-01-01

    Examines activity of Ni-Al-Fe acids with additives Ti and W, as well as those promoted with chrome Nio-Al-Ti acids for a hydrogenation reaction of fufural condensate and raw material invarious conditions of production. It was shown that four-component acids demonstrate high activity and selectivity in tetrahydrofuryl alcohol. Hydrogenation rate of furfural condensate on more active compounds of acids is by 1.2-1.4 times higher than in non-promoted with the fourth component of acid. The promoting effect of fourth components, based on data of phase-structural analysis, is explained by changes in the number of correlations of known phases and eutectics, and formation of new presently undeciphered intermetallides, the destruction of which aids, apparently, in the formation of qualitatively new active centers on the surface. It was established that stationary acids also have high activity and stability. Changing leaching depths, H/sub 2/ pressure, temperature, rate of H/sub 2/ bubbling has a favorable effect on the end product.

  14. Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Naoya; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Hydrogen production via water-splitting by lithium redox reactions possibly proceeds below 800 °C. •Entropy control by using nonequilibrium technique successfully reduces the reaction temperature. •The operating temperature should be further reduced by optimizing the nonequilibrium condition to control the cycle. -- Abstracts: Hydrogen production via thermochemical water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was investigated as energy conversion technique. The reaction system consists of three reactions, which are hydrogen generation by the reaction of lithium and lithium hydroxide, metal separation by thermolysis of lithium oxide, and oxygen generation by hydrolysis of lithium peroxide. The hydrogen generation reaction completed at 500 °C. The metal separation reaction is thermodynamically difficult because it requires about 3400 °C in equilibrium condition. However, it was indicated from experimental results that the reaction temperature was drastically reduced to 800 °C by using nonequilibrium technique. The hydrolysis reaction was exothermic reaction, and completed by heating up to 300 °C. Therefore, it was expected that the water-splitting by lithium redox reactions was possibly operated below 800 °C under nonequilibrium condition

  15. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy sources, hydrogen can be used in fuel cell applications to pro-ducing electrical energy and water as byproduct. Therefore, fuel cell is a simple application and environ-mentally friendly oriented technology. Recent years various methods have been conducted to produce hy-drogen. Those methods are derived from various sources such as methanol, ethanol, gasoline, hydrocarbons. This article presents a brief review a parameter process of that affects in autothermal reforming methanol use Cu-based catalysts for production of hydrogen. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 3rd January 2012; Revised: 23rd February 2012; Accepted: 28th February 2012[How to Cite: H.S. Wu, and D. Lesmana. (2012. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 27-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42 ] | View in 

  16. Production of hydrogen in a granular sludge-based anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow [Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Tunku Abdul Rahman, 53300 Setapak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, Zhen-Peng; Tay, Joo-Hwa [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637723 (Singapore); Tee Liang, David [Institute of Environmental Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 637723 (Singapore); Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, RO (China); Jiang, Wen-Ju [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2007-12-15

    An investigation on biohydrogen production was conducted in a granular sludge-based continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The reactor performance was assessed at five different glucose concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40 g/L and four hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 h, resulting in the organic loading rates (OLRs) ranged between 2.5 and 20 g-glucose/L h. Carbon flow was traced by analyzing the composition of gaseous and soluble metabolites as well as the cell yield. Butyrate, acetate and ethanol were found to be the major soluble metabolite products in the biochemical synthesis of hydrogen. Carbon balance analysis showed that more than half of the glucose carbon was converted into unidentified soluble products at an OLR of 2.5 g-glucose/L h. It was found that high hydrogen yields corresponded to a sludge loading rate in between 0.6 and 0.8 g-glucose/g-VSS h. Substantial suppression in hydrogen yield was noted as the sludge loading rate fell beyond the optimum range. It is deduced that decreasing the sludge loading rate induced the metabolic shift of biochemical reactions at an OLR of 2.5 g-glucose/L h, which resulted in a substantial reduction in hydrogen yield to 0.36-0.41 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose. Optimal operation conditions for peak hydrogen yield (1.84 mol-H{sub 2}/mol-glucose) and hydrogen production rate (3.26 L/L h) were achieved at an OLR of 20 g-glucose/L h, which corresponded to an HRT of 0.5 h and an influent glucose concentration of 10 g/L. Influence of HRT and substrate concentration on the reactor performance was interrelated and the adverse impact on hydrogen production was noted as substrate concentration was higher than 20 g/L or HRT was shorter than 0.5 h. The experimental study indicated that a higher OLR derived from appropriate HRTs and substrate concentrations was desirable for hydrogen production in such a granule-based CSTR. (author)

  17. Correlation of H- production and the work function of a surface in a hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.

    1983-01-01

    Surface-plasma negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed as possible parts for future netural beam systems. In these ion sources, negative hydrogen ions (H - ) are produced at low work function metal surfaces immersed in hydrogen plasmas. To investigate the correlation between the work function and the H-production at the surface with a condition similar to the one in the actual plasma ion source, these two parameters were simultaneously measured in the hydrogen plasma environment. The photoelectron emission currents from Mo and Cu surfaces in a cesiated hydrogen discharge were measured in the photon energy range from 1.45 to 4.14 eV, to determine the work function based on Fowler's theory. A small magnetic line cusp plasma container was specially designed to minimize the plasma noise and to realize the efficient collection of incident light onto the target. The photelectron current was detected phase sensitively and could be measured with reasonable accuracy up to about 5 x 10 11 cm -3 of the plasma electron density. As Cs density was increased in the hydrogen discharge, the work function decreased until it reached a minimum value. This value of the lowest work function was approximately 1.4 eV for both Mo and Cu surfaces, and the detected total H - current was a maximum at this condition

  18. Multi-objective stochastic distribution feeder reconfiguration problem considering hydrogen and thermal energy production by fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Taher; Kavousi Fard, Abdollah; Baziar, Aliasghar

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the operation and management of electrical energy, hydrogen production and thermal load supplement by the Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPP) in the distribution systems with regard to the uncertainties which exist in the load demand as well as the price of buying natural gas for FCPPs, fuel cost for residential loads, tariff for purchasing electricity, tariff for selling electricity, hydrogen selling price, operation and maintenance cost and the price of purchasing power from the grid. Therefore, a new modified multi-objective optimization algorithm called Teacher-Learning Algorithm (TLA) is proposed to integrate the optimal operation management of Proton Exchange Membrane FCPPs (PEM-FCPPs) and the optimal configuration of the system through an economic model of the PEM-FCPP. In order to improve the total ability of TLA for global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated power systems, in this paper for the first time, the DFR problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to see the feasibility and the superiority of the proposed method, a standard test system is investigated as the case study. The simulation results are investigated in four different scenarios to show the effect of hydrogen production and thermal recovery more evidently. -- Highlights: ► Present an economical and thermal modeling of PEM-FCPPs. ► Present an approach for optimal operation of PEM-FCPPs in a stochastic environment. ► Consider benefits of thermal recovery and Hydrogen production for PEM-FCPPs. ► Present several scenarios for management of PEM-FCPPs.

  19. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  20. Effect of pH and sulfate concentration on hydrogen production using anaerobic mixed microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jae-Hoon; Choi, Jeong-A.; Bhatnagar, Amit; Kumar, Eva; Jeon, Byong-Hun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Abou-Shanab, R.A.I. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, Gangwon-do, 220-710 (Korea); Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Mubarak City for Scientific Research, Alexandria (Egypt); Min, Booki [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea); Song, Hocheol; Kim, Yong Je [Geologic Environment Division, KIGAM, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea); Choi, Jaeyoung [Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Gangneung Institute, Gangneung 210-340 (Korea); Lee, Eung Seok [Geological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Ohio University, Athens, OH 45701-2979 (United States); Um, Sukkee [School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-Dong, Seongdong-Gu, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea); Lee, Dae Sung [Petroleum and Marine Research Department, KIGAM, Daejeon (Korea)

    2009-12-15

    The effects of varying sulfate concentrations with pH on continuous fermentative hydrogen production were studied using anaerobic mixed cultures growing on a glucose substrate in a chemostat reactor. The maximum hydrogen production rate was 2.8 L/day at pH 5.5 and sulfate concentration of 3000 mg/L. Hydrogen production and residual sulfate level decreased with increasing the pH from 5.5 to 6.2. The volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol fractions in the effluent were in the order of butyric acid (HBu) > acetic acid (HAc) > ethanol > propionic acid (HPr). Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed the presence of hydrogen producing bacteria (HPB) under all pH ranges while sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) were present at pH 5.8 and 6.2. The inhibition in hydrogen production by SRB at pH 6.2 diminished entirely by lowering to pH 5.5, at which activity of SRB is substantially suppressed. (author)

  1. Water electrolysis for hydrogen production in Brazilian perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saliba-Silva, Adonis Marcelo; Carvalho, Fatima M.S.; Bergamaschi, Vanderlei Sergio; Linardi, Marcelo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (CCCH/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Center], Email: saliba@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, which potentially could replace the fossil fuels used in the transportation and distributed energy sector of Brazilian economy. Fossil fuels are polluting by carbogenic emissions from their combustion, being so co-responsible for present global warming. However, no large scale, cost-effective, environmentally non-carbogenic hydrogen production process is currently available for commercialization. There are feasible possibilities to use electrolysis as one of the main sources of hydrogen, especially thinking on combination with renewable sources of energy, mainly eolic and solar. In this work some perspectives for Brazilian energy context is presented, where electrolysis combined with renewable power source and fuel cell power generation would be a good basis to improve the distributed energy supply for remote areas, where the electricity grid is not present or is deficient. (author)

  2. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  3. Production of JET fuel containing molecules of high hydrogen content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasek Sz.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The harmful effects of aviation can only be reduced by using alternative fuels with excellent burning properties and a high hydrogen content in the constituent molecules. Due to increasing plastic consumption the amount of the plastic waste is also higher. Despite the fact that landfill plastic waste has been steadily reduced, the present scenario is not satisfactory. Therefore, the aim of this study is to produce JET fuel containing an alternative component made from straight-run kerosene and the waste polyethylene cracking fraction. We carried out our experiments on a commercial NiMo/Al2O3/P catalyst at the following process parameters: T=200-300°C, P=40 bar, LHSV=1.0-3.0 h-1, hydrogen/hydrocarbon ratio= 400 Nm3/m3. We investigated the effects of the feedstocks and the process parameters on the product yields, the hydrodesulfurization and hydrodearomatization efficiencies, and the main product properties. The liquid product yields varied between 99.7-99.8%. As a result of the hydrogenation the sulfur (1-1780 mg/kg and the aromatic contents (9.0-20.5% of the obtained products and the values of their smoke points (26.0-34.7 mm fulfilled the requirements of JET fuel standard. Additionally, the concentration of paraffins increased in the products and the burning properties were also improved. The freezing points of the products were higher than -47°C, therefore product blending is needed.

  4. Efficient hydrogen production using heat in neutron shield of fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Kunihiko; Asaoka, Yoshiyuki; Hiwatari, Ryouji; Yoshida, Tomoaki

    2001-01-01

    In future perspective of energy supply, a hydrogen energy cycle is expected to play an important role as a CO 2 free fuel for mobile or co-generation systems. Fusion power plants should offer advantages, compatibilities and/or synergistic effects with or in such future energy systems. In this paper, a comprehensive power station, in which a fusion plant is integrated with a hydrogen production plant, is proposed. A tenuous heat source in the outboard shield, which is unsuitable to produce high-pressure and high-temperature steam for efficient electric power generation, is used for the hydrogen production. This integrated system provides some synergistic effects and it would be advantageous over any independent use of each plant. (author)