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Sample records for total homocysteine concentration

  1. The J-shape association of ethanol intake with total homocysteine concentrations: the ATTICA study

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    Pitsavos Christos

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies suggest a non-monotonic effect of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk, while there is strong evidence concerning the involvement of homocysteine levels on thrombosis. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association between usual ethanol consumption and homocysteine levels, in cardiovascular disease free adults. Methods From May 2001 to December 2002 we randomly enrolled 1514 adult men and 1528 women, without any evidence of cardiovascular disease, stratified by age – gender (census 2001, from the greater area of Athens, Greece. Among the variables ascertained we measured the daily ethanol consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Results Data analysis revealed a J-shape association between ethanol intake (none, 48 gr per day and total homocysteine levels (mean ± standard deviation among males (13 ± 3 vs. 11 ± 3 vs. 14 ± 4 vs. 18 ± 5 vs. 19 ± 3 μmol/L, respectively, p Conclusion We observed a J-shape relationship between homocysteine concentrations and the amount of ethanol usually consumed.

  2. Are dietary choline and betaine intakes determinants of total homocysteine concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine concentrations are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and a decline in cognitive function. Intakes of choline and betaine, as methyl donors, may affect homocysteine concentrations. The objective was to examine whether choline and betaine intakes, assess...

  3. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  4. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  5. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  6. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Hollman, P.C.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to 1 g chlorogenic acid/d. OBJECTIVE: We studied whether

  7. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteine-lowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations and risk of CA...

  8. Common genetic loci influencing plasma homocysteine concentrations and their effect on risk of coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meurs, J.B.J. van; Pare, G.; Schwartz, S.M.; Hazra, A.; Tanaka, T.; Vermeulen, S.; Cotlarciuc, I.; Yuan, X.; Malarstig, A.; Bandinelli, S.; Bis, J.C.; Blom, H.; Brown, M.J.; Chen, C.; Chen, Y.D.; Clarke, R.J.; Dehghan, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ferrucci, L.; Hamsten, A.; Hofman, A.; Hunter, D.J.; Goel, A.; Johnson, A.D.; Kathiresan, S.; Kampman, E.; Kiel, D.P.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Chambers, J.C.; Kraft, P.; Lindemans, J.; McKnight, B.; Nelson, C.P.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Psaty, B.M.; Ridker, P.M.; Rivadeneira, F.; Rose, L.M.; Seedorf, U.; Siscovick, D.S.; Schunkert, H.; Selhub, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Vollenweider, P.; Waeber, G.; Waterworth, D.M.; Watkins, H.; Witteman, J.C.; Heijer, M. den; Jacques, P.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Kooner, J.S.; Rader, D.J.; Reilly, M.P.; Mooser, V.; Chasman, D.I.; Samani, N.J.; Ahmadi, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The strong observational association between total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the null associations in the homocysteine-lowering trials have prompted the need to identify genetic variants associated with homocysteine concentrations

  9. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M. R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Zock, Peter L; Katan, M. B.

    2001-01-01

    Background: In population studies, high intakes of coffee are associated with raised concentrations of plasma homocysteine, a predictor of risk of cardiovascular disease. Chlorogenic acid is a major polyphenol in coffee; coffee drinkers consume up to I g chlorogenic acid/d. Objective: We studied

  10. Evaluation of plasma concentrations of homocysteine, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hs-CRP, and total antioxidant capacity in patients with end-stage renal failure.

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    Mahin Babaei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been proved that hyperhomocysteinemia has a high prevalence in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, which may contribute to the high cardiovascular risk in these patients. Cardiovascular disease is the first cause of high mortality rate in ESRD patients. The aim of the present study was to assess five important factors in patients with ESRD (the amount of homocysteine, IL-6, TNF-alpha, hs-CRP, and Total Antioxidant Capacity. These factors were surveyed in ESRD patients to compare with healthy subjects. In a cross-sectional study, we enrolled 80 patients on maintenance hemodialysis and measured the inflammatory and oxidative stress indicators. The plasma samples were assayed for five above mentioned variables using standard protocols. Two-hour post hemodialysis plasma samples were also assayed for TAC. Plasma levels of inflammation markers, IL-6 and hs-CRP, homocysteine were significantly increased in ESRD group versus control group. This increase was also found in TNF-α levels as compared to the controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. Also, the post dialysis samples had significantly lower levels of TAC as compared to predialysis ones.

  11. Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Inter99 (7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Thomsen, T F; Fenger, M

    2004-01-01

    a Fluorescent Polarization Immuno Assay. MTHFR-genotype was determined by PCR and RFLP analysis. Information about lifestyle factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Daily smoking, less healthy dietary habits, and coffee drinking were associated with elevated tHcy concentrations......OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between various lifestyle factors--smoking habits, physical activity, dietary habits, coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption--and homocysteine (tHcy) in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. SETTING: Residents....... The effect of smoking was more pronounced in persons with the TT genotype and in women. The effect of beer consumption was more pronounced at younger than at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, dietary habits, coffee intake, wine, and beer consumption were major lifestyle determinants of tHcy. Changes...

  12. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  13. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women with controlled folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnette, R E; Caudill, M A; Boddie, A M; Hutson, A D; Kauwell, G P; Bailey, L B

    1998-08-01

    To assess the effects of folate intake and pregnancy on plasma total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy compared with young, healthy nonpregnant women. The diet provided either 450 or 850 microg of folate per day. These levels are approximately the current (400 microg/day) and previous (800 microg/day) Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in pregnant women. Folate was provided as both food folate (120 microg/day) and supplemental folic acid (either 330 or 730 microg/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma homocyst(e)ine (sum of free and protein-bound homocysteine), serum folate, and erythrocyte folate concentrations were determined weekly. Homocyst(e)ine concentrations were lower in pregnant women during the second trimester of normal pregnancy than in nonpregnant controls, independent of dietary folate intake. The overall mean (+/- standard deviation) homocyst(e)ine concentration of the pregnant subjects (5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) was significantly lower than that observed in the nonpregnant control group (8.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/L) (P ine concentrations remained constant throughout the 12 weeks of the investigation. The folate intakes in this investigation were adequate to maintain constant homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. The lower homocyst(e)ine concentrations observed in pregnant subjects compared with nonpregnant controls may be a physiologic response to pregnancy.

  14. Dietary determinants of plasma homocysteine concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    Severe hyperhomocysteinemia is typically caused by rare enzymatic defects or by renal failure. In contrast, mild to moderate hyperhomocysteinemia chiefly results from suboptimal status of nutritional factors involved in homocysteine metabolism. Low dietary intake of folate is the most important

  15. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  16. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  17. Association between serum homocysteine concentration with coronary artery disease in Iranian patients

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    Ahmad Mirdamadi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of novel biomarkers like homocystein as a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD is being increasingly recognized. There is a marked geographical variation in plasma homocystein concentration. In spite of importance of hyperhomocysteinemia in CAD risk, there is a paucity of studies in Iran that evaluate it. Consequently, we evaluated the association between plasma total homocystein (tHcy concentration and CAD risk in an Iranian population.METHODS: In a case-control study, we compared the level of tHcy of forty five patients with angiographically proved CAD with forty five age and gender matched subjects without CAD as control group. The patients with diabetes, hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, chronic renal failure, hyperlipidemia and obesity and other conventional CAD risk factors were excluded from the study. Plasma tHcy was measured using immunoturbidimetry. RESULTS: Homocystein level was higher in men than women (16.7 ± 5.2 versus 14.3 ± 3.9 micromol/lit, P = 0.019. CAD patients had higher mean plasma tHcy than control group (17.1 ± 5.3 versus 14.2 ± 3.8 micromol/lit, P = 0.004. CONCLUSION: This study denoted that high plasma homocystein concentration is associated with CAD risk in Iranian people. Keywords: Coronary Artery Disease, Homocystein, Iran.

  18. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  19. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  20. Serum homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status in vegetarian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Klemarczyk, W; Chełchowska, M; Gajewska, J; Laskowska-Klita, T

    2006-01-01

    The results of several studies point to the positive role of vegetarian diets in reducing the risk of diabetes, some cancers and cardiovascular diseases. However, exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the cobalamin status and cause an elevation of the plasma homocysteine level. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of vegetarian diets on serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and total antioxidant status (TAS) in children. The study included 32 vegetarians (including 5 vegans), age 2-10 years. Dietary constituents were analyzed using a local nutritional programme. Serum homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12 were determined with fluorescence and chemiluminescence immunoassays. The concentration of TAS was measured by a colorimetric method. Average daily energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates in the diets of the studied children were just above or similar to the recommended amounts. It could be shown that vegetarian diets contain high concentrations of folate. In vegan diets it even exceeds the recommended dietary allowance. Mean daily intake of vitamin B12 in the studied diets was adequate but in vegans was below the recommended range. The serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12 and TAS in vegetarian children remained within the physiological range. The presented data indicate that vegetarian children, contrary to adults, have enough vitamin B12 in their diet (excluding vegans) and normal serum concentrations of homocysteine, folate and vitamin B12. Therefore, in order to prevent deficiencies in the future, close monitoring of vegetarian children (especially on a vegan diet) is important to make sure that they receive adequate quantities of nutrients needed for healthy growth.

  1. Folate intake, lifestyle factors, and homocysteine concentrations in younger and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, L.; Bulow, I.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and has also been associated with an increased risk of neural tube defects. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate folate intake, folate st...

  2. Population PK/PD model of homocysteine concentrations after high-dose methotrexate treatment in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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    Hauke Rühs

    Full Text Available Elevated homocysteine concentrations have been associated with methotrexate-induced neurotoxicity. Based on methotrexate and homocysteine plasma concentrations of 494 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with high-dose methotrexate in the TOTAL XV study, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD model was built with NONMEM. Several compartment and indirect response models were investigated. The pharmacokinetic disposition of methotrexate was best described by a two-compartment model. Homocysteine concentrations were included by an indirect response model where methotrexate inhibition of the homocysteine elimination rate was described by an E(max model. The homocysteine baseline level was found to be age-dependent. Simulations revealed that folinate rescue therapy does not affect peak concentrations of homocysteine but leads to a modestly reduced homocysteine exposure. In conclusion, our PK/PD model describes the increase of methotrexate-induced HCY concentrations with satisfactory precision and can be applied to assess the effect of folinate regimens on the HCY concentration-time course.

  3. Total plasma homocysteine is associated with hypertension in Type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, S; Tarnow, L; Stehouwer, C D

    2002-01-01

    between plasma homocysteine concentrations, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism, hypertension, diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with kidney function. METHODS: Vascular complications, hypertension, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (RFLP...... was an independent determinant of plasma homocysteine, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism was neither associated with diabetic vascular complications nor with hypertension. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma homocysteine concentrations but not the T allele per se, enhance the risk...... of hypertension and of CHD in Danish Type I diabetic patients with normal renal function....

  4. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Verhoef, P.

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  5. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  6. Association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and extracranial carotid stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi, Seyed Ali; Ghasemi, M.; Hoseini, T.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing epidemiologic data support a relationship between elevated plasma total homocysteine levels and an increased risk for vascular disease. Higher plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels have been associated with extracranial carotid atherosclerosis and cerebral infarction in whites. However, data regarding such associations are limited for Asians. This study examined the association between tHcy level and carotid stenosis in Iranian subjects. In this retrospective study, the subjects were 158 patients with ischemic stroke, including 105 with a normal tHcy level and 53 with a high tHcy level. We investigated the extracranial carotid arteries by ultrasonography and measured serum tHcy by ELISA method in these two groups. We found no meaningful association between a high tHcy level and carotid stenosis. The lack of any meaningful difference in carotid stenosis between patients with normal and elevated tHcy levels is probably due to the low frequency of extracranial diseases in the Asian population and to the nature of homocysteine atherosclerosis. (author)

  7. Association between serum homocysteine concentration with coronary artery disease in Iranian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirdamadi, Ahmad; Farzamnia, Hamid; Varzandeh, Pooyan; Almasi, Naser; Arasteh, Mahfar

    2011-01-01

    The role of novel biomarkers like homocystein as a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) is being increasingly recognized. Since there is a marked geographical variation in plasma homocystein concentration and because of importance of hyperhomocysteinemia as a CAD risk factor and due to the paucity of studies in Iran evaluating this risk factor in our population, we evaluated the association between plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration and CAD risk in Iranian population. In a case-control study, we compared the level of tHcy of forty five patients of angiographically proven CAD with forty five subjects without CAD as control group matched for age and gender. The patients with diabetes, hypertension, thyroid dysfunction, chronic renal failure, hyperlipidemia and obesity and other conventional CAD risk factors were excluded from the study. Plasma tHcy was measured using immunoturbidimetry. The results were compared between groups using student t test. CAD patients had significantly higher mean plasma tHcy than control group (17.1±5.3 versus 14.2±3.8, P= 0.004). This study denoted that high plasma homocysteine concentration was associated to CAD risk in Iranian people.

  8. Effect of lifestyle factors on plasma total homocysteine concentrations in relation to MTHFR(C677T) genotype. Inter99 (7)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Thomsen, T F; Fenger, M

    2004-01-01

    a Fluorescent Polarization Immuno Assay. MTHFR-genotype was determined by PCR and RFLP analysis. Information about lifestyle factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS: Daily smoking, less healthy dietary habits, and coffee drinking were associated with elevated tHcy concentrations...... independent of other determinants. Wine consumption was related to tHcy in a J-shaped manner, whereas beer consumption was negatively associated with tHcy after multiple adjustments. Interaction was observed between smoking status and MTHFR-genotype, smoking status and sex, and beer consumption and age....... The effect of smoking was more pronounced in persons with the TT genotype and in women. The effect of beer consumption was more pronounced at younger than at older ages. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking status, dietary habits, coffee intake, wine, and beer consumption were major lifestyle determinants of tHcy. Changes...

  9. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  10. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  11. [Estimation of relation between homocysteine concentration and selected lipid parameters and adhesion molecules concentration in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Baj, Zbigniew; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Stepień, Mariusz; Rysz, Jacek

    2008-10-01

    Atherosclerosis begins in childhood. At present among numerous risk factors of atherosclerosis the role of hiperhomocysteinemia in development of cardiovascular heart disease is taken under consideration. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to its cytotoxin action, conducting to endothelial dysfunction and damage. It is correlated with increase of the lipid levels in the blood serum and change of expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocystein serum concentration, expression of the selected adhesion molecules and the lipid levels in the blood serum in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The group consisted of 670 children, 76 of them had atherosclerosis risk factors. In further examination 48 children have taken a part, whose parents were agreed for theirs participation in the program. The comparative group composed of 25 children without the risk factors. We determined total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol fraction (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol fraction (HDL-C), serum homocysteine concentration (Hcy), the expression of the soluble forms of adhesion molecules (sCAM): sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). Obesity, hypertension and lipid disorders in the shape of higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. No significant differences in serum homocysteine concentration were observed between the investigated groups. However, its concentration was significantly higher in children with two atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in expression of s-VCAM-1 were observed in the investigated groups, concentration of sP-selectin was significantly higher in children with atherosclerosis risk factors (phomocysteine and chosen adhesion molecules in children with atherosclerosis risk factors might potentially constitute the marker of early

  12. Association of a 31 bp VNTR in the CBS gene with postload homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Blom, H.J.; Wilson, P.W.; Selhub, J.; Ordovas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), both fasting and post-methionine load, have been established as risk factors for vascular disease. Recently, we described the association of a 31 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene with

  13. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  14. Total serum homocysteine levels do not identify cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Laemmler, G; Hanemann, A; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Schulz, R-J

    2009-02-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate levels have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total serum Hcys is an adequate marker to identify multimorbid elderly patients with cognitive dysfunction assessed by the Short Cognitive Performance Test (SKT) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cross-sectional study. The study center was an acute geriatric hospital. A total of 189 multimorbid elderly patients were recruited. Cognitive dysfunction was determined according to the SKT and MMSE. Biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin), nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment, nutritional intake), and activities of daily living were assessed. According to the SKT, 25.4% of patients showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had suspected incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild cognitive dysfunction, 9.0% had moderate cognitive dysfunction, and 31.7% of patients were demented. The median plasma Hcys value was elevated by approximately 20% in multimorbid elderly patients, independent of cognitive dysfunction. Serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were within normal ranges. We did not find significant differences in nutritional status, activities of daily living, numbers of diseases or medications, or selected biochemical parameters between the SKT groups. Elevated serum Hcys levels with normal plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were observed in multimorbid elderly patients. The plasma Hcys level did not appear to be an important biological risk factor for cognitive dysfunction in multimorbid geriatric patients.

  15. Extracellular concentration of homocysteine in human cell lines is influenced by specific inhibitors of cyst(e)ine transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultberg, Björn

    2004-04-01

    Despite the growing evidence that plasma homocysteine is a cardiovascular risk factor, the mechanism behind the vascular injuries is still unknown. Studies of the cellular uptake systems for homocysteine are scarce, but membrane transporters of cyst(e)ine seem to be involved. In the present study the cellular uptake of extracellular homocysteine in HeLa and hepatoma cell lines is investigated by using several different transport inhibitors for cellular uptake of cyst(e)ine. It is shown that systems A and Xc- are the main transport systems for homocysteine uptake in HeLa cells. It is also confirmed that the magnitude of homocysteine uptake in hepatoma cells is lower than in HeLa cells. However, in the presence of high amounts of extracellular homocysteine both cell types exhibited a high elimination of homocysteine, which was inhibited by the presence of inhibitors of systems A or Xc-. It is possible that there is normally a high turnover of homocysteine in cell cultures, which is not detected by occasional determinations of homocysteine concentrations. The complex pattern of homocysteine production, release, uptake and distribution between different cells in the body is important to examine further in order to possibly be able to modulate the elimination of homocysteine from circulation and thereby lower the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in eclamptic and preeclamptic African women postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, A; Mahomed, K; Malinow, M R; Sorenson, T K; Woelk, G B; Williams, M A

    1999-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of eclampsia and preeclampsia among sub-Saharan African women who delivered at Harare Maternity Hospital in Zimbabwe. We ran a hospital-based, case-control study at Harare Maternity Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe comprising 33 pregnant women with eclampsia and 138 with preeclampsia. Controls were 185 normotensive pregnant women. Plasma was collected postpartum and homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia had significantly higher mean homocyst(e)ine levels than normotensive controls (12.54 or 12.77 micromol/L versus 9.93 micromol/L, respectively, Pine distribution (median 13.9 micromol/L) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 6.2 micromol/L). The corresponding OR for preeclampsia was 4.57. Nulliparas with elevated homocyst(e)ine had a 12.90 times higher risk of preeclampsia compared with multiparas without elevated homocyst(e)ine. Postpartum plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are higher among Zimbabwean women with eclampsia and preeclampsia compared with normotensive women.

  17. Quantitation of total homocysteine in human plasma by derivatization to its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J O; Endres, W

    1997-08-01

    Much evidence supports the hypothesis that mild or moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an important and independent risk factor for occlusive vascular diseases. Therefore, the accurate and reliable determination of total plasma homocysteine has gained major importance for risk assessment. Furthermore, it can help in the detection of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. This has prompted us to develop a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in order to quantify total homocysteine in human plasma. Prior to chromatography, reduced homocysteine was released from disulfide bonds by incubation with excess dithiothreitol and converted into its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester by derivatization with n-propyl chloroformate. Aminoethylcysteine served as internal standard. The method proved to be highly linear over the entire concentration range examined (corresponding to 0-266 microM homocysteine) and showed intra-assay and inter-assay variation (relative standard deviations) of approximately 5 and 5-10%, respectively. External quality control by comparison with duplicate analysis performed on a HPLC-based system revealed satisfactory correlation. The newly developed GC-MS based method provides simple, reliable and fast quantification of total homocysteine and requires only inexpensive chemicals, which are easy to obtain.

  18. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  19. Effect of fortified spread on homocysteine concentration in apparently healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Jacobs, R.G.J.M.; Deckere, E. de; Berg, H. van den; Bree, A. de; Put, N.M.J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of folic acid, vitamin B6 and B12 fortified spreads on the blood concentrations of these vitamins and homocysteine. Design and setting: A 6-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel trial carried out in a clinical research center. Subjects: One

  20. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van T.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective

  1. Association between total homocyst(e)ine and the likelihood for a history of acute myocardial infarction by race and ethnicity: Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, W H; Croft, J B; Greenlund, K J; Ford, E S; Kittner, S J

    2000-03-01

    Few studies examining the association between total homocyst(e)ine and coronary heart disease have included blacks or Hispanics. Data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3173 patients), a nationally representative survey of US adults, were used to examine the relation between total homocyst(e)ine and an electrocardiogram or a physician's diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (259 patients) among whites, blacks, and Mexican Americans >/=40 years old. Vitamin B(12) and serum folate concentrations were significantly lower among persons with a total homocyst(e)ine concentration >/=15 micromol/L than among those with a total homocyst(e)ine concentration ine concentration >/=15 micromol/L were also older and more likely to be hypertensive, have a higher cholesterol concentration, and smoke. Compared with persons with a total homocyst(e)ine concentration /=15 micromol/L had an odds ratio (OR) for myocardial infarction of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.9) after adjustment for cardiovascular disease risk factors. Similar associations were noted among whites (OR 1.8, 95% CI, 1.1-3.1) and blacks (OR 1.9, 95% CI, 0.8-4.2); a more modest association was noted among Mexican Americans (OR 1.2, 95% CI, 0.3-5.0). The association between total homocyst(e)ine and myocardial infarction was also more pronounced in persons without hypertension or diabetes. Almost a 2-fold increased likelihood of myocardial infarction among persons with a total homocyst(e)ine concentration >/=15 micromol/L was noted in this nationally representative survey. The magnitude of the association did not differ by race or ethnicity.

  2. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muntjewerff, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The one-carbon cycle hypothesis initiated research of schizophrenia risk in relation to sensitive markers of aberrant homocysteine metabolism, such as B-vitamin concentrations, plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, and genetic determinants. We observed decreased plasma and elevated RBC

  3. A comparison of the effects of 2 doses of soy protein or casein on serum lipids, serum lipoproteins, and plasma total homocysteine in hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonstad, Serena; Smerud, Knut; Høie, Lars

    2002-07-01

    Studies have shown that soy protein reduces some atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein concentrations, although lipoprotein(a) concentrations may be increased. The dose response of soy protein has not been established; neither has its effect on plasma total homocysteine. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of 2 doses of soy protein on lipid, lipoprotein, and homocysteine concentrations. Four to 24 wk after being instructed to consume a lipid-lowering diet, 130 men and women with LDL-cholesterol concentrations > or = 4 mmol/L were studied during a parallel group trial in which 4 interventions were assigned randomly. Thirty grams isolated soy protein (ISP) and 10 g cotyledon fiber or 50 g ISP and 16.6 g cotyledon fiber or equivalent doses of casein and cellulose were consumed daily as a beverage for 16 wk. When the 2 groups who consumed ISP were compared with the 2 groups who consumed casein, the differences in the net changes from baseline to week 16 in the concentrations of LDL cholesterol and plasma total homocysteine were -0.26 mmol/L (95% CI: -0.43, -0.09 mmol/L; P = 0.01) and -0.8 micromol/L (-1.4, -0.2 micromol/L; P = 0.005), respectively. The effect of the ISP dose was not significant. There were no significant differences between the 2 ISP and the 2 casein groups in changes in lipoprotein(a), HDL-cholesterol, or triacylglycerol concentrations. Adding 30-50 g soy protein/d to a lipid-lowering diet significantly reduced LDL-cholesterol concentrations without increasing lipoprotein(a) concentrations. Plasma total homocysteine concentrations also decreased, suggesting a novel, possibly antiatherosclerotic effect.

  4. The effect of Ramadan fasting and physical activity on homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Reza Attarzadeh Hosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased levels of certain markers like fibrinogen and Homocysteine are independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Considering the numerous favorable effects of healthful nutrition and physical activity on reducing the risk of atherosclerosis, in this study we intend to take into account fasting and physical activity during the month of Ramadan and their impacts on Homocysteine and fibrinogen concentrations in overweight women. Materials and Methods: In this experiment, 22 overweight and obese women with a body mass index (BMI of greater than 25 kg/m2 aging from 20 to 45 years were enrolled into two groups by means of targeted-sampling method. One group involved fasting accompanied with regular physical activity (12 subjects and the other group involved only fasting (10 subjects. The protocol for the physical activity group consisted of three 60-minute sessions of aerobic exercise per week with a 50%- 65% heart rate reserved. Towards the end of Ramadan, the anthropometric and blood levels of Homocysteine and fibrinogen were closely measured. Data were analyzed using repeated measures and the significance level of P≤0 /05 was considered. Findings: A month of fasting along with regular physical activity did not prove to have any noticeable effects on the level of fibrinogen while a significant increase in the Homocysteine levels was discovered (P

  5. Relationship between subclinical hypothyroidism and serum homocysteine concentration in premenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Aydoğdu Çolak

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study we aimed to examine serum homocysteinelevels of patients without thyroid dysfunctionswho have high serum anti thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPOlevels and patients with subclinical hypothyroidism whohave high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH andanti-TPO levels.Methods: One hundred and seven premenopause femaleoutpatients who referred to endocrine clinic of our hospitalwere included in our study. We generated 3 groups. Firstgroup (Control consists of 53 (50% patients between theages of 30-40 years. Second group (Euthyroid consistsof 31 (29% patients between the ages of 26-49. Thirdgroup (Subclinical Hypothyroidism consists of 23 (21%patients between the ages of 33-53 years. Serum totalcholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDLlevels were measured by Olympus 2700 autoanalyzer.Serum TSH, free T4, anti-TPO and homocysteine levelswere measured by Siemens Immulite 2000 autoanalyzer.Results: In our study, total cholesterol, triglycerides, lowdensity lipoprotein (LDL and very low density lipoprotein(VLDL levels were not statistically significantly differentamong the groups. Although serum homocysteine levelsof the third group were higher than the other groups it wasnot statistically significantly different among the groups.Conclusion: Serum homocysteine and lipid levels of patientswith euthyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidismwho have positive anti-TPO levels may be inadequate inassessing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 293-297Key words: Hypothyroidsm, homocysteine, premenopause

  6. B-vitamin status and concentrations of homocysteine in Austrian omnivores, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, D; Singer, I; Männer, M; Rust, P; Genser, D; Wagner, K-H; Elmadfa, I

    2006-01-01

    A vegetarian diet is considered to promote health and longevity and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. However, a vegetarian diet may be deficient in some nutrients. Exclusion of animal products in vegetarian diets may affect the status of certain B-vitamins, and further cause the rise of plasma homocysteine concentration. The nutritional status of various B-vitamins (B(1), B(2), B(6), B(12), folic acid) and the concentration of homocysteine in blood plasma of omnivores (n = 40), vegetarians (n = 36) and vegans (n = 42) in Austria was evaluated. The evaluation was done using the functional parameters erythrocyte transketolase (ETK), glutathione reductase (EGR) and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (EGOT) activation coefficients. Enzyme activity was measured photometrically. The quantity of vitamins B(1), B(2) and B(6) in urine and the concentrations of vitamin B(6) and homocysteine in plasma were determined by HPLC methods with fluorescence detection. Plasma concentration of vitamin B(12) and folic acid were measured with radioimmunoassay. Most of the subjects showed a satisfying vitamin B(1) status. Vegans presented a significantly lower mean plasma vitamin B(12) concentration than omnivores and vegetarians and deficiency in 2.4% of the volunteers but the highest mean value of plasma folate among the investigated groups. A deficient status of folate was found in 18% of omnivores and in approximately 10% of vegans and vegetarians. The status of riboflavin is considered to be deficient in about 10% of omnivores and vegetarians and in over 30% of vegans. According to the activation coefficient of GOT, approximately one third of all subjects showed vitamin B(6) deficiency. Elevated homocysteine concentration in plasma was observed in 66% of the vegans and about 45-50% of the omnivores and vegetarians. Vegan subjects had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine levels than omnivores. Thiamin and folate need not be a problem in a well

  7. Inverse association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Wang, J; Wang, F; Han, X; Hu, H; Yuan, J; Miao, X; Yao, P; Wei, S; Wang, Y; Liang, Y; Chen, W; Zhang, X; Guo, H; Yang, H; Tang, Y; Zheng, D; Wu, T; He, M

    2018-03-01

    Plasma homocysteine concentrations have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with controversial findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. A cross-sectional study including 19,085 eligible participants derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort was conducted. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured by Abbott Architect i2000 Automatic analyzer and T2DM was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM was 19.0% in the whole population (mean age 62.9 years), 21.8% in males, and 17.1% in females. In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quintile, the OR (95% CI) of T2DM was 1.05 (0.92-1.21), 0.99 (0.86-1.14), 0.90 (0.78-1.05), and 0.77 (0.66-0.90) for quintile 2 to quintile 5 of homocysteine concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend associated with decreased T2DM prevalence risk (OR = 0.88 per SD increase of homocysteine concentration; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). A significant interaction between homocysteine concentrations and drinking status on T2DM prevalence risk was observed (P for interaction = 0.03). The inverse association of plasma homocysteine concentrations with T2DM prevalence risk was observed in non-drinkers but not in current drinkers. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were inversely correlated with T2DM among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F; Fenger, Mogens

    2003-01-01

    Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing...

  9. Efficacy of folate and vitamin B12 in lowering homocysteine concentrations in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh Nassim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of supplementation with high dose folic acid with and with-out vitamin B 12 in lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in hemodialysis (HD patients, we studied 36 HD patients randomized into four groups according to the received thera-peutic regimen: group I (only folic acid (FA, 5 mg/day, group II (FA, 5 mg/day + vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day group III (only FA, 15 mg/day, group IV (FA, 15 mg/day, vitamin B 12 , 1 mg/day for a period of 8 weeks. Plasma tHcy and serum FA and vitamin B 12 levels were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intakes were assessed during the study period. At baseline, 27.8% of the patients had normal levels of tHcy and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After supplementation, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group I and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups II, III and IV respectively, which was only significant in group IV (P= 0.014. The patients did not show any significant changes in serum folic acid, but a significant change in serum vitamin B 12 in group IV (P= 0.006. Percentage of patients reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group IV than in the reference group (group I. No corre-lations were found between changes of plasma tHcy levels and dietary intakes. We conclude that oral supplementation with 15 mg/day folic acid together with 1 mg/day of vitamin B 12 is effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients. These supplements also have a desirable effect on serum folic acid and vitamin B12.

  10. [Total homocysteine levels in children with diabetes type 1. Conditional factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Laborda, S; Salazar García-Blanco, M I; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Baldellou Vázquez, A

    2008-03-01

    To measure the plasma levels of total homocysteine (tHcy) in children with type I diabetes mellitus and their relationship with the control of the disease. We studied a total of 46 patients with ages between 4 and 19 years. The analyzed variables were: sex, age, puberty stage by Tanner, BMI, years of evolution of the illness, self-monitoring, associated diseases, tHcy, folic acid, vitamin B12, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile and renal function. The mean tHcy was of 5.48 +/- 1,64 microm/l, similar to that in our control population. There was a positive correlation with tHcy when analyzing the puberty stage by the Tanner scale. The years of evolution of diabetes varied between 0.4 and 15, with a mean of 5.77 +/- 3.69, with no correlation with tHcy. The glycosylated haemoglobin mean was 7.35 %, with no correlation with tHcy. The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 were similar to the control population. The lipid profile of our patients was normal, with no association with tHcy levels. There was no correlation between GFR and tHcy. A clinically correct control of children with diabetes mellitus type 1, appears to ensure a normal total homocysteinemia, with no significant differences with the healthy individuals of the same age and social environment.

  11. Total serum homocysteine as an indicator of vitamin B12 and folate status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, R.C.; Hall, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a modification of an assay for total serum homocysteine (Hcy) in which the Hcy plus radioactive adenosine is converted enzymatically to labeled S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy). The modifications included a commerical source for the AdoHcy hydrolase, adenosine labeled with either 14 C or 3 H, and separation of the AdoHcy by thin layer chromatography. The assay was sensitive to 25 pmol. Hcy levels in sera from 18 controls ranged from 6.9 to 12.1 mumol/L with a mean of 9.1 and a SD of 1.5 mumol/L. The total serum Hcy was increased in vitamin B12 and folate deficiency. The level was high in congenital defects of vitamin B12 metabolism, blocking the methylation of Hcy regardless of the serum vitamin B12 levels, but was normal in the absence of tissue deficiency even if the serum vitamin B12 levels were low. The procedure has been found practical in two years of use and requires only 0.1 mL of serum

  12. Elevation in Total Homocysteine Levels in Chinese Patients With Essential Hypertension Treated With Antihypertensive Benazepril.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shanqun; Pan, Mingluo; Wu, Suwen; Venners, Scott A; Zhong, Guisheng; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Liu, Dahai; Xu, Xiping

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effect of benazepril on plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and to analyze the correlation between the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril. A total of 231 patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension were enrolled, and benazepril was orally administered at a dose of 10 mg/d for 2 weeks. Plasma Hcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography at baseline and after 2 weeks of treatment. Genotyping of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism was performed by TaqMan probe technique. There was no significant change in Hcy level after benazepril treatment for 2 weeks (P = .97). However, stratified by baseline Hcy levels, the patients with baseline Hcy benazepril treatment. There were also no statistically significant interactions of gene and environment factors (ie, gene smoking and drinking) on the changes in Hcy levels after benazepril treatment. Benazepril may cause an increase in plasma Hcy levels among patients with hypertension with low baseline Hcy levels, while effect modification by MTHFR C677T genotypes on the changes in Hcy levels in response to benazepril was not significant among patients with essential hypertension. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Low vitamin B6, and not plasma homocysteine concentration, as risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm: a retrospective case-control study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, A.C.T.; Landeghem, B.A.J. van; Graafsma, S.J.; Kranendonk, S.E.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Heijer, M. den

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with vascular disease in many epidemiologic studies, but only a few have reported on the relation between hyperhomocysteinemia and aneurysms of the abdominal aorta (AAAs). Although these studies showed higher homocysteine concentrations in

  14. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in t...... intervention and re-examination after one year. RESULTS: None of the studied lifestyle changes-- smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, and coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption-- was significantly associated with changes in tHcy, either overall, or in any of the MTHFR genotype subgroups. In addition...

  15. 5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T gene polymorphism, homocysteine concentration and the extent of premature coronary artery disease in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senemar, Sara; Saffari, Babak; Sharifkazemi, Mohammad Bagher; Bahari, Marzieh; Jooyan, Najmeh; Dehaghani, Elham Davoudi; Yavarian, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Elevated level of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) has been identified as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). Furthermore, numerous studies have documented the influences of a common polymorphism (C677T) of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) on homocysteine levels. However the relationship between this mutation and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has remained as a controversial issue. The present study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between C677T polymorphism of MTHFR gene, plasma total Hcy levels and the number of affected vessels as a criterion for the extent of CAD. MTHFR genotypes and plasma homocysteine (HCY) concentrations were examined in 231 patients and 300 healthy subjects who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography. A multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of Hcy levels whereas logistic regression model was built to determine the association of Hcy quartiles with the risk of CAD adjusted for risk factors. The prevalence of MTHFR genotypes was similar between CAD patients and non-CAD individuals while the geometric mean of Hcy values was significantly higher in patient group (14.13 ± 4.11 μmol/l) than in control group (10.19 ± 3.52 μmol/l) (P < 0.001). Moreover, unlike the MTHFR polymorphism, Hcy concentration increased with increasing number of stenosed vessels and the CAD risk increased about 2 folds in the top two Hcy quartiles (≥ 17.03 and 13.20-17.02 μmol/l) compared with the lowest quartile (≤ 9.92 μmol/l) after controlling for conventional risk factors (P<0.001 for both). Our data suggest that hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) is significantly associated to CAD risk increase as well as to the extent of coronary atherosclerosis.

  16. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee : a randomized controlled trial in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Verhoef, P.; Pasman, W.J.; Vliet, van, T.; Urgert, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Background: A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. Objective: The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Design: Forty-eight subjects aged 19–65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, each la...

  17. Homocysteine and risk of ischemic heart disease and stroke: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homocysteine Studies Collab, .

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: It has been suggested that total blood homocysteine concentrations are associated with the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of homocysteine concentrations with vascular disease risk. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE was searched for articles

  18. Effect of long-term Hormone Replacement Therapy on Plasma Homocysteine in Postmenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonna S; Kristensen, Søren R; Klitgaard, Niels A

    2002-01-01

    hormone replacement therapy had significantly lower total homocysteine concentrations than women in the control group; median total homocysteine values were 8.6 micromol/L and 9.7 micromol/L, respectively, in a per-protocol analysis (P =.02). The effect was comparable in all methylenetetrahydrofolate...

  19. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  20. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pusparini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  1. Folic acid treatment increases homocysteine remethylation and methionine transmethylation in healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; Smulders, Y.M.; van Guldener, C.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.; van der Meer, K.

    2005-01-01

    Folic acid treatment decreases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in healthy subjects, but the effects on homocysteine metabolism are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 3 weeks of oral treatment with 5 mg of folic acid on one-carbon flux rates in 12 healthy subjects,

  2. The effect of folate and vitamin B12 supplementation on homocysteine concentrations: a study in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadibakhsh N.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The frequency of hyperhomocysteinemia is higher in hemodialysis (HD patients than the general population. The objective of this study is to assess the efficacy of high-dose folic acid supplementation with and without vitamin B12 on lowering plasma total homocysteine (tHcy concentrations in HD patients. Methods: Thirty-six HD patients at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, who had been given folic acid supplements (5 mg/d for at least 3 months before, were enrolled in this clinical trial. Subjects were also checked for other inclusion and exclusion criteria. The subjects were divided randomly into four groups and underwent two months of supplementation as follows: 5 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group one, 5 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group two, 15 mg/d oral folic acid + placebo in group three and 15 mg/d oral folic acid + vitamin B12 (1 mg/d orally in group four. Concentrations of plasma tHcy and serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured at baseline and after the supplementation period. Dietary intake of patients was also determined during the supplementation period.Results: Of the folic acid supplemented patients, 27.8% had normal levels of tHcy at baseline and 72.2% had hyperhomocysteinemia. After the supplementation period, plasma tHcy increased by 1.35% in group one and decreased by 6.99%, 14.54% and 30.09% in groups two, three and four respectively. Changes in plasma tHcy and serum vitamin B12 were only significant in group four; however, no significant changes were seen for serum folic acid. The percentage of subjects reaching normal levels of plasma tHcy was 5.6 fold higher in group four than in the reference group. Conclusions: Supplementation with 15 mg/d folic acid together with 1 mg/d oral vitamin B12 is more effective in reducing tHcy levels in HD patients.

  3. Effect of lipid-lowering and anti-hypertensive drugs on plasma homocysteine levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Dierkes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Jutta Dierkes, Claus Luley, Sabine WestphalInstitute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Hospital Magdeburg, Germany Abstract: Elevated plasma concentrations of homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, are a risk factor for coronary, cerebral and peripheral artery disease. Next to other factors, drugs used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular disease may modulate plasma homocysteine levels. Thus, a drug induced homocysteine increase may counteract the desired cardioprotective effect. The aim is to summarize the current knowledge on the effect of two important classes of drugs, lipid-lowering drugs and anti-hypertensive drugs, on homocysteine metabolism. Among the lipid-lowering drugs, especially the fibric acid derivatives, which are used for treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterol, are associated with an increase of homocysteine by 20%–50%. This increase can be reduced, but not totally avoided by the addition of folic acid, vitamin B12 and B6 to fibrates. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins do not influence homocysteine concentrations substantially. The effects of nicotinic acid and n3-fatty acids on the homocysteine concentrations are less clear, more studies are necessary to clarify their influence on homocysteine. Antihypertensive drugs have also been studied with respect to homocysteine metabolism. A homocysteine increase has been shown after treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, a lowering was observed after treatment with ß-blockers, but no effect with ACE-inhibitors. The clinical significance of the homocysteine elevation by fibrates and thiazides is not clear. However, individual patients use these drugs for long time, indicating that even moderate increases may be important.Keywords: homocysteine, fibrates, diuretics, cardiovascular disease

  4. Protein-stabilized fluorescent nanocrystals consisting of a gold core and a silver shell for detecting the total amount of cysteine and homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui, Rijun; Wang, Yanfeng; Sun, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We report on a simple and sensitive method for the determination of the total amount of cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (hCys), [Cys plus hCys], by exploiting the effect of Cys and hCys on the photoluminescence of human serum albumin-stabilized gold-core silver-shell nanocrystals (NCs). If Cys (or hCys) are added to these NCs, Cys (or hCys) will be adsorbed on the surface due to ligand exchange with human serum albumin, and this results in the quenching of the luminescence of the NCs. The addition of mixtures of Cys and hCys in different molar ratios also induces a decrease in luminescence whose intensity is linearly related to the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in the range from 0.1 – 5.0 μM, with a correlation coefficient (R 2 ) of 0.9953 and a detection limit of 15 nM. The method is highly selective and sensitive over other α-amino acids, water-soluble thiols, and biomolecules. It has been successfully applied to the determination of the concentration of [Cys plus hCys] in spiked solutions of biomolecules and in real biological samples (author)

  5. Homocysteine determinants and the evidence to what extent homocysteine determines the risk of coronary heart disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, A. de; Verschuren, W.M.M.; Kromhout, D.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Blom, H.J.

    2002-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD), especially coronary heart disease (CHD), are the most important causes of death in industrialized countries. Increased concentrations of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) have been associated with an increased risk of CHD. Assuming that this relation is causal, a lower

  6. Homocysteine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... needed to ensure the quality of the sample? Fasting for 10 to 12 hours may be required ... factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure , or obesity. However, the exact role that homocysteine plays in ...

  7. Association of obstructive sleep apnea with homocystein, nitric oxide and total antioxidant capacity levels in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortaç Ersoy, Ebru; Fırat, Hikmet; Akaydın, Sevgi; Özkan, Yeşim; Durusu, Mine; Darılmaz Yüce, Gülbahar; Ergün, Recai; Topeli, Arzu; Ardıç, Sadık

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Deficiency of nitric oxide (NO) and plasma levels of homocystein have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. OSA results in oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep. Free oxygen radicals can be produced by hypoxia-reoxygenation. To test for the hypothesis that OSA is associated with cardiovascular morbidity, we investigated levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity in OSA patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) in comparison with normal subjects and patients with CAD without OSA. Polysomnography was performed in 27 patients who had a myocardial infarction and in 25 patients without evidence of CAD. Patients were grouped according their polysomnography results as OSA with CAD (group 1), OSA without CAD (group 2), CAD (group 3), and normal (group 4) . Levels of homocystein, NO and total antioxidant capacity were determined after an overnight fasting. Data were analysed with parametric and non parametric statistical tests. According to apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 44.4% of CAD patients were OSA. After polysomnographic evaluation, the patients were re-distributed as follows: OSA with CAD (n= 12), OSA without CAD (n= 14), CAD (n= 15), and normal (n= 11). Homocystein levels were higher in 3 groups compared to controls. AHI, MDI and desaturation time was higher in three -vessel disease compared to one and two- vessel diseases (p< 0.05). NO levels were correlated with the period of oxygen desaturation (r: -0.45, p= 0.031). The antioxidant capacity did not differ between OSA and healthy groups. OSA is frequent in CAD. AHI, MDI and desaturation time are higher in patients with severe CAD. It is important to evaluate OSA patients for CAD.

  8. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  9. [Homocystein serum levels and lipid parameters in children with atherosclerosis risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierakowska-Fijałek, Anna; Kaczmarek, Piotr; Pokoca, Lech; Smorag, Ireneusz; Wosik-Erenbek, Marzenna; Baj, Zbigniew

    2007-02-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease of adult patients, however, it begins in childhood and progresses from fatty streaks to raised lesions in arteries in adolescence and young adults. Clinical manifestation of atherosclerosis in adulthood depends on the risk factors such as: lipid disorders, obesity, hypertension, smoking habits and family history of CHD. High serum homocysteine concentration is increasingly recognised as a new risk factor for atherosclerosis and other vascular diseases. Atherogenic effect of homocystein is related to cytotoxin action on the endothelial cells and their function. The aim of this study was to estimate relations between the homocysteine serum concentration and the lipid levels in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The study was carried out on 48 children with atherosclerosis risk factors. The control group consisted of 25 healthy childrens. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), HDL-C, LDL-C were determined by enzymatic method. Concentration of homocysteine was estimated by immunoenzymatic method (ELISA). Obesity, lipid disorders, and hypertension were the most frequent risk factors in the investigated children. Statistically significant higher concentration of TC, LDL-C, TG and lower HDL-C were observed in children with atherosclerosis risk factors. No significant differences in homocystein concentration were observed in the investigated groups, but homocystein concentration was significantly higher in group of children with atherosclerosis risk factors. We observed that increased number of the risk factors is followed by high homocystein concentration in the serum.

  10. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  11. Are plasma homocysteine concentrations in Brazilian adolescents influenced by the intake of the main food sources of natural folate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio, Roberta Schein; Verly, Eliseu; de Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Cesar, Chester Luis Galvão; Fisberg, Regina Mara; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo

    2013-01-01

    Folate, a B vitamin, has been associated with a reduced concentration of plasma homocysteine (phcy), a marker of cardiovascular disease. The contribution of fruits and vegetables (FV) and other natural folate-rich foods to folate intake and folate status in Brazilian adolescents has hardly been determined. To investigate the intake of FV and beans and its association with the concentration of phcy in adolescents. This was a cross-sectional population-based study with a complex sample survey, with 198 adolescents who completed two 24-hour dietary recalls, a food frequency questionnaire, and a fasting blood draw. Usual dietary intake estimates were derived applying the Multiple Source Method. Three different generalized linear models with a gamma distribution were developed for each sex to evaluate the relationship between phcy and tertiles of FV intake as well as to evaluate the relationship between phcy and tertiles of FV and bean intake. No association was found between phcy concentration and FV intake or between phcy and FV and beans. Serum folate and female sex were inversely related to phcy. Phcy was not related to FV or FV and beans; this may be attributable to a low intake of these food groups. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Serum total homocystein, folate and vitamin B12 levels and their correlation with antipsychotic drug doses in adult male patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Esin; Yeğin, Ayşenur; Yilmaz, Necat; Herken, Hasan

    2010-01-01

    Elevated blood levels of homocysteine (hCY) have been associated with schizophrenic male patients. However, controversy remains regarding the association between lowered plasma folate and vitamin B12, hyperhomocysteinemia, and schizophrenia. Sixty-six (66) male patients with chronic schizophrenia were investigated to test the hypotheses that alterations in Hcy, folate, and vitamin B12 levels might be related to the antipsychotic drug doses used in treatment. Serum total homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B12 levels were determined by chemiluminescence methods in both patients and control subjects. The patients were grouped according to the antipsychotic drug doses used in their treatment. Patients had higher homocysteine levels but they did not differ from controls in terms of folate and vitamin B12 levels. On the other hand, only folate levels were negatively correlated in the patient group treated with higher therapeutic doses of chlorpromazine equivalents (> 400 mg/day) compared to the patient group with lower doses (< 400 mg/day). Our findings show that higher typical antipsychotic drugs may play a role as modifiying factor for folate metabolism in chronic schizoprenic male patients.

  13. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, A.M.M.; Huque, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  14. Effect of diet and 677 C-->T 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotypes on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in slovak adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raslová, K; Bederová, A; Gasparovic, J; Blazícek, P; Smolková, B

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diet and 677 C-->T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in an adolescent population (113 males, age: 14.2+/-2.4 years; 202 females, age: 14.9+/-2.1 years) from a region characterized by high cardiovascular mortality. Homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ between males and females (9.4+/-3.5 and 8.9+/-3.1 micromol/l, respectively). The homozygosity for the 677 C-->T MTHFR mutation was found in 4.6 % of subjects. No differences in homocyst(e)ine levels were found between MTHFR genotypes. Analysis of the diet composition which was performed on a 24-hour daily recall basis and a food frequency questionnaire showed a low daily intake of vitamin B6 (males: 1.13 mg/66% RDA; females: 0.92 mg/61% RDA). Daily folic acid intake was 0.21 g/105% RDA in males and 0.23 g/115% RDA in females. The results of our study show that the high homocyst(e)ine levels in the adolescent population were not affected by the 677 C-->T MTHFR mutation. We conclude that an insufficient dietary intake of vitamin B6 and folic acid is responsible for this finding. This is in accord with the recommendation that the dietary allowances for folate should be reset to the originally prescribed levels of 0.4 g/day which should be sufficient to control the homocysteine levels.

  15. Exploratory study of plasma total homocysteine and its relationship to short-term outcome in acute ischaemic stroke in Nigerians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awosanya Gbolahan O

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperhomocysteinemia is a potentially modifiable risk factor for stroke, and may have a negative impact on the course of ischaemic stroke. The role of hyperhomocysteinemia as it relates to stroke in Africans is still uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and short-term impact of hyperhomocysteinemia in Nigerians with acute ischaemic stroke. We hypothesized that Hcy levels are significantly higher than in normal controls, worsen stroke severity, and increase short-term case fatality rates following acute ischaemic stroke. Methods The study employed both a case-control and prospective follow-up design to study hospitalized adults with first – ever acute ischaemic stroke presenting within 48 hours of onset. Clinical histories, neurological evaluation (including National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores on admission were documented. Total plasma Hcy was determined on fasting samples drawn from controls and stroke cases (within 24 hours of hospitalization. Outcome at 4 weeks was assessed in stroke patients using the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. Results We evaluated 155 persons (69 acute ischaemic stroke and 86 healthy controls. The mean age ± SD of the cases was 58.8 ± 9.8 years, comparable to that of controls which was 58.3 ± 9.9 years (T = 0.32; P = 0.75. The mean duration of stroke (SD prior to hospitalization was 43.5 ± 38.8 hours, and mean admission NIHSS score was 10.1 ± 7.7. Total fasting Hcy in stroke patients was 10.2 ± 4.6 umol/L and did not differ significantly from controls (10.1 ± 3.6 umol/L; P = 0.88. Hyperhomocysteinemia, defined by plasma Hcy levels > 90th percentile of controls (>14.2 umol/L in women and >14.6 umol/L in men, was present in 7 (10.1% stroke cases and 11 (12.8% controls (odds ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval 0.31 – 2.39; P > 0.05. In multiple regression analysis admission NIHSS score (but not plasma Hcy was a significant determinant of 4

  16. Determinants of changes in plasma homocysteine in hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; van der Put, N. M.; Blom, H. J.; Tijssen, J. G.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a risk factor for premature atherosclerotic vascular disease and venous thrombosis. The aim of the present study was to assess plasma total homocysteine (tHCys) concentrations in hypo- as well as hyperthyroid patients before and after treatment, and to evaluate

  17. MAT1A variants modulate the effect of dietary fatty acids on plasma homocysteine concentrations and DNA damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with decreased plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT1A) is an enzyme involved in formation of form S-adenosylmethionine during methionine metabolism. The objectiv...

  18. Interactions between genetic variants of folate metabolism genes and lifestyle affect plasma homocysteine concentrations in the Boston Puerto Rican Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of studies investigating relationships between lifestyle factors and elevated plasma homocysteine (Hcy), an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, are conflicting. The objective of this study was to investigate genetic and lifestyle factors and their interactions on plasma Hcy c...

  19. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  20. Changes in lifestyle, biological risk factors and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR C677T genotype: a 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, L L N; Linneberg, A; Fenger, M

    2009-01-01

    to increased tHcy in cross-sectional studies. In addition, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene variant is an important determinant of elevated tHcy. The main objective of the study was to examine the effect of changes in biological risk factors and lifestyle on tHcy in relation to MTHFR......, physical activity, smoking status, coffee, tea, total alcohol or wine consumption. An inverse relationship was observed between changes in tHcy and changes in the intake of beer in TT individuals but not in CC/CT individuals (P (interaction)=0.01). In addition, changes in tHcy were positively associated......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Total homocysteine (tHcy) has been associated with increased risk of several diseases in the general population. It is not clear whether these associations are causal. A less healthy lifestyle as well as a less favorable biological risk factor profile have been related...

  1. Serum Homocysteine level in patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ashtari

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of multiple sclerosis (MS, a chronic demyelinative disease-is unknown. The damage of blood–brain barrier (BBB vasculature is a characteristic of MS and Homocystein (Hcy can damage BBB, then increase in total Hcy may be important in MS pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to compare the serum level of total Hcy in MS patients with control group. Methods: In a case control study, serum level of total Hcy measured in 35 MS patient and compared with 30 healthy matched controls. All patients had definitive MS according to Poser criteria, without history of myocardial infarction, stroke, neuropathy, transient ischemic attack, homocystinuria or renal failure. Results: The serum concentration of total homocystein was significantly higher in multiple sclerosis patients than healthy controls. The mean total Hcy level was 17.92± 6.9 mmol/lit in cases and 14.6±2.92 mmol/lit in controls (P=0.013. Conclusion: Serum total Homocystein may have a role in MS pathogenesis and reduction of it should be studied moreover. Key words: Multiple Sclerosis, Homocystein, Serum level

  2. Contribution of caffeine to the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee: a randomized controlled trial in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Petra; Pasman, Wilrike J; Van Vliet, Trinette; Urgert, Rob; Katan, Martijn B

    2002-12-01

    A high plasma total homocysteine concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Consumption of unfiltered or filtered coffee raises total homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers. The responsible compound, however, is unknown. The objective was to determine whether caffeine explains the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Forty-eight subjects aged 19-65 y completed this randomized crossover study with 3 treatments, each lasting 2 wk. Subjects consumed 6 capsules providing 870 mg caffeine/d (test treatment), 0.9 L paper-filtered coffee providing approximately 870 mg caffeine/d, or 6 placebo capsules. Blood samples were drawn fasting and 4 h after consumption of 0.45 L coffee or 3 capsules. The mean fasting plasma homocysteine concentration after the placebo treatment was 9.6 +/- 3.1 micro mol/L. The caffeine and coffee treatments increased fasting homocysteine by 0.4 micro mol/L (95% CI: 0.1, 0.7; P = 0.04), or 5%, and by 0.9 micro mol/L (95% CI: 0.6, 1.2; P = 0.0001), or 11%, respectively, compared with placebo. The increase in homocysteine concentrations 4 h after consumption of 0.45 L coffee relative to consumption of 3 placebo capsules was 19% (P = 0.0001). Caffeine treatment had a much weaker acute effect on homocysteine (4%; P = 0.09). Effects of caffeine were stronger in women than in men, but the effects of coffee did not differ significantly between men and women. Caffeine is partly responsible for the homocysteine-raising effect of coffee. Coffee, but not caffeine, affects homocysteine metabolism within hours after intake, although the effect is still substantial after an overnight fast.

  3. Higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea are independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kentaro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    Little is known about the relation of modifiable dietary factors to circulating homocysteine concentrations, particularly in young adults and non-Western populations. We investigated the hypothesis that intakes of nutrients and foods are associated with serum homocysteine concentration in a group of young Japanese women. This cross-sectional study included 1050 female Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 22 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected, and serum homocysteine concentrations were measured. Adjustment was made for survey year, region, municipality level, current smoking, current alcohol drinking, dietary supplement use, physical activity, body mass index, energy intake, and intakes of other nutrients or foods. After adjustment for nondietary confounding factors, intakes of all B vitamins (folate, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and riboflavin) were inversely associated with homocysteine concentration. However, only vitamin B-6 remained significant after further adjustment for other B vitamins. Marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid intake showed an inverse association, but this was not independent of intakes of B vitamins. For foods, pulses, fish and shellfish, and vegetables were independently and inversely associated with homocysteine concentration, but these associations disappeared after adjustment for intakes of other foods. Conversely, an inverse association for dairy products and a positive association for green and oolong tea remained even after adjustment for other foods. To conclude, in a group of young Japanese women, higher intake of vitamin B-6 and dairy products and lower intake of green and oolong tea were independently associated with lower serum homocysteine concentration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Considerations for automated machine learning in clinical metabolic profiling: Altered homocysteine plasma concentration associated with metformin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlenko, Alena; Moore, Jason H; Orzechowski, Patryk; Olson, Randal S; Cairns, Junmei; Caraballo, Pedro J; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Wang, Liewei; Breitenstein, Matthew K

    2018-01-01

    With the maturation of metabolomics science and proliferation of biobanks, clinical metabolic profiling is an increasingly opportunistic frontier for advancing translational clinical research. Automated Machine Learning (AutoML) approaches provide exciting opportunity to guide feature selection in agnostic metabolic profiling endeavors, where potentially thousands of independent data points must be evaluated. In previous research, AutoML using high-dimensional data of varying types has been demonstrably robust, outperforming traditional approaches. However, considerations for application in clinical metabolic profiling remain to be evaluated. Particularly, regarding the robustness of AutoML to identify and adjust for common clinical confounders. In this study, we present a focused case study regarding AutoML considerations for using the Tree-Based Optimization Tool (TPOT) in metabolic profiling of exposure to metformin in a biobank cohort. First, we propose a tandem rank-accuracy measure to guide agnostic feature selection and corresponding threshold determination in clinical metabolic profiling endeavors. Second, while AutoML, using default parameters, demonstrated potential to lack sensitivity to low-effect confounding clinical covariates, we demonstrated residual training and adjustment of metabolite features as an easily applicable approach to ensure AutoML adjustment for potential confounding characteristics. Finally, we present increased homocysteine with long-term exposure to metformin as a potentially novel, non-replicated metabolite association suggested by TPOT; an association not identified in parallel clinical metabolic profiling endeavors. While warranting independent replication, our tandem rank-accuracy measure suggests homocysteine to be the metabolite feature with largest effect, and corresponding priority for further translational clinical research. Residual training and adjustment for a potential confounding effect by BMI only slightly modified

  5. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  6. Total homocysteine is positively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat mass among overweight reproductive women: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Hamadneh, Jehan; Hailat, Rae'd; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2017-12-01

    Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old. The main outcome measures were tHcy, BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. Serum tHcy was analyzed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS) complete kit. The body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Study participants were stratified according to their tHcy level into two groups, ≤10 μmol/L and >10 μmol/L, and the difference between mean values of body compositions was evaluated. The tHcy was significantly and negatively correlated with age, fat-free mass, and total body water, and significantly and positively correlated with BMI, hip circumference, WHR, fat mass, and dry lean weight. The chi-square and the independent sample t-tests showed statistically significant (P ≤ .05) differences between tHcy and BMI, WHR, fat and fat-free mass, and total body water percentages. In conclusion, BMI, WHR and body fat mass were found to be associated with elevated tHcy levels among overweight reproductive women, and they might be used as independent predictors of the tHcy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DACH-LIGA homocystein (german, austrian and swiss homocysteine society): consensus paper on the rational clinical use of homocysteine, folic acid and B-vitamins in cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases: guidelines and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Olaf; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Pietrzik, Klaus; Fowler, Brian; Geisel, Jürgen; Dierkes, Jutta; Weger, Martin

    2003-11-01

    About half of all deaths are due to cardiovascular disease and its complications. The economic burden on society and the healthcare system from cardiovascular disability, complications, and treatments is huge and getting larger in the rapidly aging populations of developed countries. As conventional risk factors fail to account for part of the cases, homocysteine, a "new" risk factor, is being viewed with mounting interest. Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing intermediate product in the normal metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid. Folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 deficiencies and reduced enzyme activities inhibit the breakdown of homocysteine, thus increasing the intracellular homocysteine concentration. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies have consistently found an independent relationship between mild hyperhomocysteinemia and cardiovascular disease or all-cause mortality. Starting at a plasma homocysteine concentration of approximately 10 micromol/l, the risk increase follows a linear dose-response relationship with no specific threshold level. Hyperhomocysteinemia as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease is thought to be responsible for about 10% of total risk. Elevated plasma homocysteine levels (>12 micromol/l; moderate hyperhomocysteinemia) are considered cytotoxic and are found in 5 to 10% of the general population and in up to 40% of patients with vascular disease. Additional risk factors (smoking, arterial hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia) may additively or, by interacting with homocysteine, synergistically (and hence over-proportionally) increase overall risk. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with alterations in vascular morphology, loss of endothelial anti-thrombotic function, and induction of a procoagulant environment. Most known forms of damage or injury are due to homocysteine-mediated oxidative stress. Especially when acting as direct or indirect antagonists of cofactors and enzyme

  8. Homocysteine levels after nitrous oxide anesthesia for living-related donor renal transplantation: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskunfirat, N; Hadimioglu, N; Ertug, Z; Akbas, H; Davran, F; Ozdemir, B; Aktas Samur, A; Arici, G

    2015-03-01

    Nitrous oxide anesthesia increases postoperative homocysteine concentrations. Renal transplantation candidates present with higher homocysteine levels than patients with no renal disease. We designed this study to investigate if homocysteine levels are higher in subjects receiving nitrous oxide for renal transplantation compared with subjects undergoing nitrous oxide free anesthesia. Data from 59 patients scheduled for living-related donor renal transplantation surgery were analyzed in this randomized, controlled, blinded, parallel-group, longitudinal trial. Patients were assigned to receive general anesthesia with (flowmeter was set at 2 L/min nitrous oxide and 1 L/min oxygen) or without nitrous oxide (2 L/min air and 1 L/min oxygen). We evaluated levels of total homocysteine and known determinants, including creatinine, folate, vitamin B12, albumin, and lipids. We evaluated factor V and von Willebrand factor (vWF) to determine endothelial dysfunction and creatinine kinase myocardial band (CKMB)-mass, troponin T to show myocardial ischemia preoperatively in the holding area (T1), after discontinuation of anesthetic gases (T2), and 24 hours after induction (T3). Compared with baseline, homocysteine concentrations significantly decreased both in the nitrous oxide (22.3 ± 16.3 vs 11.8 ± 9.9; P nitrous oxide-free groups (21.5 ± 15.3 vs 8.0 ± 5.7; P nitrous oxide group had significantly higher mean plasma homocysteine concentrations than the nitrous oxide-free group (P = .021). The actual homocysteine difference between groups was 3.8 μmol/L. This study shows that homocysteine levels markedly decrease within 24 hours after living-related donor kidney transplantation. Patients receiving nitrous oxide have a lesser reduction, but this finding is unlikely to have a clinical relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Maternal homocysteine and small-for-gestational-age offspring: systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Blom, H.J.; den Heijer, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Growth retardation in utero leading to small-for-gestational- age (SGA) newborns is associated with increased neonatal morbidity and mortality and with lifelong consequences such as poor cognitive function and cardiovascular diseases. Maternal total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations

  10. Refractometric total protein concentrations in icteric serum from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aradhana; Stockham, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether high serum bilirubin concentrations interfere with the measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry and to assess potential biases among refractometer measurements. Evaluation study. Sera from 2 healthy Greyhounds. Bilirubin was dissolved in 0.1M NaOH, and the resulting solution was mixed with sera from 2 dogs from which food had been withheld to achieve various bilirubin concentrations up to 40 mg/dL. Refractometric total protein concentrations were estimated with 3 clinical refractometers. A biochemical analyzer was used to measure biuret assay-based total protein and bilirubin concentrations with spectrophotometric assays. No interference with refractometric measurement of total protein concentrations was detected with bilirubin concentrations up to 41.5 mg/dL. Biases in refractometric total protein concentrations were detected and were related to the conversion of refractive index values to total protein concentrations. Hyperbilirubinemia did not interfere with the refractometric estimation of serum total protein concentration. The agreement among total protein concentrations estimated by 3 refractometers was dependent on the method of conversion of refractive index to total protein concentration and was independent of hyperbilirubinemia.

  11. Effects of Metformin Treatment on Homocysteine Levels and Metabolic Parameters of Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Riahinejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. Metformin is a biguanide commonly used to improve PCOS symptoms. Effect of metformin on the levels of serum homocysteine (Hcy in PCOS women is unclear. The aim of this study is evaluating the effect of metformin administration on serum Hcy levels and metabolic parameters of PCOS patients.Materials and methods: Thirty three patients with PCOS were enrolled in this study who were selected randomly. All patients received metformin from the fifth day of menstrual cycle at a dose of 850 mg (one tablet daily for 3 months. Body mass index, Triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, fasting blood sugar and homocysteine levels were recorded at entry into the study and after 3 months treatment.Results: BMI, plasma Homocysteine concentrations and fasting blood sugar levels were significantly (p < 0.05 decreased after the treatment period. No significant changes were observed in the lipid profiles of patients. There was a weak negative correlation between homocysteine and LDL cholesterol serum levels (p = 0.04, r = -0.27.Conclusion: Treatment with metformin in PCOS women may lead to beneficial effects in terms of BMI, plasma homocysteine concentrations and fasting blood sugar with no remarkable effect on lipid profile. 

  12. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic

  13. Thymidylate synthase genetic polymorphism and plasma total homocysteine level in a group of Turkish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relationship with disease activity and methotrexate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borman, Pınar; Taşbaş, Özgur; Karabulut, Halil; Tukun, Ajlan; Yorgancıoğlu, Rezan

    2015-01-01

    The polymorphism of thymidylate synthase (TS) gene and homocysteine are reported to have a relationship to methotrexate (MTX) metabolism, with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to determine homocysteine levels and the frequency of TS gene triple repeat (TS3R) and double repeat (TS2R) polymorphisms in a group of Turkish RA patients and evaluate its association with MTX toxicity and disease activity. Sixty-four patients with RA and 31 control subjects with a mean age of 48.7 ± 12.5 and 46.2 ± 13.4 years, were enrolled to the study. Demographic characteristics were obtained and number of patients with MTX-related adverse affects, were recorded in the patient group. The homocysteine levels and TS2R/TS3R polymorphisms of the TS gene were analyzed and the distribution of genotypes according to MTX toxicity and disease activity, were determined. The demographic properties were similar between the patient and control subjects. Folic acid supplementation with a mean dose of 5mg folic acid/week, was present in all patients. Thirty-six of the 64 patients showed adverse effects to MTX treatment. The frequency of TS2R and TS3R polymorphisms were found to be similar in the patient and control groups. TS2R and TS3R gene polymorphisms were found to be similar in patients with and without MTX-related adverse events. The mean homocysteine level was also similar in patients with and without TS gene polymorphism, but was found to be higher (12.45μmol/L vs 10.7μmol/L) in patients with MTX-related side effects than in patients without side effects. The mean level of homocysteine was correlated with levels of ESR in the patient group. In conclusion, homocysteine levels might effect the disease activity and toxicity of MTX but 2R and 3R polymorphisms in the TS gene, were not related with MTX-related toxicity in RA patients receiving folate supplementation. Further studies are needed to illuminate the polymorphisms in other enzymes that might be responsible from the MTX

  14. There are no differences in IL-6, CRP and homocystein concentrations between women whose mothers had AD and women whose mothers did not have AD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devčić, Sanja; Glamuzina, Ljubomir; Ruljancic, Nedjeljka; Mihanovic, Mate

    2014-12-30

    A wide range of recent studies have detected inflammation as one of the most influent factors in the appearance and spreading of neurodegenerative brain diseases. We aimed to understand the influence of Interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine (Hcy) on patients suffering from Alzheimer׳s disease (AD) and on their descendants. Three groups of subjects were analyzed: 55 patients suffering from AD, 51 middle-aged daughters of the patients of the first group, and 53 subjects without positive family history of AD. The results of the conducted research are in accordance with the present scientific knowledge, namely a statistically significant difference for examined parameters has been determined between women suffering from AD and their daughters and control group examinees. No difference was found in serum concentrations of IL-6, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and Hcy between the groups of the middle-aged descendants of patients with AD and healthy controls without family history of AD. This finding supports the hypothesis that these markers may not play causal role in the development of AD. This is supported by the obtained positive correlation between IL-6 and hsCRP and IL-6 and Hcy in AD patients while there is no such correlation between female subjects with or without a family history of AD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. High plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in elderly Japanese patients are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk independently from markers of coagulation activation and endothelial cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kario, K; Duell, P B; Matsuo, T; Sakata, T; Kato, H; Shimada, K; Miyata, T

    2001-08-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in many populations, but the relationship between homocyst(e)ine and CVD in Japanese subjects has been unclear. It has been hypothesized that the link between homocyst(e)ine and CVD may be mediated in part by activation of coagulation and endothelial cell injury in the elderly Japanese subjects. To further evaluate this hypothesis, the present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the relationships among plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, risk of CVD, and markers of coagulation (fibrinogen, FVII, F1+2, FVIIa and FXIIa) and endothelial cell damage (vWF and thrombomodulin) in 146 elderly Japanese subjects (79 healthy controls and 67 patients with CVD). The geometric mean (range) of plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations was 10.2 (3.2--33) micromol/l in 79 Japanese healthy elderly subjects. As expected, healthy female and male elderly subjects had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 2.5 and 5.3 micromol/; higher, respectively, compared to healthy young control subjects (n=62). Healthy young and elderly men had homocyst(e)ine levels that were 1.7 and 4.5 micromol/l higher, respectively, compared to values in women. This higher plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in the elderly subjects were negatively correlated with levels of folic acid, albumin and total cholesterol, but were not significantly related to markers of coagulation or endothelial cell-damage. The results of multiple logistic regression analyses suggested that high homocyst(e)ine levels were independently related to CVD risk. In addition, levels of FVIIa, and F1+2 were significantly higher in elderly Japanese patients with CVD compared to elderly subjects without CVD, but were unrelated to plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. In summary, elevated plasma concentrations of homocyst(e)ine, FVIIa, and F1+2 were associated with increased risk of CVD in elderly male and female Japanese subjects, but the association between homocyst(e)ine

  16. Total protein and cholesterol concentrations in brain regions of male ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed similarities (P>0.05) between the treatments in total protein concentrations in the cerebral cortex, medulla, hypothalamus, amygdala, mesencephalon and hippocampus. Total protein concentrations however differed significantly between diets (P<0.05) in the cerebellum and pons varoli with the lowest ...

  17. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  18. On the observation of the need for an unusually high concentration of cysteine and homocysteine to induce aggregation of polymer-stabilized gold nano particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakumary, C.; Sreenivasan, K., E-mail: sreeni@sctimst.ac.in [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Laboratory for Polymer Analysis, Biomedical Technology Wing (India)

    2013-02-15

    This study reports the interaction of chitosan-stabilized gold nanoparticles (CH-AuNPs) with cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcys) in aqueous media at pH 1.4. Since the polymer precipitates at higher pH, and the amino acids Cys and HCys are soluble at acidic pH, we kept the pH around 1.4 for stabilizing the particles. Zeta potential of CH-AuNPs was found to be positive and it is reasonable to assume that +ve Cys or Hcys at pH 1.4 will experience repulsive force. However, TEM images and absorption spectra indicated formation of aggregates including rod-like assembly. An interesting observation was the need for unusually high concentration of analytes (Cys and Hcys) to induce the assembly of CH-AuNPs. We also found time bound variation of the optical properties probably indicating the interaction is kinetically controlled and only a fraction of the analyte molecules having sufficient energy can bind onto the particles. We observed that at elevated temperature, the reaction was faster with a lower concentration of Cys or Hcys. These observations were supported by the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory which describes the interparticle interaction and the colloidal stability in solution. Only molecules possessing enough energy to cross this force barrier can cause the aggregation. We also noted a time lag between Cys and Hcys to influence optical properties reflecting the possibility of using this simple approach to discriminate these two clinically relevant molecules. Our observation shows that simple sensing as well as generation of novel nanostructures could be manipulated by a judicious choice of conditions such as stabilizing agents, pH, etc.Graphical AbstractMore energetic ones cross the barrier to induce aggregation.

  19. Homocyst(e)ine impairs endocardial endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, S C; Smiley, L M; Mujumdar, V S

    1999-12-01

    Homocyst(e)ine injured vascular endothelium and modulated endothelial-dependent vascular function. Endothelium plays an analogous role in both the vessel and the endocardium. Therefore, we hypothesized that homocyst(e)ine modulated endocardial endothelium (EE) dependent cardiac function. The ex vivo cardiac rings from normal male Wistar-Kyoto rats were prepared. The contractile responses of left and right ventricular rings were measured in an isometric myobath, using different concentrations of CaCl2. The response was higher in the left ventricle than right ventricle and was elevated in endocardium without endothelium. The half effective concentration (EC50) and maximum tension generated by homocyst(e)ine were 10(6) and 5-fold lower than endothelin (ET) and angiotensin II (AII), respectively. However, in endothelial-denuded endocardium, homocyst(e)ine response was significantly increased (pine, and endothelial nitric oxide in EE function, cardiac rings were pretreated with AII (10(-10) M) or ET (10(-13) M) and then treated with homocyst(e)ine (10(-8) M). Results suggested that at these concentrations AII, ET, or homocyst(e)ine alone had no effect on cardiac contraction. However, in the presence of 10(-10) M AII or 10(-13) M ET, the cardiac contraction to homocyst(e)ine (10(-8) M) was significantly enhanced (pine. These results suggested that homocyst(e)ine impaired EE-dependent cardiac function and acted synergistically with AII and ET in enhancing the cardiac contraction.

  20. Nonimaging light concentration using total internal reflection films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, G; Waltham, C E; Drees, R M; Poon, A; Schubank, R; Whitehead, L A

    1992-05-01

    We present a method of fabricating nonimaging light concentrators from total internal reflection film. A prototype has been made and tested and found to operate in agreement with predictions of ray-tracing codes. The performance of the prototype is comparable with that of concentrators made from specular reflecting materials.

  1. Total mercury concentration in common fish species of Lake Victoria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total mercury (THg) concentration was analysed in muscles of common fish species of Lake Victoria in the eastern and southern parts of the lake using cold vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique. Mercury concentration in all fish species was generally lower than the WHO maximum allowable ...

  2. Status of Homocysteine in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleedhu, Priyanka; M, Vijayabhaskar; S S B, Sharma; Kodumuri, Praveen K; Devi D, Vasundhara

    2014-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and is estimated to affect 5-10 % of the population. Women with PCOS have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Homocysteine has been recognized recently as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Preliminary investigations suggest that high sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine and adiponectin are abnormal in women with PCOS. The possible determinants of elevated homocysteine concentration are still debated among authors who found significant correlations between homocysteine and insulin resistance or hyperandrogenism. The purpose of this study is to evaluate homocysteine levels in the PCOS population compared with controls. Study group comprised of 142 women with PCOS and 65 healthy non-PCOS controls. Body mass index (BMI), Waist circumference and serum homocysteine were measured in PCOS subjects and age matched controls. Statastical Analysis: All values are expressed as mean α SD. The results obtained are analysed statistically using the unpaired student t-test to evaluate the significance of differences between the mean values. The mean BMI, Waist circumference and serum homocysteine values are significantly increased in PCOS subjects when compared with non PCOS controls. The present study has demonstrated increase in mean serum homocysteine concentrations in women with PCOS.

  3. Homocysteine-lowering effect of 500 ug folic acid every other day versus 250 ug/day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Rooij, van I.A.L.M.; Dusseldorp, van M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Blom, H.J.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Eskes, T.K.A.B.

    2000-01-01

    Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations are a risk factor for neural tube defects and vascular diseases. Supplementation with folic acid decreases tHcy. We investigated whether supplementation with 500 ?g folic acid every other day is as effective in lowering tHcy as 250 ?g folic

  4. The relationship between maternal and neonatal umbilical cord plasma homocyst(e)ine suggests a potential role for maternal homocyst(e)ine in fetal metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Rajkovic, A; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Upson, B M

    1998-02-01

    Data on fetal blood homocyst(e)ine concentrations are not available. We tested the hypothesis that homocyst(e)ine crosses the maternal/placental/fetal interphases and is sequestered by the fetus. The concentration of homocyst(e)ine was determined at parturition in peripheral venous plasma from 35 nulliparous healthy pregnant women and umbilical arterial and venous plasma from their conceptus. Findings demonstrated a descending concentration gradient of plasma homocyst(e)ine from maternal vein to umbilical vein and to umbilical artery; the decrease at each interphase approximated 1 micromol/L. The neonate weight and gestational age were inversely related to maternal homocyst(e)ine concentrations. The umbilical vein to umbilical artery homocyst(e)ine decrement suggests that uptake of homocyst(e)ine occurs in the fetus. The likely incorporation of homocyst(e)ine into the fetal metabolic cycle may implicate maternal homocyst(e)ine as having a potential nutritional role in the fetus. Further studies are required to explain the role of homocyst(e)ine in fetal metabolism and development.

  5. Vitamin B2, vitamin B12 and total homocysteine status in children and their associations with dietary intake of B-vitamins from different food groups: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Dekkers, Renske; Mavrogianni, Christina; Grammatikaki, Eva; van den Heuvel, Ellen

    2017-02-01

    To examine the associations between the dietary intakes of certain B-vitamins from different food sources with the relevant plasma status indices in children. A representative subsample of 600 children aged 9-13 years from the Healthy Growth Study was selected. Dietary intakes of vitamins B 2 , B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from different food sources were estimated. Plasma levels of vitamin B 2 (or riboflavin), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy) were also measured. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B 2 below 3 μg/L were found in 22.8 % of the children. Children in the lower quartile of dietary vitamin B 2 intake were found to have the lowest plasma vitamin B 2 levels compared to children in the upper three quartiles (5.06 ± 7.63 vs. 6.48 ± 7.88, 6.34 ± 7.63 and 6.05 ± 4.94 μg/L respectively; P = 0.003). Regarding vitamin B 12 children in the lower quartile of dietary intake had higher mean plasma tHcy levels compared to children in the upper two quartiles, respectively (6.00 ± 1.79 vs. 5.41 ± 1.43 and 5.46 ± 1.64 μmol/L; P = 0.012). Positive linear associations were observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and dietary vitamin B 2 derived from milk and fruits (β = 0.133; P = 0.001 and β = 0.086; P = 0.037). Additionally, nonlinear associations were also observed between plasma vitamin B 2 levels and vitamin B 2 derived from red meat, as well as between tHcy levels and vitamins B 12 and B 6 derived from milk; vitamins B 12 , B 6 and folate derived from cereal products and folate derived from fruits. A considerably high prevalence of poor plasma vitamin B 2 status was observed in children. The intake of milk, fruits and cereals was associated with more favorable tHcy levels, while the intake of milk and fruits with more favorable plasma B2 levels. However, these findings need to be further confirmed from controlled dietary intervention studies examining the modulation of biomarkers of B-vitamins.

  6. Homocysteine and cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Saikat; Pal, Salil K; Mazumdar, Hirak; Bhandari, Biswanath; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Pandit, Sudipta

    2009-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is rapidly emerging as an important risk factor for coronary artery disease, possibly because of its propensity to accelerate atherosclerosis. Whether it is also a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents (CVA) is a matter of debate till now, as there are conflicting results of the various prospective studies. The present study was performed to correlate the levels of plasma homocysteine levels with that of ischaemic and haemorrhagic CVA. Forty-two cases of CVA were randomly selected over a period of one year, and their risk factors were assessed. It was observed that serum homocysteine levels were significantly raised in those with intracerebral infarcts when compared to those with intracerebral haemorrhage, although homocysteine levels didn't prove to be prognostically significant.

  7. Homocyst(e)ine and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furie, Karen L; Kelly, Peter J

    2006-02-01

    Homocyst(e)ine elevation is associated with a two- to threefold fold increased risk of ischemic stroke. Although most commonly associated with large-artery atherosclerosis and venous thrombosis, hyperhomocysteinemia may contribute to stroke by other mechanisms as well. Levels of homocysteine are determined by genetic regulation of the enzymes involved in homocyst(e)ine metabolism and by levels of the vitamin cofactors (folate, B (6), and B (12)) associated with those reactions. Emerging evidence suggests that genetic variation within this pathway, such as the methyleneterahydrofolate reductase and cystathionine beta-synthase and nicotinamide N-methyltransferase genes, increases the risk of ischemic stroke. The introduction of grain folate fortification in 1998 has reduced homocyst(e)ine concentrations in the U.S. population. However, it is important to screen for vitamin B (12) deficiency and be cognizant that vitamin B (6) levels may be low in the elderly and in individuals with inflammatory disorders. The Vitamin Intervention in Stroke Prevention study failed to prove that high-dose supplementation with folate, B (6), and B (12) reduced the risk of recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction at 2 years; however, there is an ongoing clinical trial evaluating the potential benefit of vitamin supplementation.

  8. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  9. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, autoantigenic and total antibody concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Steffen Ullitz; Pipper, Christian B; Johannesen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    conducted within this field. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate if higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were inversely associated with β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A). Further, we also wanted to examine......BACKGROUND: B cells have recently entered the stage as an important accessory player in type 1 diabetes (T1D) etiopathogenesis. Experimental studies suggest regulatory functions of vitamin D on B cells. However, only a few human studies, with considerable methodological limitations, have been...... the relationship between 25(OH)D and total antibody concentrations. METHODS: We randomly selected 500 patients with newly diagnosed T1D and 500 siblings for 25(OH)D, antibody and genetic analysis from the population-based Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes. The relative change (RC) in the mean...

  10. Association of Homocysteine, Vitamin and Blood Factors with Preeclampsia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Nadafi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Preeclampsia is a disease with worldwide importance to mothers and infants, where it accounts for 20–80% of the strikingly increased maternal mortality. The lack of enzymes added to the homocysteine metabolism or the cofactors necessary for its metabolism (folate, B6 vitamin, B12 vitamin cause hyperhomocysteinemia. Abnormal serum lipid profiles such as cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglyceride are associated with endothelial dysfunction. Recently high levels of B-HCG have been identified as a potential marker for developing preeclampsia. The purpose of this study was to identify the possible association of homocysteine, vitamin and some serum factors levels with preeclampsia in pregnant women. Materials and Methods: A case control study was performed prospectively on normotensive healthy pregnant women (80 and pregnant women diagnosed with preeclampsia (80 referring to Imam Sadjad hospital in Yasuj, between September 2004 to August 2005. In addition to the obstetric evaluation and laboratory examination in the 3rd trimester of gestation, blood samples were taken from all cases for homocysteine and vitamin B12, folic acid, triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, B-HCG analysis. The samples were evaluated by Immunoassay (ELISA. Univariant and logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of outcomes. Results: The mean plasma level of total homocysteine was significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnancy(p0.05. Triglyceride and cholesterol levels were significantly higher in preeclamptic women compared with normal pregnant women(p<0/05. LDL and HDL levels were not correlated with preeclampsia. There was no significant association between preeclampsia and B-HCG levels. Conclusion: Homocysteine, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations increase in preeclampsia but decrease of vitamin B12 and folic acid levels was not observed in preeclampsia. LDL, HDL and B-HCG levels were not

  11. Fibrinogen, homocyst(e)ine, and C-reactive protein concentrations relative to sex and socioeconomic status in British young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon R P; Baker, Julien S; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the prevalence of recently identified coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socioeconomic status (SES). From November 2001 through March 2002, 100 boys and 108 girls, of age 12.9 +/- 0.3 years, selected from differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included fibrinogen (Fg), homocyst(e)ine (Hcy), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Fibrinogen was significantly greater among boys from a higher SES compared with those from a low SES (P < or = 0.05). Differences according to sex (P < or = 0.05) were identified for Fg and CRP. The data indicate the prevalence of recently identified CHD risk factors in this cohort of British schoolchildren. For the purpose of this article, the phrase "young people" embraces both children and adolescents. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  12. The association between homocysteine in the follicular fluid with embryo quality and pregnancy rate in assisted reproductive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocal, Pelin; Ersoylu, Bilge; Cepni, Ismail; Guralp, Onur; Atakul, Nil; Irez, Tulay; Idil, Mehmet

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the association between follicular fluid homocysteine levels and embryo quality and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing assisted reproduction. Fifty infertile women who were admitted to our clinic were enrolled in the study. Ovulation induction was performed by using GnRH agonist and gonadotropins. For each patient, homocysteine level in the follicular fluid was measured by using nephelometric method after the oocyte pick-up. The association between the homocysteine concentration in the follicular fluid and the oocyte-embryo quality, pregnancy rates and hormone levels were investigated. Mean ± SD Hcy was 9.6 ± 2.02 μmol/L and 14.9 ± 2.93 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p Homocystein did not have any correlation with M2, late M2, and total number of oocytes, number of fertilized oocytes and transferred embryos, and embryo quality grade. Area under curve (AUC) of hcy for prediction of pregnancy failure was 0.922 (p = 0.0001, 95% Confidence interval 0.85-0.99). A threshold of 11.9 μmol/L of hcy had a sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 91.6% for prediction of pregnancy failure. The subgroup analysis in male factor infertility group (n = 28), showed that mean homocystein was 9.9 ± 2.44 μmol/L and 14.1 ± 2.72 μmol/L in pregnant and non-pregnant women, respectively (p = 0.002). Low follicular fluid homocysteine level is associated with a better chance of clinical pregnancy.

  13. Association of homocysteine and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T) gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease (CAD) in the population of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The implications of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene and the level of homocysteine in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease (CAD) have been extensively studied in various ethnic groups. Our aim was to discover the association of MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and homocysteine level with CAD in north Indian subjects. The study group consisted of 329 angiographically proven CAD patients, and 331 age and sex matched healthy individuals as controls. MTHFR (C677T) gene polymorphism was detected based on the polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion with HinfI. Total homocysteine plasma concentration was measured using immunoassay. T allele frequency was found to be significantly higher in patients than in the control group. We found significantly elevated levels of mean homocysteine in the patient group when compared to the control group (p = 0.00). Traditional risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, smoking habits, a positive family history and lipid profiles (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol), were found significantly associated through univariate analysis. Furthermore, multivariable logistics regression analysis revealed that CAD is significantly and variably associated with diabetes, hypertension, smoking, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol. Our findings showed that MTHFR C677T polymorphism and homocysteine levels were associated with coronary artery disease in the selected population. PMID:21637473

  14. Effect of homocysteine-lowering nutrients on blood lipids: results from four randomised, placebo-controlled studies in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margreet R Olthof

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betaine (trimethylglycine lowers plasma homocysteine, a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, studies in renal patients and in obese individuals who are on a weight-loss diet suggest that betaine supplementation raises blood cholesterol; data in healthy individuals are lacking. Such an effect on cholesterol would counteract any favourable effect on homocysteine. We therefore investigated the effect of betaine, of its precursor choline in the form of phosphatidylcholine, and of the classical homocysteine-lowering vitamin folic acid on blood lipid concentrations in healthy humans. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We measured blood lipids in four placebo-controlled, randomised intervention studies that examined the effect of betaine (three studies, n = 151, folic acid (two studies, n = 75, and phosphatidylcholine (one study, n = 26 on plasma homocysteine concentrations. We combined blood lipid data from the individual studies and calculated a weighted mean change in blood lipid concentrations relative to placebo. Betaine supplementation (6 g/d for 6 wk increased blood LDL cholesterol concentrations by 0.36 mmol/l (95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.46, and triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.04-0.23 relative to placebo. The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol increased by 0.23 (0.14-0.32. Concentrations of HDL cholesterol were not affected. Doses of betaine lower than 6 g/d also raised LDL cholesterol, but these changes were not statistically significant. Further, the effect of betaine on LDL cholesterol was already evident after 2 wk of intervention. Phosphatidylcholine supplementation (providing approximately 2.6 g/d of choline for 2 wk increased triacylglycerol concentrations by 0.14 mmol/l (0.06-0.21, but did not affect cholesterol concentrations. Folic acid supplementation (0.8 mg/d had no effect on lipid concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Betaine supplementation increased blood LDL cholesterol and triacylglycerol

  15. Distribution of Total Suspended Solids Concentration in a River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Hanif Asyhar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of either industrial or nonindustrial wastewater into a river has a potential to cause riverpollution. Because each load of wastewater discharged into a river contains physical, chemical, and biological parametersthat determine water quality, so that it can affect the dissolved oxygen concentration in a river. Therefore the conductedresearch was aimed to determine the pattern of pollutant dispersion in Surabaya River within the section that is closed tothe Karang Pilang Monitoring Station - Surabaya. Parameter used in this research was Total Suspended Solids (TSS. Themethod used was the finite volume method with Quadratic Upwind Interpolation Convective Kinematics (QUICK schemeby means of developing models of dispersion water pollutants in a river. The governing equation was controlled by the lawsof mass conservation, momentum conservation, and pollution transport equation. Further, these equations were solvedusing numerical calculation and followed by numerical simulation. From the numerical simulation results, it can beconcluded that the magnitude of pollutant dispersion is determined by the initial discharged TSS concentrations into theriver, however the longitudinal direction is more dominantly influenced than in lateral directions.

  16. Low diagnostic value of fasting and post-methionine load homocysteine tests. A study in Dutch subjects with homocysteine test indications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; van Doormaal, J J; Reijngoud, D J; Muskiet, F A J

    BACKGROUND: Homocysteine is a cardiovascular disease risk factor. We investigated, both in subjects with past plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) test indications and healthy adults, the diagnostic value of a fasting (tHcy) (f-tHcy) and the added value of a post-methionine-load tHcy (postload-tHcy).

  17. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Thomas F; Peck, Gregory M; O'Keefe, Sean F; Stewart, Amanda C

    2018-01-01

    Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest fraction of YAN, with a mean value of 51 mg N L -1 FAN compared to 9 mg N L -1 ammonium. Observed YAN values ranged from nine to 249 mg N L -1 , with a mean value of 59 mg N L -1 . Ninety-four percent of all samples analyzed in this study contained yeast to fully utilize all of the fermentable sugars. FAN concentration was correlated with total YAN concentration, but ammonium concentration was not. Likewise, there was no correlation between FAN and ammonium concentration.

  18. Homocysteine levels -before and after methionine loading- in 51 Dutch families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, den M.; Graafsma, S.; Lee, S.Y.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Elevated levels of homocysteine are a risk factor for vascular disease, thrombosis, neural tube defects and dementia. The 677C>T polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene appears to be the most important single determinant of plasma homocysteine concentration. In the

  19. Uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep quality in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: potential role of homocysteine and parathyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gade, Katrin; Blaschke, Sabine; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Becker, Andreas; Anderson-Schmidt, Heike; Cohrs, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The aetiology of uremic restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains unclear. Our research investigated whether an elevated plasma concentration of the excitatory amino acid homocysteine might be associated with RLS occurrence in patients with chronic renal insufficiency on hemodialysis. Total plasma homocysteine as well as creatinine, urea, folate, parathyroid hormone, hemoglobin, iron, ferritin, phosphate, calcium, magnesium, and albumin levels were compared between 26 RLS-affected (RLSpos) and 26 non-affected (RLSneg) patients on chronic hemodialysis. We further compared subjective sleep quality between RLSpos and RLSneg patients using the Pittsburgh-Sleep-Quality-Index and investigated possible relationships between laboratory parameters and sleep quality. Taking individual albumin concentrations into account, a significant positive correlation between total plasma homocysteine and RLS occurrence was observed (r= 0.246; p=0.045). Sleep quality was significantly more reduced in RLSpos compared to RLSneg patients and RLS severity correlated positively with impairment of sleep quality. Bad sleep quality in all patients was associated with higher concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Our results suggest a possible aetiological role of homocysteine in uremic RLS. They confirm that uremic RLS is an important factor causing sleep impairment in patients on hemodialysis. Higher parathyroid hormone levels might also be associated with bad sleep quality in these patients. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G polymorphisms and the homocysteine lowering efficacy of different doses of folic acid in hypertensive Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Xianhui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate if the homocysteine-lowering efficacy of two commonly used physiological doses (0.4 mg/d and 0.8 mg/d of folic acid (FA can be modified by individual methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T and/or methionine synthase (MTR A2756G polymorphisms in hypertensive Chinese adults. Methods A total of 480 subjects with mild or moderate essential hypertension were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: 1 enalapril only (10 mg, control group; 2 enalapril-FA tablet [10:0.4 mg (10 mg enalapril combined with 0.4 mg of FA, low FA group]; and 3 enalapril-FA tablet (10:0.8 mg, high FA group, once daily for 8 weeks. Results After 4 or 8 weeks of treatment, homocysteine concentrations were reduced across all genotypes and FA dosage groups, except in subjects with MTR 2756AG /GG genotype in the low FA group at week 4. However, compared to subjects with MTHFR 677CC genotype, homocysteine concentrations remained higher in subjects with CT or TT genotype in the low FA group (P P P = 0.005, but not in the low FA group (CC 9.9% vs. TT 11.2%, P = 0.989. Conclusions This study demonstrated that MTHFR C677T polymorphism can not only affect homocysteine concentration at baseline and post-FA treatment, but also can modify therapeutic responses to various dosages of FA supplementation.

  1. Protein-bound homocyst(e)ine. A possible risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S S; Wong, P W; Cook, H Y; Norusis, M; Messer, J V

    1986-01-01

    The development of atherosclerotic changes and thromboembolism are common features in homocystinurics. Hence, we postulate a positive correlation between the level of homocyst(e)ine in the blood and the occurrence of coronary artery disease. Homocysteine is found either as free homocystine, cysteine-homocysteine mixed disulfide, or protein-bound homocyst(e)ine. In nonhomocystinuric subjects, most homocysteine molecules are detectable in the protein-bound form. Thus, protein-bound homocyst(e)ine in stored plasma which reflected total plasma homocyst(e)ine was determined in 241 patients with coronary artery disease (173 males and 68 females). The mean +/- SD total plasma homocyst(e)ine was 5.41 +/- 1.62 nmol/ml in male patients, 4.37 +/- 1.09 nmol/ml in male controls, 5.66 +/- 1.93 nmol/ml in female patients, and 4.16 +/- 1.62 nmol/ml in female controls. The differences between the patients with coronary artery disease and the controls were statistically significant (P less than 0.0005). PMID:3700650

  2. Diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in Parkinson’s disease: increased total secretion and morning cortisol concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogar Ö

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ö Skogar1,4, P-A Fall2, G Hallgren3, J Lökk4, B Bringer2, M Carlsson1, U Lennartsson3, H Sandbjork3, C-J Törnhage51Department of Geriatrics, Ryhov Hospital, Jonkoping, 2Department of Geriatrics, University Hospital, Linkoping, 3Department of Neurology, Skaraborg Hospital, Skovde, 4Institute of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, 5Department of Pediatrics, Skaraborg Hospital, Skövde, SwedenBackground: Parkinson’s disease (PD is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder. There is limited knowledge about the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in PD. The primary aim of this prospective study was to analyze diurnal salivary cortisol concentrations in patients with PD and correlate these with age, gender, body mass index (BMI, duration of PD, and pain. The secondary aim was to compare the results with a healthy reference group.Methods: Fifty-nine PD patients, 35 women and 24 men, aged 50–79 years, were recruited. The reference group comprised healthy individuals matched for age, gender, BMI, and time point for sampling. Salivary cortisol was collected at 8 am, 1 pm, and 8 pm, and 8 am the next day using cotton-based Salivette® tubes and analyzed using Spectria® Cortisol I125. A visual analog scale was used for estimation of pain.Results: The median cortisol concentration was 16.0 (5.8–30.2 nmol/L at 8 am, 5.8 (3.0–16.4 at 1 pm, 2.8 (1.6–8.0 at 8 pm, and 14.0 (7.5–28.7 at 8 am the next day. Total secretion and rate of cortisol secretion during the day (8 am–8 pm and the concentration of cortisol on the next morning were lower (12.5 nmol/L in the reference group. No significant correlations with age, gender, BMI, duration of PD, Hoehn and Yahr score, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III score, gait, pain, or cortisol concentrations were found.Conclusion: The neurodegenerative changes in PD does not seem to interfere with the

  3. Homocysteine-Lowering and Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Primary Results from the Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation (FAVORIT) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostom, Andrew G.; Carpenter, Myra A.; Kusek, John W.; Levey, Andrew S.; Hunsicker, Lawrence; Pfeffer, Marc A.; Selhub, Jacob; Jacques, Paul F.; Cole, Edward; Gravens-Mueller, Lisa; House, Andrew A.; Kew, Clifton; McKenney, Joyce L.; Pacheco-Silva, Alvaro; Pesavento, Todd; Pirsch, John; Smith, Stephen; Solomon, Scott; Weir, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients, like other patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), experience excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. Observational studies of patients with CKD suggest increased homocysteine is a risk factor for CVD. The impact of lowering total homocysteine (tHcy) levels in kidney transplant recipients is unknown. Methods and Results In a double-blind controlled trial, we randomized 4110 stable kidney transplant recipients to a multivitamin that included either a high dose (n=2056) or low dose (n=2054) of folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 to determine whether decreasing tHcy concentrations reduced the rate of the primary composite arteriosclerotic CVD outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, CVD death, resuscitated sudden death, coronary artery or renal artery revascularization, lower extremity arterial disease, carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty, or abdominal aortic aneurysm repair). Mean follow-up was 4.0 years. Treatment with the high dose multivitamin reduced homocysteine but did not reduce the rates of the primary outcome (n= 547 total events; hazards ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.99 [0.84–1.17]), or secondary outcomes of all-cause mortality (n=431 deaths; 1.04 [0.86–1.26]) or dialysis-dependent kidney failure (n=343 events; 1.15 [0.93–1.43]) compared to the low dose multivitamin. Conclusions Treatment with a high dose folic acid, B6, and B12 multivitamin in kidney transplant recipients did not reduce a composite cardiovascular disease outcome, all-cause mortality, or dialysis-dependent kidney failure despite significant reduction in homocysteine level. PMID:21482964

  4. Plasma malondialdehyde, bilirubin, homocysteine and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in coronary artery disease (CAD). Malondialdehyde (MDA) is lipid peroxidation end product. Bilirubin may act as an antioxidant that suppresses lipid oxidation. The role of MDA and antioxidant capacity and their inter-relationship in patients with and without CAD was investigated.

  5. Neuro-fuzzy model of homocysteine metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To conclude, polymorphisms in genes regulating remethylation of homocysteine strongly influence homocysteine levels. The restoration of one-carbon homeostasis by SHMT1 C1420T or increased flux of folate towards remethylation due to TYMS 5'-UTR 28 bp tandem repeat or nonvegetariandiet can lower homocysteine ...

  6. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  7. Cardiac outflow tract malformations in chick embryos exposed to homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Boot (Marit); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); L. van Iperen (Liesbeth); A.C. Gittenberger-De Groot (Adriana)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreased homocysteine concentrations have been associated with cardiac outflow tract defects. It has been hypothesized that cardiac neural crest cells were the target cells in these malformations. Cardiac neural crest cells migrate from the neural tube and contribute to the condensed

  8. Homocysteine and venous thrombosis : studies into risk and therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Huub Pieter Jan

    2006-01-01

    Homocysteine is a risk factor for venous thrombosis. Elevated concentrations can be treated with folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The main study (chapter 9) in this thesis is a randomized placebo-controlled trial in which patients with a first event of deep-vein thrombosis or pulmonary

  9. Comparative case-control study of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulido Fontes, L; Pulido Fontes, M; Quesada Jiménez, P; Muruzabal Pérez, J; Mendioroz Iriarte, M

    2017-09-01

    Increased blood homocysteine levels are a known cardiovascular risk factor. Epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs may present higher homocysteine levels and, consequently, a potential increase in cardiovascular risk. We conducted an observational case-control study to compare plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamin B 12 . Our study included a total of 88 subjects: 52 patients with epilepsy and 36 controls. Epileptic patients showed higher homocysteine levels (P=.084) and lower levels of folic acid (P<.05). Homocysteine levels should be monitored in epileptic patients on long-term treatment with antiepileptic drugs. We suggest starting specific treatment in patients with high homocysteine levels. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clarke, Robert; Bennett, Derrick A; Parish, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) appreci......Moderately elevated blood levels of homocysteine are weakly correlated with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but causality remains uncertain. When folate levels are low, the TT genotype of the common C677T polymorphism (rs1801133) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR...

  11. Homocysteine increases the risk associated with hyperlipidaemia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Caroline

    2009-04-01

    The European Concerted Action Project \\'Homocysteine and Vascular Disease\\' showed that an elevated homocysteine is associated with a substantially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and particularly when combined with other factors such as smoking, hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential interactions between homocysteine and individual lipid subfractions. In addition, it was hypothesized that HDL cholesterol may protect against hyperhomocysteinaemia because HDL cholesterol is associated with the enzyme paroxonase, which reduces oxidization of homocysteine to the harmful metabolite, homocysteine thiolactonase.

  12. Free amino nitrogen concentration correlates to total yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration in apple juice

    OpenAIRE

    Boudreau, Thomas F.; Peck, Gregory M.; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Yeast assimilable nitrogen (YAN) is essential for yeast growth and metabolism during apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) cider fermentation. YAN concentration and composition can impact cider fermentation kinetics and the formation of volatile aroma compounds by yeast. The YAN concentration and composition of apples grown in Virginia, USA over the course of two seasons was determined through analysis of both free amino nitrogen (FAN) and ammonium ion concentration. FAN was the largest f...

  13. Relationship Between Plasma Homocystein Levels and Polyneuropaty in Patients Using Levodopa For Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithat Bedir

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Recent studies showed high plasma homocysteine levels in patients treated with Levodopa for Parkinson’s disease (PD. Homocysteine, due to its exotoxic effect, might be the cause of polyneuropathy seen in PD. In this study, our aim was to show the correlation between high concentration of plasma homocysteine levels and polyneuropathy associated with PD.. Material and Methods: Forty-one patients with PD receiving levodopa treatment (patient group and 30 healthy subjects (control group were included in this study. We compared the two groups in terms of electrophysiological findings. Twelve patients had high plasma homocysteine levels and 29 of them had low plasma homocysteine levels. Results: Six of the 41 patients had sensorial polyneuropathy and decreased compound muscle action potantiel amplitude compared to controls. Two patients had high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had nearly high plasma homocysteine levels, two patients had low plasma homocysteine levels who had sensorial polyneuropathy. Conclusion: Although in our study, we did not show any correlation between polyneuropathy and high plasma homocysteine levels, further studies including homogeneous groups of younger patients with PD are needed. (The Me di cal Bul - le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 53-8

  14. Elevated second-trimester serum homocyst(e)ine levels and subsequent risk of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, T K; Malinow, M R; Williams, M A; King, I B; Luthy, D A

    1999-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease. In late gestation, levels of homocyst(e)ine are higher in preeclamptics, as compared with normotensive pregnant women. Our objective was to determine whether homocyst(e)ine elevations precede the development of preeclampsia. We used a prospective nested case-control study design to compare second trimester maternal serum homocyst(e)ine concentrations in 52 patients who developed preeclampsia (pregnancy-induced hypertension with proteinuria) compared with 56 women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy. Study subjects were selected from a base population of 3, 042 women who provided blood samples at an average gestational age of 16 weeks and later delivered at our center. Serum homocyst(e)ine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Approximately 29% of preeclamptics, as compared to 13% of controls had homocyst(e)ine levels >/=5.5 micromol/l (upper decile of distribution of control values). Adjusted for maternal age, parity, and body mass-index, a second trimester elevation of homocyst(e)ine was associated with a 3. 2-fold increased risk of preeclampsia (adjusted OR = 3.2; 95% CI 1. 1-9.2; p = 0.030). There was evidence of a interaction between maternal adiposity (as indicated by her prepregnancy body mass index) and parity with second trimester elevations in serum homocyst(e)ine. Nulliparous women with elevated homocyst(e)ine levels experienced a 9.7-fold increased risk of preeclampsia as compared with multiparous women without homocyst(e)ine elevations (95% CI 2.1-14.1; p = 0.003). Women with a higher prepregnancy body mass index (>/=21.4 kg/m(2), or upper 50th percentile) and who also had elevated homocyst(e)ine levels, as compared with leaner women without homocyst(e)ine elevations were 6.9 times more likely to later develop preeclampsia (95% CI 1.4-32.1; p = 0.016). Our findings are consistent with other

  15. Dielectric compound parabolic concentrating solar collector with frustrated total internal reflection absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J. R.

    Since its introduction, the concept of nonimaging solar concentrators, as exemplified by the compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) design, has greatly enhanced the ability to collect solar energy efficiently in thermal and photovoltaic devices. When used as a primary concentrator, a CPC can provide significant concentration without the complication of a tracking mechanism and its associated maintenance problems. When used as a secondary, a CPC provides higher total concentration, or for a fixed concentration, tolerates greater tracking error in the primary.

  16. Homocysteine, S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine are associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities : the Hoorn Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hecke, Manon V.; Dekker, Jacqueline M.; Nijpels, Giel; Teeerlink, Tom; Jakobs, Cornelis; Stolk, Ronald P.; Heine, Rob J.; Bouter, Lex M.; Polak, Bettine C. P.; Stehouwer, Coen D. A.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between homocysteine and homocysteine metabolism components and retinal microvascular disorders in subjects with and without Type 2 diabetes. In this population-based study of 256 participants, aged 60-85 years, we determined total

  17. Blood lead levels, iron metabolism gene polymorphisms and homocysteine: a gene-environment interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Lee, Mee-Ri; Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007. Interactions of lead levels with 42 genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in five genes ( TF , HFE , CBS , BHMT and MTR ) were assessed via a 2-degree of freedom (df) joint test and a 1-df interaction test. In secondary analyses using imputation, we further assessed 58 imputed SNPs in the TF and MTHFR genes. Blood lead concentrations were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels (p=0.0276). Six SNPs in the TF and MTR genes were screened using the 2-df joint test, and among them, three SNPs in the TF gene showed interactions with lead with respect to homocysteine levels through the 1-df interaction test (plead levels. Blood lead levels were positively associated with plasma homocysteine levels measured 4-6 years later, and three SNPs in the TF gene modified the association. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Homocystein as a risk factor for developing complications in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Biljana; Gasic, Branislav; Kovacevic, Pedja; Rajkovaca, Zvezdana; Kovacevic, Tijana

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are leading cause of death in patients with chronic renal failure. The aim of our study was to establish connection between levels of homocysteine and traditional and nontraditional risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases in dialysis and pre dialysis patients. We included 33 pre dialysis (23 in stage three and 10 in stage four of chronic kidney disease) and 43 patients receiving hemodialysis longer than six months. Besides standard laboratory parameters, levels of homocysteine and blood pressure were measured in all patients. Glomerular filtration rate was measured in pre dialysis patients and dialysis quality parameters in dialysis patients. Homocysteine levels were elevated in all patients (19±5.42mmol/l). The connection between homocysteine levels and other cardiovascular diseases risk factors was not established in pre dialysis patients. In patients treated with hemodialysis we found negative correlation between homocysteine levels and patients' age (phomocysteine levels and length of dialysis (phomocysteine and anemia parameters (erythrocytes, hemoglobin), (pHomocysteine and LDL (and total cholesterol) were in negative correlation (pHomocysteine, as one of nontraditional cardiovascular diseases risk factors, is elevated in all patients with chronic renal failure and it's positive correlation with some other risk factors was found.

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on total antioxidant capacity, total lipid concentration and shelf life of finger millet flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathika; Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K.B.; Patil, S.L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to study the impact of gamma radiation on the shelf life, total antioxidant capacity and total lipid concentration of finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) flour. Finger millet flour was procured from market. Flour samples of 50 g were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 1 year. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for moisture (2 ± 0.2%), total antioxidant capacity (0.12 ± 0.010 mg) and lipid concentration (15 ± 0.4 mg)

  20. Exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds: concentrations and fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate above a spruce canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wolff

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Total ammonium (tot-NH4+ and total nitrate (tot-NO3 provide chemically conservative quantities in the measurement of surface exchange of reactive nitrogen compounds ammonia (NH3, particulate ammonium (NH4+, nitric acid (HNO3, and particulate nitrate (NO3, using the aerodynamic gradient method. Total fluxes were derived from concentration differences of total ammonium (NH3 and NH4+ and total nitrate (HNO3 and NO3 measured at two levels. Gaseous species and related particulate compounds were measured selectively, simultaneously and continuously above a spruce forest canopy in south-eastern Germany in summer 2007. Measurements were performed using a wet-chemical two-point gradient instrument, the GRAEGOR. Median concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3 were 0.57, 0.12, 0.76, and 0.48 μg m−3, respectively. Total ammonium and total nitrate fluxes showed large variations depending on meteorological conditions, with concentrations close to zero under humid and cool conditions and higher concentrations under dry conditions. Mean fluxes of total ammonium and total nitrate in September 2007 were directed towards the forest canopy and were −65.77 ng m−2 s−1 and −41.02 ng m−2 s−1 (in terms of nitrogen, respectively. Their deposition was controlled by aerodynamic resistances only, with very little influence of surface resistances. Including measurements of wet deposition and findings of former studies on occult deposition (fog water interception at the study site, the total N deposition in September 2007 was estimated to 5.86 kg ha−1.

  1. Removal of two polycyclic musks in sewage treatment plants: Freely dissolved and total concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artola-Garicano, E.; Borkent, I.; Hermens, J.L.M.; Vaes, W.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, the removal of slowly degradable hydrophobic chemicals in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has been evaluated with emphasis on the combination of free and total concentration data. Free and total concentrations of two polycyclic musks were determined in each compartment of four

  2. Asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA): a possible link between homocyst(e)ine and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stühlinger, Markus C; Stanger, Olaf

    2005-02-01

    Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerotic disease and venous thromboembolism. The impact of elevated plasma homocysteine levels seems to be clinically relevant, since the total cardiovascular risk of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is comparable to the risk associated with hyperlipidemia or smoking. There is substantial evidence for impairment of endothelial function in human and animal models of atherosclerosis, occurring even before development of overt plaques. Interestingly endothelial dysfunction appears to be a sensitive indicator of the process of atherosclerotic lesion development and predicts future vascular events. NO is the most potent endogenous vasodilator known. It is released by the endothelium, and reduced NO bioavailability is responsible for impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and other metabolic disorders associated with vascular disease. Substances leading to impaired endothelial function as a consequence of reduced NO generation are endogenous NO synthase inhibitors such as ADMA. Indeed there is accumulating evidence from animal and human studies that ADMA, endothelial function and homocyst(e)ine might be closely interrelated. Specifically elevations of ADMA associated with impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation were found in chronic hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, as well as after acute elevation of plasma homocyst(e)ine following oral methionine intake. The postulated mechanisms for ADMA accumulation are increased methylation of arginine residues within proteins, as well as reduced metabolism of ADMA by the enzyme DDAH, but they still need to be confirmed to be operative in vivo. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, as well as subsequent endothelial dysfunction can be successfully treated by application of folate and B vitamins. Since ADMA seems to play a central role in homocyst(e)ine-induced endothelial dysfunction, another way of preventing vascular disease in patients with elevated homocyst(e)ine

  3. Mean total arsenic concentrations in chicken 1989-2000 and estimated exposures for consumers of chicken.

    OpenAIRE

    Lasky, Tamar; Sun, Wenyu; Kadry, Abdel; Hoffman, Michael K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate mean concentrations of total arsenic in chicken liver tissue and then estimate total and inorganic arsenic ingested by humans through chicken consumption. We used national monitoring data from the Food Safety and Inspection Service National Residue Program to estimate mean arsenic concentrations for 1994-2000. Incorporating assumptions about the concentrations of arsenic in liver and muscle tissues as well as the proportions of inorganic and organic a...

  4. Concentration and flux of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids for monitored tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Annual and daily concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids were estimated for 18 monitored tributaries to Lake Champlain by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Seasons regression model. Estimates were made for 21 or 23 years, depending on data availability, for the purpose of providing timely and accessible summary reports as stipulated in the 2010 update to the Lake Champlain “Opportunities for Action” management plan. Estimates of concentration and flux were provided for each tributary based on (1) observed daily discharges and (2) a flow-normalizing procedure, which removed the random fluctuations of climate-related variability. The flux bias statistic, an indicator of the ability of the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season regression models to provide accurate representations of flux, showed acceptable bias (less than ±10 percent) for 68 out of 72 models for total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride. Six out of 18 models for total suspended solids had moderate bias (between 10 and 30 percent), an expected result given the frequently nonlinear relation between total suspended solids and discharge. One model for total suspended solids with a very high bias was influenced by a single extreme value; however, removal of that value, although reducing the bias substantially, had little effect on annual fluxes.

  5. Homocysteine threshold value based on cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelet, J; Aït-Yahya-Graison, E; Matulewicz, E; Noll, C; Badel-Chagnon, A; Camproux, A-C; Demuth, K; Paul, J-L; Delabar, J M; Janel, N

    2007-12-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia is a metabolic disorder associated with the development of premature atherosclerosis. Among the determinants which predispose to premature thromboembolic and atherothrombotic events, serum activity of paraoxonase 1, mainly synthesized in the liver, has been shown to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and to be negatively correlated with serum homocysteine levels in human. Even though treatments of hyperhomocysteinaemic patients ongoing cardiovascular complications are commonly used, it still remains unclear above which homocysteine level a preventive therapy should be started. In order to establish a threshold of plasma homocysteine concentration we have analyzed the hepatic cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities in a moderate to intermediate murine model of hyperhomocysteinaemia. Using wild type and heterozygous cystathionine beta synthase deficient mice fed a methionine enriched diet or a control diet, we first studied the link between cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities and plasma homocysteine concentration. Among the animals used in this study, we observed a negative correlation between plasma homocysteine level and cystathionine beta synthase activity (rho=-0.52, P=0.0008) or paraoxonase 1 activity (rho=-0.49, P=0.002). Starting from these results, a homocysteine cut-off value of 15 microm has been found for both cystathionine beta synthase (P=0.0003) and paraoxonase 1 (P=0.0007) activities. Our results suggest that both cystathionine beta synthase and paraoxonase 1 activities are significantly decreased in mice with a plasma homocysteine value greater than 15 microm. In an attempt to set up preventive treatment for cardiovascular disease our results indicate that treatments should be started from 15 microm of plasma homocysteine.

  6. Blood homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Uslu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Homocysteine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is known to be related with autoimmunity-inflammation, cardiovascular disease and DNA methylation. In this case-control study, we aimed to determine plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 levels in patients with psoriasis. Materials and Methods: Smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption habits were recorded in adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis and age- and sex-matched controls. Height and weight measurements were performed and Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI scores were calculated. Fasting venous blood samples were collected to determine homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Results: There was no significant difference between psoriasis patients (n=43 and controls (n=47 in body mass index and alcohol and coffee consumption. Smoking rate was significantly high in psoriasis patients. The median PASI score was 10.0 (8.3-12.8. Plasma homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6, total cholesterol, triglyseride, ESR and CRP values were not significantly different between patients and the controls. HDL level was low in psoriasis patients (p=0.001. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in males than in females. There was no relationship of homocysteine levels with patient’s age, PASI scores, ESR, CRP values and lipids. Homocysteine levels were inversely related with folic acid and vitamin B12 (p=0.000, r=-0.436, p=0.047, r=-0.204, respectively. We did not find any relationship between homocysteine and vitamin B6 levels. Conclusion: There was no increase in plasma homocysteine levels in psoriasis patients we followed up. Homocysteine level increases in inflammatory disorders and this increase is accepted as a cardiovascular disease marker. Homocysteine homeostasis may be balanced in our

  7. HPLC for simultaneous quantification of total ceramide, glucosylceramide, and ceramide trihexoside concentrations in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, Johanna E. M.; Poorthuis, Ben J. H. M.; Kuiper, Sijmen; Helmond, Mariette T. J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simple, reproducible assays are needed for the quantification of sphingolipids, ceramide (Cer), and sphingoid bases. We developed an HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of total plasma concentrations of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and ceramide trihexoside (CTH). METHODS:

  8. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  9. [Homocystein--an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and thrombotic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, B

    2005-09-01

    Over the last 20 years homocysteine has taken on increasing importance as an independent, potentially modifiable risk factor for various forms of vascular disease including peripheral and cerebral vascular disease, coronary heart disease and thrombosis. This association has been ascertained in many retrospective and prospective studies but the strength of risk is not yet firmly established although it is clearly dependent on several modifying factors such as other risk factors, nutrition and genetic polymorphisms. Generally it is estimated that hyperhomocysteinaemia is responsible for about 10% of all risks. Homocysteine is formed from the dietary amino acid methionine and plays a pivotal role in folate metabolism and methyl group transfer. Its concentrations in tissues and plasma are influenced by many genetic and environmental factors, especially vitamins such as folate, B12 and B6 as well as certain medications and even life style factors. Nowadays the measurement of plasma homocysteine is freely available although care has to be taken in sample handling and interpretation of results. Final proof that homocysteine is a causal agent and not just a marker for cardiovascular disease and that reduction of plasma homocysteine by vitamin treatment reduces risk of cardiovascular disease is still awaited. Therefore at the present time neither wide-scale screening for homocysteine levels nor general prophylaxis with high dose vitamins is justified. However most experts recommend homocysteine determination in individuals with existing or high risk for arterial or venous blood vessel disease and their relatives. Elevated homocysteine can be lowered in such cases with a combination of folic acid, vitamin B12 vitamin B6. The results of ongoing trials on the impact of such treatment on risk of vascular disease are awaited with great interest.

  10. The role of Homocysteine as a predictor for coronary heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schramm, Susanne

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: There is an ongoing debate on the role of the cytotoxic aminoacid homocysteine as a causal risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Results from multiple case control-studies demonstrate, that there is a strong association between high plasma levels of homoysteine and prevalent coronary heart disease, independent of other classic risk factors. Furthermore, results from interventional studies point out that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine may effectively be lowered by the intake of folic acid and B vitamins. In order to use this information for the construction of a new preventive strategy against coronary heart disease, more information is needed: first, whether homocysteine actually is a causal risk factor with relevant predictive properties and, second, whether by lowering elevated homocysteine plasma concentrations cardiac morbidity can be reduced. Currently in Germany the determination of homocysteine plasma levels is reimbursed for by statutory health insurance in patients with manifest coronary heart disease and in patients at high risk for coronary heart disease but not for screening purposes in asymptomatic low risk populations.Against this background the following assessment sets out to answer four questions: 1. Is an elevated homocysteine plasma concentration a strong, consistent and independent (of other classic risk factors predictor for coronary heart disease? 2. Does a therapeutic lowering of elevated homoysteine plasma levels reduce the risk of developing coronary events? 3. What is the cost-effectiveness relationship of homocysteine testing for preventive purposes? 4. Are there morally, socially or legally relevant aspects that should be considered when implementing a preventive strategy as outlined above? Methods: In order to answer the first question, a systematic overview of prospective studies and metaanalyses of prospective studies is undertaken. Studies are included that

  11. The Analysis of Asymetric Dimethylarginine and Homocysteine in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetty Hendrawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA is a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. ADMA reduces NO synthesis when its concentration elevates. ADMA is a novel risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Plasma ADMA accumulates in patients with endstage renal disease, due to reduced renal clearance. Hyperhomocysteinemia is often found in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Homocysteine may cause ADMA to accumulate; however, the mechanism by which ADMA level elevates in hyperhomocysteinemia is still unclear. Objective of this study was to analyze the concentrations of homocysteine and ADMA and to assess the correlation between homocysteine and ADMA concentrations with the severity of chronic kidney disease. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study on 75 patients with CKD, comprising men and women aged 40-70 years. Assessments were done on the concentrations of creatinine, homocysteine, ADMA, fasting blood glucose, cholesterol HDL and triglyceride. RESULTS: In later stage of CKD there was significantly higher tHcy concentration as compared with the earlier stage of CKD (p=0.0000. In CKD stage 2 to 4 there was a tendency for ADMA concentration to increase to a significant average (p=0.210, but ADMA concentration was lower at stage 5. There was increased ADMA along with increased tHcy concentration of around 20μ mol/L, and this then decreased. The inverse correlation between tHcy and ADMA concentrations started to appear in CKD stage 4, but this correlation was statistically insignificant (r2=0.19; p=0.499. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed there was a correlation between homocysteine and ADMA concentrations in patients with CKD stage 2 to 5, although statistically not significant. KEYWORDS: asymmetric dimethylarginine, homocysteine, chronic kidney disease.

  12. Age-dependent changes in the total protein concentrations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related changes in total protein concentrations in ten regions of the pig brain and hypophyses from birth to 36 months of age. Age-related changes in protein concentrations in all the brain regions except the pons and cerebral cortex were not ...

  13. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a critical review of the epidemiologic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikelboom, J W; Lonn, E; Genest, J; Hankey, G; Yusuf, S

    1999-09-07

    To review epidemiologic studies on the association between homocyst(e)ine level and risk for cardiovascular disease and the potential benefits of homocysteine-decreasing therapies. Computerized and manual searches of the literature on total homocysteine levels and cardiovascular disease. Prospective studies and major retrospective epidemiologic studies evaluating the association between homocyst(e)ine levels and cardiovascular disease and the association between blood levels or dietary intake of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 and cardiovascular disease. Relevant data on patient population, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, duration of follow-up, and main results were extracted from studies that met the inclusion criteria. The designs and results of studies included in this review are summarized. A formal meta-analysis was not performed because the studies were heterogeneous in method and design. Results of epidemiologic studies suggest that moderately elevated plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine levels are prevalent in the general population and are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, independent of classic cardiovascular risk factors. Simple, inexpensive, nontoxic therapy with folic acid, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 reduces plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. Although the association between homocyst(e)ine levels and cardiovascular disease is generally strong and biologically plausible, the data from the prospective studies are less consistent. In addition, epidemiologic observations of an association between hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and cardiovascular risk do not prove the existence of a causal relation. Therefore, the effectiveness of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality requires rigorous testing in randomized clinical trials. Several such trials are under way; their results may greatly affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, given the simplicity and low cost of vitamin therapy.

  14. Association of plasma homocysteine and white matter hypodensities in a sample of stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, G.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of homocysteine in vascular disorders have yielded conflicting data. There are also differences based on various ethnicities and cultures. In this study, we have examined the homocysteine patterns in local stroke patients, so as to ascertain the homocysteine status in a sample of local population. Homocysteine-white matter hypodensities relationship in stroke is emerging, as an important aspect in stroke pathophysiology and is thought to have prognostic and therapeutic values. Methods: We included 150 stroke patients who were diagnosed as having clinical stroke on the basis of history; physical examination and CT (Computerized Tomography) scan of brain. These patients were recruited from neurology and emergency wards of two public sector hospitals of Lahore. The presence or absence of white matter hypodensities were diagnosed after consultation with a radiologist. Blood samples were collected from the same stroke patients. Results: We found a strong association between white matter hypodensities and total homocysteine in plasma of stroke patients p<0.001. Conclusion: Homocysteine is a risk factor for white matter hypodensities in stroke patients in our study. (author)

  15. Homocysteine status and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with psoriasis: a case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tobin, A-M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a hyperproliferative, cutaneous disorder with the potential to lower levels of folate. This may result in raised levels of homocysteine, an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: A study was conducted to compare levels of red-cell folate (RCF) and homocysteine in patients with psoriasis and in healthy controls. Levels of homocysteine were also examined in the context of other major cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In total, 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 controls had their RCF, homo-cysteine and other conventional cardiovascular risk factors assessed. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had a trend towards lower levels of RCF. Significantly raised levels of homocysteine were found in patients with psoriasis compared with controls (P = 0.007). There was no correlation between homocysteine levels, RCF levels or disease activity as measured by the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index. Patients with psoriasis had higher body mass index (P < 0.004) and higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001) than controls. This may contribute to the excess cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with psoriasis.

  16. Serum Homocysteine Level in Parkinson’s Disease and Its Association with Duration, Cardinal Manifestation, and Severity of Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Saadat

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Due to the high prevalence of Parkinson’s disease (PD in the elderly, a large financial burden is imposed on the families and health systems of countries in addition to the problems related to the mobility impairment caused by the disease for the patients. Studies on controversial issues in this disease are taken into consideration, and one of these cases is the role of serum homocysteine level in Parkinson’s patients. In this study, the serum level of homocysteine and its association with various variables in relation to this disease was compared with healthy individuals. Materials and Methods. In this study, 100 patients with PD and 100 healthy individuals as control group were investigated. Serum homocysteine level and demographic and clinical data were included in the checklist. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 23. In all tests, the significance level was below 0.05. Results. The mean level of serum homocysteine in case and control groups was 14.93 ± 8.30 and 11.52 ± 2.86 µmol/L, respectively (95% CI: 1.68; 5.14, P<0.001. In total patients, 85 had normal serum homocysteine level, while 15 had high serum homocysteine level. In controls, the homocysteine level was 98 and 2, respectively (P=0.002. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, serum homocysteine level higher than 20 µmol/L was accompanied by 8.64-fold in Parkinson’s disease involvement (95% CI: 1.92; 38.90, P=0.005. Conclusion. Increasing serum homocysteine level elevates the rate to having PD. Serum homocysteine levels did not have any relationship with the duration of the disease, type of cardinal manifestation, and the severity of Parkinson’s disease.

  17. Homocyst(e)ine and atherosclerosis in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y K; Kwon, Y J; Yoon, J W; Oh, K S; Cha, D R; Cho, W Y; Huh, K; Pyo, H J; Kim, H K

    1999-04-01

    Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. We performed this study to identify the correlating variables and risk factors for atherosclerosis, as measured by the atherosclerotic score (AS), and to determine the relative risk for cardiovascular disease in relation to plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients on chronic hemodialysis. We evaluated and measured 61 patients on chronic hemodialysis for clinical and biochemical parameters including atherosclerotic score (AS) and plasma homocyst(e)ine. We divided patients into high and low groups, first, by the mean AS, and second, by the median value of plasma total homocyst(e)ine levels. Then we compared the variables between the two groups. Out of the 61 patients, the median plasma total homocyst(e)ine level was 24.4 micromol/L (mean+/-SD, 27.7+/-17.4; range, 9.8-127.4 micromol/L), and the median AS was 5 (mean+/-SD, 6.2+/-2.8; range, 3-13) out of a possible 20 points. AS was significantly correlated with plasma total homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.37) and age (r=0.67). Through multivariate analysis, plasma total homocyst(e)ine level and age were determined as significant risk factors for the high-AS group (pine level did not correlate with age (p>0.05). Eighteen of the 61 patients, presented with cardiovascular disease until the present study, had an AS>6. Cardiovascular disease was found more often in the high-homocyst(e)ine group (>24.4 micromol/L) than in the low-homocyst(e)ine group (odds ratio, 9.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-37.4). Regardless of age, hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (especially homocyst(e)ine levels >24.4 micromol/L) is a risk factor that can be modified for the development of cardiovascular disease in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

  18. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  19. Homocysteine-lowering by B vitamins slows the rate of accelerated brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A David Smith

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available An increased rate of brain atrophy is often observed in older subjects, in particular those who suffer from cognitive decline. Homocysteine is a risk factor for brain atrophy, cognitive impairment and dementia. Plasma concentrations of homocysteine can be lowered by dietary administration of B vitamins.To determine whether supplementation with B vitamins that lower levels of plasma total homocysteine can slow the rate of brain atrophy in subjects with mild cognitive impairment in a randomised controlled trial (VITACOG, ISRCTN 94410159.Single-center, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B(6 and B(12 in 271 individuals (of 646 screened over 70 y old with mild cognitive impairment. A subset (187 volunteered to have cranial MRI scans at the start and finish of the study. Participants were randomly assigned to two groups of equal size, one treated with folic acid (0.8 mg/d, vitamin B(12 (0.5 mg/d and vitamin B(6 (20 mg/d, the other with placebo; treatment was for 24 months. The main outcome measure was the change in the rate of atrophy of the whole brain assessed by serial volumetric MRI scans.A total of 168 participants (85 in active treatment group; 83 receiving placebo completed the MRI section of the trial. The mean rate of brain atrophy per year was 0.76% [95% CI, 0.63-0.90] in the active treatment group and 1.08% [0.94-1.22] in the placebo group (P =  0.001. The treatment response was related to baseline homocysteine levels: the rate of atrophy in participants with homocysteine >13 µmol/L was 53% lower in the active treatment group (P =  0.001. A greater rate of atrophy was associated with a lower final cognitive test scores. There was no difference in serious adverse events according to treatment category.The accelerated rate of brain atrophy in elderly with mild cognitive impairment can be slowed by treatment with homocysteine-lowering B vitamins. Sixteen percent of those over 70 y old have mild

  20. Determination of serum free thyroxine concentration (FT4) by means of fT4-fraction and total thyroxine concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passath, A.; Leb, G.

    1985-01-01

    A new equilibrium assay for the determination of serum free thyroxine was evaluated in 514 patients. The assay comprises a two-vial-procedure to measure total thyroxine and free thyroxine fraction by use of monoclonal antibodies. Free thyroxine concentrations are calculated from fT 4 -fraction and total thyroxine concentration readings. In euthyroidism the average free thyroxine fraction (%fT 4 ) was 0.011%, in hyperthyroidism this fraction was elevated, in hypothyroidism it was below normal. In patients with TBG anomalies, TBG values were inversely correlated with fT 4 fraction readings. The 'euthyroid reference range' of FT 4 (SPAC ET) was between 0.70 to 1.78ng/dl. This euthyroid range of FT 4 was determined from TT 4 concentrations measured by T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 MONO) which were 30% above TT 4 values measured by conventional T 4 -RIA (SPAC T 4 POLY; polyclonal antibodies). However, a different euthyroid range of FT 4 between 0.55 to 1.30 ng/dl was observed as well as by other investigators when conventional T 4 -RIA measurements were used for calculation of FT 4 values. Our results indicate that calculated FT 4 concentration values are highly dependent on the methods used for determination of total thyroxine concentrations. Precision and reproducability of this two vial equilibrium assay did not meet the requirements mandatory for the application as a clinical routine diagnostic procedure, and its general use for this purpose can as yet not be recommended. (Author)

  1. Homocysteine, Cortisol, Diabetes Mellitus, and Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kontoangelos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the association of homocysteine and cortisol with psychological factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Method. Homocysteine, cortisol, and psychological variables were analyzed from 131 diabetic patients. Psychological factors were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ, Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ, the Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL 90-R, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (ZDRS, and the Maudsley O-C Inventory Questionnaire (MOCI. Blood samples were taken by measuring homocysteine and cortisol in both subgroups during the initial phase of the study (T0. One year later (T1, the uncontrolled diabetic patients were reevaluated with the use of the same psychometric instruments and with an identical blood analysis. Results. The relation of psychoticism and homocysteine is positive among controlled diabetic patients (P value = 0.006<0.05 and negative among uncontrolled ones (P value = 0.137. Higher values of cortisol correspond to lower scores on extraversion subscale (rp=-0.223, P value = 0.010. Controlled diabetic patients showed a statistically significant negative relationship between homocysteine and the act-out hostility subscale (rsp=-0.247, P=0.023. There is a statistically significant relationship between homocysteine and somatization (rsp=-0.220, P=0.043. Conclusions. These findings support the notion that homocysteine and cortisol are related to trait and state psychological factors in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

  2. Relationship between red wine grades and phenolics. 1. Tannin and total phenolics concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercurio, Meagan D; Dambergs, Robert G; Cozzolino, Daniel; Herderich, Markus J; Smith, Paul A

    2010-12-08

    Measuring chemical composition is a common approach to support decisions about allocating foods and beverages to grades related to market value. Red wine is a particularly complex beverage, and multiple compositional attributes are needed to account for its sensory properties, including measurement of key phenolic components such as anthocyanins, total phenolics, and tannin, which are related to color and astringency. Color has been shown to relate positively to red wine grade; however, little research has been presented that explores the relationship between astringency-related components such as total phenolic or tannin concentration and wine grade. The aim of this research has been to investigate the relationship between the wine grade allocations of commercial wineries and total phenolic and tannin concentrations, respectively, in Australian Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Total phenolic and tannin concentrations were determined using the methyl cellulose precipitable (MCP) tannin assay and then compared to wine grade allocations made by winemaker panels during the companies' postvintage allocation process. Data were collected from wines produced by one Australian wine company over the 2005, 2006, and 2007 vintages and by a further two companies in 2007 (total wines = 1643). Statistical analysis revealed a positive trend toward higher wine grade allocation and wines that had higher concentrations of both total phenolics and tannin, respectively. This research demonstrates that for these companies, in general, Cabernet Sauvignon and Shiraz wines allocated to higher market value grades have higher total phenolics and higher tannin concentrations and suggests that these compositional parameters should be considered in the development of future multiparameter decision support systems for relevant commercial red wine grading processes. In addition, both tannin and total phenolics would ideally be included because although, in general, a positive relationship

  3. Total vs. internal element concentrations in Scots pine needles along a sulphur and metal pollution gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautio, Pasi; Huttunen, Satu

    2003-01-01

    Different methods should be used for foliar analyses of trees used as bioindicators of pollution, than those analyses used in nutritional studies of trees. - Analysis of foliar elements is a commonly used method for studying tree nutrition and for monitoring the impacts of air pollutants on forest ecosystems. Interpretations based on the results of foliar element analysis may, however, be different in nutrition vs. monitoring studies. We studied the impacts of severe sulphur and metal (mainly Cu and Ni) pollution on the element concentrations (Al, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S and Zn) in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) foliage along an airborne sulphur and metal pollution gradient. Emphasis was put on determining the contribution of air-borne particles that have accumulated on needle surfaces to the total foliage concentrations. A comparison of two soil extraction methods was carried out in order to obtain a reliable estimate of plant-available element concentrations in the soil. Element concentrations in the soil showed only a weak relationship with internal foliar concentrations. There were no clear differences between the total and internal needle S concentrations along the gradient, whereas at the plot closest to the metal smelter complex the total Cu concentrations in the youngest needles were 1.3-fold and Ni concentrations over 1.6-fold higher than the internal needle concentrations. Chloroform-extracted surface wax was found to have Ni and Cu concentrations of as high as 3000 and 600 μg/g of wax, respectively. Our results suggest that bioindicator studies (e.g. monitoring studies) may require different foliar analysis techniques from those used in studies on the nutritional status of trees

  4. Nitrous Oxide Anesthesia and Plasma Homocysteine in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagele, Peter; Tallchief, Danielle; Blood, Jane; Sharma, Anshuman; Kharasch, Evan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nitrous oxide inactivates vitamin B12, inhibits methionine synthase and consequently increases plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). Prolonged exposure to nitrous oxide can lead to neuropathy, spinal cord degeneration and even death in children. We tested the hypothesis that nitrous oxide anesthesia causes a significant increase in plasma tHcy in children. Methods Twenty-seven children (age 10-18 years) undergoing elective major spine surgery were enrolled and serial plasma samples from 0 – 96 hours after induction were obtained. The anesthetic regimen, including the use of nitrous oxide, was at the discretion of the anesthesiologist. Plasma tHcy was measured using standard enzymatic assays. Results The median baseline plasma tHcy concentration was 5.1 μmol/L (3.9 – 8.0 μmol/L, interquartile range) and increased in all patients exposed to nitrous oxide (n=26) by an average of +9.4 μmol/L (geometric mean; 95% CI 7.1 – 12.5 μmol/L) or +228% (mean; 95% CI 178% - 279%). Plasma tHcy peaked between 6-8 hours after induction of anesthesia. One patient who did not receive nitrous oxide had no increase in plasma tHcy. Several patients experienced a several-fold increase in plasma tHcy (max. +567%). The increase in plasma tHcy was strongly correlated with the duration and average concentration of nitrous oxide anesthesia (r= 0.80; pnitrous oxide anesthesia develop significantly increased plasma tHcy concentrations. The magnitude of this effect appears to be greater compared to adults; however, the clinical relevance is unknown. PMID:21680854

  5. Homocysteine as a Diagnostic and Etiopathogenic Factor in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józefczuk, Jan; Kasprzycka, Wiktoria; Czarnecki, Rafał; Graczyk, Alfreda; Józefczuk, Paweł; Magda, Krzysztof; Lampart, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Substantial characteristics of autism are cognitive and psychophysical disorders. Etiopathogenetic factors are thought to be responsible for development of autism in children with genetic predisposition as well as have their effect on the severity of the disorders. The main problem of early identification of patients affected by autism spectrum disorder is that there are no clear diagnostic criteria. The aim of our study was assessment of hair magnesium and serum homocysteine concentrations in children with autism. The presented work is a continuation of previous study in which we investigated the influence of disturbances in magnesium and homocysteine levels in children with autism, performed on a new, larger group of patients. One hundred and forty children had hair magnesium levels analyzed, as well as blood serum levels of homocysteine and magnesium. Hair magnesium analysis was performed using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer, blood serum homocysteine determination was performed using a radioimmunological method, and blood serum magnesium level was determined using a biochemical method. Our research showed normal magnesium blood levels and significantly high homocysteine levels and very low hair magnesium levels. Low concentration of hair magnesium progresses with age. Our hypothesis is that magnesium deficiency, as a relevant epigenetic factor, might be decreasing methylation of homocysteine, therefore decreasing genome transcription and lowering the synaptic plasticity. We suggest that analysis of hair magnesium and serum homocysteine levels might be useful in identification of children with autism spectrum disorder, as well as control of its treatment. Obtained results and performed analysis might therefore justify supplementation of magnesium among children with autism.

  6. Determination of plutonium isotopic ratios and total concentration by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Michele.

    1980-11-01

    A non-destructive method of analysis is being investigated for the control in situ of plutonium isotopic composition and total concentration in different matrix without preliminary calibration. The plutonium isotopic composition is determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using germanium detector systems. The same apparatus is used for direct measuring of the total plutonium concentration in solutions or solids by a differential attenuation technique based on two transmitted gamma rays with energies on both sides of the k shell absorption edge of plutonium [fr

  7. Homocisteína Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindalva Batista Neves

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A homocisteína, formada a partir da metionina hepática, é metabolizada nas vias de desmetilação e de transulfuração, sendo que seus valores plasmáticos e urinários refletem a síntese celular. Sua determinação, realizada em jejum e após sobrecarga de metionina, caracteriza as diferenças dessas vias metabólicas, principalmente quando de natureza genética. A hiper-homocisteinemia tem sido associada a maior risco de eventos aterotrombóticos, e a literatura sugere associação causal, independente de outros fatores de risco para doença arterial. Diminuição da homocisteína plasmática para valores normais é seguida de redução significante na incidência de doença aterotrombótica. A relação entre homocisteína e o fígado vem adquirindo importância nos dias atuais, uma vez que alterações das lipoproteínas e da depuração de metionina são comuns em pacientes com doença hepática crônica (hepatocelular e canalicular. O tratamento da hiper-homocisteinemia fundamenta-se na suplementação alimentar e medicamentosa de ácido fólico e vitaminas B6 e B12.Homocysteine, formed from hepatic methionine, is metabolized through the pathways of demethylation and transsulfuration. Its plasmatic and urinary values reflect the cell synthesis. Its determination after fasting and increased infusion of methionine shows the differences of these two metabolic pathways, mainly when it is related to genetic diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been associated with a higher risk of vascular thrombotic events. Several authors suggest a causal relationship between these events independently of other risk factors for vascular diseases. Decrease in plasmatic homocysteine to normal levels is followed by a significant reduction on the incidence of vascular thrombotic events. The correlation between the liver and homocysteine is becoming more important because of the recent findings that alterations of lipoproteins and methionine clearance are

  8. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, W.C.M.; Lambertz, D.; Borges, E.S.; Neto, A.M.O.; Lambertz, K.M.F.T.; Amaral, A.

    2016-01-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation. - Highlights: • Low-dose total body irradiation (TBI) in children have repercussions in their body-mass. • Long-term total protein and albumin levels are affected by TBI. • The monitoring of total protein and albumin levels are useful in the follow-up of TBI pediatric patients.

  9. Rat duodenal motility in vitro: Prokinetic effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone and modulation of nitric oxide mediated inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is a significant but modifiable risk factor for vascular diseases. As gastrointestinal smooth musculature is similar to blood vessel muscles, we investigated how elevated homocysteine levels affect nitric oxide-mediated neurotransmission in the gut. There is accumulated evidence that a dysfunction of NO neurons in the myenteric plexus may cause various diseases in the gastrointestinal tract such as achalasia, diabetic gastroparesis and infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. In the present study, we aimed to assess the effects of homocysteine on NO-mediated responses in vitro, and to examine the effects of DL-homocysteine thiolactone on the spontaneous motility of rat duodenum and nitrergic neurotransmission. DL-homocysteine thiolactone concentration of 10 μmol/L leads to the immediate increase in tone, amplitude and frequency of spontaneous movements in isolated rat duodenum. L-NAME (30 μmol/L leads to an increase in basal tone, amplitude and frequency of spontaneous contractions. The relaxations induced by EFS were significantly reduced in duodenal segments incubated in DL-homocysteine thiolactone compared with the control group. EFS-induced relaxations were inhibited by L-NAME in both experimental and control groups. These results suggest that a high level of homocysteine causes an important impairment of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic innervation of the rat duodenum. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175043

  10. Potent homocysteine-induced ERK phosphorylation in cultured neurons depends on self-sensitization via system Xc-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Li; Hu Xiaoling; Xue Zhanxia; Yang Jun; Wan Lishu; Ren Yan; Hertz, Leif; Peng Liang

    2010-01-01

    Homocysteine is increased during pathological conditions, endangering vascular and cognitive functions, and elevated homocysteine during pregnancy may be correlated with an increased incidence of schizophrenia in the offspring. This study showed that millimolar homocysteine concentrations in saline medium cause phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2 ) in cerebellar granule neurons, inhibitable by metabotropic but not ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists. These findings are analogous to observations by , that similar concentrations cause neuronal death. However, these concentrations are much higher than those occurring clinically during hyperhomocysteinemia. It is therefore important that a ∼ 10-fold increase in potency occurred in the presence of the glutamate precursor glutamine, when ERK 1/2 phosphorylation became inhibitable by NMDA or non-NMDA antagonists and dependent upon epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor transactivation. However, glutamate release to the medium was reduced, suggesting that reversal of the cystine/glutamate antiporter, system X c - could be involved in potentiation of the response by causing a localized release of initially accumulated homocysteine. In agreement with this hypothesis further enhancement of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation occurred in the additional presence of cystine. Pharmacological inhibition of system X c - prevented the effect of micromolar homocysteine concentrations, and U0126-mediated inhibition of ERK 1/2 phosphorylation enhanced homocysteine-induced death. In conclusion, homocysteine interacts with system X c - like quisqualate (Venkatraman et al. 1994), by 'self-sensitization' with initial accumulation and subsequent release in exchange with cystine and/or glutamate, establishing high local homocysteine concentrations, which activate adjacent ionotropic glutamate receptors and cause neurotoxicity.

  11. Methyl Vitamin B12 but not methylfolate rescues a motor neuron-like cell line from homocysteine-mediated cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemendinger, Richelle A.; Armstrong, Edward J.; Brooks, Benjamin Rix

    2011-01-01

    Homocysteine is an excitatory amino acid implicated in multiple diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Information on the toxicity of homocysteine in motor neurons is limited and few studies have examined how this toxicity can be modulated. In NSC-34D cells (a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma), homocysteine induces apoptotic cell death in the millimolar range with a TC 50 (toxic concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is achieved) of 2.2 mM, confirmed by activation of caspase 3/7. Induction of apoptosis was independent of short-term reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methyl Vitamin B12 (MeCbl) and methyl tetrahydrofolate (MTHF), used clinically to treat elevated homocysteine levels, were tested for their ability to reverse homocysteine-mediated motor neuron cell death. MeCbl in the micromolar range was able to provide neuroprotection (2 h pretreatment prior to homocysteine) and neurorescue (simultaneous exposure with homocysteine) against millimolar homocysteine with an IC 50 (concentration at which 50% of maximal cell death is inhibited) of 0.6 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. In contrast, MTHF (up to 10 μM) had no effect on homocysteine-mediated cell death. MeCbl inhibited caspase 3/7 activation by homocysteine in a time- and dose-dependent manner, whereas MTHF had no effect. We conclude that MeCbl is effective against homocysteine-induced cell death in motor neurons in a ROS-independent manner, via a reduction in caspase activation and apoptosis. MeCbl decreases Hcy induced motor neuron death in vitro in a hybrid cell line derived from motor neuron-neuroblastoma and may play a role in the treatment of late stage ALS where HCy levels are increased in animal models of ALS.

  12. Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferenczi, G.; Londos, C.A.; Pavelka, T.; Somogyi, M.; Mertens, A.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10/sup -16/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (sigma/sub p/ = 8 x 10/sup -18/ cm/sup 2/) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal.

  13. Abnormal maternal biomarkers of homocysteine and methionine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... homocysteine and methionine metabolism are altered among non pregnant women who ..... groups as regards history of smoking, exposure to environmental ..... anomalies from 1950 to 1994: an international perspective.

  14. Elevated plasma homocysteine in association with decreased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Psychiatry • January 2012. 25 ... impact on mental health and that the outcomes of certain mental .... Accuracy and precision of biochemical tests were ..... Reynolds EH Homocysteine, folate, methylation, and monoamine.

  15. Quantification of total aluminium concentrations in food samples at trace levels by INAA and PIGE methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, Braja B.; Acharya, R.

    2017-01-01

    Total aluminium contents in various food samples were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission (PIGE) methods. A total of 16 rice samples, collected from the field, were analyzed by INAA using reactor neutrons from Dhruva reactor. Whereas a total 17 spices collected from market, were analyzed by both INAA and PIGE methods in conjunction with high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. Aluminium concentration values were found to be in the range of 19-845 mg kg -1 for spices and 15-104 mg kg -1 for rice samples. The methods were validated by analyzing standard reference materials (SRMs) form NIST. (author)

  16. Homocyst(e)ine and risk of cardiovascular disease in the multiple risk factor intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R W; Shaten, B J; Hempel, J D; Cutler, J A; Kuller, L H

    2000-01-01

    A nested case-control study was undertaken involving men participating in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). Serum samples from 712 men, stored for upto 20 years, were analysed for homocyst(e)ine. Cases involved non-fatal myocardial infractions, identified through the active phase of the study, which ended on February 28, 1982, and deaths due to coronary heart disease, monitored through 1990. The non-fatal myocardial infarction occurred within 7 years of sample collection, whereas the majority of coronary heart disease deaths occurred more than 11 years after sample collection. Mean homocyst(e)ine concentrations were in the expected range and did not differ significantly between case patients and control subjects: myocardial infarction cases, 12.6 micromol/L; myocardial infarction controls, 13.1 micromol/L; coronary heart disease death cases, 12.8 micromol/L; and coronary heart disease controls, 12.7 micromol/L. Odds ratios versus quartile 1 for coronary heart disease deaths and myocardial infarctions combined were as follows: quartile 2, 1.03; quartile 3, 0.84; and quartile 4, 0.92. Thus, in this prospective study, no association of homocyst(e)ine concentration with heart disease was detected. Homocyst(e)ine levels were weakly associated with the acute-phase (C-reactive) protein. These results are discussed with respect to the suggestion that homocyst(e)ine is an independent risk factor for heart disease.

  17. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeles C, A.

    2001-02-01

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients

  18. Total flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province (China: Phylogeny and ecological factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available The flavonoids in bryophytes may have great significance in phylogeny and metabolism research. However, to date there has been little research on bryophyte metabolites, especially flavonoids. To redress this somewhat, we determined flavonoid concentrations of bryophytes from Tianmu Mountain through a colorimetric assay and considered the factors influencing the results. This is the first time that the flavonoid contents of bryophytes have been examined in detail. The results revealed a range of total flavonoid concentrations in 90 samples collected from Tianmu Mountain from 1.8 to 22.3 mg/g (w/w. The total flavonoid contents of liverworts were generally higher than those of mosses; acrocarpous mosses had generally higher values than that of pleurocarpous mosses. The total flavonoid contents of bryophytes growing at lower light levels were general higher than those growing in full-sun. The total flavonoid contents of epiphytic bryophytes were highest, while those of aquatic bryophytes were the lowest. Total flavonoid contents of species growing at low-latitudes were much higher than those at high-latitude individuals. In conclusion, total flavonoid contents of bryophytes have some connection with plant phylogeny; more flavonoids might be contained in relatively primitive bryophytes. Meanwhile, the effects of ecological factors on total flavonoid contents of bryophytes exist; light and habitat (especially tree habitat and river habitat might be representative factor.

  19. Dynamics of Total Microcystin LR Concentration in Three Subtropical Hydroelectric Generation Reservoirs in Uruguay, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Piana, Mauricio; Fabián, Daniel; Piccardo, Andrea; Chalar, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    This study analyzed the temporal dynamics of total microcystin LR concentrations between the years of 2012 and 2015 in the Bonete, Baygorria and Palmar hydroelectric generation reservoirs in the central region of the Negro River, Uruguay. The three reservoirs showed differents total microcystin LR concentration, with no significant differences among them. Over 20 sampling dates, the three reservoirs exhibited total microcystin LR concentrations on eight occasions that corresponded to a slight to moderate human health risk according to WHO guideline values for recreational waters. By determining the concentration of microcystin LR in cyanobacterial biomass, we identified cyanobacterial populations that occurred over time with varying degrees of toxin production (maximal 85.4 µg/mm 3 ). The microcystin LR concentration in Bonete was positively correlated with temperature (r = 0.587) and cyanobacterial biomass (r = 0.736), in Baygorria with cyanobacterial biomass (r = 0.521), and in Palmar with temperature (r = 0.500) and negatively correlated with ammonia (r = -0.492). Action is needed to reduce the presence of toxic cyanobacteria in these systems. A decrease in the use of agrochemicals and management changes in the reservoir basins could be successful long-term measures.

  20. Laser ablation-laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for the measurement of total elemental concentration in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Jhon; López, Sebastian; Jaramillo, Daniel; Hahn, David W; Molina, Alejandro

    2013-04-10

    The performances of traditional laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation-LIBS (LA-LIBS) were compared by quantifying the total elemental concentration of potassium in highly heterogeneous solid samples, namely soils. Calibration curves for a set of fifteen samples with a wide range of potassium concentrations were generated. The LA-LIBS approach produced a superior linear response different than the traditional LIBS scheme. The analytical response of LA-LIBS was tested with a large set of different soil samples for the quantification of the total concentration of Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K. Results showed an acceptable linear response for Ca, Fe, Mg, and K while poor signal responses were found for Na and Mn. Signs of remaining matrix effects for the LA-LIBS approach in the case of soil analysis were found and discussed. Finally, some improvements and possibilities for future studies toward quantitative soil analysis with the LA-LIBS technique are suggested.

  1. Preliminary evaluation of serum total cholesterol concentrations in dogs with osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeper, H; Viall, A; Ruaux, C; Bracha, S

    2017-10-01

    To determine if total serum cholesterol concentrations were altered in dogs with osteosarcoma. To evaluate association of total serum cholesterol concentration with clinical outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma. Retrospective, multi-institutional study on 64 dogs with osteosarcoma. Control population consisted of dogs with traumatic bone fractures (n=30) and healthy patients of similar age and weight as those of the osteosarcoma cases (n=31). Survival analysis was done on 35 appendicular osteosarcoma patients that received the current standard of care. Statistical associations were assessed by univariable and multi-variable analysis. Information about age, sex, primary tumour location, total cholesterol concentration, monocytes and lymphocyte counts and alkaline phosphatase were also included. Total cholesterol was elevated above the reference interval (3·89 to 7·12 mmol/L) (150 to 275 mg/dL) in 29 of 64 (45·3%) osteosarcoma-bearing dogs, whereas similar elevations were found in only 3 of 30 (10%) fracture controls (Posteosarcoma. These results suggest that elevated total cholesterol is associated with canine osteosarcoma and may have prognostic significance. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Factors influencing concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) and total mercury (TM) in an artificial reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Myung-Chan; Kim, Bomchul; Holsen, Thomas M.; Yi, Seung-Muk; Han, Young-Ji

    2010-01-01

    The effects of various factors including turbidity, pH, DOC, temperature, and solar radiation on the concentrations of total mercury (TM) and dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) were investigated in an artificial reservoir in Korea. Episodic total mercury accumulation events occurred during the rainy season as turbidity increased, indicating that the TM concentration was not controlled by direct atmospheric deposition. The DGM concentration in surface water ranged from 3.6 to 160 pg/L, having a maximum in summer and minimum in winter. While in most previous studies DGM was controlled primarily by a photo-reduction process, DGM concentrations tracked the amount of solar radiation only in winter when the water temperature was fairly low in this study. During the other seasons microbial transformation seemed to play an important role in reducing Hg(II) to Hg(0). DGM increased as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration increased (p-value < 0.01) while it increased with a decrease of pH (p-value < 0.01). - Long-term in-situ monitoring of TM and DGM concentrations with various factors was executed in a large artificial reservoir in this study.

  3. Comparison of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle as measured by the Bradford and Lowry assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seevaratnam, Rajini; Patel, Barkha P; Hamadeh, Mazen J

    2009-06-01

    The Lowry and Bradford assays are the most commonly used methods of total protein quantification, yet vary in several aspects. To date, no comparisons have been made in skeletal muscle. We compared total protein concentrations of mouse red and white gastrocnemius, reagent stability, protein stability and range of linearity using both assays. The Lowry averaged protein concentrations 15% higher than the Bradford with a moderate correlation (r = 0.36, P = 0.01). However, Bland-Altman analysis revealed considerable bias (15.8 +/- 29.7%). Both Lowry reagents and its protein-reagent interactions were less stable over time than the Bradford. The linear range of concentration was smaller for the Lowry (0.05-0.50 mg/ml) than the Bradford (0-2.0 mg/ml). We conclude that the Bradford and Lowry measures of total protein concentration in skeletal muscle are not interchangeable. The Bradford and Lowry assays have various strengths and weaknesses in terms of substance interference and protein size. However, the Bradford provides greater reagent stability, protein-reagent stability and range of linearity, and requires less time to analyse compared to the Lowry assay.

  4. Bulk metal concentrations versus total suspended solids in rivers: Time-invariant & catchment-specific relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Touraj; Ruegner, Hermann; Schwientek, Marc; Bennett, Jeremy; Fazel Valipour, Shahin; Grathwohl, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Suspended particles in rivers can act as carriers of potentially bioavailable metal species and are thus an emerging area of interest in river system monitoring. The delineation of bulk metals concentrations in river water into dissolved and particulate components is also important for risk assessment. Linear relationships between bulk metal concentrations in water (CW,tot) and total suspended solids (TSS) in water can be used to easily evaluate dissolved (CW, intercept) and particle-bound metal fluxes (CSUS, slope) in streams (CW,tot = CW + CSUS TSS). In this study, we apply this principle to catchments in Iran (Haraz) and Germany (Ammer, Goldersbach, and Steinlach) that show differences in geology, geochemistry, land use and hydrological characteristics. For each catchment, particle-bound and dissolved concentrations for a suite of metals in water were calculated based on linear regressions of total suspended solids and total metal concentrations. Results were replicable across sampling campaigns in different years and seasons (between 2013 and 2016) and could be reproduced in a laboratory sedimentation experiment. CSUS values generally showed little variability in different catchments and agree well with soil background values for some metals (e.g. lead and nickel) while other metals (e.g. copper) indicate anthropogenic influences. CW was elevated in the Haraz (Iran) catchment, indicating higher bioavailability and potential human and ecological health concerns (where higher values of CSUS/CW are considered as a risk indicator).

  5. Determination of diffusible and total hydrogen concentration in coated and uncoated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabho, Nonhlangabezo

    2010-09-23

    The new trend in the steel industry demands thin, flexible, high strength steels with low internal embrittlement. It is a well known fact that the atomic hydrogen which is picked up during production, fabrication and service embrittles the steel. This has led to an extensive research towards the improvement of the quality of metallic materials by focusing on total and diffusible hydrogen concentrations which are responsible for hydrogen embrittlement. Since the internal embrittlement cannot be foreseen, the concentrations of diffusible hydrogen work as indicators while the total hydrogen characterizes the absorbed quantities and quality of that particular product. To meet these requirements, the analytical chemistry methods which include the already existing carrier gas melt (fusion) extraction methods that use infrared and thermal conductivity for total hydrogen detection were applied. The newly constructed carrier gas thermal desorption mass spectroscopy was applied to monitor the diffusible concentration at specific temperatures and desorption rates of hydrogen which will contribute towards the quality of materials during service. The TDMS method also involved the characterization of the energy quantity (activation energy) required by hydrogen to be removed from traps of which irreversible traps are preferred because they enhance the stability of the product by inhibiting the mobility of hydrogen which is detrimental to the metallic structures. The instrumentation for TDMS is quite simple, compact, costs less and applicable to routine analysis. To determine total and diffusible hydrogen, the influence of the following processes: chemical and mechanical zinc coating removal, sample cleaning with organic solvents, conditions for hydrogen absorption by electrolytic hydrogen charging, conditions of hydrogen desorption by storing the sample at room temperature, solid CO{sub 2} and at temperatures of the drier was analysed. The contribution of steel alloys towards

  6. EFFECTS OF COMMONLY USED COOKING PRACTICES ON TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN FISH AND THEIR IMPACT ON EXPOSURE ASSESSMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of cooking practices commonly used by Native Americans on total mercury concentrations in fish were investigated. A preparation factor relating mercury concentrations in fish as prepared for consumption to mercury concentration data as measured in typical environmenta...

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on total carbohydrate concentration of finger millet flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathika; Patil, Shrikant L.; Bhasker Shenoy, K.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ragi or finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) is one of the common millets in several regions of India. The effect of gamma irradiation, on ragi flour was investigated in the study. Ragi flour is procured from market. Flour samples of 50 gms were taken in triplicates in a polyethylene pouch, air sealed and subjected to gamma irradiation doses ranging from 0.25 to 10 kGy and stored in polyethylene bags and plastic containers for a period of 30 and 90 days. Within 24 hours of irradiation, the samples were tested for total carbohydrate concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The same was repeated after 30 and 90 days of storage. The comparative study showed that, at 0 day, total carbohydrate concentration has decreased slightly when compared to the non-irradiated sample (0.024 mg/ml). The lowest concentration of carbohydrate is seen at 0.025 kGy (0.019mg/ml). The samples stored in polyethylene bag, after 30 days showed both increase (0.056 mg/ml at 0.025 kGy) and decrease (0.04 mg/ml at 10 kGy) in total carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.046 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed increase in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.029 mg/ml). The highest carbohydrate concentration is seen in 1 kGy dose (0.037 mg/ml). The samples stored at container after 30 days showed both increase (0.045 mg/ml at 5 kGy) and decrease (0.034 mg/ml at 0.025 mg/ml) of carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.043 mg/ml). 90 days stored samples showed decrease in carbohydrate concentration when compared to control (0.034 mg/ml). The lowest concentration is seen at 5 kGy (0.022 mg/ml). (author)

  8. Effect of Physical Activity on Serum Homocysteine Levels in Obese and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soori

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Recently, homocysteine has been noticed as the major pathogenesis factor of the cardiovascular diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of physical activities on the serum homocysteine levels, as well as other cardiovascular risk factors in either obese or overweight women. Materials & Methods: In the controlled pretest-posttest semi-experimental study, 18 women referred to the Alzahra sport complexes in districts 3 and 4 of Tehran were studied in 2015. The subjects were selected via random sampling method and randomly divided into two groups; physical activity and control groups. And the intervention program was conducted in the former, while the latter received no intervention. The exercise protocol consisted of 10-week (5 sessions a week stretching exercises and aerobic activities (60 to 75% of the maximum heart beat. The serum homocystein level and lipids were measured both at the start and 48 hours after the exercises. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 software using paired T and independent T tests. Findings: After the exercises, the mean serum homocysteine level in physical activity group significantly decreased than control group (p=0.001. Nevertheless, the difference between the lipid levels of physical activity and control groups was not significant (p>0.05. Conclusion: Reducing the serum homocysteine concentration, 10-week physical activity might also reduce the risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in either obese or overweight women.

  9. Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine elevated after intracranial and cervical stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanyan; Wei, Yunfei; Ye, Ziming; Qin, Chao

    2017-08-01

    The presence of Th1 and Th17 cells has been observed as major inducers in inflammation and immune responses associated stenting. However, there is rare data on the impact of Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine after cerebral stent implantation. Here, we performed the statistical analysis to first evaluate the variation of the Th17and Th1 cells and their related cytokines, CXCL16 and homocysteine in the peripheral blood of patients with cerebral stenting. The flow cytometry was used to detect the proportion of Th1 and Th17 cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the serum concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-17 and CXCL16. Plasma homocysteine was examined by immunoturbidimetry. The level of Th1, CXCL16 and homocysteine showed an increase at 3 d, followed by the continuous decrease at 7 d and 3 months. The frequency of Th17 cells increased to a peak at three days, and subsequently decreased with a higher level than baseline. Our data revealed that the variation in Th1, Th17, CXCL16 and homocysteine in peripheral blood of patients with stenting may be implicated in inflammation after intracranial and cervical stent implantation. A better understanding of these factors will provide help for further drug design and clinical therapy.

  10. Effects of ω3 on Serum Level of Malondialdehyde and Homocysteine in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jalali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Diabetes is regarded as a serious condition for both the individual and the society. One of the most important mortality reasons in diabetic patients is atherosclerosis. Many epidemiological studies have shown that the total homocysteine concentration is a risk indicator for cardiovascular disease. Malondialdehyde (MDA also is a highly toxic by-product formed in part by lipid oxidation derived free radicals. Many studies have shown that its concentration increases considerably in diabetes mellitus. Epidemiological data indicate that the consumption of omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids (O3FA leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disorders may protect against metabolic diseases. In recent years, numerous researches on omega-3 fatty acids have been done but it cannot be used as a confident additive. So in order to evaluate and compare the effects of ω3 on malondialdehyde (as fat peroxidation indicator and homocysteine on diabetic type 2 patients, this research was carried out in Tehran University. Materials & Methods: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial was conducted on 81 type 2 diabetic patients, 45–85 years old with diabetes for at least 2 years.Diabetic patients were randomly assigned to one of the case or control groups, each subject received 3 capsules per day of omega-3 or placebo for a period of 2 months. 10 ml blood was collected from each subject at the beginning and at the end of a 2-month trial. Serum MDA was determined with Tiobarbituric acid for more sensitivity and homosystein was measured by Hitachi autoanalyzer with Enzymatic Cycling method. Nutrients intakes were estimated using 24 h dietary recall questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the 2-month trial for 2 days and analyzed by FPп. T-test also was used to compare groups. Results: Copmaring the mean±S.D of BMI and food intake in both groups showed no significant differences. MDA level degreased 0.72 nmol

  11. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gawel, R.; Rogers, D. A. G.

    2009-07-01

    The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious. (Author) 16 refs.

  12. Elemental concentration analysis in prostate tissues using total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitão, R.G.; Palumbo, A.; Souza, P.A.V.R.; Pereira, G.R.; Canellas, C.G.L.; Anjos, M.J.; Nasciutti, L.E.; Lopes, R.T.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) currently represents the second most prevalent malignant neoplasia in men, representing 21% of all cancer cases. Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) is an illness prevailing in men above the age of 50, close to 90% after the age of 80. The prostate presents a high zinc concentration, about 10-fold higher than any other body tissue. In this work, samples of human prostate tissues with cancer, BPH and normal tissue were analyzed utilizing total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation technique (SR-TXRF) to investigate the differences in the elemental concentrations in these tissues. SR-TXRF analyses were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beamline at Brazilian National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS), in Campinas, São Paulo. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Rb. By using Mann–Whitney U test it was observed that almost all elements presented concentrations with significant differences (α=0.05) between the groups studied. - Highlights: ► Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer in men. ► Intracellular Zn is correlated with proliferation, differentiation, or apoptosis. ► The prostate gland accumulate high concentration of Zn. ► SR-TXRF is a technique widely used in the analysis of low concentration in samples

  13. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. What is the influence of hormone therapy on homocysteine and crp levels in postmenopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Marcelo Lakryc

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of estrogen therapy and estrogen-progestin therapy on homocysteine and C-reactive protein levels in postmenopausal women. METHODS: In total, 99 postmenopausal women were included in this double-blind, randomized clinical trial and divided into three groups: Group A used estrogen therapy alone (2.0 mg of 17β-estradiol, Group B received estrogen-progestin therapy (2.0 mg of 17 β-estradiol +1.0 mg of norethisterone acetate and Group C received a placebo (control. The length of treatment was six months. Serum measurements of homocysteine and C-reactive protein were carried out prior to the onset of treatment and following six months of therapy. RESULTS: After six months of treatment, there was a 20.7% reduction in homocysteine levels and a 100.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels in the group of women who used estrogen therapy. With respect to the estrogen-progestin group, there was a 12.2% decrease in homocysteine levels and a 93.5% increase in C-reactive protein levels. CONCLUSION: Our data suggested that hormone therapy (unopposed estrogen or estrogen associated with progestin may have a positive influence on decreasing cardiovascular risk due to a significant reduction in homocysteine levels.

  15. Homocysteine interference in neurulation: a chick embryo model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afman, L.A.; Blom, H.J.; Put, N.M.J. van der; Straaten, H.W.M. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periconceptional folic acid supplementation reduces the occurrence and recurrence risk of neural tube defects (NTD). Mothers of children with NTD have elevated plasma homocysteine levels. Administering homocysteine to chick embryos is reported to cause 27% NTD. Therefore, elevated plasma

  16. Influence of starter culture on total free aminoacids concentration during ripening of Krk cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Radeljević

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of microbial (commercial starter culture on concentration of total free amino groups (amino acids in cheeses in different ripening stages. Free amino groups were determined by reaction with ninhydrin with cadmium (Cd in the water soluble cheese extract, and were expressed as the concentration of leucine in cheese dry matter. Changes in concentration of total free amino acids during cheese ripening (0th, 30th, 60th, 90th and 120th day were monitored. In water soluble extracts of cheese, the presence of free NH2 groups in all ripening stages was detected, which means smaller peptides and amino acids, whose concentration significantly (P<0.01 increased during ripening. Cheeses produced with and without microbial culture resulted in statistically significant differences (P<0.01 in content amino acids free on the 90th and 120th day of ripening. Cd - ninhydrin method was found to be suitable for cheese ripening monitoring, as well as for determination of the differences in mature characteristics of cheeses, depending on the production process.

  17. Total antioxidative capacity and zinc concentration in dogs suffering from perianal tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Adam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine total antioxidative capacity (TAC and zinc concentration in serum of dogs suffering from perianal tumours just before the start of the antihormonal treatment (AHT and one and six months later. The study was performed on 45 dogs divided into two groups: control group suffering from non-malignant tumours (N = 24 and a group with malignant neoplastic changes (N = 21. Serum TAC and zinc concentrations were measured using photometric and atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. Six months after the start of the AHT, TAC was significantly lower by 10.6% in dogs with malignant tumours when compared to controls (P = 0.03. In the non-malignant group, serum zinc concentration was higher before the treatment than in the malignant group, while the opposite results were observed six months later (P < 0.001. In the non-malignant group, gradually decreasing values of serum zinc concentration at each stage of the investigation were observed, while the opposite results were obtained in the malignant group (P < 0.05. The obtained results indicate that malignant neoplastic process is associated with significantly reduced TAC. Determination of serum zinc concentration in dogs with non-malignant and malignant perianal tumours may have practical diagnostic and prognostic values and may serve towards increasing the effectiveness of AHT monitoring.

  18. Sensing methanol concentration in direct methanol fuel cell with total harmonic distortion: Theory and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Qing; Krewer, Ulrike

    2012-01-01

    The nonlinear frequency response of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is studied by analyzing the total harmonic distortion (THD) spectra. The dependence of the THD spectra on methanol concentration and methanol oxidation kinetics is investigated by means of both simulation and experiment. Simulation using a continuous stirred tank reactor network model suggests that the methanol concentration profile in the anode has a strong impact on the THD spectra. The experimentally observed nonlinear behavior of the DMFC anode can be qualitatively reproduced with a model containing a three-step methanol oxidation mechanism with Kauranen–Frumkin/Temkin kinetics. Both experiment and simulation results show that THD value has a monotonic correlation with methanol concentration at certain frequencies and its sensitivity to concentration is improved with increased current amplitude. The monotonic relationship enables the THD to sense the methanol concentration level by the DMFC itself, which is of mayor interest for the portable application as an external sensor for the system can be omitted.

  19. Homocysteine and carotid intima-media thickness in ischemic stroke patients are not correlated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Ntaios

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available George Ntaios1, Christos Savopoulos1, Apostolos Hatzitolios1, Ippoliti Ekonomou2, Evangelos Destanis2, Ioannis Chryssogonidis2, Anastasia Chatzinikolaou3, Ifigenia Pidonia3, Dimitrios Karamitsos11First Propedeutic Department of Internal Medicine; 2Department of Radiology; 3Department of Biochemistry, AHEPA Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Hyperhomocysteinemia has been linked to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by numerous authors. Whether this association is causal or not remains uncertain. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of hyperhomocysteinemia with the degree of carotid atherosclerosis in stroke patients.Methods: We studied 97 Greek patients in our stroke unit who were hospitalized as a result of ischemic stroke between March 2006 and May 2007. The patients were divided into two groups: the first (52 patients included stroke patients with serum levels of homocysteine below 15 µmol/L, but in the second group (45 patients serum homocysteine exceeded this value. We measured carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT in all patients and correlated it with serum homocysteine.Results: The mean homocysteine concentration was 11.5 µmol/L in the first group and 21.5 µmol/L in the second group. Carotid IMT was 1.012 mm in the first group, and 1.015 mm in the second group, an insignificant difference. On the contrary, serum folate concentration was 21.3 nmol/L in the first group compared with 16.7 nmol/L in the second group (p < 0.001. VitB12 was 401 pmol/L in the first group and 340 pmol/L in the second group, a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001.Conclusions: Serum levels of homocysteine were not correlated with cIMT in ischemic stroke patients. Both folate and vitB12 were decreased in hyperhomocysteinemic ischemic stroke patients.Keywords: homocysteine, carotid intima-media thickness, ischemic stroke

  20. Homocysteine, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in serum of epileptic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanism of this association with epileptogenesis has not been clearly understood, although there is emerging evidence to support the unfavorable effects of some anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) on the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. The aim of this study was to uncover the relationship between the levels of ...

  1. Effect modification by population dietary folate on the association between MTHFR genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Michael V; Newcombe, Paul; Hubacek, Jaroslav A

    2011-01-01

    The MTHFR 677C→T polymorphism has been associated with raised homocysteine concentration and increased risk of stroke. A previous overview showed that the effects were greatest in regions with low dietary folate consumption, but differentiation between the effect of folate and small-study bias wa...

  2. Concentration, size, and density of total suspended particulates at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Lee, Jongmin; Zhang, Yuanhui; Wang, Xinlei; Yang, Liangcheng

    2015-08-01

    Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were seasonally collected at the air exhaust of 15 commercial concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs; including swine finishing, swine farrowing, swine gestation, laying hen, and tom turkey) in the U.S. Midwest. The measured TSP concentrations ranged from 0.38 ± 0.04 mg m⁻³ (swine gestation in summer) to 10.9 ± 3.9 mg m⁻³ (tom turkey in winter) and were significantly affected by animal species, housing facility type, feeder type (dry or wet), and season. The average particle size of collected TSP samples in terms of mass median equivalent spherical diameter ranged from 14.8 ± 0.5 µm (swine finishing in winter) to 30.5 ± 2.0 µm (tom turkey in summer) and showed a significant seasonal effect. This finding affirmed that particulate matter (PM) released from CAFOs contains a significant portion of large particles. The measured particle size distribution (PSD) and the density of deposited particles (on average 1.65 ± 0.13 g cm⁻³) were used to estimate the mass fractions of PM10 and PM2.5 (PM ≤ 10 and ≤ 2.5 μm, respectively) in the collected TSP. The results showed that the PM10 fractions ranged from 12.7 ± 5.1% (tom turkey) to 21.1 ± 3.2% (swine finishing), whereas the PM2.5 fractions ranged from 3.4 ± 1.9% (tom turkey) to 5.7 ± 3.2% (swine finishing) and were smaller than 9.0% at all visited CAFOs. This study applied a filter-based method for PSD measurement and deposited particles as a surrogate to estimate the TSP's particle density. The limitations, along with the assumptions adopted during the calculation of PM mass fractions, must be recognized when comparing the findings to other studies.

  3. Effect of Folic Acid, Betaine, Vitamin B₆, and Vitamin B12 on Homocysteine and Dimethylglycine Levels in Middle-Aged Men Drinking White Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajdl, Daniel; Racek, Jaroslav; Trefil, Ladislav; Stehlik, Pavel; Dobra, Jana; Babuska, Vaclav

    2016-01-12

    Moderate regular consumption of alcoholic beverages is believed to protect against atherosclerosis but can also increase homocysteine or dimethylglycine, which are putative risk factors for atherosclerosis. We aimed (1) to investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on vitamins and several metabolites involved in one-carbon metabolism; and (2) to find the most effective way of decreasing homocysteine during moderate alcohol consumption. Male volunteers (n = 117) were randomly divided into five groups: the wine-only group (control, 375 mL of white wine daily for one month) and four groups combining wine consumption with one of the supplemented substances (folic acid, betaine, and vitamins B12 or B₆). Significant lowering of homocysteine concentration after the drinking period was found in subjects with concurrent folate and betaine supplementation. Vitamin B12 and vitamin B₆ supplementation did not lead to a statistically significant change in homocysteine. According to a multiple linear regression model, the homocysteine change in the wine-only group was mainly determined by the interaction between the higher baseline homocysteine concentration and the change in dimethylglycine levels. Folate and betaine can attenuate possible adverse effects of moderate alcohol consumption. Dimethylglycine should be interpreted together with data on alcohol consumption and homocysteine concentration.

  4. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S Bilasini; Singh, W Gyaneshwar

    2008-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum homocysteine levels were estimated by ELISA method using Axis homocysteine EIA kit manufactured by Ranbaxy Diagnostic Ltd. India. The finding suggests that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with cerebrovascular accident with male preponderance, which increases with advancing age. However, whether hyperhomocysteinemia is the cause or the result of cerebrovascular accidents needs further investigations.

  5. Genetics of homocysteine metabolism and associated disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brustolin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid derived from the metabolism of methionine, an essential amino acid, and is metabolized by one of two pathways: remethylation or transsulfuration. Abnormalities of these pathways lead to hyperhomocysteinemia. Hyperhomocysteinemia is observed in approximately 5% of the general population and is associated with an increased risk for many disorders, including vascular and neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders, birth defects, diabetes, renal disease, osteoporosis, neuropsychiatric disorders, and cancer. We review here the correlation between homocysteine metabolism and the disorders described above with genetic variants on genes coding for enzymes of homocysteine metabolism relevant to clinical practice, especially common variants of the MTHFR gene, 677C>T and 1298A>C. We also discuss the management of hyperhomocysteinemia with folic acid supplementation and fortification of folic acid and the impact of a decrease in the prevalence of congenital anomalies and a decline in the incidence of stroke mortality.

  6. Total and methyl mercury concentrations and fluxes from small boreal forest catchments in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porvari, Petri; Verta, Matti

    2003-01-01

    Peatlands have higher methyl mercury output than uplands. - Total mercury (TotHg) and methyl mercury (MeHg) concentrations were studied in runoff from eight small (0.02-1.3 km 2 ) boreal forest catchments (mineral soil and peatland) during 1990-1995. Runoff waters were extremely humic (TOC 7-70 mg l -1 ). TotHg concentrations varied between 0.84 and 24 ng l -1 and MeHg between 0.03 and 3.8 ng l -1 . TotHg fluxes from catchments ranged from 0.92 to 1.8 g km -2 a -1 , and MeHg fluxes from 0.03 to 0.33 g km -2 a -1 . TotHg concentrations and output fluxes measured in runoff water from small forest catchments in Finland were comparable with those measured in other boreal regions. By contrast, MeHg concentrations were generally higher. Estimates for MeHg output fluxes in this study were comparable at sites with forests and wetlands in Sweden and North America, but clearly higher than those measured at upland or agricultural sites in other studies. Peatland catchments released more MeHg than pure mineral soil or mineral soil catchments with minor area of peatland

  7. Characteristics of total gaseous mercury concentrations at a coastal area of the Yangtze Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Chunyan; Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Bin; Tang, Shichuang

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we report on total gaseous mercury (TGM) field observations made in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, China, from September 2009 to April 2012. The average TGM was 2.65 ± 1.73 ng m -3 in Chongming Island, which is higher than the TGM background value of the Northern Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng m -3 ); this indicates that to some extent, the Chongming area has been affected by anthropogenic mercury emissions. The observed TGM follows a seasonal pattern; concentrations are highest in winter, followed by autumn, summer, and spring. There is also a clear diurnal variation in TGM. All peak values appear between 7:00 and 9:00 in all four seasons; this appears to be the result of the height change in the atmospheric boundary layer that occurs between day and night. TGM concentrations in Chongming remain high in the westerly wind direction, especially in the southwest direction because of its low frequency, so the greatest source contribution to TGM in Chongming lies to the northwest. Wind speed is also a significant factor affecting TGM, and was negatively correlated with TGM concentrations. TGM is also closely related to carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations, indicating that TGM is impacted by human activities. The slope of the linear fitting of TGM and CO demonstrates that the contribution of noncoal source emissions to TGM in summer is greater than in autumn, mainly because the high temperature and intensive sunlight in summer increase mercury emissions from natural sources. Except for some studies in the coastal areas (e.g., Kang Hwa Island by Kim et al., 2006, An-Myun Island by Kim et al., 2002, and Okinawa by Chan et al., 2008), data specifically for coastal areas are lacking. Monitoring of total gaseous mercury (TGM) in the rural area of Shanghai, Chongming Island, can help us understand mercury distribution.

  8. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  9. Serum homocysteine levels are correlated with behavioral and psychological symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim H

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hyun Kim, Kang Joon Lee Department of Psychiatry, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang, South Korea Purpose: Homocysteine has been associated with cognitive impairment and various psychiatric symptoms. This study was designed to clarify whether a relationship exists between the serum levels of homocysteine and the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.Methods: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (n=77 and control subjects (n=37 were included in this study. History taking, physical examination, and cognitive assessment were carried out as part of the investigation for the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, Clinical Dementia Rating, and the Korean version of the Neuro­psychiatric Inventory were applied to all patients. The patients’ serum homocysteine, folate, and vitamin B12 levels were measured.Results: Patients with Alzheimer’s disease had statistically significantly lower Mini-Mental State Examination scores and higher serum homocysteine levels compared to the control subjects. Mean serum folate and vitamin B12 concentration were significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease compared to control subjects. A statistically significant positive correlation was found between the serum homocysteine levels and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subdomains, including delusion, agitation/aggression, depression/dysphoria, elation/euphoria, apathy/indifference, and disinhibition. No statistically significant correlation was found between the serum homocysteine concentration and the Mini-Mental State Examination, Global Deterioration Scale, or Clinical Dementia Rating.Conclusion: Associations between the serum homocysteine levels and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia were observed, raising the possibility of an etiological role. However, the

  10. Determinants of plasma homocyst(e)ine in patients with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joven, J; Arcelús, R; Camps, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Vilella, E; González-Sastre, F; Blanco-Vaca, F

    2000-01-01

    Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an independent risk factor for atherothrombosis in several clinical settings in which renal function is impaired, but its prevalence in the nephrotic syndrome has not been investigated in detail, even though this syndrome provides an excellent model in which to study a possible link between albuminuria, proteinuria, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. We obtained plasma and urine from 27 patients with biopsy-confirmed membranous glomerulonephritis presenting nephrotic syndrome and 27 matched controls and determined the concentrations of homocyst(e)ine and proteins considered putative markers of glomerular and tubular function. Hyperhomocyst(e)inemia, defined as the mean +SD of the plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration of the controls [plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration >10.8 micromol/l] was present in 26% of the patients with nephrotic syndrome but in only 7.4% of the controls. Furthermore, the degree of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia was more severe in the nephrotic patients than in the controls. The existence of renal failure, tubular damage, and, interestingly, relatively well conserved glomerular function barrier were the main predictors of increased levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine. In conclusion, hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is a frequent cardiovascular risk factor present in patients with nephrotic syndrome and renal failure, but it is not directly associated with proteinuria.

  11. Total lead concentration in new decorative enamel paints in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C Scott; Speranskaya, Olga; Brosche, Sara; Gonzalez, Hebe; Solis, Daniela; Kodeih, Naji; Roda, Sandy; Lind, Caroline

    2015-04-01

    Lead concentrations in new enamel decorative paints were determined in three countries in different areas of the world where data were not previously available. The average total lead concentration of the enamel decorative paints purchased in Lebanon, Paraguay and Russia was 24,500ppm (ppm, dry weight), more than 270 times the current limit of 90ppm in Canada and in the United States. Sixty-three percent of these paints contained concentrations greater than 90ppm. Fifty-nine percent contained concentrations greater than 600ppm, the current limit in some countries. The maximum concentrations found were 236,000ppm in Lebanon, 169,000ppm in Paraguay and 52,900ppm in Russia. An average of 29% of the samples contained exceedingly high lead concentrations, >=10,000ppm. Five brands of paint were sampled in each of Lebanon and Paraguay and seven in Russia. Three colors from each brand were analyzed. For five of the six samples of the two brands in Lebanon with affiliations outside the country, the lead concentrations ranged from 1360ppm to 135,000ppm. In Lebanon the maximum concentration in the Egypt-affiliated brand (Sipes) was 135,000ppm and the maximum for the USA-affiliated brand (Dutch Boy) was 32,400ppm. Lead was not detected in any paints from the three of the four brands of paint purchased in Paraguay that had headquarters/affiliations in other countries (Brazil-Coralit), Germany (Suvinil) and USA (Novacor)). Two of the three paints from each of the other Paraguay brands contained high levels of lead with the maximum concentrations of 108,000 and 168,000ppm; one of these brands was manufactured under a license from ICI in the Netherlands. All of the paints purchased in Russia were from Russian brands and were manufactured in Russia. All three paints from one brand contained below detection levels of lead. The maximum levels of lead in the other six brands in Russia ranged from 3230 to 52,900ppm. The two brands with the highest lead concentration, TEKS and LAKRA

  12. The relationship between cholesterol and cognitive function is homocysteine-dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng YB

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yibin Cheng,1 Yinlong Jin,1 Frederick W Unverzagt,2 Liqin Su,1 Lili Yang,3 Feng Ma,1 Ann M Hake,4,5 Carla Kettler,3 Chen Chen,1 Jingyi Liu,1 Jianchao Bian,6 Ping Li,7 Jill R Murrell,8 Hugh C Hendrie,2,9,10 Sujuan Gao3 1Institute for Environmental Health and Related Product Safety, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Biostatistics, 4Department of Neurology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 5Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA; 6Shandong Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Endemic Disease in China, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 7Sichuan Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention in China, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China; 8Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 9Indiana University Center for Aging Research, 10Regenstrief Institute, Inc., Indianapolis, Indiana, USA Introduction: Previous studies have identified hyperlipidemia as a potential risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. However, studies on cholesterol measured in late-life and cognitive function have been inconsistent. Few studies have explored nonlinear relationships or considered interactions with other biomarker measures.Methods: A cross-sectional sample of 1,889 participants from four rural counties in the People’s Republic of China was included in this analysis. Serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and homocysteine levels were measured in fasting blood samples. A composite cognitive score was derived based on nine standardized cognitive test scores. Analysis of covariance models were used to investigate the association between biomarker measures and the composite cognitive scores.Results: There was a significant interaction between the homocysteine quartile group and the cholesterol quartile group on cognitive scores (P=0

  13. Homocysteine inhibits hepatocyte proliferation via endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Yu

    Full Text Available Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases. Recent studies have shown that levels of homocysteine are elevated in patients with impaired hepatic function, but the precise role of homocysteine in the development of hepatic dysfunction is unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of homocysteine on hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. Our results demonstrated that homocysteine inhibited hepatocyte proliferation by up-regulating protein levels of p53 as well as mRNA and protein levels of p21(Cip1 in primary cultured hepatocytes. Homocysteine induced cell growth arrest in p53-positive hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2, but not in p53-null hepatocarcinoma cell line Hep3B. A p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited the expression of p21(Cip1 and attenuated homocysteine-induced cell growth arrest. Homocysteine induced TRB3 expression via endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway, resulting in Akt dephosphorylation. Knock-down of endogenous TRB3 significantly suppressed the inhibitory effect of homocysteine on cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of Akt. LiCl reversed homocysteine-mediated cell growth arrest by inhibiting TRB3-mediated Akt dephosphorylation. These results demonstrate that both TRB3 and p21(Cip1 are critical molecules in the homocysteine signaling cascade and provide a mechanistic explanation for impairment of liver regeneration in hyperhomocysteinemia.

  14. Factors Effecting the Total Volatile Organic Compound (TVOC Concentrations in Slovak Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Mečiarová

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five Slovak households were selected for an investigation of indoor environmental quality. Measuring of indoor air physical and chemical factors and a questionnaire survey was performed during May 2017. The range of permissible operative temperature was not met in 11% of objects. Relative humidity met the legislative requirements in all monitored homes. Concentrations of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs were significantly higher in the apartments than in the family houses. The average TVOC levels in the apartments and family houses were 519.7 µg/m3 and 330.2 µg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed the effect of indoor air temperature, relative humidity and particulate matter (PM0.5 and PM1 on the levels of TVOCs. Higher TVOC levels were observed also in homes where it is not a common practice to open windows during cleaning activities. Other factors that had a statistically significant effect on concentrations of volatile organic compounds were heating type, attached garage, location of the apartment within residential building (the floor, as well as number of occupants. Higher TVOC concentrations were observed in indoor than outdoor environment, while further analysis showed the significant impact of indoor emission sources on the level of these compounds in buildings. The questionnaire study showed a discrepancy between objective measurement and subjective assessment in the household environment, and pointed to insufficient public awareness about volatile organic compounds (VOCs.

  15. Estimating spatio-temporal dynamics of stream total phosphate concentration by soft computing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fi-John; Chen, Pin-An; Chang, Li-Chiu; Tsai, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-15

    This study attempts to model the spatio-temporal dynamics of total phosphate (TP) concentrations along a river for effective hydro-environmental management. We propose a systematical modeling scheme (SMS), which is an ingenious modeling process equipped with a dynamic neural network and three refined statistical methods, for reliably predicting the TP concentrations along a river simultaneously. Two different types of artificial neural network (BPNN-static neural network; NARX network-dynamic neural network) are constructed in modeling the dynamic system. The Dahan River in Taiwan is used as a study case, where ten-year seasonal water quality data collected at seven monitoring stations along the river are used for model training and validation. Results demonstrate that the NARX network can suitably capture the important dynamic features and remarkably outperforms the BPNN model, and the SMS can effectively identify key input factors, suitably overcome data scarcity, significantly increase model reliability, satisfactorily estimate site-specific TP concentration at seven monitoring stations simultaneously, and adequately reconstruct seasonal TP data into a monthly scale. The proposed SMS can reliably model the dynamic spatio-temporal water pollution variation in a river system for missing, hazardous or costly data of interest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reducing surface water total and methyl mercury concentrations and bioavailability using a coagulation-wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, T. E.; Fleck, J.; Henneberry, Y. K.; Stumpner, E. B.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Bachand, P.; Randall, P.

    2013-12-01

    With the recent passage of laws regulating concentrations and loads of mercury (Hg) in surface waters, there is a need to develop management practices that will reduce the export of Hg from both point and non-point sources. Coagulation with metal based salts to remove particles and dissolved organic matter (DOM) from solution is a practice commonly employed by drinking water utilities. Because dissolved Hg is associated with particles and DOM, it follows that Hg should also be removed during the coagulation process and end up associated with the organo-metal precipitate, termed flocculate (floc). The effectiveness of iron- and aluminum-based coagulants for removing both inorganic and methyl mercury (IHg and MeHg, respectively) from solution was demonstrated in laboratory studies conducted on agricultural drainage waters of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta: dissolved concentrations of MeHg decreased by 80% while IHg decreased by 97% following coagulation. To test the field application of this technology, samples were collected from the inflows and outflows of wetland treatment cells constructed in the central Delta of California. This replicated field experiment includes three replicates each of three inflow waters treatments: (1) iron sulfate addition, (2) polyaluminum chloride addition, and (3) untreated controls. Water entering and exiting the nine treatment cells was sampled approximately monthly over a 1-year period for total Hg and MeHg in both the dissolved and particulate aqueous phases. Initial results confirm that coagulant addition is removing Hg (total and methyl, particulate and dissolved) from solution and sequestering it in the floc. Seasonal effects on DOM concentration and other factors appear to effect whether passage through the wetland cells alters surface water dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Hg concentrations. Related studies will examine whether the presence of the floc affects the production and fate of MeHg within the wetland cells. If

  17. Effect of sucralfate on total carbon dioxide concentration in horses subjected to a simulated race test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltabilota, T J; Milizio, J G; Malone, S; Kenney, J D; McKeever, K H

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that sucralfate, a gastric ulcer medication, would alter plasma concentrations of total carbon dioxide (tCO2), lactate (LA), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-) and total protein (TP), as well as calculated plasma strong ion difference (SID) and packed cell volume (PCV) in horses subjected to a simulated race test (SRT). Six unfit Standardbred mares (approximately 520 kg, 9-18 years) were used in a randomized crossover design with the investigators blinded to the treatment given. The horses were assigned to either a control (40-50 mL apple sauce administered orally (PO)) or a sucralfate (20 mg/kg bodyweight dissolved in 40-50 mL apple sauce administered PO) group. Each horse completed a series of SRTs during which blood samples were taken via jugular venipuncture at five sampling intervals (prior to receiving treatment, prior to SRT, immediately following exercise, and at 60 and 90 min post-SRT). During the SRTs, each horse ran on a treadmill fixed on a 6% grade for 2 min at a warm-up speed (4 m/s) and then for 2 min at a velocity predetermined to produce VO2max. Each horse then walked at 4 m/s for 2 min to complete the SRT. Plasma tCO2, electrolytes, LA, and blood PCV and TP were analysed at all intervals. No differences (P>0.05) were detected between control and sucralfate for any of the measured variables. There were differences (P<0.05) in tCO2, SID, PCV, TP, LA and electrolyte concentrations relative to sampling time. However, these differences were attributable to the physiological pressures associated with acute exercise and were not an effect of the medication. It was concluded that sucralfate did not alter plasma tCO2 concentration in this study. Copyright (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simvastatin and asymmetric dimethylarginine-homocysteine metabolic pathways in patients with newly detected severe hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova-Kitova, Ludmila G; Deneva, Tania I

    2010-01-01

    The idea that statin therapy decreases asymmetric dimethylarginine through lowering low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels seems logic. However, controversy exists in the literature concerning this issue. This study compares the effect of moderate (40 mg) to high (80 mg) simvastatin doses on asymmetric dimethylarginine levels in patients with newly detected severe hypercholesterolemia (after targeted LDL levels of or = 7.5 mmol/L and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol > or = 4.9 mmol/L). Asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, total homocystein by the high performance liquid chromatography method. A statistically significant decrease exists in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein-B levels as well as apolipoprotein-B/apolipoprotein-A1 index following one month of 40 mg simvastatin therapy (P homocystein levels were also decreased but the difference was not significant (p = 0.571; p = 0.569). A dose-dependent effect was established comparing the influence of moderate (40 mg) to high (80 mg) simvastatin doses on the tested atherogenic biomarkers (lipid profile, apolipoprotein-A1, apolipoprotein-B). Asymmetric dimethylarginine and total homocystein levels showed a statistically significant decrease with 80 mg simvastatin (p homocysteine in contrast to high dose (80 mg) after targeted LDL of < or = 2.6 mmol/L levels are reached in patients with newly detected severe hypercholesterolemia.

  19. Concentration of airborne Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and MSSA), total bacteria, and endotoxins in pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masclaux, Frederic G; Sakwinska, Olga; Charrière, Nicole; Semaani, Eulalia; Oppliger, Anne

    2013-06-01

    Pigs are very often colonized by Staphylococcus aureus and transmission of such pig-associated S. aureus to humans can cause serious medical, hygiene, and economic problems. The transmission route of zoonotic pathogens colonizing farm animals to humans is not well established and bioaerosols could play an important role. The aim of this study was to assess the potential occupational risk of working with S. aureus-colonized pigs in Switzerland. We estimated the airborne contamination by S. aureus in 37 pig farms (20 nursery and 17 fattening units; 25 in summer, 12 in winter). Quantification of total airborne bacterial DNA, airborne Staphylococcus sp. DNA, fungi, and airborne endotoxins was also performed. In this experiment, the presence of cultivable airborne methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) CC398 in a pig farm in Switzerland was reported for the first time. Airborne methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was found in ~30% of farms. The average airborne concentration of DNA copy number of total bacteria and Staphylococcus sp. measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction was very high, respectively reaching values of 75 (± 28) × 10(7) and 35 (± 9.8) × 10(5) copy numbers m(-3) in summer and 96 (± 19) × 10(8) and 40 (± 12) × 10(6) copy numbers m(-3) in winter. Total mean airborne concentrations of endotoxins (1298 units of endotoxin m(-3)) and fungi (5707 colony-forming units m(-3)) exceeded the Swiss recommended values and were higher in winter than in summer. In conclusion, Swiss pig farmers will have to tackle a new emerging occupational risk, which could also have a strong impact on public health. The need to inform pig farmers about biological occupational risks is therefore crucial.

  20. Anti-inflammatory compound resveratrol suppresses homocysteine formation in stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroecksnadel, Katharina; Winkler, Christiana; Wirleitner, Barbara; Schennach, Harald; Weiss, Günter; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    Inflammation, immune activation and oxidative stress play a major role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders. In addition to markers of inflammation, moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and there is a link between the activation of immunocompetent cells and the enhanced formation of homocysteine in vitro. Likewise, anti-inflammatory drugs and nutrients rich in antioxidant vitamins are able to reduce cardiovascular risk and to slow down the atherogenic process. Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant synthesized in grapes and vegetables and present in wine, has also been supposed to be beneficial for the prevention of cardiovascular events. Apart from its strong antioxidant properties, resveratrol has also been demonstrated to act as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study the influence of resveratrol on the production of homocysteine by stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was investigated. Results were compared to earlier described effects of the anti-inflammatory compounds aspirin and salicylic acid and of the lipid-lowering drug atorvastatin. Stimulation of PBMCs with the mitogens concanavalin A and phytohemagglutinin induced significantly higher homocysteine accumulation in supernatants compared with unstimulated cells. Treatment with 10-100 muM resveratrol suppressed homocysteine formation in a dose-dependent manner. Resveratrol did not influence the release of homocysteine from resting PBMCs. The data suggest that resveratrol may prevent homocysteine accumulation in the blood by suppressing immune activation cascades and the proliferation of mitogen-driven T-cells. The effect of resveratrol to down-regulate the release of homo-cysteine was comparable to the decline of neopterin concentrations in the same experiments. The suppressive effect of resveratrol was very similar to results obtained earlier with aspirin, salicylic acid and atorvastatin; however, it appeared that doses

  1. Elevated circulating homocyst(e)ine levels in placental vascular disease and associated pre-eclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Trudinger, B J; Duarte, N; Wilcken, D E; Wang, X L

    2000-07-01

    We examined the hypothesis that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia in the maternal or fetal circulation is associated with placental vascular disease with either the maternal syndrome of pre-eclampsia and/or fetal syndrome of growth restriction. Maternal plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were significantly higher in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia, pregnancies with evidence of umbilical placental vascular disease, and pregnancies with both complications compared with the normal pregnancy group. In the fetal circulation mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration was significantly higher in the pre-eclampsia group compared with the normal group. The results suggest that hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia may be a risk marker for placental vascular disease and maternal pre-eclampsia. The elevated fetal plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations, found only in the group of pregnancies with pre-eclampsia in the absence of umbilical placental vascular disease, may be due to an effect of placental vascular disease on homocyst(e)ine transfer from the maternal to fetal circulation.

  2. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-07-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after oral methionine challenge (100 mg/kg). We also studied the relationship of their plasma folic acid with the decline of fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine after 7 days of folic acid supplementation (5 mg/day). The three approaches suggested a cutoff value of 10 nmol/L. The chances of individuals to significantly (P ine after folic acid supplementation proved significantly higher at plasma folic acid concentrations < or = 10 nmol/L, as compared with folic acid concentrations above this value (odds ratio, 5.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.87-13.73). We suggest adopting a 10 nmo/L plasma folic acid cutoff value on functional grounds.

  3. Fasting plasma total ghrelin concentrations in monozygotic twins discordant for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskelä, Piia; Ukkola, Olavi; Vartiainen, Johanna; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bouchard, Claude; Kesäniemi, Y Antero

    2009-02-01

    Ghrelin is a hormone that is involved in the regulation of food intake. Neuronal, endocrine, and genetic factors have been shown to regulate plasma ghrelin levels; but the determinants of fasting ghrelin concentrations are not yet fully understood. The main aim was to explore the roles of adiposity and genetic differences in determining fasting plasma total ghrelin levels. We measured total ghrelin levels in a population of 23 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obesity. In addition, 2 variants of ghrelin gene, namely, Arg51Gln and Leu72Met, were genotyped in 3 populations of monozygotic twin pairs: 23 obesity-discordant, 43 lean-concordant, and 46 obesity-concordant twin pairs. In discordant twins, lean co-twins had higher fasting plasma total ghrelin levels (950 pg/mL, SD = 328 pg/mL) than obese twins (720 pg/mL, SD = 143 pg/mL; P = .003). Arg51Gln-polymorphism of the ghrelin gene was equally distributed between the twin groups. However, there were significant differences in genotype frequencies at the Leu72Met polymorphism between the discordant and obese-concordant groups (P = .003) and between the discordant and lean-concordant groups (P = .011), but not between the 2 concordant groups. In the discordant group, there were fewer Met carriers (4%) than among the obese (17%) or the lean-concordant groups (15%). Plasma total ghrelin levels are affected by acquired obesity independent of genetic background. The Leu72 allele is particularly common among monozygotic twins discordant for obesity, suggesting that this ghrelin allele is more permissive in the regulation of energy balance. The ghrelin gene may thus play a role in the regulation of variability of body weight, such that Leu72 allele carriers are more prone to weight variability in response to environmental factors.

  4. Public health significance of elevated homocysteine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that m...

  5. [Homocystein and cardiovascular risk: is dosage useful?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathez, Ch; Trueb, L; Darioli, R; Waeber, G

    2004-12-08

    Hyperhomocysteinemia represents an independent risk factor for atherothrombotic disease. Physiopathological mechanisms of accelerated progression of atherosclerosis in presence of hyperhomocysteinemia are complex. Herein we report a clinical case which emphasis the importance of screening elevated homocystein in the absence of conventional risk factors in patients who suffer from premature atherosclerosis.

  6. [Neurological syndromes associated with homocystein dismetabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirokov, E A; Leonova, S F

    2006-01-01

    The article summarizes the results of clinical, neurological, and laboratory examination of patients with hyperhomocysteinemia. The data obtained suggest the existence of common pathobiochemical mechanisms of homocystein, cholesterol, and myelin dysmetabolism. The authors demonstrate that neurological manifestations of hyperhomocysteinemia are associated with the processes of demyelinization in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  7. Neuro-fuzzy model of homocysteine metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In view of well-documented association of hyperhomocysteinaemia with a wide spectrum of diseases and higher incidence of vitamin deficiencies in Indians, we proposed a mathematical model to forecast the role of demographic and geneticvariables in influencing homocysteine metabolism and investigated the influence ...

  8. Neuro-fuzzy model of homocysteine metabolism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SHAIK Mohammad Naushad

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... Homocysteine is a nondietary amino acid, which is the byproduct of ... wide spectrum of diseases such as recurrent pregnancy loss (Govindaiah et al. ... A2756G, MTRR A66G were reported in the folate metabolic pathway ...

  9. Monitoring total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan at the air exhaust of concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Mitigation of bioaerosol emissions from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) demands knowledge of bioaerosol concentrations feeding into an end-of-pipe air treatment process. The aim of this preliminary study was to measure total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations at the air exhaust of 18 commercial CAFOs and to examine their variability with animal operation type (swine farrowing, swine gestation, swine weaning, swine finishing, manure belt laying hen, and tom turkey) and season (cold, mild, and hot). The measured airborne concentrations of total endotoxin ranged from 98 to 23,157 endotoxin units (EU)/m3, and the airborne concentrations of total (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan ranged from 2.4 to 537.9 ng/m3. Animal operation type in this study had a significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan but no significant effect on their concentrations in total suspended particulate (TSP). Both endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan attained their highest airborne concentrations in visited tom turkey buildings. Comparatively, season had no significant effect on airborne concentrations of total endotoxin or (1 --> 3)-beta-D-glucan. Endotoxin and (1 --> 3)-beta-glucan concentrations in TSP dust appeared to increase as the weather became warmer, and this seasonal effect was significant in swine buildings. Elevated indoor temperatures in the hot season were considered to facilitate the growth and propagation of bacteria and fungi, thus leading to higher biocomponent concentrations in TSP.

  10. The relationship between total phenol concentration and the perceived style of extra virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The degree of bitterness and pungency of a virgin olive oil largely defines its style, and therefore how it is most appropriately used by consumers. In order to assess how Australian olive oil producers interpret the style of their oils, 920 Australian virgin olive oils were classified by their producers as either being mild, medium or robust in style. Although in general, the classifications by producers were associated with the oils’ total phenol concentration, significant variability in phenol concentration within each style category was observed. The perceived styles of a subset of these oils were further assessed by panels of expert tasters. The expert panels were more discriminating when assigning oils to style categories based on total phenol levels. The producers and the expert panels were in moderate agreement with respect to oil style, with the interpretation of what constitutes a mild oil being the most contentious.

    El grado de amargor y picante de un aceite de oliva define en gran manera su tipo, y, por tanto, también su uso más apropiado por el consumidor. Para evaluar cómo los productores australianos de aceite de oliva interpretan el tipo de sus aceites, 920 aceites de oliva virgen australianos fueron clasificados por sus productores en tipo suave, medio o fuerte. Aunque, en general, la clasificación de los productores estuvo asociada a la concentración de fenoles totales de los aceites, se observó una variabilidad significativa en la concentración de fenoles en cada tipo de aceite. Los tipos percibidos en un subgrupo de estos aceites fueron además evaluados por paneles de catadores expertos. Los paneles de expertos fueron más discriminantes cuando asignaron los aceites a los diversos tipos basándose en el nivel de fenoles totales. Los productores y los paneles de expertos estuvieron en relativamente de acuerdo con respecto al tipo de aceite, si bien la interpretación de qué es un aceite suave fue la m

  11. Total mercury concentrations in lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) from the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huge, Dane H; Schofield, Pamela J; Jacoby, Charles A; Frazer, Thomas K

    2014-01-15

    Strategies to control invasive lionfish in the western Atlantic and Caribbean are likely to include harvest and consumption. Until this report, total mercury concentrations had been documented only for lionfish from Jamaica, and changes in concentrations with increasing fish size had not been evaluated. In the Florida Keys, total mercury concentrations in dorsal muscle tissue from 107 lionfish ranged from 0.03 to 0.48 ppm, with all concentrations being less than the regulatory threshold for limited consumption. Mercury concentrations did not vary consistently with standard lengths or wet weights of lionfish. In 2010, lionfish from the upper Keys had mean concentrations that were 0.03-0.04 ppm higher than lionfish from the middle Keys, but mean concentrations did not differ consistently among years and locations. Overall, total mercury concentrations in lionfish were lower than those in several predatory fishes that support commercial and recreational fisheries in Florida. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Improved estimates of filtered total mercury loadings and total mercury concentrations of solids from potential sources to Sinclair Inlet, Kitsap County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Conn, Kathleen E.; DeWild, John F.

    2013-01-01

    Previous investigations examined sources and sinks of mercury to Sinclair Inlet based on historic and new data. This included an evaluation of mercury concentrations from various sources and mercury loadings from industrial discharges and groundwater flowing from the Bremerton naval complex to Sinclair Inlet. This report provides new data from four potential sources of mercury to Sinclair Inlet: (1) filtered and particulate total mercury concentrations of creek water during the wet season, (2) filtered and particulate total mercury releases from the Navy steam plant following changes in the water softening process and discharge operations, (3) release of mercury from soils to groundwater in two landfill areas at the Bremerton naval complex, and (4) total mercury concentrations of solids in dry dock sumps that were not affected by bias from sequential sampling. The previous estimate of the loading of filtered total mercury from Sinclair Inlet creeks was based solely on dry season samples. Concentrations of filtered total mercury in creek samples collected during wet weather were significantly higher than dry weather concentrations, which increased the estimated loading of filtered total mercury from creek basins from 27.1 to 78.1 grams per year. Changes in the concentrations and loading of filtered and particulate total mercury in the effluent of the steam plant were investigated after the water softening process was changed from ion-exchange to reverse osmosis and the discharge of stack blow-down wash began to be diverted to the municipal water-treatment plant. These changes reduced the concentrations of filtered and particulate total mercury from the steam plant of the Bremerton naval complex, which resulted in reduced loadings of filtered total mercury from 5.9 to 0.15 grams per year. Previous investigations identified three fill areas on the Bremerton naval complex, of which the western fill area is thought to be the largest source of mercury on the base

  13. Correlation between plasma homocysteine levels and craving in alcohol dependent stabilized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Maurizio; Mondola, Raffaella

    2018-06-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit. Alcoholism was assessed using the following tools: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus (MINI Plus), Alcohol Use Disorder Identification test (AUDIT), Visual Analogic Scale for craving (VAS). Furthermore, during the first visit a blood sample was taken from all patients to measure the plasma concentration of both homocysteine and Carboxy Deficient Transferrin (CDT). Differences between groups in socio-demographic and clinical characteristics were analyzed using the t-test and the Mann-Whitney's U test for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Correlation between clinical scale scores and plasma concentration of homocysteine and CDT was evaluated using the Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Kendall's Tau-b bivariate correlation coefficient for normally and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Our study included 92 patients. No difference was found in socio-demographic characteristics between groups. The group with high homocysteine had higher prevalence of mood disorders (p correlation with both VAS score (p correlated with alcoholism in a bidirectional manner because its level appears to be related with alcohol degree, but simultaneously, hyperhomocysteinemia could enhance the alcohol consumption increasing the severity of craving in a circular self reinforcing mechanism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. Total allowable concentrations of monomeric inorganic aluminum and hydrated aluminum silicates in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhite, Calvin C; Ball, Gwendolyn L; McLellan, Clifton J

    2012-05-01

    Maximum contaminant levels are used to control potential health hazards posed by chemicals in drinking water, but no primary national or international limits for aluminum (Al) have been adopted. Given the differences in toxicological profiles, the present evaluation derives total allowable concentrations for certain water-soluble inorganic Al compounds (including chloride, hydroxide, oxide, phosphate and sulfate) and for the hydrated Al silicates (including attapulgite, bentonite/montmorillonite, illite, kaolinite) in drinking water. The chemistry, toxicology and clinical experience with Al materials are extensive and depend upon the particular physical and chemical form. In general, the water solubility of the monomeric Al materials depends on pH and their water solubility and gastrointestinal bioavailability are much greater than that of the hydrated Al silicates. Other than Al-containing antacids and buffered aspirin, food is the primary source of Al exposure for most healthy people. Systemic uptake of Al after ingestion of the monomeric salts is somewhat greater from drinking water (0.28%) than from food (0.1%). Once absorbed, Al accumulates in bone, brain, liver and kidney, with bone as the major site for Al deposition in humans. Oral Al hydroxide is used routinely to bind phosphate salts in the gut to control hyperphosphatemia in people with compromised renal function. Signs of chronic Al toxicity in the musculoskeletal system include a vitamin D-resistant osteomalacia (deranged membranous bone formation characterized by accumulation of the osteoid matrix and reduced mineralization, reduced numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, decreased lamellar and osteoid bands with elevated Al concentrations) presenting as bone pain and proximal myopathy. Aluminum-induced bone disease can progress to stress fractures of the ribs, femur, vertebrae, humerus and metatarsals. Serum Al ≥100 µg/L has a 75-88% positive predictive value for Al bone disease. Chronic Al

  15. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  16. pH buffers for sea water media based on the total hydrogen ion concentration scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Andrew G.

    1993-01-01

    Published e.m.f. values measured using the cell ? where p° = 101.325 kPa, and BH + and B are the conjugate acid-base pairs of 2-aminopyridine, 2-amino-2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-propanediol (tris), tetrahydro-1,4-isoxazine (morpholine), and 2-amino-2-methyl-1, 3-propanediol (bis), have been re-evaluated to assign pH values based on the "total" hydrogen ion concentration scale to equimolal ( m =0.04 mol kg -1) buffer solutions based on these compounds. These pH values are consistent with the best available equilibrium constants for acid-base processes in sea water and such pH buffers can be used as pH calibration standards to measure accurate values for oceanic pH on the "total" hydrogen ion pH scale. In addition, the published e.m.f. results for these various amine bases have been used to calculate their respective acidity constants on this pH scale.

  17. Therapeutical approach to plasma homocysteine and cardiovascular risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Ciaccio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcello Ciaccio, Giulia Bivona, Chiara BelliaDepartment of Medical Biotechnologies and Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing aminoacid produced during metabolism of methionine. Since 1969 the relationship between altered homocysteine metabolism and both coronary and peripheral atherotrombosis is known; in recent years experimental evidences have shown that elevated plasma levels of homocysteine are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular ischemic events. Several mechanisms by which elevated homocysteine impairs vascular function have been proposed, including impairment of endothelial function, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequent oxidation of low-density lipids. Endothelial function is altered in subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia, and endothelial dysfunction is correlated with plasma levels of homocysteine. Folic acid and B vitamins, required for remethylation of homocysteine to methionine, are the most important dietary determinants of homocysteine and daily supplementation typically lowers plasma homocysteine levels; it is still unclear whether the decreased plasma levels of homocysteine through diet or drugs may be paralleled by a reduction in cardiovascular risk.Keywords: homocysteine, MTHFR, cardiovascular disease, folate, B vitamin

  18. Effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid on the risk of arsenic-associated carotid atherosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, M.-M.; Chiou, H.-Y.; Hsueh, Y.-M.; Hong, C.-T.; Su, C.-L.; Chang, S.-F.; Huang, W.-L.; Wang, H.-T.; Wang, Y.-H.; Hsieh, Y.-C.; Chen, C.-J.

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic-contaminated well water has been shown to increase the risk of atherosclerosis. Because of involving S-adenosylmethionine, homocysteine may modify the risk by interfering with the biomethylation of ingested arsenic. In this study, we assessed the effect of plasma homocysteine level and urinary monomethylarsonic acid (MMA V ) on the risk of atherosclerosis associated with arsenic. In total, 163 patients with carotid atherosclerosis and 163 controls were studied. Lifetime cumulative arsenic exposure from well water for study subjects was measured as index of arsenic exposure. Homocysteine level was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Proportion of MMA V (MMA%) was calculated by dividing with total arsenic species in urine, including arsenite, arsenate, MMA V , and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA V ). Results of multiple linear regression analysis show a positive correlation of plasma homocysteine levels to the cumulative arsenic exposure after controlling for atherosclerosis status and nutritional factors (P < 0.05). This correlation, however, did not change substantially the effect of arsenic exposure on the risk of atherosclerosis as analyzed in a subsequent logistic regression model. Logistic regression analyses also show that elevated plasma homocysteine levels did not confer an independent risk for developing atherosclerosis in the study population. However, the risk of having atherosclerosis was increased to 5.4-fold (95% CI, 2.0-15.0) for the study subjects with high MMA% (≥16.5%) and high homocysteine levels (≥12.7 μmol/l) as compared to those with low MMA% (<9.9%) and low homocysteine levels (<12.7 μmol/l). Elevated homocysteinemia may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis related to arsenic exposure in individuals with high levels of MMA% in urine

  19. The Use of Screen-Printed Electrodes in a Proof of Concept Electrochemical Estimation of Homocysteine and Glutathione in the Presence of Cysteine Using Catechol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia T. Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Screen printed electrodes were employed in a proof of concept determination of homocysteine and glutathione using electrochemically oxidized catechol via a 1,4-Michael addition reaction in the absence and presence of cysteine, and each other. Using cyclic voltammetry, the Michael reaction introduces a new adduct peak which is analytically useful in detecting thiols. The proposed procedure relies on the different rates of reaction of glutathione and homocysteine with oxidized catechol so that at fast voltage scan rates only homocysteine is detected in cyclic voltammetry. At slower scan rates, both glutathione and homocysteine are detected. The combination of the two sets of data provides quantification for homocysteine and glutathione. The presence of cysteine is shown not to interfere provided sufficient high concentrations of catechol are used. Calibration curves were determined for each homocysteine and glutathione detection; where the sensitivities are 0.019 µA·µM−1 and 0.0019 µA·µM−1 and limit of detections are ca. 1.2 µM and 0.11 µM for homocysteine and glutathione, respectively, within the linear range. This work presents results with potential and beneficial use in re-useable and/or disposable point-of-use sensors for biological and medical applications.

  20. Serum homocysteine as a risk factor for coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naureen, A.; Fatima, F.; Munazza, B.; Shaheen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Homocysteine (Hcy) is an intermediate formed during the catabolism of sulphur containing essential amino acid, methionine and Less than one percent of tHcy is found as the free form. Development of atherosclerotic changes and thrombo-embolism are common features in patients with homocysteinuria. This study was conducted to assess the relationship of Hcy and coronary heart disease (CHD) in our population. Methods: The cross-sectional analytical study was carried out at the Department of Biochemistry, Hazara University Mansehra and Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad. A total of 80 subjects were included in this study and were divided into 2 groups. Cases Group consisted of 40 patients who had confirmed Myocardial Infarction (MI) coming for routine follow-up (first re-visit) after the acute attack. Control Group consisted of 40 matching healthy individuals. Demographic data including age, gender, dietary habits, height and weight as documented in preformed proforma. Blood pressure was taken in sitting posture. Serum total Hcy were measured. Data was entered into computer using SPSS 16.0 for analysis. Results: The mean age of the cases was 59.68+-8.06 (30-70) years and that of the controls was 58.93+-6.93 (48-76) years. The average BMI of cases was 27.70+-3.61 Kg/m2 and of the controls was 25.66+-2.98 Kg/m2. This increase of BMI from controls to cases was statistically significant (p<0.050). The mean systolic BP of the cases was 153.88+-11.90 mmHg in comparison with 142.62+-11.65 mmHg for the controls. This difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). Mean tHcy level of the cases was 17.15+-4.45 micro mol/l while that of controls was 12.20+-2.53 micro mol/l. There is a statistically significant difference between cases and controls with respect to Hcy levels (p<0.001). Conclusion: Plasma tHcy level has a powerful predictor value of CHD and routine screening for elevated Hcy concentrations is advisable especially for individuals who manifest

  1. Serum homocysteine level in gestational diabetes: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari Tanha F

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Increased total plasma homocysteine (Hcy is an accepted risk factor of cardiovascular disease (CVD, stroke, preclampsia, recurrent abortion and diabetes type I and II. The aim of the current study was to assess serum homocysteine and its relation with serum folat, vitamine B12 and lipid profile in gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare these with those of pregnant women."n"n Methods: In a prospective controlled survey 80 pregnant women (24-28 weeks with uncomplicated pregnancies were evaluated. They were assigned to one of two groups according to the results of 100g-OGTT. In the case group there were pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus according to the OGTT and in the control group women who had normal OGTT results were put. Levels of fasting glucose, homocysteine, vit B12, and folic acid, uric acid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL and High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL were measured in both groups."n"nResults: The mean level of homocysteine in GDM group was significantly higher than control group (p=0.000. The mean level of folic acid and vit B12 was significantly lower than the level in control group (p=0.001, p=0.004 respectively. Body

  2. Homocystein og livsstil. Resultater fra Homocysteinundersøkelsen i Hordaland 1992-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Nygård

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGTotal homocystein (tHcy er etablert som risikofaktor for hjerte- og karsykdom. Vi har studert determinanterav plasma tHcy i et utvalg av den voksne norske befolkning basert på undersøkelse utført av Statenshelseundersøkelser i samarbeid med Universitetet i Bergen i 1992-1993. Data ble innhentet ved kliniskundersøkelse, utfylling av tre spørreskjema og ved blodtester. I alt 18 043 personer i alderen 40-67 år møttetil undersøkelse og fikk målt plasma tHcy. Plasma folat, plasma kobalamin og 677C →T mutasjonen i genetfor metylentetrahydrofolatreduktase (MTHFR er bestemt i et underutvalg på 329 personer og på personermed svært høye tHcy verdier ( ≥ 40 μmol/L. Resultatene fra Homocysteinundersøkelsen i Hordaland harvist at kjønn, alder, folatinntak, røykevaner og kaffeforbruk er de sterkeste determinanter for plasma tHcynivå, mens kobalamininntak, fysisk aktivitet, blodtrykk og kolesterolnivå er mindre sterke determinanter.Bruk av multivitaminer eller B-vitaminer er forbundet med spesielt lave tHcy nivåer. Personer med tHcy ≥40 μmol/L er karakterisert ved høy forekomst (73% av homozygositet for 677C →T mutasjonen i MTHFRgenet og lavt folatnivå. Vi konkluderer derfor med at livsstil og etablerte risikofaktorer for hjerte- ogkarsykdom er vesentlige for nivået av plasma tHcy i den generelle voksne norske befolkning.Nygård O, Refsum H, Ueland PM, Tverdal A, Vollset SE. Homocysteine and lifestyle. The HordalandHomocysteine Study. Nor J Epidemiol 1997; 7 (2: 221-224.ENGLISH SUMMARYTotal homocysteine (tHcy concentration is an established cardiovascular risk factor. We have studieddeterminants of plasma tHcy among 18 043 subjects aged 40-67 years from Hordaland county in WesternNorway who participated in a health screening programme in 1992-1993. Gender, age, folate intake,smoking habits and coffee consumption are the strongest determinants of plasma tHcy level, whereascobalamin intake, physical activity

  3. Species differences in total mercury concentration in gulls from the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumiło-Pilarska, Emilia; Grajewska, Agnieszka; Falkowska, Lucyna; Hajdrych, Julia; Meissner, Włodzimierz; Frączek, Tomasz; Bełdowska, Magdalena; Bzoma, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic birds occupy a high position in the trophic pyramid of the Baltic Sea. This means that they accumulate the greatest amount of harmful substances, including mercury, in their bodies. This element penetrates into their systems mainly via the alimentary canal. The amount of mercury absorbed from food depends on how badly the environment is polluted with this metal. The aim of this study was to discover the concentrations of total mercury (HgT) in the contour feathers, muscles, brain, lungs, liver, kidneys, heart and blood of four gull species Herring Gull (Larus argentatus), Common Gull (Larus canus), Black-headed Gull (Larus ridibundus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) and organic mercury (Hgorg) in the liver and brain of Herring Gull. The most important characteristic of the results obtained for the studied gulls was the statistically significant differences between the four species, probably resulting from their different diets-confirmed by stable-isotopes analysis (δ(15)N and δ(13)C). A logarithmic dependence was found between HgT in the blood and HgT in the brain of the Herring Gull. The authors suggest that among gulls burdened with the greatest mercury load, it is possible that the brain is protected by higher Hg accumulation in the muscles. The percentage share of Hgorg in the brain and liver of the Herring Gull depended on the concentration of HgT in these tissues and was always higher in the brain. In none of the cases, did the mercury levels assayed in the internal gulls' tissues exceed values associated with adverse health effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Prediction of Methionine and Homocysteine levels in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats as a T2DM animal model after consumption of a Methionine-rich diet

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Nayoung; Chae, Jung-woo; Jeon, Jihyun; Lee, Jaeyeon; Back, Hyun-moon; Song, Byungjeong; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum; Yun, Hwi-yeol

    2018-01-01

    Background Although alterations in the methionine metabolism cycle (MMC) have been associated with vascular complications of diabetes, there have not been consistent results about the levels of methionine and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of the current study was to predict changes in plasma methionine and homocysteine concentrations after simulated consumption of methionine-rich foods, following the development of a mathematical model for MMC in Zucker Diabetic Fat...

  5. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  6. Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in Diabetes Associated with Elevated Homocysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth S. Shindler

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of studies have suggested that homocysteine may be a contributing factor to development of retinopathy in diabetic patients based on observed correlations between elevated homocysteine levels and the presence of retinopathy. The significance of such a correlation remains to be determined, and potential mechanisms by which homocysteine might induce retinopathy have not been well characterized. Ganapathy and colleagues1 used mutant mice that have endogenously elevated homocysteine levels due to heterozygous deletion of the cystathionine-β-synthase gene to examine changes in retinal pathology following induction of diabetes. Their finding that elevated homocysteine levels hastens loss of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer suggests that toxicity to ganglion cells may warrant further investigation as a potential mechanism of homocysteine enhanced susceptibility to diabetic retinopathy.

  7. C-reactive protein and homocysteine predict long-term mortality in young ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Halvor; Nyland, Harald; Idicula, Titto; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrike

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP) and homocysteine on follow-up and subsequent mortality in young ischemic stroke patients in a population-based study. Young ischemic stroke patients were followed-up on average 6 years after the index stroke. CRP and homocysteine levels were measured and risk factors were recorded, including myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, smoking, alcoholism, and cancer. Stroke outcome was measured using the modified Rankin Scale score. Subsequent survival was obtained by examining the official population registry. Cox regression analyses were performed. In total, 198 patients were included in this study (82 [41%] women and 116 [59%] men). The mean age on follow-up was 47.8 years. In total, 36 (18.2%) patients died during the subsequent mean follow-up of 12.4 years. Cox regression analysis revealed that mortality was associated with CRP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05; P=.001) and homocysteine levels (HR 1.04; P=.02) in patients without dissection. Kaplan-Meier curves grouped by dichotomized CRP (CRP≤1 v >1 mg/L) showed increasing separation between the survival curves, and likewise for dichotomized homocysteine (≤9 v >9 μg/L). There is an independent association between CRP and homocysteine levels obtained several years after ischemic stroke in young adults and subsequent mortality, even when adjusting for traditional risk factors. This association seems to continue for at least 12 years after the measurements. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the total concentration and speciation of metal ions in river, estuarine and seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Giancarla; Biesuz, Raffaela; Pesavento, Maria

    2008-12-01

    Different natural water samples were investigated to determine the total concentration and the distribution of species for Cu(II), Pb(II), Al(III) and U(VI). The proposed method, named resin titration (RT), was developed in our laboratory to investigate the distribution of species for metal ions in complex matrices. It is a competition method, in which a complexing resin competes with natural ligands present in the sample to combine with the metal ions. In the present paper, river, estuarine and seawater samples, collected during a cruise in Adriatic Sea, were investigated. For each sample, two RTs were performed, using different complexing resins: the iminodiacetic Chelex 100 and the carboxylic Amberlite CG50. In this way, it was possible to detect different class of ligands. Satisfactory results have been obtained and are commented on critically. They were summarized by principal component analysis (PCA) and the correlations with physicochemical parameters allowed one to follow the evolution of the metals along the considered transect. It should be pointed out that, according to our findings, the ligands responsible for metal ions complexation are not the major components of the water system, since they form considerably weaker complexes.

  9. S-adenosyl-L-(l-14C)-homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, H.J.; Montgomery, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    S-Adenosyl-L-(1- 14 C)-homocysteine was prepared from commercially available L-(1- 14 C)-methionine by conversion first to S-benzyl-L-(1- 14 C)-homocysteine which upon treatment with sodium in liquid ammonia gave the disodium salt of L-(1- 14 C)-homocysteine. Reaction of this sodium salt with 5'-O-tosyladenosine gave the title compound. (author)

  10. Effect of Medications for Gastric Acid-Related Symptoms on Total Motile Sperm Count and Concentration: A Case-Control Study in Men of Subfertile Couples from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Nicole A; Goijen, Hedwig J; Twigt, John M; Mulders, Annemarie G M G J; Lindemans, Jan; Dohle, Gert R; Laven, Joop S E; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M

    2017-03-01

    Gastric acid-related symptoms are highly prevalent in the general population (21-40%), and more than 11% of individuals use medication for the treatment of these symptoms. The uptake of micronutrients is dependent on the gastrointestinal potential of hydrogen (pH). We hypothesized that medication affecting gastrointestinal pH reduces the availability of B vitamins, thereby deranging one-carbon metabolism and detrimentally affecting spermatogenesis. This explorative nested case-control study in men of subfertile couples investigated associations between medication used for gastric acid-related symptoms and semen parameters. We included 40 men using medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and 843 men not using medication. Semen analyses were performed between 70 days before and 21 days after the visit. The use of medication was associated with a twofold higher risk of a low total motile sperm count [TMSC sperm concentration (β -0.320, p = 0.028). Red blood cell folate was positively associated with TMSC (β 0.257, p = 0.026), sperm count (β 1.679, p = 0.013) and ejaculate volume (β 0.120, p = 0.023), and total homocysteine (tHcy) was negatively associated with sperm count (β -0.077, p = 0.021). Here we delineate associations between the use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms and poor semen quality in men of subfertile couples. The use of medication for gastric acid-related symptoms is associated with a twofold higher risk of a low TMSC and a decreased sperm concentration. Although these findings warrant further research on causality, the associations between folate, tHcy and semen quality emphasize the importance of preconception counselling in male subfertility.

  11. Association between folate intake from different food sources in Norway and homocysteine status in a dietary intervention among young male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Uglem, Solveig; Wandel, Margareta; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam; Frølich, Wenche

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of a dietary intervention which combined nutrition information with increased availability of vegetables, fruits and wholegrain bread. The effect of the intervention was determined by changes in the intake of vegetables, fruits, wholegrain bread and estimated nutrients. Furthermore, the study investigated whether changes in relative contribution from different food sources of folate were related to changes in the concentration of plasma total homocysteine (p-tHcy). The 5-month intervention study included 376 male recruits from the Norwegian National Guard, Vaernes (intervention group) and 105 male recruits from the Norwegian National Guard, Heggelia (control group). The study resulted in an increase in the total consumption of vegetables, fruits, berries and juice (P food components. Reduction in the concentration of p-tHcy was significantly related to an increased folate intake due to an increased consumption of wholegrain bread.

  12. Method to determine the activity concentration and total activity of radioactive waste; Metodo para determinar la concentracion de actividad y actividad total de desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angeles C, A

    2001-02-15

    A characteristic system of radioactive waste is described to determine the concentration of radionuclides activity and the total activity of bundles of radioactive waste. The system this integrated by three subsystems: - Elevator of drums. - Electromechanics. - Gamma spectroscopy. In the system it is analyzed waste of issuing gamma specifically, and this designed for materials of relative low density and it analyzes materials of cylindrical recipients.

  13. Serum homocysteine levels in cerebrovascular accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Zongte, Zolianthanga; Shaini, L.; Debbarma, Asis; Singh, Th Bhimo; Devi, S. Bilasini; Singh, W. Gyaneshwar

    2008-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered an independent risk factor in the development of stroke. The present study was undertaken to evaluate serum homocysteine levels in patients with cerebrovascular accidents among the Manipuri population and to compare with the normal cases. Ninety-three cerebrovascular accident cases admitted in the hospital were enrolled for the study and twenty-seven age and sex matched individuals free from cerebrovascular diseases were taken as control group. Serum h...

  14. Preditores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos das concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico e vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil Socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric predictors of serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Carneiro Almeida

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou fatores sócio-demográficos, de estilo de vida e gineco-obstétricos associados às concentrações séricas ou plasmáticas de homocisteína, ácido fólico, vitaminas B12 e B6 em mulheres de baixa renda de São Paulo, Brasil. Concentrações séricas de ácido fólico e vitamina B12 foram analisadas por fluoroimunoensaio; concentrações plasmáticas de homocisteína e vitamina B6, por cromatografia líquida de alta performance em fase reversa. Variáveis independentes foram inicialmente selecionadas segundo pressupostos teóricos, correlação de Pearson ou teste Kruskal-Wallis (p This study examined the socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric factors associated with serum or plasma concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 among low-income women in São Paulo, Brazil. Serum concentrations of folic acid and vitamin B12 were measured by fluoroimmunoassay, while plasma vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Independent variables were initially selected by Pearson correlation or Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.20. Based on cut-off values, altered concentrations of homocysteine, folic acid, and vitamins B12 and B6 were found in 20%, 6%, 11%, and 67% of participants, respectively. Age was positively correlated with vitamin B6 and homocysteine plasma concentrations (p < 0.001. Body mass index was positively correlated with vitamin B6 plasma concentration (p < 0.001. Multiple linear regression models accounted for 10.2%, 5.8%, 14.4%, and 9.4% of folic acid, vitamins B12 and B6, and homocysteine plasma or serum concentrations, respectively. In this study, socio-demographic, lifestyle, gynecological, and obstetric variables showed important predictive value for serum or plasma levels of the biochemical indicators assessed.

  15. A SUMMARY OF TOTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN FLORA AND FAUNA NEAR CONTAMINANT SOURCES IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes total mercury concentrations for environmental media collected from near-coastal areas including those impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were ...

  16. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  17. Reagent-loaded plastic microfluidic chips for detecting homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, Ji Won; Jang, Jae-Young; Cho, Jun-Hyeong

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary study on plastic microfluidic chips with pre-loaded reagents for detecting homocysteine (Hcy). All reagents needed in an Hcy immunoassay were included in a microfluidic chip to remove tedious assay steps. A simple and cost-effective bonding method was developed to realize reagent-loaded microfluidic chips. This technique uses an intermediate layer between two plastic substrates by selectively patterning polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the embossed surface of microchannels and fixing the substrates under pressure. Using this bonding method, the competitive immunoassay for SAH, a converted form of Hcy, was performed without any damage to reagents in chips, and the results showed that the fluorescent signal from antibody antigen binding decreased as the SAH concentration increased. Based on the SAH immunoassay, whole immunoassay steps for Hcy detection were carried out in plastic microfluidic chips with all necessary reagents. These experiments demonstrated the feasibility of the Hcy immunoassay in microfluidic devices

  18. Levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients Self-correlation factor analysis and comparison with healthy subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanxin Wang; Bin Wang; Aihua Yin; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data indicate that the levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients are higher than those in normal subjects. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the levels of serum homocysteine in patients with major depressive disorder, to determine whether serum homocysteine levels differ with sex, family history, or drug treatment, and to compare depressive patients with normal subjects. DESIGN: Non-randomized concurrent control trial.SETTING: Mental Heath Center of Shandong Province.PARTICIPANTS: Forty in-patients (23 males and 17 females, 18-63 years old) with major depressive disorder were selected from the Mental Health Center of Shandong Province from January to October 2006. All selected patients met the depressive diagnostic standard of Chinese Classification of Mental Disorder (3rd Edition, CCMD-3), and total scores evaluated by the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were ≥ 20. Meanwhile, 36 healthy subjects (20 males and 16 females, 18-60 years old) were enrolled as controls; their total 17-item HRSD scores were ≤ 7. All selected subjects provided consent, and the study was approved by the local ethics committee. METHODS: Fasting venous blood (3 mL) was drawn in both groups at 8:00 in the morning. The levels of serum homocysteine were determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The 17-item HRSD was also compiled from the patients when entering groups. The higher the scores were, the more severe the depression was. Enumeration data for both groups were compared by Chi-square test, measurement data were compared by t-test, and correlations were detected using Pearson and Spearman correlation analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Levels of serum homocysteine; ② incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy); ③ correlation between HRSD17 scores and levels of serum homocysteine in depressive patients.RESULTS: Forty depressive patients and 36 control subjects were included in the final analysis without any loss of participants.

  19. Elevated levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in elderly patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Lee, S C

    2001-10-01

    Cerebrovascular risk factors, including hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, aging, dyslipidemia, and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia are linked to endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial-derived nitric oxide (NO) has inhibitory effects on key processes in atherothrombosis. Although asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthase, is associated with atherosclerotic disease, there has been no report on association of ADMA with ischemic stroke. Here we investigated the relation of plasma ADMA, stroke, and homocyst(e)inemia in the elderly. Plasma ADMA and homocyst(e)ine concentration was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. Patients with ischemic stroke had significantly higher concentrations of plasma ADMA than controls (1.85+/-1.32 vs. 0.93+/-0.32 micromol/l, P=0.0001). After adjustment for risk factors, elevated ADMA levels, above 90th percentile of normal controls (> or =1.43 micromol/l) was associated with stroke (OR=6.05, 95% CI; 2.77-13.3, P=0.02). ADMA plasma levels were positively correlated to homocyst(e)ine levels (r=0.43, P=0.01). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that hyperhomocyst(e)inemia (plasma homocyst(e)ine concentration > or =15.0 micromol/l) was a significant predictor of elevated ADMA level. Altogether, findings indicate that elevated ADMA concentrations are at increased risk for ischemic stroke in the elderly, and may account for increased risk of stroke in patients with hyperhomocyst(e)inemia.

  20. Total and cause-specific mortality by moderately and markedly increased ferritin concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Marott, Jacob Louis; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2014-01-01

    . Stepwise increasing concentrations of ferritin were associated with a stepwise increased risk of premature death overall (log rank, P = 2 × 10(-22)), with median survival of 55 years at ferritin concentrations ≥600 μg/L, 72 years at 400-599 μg/L, 76 years at 200-399 μg/L, and 79 years at ferritin

  1. Low Dose Gamma Irradiation Does Not Affect the Quality or Total Ascorbic Acid Concentration of "Sweetheart" Passionfruit (Passiflora edulis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golding, John B; Blades, Barbara L; Satyan, Shashirekha; Spohr, Lorraine J; Harris, Anne; Jessup, Andrew J; Archer, John R; Davies, Justin B; Banos, Connie

    2015-08-26

    Passionfruit ( Passiflora edulis , Sims, cultivar "Sweetheart") were subject to gamma irradiation at levels suitable for phytosanitary purposes (0, 150, 400 and 1000 Gy) then stored at 8 °C and assessed for fruit quality and total ascorbic acid concentration after one and fourteen days. Irradiation at any dose (≤1000 Gy) did not affect passionfruit quality (overall fruit quality, colour, firmness, fruit shrivel, stem condition, weight loss, total soluble solids level (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) level, TSS/TA ratio, juice pH and rot development), nor the total ascorbic acid concentration. The length of time in storage affected some fruit quality parameters and total ascorbic acid concentration, with longer storage periods resulting in lower quality fruit and lower total ascorbic acid concentration, irrespective of irradiation. There was no interaction between irradiation treatment and storage time, indicating that irradiation did not influence the effect of storage on passionfruit quality. The results showed that the application of 150, 400 and 1000 Gy gamma irradiation to "Sweetheart" purple passionfruit did not produce any deleterious effects on fruit quality or total ascorbic acid concentration during cold storage, thus supporting the use of low dose irradiation as a phytosanitary treatment against quarantine pests in purple passionfruit.

  2. Integrated Data Fusion and Mining Techniques for Monitoring Total Organic Carbon Concentrations in a Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total organic carbon (TOC) in surface waters, markedly of seasonal variations, is a known precursor of disinfection byproducts such as Total Trihalomethanes (TTHM) in drinking water treatment. Real-time knowledge of TOC distribution in source water can help treatment operation to...

  3. Increased CSF Homocysteine in Pathological Gamblers Compared with Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Conny; Sjodin, Ingemar

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive disturbances suggesting a frontal lobe dysfunction have been observed in pathological gamblers and alcohol dependents. Given that a high homocysteine level has been suggested to be a mediating factor in alcohol-related cognitive decline, we have determined homocysteine and cobalamine in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) obtained from 11…

  4. Vitamin B6 and homocysteine levels in carbamazepine treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The study focused on the plasma levels of vitamin B6 and homocysteine in ... ed with carbamazepine were selected at out-patient De- .... Patients' demographic data and types of seizures are ex- .... morphisms that may alter the individual response to a .... genotype, homocysteine, and stroke risk: a meta-analy-.

  5. Relationships between Concentrations of Phytoplankton Chlorophyll a and Total Nitrogen in Ten U.S. Estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation focuses on the summertime response of phytoplankton chlorophyll to nitrogen concentrations in the upper water columns of ten U.S. estuaries. Using publicly available data from monitoring programs, regression relationships have been developed between summer surfa...

  6. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneles, Paulo R.; Lailson-Brito, Jose; Fernandez, Marcos A.S.; Vidal, Lara G.; Barbosa, Lupercio A.; Azevedo, Alexandre F.; Fragoso, Ana B.L.; Torres, Joao P.M.; Malm, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic ΣSn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic ΣSn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n = 20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. - Cetaceans from Brazil are highly exposed to organotin compounds

  7. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: dornelespr@gmail.com; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Fernandez, Marcos A.S. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Quimica, Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: hallfz@uerj.br; Vidal, Lara G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: vidallara@yahoo.com.br; Barbosa, Lupercio A. [Instituto ORCA, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: lupercio@orca.org.br; Azevedo, Alexandre F. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: alexandre.maqua@gmail.com; Fragoso, Ana B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: abfragoso@gmail.com; Torres, Joao P.M. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic {sigma}Sn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic {sigma}Sn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n = 20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. - Cetaceans from Brazil are highly exposed to organotin compounds.

  8. Effects of total replacement of soybean meal and corn on ruminal fermentation, volatile fatty acids, protozoa concentration, and gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bahri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of total replacement of soybean meal and corn with triticale and faba bean or field pea on rumen fermentation, protozoa counts, and gas production of lactating ewes. A total of 30 Sicilo-Sarde ewes were randomly allocated into three groups and were fed 1.8 kg drymatter of oat hay plus 500 g of one of three concentrates: the first concentrate (CS was mainly composed of soybean meal, corn, and barley; the second (TFB was formed by triticale and faba bean; and the third (TFP was composed of triticale and field pea. The type of concentrate did not affect ruminal pH or ammonia nitrogen concentration (P  >  0.05. The individual concentrations of volatile fatty acids showed a significant interaction between the type of concentrate and sampling time (P  <  0.05, except for Butyric and Isobutyric acids. Within a post-feeding time, the pattern of evolution of total volatile fatty, acetic, and propionic acids differed significantly at 2 h post feeding (P  <  0.05, while butyric and valeric acid changed at 0 and 4 h post feeding. The type of concentrate affected the total number of ciliate protozoa and the Isotricha species (P  <  0.05, whereas Entodinium, Ophryoscolex, and Polyplastron were similar among concentrates (P  >  0.05. The cumulative gas production from the in vitro fermentation, the time of incubation, and their interaction was affected by concentrate (P  <  0.001. The substitution of soybean meal and corn in the concentrate with faba bean or field peas and triticale might maintain rumen parameters of dairy ewes.

  9. Cardiovascular disease markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome with emphasis on asymmetric dimethylarginine and homocysteine

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamadin, Ahmed M.; Habib, Fawzia A.; Al-Saggaf, Abdulrahman A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. Little is known about cardiovascular risk factors in patients with PCOS. We investigated plasma markers of cardiovascular disease in Saudi women with PCOS, with an emphasis on asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and total homocysteine (tHcy). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty Saudi women with PCOS diagnosed by the Rotterdam criteria (mean age [SD...

  10. Tree age, fruit size and storage conditions affect levels of ascorbic acid, total phenolic concentrations and total antioxidant activity of 'Kinnow' mandarin juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Samina; Malik, Aman U; Khan, Ahmad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Shafique, Muhammad

    2016-03-15

    Bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, total phenolics and total antioxidants) are important constituents of citrus fruit juice; however, information with regard to their concentrations and changes in relation to tree age and storage conditions is limited. 'Kinnow' (Citrus nobilis Lour × Citrus deliciosa Tenora) mandarin juice from fruit of three tree ages (6, 18 and 35 years old) and fruit sizes (large, medium and small) were examined for their bioactive compounds during 7 days under ambient storage conditions (20 ± 2 °C and 60-65% relative humidity (RH)) and during 60 days under cold storage (4 ± 1 °C and 75-80% RH) conditions. Under ambient conditions, a reduction in total phenolic concentrations (TPC) and in total antioxidant activity (TAA) was found for the juice from all tree ages and fruit sizes. Overall, fruit from 18-year-old trees had higher mean TPC (95.86 µg mL(-1) ) and TAA (93.68 mg L(-1) ), as compared to 6 and 35-year-old trees. Likewise, in cold storage, TAA decreased in all fruit size groups from 18 and 35-year-old trees. In all tree age and fruit size groups, TPC decreased initially during 15 days of cold storage and then increased gradually with increase in storage duration. Ascorbic acid concentrations showed an increasing trend in all fruit size groups from 35-year-old trees. Overall, during cold storage, fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher mean ascorbic acid (33.05 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees had higher TAA (153.1 mg L(-1) ) and TPC (115.1 µg mL(-1) ). Large-sized fruit had higher ascorbic acid (32.08 mg 100 mL(-1) ) concentrations and TAA (157.5 mg L(-1) ). Fruit from 18-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA under ambient storage conditions, whereas fruit from 6-year-old trees maintained higher TPC and TAA during cold storage. Small-sized fruit had higher TPC after ambient temperature storage, whereas large fruit size showed higher ascorbic acid concentrations and TAA after cold

  11. Free and total urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations among pregnant women from the Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yingshuang; Wan, Yanjian; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Aifen; Cai, Zongwei; Qian, Zhengmin; Zhang, Chuncao; Huo, Wenqian; Huang, Kai; Hu, Jie; Cheng, Lu; Chang, Huailong; Huang, Zheng; Xu, Bing; Xia, Wei; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-03-01

    Total urinary phthalate metabolites (the free plus glucuronidated forms) have been frequently measured in the general population. However, data are limited on the free forms which may be more bioactive, especially for sensitive population such as pregnant women. Here the data gap was addressed by measuring concentrations of free and total forms of six phthalate metabolites in 293 urine samples from pregnant women at delivery, who were randomly selected from the prospective Healthy Baby Cohort (HBC), China. We observed detectable concentrations of the total amount of phthalate metabolites in all urine samples. The geometric mean (GM) urinary concentrations of free and total mono-butyl phthalate (MBP) (5.20, 54.49ng/mL) were the highest, followed by mono-(2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl) phthalate (MECPP) (4.52, 7.27ng/mL). For most of phthalate metabolites, urinary concentrations were significantly higher in women who were nulliparous. Significantly higher concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) and mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP) were found in women who had higher educational level. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report the free and total forms of phthalate metabolites among pregnant women in China. The results suggest that exposure characteristics may be related to parity and education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Total concentration and speciation of heavy metals in biosolids from urban origin; Concentracion total y especiacion de metales pesados en biosolidos de origen urbano origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Flores, Eduardo [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)]. E-mail: egonz1962@yahoo.com.mx; Tornero Campante, Mario Alberto [Colegio de Postgraduados - Campus Puebla, San Pedro Cholula, Puebla (Mexico); Angeles Cruz, Yolanda [Laboratorio de Ingenieria Ambiental, Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico); Bonilla y Fernandez, Noemi [Departamento de Agroecologia y Ambiente, Instituto de Ciencias - Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    The analysis of heavy metals is a very important task to asses the potential environmental and health risk associated with biosolids deposition in agricultural soil. However, it is widely accepted that determination of total concentration of heavy metals does not give an accurate estimation of the potential environmental impact. So, it is necessary to apply speciation studies to obtain suitable information about their bioavailability. This study was carried out on sewage sludge samples collected in a municipal waste-water treatment plant, located in Puebla City (Mexico). They are used for amendment agricultural soil. The speciation of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) was made using a sequential extraction procedure. The aim was to determine their concentration in bioavailability fractions. It was got the total concentration of heavy metals using acid digestion in a closed system and was determined with atomic absorption spectrometry. The total concentrations of heavy metals were lower than that established by Mexican legislation. The heavy metals are mainly associated with the mineral fraction and organic matter and consequently they show low bioavailability. [Spanish] El analisis de metales pesados es una actividad importante cuando se quiere valorar el potencial riesgo ambiental y de salud asociado con la utilizacion de biosolidos en suelos agricolas. Sin embargo, es ampliamente aceptado que la determinacion del contenido total no da una valoracion apropiada del impacto ambiental causado. Por lo tanto, es necesario realizar estudios de especiacion para obtener informacion mas detallada sobre su biodisponibilidad. Este estudio se llevo a cabo con muestras de lodos residuales producidos en una planta de tratamiento de aguas residuales ubicada en la ciudad de Puebla (Mexico). Estos biosolidos son utilizados para enmendar suelos agricolas. La especiacion de metales pesados (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb y Zn) se realizo usando un procedimiento de extraccion secuencial

  13. The impact of total suspended particulate concentration on workers’ health at ceramic industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintorini, M. M.

    2018-01-01

    Ceramic production process pollutes the air with particulate matter at high concentration and has negative impact on the workers. The objective of this research was to determine the particulate concentration in the air and to analyse its impact on the workers. This research used cross sectional method to correlate the particulate concentration, temperature, humidity, smoke level and level of workers’ compliance with safety regulations. Sampling was conducted from April to May 2012 in three locations, i.e. exposure area (Mass Preparation I, II) and non-exposure area (Forming area). In the exposure area (Mass Preparation I and II) where the particulate concentrations were 22.3673 mg/m3 and 14.8277 mg/m3, and 58.33%, the workers had bad health status. In the non-exposure area, where the particulate concentration was 3.2185 mg/m3 and 25% the workers had bad health status. The Odds Ratio among the workers in exposure area was 4.2 times higher than the workers in the non-exposure area.

  14. Geographic and temporal patterns of variation in total mercury concentrations in blood of harlequin ducks and blue mussels from Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoy, Lucas; Flint, Paul; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Brant, Heather; Perkins, Christopher; Taylor, Robert; Lane, Oksana; Hall, Jeff; Evers, David; Schamber, Jason

    2017-04-15

    We compared total mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole blood of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) sampled within and among two geographically distinct locations and across three years in southwest Alaska. Blue mussels were collected to assess correlation between Hg concentrations in locally available forage and birds. Mercury concentrations in harlequin duck blood were significantly higher at Unalaska Island (0.31±0.19 mean±SD, μg/g blood) than Kodiak Island (0.04±0.02 mean±SD, μg/g blood). We found no evidence for annual variation in blood Hg concentration between years at Unalaska Island. However, blood Hg concentration did vary among specific sampling locations (i.e., bays) at Unalaska Island. Findings from this study demonstrate harlequin ducks are exposed to environmental sources of Hg, and whole blood Hg concentrations are associated with their local food source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Metabolic Burden of Methyl Donor Deficiency with Focus on the Betaine Homocysteine Methyltransferase Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Obeid

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Methyl groups are important for numerous cellular functions such as DNA methylation, phosphatidylcholine synthesis, and protein synthesis. The methyl group can directly be delivered by dietary methyl donors, including methionine, folate, betaine, and choline. The liver and the muscles appear to be the major organs for methyl group metabolism. Choline can be synthesized from phosphatidylcholine via the cytidine-diphosphate (CDP pathway. Low dietary choline loweres methionine formation and causes a marked increase in S-adenosylmethionine utilization in the liver. The link between choline, betaine, and energy metabolism in humans indicates novel functions for these nutrients. This function appears to goes beyond the role of the nutrients in gene methylation and epigenetic control. Studies that simulated methyl-deficient diets reported disturbances in energy metabolism and protein synthesis in the liver, fatty liver, or muscle disorders. Changes in plasma concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy reflect one aspect of the metabolic consequences of methyl group deficiency or nutrient supplementations. Folic acid supplementation spares betaine as a methyl donor. Betaine is a significant determinant of plasma tHcy, particularly in case of folate deficiency, methionine load, or alcohol consumption. Betaine supplementation has a lowering effect on post-methionine load tHcy. Hypomethylation and tHcy elevation can be attenuated when choline or betaine is available.

  16. Calibration of a turbidity meter for making estimates of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.

    1981-01-01

    Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.

  17. A new method for rapid determination of carbohydrate and total carbon concentrations using UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Berhe, Asmeret Asefaw; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A

    2013-09-12

    A new UV spectrophotometry based method for determining the concentration and carbon content of carbohydrate solution was developed. This method depends on the inherent UV absorption potential of hydrolysis byproducts of carbohydrates formed by reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid (furfural derivatives). The proposed method is a major improvement over the widely used Phenol-Sulfuric Acid method developed by DuBois, Gilles, Hamilton, Rebers, and Smith (1956). In the old method, furfural is allowed to develop color by reaction with phenol and its concentration is detected by visible light absorption. Here we present a method that eliminates the coloration step and avoids the health and environmental hazards associated with phenol use. In addition, avoidance of this step was shown to improve measurement accuracy while significantly reducing waiting time prior to light absorption reading. The carbohydrates for which concentrations and carbon content can be reliably estimated with this new rapid Sulfuric Acid-UV technique include: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides with very high molecular weight. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentration compared with total urinary excretion of 11,17-DOA in cynomolgus monkey urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hau, Jann; Royo, F

    2008-01-01

    Strees sensitive molecules exhibit great variation in concentration in the circulation and it may often be advantageous to quantify these in urine or feces rather than in serum or plasma. We advocate that all urine-or feces-should be collected, and that excretion of stress sensitive molecules sho...

  19. Homocysteine measurement in dried blood spot for neonatal detection of homocystinurias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alodaib, Ahmad N; Carpenter, Kevin; Wiley, Veronica; Wotton, Tiffany; Christodoulou, John; Wilcken, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Expanded newborn screening (NBS) leads to an increased number of false positive results, causing parental anxiety, greater follow-up costs, and the need for further metabolic investigations. We developed and validated a second-tier approach for NBS of homocystinurias by measuring the total homocysteine (tHcy) on the initial dried blood spot (DBS) samples to reduce the need for further investigation, and investigated newborn DBS homocysteine values in patients with homocystinuria. Total DBS homocysteine was measured in normal newborns, and retrospectively in newborns with established disorders, using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with stable isotope-labelled internal standards for homocysteine. Analytes were separated using reverse phase chromatography with a total run time of 3 min. The method was linear over the range of 10-100 μmol/L of tHcy and showed excellent precision; intra-batch CV was 4% and inter-batch precision 6.5%. Comparison of 59 plasma values with DBS for tHcy taken at the same time showed excellent correlation, (r (2)>0.97). The reference range for current neonatal samples was 5.4-10.7 μmol/L (n=99), and for the stored neonatal samples (stored dry, sealed in plastic at room temperature for 10 years) was 1.7-5.5 μmol/L, (n=50), both being normally distributed. The clinical utility of this method was checked by retrospective analysis of stored NBS samples from patients with different forms of homocystinuria, including four different remethylating disorders. All had clear elevations of tHcy.

  20. Preformed and regenerated phosphate in ocean general circulation models: can right total concentrations be wrong?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Duteil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate distributions simulated by seven state-of-the-art biogeochemical ocean circulation models are evaluated against observations of global ocean nutrient distributions. The biogeochemical models exhibit different structural complexities, ranging from simple nutrient-restoring to multi-nutrient NPZD type models. We evaluate the simulations using the observed volume distribution of phosphate. The errors in these simulated volume class distributions are significantly larger when preformed phosphate (or regenerated phosphate rather than total phosphate is considered. Our analysis reveals that models can achieve similarly good fits to observed total phosphate distributions for a~very different partitioning into preformed and regenerated nutrient components. This has implications for the strength and potential climate sensitivity of the simulated biological carbon pump. We suggest complementing the use of total nutrient distributions for assessing model skill by an evaluation of the respective preformed and regenerated nutrient components.

  1. Tetra primer ARMS-PCR relates folate/homocysteine pathway genes and ACE gene polymorphism with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, Rizwan; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2011-09-01

    Cardiovascular disorders and coronary artery disease (CAD) are significant contributors to morbidity and mortality in heart patients. As genes of the folate/homocysteine pathway have been linked with the vascular disease, we investigated association of these gene polymorphisms with CAD/myocardial infarction (MI) using the novel approach of tetraprimer ARMS-PCR. A total of 230 participants (129 MI cases, 101 normal subjects) were recruited. We genotyped rs1801133 and rs1801131 SNPs in 5'10' methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), rs1805087 SNP in 5' methyltetrahydrofolate homocysteine methyltransferase (MTR), rs662 SNP in paroxanse1 (PON1), and rs5742905 polymorphism in cystathionine beta synthase (CBS). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion polymorphism was detected through conventional PCR. Covariates included blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, serum cholesterol, and creatinine concentrations. Our results showed allele frequencies at rs1801133, rs1801131, rs1805087 and the ACE insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism varied between cases and controls. Logistic regression, after adjusting for covariates, demonstrated significant associations of rs1801133 and rs1805087 with CAD in the additive, dominant, and genotype model. In contrast, ACE I/D polymorphism was significantly related with CAD where recessive model was applied. Gene-gene interaction against the disease status revealed two polymorphism groups: rs1801133, rs662, and rs1805087; and rs1801131, rs662, and ACE I/D. Only the latter interaction maintained significance after adjusted for covariates. Our study concludes that folate pathway variants exert contributory influence on susceptibility to CAD. We further suggest that tetraprimer ARMS-PCR successfully resolves the genotypes in selected samples and might prove to be a superior technique compared to the conventional approach.

  2. Evaluation of the trace elements and the total mercury concentration in fishes commercialized at the Cubatao city, Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Barbara C.; Farias, Luciana A.; Curcho, Michel R.M.; Favaro, Debora I.T.; Braga, Elisabete S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the total Hg and the trace elements As, Br, Co, Cr and Rb concentrations in muscle of commercially important fishes at the Cubatao, Sao Paulo, Brazil, region. The following carnivore species were analysed: jew fish (Micropogonias furnieri), girl leg (Menticirrhus americanus), hake (Macrodon ancylodon), and plant eaters, sardine (Sardella braziliensis) and grey mullet (Mugil liza), representing a total of 58 samples. The analysed trace elements were determined through the neutron analysis activation (NAA) and total Hg, through the atomic absorption spectrometry with cold vapor generation (CV AAS). The analysed elements present a great concentration variation, not only among individuals of the same specie, but also among all the analysed species. The total Hg concentration were highly significant, with the predator species jew fish, girl leg and hake presenting concentrations larger than the non predator species sardine and grey mullet. Nevertheless, the content of total Hg remained bellow the limits established by the Brazilian legislation which is the 500 μg kg -1 for the non predator species, and the 1000 μg -1 for the predator species (humid weight)

  3. Turbidity and total suspended solid concentration dynamics in streamflow from California oak woodland watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Kenneth W. Tate; Randy A. Dahlgren; Jacob Newell

    2002-01-01

    Resource agencies, private landowners, and citizen monitoring programs utilize turbidity (water clarity) measurements as a water quality indicator for total suspended solids (TSS – mass of solids per unit volume) and other constituents in streams and rivers. The dynamics and relationships between turbidity and TSS are functions of watershed-specific factors and...

  4. Total and methyl mercury concentrations in sediment and water of a constructed wetland in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, Claire J.; Carey, Sean K.

    2016-01-01

    In the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada, oil sands operators are testing the feasibility of peatland construction on the post-mining landscape. In 2009, Syncrude Canada Ltd. began construction of the 52 ha Sandhill Fen pilot watershed, including a 15 ha, hydrologically managed fen peatland built on sand-capped soft oil sands tailings. An integral component of fen reclamation is post-construction monitoring of water quality, including salinity, fluvial carbon, and priority pollutant elements. In this study, the effects of fen reclamation and elevated sulfate levels on mercury (Hg) fate and transport in the constructed system were assessed. Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the fen sediment were lower than in two nearby natural fens, which may be due to the higher mineral content of the Sandhill Fen peat mix and/or a loss of Hg through evasion during the peat harvesting, stockpiling and placement processes. Porewater MeHg concentrations in the Sandhill Fen typically did not exceed 1.0 ng L −1 . The low MeHg concentrations may be a result of elevated porewater sulfate concentrations (mean 346 mg L −1 ) and an increase in sulphide concentrations with depth in the peat, which are known to suppress MeHg production. Total Hg and MeHg concentrations increased during a controlled mid-summer flooding event where the water table rose above the ground surface in most of the fen. The Hg dynamics during this event showed that hydrologic fluctuations in this system exacerbate the release of THg and MeHg downstream. In addition, the elevated SO 4 2− concentrations in the peat porewaters may become a problem with respect to downstream MeHg production once the fen is hydrologically connected to a larger wetland network that is currently being constructed. - Highlights: • A constructed fen peatland in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region was studied. • Total and methyl mercury concentrations in fen sediment and waters

  5. An analytical protocol for the determination of total mercury concentrations in solid peat samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos-Barraclough, F; Givelet, N; Martinez-Cortizas, A

    2002-01-01

    Traditional peat sample preparation methods such as drying at high temperatures and milling may be unsuitable for Hg concentration determination in peats due to the possible presence of volatile Hg species, which could be lost during drying. Here, the effects of sample preparation and natural.......12 and 8.52 ng kg(-1) h(-1), respectively). Fertilising the peat slightly increased Hg loss (3.08 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in NPK-fertilised peat compared to 0.28 ng kg(-1) h(-1) in unfertilised peat, when averaged over all temperatures used). Homogenising samples by grinding in a machine also caused a loss of Hg....... A comparison of two Hg profiles from an Arctic peat core, measured in frozen samples and in air-dried samples, revealed that no Hg losses occurred upon air-drying. A comparison of Hg concentrations in several plant species that make up peat, showed that some species (Pinus mugo, Sphagnum recurvum...

  6. Effect of initial total solids concentration on volatile fatty acid production from food waste during anaerobic acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Jiang, Jianguo; Zhang, Yujing; Li, Kaimin

    2015-01-01

    The effect of initial total solids (TS) concentration on volatile fatty acid (VFAs) production from food waste under mesophilic conditions (35 °C) was determined. VFAs concentration and composition, biogas production, soluble chemical oxygen demand concentration, TS and volatile solids (VS) reduction, and ammonia nitrogen [Formula: see text] release were investigated. The VFAs concentrations were 26.10, 39.68, 59.58, and 62.64 g COD/L at TS contents of 40, 70, 100, and 130 g/L, respectively. While the VFAs' yields ranged from 0.467 to 0.799 g COD/g VSfed, decreased as initial TS increased. The percentage of propionate was not affected by TS concentration, accounting for 30.19-34.86% of the total VFAs, while a higher percentage of butyrate and lower percentage of acetate was achieved at a higher TS concentration. Biogas included mainly hydrogen and carbon dioxide and the maximum hydrogen yield of 148.9 ml/g VSfed was obtained at 130 g TS/L. [Formula: see text] concentration, TS and VS reductions increased as initial TS increased. Considering the above variables, we conclude that initial TS of 100 g/L shall be the most appropriate to VFAs production.

  7. A summary of total mercury concentrations in flora and fauna near common contaminant sources in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, M; Chancy, C

    2008-02-01

    Total mercury concentrations are summarized for environmental media and biota collected from near-coastal areas, several impacted by contaminant sources common to the Gulf of Mexico. Water, sediment, fish, blue crabs, oysters, clams, mussels, periphyton and seagrasses were collected during 1993-2002 from targeted areas affected by point and non-point source contaminants. Mean concentrations in water and sediment were 0.02 (+/-1 standard deviation=0.06) microg l(-1) and 96.3 (230.8) ng g(-1) dry wt, respectively. Mean total mercury concentrations in fish, blue crabs, brackish clams and mussels were significantly greater than those in sediment, seagrass, colonized periphyton and oysters. Concentrations (ng g(-1) dry wt) averaged 23.1 (two seagrass species), 220.1 (oysters), 287.8 (colonized periphyton), 604.0 (four species of freshwater mussels), 772.4 (brackish clam), 857.9 (blue crabs) and 933.1 (nine fish species). Spatial, intraspecific and interspecific variability in results limited most generalizations concerning the relative mercury contributions of different stressor types. However, concentrations were significantly greater for some biota collected from areas receiving wastewater discharges and golf course runoff (fish), agricultural runoff (oysters) and urban stormwater runoff (colonized periphyton and sediment). Marine water quality criteria and proposed sediment quality guidelines were exceeded in 1-12% of total samples. At least one seafood consumption guideline, criteria or screening value were exceeded in edible tissues of blue crabs (6% total samples) and nine fish species (8-33% total samples) but all residues were less than the US Federal Drug Administration action limit of 1.0 ppm and the few reported toxic effect concentrations available for the targeted biota.

  8. Relationship between birth weight and total cholesterol concentration in adulthood: A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hui Chen

    2017-01-01

    Results: A total of 20 studies with 26,122 participants were identified. After adjustment for adult body mass index, the summary regression coefficient for an increment in birth weight of 1 kg was −0.09 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.05 for men without heterogeneity (I2 = 17.2% and −0.08 mmol/L (95% CI: −0.13, −0.03 for women with low heterogeneity (I2 = 34.0%. Stratified and sensitivity analyses generally confirmed the robustness of the findings in men. However, subgroup analyses by age indicated that the association of birth weight with total cholesterol was statistically significant only in women aged 18 years and in women aged <50 years.

  9. Relation of plasma homocyst(e)ine to cerebral infarction and cerebral atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, J H; Chung, C S; Kang, S S

    1998-12-01

    A number of investigations support the theory that the elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine is associated with occlusive vascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine whether moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction. In addition, we examined the association between plasma homocyst(e)ine and the severity of cerebral atherosclerosis. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study with 140 male controls and 78 male patients with nonfatal cerebral infarction, aged between 39 and 82 years. Plasma homocyst(e)ine levels were analyzed in 218 subjects. Fifty-five patients were evaluated for cerebral vascular stenosis by MR angiography. The mean plasma level of homocyst(e)ine was higher in cases than in controls (11.8+/-5.6 versus 9.6+/-4.1 micromol/L; P=0.002). The proportion of subjects with moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia was significantly higher in cases than in controls (16.7% versus 5.0%; P=0.004). Based on the logistic regression model, the odds ratio of the highest 5% of homocyst(e)ine levels in control group was 4.17 (95% confidence interval, 3.71 to 4. 71)(P=0.0001). After additional adjustment for total cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, diabetes, and age, the odds ratio was 1.70 (95% confidence interval, 1.48 to 1.95) (P=0.0001). The plasma homocyst(e)ine levels of patients having vessels with 3 or 2 stenosed sites were significantly higher than those of patients having vessels with 1 stenosed site or normal vessels (14.6+/-1.4, 11.0+/-1.4 versus 7.8+/-1.5, 8.9+/-1.4 micromol/L respectively; P<0. 02). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that moderate hyperhomocyst(e)ienemia was significantly associated with the number of stenosed vessels (P=0.001). These findings suggest that moderate hyperhomocyst(e)inemia is an independent risk factor for cerebral infarction and may predict the severity of cerebral atherosclerosis in patients with cerebral infarction.

  10. Potential clinical and economic effects of homocyst(e)ine lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallamothu, B K; Fendrick, A M; Rubenfire, M; Saint, S; Bandekar, R R; Omenn, G S

    Elevated total homocyst(e)ine levels (>/=11 micromol/L) have been identified as a potential risk factor for coronary heart disease. However, the benefits expected from lowering homocyst(e)ine levels with folic acid and vitamin B(12) supplementation have yet to be demonstrated in clinical trials. We constructed a decision analytic model to estimate the clinical benefits and economic costs of 2 homocyst(e)ine-lowering strategies: (1) "treat all"-no screening, daily supplementation with folic acid (400 microg) and vitamin B(12) (cyanocobalamin; 500 microg) for all; (2) "screen and treat"-screening, followed by daily supplementation with folic acid and vitamin B(12) for individuals with elevated homocyst(e)ine levels. Simulated cohorts of 40-year-old men and 50-year-old women in the general population were evaluated. In the base-case analysis, we assumed that lowering elevated levels would reduce excess coronary heart disease risk by 40%; however, this assumption and others were evaluated across a broad range of potential values using sensitivity analysis. Primary outcomes were discounted costs per life-year saved. Although the treat-all strategy was slightly more effective overall, the screen and treat strategy resulted in a much lower cost per life-year saved ($13,600 in men and $27,500 in women) when compared with no intervention. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the treat-all strategy compared with the screen and treat strategy were more than $500,000 per life-year saved in both cohorts. Sensitivity analysis showed that cost-effectiveness ratios for the screen and treat strategy remained less than $50,000 per life-year saved under several unfavorable scenarios, such as when effective homocyst(e)ine lowering was assumed to reduce the relative risk of coronary heart disease-related death by only 11% in men or 23% in women. Homocyst(e)ine lowering with folic acid and vitamin B(12) supplementation could result in substantial clinical benefits at reasonable

  11. Total mercury concentrations in surface water and sediments from Danube Delta lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEODOROF Liliana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The samples were collected from surface water and sediments of Danube Delta lakes, during april and may 2006. The sediments were digested with nitric acid, and the surface water with real aqua, at Microwave Oven Anton Paar and analised at FIMS 400 Perkin Elmer. The results show that the total mercury is compared with the maximum allowed limits according with Normative 161/2006.

  12. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  13. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank

  14. Total and size-resolved particle number and black carbon concentrations in urban areas near Schiphol airport (the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keuken, M.P.; Moerman, M.; Zandveld, P.; Henzing, J.S.; Hoek, G.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of black carbon, and size-resolved and total particle number concentrations (PNC) were investigated in the vicinity of Schiphol airport in the Netherlands, the fourth busiest airport in Europe. Continuous measurements were conducted between March and May 2014at Adamse Bos, located 7km

  15. Competition effects in cation binding to humic acid: Conditional affinity spectra for fixed total metal concentration conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Calin; Mongin, Sandrine; Rey-Castro, Carlos; Galceran, Josep; Companys, Encarnació; Garcés, José Luis; Salvador, José; Puy, Jaume; Cecilia, Joan; Lodeiro, Pablo; Mas, Francesc

    2010-09-01

    Information on the Pb and Cd binding to a purified Aldrich humic acid (HA) is obtained from the influence of different fixed total metal concentrations on the acid-base titrations of this ligand. NICA (Non-Ideal Competitive Adsorption) isotherm has been used for a global quantitative description of the binding, which has then been interpreted by plotting the Conditional Affinity Spectra of the H + binding at fixed total metal concentrations (CAScTM). This new physicochemical tool, here introduced, allows the interpretation of binding results in terms of distributions of proton binding energies. A large increase in the acidity of the phenolic sites as the total metal concentration increases, especially in presence of Pb, is revealed from the shift of the CAScTM towards lower affinities. The variance of the CAScTM distribution, which can be used as a direct measure of the heterogeneity, also shows a significant dependence on the total metal concentration. A discussion of the factors that influence the heterogeneity of the HA under the conditions of each experiment is provided, so that the smoothed pattern exhibited by the titration curves can be justified.

  16. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  17. Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaming Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Measuring total nitrogen (TN and total phosphorus (TP is important in managing heavy polluted urban waters in China. This study uses high spatial resolution IKONOS imagery with four multispectral bands, which roughly correspond to Landsat/TM bands 1–4, to determine TN and TP in small urban rivers and lakes in China. By using Lake Cihu and the lower reaches of Wen-Rui Tang (WRT River as examples, this paper develops both multiple linear regressions (MLR and artificial neural network (ANN models to estimate TN and TP concentrations from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery and in situ water samples collected concurrently with overpassing satellite. The measured and estimated values of both MLR and ANN models are in good agreement (R2 > 0.85 and RMSE < 2.50. The empirical equations selected by MLR are more straightforward, whereas the estimated accuracy using ANN model is better (R2 > 0.86 and RMSE < 0.89. Results validate the potential of using high resolution IKONOS multispectral imagery to study the chemical states of small-sized urban water bodies. The spatial distribution maps of TN and TP concentrations generated by the ANN model can inform the decision makers of variations in water quality in Lake Cihu and lower reaches of WRT River. The approaches and equations developed in this study could be applied to other urban water bodies for water quality monitoring.

  18. Accuracy of different sensors for the estimation of pollutant concentrations (total suspended solids, total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand) in wastewater and stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepot, Mathieu; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Many field investigations have used continuous sensors (turbidimeters and/or ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrophotometers) to estimate with a short time step pollutant concentrations in sewer systems. Few, if any, publications compare the performance of various sensors for the same set of samples. Different surrogate sensors (turbidity sensors, UV-visible spectrophotometer, pH meter, conductivity meter and microwave sensor) were tested to link concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS), total and dissolved chemical oxygen demand (COD), and sensors' outputs. In the combined sewer at the inlet of a wastewater treatment plant, 94 samples were collected during dry weather, 44 samples were collected during wet weather, and 165 samples were collected under both dry and wet weather conditions. From these samples, triplicate standard laboratory analyses were performed and corresponding sensors outputs were recorded. Two outlier detection methods were developed, based, respectively, on the Mahalanobis and Euclidean distances. Several hundred regression models were tested, and the best ones (according to the root mean square error criterion) are presented in order of decreasing performance. No sensor appears as the best one for all three investigated pollutants.

  19. Determination of the concentration of total suspends solids (TSS) and heavy metals in basin rio Morote, Nicoya, Guanacaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Murillo, Ricardo; Leon, Sandra; Saravia, Ana Yuri; Mena Sanchez, Carlos de

    2009-01-01

    The total concentration of suspends solids and heavy metals were determined of the Basin of rio Morote. The study spanned six sampling campaigns between April 2003 and May 2005. Sampling points were selected to correspond to places from the high basin to the mouth of the rio Morote in the Golfo de Nicoya. Suspends total solids concentration (TSS) on average exceeds 200 mg/L during the rainy season at the mouth. Enrichment of metals as: Cu, Ni, Cd and Fe was found in riverbed sediments; but not in Pb. The concentration of Zn has been near the limit value (200 mg/kg) in the dry season, value which has been established for the Environmental Protection Agency of United States (EPA). (author) [es

  20. Homocysteine enhances the predictive value of the GRACE risk score in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Sumei; Wan, Zhaofei; Zhou, Dong; Ding, Yanhong; He, Qinli; Xie, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether the addition of homocysteine level to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score enhances its predictive value for clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 1143 consecutive patients with STEMI were included in this prospective cohort study. Homocysteine was detected, and the GRACE score was calculated. The predictive power of the GRACE score alone or combined with homocysteine was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, methods of net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During a median follow-up period of 36.7 months, 271 (23.7%) patients reached the clinical endpoints. It showed that the GRACE score and homocysteine could independently predict all-cause death [GRACE: HR=1.031 (1.024-1.039), p<0.001; homocysteine: HR=1.023 (1.018-1.028), p<0.001] and MACE [GRACE: HR=1.008 (1.005-1.011), p<0.001; homocysteine: HR=1.022 (1.018-1.025), p<0.001]. When they were used in combination to assess the clinical outcomes, the area under the ROC curve significantly increased from 0.786 to 0.884 (95% CI=0.067-0.128, Z=6.307, p<0.001) for all-cause death and from 0.678 to 0.759 (95% CI=0.055-0.108, Z=5.943, p<0.001) for MACE. The addition of homocysteine to the GRACE model improved NRI (all-cause death: 0.575, p<0.001; MACE: 0.621, p=0.008) and IDI (all-cause death: 0.083, p<0.001; MACE: 0.130, p=0.016), indicating effective discrimination and reclassification. Both the GRACE score and homocysteine are significant and independent predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI. A combination of them can develop a more predominant prediction for clinical outcomes in these patients.

  1. Comparative and quantitative determination of total hemoglobin concentration in normal and psoriatic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahesar, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.; Khuhawar, M.Y.; Mahesar, H.U.

    2004-01-01

    The cyanmethaemoglobin technique is now recommended as the standard method by International Committee for Standardization in Hematology and British Standards Institution 1966. The hemoglobin is treated with reagent containing potassium ferricyanide, Potassium cyanide and potassium dihydrogen phosphate. The ferricyanide forms methamoglobin which is converted to cyanmethaemoglobin by the cyanide. The average values of hemoglobin, percent determined from the blood samples of normal and psoriatic (n=44) males and (n=35) females were 15.0, 12.7, 13.6 and 11.2 g/100ml. The decrease in hemoglobin concentration could be due to anemia resulting during the cell proliferation epidermis in inflammatory state and Keratolytic disorder which take place in psoriasis. (author)

  2. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  3. A selective and regenerable voltammetric aptasensor for determination of homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, Jaber; Mirzaei, Mohammad; Torkzadeh-Mahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    We describe an electrochemical aptasensor for the amino acid homocysteine (hCys). A gold electrode was modified with a highly specific aptamer against hCys (a 66-base DNA oligonucleotide) acting as the recognition probe. The method is highly selective over cysteine and methionine. The effects of accumulation time, type and concentration of accumulation buffer and pH, type and concentration of stripping buffer were studied. Under optimized conditions and a working potential of 1.07 V (vs. Ag/AgCl), the response to hCys is linear in the 0.2 to 10 μM concentration range. The detection limit is 10 nM, and the relative standard deviation is 3.1 % (at 1 μM of hCys). The electrode can be regenerated by immersing it into a 3 M solution of urea solution. The method was applied to the determination of hCys in (spiked) serum and urine and gave recoveries of 88.5 and 96.5 %, respectively. (author)

  4. Measurement of fluorine total concentration in dental enamel using fast neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouadili, A.; Vernais, J.; Isabelle, D.B.

    1988-01-01

    Fluorine which is present in dental enamel, at the level of a few tens to a few hundred ppm, plays an important role in the behaviour of this tissue. Therefore quantitative determination is of interest for particular studies of the dental system. We present a nuclear nondestructive method to determine the total fluorine content in dental enamel by cyclotron-produced fast-neutron activation. The 19 F(n,2n) reaction leads to 18 F which is a β + emitter with a 109.8 min half-life. The irradiated sample activity is measured by detecting in coincidence the annihilation photons. A fluorine standard is used for calibration. The detection limit is of the order of 1 ppm, while the reproducibility is better than 95% [pt

  5. The relationship between MTHFR gene polymorphisms, plasma homocysteine levels and diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙家忠; 徐焱成; 朱宜莲; 鲁红云; 邓浩华; 范幼筠; 孙苏欣; 张颖

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms and plasma homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods Total of 208 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and 57 controls were recruited into the study. MTHFR genetic C677T polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP. Plasma total homocysteine levels were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Results The frequencies of MTHFR TT homogeneous type, CT heterogeneous type and allele T (28.18%, 41.82%, 49.09%) were significantly higher in the type 2 diabetes mellitus with diabetic retinopathy group than those without retinopathy (18.37%, 29.59%, 33.16%) and those of controls (17.54%, 28.07%, 31.58%). The presence of the T allele appeared to have a strong association with the development of diabetic retinopathy. The odds ratio was 1.94 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.31-2.88. Moreover, plasma homocysteine levels were remarkably higher in patients with TT or CT genotype than in patients with the CC genotype. Conclusion MTHFR gene C677T mutation associated with a predisposition to increased plasma homocysteine levels may be considered as a genetic risk factor for diabetic microangiopathy (such as DR) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Use of water quality surrogates to estimate total phosphorus concentrations in Iowa rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith E. Schilling

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: TP concentrations were highly correlated to turbidity (0.78 ± 0.20 and OP (0.69 ± 0.13 across all sites and less correlated to chlorophyll a (0.07 ± 0.15, chloride (−0.10 ± 0.24 and discharge (0.41 ± 0.23. When the regression models included OP as a variable, the mean r2 for all 43 sites was 0.90 ± 0.08 and ten of the 43 sites had r2 values greater than 0.95. When OP was excluded in the regression model, the overall mean r2 values decreased to 0.72 ± 0.14 and for six of the river sites, the r2 value decreased by 50%. Other variables (discharge, chlorophyll a, chloride were included in the regression equations on a case-by-case basis. Including OP in the regression models was critically important for rivers draining the tile-drained Des Moines Lobe region.

  7. S-alkylated homocysteine derivatives: New inhibitors of human betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiráček, Jiří; Collinsová, Michaela; Rosenberg, Ivan; Buděšínský, Miloš; Protivínská, Eva; Netušilová, Hana; Garrow, T. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 13 (2006), s. 3982-3989 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4055302 Grant - others:NIH(US) DK52501; NIH(US) R01TW0052501; IARS(US) 50-352 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : BHMT * S-alkylated homocystein e * inhibitor Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.115, year: 2006

  8. Specific potassium ion interactions facilitate homocysteine binding to betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mládková, Jana; Hladílková, Jana; Diamond, C. E.; Tryon, K.; Yamada, K.; Garrow, T. A.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Koutmos, M.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2014), s. 2552-2564 ISSN 0887-3585 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277; GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : BHMT * homocysteine * potassium * crystal structure * molecular dynamics * simulations * enzyme kinetics Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.627, year: 2014

  9. Study on relationships among deep vein thrombosis, homocysteine & related B group vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekim, Meral; Ekim, Hasan; Yilmaz, Yunus Keser; Kulah, Bahadir; Polat, M Fevzi; Gocmen, A Yesim

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia has been considered as a potential risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) but it is still controversy. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in patients with DVT. Our second objective was to document the prevalence of folate, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin B12 level in this patient population. Sixty patients with DVT aged from 23 to 84 years, were assessed regarding demographic characteristics, serum levels of homocysteine, folate, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6. The diagnosis of DVT was based upon Wells scoring system and serum D-dimer level and confirmed by deep venous Doppler ultrasonography of the lower limbs. Mean serum homocysteine levels were found significantly higher in patients over the age of 40 years (10.81±4.26 µmol/L vs 9.13±3.23 µmol/L). Of all the patients, 9 patients had homocysteine level above the 15µmol/L, 26 had folic acid level below 3 ng/ml, one had vitamin B12 level below 150 pmol/L, and two had vitamin B6 level below 30 nmol/L. In the hyperhomocysteinemic group, five patients had low folic acid level, one had low vitamin B12 level, and two had low vitamin B6 level. Hyperhomocysteinemia, in women older than 40 years, may be a risk factor for DVT. Folic acid deficiency may also influence serum homocysteine concentrations. Folate therapy may be offered to the patients with DVT. However further studies are required to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  10. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Bahtiri

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy, reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. Materials and methods: One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH, total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Results: Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. Conclusion: This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  11. Relationship of homocysteine levels with lumbar spine and femur neck BMD in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiri, E; Islami, H; Rexhepi, S; Qorraj-Bytyqi, H; Thaçi, K; Thaçi, S; Karakulak, C; Hoxha, R

    2015-01-01

    The focus of several studies in recent years has been the association between increased plasma concentrations of homocysteine (Hcy), reduced bone mineral density and increased risk of bone fractures. Nevertheless, inconsistencies persist in the literature. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between serum Hcy and vitamin B12 status, and bone mineral density, on a group of post-menopausal women. One hundred thirty-nine postmenopausal women were recruited to enter this cross-sectional study. Bone mineral density (BMD) of total hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and serum Hcy, vitamin B12, parathyroid hormone (PTH), total calcium and magnesium levels were determined. In addition, we investigated the relationship of Hcy and vitamin B12 and BMD using a meta-analysis approach. Serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic women when compared to other BMD groups, and were inversely related to lumbar spine BMD and femur neck BMD. Body mass index and serum Hcy levels were shown to be significant predictors of BMD at lumbar spine, femur neck and total hip. The performed meta-analysis showed that serum Hcy levels were significantly higher in osteoporotic subjects compared to normal BMD subjects. This study shows that Hcy status, but not vitamin B12 status, is associated with BMD in this cohort of postmenopausal women. We therefore confirm that high Hcy levels are an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. BMD evaluation in women at post menopause with high Hcy levels may be helpful in advising precautionary measures.

  12. Planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection collectors and an innovative compound tracker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Tun-Chien; Lai, Wei-Che

    2014-12-15

    This study proposed a planar solar concentrator featuring alignment-free total-internal-reflection (TIR) collectors and an innovative compound tracker. The compound tracker, combining a mechanical single-axis tracker and scrollable prism sheets, can achieve a performance on a par with dual-axis tracking while reducing the cost of the tracking system and increasing its robustness. The alignment-free TIR collectors are assembled on the waveguide without requiring alignment, so the planar concentrator is relatively easily manufactured and markedly increases the feasibility for use in large concentrators. Further, the identical TIR collector is applicable to various-sized waveguide slab without requiring modification, which facilitates flexibility regarding the size of the waveguide slab. In the simulation model, the thickness of the slab was 2 mm, and its maximal length reached 6 m. With an average angular tolerance of ±0.6°, and after considering both the Fresnel loss and the angular spread of the sun, the simulation indicates that the waveguide concentrator of a 1000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 62-77% at the irradiance concentrations of 387-688, and the one of a 2000-mm length provides the optical efficiencies of 52-64.5% at the irradiance concentrations of 645-1148. Alternatively, if a 100-mm horizontally staggered waveguide slab is collocated with the alignment-free TIR collectors, the optical efficiency would be greatly improved up to 91.5% at an irradiance concentration of 1098 (C(geo) = 1200X).

  13. Relationship between homocysteine and coronary artery disease. Results from a large prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Alon; Verdoia, Monica; Cassetti, Ettore; Marino, Paolo; Suryapranata, Harry; De Luca, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) still represents the major cause of mortality in developed countries. Large research programs have been focused on the identification of new risk factors to prevent CAD, with special attention to homocysteine (Hcy), due to the known associated increased thrombogenicity, oxidative stress status and endothelial dysfunction. However, controversy still exists on the association between Hcy and CAD. Therefore, aim of the current study was to investigate the association of Hcy with the prevalence and extent of CAD in a large consecutive cohort of patients undergoing coronary angiography. Our population is represented by a total of 3056 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography between at the Azienda Ospedaliera "Maggiore della Carità", Novara, Italy. Fasting samples were collected for homocysteine levels assessment. Coronary disease was defined for at least 1 vessel stenosis>50% as evaluated by QCA. Study population was divided according to Hcy tertiles (18.2nmol/ml). High plasmatic level of homocysteine was related with age (pbenefits from vitamin administration in patients with elevated Hcy to prevent the occurrence and progression of CAD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total protein concentration and diagnostic test results for gray wolf (Canis lupus) serum using Nobuto filter paper strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara, Rocio F.; Sepúlveda, Carolina; Ip, Hon S.; Samuel, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Nobuto filter paper strips are widely used for storing blood-serum samples, but the recovery of proteins from these strips following rehydration is unknown. Poor recovery of proteins could reduce the concentration of antibodies and antigens and reduce the sensitivity of diagnostic assays. We compared the protein concentration, and its association with test sensitivity, of eluted Nobuto strip samples with paired sera. We collected and froze serum from five gray wolves (Canis lupus) for 8 mo. When thawed, we used a spectrophotometer (absorbance 280 nm) to determine the serum protein concentration for paired sera and Nobuto eluates for each animal in 2-fold serial dilutions. Total protein concentration was similar for both sample storage methods (Nobuto eluates and control sera), except for the undiluted samples in which Nobuto eluates had higher total protein concentrations. Both sample storage methods appear to produce similar results using the SNAP® 4Dx® Test to detect antibodies against pathogens causing Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and ehrlichiosis as well as antigen for canine heartworm disease.

  15. Correlation Between C677T and A1298C Mutations on the MTHFR Gene With Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Venous Thrombosis in Pregnant Women at Risk of Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem Ghaffari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep venous thrombosis (DVT is a common disease with a high morbidity, mortality and increase in miscarriages. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assessment the correlation between C677T and A1298C mutations on the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR gene with total plasma homocysteine levels and deep venous thrombosis in pregnant women at risk of thrombosis. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, 120 pregnant women with risk of DVT and 100 pregnant women without risk of DVT were included in the study. Assay for identification of MTHFR mutations was carried out by PCR-RFLP. Total plasma homocysteine was measured by ELISA method. Results: Homozygous (MM mutations of MTHFR C677T and A1298C were not associated with DVT in pregnant women with and without DVT, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with DVT (18.3 ± 5.9 μmol/L than in the pregnant women without DVT (8.9 ± 6.4 μmol/L in C677T and A1298C mutations on the MTHFR gene, respectively (P = 0.021. Conclusions: Our results showed that MTHFR C677T and MTHFR A1289C polymorphisms are not connected with total plasma homocysteine levels in pregnant women with and without DVT. Also, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in pregnant women with DVT.

  16. Concentration of total protein and degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemella Nur Illahi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: While fasting, the mouth does not work to eat and drink so that the salivary glands become less active so saliva production decreased and there was a change in eating timewhich is relation to the mastication process that impact on changes in the degree of acidity (pH Objectives: To determine the concentration of total protein and the degree of acidity (pH of saliva when fasting and after breakfasting. Materials and Methods: The study was observational analytic design with longitudinal (follow up study conducted in the Hj. Halima Dg. Sikati Dental Hospital inKandea in July 2015, the sampling method was purposive sampling. Population was 35 clinical students at the Department of Dental Public Health, Faculty of Dentistry Hasanuddin University with a total sample of 16 students who fit the criteria of the study subjects. To calculate the total protein of saliva concentration using Kyltecautoanalyzerand pH meter to measure the acidity of saliva. Data was analyzed was using SPSS version 17.0 (paired t-test, p <0.05. Results: The mean of total protein (% while fasting by 0135% ± 0.026 and the mean total protein (% after breakfasting at 0.179% ± 0.035, while the average degree of acidity (pH during fasting at 7.26 ± 0:24 and the average degree of acidity (pH after breakfasting at 7.66 ± 0.23 with p-value (0.000. Conclusions: An increase in the total protein concentration and acidity (pH after breakfasting.

  17. Total and methyl mercury concentrations in sediment and water of a constructed wetland in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Claire J; Carey, Sean K

    2016-06-01

    In the Athabasca Oil Sands Region in northeastern Alberta, Canada, oil sands operators are testing the feasibility of peatland construction on the post-mining landscape. In 2009, Syncrude Canada Ltd. began construction of the 52 ha Sandhill Fen pilot watershed, including a 15 ha, hydrologically managed fen peatland built on sand-capped soft oil sands tailings. An integral component of fen reclamation is post-construction monitoring of water quality, including salinity, fluvial carbon, and priority pollutant elements. In this study, the effects of fen reclamation and elevated sulfate levels on mercury (Hg) fate and transport in the constructed system were assessed. Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in the fen sediment were lower than in two nearby natural fens, which may be due to the higher mineral content of the Sandhill Fen peat mix and/or a loss of Hg through evasion during the peat harvesting, stockpiling and placement processes. Porewater MeHg concentrations in the Sandhill Fen typically did not exceed 1.0 ng L(-1). The low MeHg concentrations may be a result of elevated porewater sulfate concentrations (mean 346 mg L(-1)) and an increase in sulphide concentrations with depth in the peat, which are known to suppress MeHg production. Total Hg and MeHg concentrations increased during a controlled mid-summer flooding event where the water table rose above the ground surface in most of the fen. The Hg dynamics during this event showed that hydrologic fluctuations in this system exacerbate the release of THg and MeHg downstream. In addition, the elevated SO4(2-) concentrations in the peat porewaters may become a problem with respect to downstream MeHg production once the fen is hydrologically connected to a larger wetland network that is currently being constructed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Homocystein: A new biochemical marker in livestock sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Kozat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The livestock sector is making great contributions to the world economy. Many different diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, kidney and mineral substance insufficiency, cause huge losses in yield and production in the livestock sector. Early diagnosis is essential to combat these diseases. Today, homocysteine levels are used as biochemical markers in the diagnosis of the functions and diseases of many different organs in human medicine. Homocysteine is an amino acid that occurs in the process of methionine metabolism and does not enter the primary structure of proteins. Homocysteine is a biochemical marker used in the assessment of cardiovascular and renal diseases as well as other organ functions. In this review, homocysteine determination methods and detailed information about which organ and system diseases can be used in livestock sector will be given. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(4.000: 319-332

  19. Crystallization of mouse S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masaaki; Kusakabe, Yoshio; Ohsumichi, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Nobutada; Nakanishi, Masayuki; Kitade, Yukio; Nakamura, Kazuo T.

    2010-01-01

    Mouse S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase has been crystallized in the presence of the reaction product adenosine. Diffraction data to 1.55 Å resolution were collected using synchrotron radiation. S-Adenosyl-l-homocysteine hydrolase (SAHH; EC 3.3.1.1) catalyzes the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine to adenosine and l-homocysteine. For crystallographic investigations, mouse SAHH (MmSAHH) was overexpressed in bacterial cells and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of the reaction product adenosine. X-ray diffraction data to 1.55 Å resolution were collected from an orthorhombic crystal form belonging to space group I222 with unit-cell parameters a = 100.64, b = 104.44, c = 177.31 Å. Structural analysis by molecular replacement is in progress

  20. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate

  1. Kinetics of homocysteine metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Sierksma, A.; Schaafsma, G.; Kok, F.J.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Because plasma homocysteine (tHcy) is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and associated with alcohol consumption, the authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol

  2. Effects of growth hormone (GH) administration on homocyst(e)ine levels in men with GH deficiency: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesmilo, G; Biller, B M; Llevadot, J; Hayden, D; Hanson, G; Rifai, N; Klibanski, A

    2001-04-01

    GH deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and early manifestations of atherosclerosis. Elevated serum homocyst(e)ine levels have been found to be associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The effect of GH replacement on homocyst(e)ine has not been investigated to date. We evaluated the effect of GH replacement on fasting homocyst(e)inemia in a group of men with adult-onset GH deficiency in a randomized, single blind, placebo-controlled trial. Forty men with adult-onset GH deficiency were randomized to GH or placebo for 18 months, with dose adjustments made according to serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels. Fasting serum homocyst(e)ine, folate, vitamin B12, and total T(3) levels were determined at baseline and 6 and 18 months. Anthropometry, IGF-I levels, insulin, and glucose were measured at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months. Nutritional assessment, body composition, total T(4), thyroid hormone binding index, and free T(4) index were assessed every 6 months. Homocyst(e)ine decreased in the GH-treated group compared with that in the placebo group (net difference, -1.2 +/- 0.6 micromol/L; confidence interval, -2.4, -0.02 micromol/L; P = 0.047). Homocyst(e)ine at baseline was negatively correlated with plasma levels of folate (r = -0.41; P = 0.0087). Total T(3) increased in the GH-treated group vs. that in the placebo group (net difference, 0.17 +/- 0.046 ng/dL; confidence interval, 0.071, 0.26 nmol/L; P = 0.0012). Folate and vitamin B12 levels did not significantly change between groups. Changes in homocyst(e)ine were negatively correlated with changes in IGF-I. For each 1 nmol/L increase in IGF-I, homocyst(e)ine decreased by 0.04 +/- 0.02 micromol/L (P = 0.029). In contrast, changes in homocyst(e)ine did not correlate with changes in folate, vitamin B12, total T(3), C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, or insulin levels. This study shows that GH replacement decreases fasting homocyst(e)ine levels compared with placebo. This may be

  3. Homocyst(e)ine and cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the evidence with special emphasis on case-control studies and nested case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Smith, S Jay; Stroup, Donna F; Steinberg, Karen K; Mueller, Patricia W; Thacker, Stephen B

    2002-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of homocyst(e)ine are thought to increase the risk of vascular diseases including coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We searched MEDLINE (1966-1999), EMBASE (1974-1999), SciSearch (1974- 1999), and Dissertation Abstracts (1999) for articles and theses about homocyst(e)ine concentration and coronary heart disease and cerebrovascular disease. We included 57 publications (3 cohort studies, 12 nested case-control studies, 42 case-control studies) that reported results on 5518 people with coronary heart disease (11,068 control subjects) and 1817 people with cerebrovascular disease (4787 control subjects) in our analysis. For coronary heart disease, the summary odds ratios (OR) for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.06 (95% CI : 0.99-1.13) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.23 (95% CI : 1.07-1.41) for 10 publications of nested case-control studies, and 1.70 (95% CI : 1.50-1.93) for 26 publications of case-control studies. For cerebrovascular disease, the summary OR for a 5-micromol/l increase in homocyst(e)ine concentration were 1.10 (95% CI : 0.94-1.28) for 2 publications of cohort studies, 1.58 (95% CI : 1.35-1.85) for 5 publications of nested case-control studies, and 2.16 (95% CI : 1.65-2.82) for 17 publications of case-control studies. Prospective studies offer weaker support than case-control studies for an association between homocyst(e)ine concentration and cardiovascular disease. Although other lines of evidence support a role for homocyst(e)ine in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, more information from prospective epidemiological studies or clinical trials is needed to clarify this role.

  4. Diets high in palmitic acid (16:0), lauric and myristic acids (12:0 + 14:0), or oleic acid (18:1) do not alter postprandial or fasting plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers in healthy Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Phooi Tee; Ng, Tony Kock Wai; Lee, Verna Kar Mun; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2011-12-01

    Dietary fat type is known to modulate the plasma lipid profile, but its effects on plasma homocysteine and inflammatory markers are unclear. We investigated the effects of high-protein Malaysian diets prepared with palm olein, coconut oil (CO), or virgin olive oil on plasma homocysteine and selected markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy adults. A randomized-crossover intervention with 3 dietary sequences of 5 wk each was conducted in 45 healthy subjects. The 3 test fats, namely palmitic acid (16:0)-rich palm olein (PO), lauric and myristic acid (12:0 + 14:0)-rich CO, and oleic acid (18:1)-rich virgin olive oil (OO), were incorporated at two-thirds of 30% fat calories into high-protein Malaysian diets. No significant differences were observed in the effects of the 3 diets on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and interferon-γ. Diets prepared with PO and OO had comparable nonhypercholesterolemic effects; the postprandial total cholesterol for both diets and all fasting lipid indexes for the OO diet were significantly lower (P diet. Unlike the PO and OO diets, the CO diet was shown to decrease postprandial lipoprotein(a). Diets that were rich in saturated fatty acids prepared with either PO or CO, and an OO diet that was high in oleic acid, did not alter postprandial or fasting plasma concentrations of tHcy and selected inflammatory markers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00941837.

  5. Increased plasma homocyst(e)ine after withdrawal of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal from the diet: prevention by breakfast cereal providing 200 microg folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Irvin-Jones, A; Upson, B M; Graf, E E

    2000-08-01

    We tested the hypothesis that cessation of habitual ingestion of breakfast cereals would be associated with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations. We anticipated that those subjects who reported consuming breakfast cereals containing 100 to 400 ,microg of folic acid per serving before entering the study would achieve higher plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations if, in addition to their regular diet, they began ingesting a daily serving of breakfast cereal that contained less than 10 microg of folic acid per serving. Seventy-nine subjects consumed a daily serving of breakfast cereal containing either ine elevation. Breakfast cereal containing 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)ine lowering effects of commercial cereals. Habitual consumption of commercially available fortified breakfast cereals, usually containing 100 to 400 microg folic acid per serving, had significant homocyst(e)ine lowering effects as shown by the homocyst(e)ine increase after cessation of habitual intake of commercial breakfast cereal. Substitution of breakfast cereal containing only 200 microg folic acid per day was sufficient to maintain the homocyst(e)inelowering effects of commercial cereals.

  6. Senegalese artisanal gold mining leads to elevated total mercury and methylmercury concentrations in soils, sediments, and rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline R. Gerson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The largest source of global mercury (Hg anthropogenic inputs to the environment is derived from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM activities in developing countries. While our understanding of global Hg emissions from ASGM is growing, there is limited empirical documentation about the levels of total mercury (THg and methylmercury (MeHg contamination near ASGM sites. We measured THg and MeHg concentrations in soil (n = 119, sediment (n = 22, and water (n = 25 from four active ASGM villages and one non-ASGM reference village in Senegal, West Africa. Nearly all samples had THg and MeHg concentrations that exceeded the reference village concentrations and USEPA regulatory standards. The highest median THg concentrations were found in huts where mercury-gold amalgams were burned (7.5 μg/g, while the highest median MeHg concentrations and percent Hg as MeHg were found in river sediments (4.2 ng/g, 0.41%. Median river water concentrations of THg and MeHg were also elevated compared to values at the reference site (22 ng THg/L, 0.037 ng MeHg/L in ASGM sites. This study provides direct evidence that Hg from ASGM is entering both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems where it is converted in soils, sediment, and water to the neurotoxic and bioavailable form of MeHg.

  7. Homocysteine and Cognitive Performance in Elders with Self-Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J.; Smith, S.M.; Aung, K.; Dyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine has been associated with altered cognitive performance in older adults. Elders referred to Adult Protective Services (APS) for self-neglect have been reported to have elevated plasma homocysteine levels and to suffer from cognitive impairment. This study assesses the association, if any, between plasma homocysteine and cognitive performance among elders with self-neglect. Methods: Sixty-five community-living adults, 65 years of age and older, reported to Adult Protective Services for self-neglect and 55 matched controls (matched for age, ethnicity, gender and socio-economic status) consented and participated in this study. The research team conducted in-home comprehensive geriatric assessments which included the mini-mental state exam (MMSE), the 15-item geriatric depression scale (GDS), the Wolf-Klein Clock Drawing Tests (CDT) and a comprehensive nutritional biochemistry panel, which included plasma homocysteine. Student s t tests and Pearson correlations were conducted to assess for bivariate associations. Results: Elders with self-neglect had significantly higher plasma homocysteine levels (M=12.68umol/L, sd=4.4) compared to the controls (M=10.40umol/L, sd=3.61;t=3.21, df=127, p=.002). There were no statistically significant associations between cognitive performance and plasma homocysteine in the self-neglect group, however there was a significant correlation between plasma homocysteine and the CDT among the controls (r=-.296, p=.022). Conclusion: Mean plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in elders with self-neglect, however, they do not appear to be related to cognitive performance, indicating that cognitive impairment in elder self-neglect involve mechanisms other than hyperhomocysteinemia. These findings warrant further investigation

  8. Chemoselective synthesis of functional homocysteine residues in polypeptides and peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Gharakhanian, EG; Deming, TJ

    2016-01-01

    A methodology was developed for efficient, chemoselective transformation of methionine residues into stable, functional homocysteine derivatives. Methionine residues can undergo highly chemoselective alkylation reactions at low pH to yield stable sulfonium ions, which could then be selectively demethylated to give stable alkyl homocysteine residues. This mild, two-step process is chemoselective, efficient, tolerates many functional groups, and provides a means for creation of new functional b...

  9. Status of Homocysteine in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Maleedhu, Priyanka; M., Vijayabhaskar; S.S.B., Sharma; Kodumuri, Praveen K; Devi D., Vasundhara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disease in women of reproductive age and is estimated to affect 5-10 % of the population. Women with PCOS have a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance and hypertension. Homocysteine has been recognized recently as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Preliminary investigations suggest that high sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine and adiponect...

  10. Airborne concentrations of metals and total dust during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at a petroleum refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ryan C; Gaffney, Shannon H; Le, Matthew H; Unice, Ken M; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2012-09-01

    Workers handle catalysts extensively at petroleum refineries throughout the world each year; however, little information is available regarding the airborne concentrations and plausible exposures during this type of work. In this paper, we evaluated the airborne concentrations of 15 metals and total dust generated during solid catalyst loading and unloading operations at one of the largest petroleum refineries in the world using historical industrial hygiene samples collected between 1989 and 2006. The total dust and metals, which included aluminum, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, platinum, silicon, silver, vanadium, and zinc, were evaluated in relation to the handling of four different types of solid catalysts associated with three major types of catalytic processes. Consideration was given to the known components of the solid catalysts and any metals that were likely deposited onto them during use. A total of 180 analytical results were included in this analysis, representing 13 personal and 54 area samples. Of the long-term personal samples, airborne concentrations of metals ranged from refinery and perhaps other modern refineries during the timeframe examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchetha Kumari; Bekal, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  12. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  13. Homocysteine in small-for-gestational age and appropriate-for-gestational age preterm neonates from mothers receiving folic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Thushari S; Lindner, Ulrike; Tennekoon, Kamani H; Karandagoda, Wimal; Gortner, Ludwig; Obeid, Rima

    2010-08-01

    Prematurity and small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates are at risk for postnatal complications. Concentrations of total homocysteine (tHcy) might be related to neonatal outcome. We hypothesized that concentrations of tHcy are not related to growth restriction in neonates from mothers receiving 5 mg/day folic acid. We studied a total of 133 preterm neonates from normotensive mothers; SGA (n=96) and appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA, n=37). Concentrations of tHcy, folate and vitamin B12 were measured in venous umbilical cord plasma. AGA preterm neonates had higher mean birth weight (BW) compared to SGA preterms (2472 g vs. 2007 g; pgestational age (GA) (35.1 vs. 35.7 weeks; p=0.059). Concentrations of tHcy (4.86 vs. 4.95 micromol/L), folate (63.3 vs. 55.7 nmol/L), and vitamin B12 (409 vs. 394 pmol/L) were not significantly different between the groups. GA was a strong positive predictor, BW was a significant negative predictor of cord plasma folate. Vitamin B12 concentration was a significant negative predictor of cord tHcy. Concentrations of tHcy did not differ between SGA and AGA preterm neonates born to mothers supplemented with folic acid. This finding argues against a causal role for folate deficiency or increased tHcy in growth restriction.

  14. Determination of protein concentration in raw milk by mid-infrared fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzion, Y; Linker, R; Cogan, U; Shmulevich, I

    2004-09-01

    This study investigates the potential use of attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy in the mid-infrared range for determining protein concentration in raw cow milk. The determination of protein concentration is based on the characteristic absorbance of milk proteins, which includes 2 absorbance bands in the 1500 to 1700 cm(-1) range, known as the amide I and amide II bands, and absorbance in the 1060 to 1100 cm(-1) range, which is associated with phosphate groups covalently bound to casein proteins. To minimize the influence of the strong water band (centered around 1640 cm(-1)) that overlaps with the amide I and amide II bands, an optimized automatic procedure for accurate water subtraction was applied. Following water subtraction, the spectra were analyzed by 3 methods, namely simple band integration, partial least squares (PLS) and neural networks. For the neural network models, the spectra were first decomposed by principal component analysis (PCA), and the neural network inputs were the spectra principal components scores. In addition, the concentrations of 2 constituents expected to interact with the protein (i.e., fat and lactose) were also used as inputs. These approaches were tested with 235 spectra of standardized raw milk samples, corresponding to 26 protein concentrations in the 2.47 to 3.90% (weight per volume) range. The simple integration method led to very poor results, whereas PLS resulted in prediction errors of about 0.22% protein. The neural network approach led to prediction errors of 0.20% protein when based on PCA scores only, and 0.08% protein when lactose and fat concentrations were also included in the model. These results indicate the potential usefulness of Fourier transform infrared/attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy for rapid, possibly online, determination of protein concentration in raw milk.

  15. Use of the Vettest 8008 and refractometry for determination of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations in feline effusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasouliotis, Kostas; Murphy, Kate; Dodkin, Steve; Torrance, Andy G

    2002-01-01

    Pleural and peritoneal effusion is a common clinical finding in feline practice. Determination of fluid albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLOB) concentrations in addition to total protein (TP) concentration can be helpful in diagnosing or ruling out certain diseases in cats, especially feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The objective of this study was to compare effusion TP, ALB, and GLOB results obtained by a refractometer and a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer with those results obtained by a reference method. Twenty-six pleural and 14 peritoneal effusion samples were analyzed from 40 cats with various diseases. TP and ALB concentrations were determined by a reference automated wet chemistry analyzer (Kone Specific, Kone Instruments, Espoo, Finland), a bench-top dry chemistry analyzer (Vettest 8008, IDEXX Laboratories Ltd, Chalfont St Peter, UK), and a refractometer (Atago SPR-T2, Atago Co, Tokyo, Japan). GLOB, albumin to globulin (A/G) ratio, and globulins as a percentage of total proteins (GLOB%) were calculated. Results were analyzed by paired t tests, difference plots, and Deming s regression analysis. Correlation coefficients (r) for TP with Vettest versus Kone and refractometer versus Kone methods were.97 and.94, respectively. GLOB and GLOB% values were significantly higher and A/G ratios were significantly lower with Vettest versus Kone methods. Correlation coefficients for ALB, GLOB, GLOB% and A/G ratio with Vettest versus Kone methods were.86,.93,.82, and.73, respectively. Although correlation with other methods was good, the refractometer underestimated TP concentrations in 3 samples. The refractometer is an acceptable method for determination of TP concentration in feline effusions. The Vettest 8008 also is an acceptable method for the determination of TP and ALB concentrations, however, calculated A/G ratios obtained with the Vettest are unacceptable.

  16. [Does an association between increased homocystein levels and cognitive dysfunction also exist in multimorbid geriatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengstermann, S; Hanemann, A; Nieczaj, R; Abdollahnia, N; Schweter, A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, E; Lun, A; Lämmler, G; Schulz, R-J

    2009-04-01

    Total blood homocysteine (Hcys) and folate have been investigated in association with cognitive dysfunction (CD) in healthy but not in multimorbid elderly patients. We hypothesized that total Hcys and folate are adequate markers to identify multimorbid elderly patients with CD. According to the Short Performance Cognitive Test (SKT) CD was determined in a cross-sectional study with 189 (131 f/58 m) multimorbid elderly patients with a mean age of 78.6 +/- 7.3 yrs. Besides the analyses of biochemical parameters (Hcys, folate, vitamin B(12), hemogram) nutritional status (BMI, Mini Nutritional Assessment) as well as activities of daily living were assessed. Daily nutritional intake was measured with a 3-day nutrition diary. For analysis, we used the nutritional software program DGE-PC professional. According to SKT 25.4% showed no cerebral cognitive dysfunction, 21.2% had a suspicion about incipient cognitive dysfunction, 12.7% showed mild, 9.0% moderate, 31.7% of patients severe cognitive deficits. Median plasma Hcys was about 20% elevated in multimorbid elderly patients independent of CD. Serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels were within range, though dietary folate intake (97 [80-128] microg/d) was reduced about 75% (recommendation 400 microg/d). Significant correlations between vitamin intake and plasma/serum levels of Hcys, folate and vitamin B(12) were not present. We did not find significant differences between SKT groups of nutritional status, activities of daily living, index of diseases, medications, or selected biochemical parameters. We analysed elevated serum Hcys levels in multimorbid elderly patients with normal plasma folate and vitamin B(12) concentration and CD. Plasma Hcys or serum folate did not appear as an important biological risk factor on CD in multimorbid elderly patients.

  17. Correlation between CT and MRI findings of chronic subdural hematomas, and total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations in hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tane, Kazuyuki [Osaka Medical Coll., Takatsuki (Japan)

    2000-06-01

    The authors investigated the correlation between the neuroradiological findings (computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image) of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) and the fractions in those hematomas (hemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), and methemoglobin (met-Hb)). Thirty-three patients with a total of forty lesions were chosenas subjects, all with CSDH showing almost homogenous findings in CT scans and MR images. The density in the patients' CT scans was divided into high density, iso-density and low density. The intensity in their MR images was also divided into high intensity, isointensity and low intensity, and the correlation of these to the Hb, oxy-Hb and met-Hb concentrations calculated from the absorption spectrum of the hematoma sampled during the operation was examined. The CT findings were highly correlated to the Hb and oxy-Hb, concentrations and the CT scans of the hematomas with an Hb concentration above 9.4 g/dl all showed high density. The T1-weighted MR image and met-Hb concentration also showed a high correlation, and the images of the hematomas with a met-Hb concentration above 0.4 g/dl all showed high intensity. These results indicated that the fraction in the content of CSDH was predictable from the image findings. To obtain prior knowledge of the content of a hematoma seemed extremely useful for the clucidation of the pathogenesis of CSDH and for deciding its therapeutic policy. (author)

  18. Correlation between CT and MRI findings of chronic subdural hematomas, and total hemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin concentrations in hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tane, Kazuyuki

    2000-01-01

    The authors investigated the correlation between the neuroradiological findings (computerized tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance (MR) image) of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) and the fractions in those hematomas (hemoglobin (Hb), oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb), and methemoglobin (met-Hb)). Thirty-three patients with a total of forty lesions were chosenas subjects, all with CSDH showing almost homogenous findings in CT scans and MR images. The density in the patients' CT scans was divided into high density, iso-density and low density. The intensity in their MR images was also divided into high intensity, isointensity and low intensity, and the correlation of these to the Hb, oxy-Hb and met-Hb concentrations calculated from the absorption spectrum of the hematoma sampled during the operation was examined. The CT findings were highly correlated to the Hb and oxy-Hb, concentrations and the CT scans of the hematomas with an Hb concentration above 9.4 g/dl all showed high density. The T1-weighted MR image and met-Hb concentration also showed a high correlation, and the images of the hematomas with a met-Hb concentration above 0.4 g/dl all showed high intensity. These results indicated that the fraction in the content of CSDH was predictable from the image findings. To obtain prior knowledge of the content of a hematoma seemed extremely useful for the clucidation of the pathogenesis of CSDH and for deciding its therapeutic policy. (author)

  19. A Comparison of Concentrations of Sodium and Related Nutrients (Potassium, Total Dietary Fiber, Total and Saturated Fat, and Total Sugar) in Private-Label and National Brands of Popular, Sodium-Contributing, Commercially Packaged Foods in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Jaspreet K C; Pehrsson, Pamela R; Cogswell, Mary

    2017-05-01

    Private-label brands account for about one in four foods sold in US supermarkets. They provide value to consumers due to their low cost. We know of no US studies comparing the nutrition content of private-label products with corresponding national brand products. The objective was to compare concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) in popular sodium-contributing, commercially packaged foods by brand type (national or private-label brand). During 2010 to 2014, the Nutrient Data Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture obtained 1,706 samples of private-label and national brand products from up to 12 locations nationwide and chemically analyzed 937 composites for sodium and related nutrients. The samples came from 61 sodium-contributing, commercially packaged food products for which both private-label and national brands were among the top 75% to 80% of brands for US unit sales. In this post hoc comparative analysis, the authors assigned a variable brand type (national or private label) to each composite and determined mean nutrient contents by brand type overall and by food product and type. The authors tested for significant differences (Pfoods sampled, differences between brand types were not statistically significant for any of the nutrients studied. However, differences in both directions exist for a few individual food products and food categories. Concentrations of sodium and related nutrients (potassium, total dietary fiber, total and saturated fat, and total sugar) do not differ systematically between private-label and national brands, suggesting that brand type is not a consideration for nutritional quality of foods in the United States. The study data provide public health officials with baseline nutrient content by brand type to help focus US sodium-reduction efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. The use of autologous concentrated growth factors to promote syndesmosis fusion in the Agility total ankle replacement. A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, J Chris; Pomeroy, Gregory C; Watts, J David; Barrow, Craig

    2005-10-01

    The Agility (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana) total ankle replacement has been in use since 1984. One of the most common complications continues to be delayed union or nonunions of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis. In the reported studies on the Agility ankle the delayed union and nonunion rate can be as high as 38%. Since 1999, 114 Agility total ankle replacements were done at two centers in the United States without the use of autologous concentrated growth factors. Since July of 2001, 66 Agility ankles were implanted with Symphony (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana) augmented bone grafting. The standard operative technique was followed in all the patients. Prospective data was collected on all patients. The standard ankle radiographs were taken preoperatively and postoperative at 8 weeks, 12 weeks, 16 weeks, 6 months, and yearly. CT scans were obtained at 6 months if fusion at the syndesmosis was questionable. The Graphpad Instat software (Graphpad Software Inc., San Diego, CA) was used for statistical analysis. The two-tailed unpaired t-test was used, and the value ankle replacements without autologous concentrated growth factors 70 fused at 8 weeks (61%), 14 fused at 12 weeks (12%), 13 fused at 6 months (12%). There were 17 nonunions (15%); delayed unions (3 to 6 months) and nonunions, therefore, equaled 27%. The syndesmosis fused in 50 of the 66 ankle replacements (76%) that had autologous concentrated growth fractures at 8 weeks (76%); 12 fused at 3 months (18%), 2 fused at 6 months (3%), 2 had nonunions (3%). Delayed unions (3 to 6 months) and nonunions equaled 6%. There was a statistically significant improvement in the 8- and 12-week fusion rates, and a statistically significant reduction in delayed unions and nonunions. Autologous concentrated growth factors appear to make a significant positive difference in the syndesmosis union rate in total ankle replacements.

  1. Comparison of refractometry and biuret assay for measurement of total protein concentration in canine abdominal and pleural fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexandra; Funk, Deborah; Neiger, Reto

    2016-04-01

    To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay. Diagnostic test evaluation. Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases. TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of -0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and -0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay.

  2. The role of dust storms in total atmospheric particle concentrations at two sites in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jason C.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Belnap, Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Mineral aerosols are produced during the erosion of soils by wind and are a common source of particles (dust) in arid and semiarid regions. The size of these particles varies widely from less than 2 µm to larger particles that can exceed 50 µm in diameter. In this study, we present two continuous records of total suspended particle (TSP) concentrations at sites in Mesa Verde and Canyonlands National Parks in Colorado and Utah, USA, respectively, and compare those values to measurements of fine and coarse particle concentrations made from nearby samplers. Average annual concentrations of TSP at Mesa Verde were 90 µg m−3 in 2011 and at Canyonlands were 171 µg m−3 in 2009, 113 µg m−3 in 2010, and 134 µg m−3 in 2011. In comparison, annual concentrations of fine (diameter of 2.5 µm and below) and coarse (2.5–10 µm diameter) particles at these sites were below 10 µg m−3 in all years. The high concentrations of TSP appear to be the result of regional dust storms with elevated concentrations of particles greater than 10 µm in diameter. These conditions regularly occur from spring through fall with 2 week mean TSP periodically in excess of 200 µg m−3. Measurement of particles on filters indicates that the median particle size varies between approximately 10 µm in winter and 40 µm during the spring. These persistently elevated concentrations of large particles indicate that regional dust emission as dust storms and events are important determinants of air quality in this region.

  3. Biological and life-history factors affecting total mercury concentrations in Arctic charr from Heintzelman Lake, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, Shannon van der; Reist, James D.; Babaluk, John A.; Power, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A snapshot sample of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from Heintzelman Lake (81°42′N, 66°56′W), Ellesmere Island, Canada was used to elucidate the biological and life-history factors potentially influencing individual total mercury (THg) concentrations. Migratory history was significant, with anadromous fish having a lower mean THg concentration (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous Arctic charr (117 μg/kg ww). The increase in individual THg concentration with age was shown to be independent of length-at-age when large and small individuals within the same age groups were compared. Similarly, the diets of individual Arctic charr were comparable regardless of size, and there was no apparent ontogenetic shift in diet that could explain differences in length-at-age or THg concentration among fast- and slow-growing groups of fish (i.e., fish of the same age but differing sizes). Maturity state was also not related to THg concentration, but appears to be related to differences in length-at-age, with slow-growing fish allocating more energy to reproduction than fast-growing conspecifics. The differences in THg concentration among individual Arctic charr were best explained by fish age. We suggest that the increase in mercury concentration with age can be altered by a shift in diet (e.g., to piscivory) or habitat (e.g., anadromy), but is otherwise unaffected by changes in size or length-at-age. -- Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in Arctic charr from a single lake in the Canadian high Arctic. ► Anadromous Arctic charr had a significantly lower mean [THg] (64 μg/kg ww) than the non-anadromous fish (117 μg/kg ww). ► Length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) was not related to mean [THg] when same-age groups were compared. ► Prey resource use, determined by δ 13 C and δ 15 N isotopes and gut contents, was similar among fast- and slow-growing fish. ► Maturity state was not related to [THg], but the slow

  4. Comparison of the effects of surgical and natural menopause on carotid intima media thickness, osteoporosis, and homocysteine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkaya, Enis; Cakir, Evrim; Okuyan, Erhan; Cakir, Caner; Ustün, Gülnihal; Küçüközkan, Tuncay

    2011-01-01

    Menopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors. We designed this study to compare common carotid artery intima media thickness (IMT) and homocysteine level between women who had natural menopause and those who had surgical menopause and to correlate IMT, bone mineral density (BMD), and homocysteine level with time since menopause. Ninety healthy postmenopausal women aged 50 to 78 years who were not on hormone therapy (45 women who did not have a prior hysterectomy or oophorectomy and 45 women who had undergone hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy) were included in the study. B-mode ultrasonography of the carotid artery, BMD, and serum homocysteine level analysis were completed to evaluate the relationship between type of menopause, time since menopause, and subclinical atherosclerosis. Mean ± SD carotid artery IMT measurements were 0.72 ± 0.002 mm among women experiencing natural menopause and 0.88 ± 0.003 mm among women having bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.002). After adjusting for time since menopause and age, the mean IMT also differed between the two groups: 0.76 ± 0.003 mm in the natural menopause group and 0.84 ± 0.003 mm in the bilateral oophorectomy group (P = 0.038). The age-adjusted carotid IMT was significantly positively associated with years since menopause (P = 0.001). Mean homocysteine measurements were 10.3 ± 5 μmol/L among women experiencing natural menopause and 9.1 ± 4 μmol/L among women who had bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.216). Age-adjusted femur total, trochanter, and shaft BMDs were significantly lower in the surgical menopause group (P = 0.041, P = 0.034, and P = 0.046, respectively). Oophorectomy before natural menopause increases IMT but not homocysteine levels independent of age and time since menopause and is associated with lower BMD values after adjustment for age.

  5. Total arsenic concentrations in toenails quantified by two techniques provide a useful biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adair, Blakely M.; Hudgens, Edward E.; Schmitt, Michael T.; Calderon, Rebecca L.; Thomas, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate quantitation of any contaminant of interest is critical for exposure assessment and metabolism studies that support risk assessment. A preliminary step in an arsenic exposure assessment study in Nevada quantified total arsenic (TAs) concentrations in tissues as biomarkers of exposure. Participants in this study (n=95) were at least 45 years old, had lived in the area for more than 20 years, and were exposed to a wide range of arsenic concentrations in drinking water (3-2100ppb). Concentrations of TAs in blood, urine, and toenails determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) ranged from below detection to 0.03, 0.76, and 12ppm, respectively; TAs in blood rarely exceeded the limit of detection. For comparison, TAs in toenails determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA) ranged from below detection to 16ppm. Significant (P 2 =0.3557 HG-AFS, adjusted r 2 =0.3922 NAA); TAs concentrations in urine were not described by drinking water As (adjusted r 2 =0.0170, P=0.1369). Analyses of TAs in toenails by HGAFS and NAA yielded highly concordant estimates (r=0.7977, P<0.0001). These results suggest that toenails are a better biomarker of chronic As exposure than urine in the current study, because the sequestration of As in toenails provides an integration of exposure over time that does not occur in urine

  6. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and yeast samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulesh, N.A., E-mail: nikita.kulesh@urfu.ru [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Novoselova, I.P. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Safronov, A.P. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsen 106, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Beketov, I.V.; Samatov, O.M. [Institute of Electrophysics UD RAS, Amundsen 106, 620016 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); University of the Basque Country UPV-EHU, 48940 Leioa (Spain); Morozova, M. [Ural Federal University, Mira 19, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Denisova, T.P. [Irkutsk State University, Karl Marks 1, 664003 Irkutsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, total reflection x-ray fluorescent (TXRF) spectrometry was applied for the evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and biological samples containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles obtained by the laser target evaporation technique. Suspensions of maghemite nanoparticles of different concentrations were used to estimate the limitation of the method for the evaluation of nanoparticle concentration in the range of 1–5000 ppm in absence of organic matrix. Samples of single-cell yeasts grown in the nutrient media containing maghemite nanoparticles were used to study the nanoparticle absorption mechanism. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of applicability of TXRF for quantitative analysis in a wide range of iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations for biological samples and ferrofluids with a simple established protocol of specimen preparation. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids and yeasts samples were analysed by TXRF spectroscopy. • Simple protocol for iron quantification by means of TXRF was proposed. • Results were combined with magnetic, structural, and morphological characterization. • Preliminary conclusion on nanoparticles uptake mechanism was made.

  7. In vitro fermentation of total mixed diets differing in concentrate proportion: relative effects of inocula and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, Amélie; Giger-Reverdin, Sylvie; Schmidely, Philippe; Dhumez, Ophélie; Broudiscou, Laurent P; Sauvant, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In vitro techniques are used to predict ruminant feedstuff values or characterise rumen fermentation. As the results are influenced by several factors, such as the relative effects of inocula and substrates, this study aimed to examine in vitro incubation of two total mixed rations (substrates) differing in their proportion of concentrate [low (L): 350 g kg(-1) vs. high (H): 700 g kg(-1)] incubated in inocula provided by goats fed either a L or a H diet. Gas production and composition in carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4 ) and hydrogen (H2), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), soluble carbohydrates (SCs) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations, and pH of the fermentation fluid were measured. In comparison with the L inoculum and L substrate, the H ones produced more CO2 and CH4 gas, which led to higher SCs and VFA concentrations, and lower acetate-to-propionate ratio and NH3 concentration, with a predominant effect of the inoculum. The effects of the inocula and of the substrates were additive using donor animals adapted to the diets. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Haydn [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Marco Parra, Lue-Meru, E-mail: luemerumarco@yahoo.e [Universidad Centroccidental Lisandro Alvarado, Dpto. Quimica y Suelos, Decanato de Agronomia, Tarabana, Cabudare, Edo.Lara (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bennun, Leonardo [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Greaves, Eduardo D. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Dpto. De Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Sartenejas, Baruta (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-K{alpha} and Co-K{alpha} lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 {mu}gL{sup -1}. The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  9. Time-series MODIS image-based retrieval and distribution analysis of total suspended matter concentrations in Lake Taihu (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Lin, Shan; Liu, Jianping; Qian, Xin; Ge, Yi

    2010-09-01

    Although there has been considerable effort to use remotely sensed images to provide synoptic maps of total suspended matter (TSM), there are limited studies on universal TSM retrieval models. In this paper, we have developed a TSM retrieval model for Lake Taihu using TSM concentrations measured in situ and a time series of quasi-synchronous MODIS 250 m images from 2005. After simple geometric and atmospheric correction, we found a significant relationship (R = 0.8736, N = 166) between in situ measured TSM concentrations and MODIS band normalization difference of band 3 and band 1. From this, we retrieved TSM concentrations in eight regions of Lake Taihu in 2007 and analyzed the characteristic distribution and variation of TSM. Synoptic maps of model-estimated TSM of 2007 showed clear geographical and seasonal variations. TSM in Central Lake and Southern Lakeshore were consistently higher than in other regions, while TSM in East Taihu was generally the lowest among the regions throughout the year. Furthermore, a wide range of TSM concentrations appeared from winter to summer. TSM in winter could be several times that in summer.

  10. Determination of arsenic in water samples by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence using pre-concentration with alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Haydn; Marco Parra, Lue-Meru; Bennun, Leonardo; Greaves, Eduardo D.

    2010-01-01

    The determination of arsenic in water samples requires techniques of high sensitivity. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) allows the determination but a prior separation and pre-concentration procedure is necessary. Alumina is a suitable substrate for the selective separation of the analytes. A method for separation and pre-concentration in alumina, followed by direct analysis of the alumina is evaluated. Quantification was performed using the Al-Kα and Co-Kα lines as internal standard in samples prepared on an alumina matrix, and compared to a calibration with aqueous standards. Artificial water samples of As (III) and As (V) were analyzed after the treatment. Fifty milliliters of the sample at ppb concentration levels were mixed with 10 mg of alumina. The pH, time and temperature were controlled. The alumina was separated from the slurry by centrifugation, washed with de-ionized water and analyzed directly on the sample holder. A pre-concentration factor of 100 was found, with detection limit of 0.7 μgL -1 . The percentage of recovery was 98% for As (III) and 95% for As (V) demonstrating the suitability of the procedure.

  11. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool for evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and yeast samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulesh, N.A.; Novoselova, I.P.; Safronov, A.P.; Beketov, I.V.; Samatov, O.M.; Kurlyandskaya, G.V.; Morozova, M.; Denisova, T.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, total reflection x-ray fluorescent (TXRF) spectrometry was applied for the evaluation of iron concentration in ferrofluids and biological samples containing iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles obtained by the laser target evaporation technique. Suspensions of maghemite nanoparticles of different concentrations were used to estimate the limitation of the method for the evaluation of nanoparticle concentration in the range of 1–5000 ppm in absence of organic matrix. Samples of single-cell yeasts grown in the nutrient media containing maghemite nanoparticles were used to study the nanoparticle absorption mechanism. The obtained results were analyzed in terms of applicability of TXRF for quantitative analysis in a wide range of iron oxide nanoparticle concentrations for biological samples and ferrofluids with a simple established protocol of specimen preparation. - Highlights: • Ferrofluids and yeasts samples were analysed by TXRF spectroscopy. • Simple protocol for iron quantification by means of TXRF was proposed. • Results were combined with magnetic, structural, and morphological characterization. • Preliminary conclusion on nanoparticles uptake mechanism was made.

  12. Relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to grain size and total organic carbon in California waterbodies: implications for ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Lenwood W; Anderson, Ronald D

    2014-12-01

    A summary analysis of data sets from six California waterbodies was conducted to determine the relationship of bifenthrin sediment concentrations to: % sand/gravel; % silt; % clay; % silt/clay and % total organic carbon (TOC). The relationship of TOC to % sand/gravel, % silt, % clay, and % silt/clay was also analyzed. Statistically significant and meaningful direct relationships were reported between bifenthrin and % TOC, % silt, % clay and % silt/clay while a significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between bifenthrin and % sand/gravel. A significant and meaningful inverse relationship was reported between % TOC and % sand/gravel, while a significant and meaningful direct relationship was reported between % TOC and % silt, % clay and % silt/clay. Significant bifenthrin sediment concentrations would not be expected in non-depositional (sand/gravel) areas which have been reported to be dominant in various streams in California's Central Valley and are also the preferred habitat for many benthic macroinvertebrate taxa.

  13. Serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhofer, K; Hefler, L; Zeisler, H; Tempfer, C; Bodner, K; Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, S; Mühl, A; Kaider, A; Schatten, C; Leodolter, S; Husslein, P; Kainz, C

    2000-03-24

    Endothelial dysfunction has been described as the final common pathophysiological pathway in the development of preeclampsia. Since it has been suggested that homocyst(e)ine damages endothelial cells, we measured serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia and in healthy pregnant women in order to find a new prognostic parameter for women with preeclampsia. Forty-five women with preeclampsia and 45 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, matched for age and parity, were entered into the study. Serum homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and correlated to clinical data. Logistic regression models were used to analyse the influence of serum homocyst(e)ine levels on the presence of preeclampsia versus healthy pregnant women and on the risk of premature termination of pregnancy due to preeclampsia. Median serum homocyst(e)ine levels in women with preeclampsia and healthy pregnant women were 14.2 (range 5.7-38.1) mumol/L and 15.1 (range 5.2-23.1) mumol/L, respectively (Mann-Whitney U-test, p = 0.8). In univariate logistic regression models, serum homocyst(e)ine levels had no significant influence on the odds of presenting with preeclampsia versus healthy pregnant women (univariate logistic regression model, p = 0.8) and on the odds of premature termination of pregnancy due to preeclampsia (univariate logistic regression model, p = 0.3). Serum homocyst(e)ine levels are not elevated in women with preeclampsia and are not associated with clinical outcome in women with preeclampsia.

  14. Elemental concentration in normal skin and fibroepithelial polip lesions by synchrotron radiation total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Julio C.A.C.R.; Canellas, Catarine G.L.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the concentrations of trace elements were measured in acrochordon, a skin lesion also known as skin tag or fibroepithelial polyp, as well as in normal skin from the same patient. The samples were analysed by Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X- ray Fluorescence (SRTXRF) in the Synchrotron Light National Laboratory (LNLS) in Campinas/Sao Paulo-Brazil. The collection of lesion and healthy skin samples, including papillary dermis and epidermis, has involved 17 patients. It was evaluated the presence of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb in the paired samples, which were compared, and significant differences were found in some of them. (author)

  15. Principal component analysis and neurocomputing-based models for total ozone concentration over different urban regions of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutami; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Chakraborthy, Parthasarathi

    2012-07-01

    The present study deals with daily total ozone concentration time series over four metro cities of India namely Kolkata, Mumbai, Chennai, and New Delhi in the multivariate environment. Using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure, it is established that the data set under consideration are suitable for principal component analysis. Subsequently, by introducing rotated component matrix for the principal components, the predictors suitable for generating artificial neural network (ANN) for daily total ozone prediction are identified. The multicollinearity is removed in this way. Models of ANN in the form of multilayer perceptron trained through backpropagation learning are generated for all of the study zones, and the model outcomes are assessed statistically. Measuring various statistics like Pearson correlation coefficients, Willmott's indices, percentage errors of prediction, and mean absolute errors, it is observed that for Mumbai and Kolkata the proposed ANN model generates very good predictions. The results are supported by the linearly distributed coordinates in the scatterplots.

  16. Total mercury in muscles and liver of Mugil spp. from three coastal lagoons of NW Mexico: concentrations and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Frías-Espericueta, M G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Becerra-Álvarez, M J; Osuna-Martínez, C C; Aguilar-Juárez, M; Osuna-López, J I; Escobar-Sánchez, O; Voltolina, D

    2017-07-01

    Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in muscles and liver of composite samples of Mugil cephalus and M. curema collected during November 2013 and in January, April, and July 2014 from the coastal lagoons Altata-Ensenada del Pabellón (AEP), Ceuta (CEU), and Teacapán-Agua Brava (TAG) of Sinaloa State. The mean Hg contents and information on local consumption were used to assess the possible risk caused by fish ingestion. Mean total mercury levels in the muscles ranged from 0.11 to 0.39 μg/g, while the range for liver was 0.12-3.91 μg/g. The mean Hg content of the liver was significantly (p mercury calculated for the younger age classes of one fishing community were >1, indicating a possible risk for some fishing communities of the Mexican Pacific coast.

  17. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Hess, D L; Anderson, P H; Kruger, W D; Phillipson, B E; Gluckman, R A; Block, P C; Upson, B M

    1998-04-09

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended that cereal-grain products be fortified with folic acid to prevent congenital neural-tube defects. Since folic acid supplementation reduces levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine, or plasma total homocysteine, which are frequently elevated in arterial occlusive disease, we hypothesized that folic acid fortification might reduce plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the effects of breakfast cereals fortified with three levels of folic acid, and also containing the recommended dietary allowances of vitamins B6 and B12, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial in 75 men and women with coronary artery disease. Plasma folic acid increased and plasma homocyst(e)ine decreased proportionately with the folic acid content of the breakfast cereal. Cereal providing 127 microg of folic acid daily, approximating the increased daily intake that may result from the FDA's enrichment policy, increased plasma folic acid by 31 percent (P=0.045) but decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine by only 3.7 percent (P= 0.24). However, cereals providing 499 and 665 microg of folic acid daily increased plasma folic acid by 64.8 percent (Pine by 11.0 percent (Pine levels. Further clinical trials are required to determine whether folic acid fortification may prevent vascular disease. Until then, our results suggest that folic acid fortification at levels higher than that recommended by the FDA may be warranted.

  18. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits, and beer on serum homocysteine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Gaag, M S; Ubbink, J B; Sillanaukee, P; Nikkari, S; Hendriks, H F

    2000-04-29

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine.

  19. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, L., E-mail: l5tran@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Reist, J.D. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N6 (Canada); Power, M., E-mail: m3power@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ{sup 15}N, and δ{sup 13}C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish.

  20. Total mercury concentrations in anadromous Northern Dolly Varden from the northwestern Canadian Arctic: A historical baseline study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, L.; Reist, J.D.; Power, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has documented the significance of total mercury (THg) as a northern contaminant in general and of fish in particular. While much research has been devoted to documenting both spatial and temporal changes in THg in consumed fish, little effort has been directed at understanding patterns of THg in Dolly Varden (Salvelinus malma), a prized subsistence species throughout the western North American Arctic. Here we report historical THg concentrations for anadromous Dolly Varden from 10 populations in the Yukon and Northwest Territories sampled across a range of latitudes (67–69°N) and longitudes (136–141°W) between the years 1988–91. Unadjusted mean THg concentrations ranged from 15 to 254 ng/g wet weight. Length-adjusted THg concentrations were significantly different among sites, but were not related to latitude or longitude. Within and among populations, THg was significantly related to fork-length, age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C, with the variation in THg found among populations being best explained by size. The data serve as an important baseline against which future changes in THg levels in this important subsistence fishery may be compared to determine the significance of any observed trends. - Highlights: • THg were measured in Dolly Varden from the Yukon and Northwest Territories. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were not related to latitude or longitude. • Among-population variation in THg was best explained by fork-length. • Length-adjusted THg concentrations were related to age, δ 15 N, and δ 13 C. • Mean THg were below Health Canada’s consumption guideline for commercial fish

  1. Oxidative markers, nitric oxide and homocysteine alteration in hypercholesterolimic rats: role of atorvastatine and cinnamon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Kamal A; Abd El-Twab, Thanaa M

    2009-10-05

    To investigate the effects of atorvastatin and cinnamon on serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, hepatic enzymes activities, nitric oxide (NO) as well as homocysteine (Hcy) in hypercholesterolemic rats, 48 male albino rats, weighing 130-190 gm were divided into 2 groups, normal group fed on basal rat chow diet (n=12) and high cholesterol group (HCD) were fed on 1% cholesterol-enriched diet for 15 day (n=36). Hypercholesterolemic rats were divided into 3 subgroups (n=12 for each) fed the same diet and treated with atorvastatine (HCD+Atorvastatin) or cinnamon extract (HCD+cinnamon) or none treated (HCD) for 3&6 weeks. Serum triglycerides (TG), Total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), ALT, AST, NO, Hcy, hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were measured. Results showed that HCD increased significantly TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST, Hcy and hepatic MDA, while lowered significantly antioxidant enzyme activities and NO levels. Atorvastatin therapy significantly increased HDL-C, NO and antioxidant activity while decreased LDL-C, MDA and Hcy concentrations. Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, ALT, AST and hepatic MDA levels were significantly lowered meanwhile, serum HDL, NO values and hepatic antioxidant activities were significantly, higher in cinnamon-treated than untreated group. These results indicate that lipid abnormalities, oxidative injury and hyperhomocystienemia were induced by HCD and this study recommend that administration of atorvastatine or cinnamon provided protection against the lipemic-oxidative disorder and act as hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective agent and improve cardiovascular function through modulation of oxidative stress, NO and Hcy.

  2. Serum homocystein level in patients with scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarinia, Mohammadali; Shams, Mesbah; Kamali Sarvestani, Eskandar; Shenavande, Saeede; Khademalhosseini, Maryam; Khademalhosseini, Zeinab

    2013-01-01

    Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic connective tissue disease. In this study, we compared the serum Homocystein (Hcy) level between patients with SSc and normal control group. The current study was conducted to determine whether serum Hcy levels are elevated in SSc patients and whether there is any correlation between Hcy levels and RP, Gastro intestinal and lung involvement. Forty one patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for SSc (39 females and 5 males) and Forty four community-based healthy individuals (sex and age matched) were enrolled in to the study. Serum Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate levels were determined. Thirty three patients (70.45%) had GI involvement, twenty two patients (50%) had lung involvement and twenty seven patients (61.36%) had Raynaud's phenomena. Mean serum Hcy level in control group was 22.78 ± 6.018 μmol/L and in case group was 19.43 ± 7.205 μmol/L, shows that the serum Hcy level in control group was significantly higher than patients (P = 0.020). Serum Hcy level is significantly lower in SSc patients than in control group. There is no statistically significant correlation between serum Hcy level and organ involvements.

  3. [Effect of polymorphisms on key enzymes in homocysteine metabolism, on plasma homocysteine level and on coronary artery-disease risk in a Tunisian population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkahla, R; Omezzine, A; Kchok, K; Rebhi, L; Ben Hadj Mbarek, I; Rejeb, J; Ben Rejeb, N; Slimane, N; Nabli, N; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Boughzala, E; Bouslama, A

    2008-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is known as an independent-risk factor for coronary-artery disease (CAD). However, the effect of homocystein metabolic enzymes polymorphisms on CAD is still controversed. We investigated the relation between homocystein metabolic key enzymes polymorphisms, homocystenemia and coronary stenosis in a Tunisian population. Samples were collected from 251 CAD patients documented by angiography. Genotyping were performed for C677T methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), A2756G methionine-synthase (MS) and 844ins 68 cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS). We measured fasting plasma tHcy, folate and vitamin B12. There was significant increase in homocysteinemia for homozygous genotypes of C677T MTHFR (p<0.001) and A2756G MS (p=0.01), but not for 844ins68 CBS (p=0.105). Potential confounders adjusted odds-ratios for significant coronary stenosis, associated with MTHFR TT, MS GG and CBS insertion, were respectively 1.78 (p=0.041); 2.33 (p=0.036) and 0.87 (p=0.823). The effect of mutated MTHFR genotype was more pronounced on homocysteinemia (21.4+/-9.1 micromol/L; p<0.001) and coronary stenosis (OR=2.73; p=0.033) at low folatemia (< or =6.1 ng/mL). MTHFR TT and MS GG genotypes increase tHcy concentration and coronary stenosis risk, especially with low folatemia.

  4. Effect of consumption of red wine, spirits and beer on serum homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, M.S. van der; Ubbink, J.B.; Sillanaukee, P.; Nikkari, S.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Serum homocysteine increases after moderate consumption of red wine and spirits, but not after moderate consumption of beer. Vitamin B6 in beer seems to prevent the alcohol-induced rise in serum homocysteine. Chemicals/CAS: Homocysteine, 454-28-4; Pyridoxine, 65-23-6

  5. Microstructural White Matter Tissue Characteristics Are Modulated by Homocysteine: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Jung-Lung; Chen, Wei-Hung; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Leu, Jyu-Gang; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Viergever, Max A.; Leemans, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Homocysteine level can lead to adverse effects on the brain white matter through endothelial dysfunction, microstructural inflammation, and neurotoxin effects. Despite previously observed associations between elevated homocysteine and macroscopic structural brain changes, it is still unknown whether microstructural associations of homocysteine on brain tissue properties can be observed in healthy subjects with routine MRI. To this end, we investigated potential relationships between homocyste...

  6. Variability of fasting and post-menthionine plasma homocysteine levels in normo- and hyperhomocysteinaemic individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M.; de Jong, S.C.; Devilli, W.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; Pals, G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    1999-01-01

    To assess the variability of plasma homocysteine levels, fasting and post-methionine homocysteine levels were measured twice, at baseline and after follow-up of 1-4 months, in 16 individuals with normal and 26 with elevated homocysteine levels after methionine loading. The intra-individual

  7. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  8. Study on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earths from Dongpao bastnasite concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Trong Hung; Nguyen Thanh Chung; Luu Xuan Dinh

    2003-01-01

    A technology for decomposition roasting and sequential leaching processes of Dong Pao bastnasite concentrate to recover directly commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth elements from the leaching solution of the roasted product have been investigated. The bastnasite concentrate is initially roasted at temperature range of 600 - 650 degC and for time of 4 hrs in order to decompose and convert the hardly soluble carbonate forms of ore into easily soluble oxide. The roasted solid is then leached with sulfuric acid solution of 6N at 60 degC for 4 hrs to convert rare earths in oxide and fluoride form into rare earth sulfate. The recovery yield of rare earths of these stages is more than 95%. The attention has especially been paid on recovering directly the commercial cerium oxide and total of residue rare earth element from the above leaching solution. Complex ions of CeSO 4 2+ , Ce(SO 4 ) 2 , Ce(SO 4 ) 3 2- and Ce(SO 4 ) 4 4- exist in aqueous solution of cerium (IV) sulfate. Based on the property, the method of ion - sieve with DOWEX cation resin column has been applied to estimating separation of the ceric complex anions from Ln(III). The survey showed that most of the ceric complex anions are separated from total of residue rare earths. The latter which are absorbed in the cation column are recovered by elution of HCl of 4N. The recovery yield of cerium can only be reached 20% but the purity of that is very high, can be reached 99.6%. About 5 kg of CeO 2 of high grade and 5 kg of TREO of commercial specification have been produced. (author)

  9. Metabolic evidence of vitamin B-12 deficiency, including high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid and low holotranscobalamin, is more pronounced in older adults with elevated plasma folate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: An analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that in older adults exposed to folic acid fortification, the combination of low serum vitamin B-12 and elevated folate is associated with higher concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid ...

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid and dehydration on concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, anthocyanins, and color in fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Ereifej, Khalil I; Howard, L

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to report on the total phenolics, anthocyanins, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of strawberry, peach, and apple, the influence of dehydration and ascorbic acid treatments on the levels of these compounds, and the effect of these treatments on fruit color. Results showed that fresh strawberry had the highest levels for total phenolics [5317.9 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents (CAE)/kg], whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peach (3392.1 and 1973.1 mg of CAE/kg, respectively), and for anthocyanins (138.8 mg/kg), whereas lower levels were found in fresh apple and peaches (11.0 and 18.9 mg/kg, respectively; fresh strawberry had an ORAC value of 62.9 mM/kg Trolox equivalents. The fresh apple and peach were found to have ORAC values of 14.7 and 11.4 mM/kg of Trolox equivalents, respectively. The color values indicated that the addition of 0.1% ascorbic acid increased the lightness (L) and decreased the redness (a) and yellowness (b) color values of fresh strawberry, peach, and apple, sliced samples, and the puree made from them. Also, results showed that dehydration is a good method to keep the concentrations of total phenolics and anthocyanins and ORAC values at high levels.

  11. Determination of As concentration in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Panzarino, Onofrio; Fontanella, Maria Chiara; Beone, Gian Maria; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are often used as sentinel organisms to study As bioavailability in polluted soils. Arsenic in earthworms is mainly sequestrated in the coelomic fluids whose As content can therefore be used to asses As bioavalability. In this work, a method for determining As concentration in coelomic fluid extracts using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is presented. For this purpose coelomic fluid extracts from earthworms living in three polluted soils and one non-polluted (control) soil have been collected and analysed. A very simple sample preparation was implemented, consisting of a dilution of the extracts with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a 1:8 ratio and dropwise deposition of the sample on the reflector. A detection limit of 0.2 μg/l and quantification limit of 0.6 μg/l was obtained in the diluted samples, corresponding to 2 μg/l and 6 μg/l in the coelomic fluid extracts, respectively. This allowed to quantify As concentration in coelomic fluids extracted from earthworms living in soils polluted with As at concentrations higher than 20 mg/kg (considered as a pollution threshold for agricultural soils). The TXRF method has been validated by comparison with As concentrations in standards and by analysing the same samples by ICP-MS, after acid digestion of the sample. The low limit of detection, the proven reliability of the method and the little sample preparation make TXRF a suitable, cost-efficient and "green" technique for the analysis of As in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts for bioavailability studies.

  12. Significant interaction of hypertension and homocysteine on neurological severity in first-ever ischemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ying-Li; Zhan, Rui; Dong, Yi-Fei; Huang, Lei; Ji, Xi-Xin; Lu, Peng; Liu, Jian; Li, Ping; Cheng, Xiao-Shu

    2018-04-03

    It is not known whether combination of hypertension and high homocysteine (HHcy) impacts on stroke-related neurological severity. Our aim was to determine whether there is an interaction of hypertension and HHcy on neurological severity in first-ever ischemic stroke patients. We analyzed neurological severity among 189 consecutive first-ever ischemic stroke patients with or without hypertension or HHcy. Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 8.086, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.596-18.181, P < .001) and total homocysteine (OR: 1.403, 95% CI: 1.247-1.579, P < .001) were independently associated with neurological severity. In receiver-operating characteristic analysis, total homocysteine was a significant predictor of neurological severity (area under curve: 0.794; P < .001). A multiplicative interaction of hypertension and HHcy on more severe neurological severity was revealed by binary logistic regression (OR: 13.154, 95% CI: 5.293-32.691, P < .001). Analysis further identified a more than multiplicative interaction of hypertension and HHcy on neurological severity compared with patients without each condition (OR: 50.600, 95% CI: 14.775-173.285, P < .001). Interaction effect measured on an additive scale showed that 76.4% patients with moderate/severe neurological severity were attributed to interaction of hypertension and HHcy. Significant interaction of hypertension and HHcy on neurological severity was found on multiplicative and additive scale in first-ever Chinese ischemic stroke patients. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurement of total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Cobo-Sacristán, Sara; Gonzalo-Diego, Núria; Colom, Helena; Muñoz-Sánchez, Carmen; Urruticoechea, Ander; Falo, Catalina; Alía, Pedro

    2016-01-05

    Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic taxane with cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity and, currently used as anticancer agent in several types of cancer. Docetaxel is highly bound to plasma proteins, and this significantly determines its clearance and activity. Therefore, measurement of free docetaxel in plasma is pharmacologically important when pharmacokinetics is investigated. We developed and validated chromatographic methods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma. The final validated methods involved liquid-liquid extraction followed by dryness under nitrogen evaporation. To measure free docetaxel concentration, sample preparation was preceded by ultrafiltration. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity(®) UPLC(®) BEH™ (2.1×100 mm id, 1.7 μm) reverse-phase C18 column at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using isocratic elution mode containing ammonium acetate/formic acid in water/methanol (30:70 v/v) as mobile phase. Docetaxel and its internal standard (paclitaxel) were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode using mass-to-charge (m/z) transitions of 808.3→527.0 (quantifier) and 808.3→509.0 (qualifier); and 854.3→569.0 (quantifier) and 854,3→509,0 (qualifier), respectively. The run time per sample was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification were 1,95 and 0.42 μg/L and linearity was observed between 1.95 and 1000 and 0.42-100 μg/L for total and free docetaxel, respectively. Coefficients of variation and absolute relative biases were less than 13.8% and 10.0%. Recovery values were greater than 79.4%. Evaluation of the matrix effect showed ion suppression and no carry-over was observed. The validated methods could be useful for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. They could be applied to daily clinical laboratory practice to measure the concentration of total and free

  14. S-Adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocystein metabolism in isolated rat liver. Effects of L-methionine, L-homocystein, and adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D R; Marion, D W; Cornatzer, W E; Duerre, J A

    1980-11-25

    The effects of varying concentrations of L-methionine, L-homocysteine, and adenosine on the tissue levels of S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) and S-adenosyl-homocystein (AdoHcy) were investigated in perfused liver. In the normal liver, the intracellular concentration of AdoMet was dependent upon the availability of methionine. In the presence of high concentrations of methionine the maximum level of AdoMet attainable was 300 nmol/g of liver. The exogenous concentration of methionine did not alter the hepatic concentration of AdoHcy (8 to 20 nmol/g) while adenosine or homocysteine blocked hydrolysis of AdoHcy resulting in elevated levels of AdoHcy (400 to 600 nmol/g) and AdoMet (300 to 600 nmol/g). The addition of both adenosine (4mM) and homocysteine (3.4 mM) to the perfusate further increased the levels of AdoHcy (4 mumol/g) and AdoMet (1.2 mumol/g). As the concentration of AdoHcy increased, significant amounts of this compound were released into the perfusate, while AdoMet was not detected. Under all conditions where AdoHcy accumulated in the cell, a concomitant increase in the AdoMet level occurred. Apparently AdoHcy acts as a positive effector of the S-adenosylmethionine synthase. The hepatocytes did not take up significant amounts of [methyl-14C]AdoMet from the perfusate nor were any [14C]methyl groups from this compound incorporated into histones, DNA, or phospholipids. In contrast, [14C]methyl groups were readily incorporated into these macromolecules from exogenous [methyl-14C]methionine. The addition of adenosine (4 mM) and homocystein (3.4 mM) shifted the AdoMet:AdoHcy ratio from 8.2 to 0.3. Under these conditions, transmethylation was inhibited markedly.

  15. Comparative analysis of total mercury concentrations in anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) from eastern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velden, S. van der; Evans, M.S.; Dempson, J.B.; Muir, D.C.G.; Power, M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented that total mercury concentrations ([THg]) are lower in anadromous Arctic charr than in non-anadromous conspecifics, but the two life-history forms have rarely been studied together. Here, data from nine pairs of closely-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations were used to explore the impact of biological and life-history factors on individual [THg] across a range of latitudes (49–81° N) in eastern Canada. Unadjusted mean [THg] ranged from 20 to 114 ng/g wet weight (ww) in anadromous populations, and was significantly higher in non-anadromous populations, ranging from 111 to 227 ng/g ww. Within-population variations in [THg] were best explained by fish age, and were often positively related to fork-length and δ 15 N-inferred trophic level. Differences in [THg] were not related to differences in length-at-age (i.e., average somatic growth rate) among populations of either life-history type. Mercury concentrations were not related to site latitude in either the anadromous or non-anadromous fish. We conclude that the difference in Arctic charr [THg] with life-history type could not be explained by differences in fish age, fork-length, trophic position, or length-at-age, and discuss possible factors contributing to low mercury concentrations in anadromous, relative to freshwater, fish. - Highlights: ► Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were measured in 9 co-located anadromous and non-anadromous Arctic charr populations. ► Mean [THg] in non-anadromous populations exceeded mean [THg] in spatially paired anadromous populations. ► Among-individual variation in [THg] was best explained by fish age. ► The lower [THg] in anadromous fish could not be explained by differences in age, fork-length, trophic level, or growth rate. ► Variations in Arctic charr [THg] were independent of latitude (49–81° N) in eastern Canada

  16. Zinc, copper and lead contents of wines. Comparison between the total concentrations by atomic absorption spectrometry and the concentrations of the free ions by polarography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-B. Fournier

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction of this article, some examples of the use of trace element data in the characterisation of viticultural produce are reminded. This paper described the determination of zinc, copper and lead by two techniques based on radically different principles. The atomic absorption spectrometry, applied after the mineralisation of the samples by wet process, allows the determination of the total element contents in wine. The polarography allows the analysis of the concentrations of these elements that are under labile chemical forms, and which are dissolved under the ionic forms Zn++, Cu++ and Pb++. The wines analysed in this study were produced from three different parcels chosen in relation to their geological qualities. The vines implanted on these parcels are strictly identical, and three fermentation techniques were applied to each lots of grapes. The results obtained shows that the copper is only under ionic form and that the temperature of the fermentation influences the total copper level in the final wine. At the opposite, there is no ion Pb++ in the samples, but a long duration of maceration increases the lead content. Concerning zinc, only the ions Zn++ are present in the wine in case of a short duration of the maceration. When this duration increases, some other chemical forms of zinc are dissolved in addition to the ions Zn++ which are instantaneously dissociated in aqueous solutions. The problem of the contamination of grapes by the materials used, the phytosanitary treatments and the atmospheric pollution is discussed. The knowledge of the proportion of a trace element that is under ionic forms is indispensable to evaluate the bio-availability of the considered element and the toxicologic risks. The advent and the expansion of the electrochemical methods is expected as an important advance in this field of research.

  17. B-vitamin therapy for kidney transplant recipients lowers homocysteine and improves selective cognitive outcomes in the randomized FAVORIT ancillary cognitive trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Objectives: Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke and dementia. Results of clinical trials using B-vitamins to reduce the cognitive risks attributed to tHcy have been inconsistent. The high prevalence of both hyperho...

  18. Nutritional Genetics: The Case of Alcohol and the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism in relation to homocysteine in a Black South African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nienaber-Rousseau, C.; Pisa, P.T.; Venster, C.S.; Ellis, S.M.; Kruger, A.; Moss, S.; Boonstra, A.; Towers, G.W.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims: It is unknown whether the effect of alcohol consumption on homocysteine (Hcy) is modulated by the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T. We explored this hypothesized effect by analyzing cross-sectional data of 1,827 black South Africans. Methods: Total Hcy

  19. Homocysteine levels are associated with the results of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan, Futoshi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori; Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu; Eshima, Nobuoki

    2007-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are associated with a high mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The study group consisted of 17 type 2 diabetic patients with high tHcy levels (>15 mmol/l, age 58±5 years, high tHcy group). The control group consisted of 23 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal tHcy levels (≤15 mmol/l, age 58±9 years, normal tHcy group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed 123 I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p 123 I-MIBG was higher (p 123 I-MIBG at the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that high levels of tHcy are associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  20. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Cao, Axiang; Feng, Xinbin; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Meng, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang; Sun, Jing; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1202-1210. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Optimization of Davies and Gray/NBL method used for determination of total uranium concentration in the safeguards destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G., E-mail: wanderley@ird.gov.br, E-mail: agonzalez@ird.gov.br, E-mail: pedrodio@ird.gov.br, E-mail: barbara@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    One important activity conducted by the Brazilian State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials - SSAC is to verify inventories of the nuclear facilities by nondestructive analysis and destructive analysis. For destructive analysis, the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - LASAL/CNEN has been applying the 'Davies and Gray/NBL' method in samples taken during inspections at nuclear facilities since 1984 in Brazil and Argentina. This method consists of the determination of total uranium concentration by potentiometric titration of uranium (IV) with a standard solution of potassium dichromate as oxidizing agent. This solution is prepared using a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} SRM 136e standard reference material (99.984 ±0.010) wt% certified by National Institute of Standard and Technology - NIST. The procedure also includes the calibration with primary uranium standards reference material (NBL CRM 112A). In order to reduce the consumption of K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and the other reagent involved in the procedure, without any loss in the performance of the method, a K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} solution with half the regular concentration was prepared and used to test the uranium concentration in several aliquots with a content between 30 mg to 40 mg of uranium per gram of solution. After optimizing the parameters and procedure, it was possible to get the same performance as well. As a consequence, decreasing of the cost, the amount of waste and also a reduction in the titration time of each aliquot was achieved. Thus, this work describes all details in this research as well as the results and its evaluation. (author)

  2. [Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and -sh groups concentrations in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciejka, Elżbieta; Kowalczyk, Agata; Gorąca, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency mag- netic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (1L.F-MF) on the concentration ofsullhydryl groups (-SH) and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals de- pending on the time of exposure to the field. Twenty one Sprague-D)awley male rats, aged 3-4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals): controls (group I), the rats exposed to IEI.F-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy), 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II) and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III). The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of-SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure.

  3. Optimization of Davies and Gray/NBL method used for determination of total uranium concentration in the safeguards destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Wanderley S. da; Viana, Aline Gonzalez; Barros, Pedro Dionisio de; Cristiano, Barbara Fernandes G.

    2013-01-01

    One important activity conducted by the Brazilian State System of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials - SSAC is to verify inventories of the nuclear facilities by nondestructive analysis and destructive analysis. For destructive analysis, the Safeguards Laboratory of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission - LASAL/CNEN has been applying the 'Davies and Gray/NBL' method in samples taken during inspections at nuclear facilities since 1984 in Brazil and Argentina. This method consists of the determination of total uranium concentration by potentiometric titration of uranium (IV) with a standard solution of potassium dichromate as oxidizing agent. This solution is prepared using a K 2 Cr 2 O 7 SRM 136e standard reference material (99.984 ±0.010) wt% certified by National Institute of Standard and Technology - NIST. The procedure also includes the calibration with primary uranium standards reference material (NBL CRM 112A). In order to reduce the consumption of K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and the other reagent involved in the procedure, without any loss in the performance of the method, a K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution with half the regular concentration was prepared and used to test the uranium concentration in several aliquots with a content between 30 mg to 40 mg of uranium per gram of solution. After optimizing the parameters and procedure, it was possible to get the same performance as well. As a consequence, decreasing of the cost, the amount of waste and also a reduction in the titration time of each aliquot was achieved. Thus, this work describes all details in this research as well as the results and its evaluation. (author)

  4. Influence of extremely low frequency magnetic field on total protein and –SH groups concentrations in liver homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Ciejka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are atoms, molecules or their fragments, whose excess leads to the development of oxidative stress, the cause of many neoplastic, neurodegenerative and inflammatory diseases, as well as aging of organisms. Industrial pollution, tobacco smoke, ionizing radiation, ultrasound and magnetic fields are the major exogenous sources of free radicals. The low frequency magnetic field is commonly applied in physiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF on the concentration of sulfhydryl groups (–SH and proteins in liver tissues of experimental animals depending on the time of exposure to the field. Material and Methods: Twenty one Sprague-Dawley male rats, aged 3–4 months were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (each containing 7 animals: controls (group I, the rats exposed to ELF-MF of 40 Hz, 7 mT (this kind of the ELF-MF is mostly used in magnetotherapy, 30 min/day for 2 weeks (group II and the rats exposed to 40 Hz, 7 mT for 60 min/day for 2 weeks (group III. The concentrations of proteins and sulfhydryl groups in the liver tissues were determined after exposure to magnetic fields. Results: Exposure to low magnetic field: 40 Hz, 7 mT for 30 min/day and 60 min/day for 2 weeks caused a significant increase in the concentration of –SH groups and total protein levels in the liver tissues. Conclusions: The study results suggest that exposure to magnetic fields leads to the development of adaptive mechanisms to maintain the balance in the body oxidation-reduction and in the case of the studied parameters does not depend on the time of exposure. Med Pr 2014;65(5:639–644

  5. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo [Centro Universitario da Fundacao Educacional de Barretos (UNIFEB), (SP) (Brazil); Yamazaki, Ione Makiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO{sub 3} (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 {mu}L of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm{sup 2} area) together with 5 {mu}L of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95{+-}0.19) {mu}g.L{sup -1} to (25.60{+-}3.3) {mu}g.L{sup -1}. These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  6. Assessment of the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples from the Caetite region, Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Julia Grasiela Batista; Geraldo, Luiz Paulo; Yamazaki, Ione Makiko

    2011-01-01

    At the region of Caetite, BA, it is located the largest uranium mine in exploration at present days in Brazil. During the uranium extraction process, it may be having an environmental contamination by this heavy metal due to rain water and other natural transport mechanism, with potential exposition risk to the local population. The aim of this work was to investigate the total uranium concentration in surface and underground water samples collected at the Caetite region, using the nuclear track registration technique (SSNTD) in a polycarbonate plastic. A 100 mL volume of water samples were initially treated in 10 mL of HNO 3 (PA) and concentrated by evaporation at a temperature around 80 deg C. The resulting residue was diluted to a total volume of 25 mL without pass it to a filter. About 10 μL of this solution was deposited on the plastic detector surface (around 1.0 cm 2 area) together with 5 μL of a Cyastat detergent solution (5%) and evaporated under an infrared lamp. All the resulting deposits of non volatile constituents were irradiated, together with a uranium standard sample, at the IPEN-IEA-R1 (3.5 MW) nuclear reactor for approximately 3 min. After irradiations, chemical etching of the plastic detectors was carried out at 60 deg C, for 65 min. in a NaOH (6N) solution. The fission tracks were counted scanning all the deposit area of the polycarbonate plastic detector with a system consisting of an optical microscope together with a video camera and TV monitor. The average values of uranium concentrations obtained in this work ranged from (0.95±0.19) μg.L -1 to (25.60±3.3) μg.L -1 . These results were compared to values reported in the literature for water samples from other regions and discussed in terms of safe limits recommended by WHO -World Health Organization and CONAMA - Conselho Nacional do Meio Ambiente. (author)

  7. Apoptosis of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells caused by homocysteine via activating JNK signal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzhi Cai

    Full Text Available Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are capable of homing to and repair damaged myocardial tissues. Apoptosis of BMSCs in response to various pathological stimuli leads to the attenuation of healing ability of BMSCs. Plenty of evidence has shown that elevated homocysteine level is a novel independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. The present study was aimed to investigate whether homocysteine may induce apoptosis of BMSCs and its underlying mechanisms. Here we uncovered that homocysteine significantly inhibited the cellular viability of BMSCs. Furthermore, TUNEL, AO/EB, Hoechst 333342 and Live/Death staining demonstrated the apoptotic morphological appearance of BMSCs after homocysteine treatment. A distinct increase of ROS level was also observed in homocysteine-treated BMSCs. The blockage of ROS by DMTU and NAC prevented the apoptosis of BMSCs induced by homocysteine, indicating ROS was involved in the apoptosis of BMSCs. Moreover, homocysteine also caused the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential of BMSCs. Furthermore, apoptotic appearance and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization in homocysteine-treated BMSCs was significantly reversed by JNK inhibitor but not p38 MAPK and ERK inhibitors. Western blot also confirmed that p-JNK was significantly activated after exposing BMSCs to homocysteine. Homocysteine treatment caused a significant reduction of BMSCs-secreted VEGF and IGF-1 in the culture medium. Collectively, elevated homocysteine induced the apoptosis of BMSCs via ROS-induced the activation of JNK signal, which provides more insight into the molecular mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia-related cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Homocystein and carotid atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubomirova, M; Tzoncheva, A; Petrova, J; Kiperova, B

    2007-10-01

    Since total homocysteine (Hcy) is markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF), it has been presented as potential factor contributing to the high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in CRF. The aim of the study was to examine the significance of elevated Hcy and other cardiovascular risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in patients with CRF. Fifty six patients 16-M, 40-F, average age 58+/-14.55, creatinine clearance 39.19+/-10.11 ml/min were examined. In addition, 20 control healthy subjects were examined. The association of Hcy levels and classic risk factors for atherosclerosis with common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) was examined. B-mode ultrasound measurement of carotid IMT was performed in 56 hypertensive pts with CRF (glomerular filtration rate>20 ml/min and 0.05). Significant predictors for IMT were age (r=0.358, p<0.04), duration of hypertension (r=0.395, p=0.023), diabetes duration (r=0.343, p<0.02), as well as duration of CRF (r=0.324, p<0.006). There was a negative correlation between IMT and glomerular filtration rate assessed by creatinine clearance (r=-0.303, p<0.003). Renal function, described by creatinine clearance was the strongest determinant for Hcy levels (r=-0.332, p<0.008). Increased IMT was estimated in pts with CRF compared to healthy controls (0.74+/-0.10 vs 0.59+/-0.10, p<0.001). We found association between Hcy and carotid IMT ( r=0.344, p<0.015). No consistent association was found between IMT and other specific for CRF cardiovascular risk factors. The study suggests that patients with mild renal failure have increased IMT of the common carotid artery and that elevated plasma Hcy level in CRF is associated with carotid intima- media thickening.

  9. Profile of Rumen Fermentation and Blood Urea Nitrogen Concentration of Kacang Goat Fed Total Mixed Ration Vs. Roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiwinarti, R.; Kustantinah; Budisatria, I. G. S.; Rusman; Indarto, E.

    2018-02-01

    Kacang goat is usually reared traditionally fed natural grass and having inferior performance. Many researches had been done to improve the performance. Total mixed ration (TMR) containing soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM) could increase the performance of Kacang goat, but the profile of rumen fermentation has not been published. Therefore, this study investigated the profile of rumen fermentation and blood urea Nitrogen concentration (BUN) in Kacang goat fed natural grass (roughage) and TMR. Twelve yearling Kacang buck, 15.2-19.6 kg were arranged in completely randomized design. The treatments were NG (natural grass), FM (TMR containing FM), and SBM (TMR containing SBM). The TMR were formulated containing 15% crude protein and 56-58% TDN. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Rumen pH 6 hours after feeding of NG (7.4) was higher (P<0.01) than that of FM (6.2) and SBM (6.4). This lowering pH of TMR was caused by increasing volatile fatty acids (VFA). The VFA total of FM (129.7 mmol/l) and SBM (153.1 mmol/l) were higher than that of NG (86.4 mmol/l). At 3 and 6 hours after feeding, ammonia in the rumen of SBM was higher than that of NG and FM, indicating higher degraded protein. The BUN at 3 hours after feeding of SBM was higher than that of NG. It can be concluded that protein in SBM was degraded higher than others and the lower pH in rumen of TMR goats was caused by higher VFA produced by TMR goats compared to NG goats.

  10. The interaction rainfall vs. weight as determinant of total mercury concentration in fish from a tropical estuary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barletta, M.; Lucena, L.R.R.; Costa, M.F.; Barbosa-Cintra, S.C.T.; Cysneiros, F.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury loads in tropical estuaries are largely controlled by the rainfall regime that may cause biodilution due to increased amounts of organic matter (both live and non-living) in the system. Top predators, as Trichiurus lepturus, reflect the changing mercury bioavailability situations in their muscle tissues. In this work two variables [fish weight (g) and monthly total rainfall (mm)] are presented as being important predictors of total mercury concentration (T-Hg) in fish muscle. These important explanatory variables were identified by a Weibull Regression model, which best fit the dataset. A predictive model using readily available variables as rainfall is important, and can be applied for human and ecological health assessments and decisions. The main contribution will be to further protect vulnerable groups as pregnant women and children. Nature conservation directives could also improve by considering monitoring sample designs that include this hypothesis, helping to establish complete and detailed mercury contamination scenarios. - Highlights: ► Questions previous statistical approaches that used heterocedastic data after transformation. ► Corroborates other works that pointed seasonal variations of the mercury burden in fish muscle. ► Defines rainfall as a major driver of mercury in predatory fish at tropical latitudes. ► Progresses in environmental data analysis and steps forward from previous approaches to Hg in fish. ► Proposes a model to predict scenarios of Hg in fish as a function of biological and environmental variables. - The Weibull Regression model was the most appropriate fit for T-Hg in fish and therefore more ecological insights emerged from previous data.

  11. Total and Available Heavy Metal Concentrations and Assessment of Soil Pollution Indices in Selected Soils of Zanjan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taheri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil is a hardly renewable natural resource. Although soil degradation, caused by either human activities and natural processes is a relatively slow procedure, but its effects are long lasting and most often, irreversible in the time scale of man's life. Among the most significant soil contaminants resulting from both natural and human sources, heavy metals are more important due to their long- term toxicity effects. For evaluating soil's enrichment rate by heavy metals, a wide and full study of soils background values, including total and available fractions of heavy metal contents should be done. Zanjan province has some great mines and concentrating industries of lead and zinc especially in Angoran, Mahneshan. Unfortunately produced waste materials of these industries spread over the adjacent areas. Investigations showed that accumulation of some heavy metals in vegetables and crops planted in this region had occurred. Therefore, performing some investigations in these polluted areas and assessing pollution rate and heavy metals distribution in arable lands had prime importance. Our goals were: 1 determining the total and available amounts of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd in the soils of arable lands in polluted areas of Zanjan city, 2 producing the distribution map for the metals mentioned above and 3 calculating pollution indices in the soils. Materials and Methods: The study area was in south west of Zanjan city. For soil sampling, a 1 Km by 1 Km grid defined in ArcGIS software on landuse layer and totally 144 points that placed on agricultural lands, due to our goals, were sampled. For sampling, in a 5m radius around the point we collected some subsamples from depth of 0 - 15 cm, and after mixing the subsamples, finally a 1Kg soil sample prepared and sent to the laboratory. Sampled soils were air dried and were passed through a 2mm sieve. Soils organic matter (OM content and texture were determined by Walkely-Black and Bouyoucos

  12. [Prognosis significance of blood homocysteine after myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, R P; Azinheira, J; Reis, H P; Bordalo e Sá, A; Tavares, J; Adão, M; Santos, A L; Pina, J E; Correia, J M; Luís, A S

    2000-05-01

    Homocysteinemia is an independent risk factor of coronary artery disease and of myocardial infarction. In the present study we intend to relate fasting homocystein levels to prognosis after a myocardial infarction. From 1990 to 1992, we studied fasting homocysteinemia levels on a group of 112 patients aged under 56 years that had suffered a myocardial infarction between 3 and 12 months before. We obtained, the patients names, addresses, phone numbers and physicians' name. Seven years later (on average) we collected data regarding the patients evolution, consulting medical records, their physicians or by personal contact. We evaluated complications, namely mortality, vascular morbidity, such as unstable angina, re-infarction, stroke, and the need for invasive procedures (catheterism, PTCA, CABG). According to previous studies of the group, we used a cut-point of 10.10 mumol/L to define patients with normal or pathological levels of homocysteinemia. We excluded all patients that took vitamin B supplements, co-factors of HC metabolism, during this follow-up. We were able to obtain data on 110 patients. Patients with normal HC levels (n = 62) presented less global complications (26 versus 72%, p homocystein levels (n = 48), those with higher homocystein levels presented a higher degree of complications. In this population with myocardial infarction under 56 years of age, a high homocysteinemia level is an important prognostic factor. This study suggests that we can improve the prognosis and decrease the complications after myocardial infarction by lowering elevated homocystein levels.

  13. Synthesis of L-[35S] homocysteine thiolactone hydrochloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamacher, K.

    1989-01-01

    L-[ 35 S]Homocysteine thiolactone has been synthesized by demethylation of L-[ 35 S]Methionine with sodium in liquid ammonia and subsequent lactonisation in acid solution. The radiochemical yield of the carrier added synthesis was in the range of 45 to 50% with a radiochemical purity higher than 96%. (author)

  14. 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE Neuro-Fuzzy Model of Homocysteine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... diseases and higher incidence of vitamin deficiencies in Indians, we ... circulation as peroxynitrite (Antoniades C, et al., 2006); iii) homocysteine was shown to induce damage to endothelium (Pushpakumar S, et al., 2014); iv) elevated ..... 2014 Impact of hyperhomocysteinemia on breast cancer initiation and.

  15. Betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase: zinc in a distorted barrel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Evans, J. C.; Huddler, D. P.; Jiráček, Jiří; Castro, C.; Millian, N. S.; Garrow, T. A.; Ludwig, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 10, - (2002), s. 1159-1171 ISSN 0969-2126 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB4055003 Grant - others:NIH(US) GM16429; NIH(US) DK52501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : homocysteine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 6.030, year: 2002

  16. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the association between levels of DNA damage and homocysteine (Hcy) in persistent diarrheic (PD) patients and correlates them with serum biochemical metabolites and mineral components. PD patients (n = 36) age 4 - 6 years from Faisalabad hospitals were examined for anthropometric factors, ...

  17. 1 RESEARCH ARTICLE Neuro-Fuzzy Model of Homocysteine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-10

    Mar 10, 2017 ... metabolism and investigated the influence of life style modulations in controlling ... fuzzy model showed higher accuracy in predicting homocysteine with a ... The dietary source of folate is in the form of folyl polyglutamate and is .... protein and the ligands were optimized by Drug Discovery studio version 3.0.

  18. Evaluation of Homocysteine, Lipoprotein(a) and Endothelin as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Indians have been reported to have high prevalence rates of coronary artery disease (CAD) even in the absence of traditional risk factors. The objective of this study was to assess the role of endothelin, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine and lipid profile as markers of CAD in Indian population. It was a hospital based ...

  19. Denitrification activity is closely linked to the total ambient Fe concentration in mangrove sediments of Goa, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Gonsalves, Maria-Judith; Michotey, Valérie D.; Bonin, Patricia C.; Loka, A.; Bharathi, P.

    2013-10-01

    Denitrification activity (DNT) and associated environmental parameters were examined in two mangrove ecosystems of Goa, India - the relatively unimpacted Tuvem and the anthropogenically-influenced Divar. Sampling was carried out at every 2 cm interval within the 0-10 cm depth range to determine (1) seasonal (pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon) down-core variation in DNT (2) assess the environmental factors influencing the DNT and (3) to build predictive models for benthic DNT. Denitrification generally decreased with depth and showed marked seasonal variation at both the locations. Denitrification peaked during the pre-monsoon occurring at a rate of up to 21.00 ± 12.84 nmol N2O g-1 h-1 within 0-4 cm at both the locations. Further, DNT at pre-monsoon was significantly influenced by Fe content at Tuvem and Divar suggesting Fe-mediated nitrate respiration. The influence of other limiting substrates such as NO3- and NO2- was most important during the monsoon and post-monsoon especially at Divar. The multiple regression models developed could predict 67-98% of the observed variability in DNT through the seasons. About 6-9 environmental variables were required to relatively well-predict DNT in these sediments with the complexity governing DNT decreasing from pre-monsoon to post-monsoon. Our results reveal that seasonal dynamics of DNT in tropical mangrove sediments are closely linked to the total Fe at the prevailing ambient concentration in both the systems.

  20. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  1. Elemental concentration analysis in the brain of young and old Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Renata F.B.; Jesus, Edgar F.O. de; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Anjos, Marcelino J. dos; Carmo, Maria G.T. do; Rocha, Monica S.; Moreira, Silvana; Martinez, Ana M.B.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that aging is associated with neurobehavioral deficits. The aging process of human brain is characterized by progressive neuronal loss. Furthermore, certain brain areas are more vulnerable to neuronal degeneration than others, reflecting an altered resistance to stress of the tissue itself and/or the lack of adequate immunological defense mechanisms in these regions. About the elemental levels in the brain, it is known that the excess ou deficiency of some elements are toxic for human healthy, being also related to several neurodegenerative diseases. In this way, the main goal of this work was to determine the elemental concentration in the hippocampus of young and old male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) Wistar rats by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with synchrotron radiation (SR-TXRF). These measurements were carried out at XRF beam line at Light Synchrotron Brazilian Laboratory, Campinas, Brazil. About the results, we could observe that Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old female rats than the young ones. On the other hand, only Cu levels were higher in the hippocampus of the old male rats than the young ones. Therefore, the aging of the hippocampus of the female rats can be characterized by an accumulate for Al, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br. The excess in these elements levels are also associated with several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer' disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. (author)

  2. Integrin α(IIb)β₃ exists in an activated state in subjects with elevated plasma homocysteine levels.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGarrigle, Sarah A

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and thrombosis. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known but may relate to modification of cell surface thiols. The platelet specific integrin α(IIb)β₃ is a cysteine-rich cell adhesion molecule that plays a critical role in platelet aggregation and adhesion in haemostasis and thrombosis. In this study, we looked for evidence of a homocysteine-induced modification of α(IIb)β₃ using a fluorescently labeled PAC-1 antibody that recognizes the activated conformation of the integrin on the platelet surface. We show that exogenous Hcy (10-100 µM) and homocysteine thiolactone (HcyTL) (10-100 µM) increased PAC-1 binding to platelets in a concentration dependent manner in vitro. In parallel, we show subjects with clinical hyperhomocysteinemia exhibit a greater degree of activation of α(IIb)β₃ compared to age-matched controls. These findings demonstrate that circulating Hcy can modulate the activation state of the platelet integrin α(IIb)β₃, a key player in platelet aggregation and thrombosis.

  3. Capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry determination of glutamic acid and homocysteine's metabolites: Potential biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslarova, Zuzana; Lopes, Fernando Silva; do Lago, Claudimir Lucio; França, Marcondes Cavalcante; Colnaghi Simionato, Ana Valéria

    2017-08-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that affects both lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy, paralysis, and death caused by respiratory failure or infectious complications. Altered levels of homocysteine, cysteine, methionine, and glutamic acid have been observed in plasma of ALS patients. In this context, a method for determination of these potential biomarkers in plasma by capillary electrophoresis tandem mass spectrometry (CE-MS/MS) is proposed herein. Sample preparation was carefully investigated, since sulfur-containing amino acids may interact with plasma proteins. Owing to the non-thiol sulfur atom in methionine, it was necessary to split sample preparation into two methods: i) determination of homocysteine and cysteine as S-acetyl amino acids; ii) determination of glutamic acid and methionine. All amino acids were separated within 25min by CE-MS/MS using 5molL -1 acetic acid as background electrolyte and 5mmolL -1 acetic acid in 50% methanol/H 2 O (v/v) as sheath liquid. The proposed CE-MS/MS method was validated, presenting RSD values below 6% and 11% for intra- and inter-day precision, respectively, for the middle concentration level within the linear range. The limits of detection ranged from 35 (homocysteine) to 268nmolL -1 (glutamic acid). The validated method was applied to the analysis of plasma samples from a group of healthy individuals and patients with ALS, showing the potential of glutamic acid and homocysteine metabolites as biomarkers of ALS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease: how low should plasma homocyst(e)ine levels go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J D

    2001-01-01

    Plasma homocyst(e)ine level is a strong independent risk factor for vascular disease. The spelling of homocyst(e)ine reflects that what is measured, and what constitutes the risk factor; it includes homocysteine, homocystine (the dimer of homocysteine) and mixed cysteine-homocysteine disulfide. Homocyst(e)ine levels above 10.2 micro mol/L are associated with a doubling of coronary risk, and levels above 20 micro mol/L are associated with a 9.9-fold increase in risk compared with levels below 9 micro mol/L. The mechanisms by which homocyst(e)ine promotes vascular disease include increased thrombosis, consumption of nitric oxide, endothelial injury, and reduced thrombolysis. Homocyst(e)ine is an independent predictor of carotid atherosclerosis. Vitamin therapy with folate, pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)), and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) reduces blood levels of homocyst(e)ine, improves endothelial function, reduces levels of fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a), improves thrombolysis, and in uncontrolled clinical observation, leads to regression of carotid plaque. These lines of evidence support a causal relationship between homocyst(e)ine and atherosclerosis, and suggest that in patients with vascular disease, an appropriate target level for therapy may be below 9 or 10 micro mol/L. Randomized controlled studies are under way to determine whether vitamin therapy is effective in secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke.

  5. Individual and Joint Associations of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Genotype and Plasma Homocysteine With Dyslipidemia in a Chinese Population With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanhong; Li, Kang; Venners, Scott A; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Jiang, Shanqun; Weinstock, Justin; Wang, Binyan; Tang, Genfu; Xu, Xiping

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to examine the cross-sectional associations of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) C677T genotype with dyslipidemia. A total of 231 patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension were enrolled from the Huoqiu and Yuexi communities in Anhui Province, China. Plasma tHcy levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Genotyping was performed by TaqMan allelic discrimination technique. Compared with MTHFR 677 CC + CT genotype carriers, TT genotype carriers had higher odds of hypercholesterolemia (adjusted odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.7 [1.4-5.2]; P = .004) and higher odds of abnormal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted OR [95% CI]: 2.3 [1.1-4.8]; P = .030). The individuals with the TT genotype had higher concentrations of log(tHcy) than those with the 677 CC + CT genotype (adjusted β [standard error]: .2 [0.03]; P dyslipidemia in Chinese patients with essential hypertension. Further studies are needed to confirm the role of tHcy and the MTHFR C677T mutation in the development of dyslipidemia in a larger sample.

  6. Alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone protects lung of BALB/c mice irradiated with 6 Gy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubec, G.; Tichatschek, E.; Foltinova, J.; Leplawy, T.; Mallinger, R.; Getoff, N.

    1996-01-01

    The radiation protective activity of intaperitoneally administered alpha-methyl-homocysteine thiolactone (α-MHCTL); 100 mg/kg body weight) in female BALB/c mice and such treated with cysteine treated (100 mg/kg body weight), using unirradiated and placebo treated irradiated mice were tested as controls. 6Gy whole body irradiated was applied and after a period of three weeks the animals were sacrificed and lungs were taken for morphometry and the determination of o-tyrosine. Septal areas were highest in the irradiated, placebo treated mice (68.67 + 9.82% septal area to total area) and lowest in the α-MHCTL treated irradiated mice (55.67 + 11.29%), significant at the p < 0.05 level. Morphometric data were accompanied by highest levels of o-tyrosine, a reliable parameter for OH-attack, in the irradiated, placebo treated group with 1.87 + 0.40 μM/g lung tissue and 0.32 + 0.13 μM/g lung tissue in the αMHCTL treated group; the statistical difference was significant. Significant radiation protection in the mammalian system at the morphological and biochemical level were found. The potent effect could be explained by the influence of alpha-alkylation in homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) which renders amino acids unmetabolizeable, nontoxic, increases lipophilicity and therefore improving permeability through membranes. The present report confirms morphological data on the radiation protective activity of this interesting thiol compound. (Author)

  7. Cochlear Homocysteine Metabolism at the Crossroad of Nutrition and Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Varela-Nieto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss (HL is one of the most common causes of disability, affecting 360 million people according to the World Health Organization (WHO. HL is most frequently of sensorineural origin, being caused by the irreversible loss of hair cells and/or spiral ganglion neurons. The etiology of sensorineural HL (SNHL is multifactorial, with genetic and environmental factors such as noise, ototoxic substances and aging playing a role. The nutritional status is central in aging disability, but the interplay between nutrition and SNHL has only recently gained attention. Dietary supplementation could therefore constitute the first step for the prevention and potential repair of hearing damage before it reaches irreversibility. In this context, different epidemiological studies have shown correlations among the nutritional condition, increased total plasma homocysteine (tHcy and SNHL. Several human genetic rare diseases are also associated with homocysteine (Hcy metabolism and SNHL confirming this potential link. Accordingly, rodent experimental models have provided the molecular basis to understand the observed effects. Thus, increased tHcy levels and vitamin deficiencies, such as folic acid (FA, have been linked with SNHL, whereas long-term dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids improved Hcy metabolism, cell survival and hearing acuity. Furthermore, pharmacological supplementations with the anti-oxidant fumaric acid that targets Hcy metabolism also improved SNHL. Overall these results strongly suggest that cochlear Hcy metabolism is a key player in the onset and progression of SNHL, opening the way for the design of prospective nutritional therapies.

  8. Evaluation of serum homocysteine, high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate in patients with alopecia areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alopecia areata (AA is a common type of hair loss with an autoimmune basis. As the role of homocysteine (Hcys, folate, and CRP has been considered in some autoimmune diseases. Objectives: To evaluate homocysteine, folate and CRP level in AA. Methods: This study was performed on 29 patients who had AA for at least 6 months affecting more than 20% of scalp, and 32 healthy controls. Levels of serum Hcys, blood high-sensitivity CRP, and RBC folate were measured in all subjects. Results: The mean level of RBC folate was significantly lower in the patient group than that in controls (P < 0.001. Also, the level of RBC folate was significantly lower in patients with extensive forms of disease (alopecia totalis/alopecia universalis in comparison with more localized form (patchy hair loss (P < 0.05. Patients with higher "Severity of Alopecia Total" (SALT score had lower RBC folate, as well. Serum Hcys and blood high-sensitivity CRP levels did not show a significant difference in two groups. Conclusion: Patients with alopecia areata have lower level of RBC folate which is in negative correlation with both severity and extension of AA.

  9. Prismatic TIR (total internal reflection) low-concentration PV (photovoltaics)-integrated façade for low latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabry, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Low-concentration Façade-integrated Photovoltaic system in the form of TIR (total internal reflection) prismatic segmented façade could play an effective role in reducing the direct component of solar radiation transmitting through buildings, hence reducing both cooling and artificial lighting load on such buildings. A prismatic segmented façade is capable of allowing diffused skylight to transmit through it to the building interior, while preventing most of the direct solar radiation and converting it into clean energy by means of the integrated PV (​photovoltaics) cells. A range of prismatic TIR segmented façades with different head angles has been designed based on the geographical latitude of the chosen location. Each façade configuration is simulated by ray-tracing technique and its performance is investigated against realistic direct solar radiation data in two clear sky days representing summer and winter of the targeted location. Ray tracing simulations revealed that all of the selected configurations could collect most of the direct solar radiation in summer. In contrary, larger head angle of the segmented façade could collect wider intervals around the noon time till reaching a head angle of 23° at which most of the incident direct solar radiation could be collected. - Highlights: • 5 different head angles of prismatic segmented PV-integrated Façade are ray-traced. • Transmitted and PV-collected solar radiation percentages are determined. • DNI daily profiles with associated solar altitudes and azimuth data are simulated. • Expected transmitted and PV collected solar radiation are calculated for the proposed segments.

  10. Differences in the association between maternal serum homocysteine and ADMA levels in women with pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia and/or intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskowska, Marzena; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the association between homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine in preeclamptic women with and without intrauterine growth restriction compared with normal healthy uncomplicated pregnancies and normotensive pregnancies complicated by idiopathic isolated intrauterine fetal growth restriction. The maternal serum homocysteine and asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations were determined using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. A statistically significant positive correlation of maternal serum homocysteine levels with the serum asymmetric dimethylarginine levels was observed in healthy normotensive uncomplicated pregnant women from the control group and in preeclamptic patients with appropriate-for-gestational-age fetuses (R = 0.380079, p-value = 0.002311* and R = 0.455797, p-value = 0.004030* for the control and the P groups, respectively). However, this correlation was not significant in women with pregnancy complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, both isolated and in the course of severe preeclampsia. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that elevated levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia are associated with elevated homocysteine levels. But our results also demonstrate that in pregnancies complicated by intrauterine growth restriction, this mechanism is important, although not the only one.

  11. The effects of and interactions between the maturity of grass silage and concentrate starch source when offered as total mixed rations on the performance of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahir, M.N.; Lund, Peter; Hetta, M.

    2013-01-01

    identical proportions of forage (51%) and concentrate (49%). Total tract digestibility was estimated by determining indigestible NDF (iNDF) concentrations in feeds and faeces and using iNDF as an internal marker. The feeds’ ruminal degradation parameters were determined using both in situ (nylon bag...

  12. Practical synthesis of 14C S-ribosyl-L-homocysteine uniformly labelled on the sugar moiety. An enzymatic route from (U-14C) adenosine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillerm, G.; Allart, B.

    1992-01-01

    [(U- 14 C) S-Ribosyl]-L-homocysteine has been prepared enzymatically from (U- 14 C) adenosine in two steps using S-adenosyl homocysteine hydrolase and bacterial S-adenosyl homocysteine nucleosidase as catalysts. (Author)

  13. Influence of folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels and the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to ex-vivo oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, N; Feussner, A; Hailer, S; Spengel, F A; Keller, C; Wolfram, G

    1999-10-15

    Mild hyperhomocyst(e)inaemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic vascular disease. In-vitro studies have shown that autooxidation of homocyst(e)ine is accompanied by the generation of oxygen radicals. This may lead to oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and promote atherosclerotic vascular lesions. In male patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease we determined fasting and post methionine load homocyst(e)ine levels by high performance liquid chromatography and the susceptibility of their LDL particles to ex-vivo oxidation by continously measuring the conjugated diene production induced by incubation with copper ions. Oxidation resistance (expressed as lag time), maximal oxidation rate, and extent of oxidation (expressed of total diene production) of LDL from patients with normal or mildly elevated homocyst(e)ine levels did not differ significantly. Folic acid, pyridoxal phosphate and cobalamin supplementation significantly decreased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in hyperhomocyst(e)inaemic patients. This went along with a significant decrease in the extent of LDL oxidation and additionally increased HDL-cholesterol levels. The clinical relevance of these findings for the long-term course of atherosclerotic vascular disorders has to be determined by intervention studies.

  14. Is the Total Concentration of a Heavy Metal in Soil a Suitable Tool for Assessing the Environmental Risk? Considering the Case of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Estévez, Manuel Arias

    2017-01-01

    National legislation concerning soil pollution by heavy metals in different countries is mostly based on the total heavy metal concentration levels allowed in different soils. As soil pollution is an issue of worldwide concern, here we develop a laboratory exercise for students in which they must check the suitability of a total metal…

  15. Estimating concentrations of fine-grained and total suspended sediment from close-range remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosbrucker, Adam; Spicer, Kurt R.; Christianson, Tami; Uhrich, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    data range among sensors. Of greatest interest to many programs is a hysteresis in the relationship between turbidity and SSC, attributed to temporal variation of particle size distribution (Landers and Sturm, 2013; Uhrich et al., 2014). This phenomenon causes increased uncertainty in regression-estimated values of SSC, due to changes in nephelometric reflectance off the varying grain sizes in suspension (Uhrich et al., 2014). Here, we assess the feasibility and application of close-range remote sensing to quantify SSC and particle size distribution of a disturbed, and highly-turbid, river system. We use a consumer-grade digital camera to acquire imagery of the river surface and a depth-integrating sampler to collect concurrent suspended-sediment samples. We then develop two empirical linear regression models to relate image spectral information to concentrations of fine sediment (clay to silt) and total suspended sediment. Before presenting our regression model development, we briefly summarize each data-acquisition method.

  16. Association of homocysteine level and vascular burden and cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yi-Chun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Hwang, Shang-Jyh; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Shih-Ming; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Kuo, Mei-Chuan; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been found to have cognitive impairment. However, the core features and clinical correlates of cognitive impairment are still unclear. Elevated homocysteine levels are present in CKD, and this is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and vascular diseases in the general population. Thus, this study investigated the core domains of cognitive impairment and investigated the associations of homocysteine level and vascular burden with cognitive function in patients with CKD. Patients with CKD aged ≥ 50 years and age- and sex-matched normal comparisons were enrolled. The total fasting serum homocysteine level was measured. Vascular burden was assessed using the Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Scale. Cognitive function was evaluated using comprehensive neuropsychological tests. A total of 230 patients with CKD and 92 comparisons completed the study. Memory impairment and executive dysfunction were identified as core features of cognitive impairment in the CKD patients. Among the patients with CKD, higher serum homocysteine levels (β = -0.17, p = 0.035) and higher Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Scale scores (β = -0.18, p = 0.013) were correlated with poor executive function independently. However, an association with memory function was not noted. Our results showed that an elevated homocysteine level and an increased vascular burden were independently associated with executive function, but not memory, in CKD patients. This findings suggested the co-existence of vascular and non-vascular hypotheses regarding executive dysfunction in CKD patients. Meanwhile, other risk factors related to CKD itself should be investigated in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Homocysteine levels are associated with the results of {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy in type 2 diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan, Futoshi; Yonemochi, Hidetoshi; Nakagawa, Mikiko; Saikawa, Tetsunori [Oita University, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Medicine, Hasama, Oita (Japan); Masaki, Takayuki; Takahashi, Naohiko; Yoshimatsu, Hironobu [Oita University, Department of Internal Medicine I, Oita (Japan); Eshima, Nobuoki [Oita University, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Oita (Japan)

    2007-01-15

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) levels and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction are associated with a high mortality in type 2 diabetic patients. We tested the hypothesis that hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with insulin resistance and cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in type 2 diabetic patients not receiving insulin treatment. The study group consisted of 17 type 2 diabetic patients with high tHcy levels (>15 mmol/l, age 58{+-}5 years, high tHcy group). The control group consisted of 23 age-matched type 2 diabetic patients with normal tHcy levels ({<=}15 mmol/l, age 58{+-}9 years, normal tHcy group). Cardiovascular autonomic function was assessed by baroreflex sensitivity, heart rate variability, plasma norepinephrine concentrations, and cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Early and delayed {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial uptake values were lower (p<0.005 and p<0.01, respectively) and the percent washout rate of {sup 123}I-MIBG was higher (p<0.001) in the high tHcy group than in the normal tHcy group. The fasting plasma insulin concentrations (p<0.0001) and the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index values (p<0.0001) were higher in the high tHcy group than in the normal tHcy group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the level of tHcy was independently predicted by the HOMA index values and the myocardial uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG at the delayed phase. Our results demonstrate that high levels of tHcy are associated with depressed cardiovascular autonomic function and insulin resistance in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. (orig.)

  18. Association of circulating active and total ghrelin concentrations with dry matter intake, growth, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghrelin is a gut peptide that when acylated is thought to stimulate appetite. Circulating ghrelin concentrations could potentially be used as a predictor of DMI in cattle. The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating ghrelin concentrations with DMI and other produ...

  19. Steady-state metabolite concentrations reflect a balance between maximizing enzyme efficiency and minimizing total metabolite load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naama Tepper

    Full Text Available Steady-state metabolite concentrations in a microorganism typically span several orders of magnitude. The underlying principles governing these concentrations remain poorly understood. Here, we hypothesize that observed variation can be explained in terms of a compromise between factors that favor minimizing metabolite pool sizes (e.g. limited solvent capacity and the need to effectively utilize existing enzymes. The latter requires adequate thermodynamic driving force in metabolic reactions so that forward flux substantially exceeds reverse flux. To test this hypothesis, we developed a method, metabolic tug-of-war (mTOW, which computes steady-state metabolite concentrations in microorganisms on a genome-scale. mTOW is shown to explain up to 55% of the observed variation in measured metabolite concentrations in E. coli and C. acetobutylicum across various growth media. Our approach, based strictly on first thermodynamic principles, is the first method that successfully predicts high-throughput metabolite concentration data in bacteria across conditions.

  20. Evaluation of five commercially available assays and measurement of serum total protein concentration via refractometry for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer of immunity in foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Rachel; Giguère, Steeve

    2005-11-15

    To determine and compare sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and predictive values of measurement of serum total protein concentration by refractometry as well as 5 commercially available kits for the diagnosis of failure of passive transfer (FPT) of immunity in foals. Prospective study. 65 foals with various medical problems and 35 clinically normal foals. IgG concentration in serum was assessed by use of zinc sulfate turbidity (assay C), glutaraldehyde coagulation (assay D), 2 semiquantitative immunoassays (assays F and G), and a quantitative immunoassay (assay H). Serum total protein concentration was assessed by refractometry. Radial immunodiffusion (assays A and B) was used as the reference method. For detection of IgG or = 6.0 g/dL indicated adequate IgG concentrations. Most assays were adequate as initial screening tests. However, their use as a definitive test would result in unnecessary treatment of foals with adequate IgG concentrations.

  1. Plasma Homocysteine is Not Related to the Severity of Microangiopathy in Secondary Raynaud Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacomella, Vincenzo; Wasila, Monika; Husmann, Marc; Gitzelmann, Gabriela; Meier, Thomas; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The role of elevated homocysteine in primary and secondary Raynaud phenomenon (RP) and in patients with atherosclerosis has been reported controversially. In secondary RP due to connective tissue disease specific alterations of nailfold capillaries might be present. An association between these microvascular changes and homocysteine has been suggested. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether homocysteine level differs between patients with primary and secondary RP and to test the hypothesis that homocysteine or other cardiovascular risk factors are associated with specific features of microangiopathy in secondary RP. Patients and Methods Eighty-one consecutive patients with RP referred for vascular assessment were studied by nailfold capillaroscopy. Homocysteine, C-reactive protein and cholesterol were measured and other cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities assessed. Results: Homocysteine, C-reactive-protein and cholesterol levels did not differ between patients with primary (n=60) and secondary RP (n=21). Likewise, no differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities were found. In secondary RP no correlation was found between microvascular involvement and homocysteine or C-reactive protein. Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is not different in patients with either primary or secondary RP and is therefore not a marker for the distinction of these diseases. The extent of microvascular involvement in secondary RP does not correlate with plasma homocysteine. PMID:22216066

  2. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timurkaynak, T.; Balcioglu, S.; Arslan, U.; Kocaman, Sinan A.; Cengel, A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to investigate the plasma homocysteine level and relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50+-8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6+-8.3 years) with two cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSx group compared to the control group 16.5+-4.9 umol/L, n=79, versus 12.4+-4.1 umol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7+-5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r=-0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia. (author)

  3. Analysis of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tavares

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia in patients with acute ischemic syndrome of the unstable angina type. METHODS - We prospectively studied 46 patients (24 females with unstable angina and 46 control patients (19 males, paired by sex and age, blinded to the laboratory data. Details of diets, smoking habits, medication used, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were recorded, as were plasma lipid and glucose levels, C-reactive protein, and lipoperoxidation in all participants. Patients with renal disease were excluded. Plasma homocysteine was estimated using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with unstable angina (12.7±6.7 µmol/L than in the control group (8.7±4.4 µmol/L (p<0.05. Among males, homocystinemia was higher in the group with unstable angina than in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (14.1±5.9 µmol/L versus 11.9±4.2 µmol/L. Among females, however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups: 11.0±7.4 µmol/L versus 6.4±2.9 µmol/L (p<0.05 in the unstable angina and control groups, respectively. Approximately 24% of the patients had unstable angina at homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L. CONCLUSION - High homocysteine levels seem to be a relevant prevalent factor in the population with unstable angina, particularly among females.

  4. Multimodal switching of conformation and solubility in homocysteine derived polypeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, JR; Deming, TJ

    2014-01-01

    We report the design and synthesis of poly(S-alkyl-l-homocysteine)s, which were found to be a new class of readily prepared, multiresponsive polymers that possess the unprecedented ability to respond in different ways to different stimuli, either through a change in chain conformation or in water solubility. The responsive properties of these materials are also effected under mild conditions and are completely reversible for all pathways. The key components of these polymers are the incorpora...

  5. Serum homocysteine level in vegetarians in District Tharparker, Sindh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Aneel; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwar; Rathore, M. Imran; Baig, Mukhtiar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of present study was to investigate serum homocysteine levels in apparently healthy vegetarians and ominvores in Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry, Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI), Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center (JPMC), Karachi and blood samples were collected from Mithi, district Tharparker, Sindh, Pakistan, in 2012. One hundred vegetarian and one hundred omnivores (age ranging from 20-40 years) were enrolled for this study. Serum homocysteine levels were measured by the chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay method. Results: Serum homocysteine (Hcy) level was considerably higher (p15µmol/L compared to omnivores 6%, (p15µmol/L serum Hcy level in vegetarian group and 6.9% male and 3.5% females had >15µmol/L serum Hcy level in omnivores group, but the difference was not significant in any group. Conclusion: Vegetarians are more prone to develop hyperhomocysteinemia, so they are at high risk to develop cardiovascular disease. PMID:25878628

  6. Konsentrasi Protein Total, Albumin, dan Globulin Anak Kambing Peranakan Etawah Setelah Pemberian Berbagai Sediaan Kolostrum* (TOTAL PROTEIN, ALBUMIN, AND GLOBULIN CONCENTRATIONS ON ETTAWAH CROSSBREED NEONATES FOLLOWING THE ADMINISTRATION OF VARIOUS FORM O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Esfandiari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to study the profile of total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrationson Ettawah crossbreed neonates after consuming various colostrums. Twenty four healthy neonatal kidswere used in this study. The neonates were divided into four groups. Each group received fresh maternal(goat colostrum, frozen-thawed bovine colostrum, bovine spray dried colostrum, and bovine powdercommercial colostrum, respectively. Colostrums were given at 10% of body weight directly after birth andfollowed by the same amount every 12 hours, for three days. The blood was taken from jugular vein at 0, 12,24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth to determine total protein, albumin, and globulin concentrations.Results of this study indicated that the serum total protein and globulin concentration increased andreached the peak at 24 hours after birth. Compared to the concentration at birth, the increase of totalprotein concentration were 62.77%, 59.26%, 48.05%, and 66.67% in fresh maternal (goat, frozen-thawedbovine, bovine spray dried, and commercial bovine colostrum, respectively. Serum globulin concentrationincreased 4.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 14.6 times in fresh matermnal goat, frozen-thawed bovine, spray dried, andcommercial bovine colostrums respectively, compared to the concentration at birth. In conclusion, theconsumption of various colostrums i.e. fresh maternal goat colostrums, bovine colostrums (frozen-thawed,spray dried and commercial colostrums would increase the concentration of blood total protein and globulin,which both reached the highest concentration at 24 h after birth.

  7. Concentration, flux, and trend estimates with uncertainty for nutrients, chloride, and total suspended solids in tributaries of Lake Champlain, 1990–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2016-12-20

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New England Interstate Water Pollution Control Commission and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation, estimated daily and 9-month concentrations and fluxes of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, chloride, and total suspended solids from 1990 (or first available date) through 2014 for 18 tributaries of Lake Champlain. Estimates of concentration and flux, provided separately in Medalie (2016), were made by using the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) regression model and update previously published WRTDS model results with recent data. Assessment of progress towards meeting phosphorus-reduction goals outlined in the Lake Champlain management plan relies on annual estimates of phosphorus flux. The percent change in annual concentration and flux is provided for two time periods. The R package EGRETci was used to estimate the uncertainty of the trend estimate. Differences in model specification and function between this study and previous studies that used WRTDS to estimate concentration and flux using data from Lake Champlain tributaries are described. Winter data were too sparse and nonrepresentative to use for estimates of concentration and flux but were sufficient for estimating the percentage of total annual flux over the period of record. Median winter-to-annual fractions ranged between 21 percent for total suspended solids and 27 percent for dissolved phosphorus. The winter contribution was largest for all constituents from the Mettawee River and smallest from the Ausable River. For the full record (1991 through 2014 for total and dissolved phosphorus and chloride and 1993 through 2014 for nitrogen and total suspended solids), 6 tributaries had decreasing trends in concentrations of total phosphorus, and 12 had increasing trends; concentrations of dissolved phosphorus decreased in 6 and increased in 8 tributaries; fluxes of total phosphorus decreased in 5 and

  8. Total mercury, methyl mercury, and heavy metal concentrations in Hyeongsan River and its tributaries in Pohang city, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailon, Mark Xavier; David, Anneschel Sheehan; Park, Yeongeon; Kim, Eunhee; Hong, Yongseok

    2018-04-11

    Heavy metal contamination in aquatic systems is a big problem in many areas around the world. In 2016, high mercury concentrations were reported in bivalves (Corbicula leana) and sediments near the confluence of the Hyeongsan River and Chilseong Creek located in Pohang, a steel industrial city in the south-east coast of the Korean peninsula. Given that both the Chilseong and Gumu creeks run through the Pohang industrial complex and ultimately flow to the Hyeongsan River, it is imperative to determine if the industrial effluents have any impact on the mercury contamination in these two streams and the Hyeongsan River. In this work, we investigated the concentration levels of different heavy metals using cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy. The metal concentration in the water samples from the Hyeongsan River, Gumu Creek, and Chilseong Creek did not exceed the limits for drinking water quality set by the US EPA and World Health Organization. However, the sediment samples were found to be heavily contaminated by Hg with levels exceeding the toxic effect threshold. Gumu Creek was found to be heavily contaminated. The concentrations of the different heavy metals increased downstream, and the samples collected from the sites in the Hyeongsan River near the Gumu Creek, an open channel for wastewater discharge of companies in the Pohang Industrial Complex, showed higher contamination levels, indicating that the effluents from the industrial complex are a possible source of contamination in the river.

  9. MOLECULAR MODELING INDICATES THAT HOMOCYSTEINE INDUCES CONFORMATIONAL CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF PUTATIVE TARGET PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumnam Silla

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An elevated level of homocysteine, a reactive thiol containing amino acid is associated with a multitude of complex diseases. A majority (>80% of homocysteine in circulation is bound to protein cysteine residues. Although, till date only 21 proteins have been experimentally shown to bind with homocysteine, using an insilico approach we had earlier identified several potential target proteins that could bind with homocysteine. Shomocysteinylation of proteins could potentially alter the structure and/or function of the protein. Earlier studies have shown that binding of homocysteine to protein alters its function. However, the effect of homocysteine on the target protein structure has not yet been documented. In the present work, we assess conformational or structural changes if any due to protein homocysteinylation using two proteins, granzyme B (GRAB and junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM1, which could potentially bind to homocysteine. We, for the first time, constructed computational models of homocysteine bound to target proteins and monitored their structural changes using explicit solvent molecular dynamic (MD simulation. Analysis of homocysteine bound trajectories revealed higher flexibility of the active site residues and local structural perturbations compared to the unbound native structure’s simulation, which could affect the stability of the protein. In addition, secondary structure analysis of homocysteine bound trajectories also revealed disappearance of â-helix within the G-helix and linker region that connects between the domain regions (as defined in the crystal structure. Our study thus captures the conformational transitions induced by homocysteine and we suggest these structural alterations might have implications for hyperhomocysteinemia induced pathologies.

  10. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  11. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  12. A meta-analysis of feed digestion in dairy cows. 1. The effects of forage and concentrate factors on total diet digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nousiainen, J; Rinne, M; Huhtanen, P

    2009-10-01

    A meta-analysis based on published experiments with lactating dairy cows was conducted to study the effects of dietary forage and concentrate factors on apparent total diet digestibility. A data set was collected that included a total of 497 dietary treatment means from 92 studies. The diets were based on grass silage or on legume or whole-crop cereal silages partly or completely substituted for grass silage. The silages were supplemented with concentrates given at a flat rate within a dietary comparison. For the statistical evaluation, the data were divided into 5 subsets to quantify silage (digestibility, 42 diets in 17 studies; fermentation characteristics, 108 diets in 39 studies) and concentrate (amount of supplementation, 142 diets in 59 studies; concentration of crude protein, 215 diets in 82 studies; carbohydrate composition, 66 diets in 23 studies) factors on total diet digestibility. The diet digestibility of dairy cows was determined by total fecal collection or by using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Diet organic matter digestibility (OMD) at a maintenance level of feeding (OMD(m)) was estimated using sheep in vivo or corresponding in vitro digestibility values for the forage and reported ingredient and chemical composition values, with tabulated digestibility coefficients for the concentrate components of the diet. A mixed model regression analysis was used to detect the responses of different dietary factors on apparent total diet digestibility. Improved silage OMD(m) resulting from earlier harvest was translated into improved production-level OMD in cows (OMD(p)). The effects of silage fermentation characteristics on OMD(p) were quantitatively small, although sometimes significant. Concentrate supplementation improved total diet OMD(m), but this was not realized in lactating dairy cows because of linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility as concentrate intake increased. Increasing the concentrate crude protein amount

  13. Determination of human and Sprague-Dawley rat trimethylseleonium ion and total selenium urine concentrations from endogenous body selenium pool by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Claassen, J.P.; Rack, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    This study determined trimethylselenonium ion [TMSe,(CH 3 ) 3 Se + ] and total organic selenium cationic species urinary excretion values for healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed regular diets. The only source of TMSe was from the endogenous selenium body pool. Total selenium concentration in urine was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. TMSe and total selenium cationic species concentrations and percent of total selenium urine excretion were determined by chemical neutron activation analysis and coupled anion-cation exchange chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, respectively. Within experimental error, mean values for TMSe and cationic species as percent selenium were comparable for both human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats. This study suggested that TMSe excreated in urine by healthy human subjects and Sprague-Dawley rats fed a normal diet is not a minor but a general metabolite of selenium ingested in a normal diet. (author) 27 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  14. Capillary electrophoresis coupled with chloroform-acetonitrile extraction for rapid and highly selective determination of cysteine and homocysteine levels in human blood plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Bulgakova, Polina Olegovna; Virus, Edward Danielevich; Kruglova, Maria Petrovna; Alexandrin, Valery Vasil'evich; Gadieva, Viktoriya Aleksandrovna; Luzyanin, Boris Petrovich; Kushlinskii, Nikolai Evgen'evich; Fedoseev, Anatolij Nikolaevich; Kubatiev, Aslan Amirkhanovich

    2017-10-01

    A rapid and selective method has been developed for highly sensitive determination of total cysteine and homocysteine levels in human blood plasma and urine by capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with liquid-liquid extraction. Analytes were first derivatized with 1,1'-thiocarbonyldiimidazole and then samples were purified by chloroform-ACN extraction. Electrophoretic separation was performed using 0.1 M phosphate with 30 mM triethanolamine, pH 2, containing 25 μM CTAB, 2.5 μM SDS, and 2.5% polyethylene glycol 600. Samples were injected into the capillary (with total length 32 cm and 50 μm id) at 2250 mbar*s and subsequent injection was performed for 30 s with 0.5 M KОН. The total analysis time was less than 9 min, accuracy was 98%, and precision was <2.6%. The LOD was 0.2 μM for homocysteine and 0.5 μM for cysteine. The use of liquid-liquid extraction allowed the precision and sensitivity of the CE method to be significantly increased. The validated method was applied to determine total cysteine and homocysteine content in human blood plasma and urine samples obtained from healthy volunteers and patients with kidney disorders. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. [Study of serum levels of homocystein, lipids and their peroxidation products in patients with coronary heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaia, O L; Fedorova, N V

    2005-01-01

    The subjects of the study were 30 patients with coronary heart disease (19--with stable, and 11--with instable angina), and 15 practically healthy individuals. The study included measurement of the levels of homocysteine (HC), total cholesterol, cholesterol of low-density lipoproteins, cholesterol of high-density lipoproteins, and lipidperoxidation (LP) products (TBA-reactive products), as well as coagulo-fibrinolytic parameters. The study revealed that patients with instable angina had significantly higher levels of HC and TBA-reactive products compared to those with stable angina and healthy controls. HC level correlated with LP processes in CHD patients (r = 0.55). Methionine loading allowed revealing latent hyperhomocysteinemia.

  16. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl 2 extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools

  17. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: phobbelen@usgs.gov; Koolhaas, J.E. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, C.A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl{sub 2} extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools.

  18. Homocysteine and coronary heart disease : the role of polymorphic genes and hemostasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, M.

    2002-01-01

    Background Homocysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid formed during catabolism of the essential amino acid methionine. Defects in genes encoding enzymes or sub-optimal intake of B-vitamins (e.g. folate) involved in homocysteine

  19. The development of a new class of inhibitors for betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pícha, Jan; Vaněk, Václav; Buděšínský, Miloš; Mládková, Jana; Garrow, T. A.; Jiráček, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 65, July (2013), s. 256-275 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/1277 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : BHMT * inhibitor * homocysteine * phosphonate * phosphinate * amino acid derivative * bioisostere * S-alkylated homocysteine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2013

  20. Homocysteine and C-Reactive Protein as Useful Surrogate Markers for Evaluating CKD Risk in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsun Chuang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP as potential markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults in Taiwan, and to identify associations between these factors and CKD, stratifying by gender. Methods: This cross-sectional study analyzed multi-center data retrospectively. Data were collected from 22,043 adult Taiwanese at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2011. Smoking/drinking history, personal medical/medication history, pregnancy, fasting times as well as laboratory parameters, including homocysteine and CRP were measured and analyzed. Results: Significant differences were observed between four homocysteine and CRP quartiles in eGFR and CKD. For males, only one model showed significant associations between plasma homocysteine and CKD, while in females, all three models showed significant associations with CKD. On the contrary, the gender difference in the case of CRP was opposite. Combined homocysteine and CRP were associated with CKD in males but not in females. Conclusion: Among Taiwanese adults, plasma homocysteine is associated with CKD in females and plasma hsCRP is associated with CKD in males. High hsCRP/high homocysteine is associated with elevated CKD risk in male. Our results suggest that homocysteine and hsCRP may be useful surrogate markers for evaluating CKD risk in adults.

  1. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein as useful surrogate markers for evaluating CKD risk in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chung-Hsun; Lee, Yi-Yen; Sheu, Bor-Fuh; Hsiao, Cheng-Ting; Loke, Song-Seng; Chen, Jih-Chang; Li, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP) as potential markers for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults in Taiwan, and to identify associations between these factors and CKD, stratifying by gender. This cross-sectional study analyzed multi-center data retrospectively. Data were collected from 22,043 adult Taiwanese at Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital from 2005 to 2011. Smoking/drinking history, personal medical/medication history, pregnancy, fasting times as well as laboratory parameters, including homocysteine and CRP were measured and analyzed. Significant differences were observed between four homocysteine and CRP quartiles in eGFR and CKD. For males, only one model showed significant associations between plasma homocysteine and CKD, while in females, all three models showed significant associations with CKD. On the contrary, the gender difference in the case of CRP was opposite. Combined homocysteine and CRP were associated with CKD in males but not in females. Among Taiwanese adults, plasma homocysteine is associated with CKD in females and plasma hsCRP is associated with CKD in males. High hsCRP/high homocysteine is associated with elevated CKD risk in male. Our results suggest that homocysteine and hsCRP may be useful surrogate markers for evaluating CKD risk in adults. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Homocysteine and brain atrophy on MRI of non-demented elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Vermeer, SE; Clarke, R; Oudkerk, M; Koudstaal, PJ; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease have higher plasma homocysteine levels than controls, but it is uncertain whether higher plasma homocysteine levels are involved in the early pathogenesis of the disease. Hippocampal, amygdalar and global brain atrophy on brain MRI have been proposed as early

  3. Serum homocysteine levels in relation to clinical progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, C.E.; Killestein, J.; Kragt, J.J.; Polman, C.H.; Dijkstra, C.D.; Blom, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Elevated homocysteine levels are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases and have even been identified as a risk factor for some of these. Homocysteine levels may be elevated in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) but large studies are lacking and the relation with disease

  4. Effect of folic acid on methionine and homocysteine metabolism in end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.; van Guldener, C.; ter Wee, P.M.; Jakobs, C.A.J.M.; van der Meer, K.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background. The pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is unclear. Folic acid lowers, but does not normalize, the plasma homocysteine level in patients with ESRD, but its effect on whole body metabolism of homocysteine is unknown. Methods We studied the effect of 3

  5. Microsatellite instability and the association with plasma homocysteine and thymidylate synthase in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Lindebjerg, Jan; Crüger, Dorthe G.

    2008-01-01

    , carcinoembryonic antigen, vitamin B12, and folate. Microsatellite instability of tumors was associated with higher levels of plasma homocysteine (p = 0.008) and higher protein expression of thymidylate synthase (p ... factors. CEA was not associated with neither homocysteine nor microsatellite instability. The data suggests that there is a more pronounced methyl unit deficiency in microsatellite instable tumors....

  6. Association between homocyst(e)ine levels and risk of vascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Eugene D

    2003-03-01

    Homocyst(e)ine is a novel risk factor in vascular disease. First observations of vascular lesions in children with high blood homocyst(e)ine levels due to severe inborn enzyme deficiencies led to the hypothesis that elevated blood homocyst(e)ine levels might be a risk factor for vascular disease. A substantial body of evidence on the role of the homocyst(e)ine in the development of coronary and carotid artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, deep vein thrombosis and other disorders has been accumulated over the last 30 years. Cross-sectional and case-control studies provide initial and the strongest support for the hypothesis, followed by results from the prospective cohorts. Infrequent cases of homozygous mutations of the key enzymes in the homocyst(e)ine metabolism chain are able to produce extreme homocyst(e)inemia and early vascular lesions. More frequently, heterozygous enzyme mutations and deficiencies of folate and vitamins B6 and B12 cause mild to moderate homocyst(e)inemia, which is still strongly associated with the increased risk of vascular events. Elevated homocyst(e)ine levels may be effectively managed with adequate folate, B12 and B6 intake in doses comparable to or above FDA recommendations. Whether correction of elevated homocyst(e)ine levels with vitamins is helpful in prevention and treatment of vascular events remains unknown and is under investigation in ongoing clinical trials (VISP, VITATOPS). No consensus on homocyst(e)ine management is available at the present time.

  7. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Total and bioavailable arsenic concentration in arid soils and its uptake by native plants from the pre-Andean zones in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Tapia, Y; Pastene, R; Montes, S; Núñez, N; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic is the most important contaminant of the environment in northern Chile. Soil samples and plant organs from three native plant species, Pluchea absinthioides, Atriplex atacamensis and Lupinus microcarpus, were collected from arid zones in order to determine the total and bioavailable arsenic concentrations in soils and to assess the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transport index (Ti) of arsenic in the plants. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (pH 8.3-8.5) where A. atacamensis and P. absinthioides were collected, reached levels considered to be contaminated (54.3 ± 15.4 and 52.9 ± 9.9 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), and these values were approximately ten times higher than in soils (pH 7.6) where L. microcarpus was collected. Bioavailable arsenic ranged from 0.18 to 0.42% of total arsenic concentration. In the three plant species, arsenic concentration in leaves were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in roots. L. microcarpus showed the highest arsenic concentration in its leaves (9.7 ± 1.6 mg kg⁻¹) and higher values of BCF (1.8) and Ti (6.1), indicating that this species has a greater capacity to accumulate and translocate the metalloid to the leaf than do the other species.

  9. Proofreading in vivo: Editing of homocysteine by methionyl-tRNA synthetase in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, H.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vitro studies have established a pre-transfer proofreading mechanism for editing of homocysteine by bacterial methionyl-, isoleucyl-, and valyl-tRNA synthetases. The unusual feature of the editing is the formation of a distinct compound, homocysteine thiolactone. Now, two-dimensional TLC analysis of 35S-labeled amino acids extracted from cultures of the bacterium Escherichia coli reveals that the thiolactone is also synthesized in vivo. In E. coli, the thiolactone is made from homocysteine in a reaction catalyzed by methionyl-tRNA synthetase. One molecule of homocysteine is edited as thiolactone per 109 molecules of methionine incorporated into protein in vivo. These results not only directly demonstrate that the adenylate proofreading pathway for rejection of misactivated homocysteine operates in vivo in E. coli but, in general, establish the importance of error-editing mechanisms in living cells

  10. Concentrations of oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice bran and their relationships to total phenolics, flavonoids, antioxidant capacity and whole grain color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Hsuan; McClung, Anna M; Bergman, Christine J

    2016-10-01

    Proanthocyanidins, a flavonoids subgroup, are proposed to have chronic disease modulation properties. With the eventual goal of enhancing rice phytonutrient concentrations, we investigated the genotypic variation of the concentrations of individual oligomers and polymers of proanthocyanidins in red and purple rice brans. A 4.3-fold variation in total proanthocyanidins (sum of oligomers and polymers) in the extractable fraction was found and the concentration was highly correlated with total phenolics, total flavonoids and antiradical capacity. Variation in the proportion of oligomers and polymers existed, with monomers to trimers, 4-6mers, 7-10mers and polymers accounting for 7, 18, 26.5 and 48.7%, respectively, of the total. The redness value a(∗) of whole grain rice measured in CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗) color space was negatively and positively correlated with extractable and non-extractable proanthocyanidins, respectively. The variation found indicates it is possible to select rice with bran containing high levels of total proanthocyanidins and specific degree of polymerization profiles. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Inhibition of hydrogen sulfide on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells involved in the modulation of calcium sensing receptor in high homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yuwen; Wang, Xiyao; Liang, Xiaohui; Wu, Jichao; Dong, Shiyun; Li, Hongzhu; Jin, Meili; Sun, Dianjun; Zhang, Weihua; Zhong, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia induces the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) inhibits the phenotype switch of VSMCs and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) regulated the production of endogenous H 2 S. However, whether CaSR inhibits the proliferation of VSMCs by regulating the endogenous cystathionine-gamma-lyase (CSE, a major enzyme that produces H 2 S) pathway in high homocysteine (HHcy) has not been previously investigated. The intracellular calcium concentration, the concentration of H 2 S, the cell viability, the proliferation and the expression of proteins of cultured VSMCs from rat thoracic aortas were measured, respectively. The results showed that the [Ca 2+ ] i and the expression of p-CaMK and CSE increased upon treatment with CaSR agonist. In HHcy, the H 2 S concentration decrease, the proliferation and migration rate increased, the expression of Cyclin D1, PCNA, Osteopontin and p-Erk1/2 increased while the α-SM actin, P21 Cip/WAK−1 and Calponin decreased. The CaSR agonist or exogenous H 2 S significantly reversed the changes of VSMCs caused by HHcy. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that CaSR regulate the endogenous CSE/H 2 S is related to the PLC-IP 3 receptor and CaM signal pathways which inhibit the proliferation of VSMCs, and the latter is involved in the Erk1/2 dependent signal pathway in high homocysteine. - Highlights: • CaSR activation increased the production of endogenous H 2 S in high homocysteine VSMCs. • CaSR modulated the CSE/H 2 S are related to the PLC-IP 3 R and Ca 2+ -CaM signal pathways. • Inhibition of H 2 S on the proliferation of VSMCs is involved in the Erk1/2 pathway. • Explore the potential roles of CaSR in regulating VSMCs proliferation in high homocysteine.

  12. The maternal homocysteine pathway is influenced by riboflavin intake and MTHFR polymorphisms without affecting the risk of orofacial clefts in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujkovic, M; Steegers, E A; van Meurs, J; Yazdanpanah, N; van Rooij, I A; Uitterlinden, A G; Steegers-Theunissen, R P

    2010-03-01

    Riboflavin is a cofactor for the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme involved in the homocysteine pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of maternal riboflavin intake and two MTHFR polymorphisms (677C>T; Ala222Val and 1298A>C; Glu429Ala substitutions) on the biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway, and investigate the risk of having offspring with an orofacial cleft (OFC). In a case-control study design, dietary riboflavin intake and the MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms were evaluated in 123 OFC and 108 control mothers by using food frequency questionnaires and blood samples. Homocysteine (tHcy), folate and vitamin B12 concentrations in blood were analyzed in 70 cases and 68 controls. Linear and logistic regression analyses were applied. At 14 months postpartum riboflavin intake and MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C genotypes were not significantly different between cases and controls. The 677TT genotype showed lower folate concentrations compared to C-allele carriers with a mean difference of 2.8 nmol/l in serum and 174 nmol/l in red blood cell (both P's=0.01). Every mg per day increase of dietary riboflavin intake was positively associated with increase in vitamin B12 concentration by 52.1% (Priboflavin-adjusted MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC genotypes showed a trend toward an increasing risk for OFC, adjusted odds ratio 1.7 (confidence interval (95% CI), 0.7-4.5) and 1.6 (95% CI, 0.7-4.2), respectively. Maternal riboflavin intake is significantly associated with biomarkers of the homocysteine pathway, with the strongest effects in MTHFR 677TT homozygotes. The maternal risk of having OFC offspring, however, is not associated with dietary riboflavin intake.

  13. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae

    2012-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  14. Homocysteine enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages via ERK and Akt signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jin; Lee, Yi Sle; Seo, Kyo Won; Bae, Jin Ung; Kim, Gyu Hee; Park, So Youn; Kim, Chi Dae, E-mail: chidkim@pusan.ac.kr

    2012-04-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) at elevated levels is an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Hcy on the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) in murine macrophages. Among the MMP known to regulate the activities of collagenase and gelatinase, Hcy exclusively increased the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-9 in J774A.1 cells as well as in mouse peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, this activity was found to be correlated with Western blot findings in J774A.1 cells, which showed that MMP-9 expression was concentration- and time-dependently increased by Hcy. Inhibition of the ERK and Akt pathways led to a significant decrease in Hcy-induced MMP-9 expression, and combined treatment with inhibitors of the ERK and Akt pathways showed an additive effects. Activity assays for ERK and Akt showed that Hcy increased the phosphorylation of both, but these phosphorylation were not affected by inhibitors of the Akt and ERK pathways. In line with these findings, the molecular inhibition of ERK and Akt using siRNA did not affect the Hcy-induced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK, respectively. Taken together, these findings suggest that Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in murine macrophages by separately activating the ERK and Akt signaling pathways. -- Highlights: ► Homocysteine (Hcy) induced MMP-9 production in murine macrophages. ► Hcy induced MMP-9 production through ERK and Akt signaling pathways. ► ERK and Akt signaling pathways were activated by Hcy in murine macrophages. ► ERK and Akt pathways were additively act on Hcy-induced MMP-9 production. ► Hcy enhances MMP-9 production in macrophages via activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways in an independent manner.

  15. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pHMB concentrations. A significant positive correlation between HMB concentrations and appendicular lean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; pHMB concentrations in young adults (r=0.58; pHMB concentrations in humans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Influences of chia flour and the concentration of total solids on the characteristics of ‘dulce de leche’ from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves CHAVES

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A factorial categorical design totalling six treatments was applied to investigate the influence of the substitution of corn starch with whole and partially defatted chia flour under the technical characteristics (centesimal composition, instrumental analyses, and sensory evaluation and nutritional disorders (composition of fatty acids and index of the nutritional quality of the lipid fraction of ‘dulce de leche’ concentrated to 72 and 78 °B. The treatments with chia flour concentrated to 72 °B showed higher moisture content and lower compression force, and when the concentration range increased to 78 °B, the levels of total lipids amounted up to 1.40 times when compared to treatment with corn starch. The polyunsaturated fatty acids, particularly omega-3 and omega-6 levels, were higher in treatments with chia flour on both tracks of concentration, allowing a reduction in the atherogenic index and thrombogenic index effects and the n-6/n-3 ratio. The treatments of ‘dulce de leche’ with a lower concentration of soluble solids obtained greater acceptance and consumer purchase intention. The application of whole chia flour in small proportions and in the concentration of 72 °B was the most appropriate under the studied conditions, showing improvement in the nutritional quality and with good technical aspects of candy made with goat milk.

  17. Vitamin intake: a possible determinant of plasma homocyst(e)ine among middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakawa, T; Nieto, F J; Malinow, M R; Chambless, L E; Schreiner, P J; Szklo, M

    1997-05-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have identified elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and thromboembolic disease. To examined the relationship between vitamin intakes and plasma homocyst(e)ine, we analyzed dietary intake data from a case-control study of 322 middle-aged individuals with atherosclerosis in the carotid artery and 318 control subjects without evidence of this disease. All of these individuals were selected from a probability sample of 15,800 men and women who participated in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Plasma homocyst(e)ine was inversely associated with intakes of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12 (controls only for this vitamin)--the three key vitamins in homocyst(e)ine metabolism. Among nonusers of vitamin supplement products, on average each tertile increase in intake of these vitamins was associated with 0.4 to 0.7 mumol/L decrease in plasma homocyst(e)ine. An inverse association of plasma homocyst(e)ine was also found with thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Methionine and protein intake did not show any significant association with plasma homocyst(e)ine. In almost all analyses, cases and controls showed similar associations between dietary variables and plasma homocyst(e)ine. Plasma homocyst(e)ine among users of vitamin supplement products was 1.5 mumol/L lower than that among nonusers. Further studies to examine possible causal relationships among vitamin intake, plasma homocyst(e)ine, and cardiovascular disease are needed.

  18. Choline Intake, Plasma Riboflavin, and the Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase G5465A Genotype Predict Plasma Homocysteine in Folate-Deplete Mexican-American Men with the Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase 677TT Genotype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caudill, M.A.; Dellschaft, N.; Solis, C.; Hinkis, S.; Ivanov, A.A.; Nash-Barboza, S.; Randall, K.E.; Jackson, B.; Solomita, G.N.; Vermeylen, F.

    2009-01-01

    We previously showed that provision of the folate recommended dietary allowance and either 300, 550, 1100, or 2200 mg/d choline for 12 wk resulted in diminished folate status and a tripling of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) in men with the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677TT

  19. Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) from the karstic Croatian river Krka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragun, Zrinka; Filipović Marijić, Vlatka; Krasnići, Nesrete; Ivanković, Dušica; Valić, Damir; Žunić, Jakov; Kapetanović, Damir; Smrzlić, Irena Vardić; Redžović, Zuzana; Grgić, Ivana; Erk, Marijana

    2018-01-01

    Total and cytosolic concentrations of twenty metals/metalloids in the liver of brown trout Salmo trutta (Linnaeus, 1758) were studied in the period from April 2015 to May 2016 at two sampling sites on Croatian river Krka, to establish if river water contamination with metals/metalloids downstream of Knin town has influenced metal bioaccumulation in S. trutta liver. Differences were observed between two sites, with higher concentrations of several elements (Ag, As, Ca, Co, Na, Se, Sr, V) found downstream of Knin town, whereas few others (Cd, Cs, Mo, Tl) were, unexpectedly, increased at the Krka River spring. However, total metal/metalloid concentrations in the liver of S. trutta from both sites of the Krka River were still mainly below previously reported levels for pristine freshwaters worldwide. The analysis of seasonal changes of metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver and their association with fish sex and size mostly indicated their independence of fish physiology, making them good indicators of water contamination and exposure level. Metal/metalloid concentrations in the metabolically available hepatic cytosolic fractions reported in this study are the first data of that kind for S. trutta liver, and the majority of analyzed elements were present in the cytosol in the quantity higher than 50% of their total concentrations, thus indicating their possible availability for toxic effects. However, the special attention should be directed to As, Cd, Cs, and Tl, which under the conditions of increased exposure tended to accumulate more within the cytosol. Although metal/metalloid concentrations in S. trutta liver were still rather low, monitoring of the Krka River water quality and of the health status of its biota is essential due to a trend of higher metal/metalloid bioaccumulation downstream of Knin town, especially taking into consideration the proximity of National Park Krka and the need for its conservation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  20. Denitrification activity is closely linked to the total ambient Fe concentration in mangrove sediments of Goa, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Gonsalves, M.J.B.D.; Michotey, V.D.; Bonin, P.C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    hot air oven at 60 ± 2 ºC for 48 h. Total organic carbon (TOC) was then determined by wet oxidation method (El Wakeel and Riley, 1957) with a precision of 0.01%. Sub-samples for metal analyses were also dried at 60 ± 2oC for 48 h and disaggregated... was observed at Divar where TOC varied from 1.65 ± 1.37 % at 4-6 cm during monsoon to 4.88 ± 2.76 % at 2-4 cm during the post-monsoon (Fig. 3b; Table S2). Sediment Fe values at Tuvem ranged from 4.45 ± 3.70 % at 0-2 cm to 9.28 ± 4.33 % at 4-6 cm during...

  1. Validated assay for the simultaneous quantification of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human EDTA plasma and of vincristine concentrations in human plasma ultrafiltrate by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, Carola W. N.; Israëls, Trijn; Caron, Huib N.; Schellens, Jan H. M.; Rosing, Hilde; Beijnen, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive, specific and efficient high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) assay for the simultaneous determination of total vincristine and actinomycin-D concentrations in human plasma and an assay for the determination of unbound vincristine are presented.

  2. Importance of Dissolved Neutral Hg-Sulfides, Energy Rich Organic Matter and total Hg Concentrations for Methyl Mercury Production in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drott, A.; Skyllberg, U.

    2007-12-01

    Methyl mercury (MeHg) is the mercury form that biomagnifies to the greatest extent in aquatic food webs. Therefore information about factors determining MeHg concentrations is critical for accurate risk assessment of contaminated environments. The concentration of MeHg in wetlands and sediments is the net result of: 1) methylation rates, 2) demethylation rates, and 3) input/output processes. In this study, the main controls on Hg methylation rates and total concentrations of MeHg, were investigated at eight sites in Sweden with sediments that had been subjected to local Hg contamination either as Hg(0), or as phenyl-Hg. Sediments were selected to represent a gradient in total Hg concentration, temperature climate, salinity, primary productivity, and organic C content and quality. Most sediments were high in organic matter content due to wood fibre efflux from pulp and paper industry. The pore water was analysed for total Hg, MeHg, DOC, H2S(aq), pH, DOC, Cl and Br. The chemical speciation of Hg(II) and MeHg in pore water was calculated using equilibrium models. Potential methylation and demethylation rates in sediments were determined in incubation experiments at 23° C under N2(g) for 48 h, after addition of isotopically enriched 201Hg(II) and Me204Hg. In all surface (0-20 cm) sediments there was a significant (pdetermined specific potential methylation rate constant (Km, day-1) and % MeHg (concentrations of MeHg normalized to total Hg) in the sediment. This indicates that MeHg production overruled degradation and input/output processes of MeHg in surface sediments, and that % MeHg in surface sediments may be used as a proxy for net production of MeHg. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing significant positive relationships between short term (48 h) MeHg production and longer term accumulation of MeHg, across a range of sites with different properties (1). If MeHg was not normalized to total Hg, the relationship was not significant. For sub-sets of

  3. Some amino acids levels: glutamine,glutamate, and homocysteine, in plasma of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Fatina I; Elshamaa, Manal F; Essam, Rascha G; Elghoroury, Eman A; El-Saeed, Gamila S M; El-Toukhy, Safinaz E; Ibrahim, Mona Hamed

    2014-03-01

    The high prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition is a critical issue for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Serum albumin is the most commonly used nutritional marker. Another index is plasma amino acid (AA) profile. Of these, the plasma levels of glutamine, glutamate and homocysteine, correlate well with nutritional status. We measured some plasma AAs in children with different stages CKD to provide information in monitoring the therapeutic strategy, particularly in AA supplementary therapy or protein restriction. Three amino acids were evaluated along with albumin and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in 30 patients with advanced CKD stages 4 and 5. They were divided into two groups undergoing conservative treatment (CT) (n=15) or hemodialysis (HD) (n=15). An additional group of patients with nephrotic syndrome [CKD stage 2] was also studied to assess the alterations of plasma free amino acids with the early stage of CKD. Another 30 age- and sex-matched healthy children served as controls. A significant increase in plasma concentration of amino acid glutamine was observed in children with advanced CKD stages 4 and 5 when compared with controls (P=0.02).Plasma glutamine level was significantly higher in ESRD children on HD than in children with nephrotic syndrome (P=0.02). We did not find a significant difference between HD children and CT children as regard to glutamine level. Notable differences were in the plasma homocysteine level detected in the CKD groups patients, which was greater than that in controls (P=0.0001). Plasma homocysteine level was significantly higher in children on HD than in children with nephrotic syndrome (P=0.01). A significant differences was observed in hs-CRP levels between the CKD groups and the controls (P=0.04). Albumin levels were lower in CKD groups than in controls (p=0.01). Glutamine showed significant positive correlations with blood urea level (r=0.84, P=0.002) and blood ammonia level (r=0.72, P=0

  4. Determination of antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavanoid contents in Bougainvillea glabra bracts at various methanol concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markandan, Shalini; Abdullah, Aminah; Musa, Khalid Hamid; Subramaniam, Vimala; Stockham, Katherine

    2016-11-01

    The Bougainvillea glabra bract was extracted using three ratios of methanolic solvents at 50%, 70% and 100%. In this study, the methanolic extracts of B. glabra bract were evaluated for antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolics and flavanoids. Methanol at 100% was the highest extraction efficiency among three other methanolic with yield value of 38%. The content of phenolics and flavonoids of B. glabra bracts in methanol 100% were 63.92±0.90 GAE mg/100g and 249.53±26.20 QE mg/100g respectively. The antioxidant activity was measured using three different bioassays namely, DPPH, ABTS and FRAP. The results were expressed as mg Trolox equivalent per 100 g where Trolox is a vitamin E analog. Among these methanol extracts, highest antioxidant capacity was observed in the pure methanol concentration. Positive correlation was observed in B. glabra bract between DPPH assay and TPC, r2=1.00. The methanol extract at 100% was rich in polyphenolics, which indicating that the B. glabra bract has the potential to be recommended as a good dietary source of natural antioxidants.

  5. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  6. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa; Black, Paleah; Lean, David

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. → With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m -3 . → During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. → We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. → With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean temperature is 20 deg. C

  7. Seasonal and diel patterns of total gaseous mercury concentration in the atmosphere of the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Aylin; Valdes, Juan; Sibaja, Jose; Vega, Ilena; Alfaro, Rosa; Morales, Jose; Esquivel, Germain; Barrantes, Elisa [Laboratory for Atmospheric Chemistry, LAQAT-UNA, Universidad Nacional, P.O. Box 86-3000, Heredia (Costa Rica); Black, Paleah [Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, P.O. Box 450 Station A, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Lean, David, E-mail: drslean@gmail.com [P.O. Box 309, Apsley, Ontario, K0L 1A0 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Elevated seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed in the Central Valley of Costa Rica 27 km south-east of the Poas volcano. {yields} With the onset of the wet season TGM in late April, values increased from typical values near 10 to 905 ng m{sup -3}. {yields} During the day, TGM values increased until midday along with temperature and radiation but relative humidity showed a reciprocal pattern. {yields} We conclude that elemental mercury from the volcano may react with atmospheric oxidants especially during the dry season and the mercury would be deposited to the ground. {yields} With the onset of heavy rains, mercury in the soil is reduced and re-volatilized resulting in the high levels in atmospheric air at the end of April. - Abstract: Monitoring of Hg in the atmosphere near volcanoes is limited with no previous data for Costa Rica. Seasonal and daily patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were observed at the main sampling location at the Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica. The area (lat. 10.000230 long. -84.109499) is located in the Central Valley of Costa Rica and is 27 km SE of the Poas volcano (lat. 10.199486 long. -84.231388). Measurements were made from May 2008 to May 2009 at this location with some additional values obtained at other sites near the Poas volcano including San Luis and Grecia as well as near, Turrialba and Irazu volcanoes. Total gaseous Hg was determined in samples collected at a height of 2 m using the Tekran 2537A (Tekran Inc.) gas-phase Hg vapor analyzer. Meteorological data (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, radiation and precipitation) were obtained from the airport weather station located at Alajuela. Monthly precipitation is typically 85 mm during the dry season (December to April) with winds from the west. The wet season begins in late April and continues to December with monthly rainfall of 328 mm and winds from the NE. The annual mean

  8. Changes of Serum Total and Free Testosterone Concentrations in Male Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in Response to Cinacalcet Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuczera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Calcium sensing receptor (CaSR is expressed, among others also in testis. Cinacalcet binds to the CaSR, increases sensitivity of CaSR to serum calcium and is used in the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT in chronic hemodialysis patients (HDP. In most of male HDP, serum testosterone concentration is lower than in healthy males. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month treatment with cinacalcet on the serum total and free testosterone concentration in male HDP with sHPT. Methods: 38 male, hemodialysed CKD patients with sHPT (PTH>300 pg/ml were enrolled into the study. In each patient serum PTH, total testosterone (TT and free testosterone (FT concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and then after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The results are presented as means with 95% confidence interval. Results: In 33 patients who completed the study cinacalcet treatment caused significant decrease of serum PTH from 1143 pg/ml (828 - 1458 pg/ml at the baseline, to 809 pg/ml (487 - 1132pg/ml after 3 month of treatment (p = 0.002, and to 607 pg/ml (281 - 934pg/ml; p Conclusion: Treatment with cinacalcet decreases serum total and free testosterone concentration in male hemodialysed patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  9. Effects of homocysteine lowering with B vitamins on cognitive aging: meta-analysis of 11 trials with cognitive data on 22,000 individuals12345

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert; Bennett, Derrick; Parish, Sarah; Lewington, Sarah; Skeaff, Murray; Eussen, Simone JPM; Lewerin, Catharina; Stott, David J; Armitage, Jane; Hankey, Graeme J; Lonn, Eva; Spence, J David; Galan, Pilar; de Groot, Lisette C; Halsey, Jim; Dangour, Alan D; Collins, Rory; Grodstein, Francine

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for Alzheimer disease, but the relevance of homocysteine lowering to slow the rate of cognitive aging is uncertain. Objective: The aim was to assess the effects of treatment with B vitamins compared with placebo, when administered for several years, on composite domains of cognitive function, global cognitive function, and cognitive aging. Design: A meta-analysis was conducted by using data combined from 11 large trials in 22,000 participants. Domain-based z scores (for memory, speed, and executive function and a domain-composite score for global cognitive function) were available before and after treatment (mean duration: 2.3 y) in the 4 cognitive-domain trials (1340 individuals); Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)–type tests were available at the end of treatment (mean duration: 5 y) in the 7 global cognition trials (20,431 individuals). Results: The domain-composite and MMSE-type global cognitive function z scores both decreased with age (mean ± SE: −0.054 ± 0.004 and −0.036 ± 0.001/y, respectively). Allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine concentrations by 28% in the cognitive-domain trials but had no significant effects on the z score differences from baseline for individual domains or for global cognitive function (z score difference: 0.00; 95% CI: −0.05, 0.06). Likewise, allocation to B vitamins lowered homocysteine by 26% in the global cognition trials but also had no significant effect on end-treatment MMSE-type global cognitive function (z score difference: −0.01; 95% CI: −0.03, 0.02). Overall, the effect of a 25% reduction in homocysteine equated to 0.02 y (95% CI: −0.10, 0.13 y) of cognitive aging per year and excluded reductions of >1 mo per year of treatment. Conclusion: Homocysteine lowering by using B vitamins had no significant effect on individual cognitive domains or global cognitive function or on cognitive aging. PMID:24965307

  10. Distribution and Determinants of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Rural Chinese Twins across the Lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelong Ji

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma homocysteine (Hcy is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10–66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome.

  11. Disturbance of copper homeostasis is a mechanism for homocysteine-induced vascular endothelial cell injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoyin Dong

    Full Text Available Elevation of serum homocysteine (Hcy levels is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies suggested that Hcy interferes with copper (Cu metabolism in vascular endothelial cells. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that Hcy-induced disturbance of Cu homeostasis leads to endothelial cell injury. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to concentrations of Hcy at 0.01, 0.1 or 1 mM resulted in a concentration-dependent decrease in cell viability and an increase in necrotic cell death. Pretreatment of the cells with a final concentration of 5 µM Cu in cultures prevented the effects of Hcy. Hcy decreased intracellular Cu concentrations. HPLC-ICP-MS analysis revealed that Hcy caused alterations in the distribution of intracellular Cu; more Cu was redistributed to low molecular weight fractions. ESI-Q-TOF detected the formation of Cu-Hcy complexes. Hcy also decreased the protein levels of Cu chaperone COX17, which was accompanied by a decrease in the activity of cytochrome c oxidase (CCO and a collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. These effects of Hcy were all preventable by Cu pretreatment. The study thus demonstrated that Hcy disturbs Cu homeostasis and limits the availability of Cu to critical molecules such as COX17 and CCO, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and endothelial cell injury.

  12. Methods and results of reconstruction of 131I concentration in milk from total beta-activity measurements in Belarus after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savkin, Mikhail; Shinkarev, Sergey; Titov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    Full text: During the first few weeks following the Chernobyl accident a large scale monitoring of radioactive contamination of foodstuffs locally produced was carried out in the most contaminated areas of Belarus. Due to a lack of spectrometric instruments, radiometric devices (DP-100) were used for beta activity measurements mostly of milk and milk products. Because the intake of 131 I with milk was the main contributor of the thyroid dose for the Belarus population, it is very important to reconstruct levels of 131 I in milk for Belarus settlements. The purpose of the paper is to present the methods and results of assessing the 13I concentration in milk based on historical records of total-beta activity measurements carried out in April-June 1986 in Belarus. The results of reconstruction of the 131 I concentration in milk will be used in on-going epidemiologic studies of a cohort of Belarus children. About 20,000 total-beta activity measurements were used in the analysis; for about 50% of those, the measurement result exceeded the minimum detectable activity. Estimates of 131 I concentration in milk at the date of sampling and of time-integrated milk concentrations were reconstructed for 482 settlements in Gomel Oblast and for 100 settlements in Mogilev Oblast, the most contaminated areas in Belarus, where at least one milk measurement was available. The assessment of the 131 I concentrations in milk involved: 1) An analysis of the calibration coefficients of the detectors for radionuclides available in milk (the main radionuclides were 131 I, 132 4Cs, 137 Cs, 89 Sr, 90 Sr); and 2) An assessment of the relative activity distribution of those radionuclides in milk. Only measurements made before 21 May 1986 were considered to be reliable, as the measurements conducted late May and in June were found to be unreliable because of the decrease in 131 I concentrations and the growing influence of other radionuclides with longer half-lives. Analysis of multiple

  13. Concentration, flux, and the analysis of trends of total and dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride in 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain, Vermont and New York, 1990–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Annual concentration, flux, and yield for total phosphorus, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and chloride for 18 tributaries to Lake Champlain were estimated for 1990 through 2011 using a weighted regression method based on time, tributary streamflows (discharges), and seasonal factors. The weighted regression method generated two series of daily estimates of flux and concentration during the period of record: one based on observed discharges and a second based on a flow-normalization procedure that removes random variation due to year-to-year climate-driven effects. The flownormalized estimate for a given date is similar to an average estimate of concentration or flux that would be made if all of the observed discharges for that date were equally likely to have occurred. The flux bias statistic showed that 68 of the 72 flux regression models were minimally biased. Temporal trends in the concentrations and fluxes were determined by calculating percent changes in flow-normalized annual fluxes for the full period of analysis (1990 through 2010) and for the decades 1990–2000 and 2000–2010. Basinwide, flow-normalized total phosphorus flux decreased by 42 metric tons per year (t/yr) between 1990 and 2010. This net result reflects a basinwide decrease in flux of 21 metric tons (t) between 1990 and 2000, followed by a decrease of 20 t between 2000 and 2010; both results were largely influenced by flux patterns in the large tributaries on the eastern side of the basin. A comparison of results for total phosphorus for the two separate decades of analysis found that more tributaries had decreasing concentrations and flux rates in the second decade than the first. An overall reduction in dissolved phosphorus flux of 0.7 t/yr was seen in the Lake Champlain Basin during the full period of analysis. That very small net change in flux reflects substantial reductions between 1990 and 2000 from eastern tributaries, especially in Otter Creek and the LaPlatte and Winooski

  14. Concentrations of bisphenol A in the composite food samples from the 2008 Canadian total diet study in Quebec City and dietary intake estimates

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, X.-L.; Perez-Locas, C.; Dufresne, G.; Clement, G.; Popovic, S.; Beraldin, F.; Dabeka, R.W.; Feeley, M.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 154 food composite samples from the 2008 total diet study in Quebec City were analysed for bisphenol A (BPA), and BPA was detected in less than half (36%, or 55 samples) of the samples tested. High concentrations of BPA were found mostly in the composite samples containing canned foods, with the highest BPA level being observed in canned fish (106 ng g−1), followed by canned corn (83.7 ng g−1), canned soups (22.2–44.4 ng g−1), canned baked beans (23.5 ng g−1), canned peas (16.8 ng ...

  15. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a new method for rapid determination of total organic and inorganic carbon and biogenic silica concentration in lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosén, Peter; Vogel, Hendrik; Cunningham, Laura

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) to make quantitative measures of total organic carbon (TOC), total inorganic carbon (TIC) and biogenic silica (BSi) concentrations in sediment. FTIRS is a fast and cost-effective technique and only small sediment samples...... varied between r = 0.84-0.99 for TOC, r = 0.85-0.99 for TIC, and r = 0.68-0.94 for BSi. Because FTIR spectra contain information on a large number of both inorganic and organic components, there is great potential for FTIRS to become an important tool in paleolimnology....

  16. Nutriepigenetic regulation by folate-homocysteine-methionine axis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Seema; Tyagi, S C

    2014-02-01

    Although normally folic acid is given during pregnancy, presumably to prevent neural tube defects, the mechanisms of this protection are unknown. More importantly it is unclear whether folic acid has other function during development. It is known that folic acid re-methylates homocysteine (Hcy) to methionine by methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase-dependent pathways. Folic acid also generates high-energy phosphates, behaves as an antioxidant and improves nitric oxide (NO) production by endothelial NO synthase. Interestingly, during epigenetic modification, methylation of DNA/RNA generate homocysteine unequivocally. The enhanced overexpression of methyl transferase lead to increased yield of Hcy. The accumulation of Hcy causes vascular dysfunction, reduces perfusion in the muscles thereby causing musculopathy. Another interesting fact is that children with severe hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHcy) have skeletal deformities, and do not live past teenage. HHcy is also associated with the progeria syndrome. Epilepsy is primarily caused by inhibition of gamma-amino-butyric-acid (GABA) receptor, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the neuronal synapse. Folate deficiency leads to HHcy which then competes with GABA for binding on the GABA receptors. With so many genetic and clinical manifestations associated with folate deficiency, we propose that folate deficiency induces epigenetic alterations in the genes and thereby results in disease.

  17. Determination of free cyanide and total cyanide concentrations in surface and underground waters in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Obiri

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide in water samples in Bogoso and its surrounding areas in Ghana have been measured in this study. Concentrations of free cyanide and total cyanide were found to be above the maximum permissible discharge limit of effluent from mining companies into natural waters set by Environmental Protection Agency, Ghana (GEPA. A comparison of the results obtained in this study with permissible levels set by US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organization reveals that surface waters in the study areas are highly polluted with cyanide and it's not safe for human consumptions. This means that, the resident in and around Bogoso are at risk.

  18. Determination of total concentration of chemically labeled metabolites as a means of metabolome sample normalization and sample loading optimization in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiman; Li, Liang

    2012-12-18

    For mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics, it is important to use the same amount of starting materials from each sample to compare the metabolome changes in two or more comparative samples. Unfortunately, for biological samples, the total amount or concentration of metabolites is difficult to determine. In this work, we report a general approach of determining the total concentration of metabolites based on the use of chemical labeling to attach a UV absorbent to the metabolites to be analyzed, followed by rapid step-gradient liquid chromatography (LC) UV detection of the labeled metabolites. It is shown that quantification of the total labeled analytes in a biological sample facilitates the preparation of an appropriate amount of starting materials for MS anal