WorldWideScience

Sample records for total gravitating mass

  1. Correlation between the Total Gravitating Mass of Groups and Clusters and the Supermassive Black Hole Mass of Brightest Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdán, Ákos; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Volonteri, Marta; Dubois, Yohan

    2018-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (BHs) residing in the brightest cluster galaxies are over-massive relative to the stellar bulge mass or central stellar velocity dispersion of their host galaxies. As BHs residing at the bottom of the galaxy cluster’s potential well may undergo physical processes that are driven by the large-scale characteristics of the galaxy clusters, it is possible that the growth of these BHs is (indirectly) governed by the properties of their host clusters. In this work, we explore the connection between the mass of BHs residing in the brightest group/cluster galaxies (BGGs/BCGs) and the virial temperature, and hence total gravitating mass, of galaxy groups/clusters. To this end, we investigate a sample of 17 BGGs/BCGs with dynamical BH mass measurements and utilize XMM-Newton X-ray observations to measure the virial temperatures and infer the {M}500 mass of the galaxy groups/clusters. We find that the {M}{BH}{--}{kT} relation is significantly tighter and exhibits smaller scatter than the {M}{BH}{--}{M}{bulge} relations. The best-fitting power-law relations are {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ )=0.20+1.74{{log}}10({kT}/1 {keV}) and {{log}}10({M}{BH}/{10}9 {M}ȯ ) = -0.80+1.72{{log}}10({M}{bulge}/{10}11 {M}ȯ ). Thus, the BH mass of BGGs/BCGs may be set by physical processes that are governed by the properties of the host galaxy group/cluster. These results are confronted with the Horizon-AGN simulation, which reproduces the observed relations well, albeit the simulated relations exhibit notably smaller scatter.

  2. Gravitational field mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.

    1986-01-01

    The author's definition for the mass-momentum/angular momentum surrounded by a spacelike 2-surface with S/sup 2/ topology is presented. This definition is motivated by some ideas from twistor theory in relation to linearized gravitational theory. The status of this definition is examined in relation to many examples which have been worked out. The reason for introducing a slight modification of the original definition is also presented

  3. Gravitational Mass, Its Mechanics - What It Is; How It Operates

    OpenAIRE

    Ellman, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The earlier paper, Inertial Mass, Its Mechanics - What It Is; How It Operates, developed the mechanics of inertial mass. The present paper is for the purpose of equivalently developing gravitation. The behavior of gravitation is well known, as described by Newton's Law of Gravitation. But just what gravitational mass is, how gravitational behavior comes about, what in material reality produces the effects of gravitational mass, has been little understood. The only extant hypotheses involve th...

  4. A modified Friedmann equation for a system with varying gravitational mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkavyi, Nick; Vasilkov, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detection of gravitational waves that take away 5 per cent of the total mass of two merging black holes points out on the importance of considering varying gravitational mass of a system. Using an assumption that the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of gravitational waves is not considered as a source of gravitational field, we analyse a perturbation of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric caused by the varying gravitational mass of a system. This perturbation leads to a modified Friedmann equation that contains a term similar to the `cosmological constant'. Theoretical estimates of the effective cosmological constant quantitatively corresponds to observed cosmological acceleration.

  5. Gravitational generation of mass in soliton theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikov, I.R.; Rybakov, Yu.P.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that in the framework of a simple scalar field model, that admits soliton solutions, with gravitational field interactions being specially included, one succeeds in ensuring for a scalar field a correct spacial asymptotics that depends on the system mass. Theory, the quantum relation of a corpuscular-wave dualism is fulfilled for soliton solutions in such a model

  6. Relativistic gravitational potential and its relation to mass-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    From the general theory of relativity a relation is deduced between the mass of a particle and the gravitational field at the position of the particle. For this purpose the fall of a particle of negligible mass in the gravitational field of a massive body is used. After establishing the relativistic potential and its relationship to the rest mass of the particle, we show, assuming conservation of mass-energy, that the difference between two potential-levels depends upon the value of the radial metric coefficient at the position of an observer. Further, it is proved that the relativistic potential is compatible with the general concept of the potential also from the standpoint of kinematics. In the third section it is shown that, although the mass-energy of a body is a function of the distance from it, this does not influence the relativistic potential of the body itself. From this conclusion it follows that the mass-energy of a particle in a gravitational field is anisotropic; isotropic is the mass only. Further, the possibility of an incidental feed-back between two masses is ruled out, and the law of the composition of the relativistic gravitational potentials is deduced. Finally, it is shown, by means of a simple model, that local inhomogeneities in the ideal fluid filling the Universe have negligible influence on the total potential in large regions. (orig.)

  7. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  8. Gravitational mass in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannan, S.

    1986-01-01

    A test for the Hawking definition of mass is given in a Tolman--Bondi model that asymptotically approaches the open Friedmann universe. An expanding universe filled with dustlike matter of zero pressure is considered. The matter distribution is spherically symmetric but nonhomogeneous. With appropriate boundary conditions, the calculation yields a finite and nonzero value for the Hawking mass, measured as a deviation from a ''renormalized'' zero mass in the unperturbed Friedmann model. These boundary conditions are more restrictive than those found for a model with gravitational radiation

  9. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, James [Private address, 3210 Apache Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15241 (United States); Chesley, Steven R., E-mail: jimbaer1@earthlink.net [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  10. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-08-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  11. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, James; Chesley, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    The conventional least-squares asteroid mass determination algorithm allows us to solve for the mass of a large subject asteroid that is perturbing the trajectory of a smaller test asteroid. However, this algorithm is necessarily a first approximation, ignoring the possibility that the subject asteroid may itself be perturbed by the test asteroid, or that the encounter’s precise geometry may be entangled with encounters involving other asteroids. After reviewing the conventional algorithm, we use it to calculate the masses of 30 main-belt asteroids. Compared to our previous results, we find new mass estimates for eight asteroids (11 Parthenope, 27 Euterpe, 51 Neimausa, 76 Freia, 121 Hermione, 324 Bamberga, 476 Hedwig, and 532 Herculina) and significantly more precise estimates for six others (2 Pallas, 3 Juno, 4 Vesta, 9 Metis, 16 Psyche, and 88 Thisbe). However, we also find that the conventional algorithm yields questionable results in several gravitationally coupled cases. To address such cases, we describe a new algorithm that allows the epoch state vectors of the subject asteroids to be included as solve-for parameters, allowing for the simultaneous solution of the masses and epoch state vectors of multiple subject and test asteroids. We then apply this algorithm to the same 30 main-belt asteroids and conclude that mass determinations resulting from current and future high-precision astrometric sources (such as Gaia ) should conduct a thorough search for possible gravitational couplings and account for their effects.

  12. Golden gravitational lensing systems from the Sloan Lens ACS Survey - II. SDSS J1430+4105: a precise inner total mass profile from lensing alone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Bauer, Anne

    2012-12-01

    We study the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey strong-lensing system SDSS J1430+4105 at zl = 0.285. The lensed source (zs = 0.575) of this system has a complex morphology with several subcomponents. Its subcomponents span a radial range from 4 to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. Therefore, we can constrain the slope of the total projected mass profile around the Einstein radius from lensing alone. We measure a density profile that is slightly but not significantly shallower than isothermal at the Einstein radius. We decompose the mass of the lensing galaxy into a de Vaucouleurs component to trace the stars and an additional dark component. The spread of multiple-image components over a large radial range also allows us to determine the amplitude of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components separately. We get a mass-to-light ratio of M de Vauc LB ≈ (5.5±1.5) M⊙L⊙,B and a dark matter fraction within the Einstein radius of ≈20 to 40 per cent. Modelling the star formation history assuming composite stellar populations at solar metallicity to the galaxy's photometry yields a mass-to-light ratio of M, salp LB ≈ 4.0-1.3+0.6 M⊙L⊙,B and M, chab LB ≈ 2.3-0.8+0.3 M⊙L⊙,B for Salpeter and Chabrier initial mass functions, respectively. Hence, the mass-to-light ratio derived from lensing is more Salpeter like, in agreement with results for massive Coma galaxies and other nearby massive early-type galaxies. We examine the consequences of the galaxy group in which the lensing galaxy is embedded, showing that it has little influence on the mass-to-light ratio obtained for the de Vaucouleurs component of the lensing galaxy. Finally, we decompose the projected, azimuthally averaged 2D density distribution of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components of the lensing signal into spherically averaged 3D density profiles. We can show that the 3D dark and luminous matter density within the Einstein radius (REin ≈ 0.6 Reff) of this SLACS galaxy is similar to the

  13. Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tigran Kalaydzhyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP, is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear – current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits −65gravitational mass of relativistic electrons and positrons coming from the absence of the vacuum Cherenkov radiation at the Large Electron–Positron Collider (LEP and stability of photons at the Tevatron collider in presence of the annual variations of the solar gravitational potential. Our result clearly rules out the speculated antigravity. By considering the absolute potential of the Local Supercluster (LS, we also predict the bounds 1−4×10−7

  14. General circular velocity relation of a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential: application to the rotation curves analysis and total mass determination of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, P.; Martínez-García, E. E.; Rosado, M.; Gabbasov, R.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we derive a novel circular velocity relation for a test particle in a 3D gravitational potential applicable to every system of curvilinear coordinates, suitable to be reduced to orthogonal form. As an illustration of the potentiality of the determined circular velocity expression, we perform the rotation curves analysis of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 and we estimate the total and dark matter mass of these two galaxies under the assumption that their respective dark matter haloes have spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions. We employ stellar population synthesis models and the total H I density map to obtain the stellar and H I+He+metals rotation curves of both galaxies. The subtraction of the stellar plus gas rotation curves from the observed rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 generates the dark matter circular velocity curves of both galaxies. We fit the dark matter rotation curves of UGC 8490 and UGC 9753 through the newly established circular velocity formula specialized to the spherical, prolate, and oblate spheroidal mass distributions, considering the Navarro, Frenk, and White, Burkert, Di Cintio, Einasto, and Stadel dark matter haloes. Our principal findings are the following: globally, cored dark matter profiles Burkert and Einasto prevail over cuspy Navarro, Frenk, and White, and Di Cintio. Also, spherical/oblate dark matter models fit better the dark matter rotation curves of both galaxies than prolate dark matter haloes.

  15. Relativistic theory of gravitation and the graviton rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunsov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines a graviton rest mass (m) introduced in the framework of the relativistic theory of gravitation and obtains equations that describe a massive gravitational field. Under the assumption that the entire hidden mass of the matter in the Universe is due to the existence of a massive gravitational field, an upper bound on the rest mass is obtained: m ≤ 0.64 x 10 --65 g

  16. Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.

  17. The Metaphysical and Ontological Symbolism of Total Gravitational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having laid a firm foundation in SPACETIME for a detailed analysis of total gravitational collapse, by linking Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) to the General Theory (GTR) in the context of the Quantum Principle and within the all-embracing framework of GUT (the Grande Unification Theory), we proceed with an ...

  18. Gravitational Microlensing of Earth-mass Planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Kennet Bomann West

    It was only 17 years ago that the first planet outside of our own solar system was detected in the form of 51 Pegasi b. This planet is unlike anything in our own solar system. In fact, this planet was the first representative of a class of planets later known as “hot Jupiters”– gas giants......, i.e. it is much easier to detect high mass planets in close orbits. With these two methods it is hard to detect planets in an exo-solar system with a structure similar to our own solar system; specifically, it is hard to detect Earth-like planets in Earth-like orbits. It is presently unknown how...... common such planets are in our galaxy. There are a few other known methods for detecting exoplanets which have very different bias patterns. This thesis has been divided into two parts, treating two of these other methods. Part I is dedicated to the method of gravitational microlensing, a method...

  19. Gravitational mass of relativistic matter and antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2015-12-01

    The universality of free fall, the weak equivalence principle (WEP), is a cornerstone of the general theory of relativity, the most precise theory of gravity confirmed in all experiments up to date. The WEP states the equivalence of the inertial, m, and gravitational, mg, masses and was tested in numerous occasions with normal matter at relatively low energies. However, there is no confirmation for the matter and antimatter at high energies. For the antimatter the situation is even less clear - current direct observations of trapped antihydrogen suggest the limits - 65 antigravity phenomenon, i.e. repulsion of the antimatter by Earth. Here we demonstrate an indirect bound 0.96 antigravity. By considering the absolute potential of the Local Supercluster (LS), we also predict the bounds 1 - 4 ×10-7

  20. Gravitational mass and Newton's universal gravitational law under relativistic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vayenas, Constantinos G; Grigoriou, Dimitrios; Fokas, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the predictions of Newton's universal gravitational law when using the gravitational, m g , rather than the rest masses, m o , of the attracting particles. According to the equivalence principle, the gravitational mass equals the inertial mass, m i , and the latter which can be directly computed from special relativity, is an increasing function of the Lorentz factor, γ, and thus of the particle velocity. We consider gravitationally bound rotating composite states, and we show that the ratio of the gravitational force for gravitationally bound rotational states to the force corresponding to low (γ ≈ 1) particle velocities is of the order of (m Pl /m o ) 2 where mpi is the Planck mass (ħc/G) 1/2 . We also obtain a similar result, within a factor of two, by employing the derivative of the effective potential of the Schwarzschild geodesics of GR. Finally, we show that for certain macroscopic systems, such as the perihelion precession of planets, the predictions of this relativistic Newtonian gravitational law differ again by only a factor of two from the predictions of GR. (paper)

  1. Mass loss due to gravitational waves with Λ > 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    2017-07-01

    The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the ’60s. Recent findings from the observation of distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well explained by sticking a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Einstein field equations), we generalize this notion of Bondi mass-energy and thereby provide a firm theoretical description of how an isolated gravitating system loses energy as it radiates gravitational waves, in a universe that expands at an accelerated rate. This is in line with the observational front of LIGO’s first announcement in February 2016 that gravitational waves from the merger of a binary black hole system have been detected.

  2. Aerosol mass deposition: the importance of gravitational agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, G.J.; Ketchell, N.; Dunbar, I.H.

    1992-01-01

    Sedimentation, Brownian agglomeration and gravitational agglomeration timescales are mapped out for a set of simple systems. Analysis of these timescales has highlighted when and why gravitational agglomeration becomes the dominant factor determining overall mass deposition rates in hypothetical severe nuclear reactor accidents. This work was funded by the United Kingdom Department of Trade and Industry as part of the General Nuclear Safety Research Programme. (Author)

  3. Probing gravitational parity violation with gravitational waves from stellar-mass black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan

    2018-05-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational-wave events has offered us unique test beds of gravity in the strong and dynamical field regime. One possible modification to General Relativity is the gravitational parity violation that arises naturally from quantum gravity. Such parity violation gives rise to the so-called amplitude birefringence in gravitational waves, in which one of the circularly polarized modes is amplified while the other one is suppressed during their propagation. In this paper, we study how well one can measure gravitational parity violation via the amplitude birefringence effect of gravitational waves sourced by stellar-mass black hole binaries. We choose Chern-Simons gravity as an example and work within an effective field theory formalism to ensure that the approximate theory is well posed. We consider gravitational waves from both individual sources and stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds. Regarding bounds from individual sources, we estimate such bounds using a Fisher analysis and carry out Monte Carlo simulations by randomly distributing sources over their sky location and binary orientation. We find that the bounds on the scalar field evolution in Chern-Simons gravity from the recently discovered gravitational-wave events are too weak to satisfy the weak Chern-Simons approximation, while aLIGO with its design sensitivity can place meaningful bounds. Regarding bounds from stochastic gravitational-wave backgrounds, we set the threshold signal-to-noise ratio for detection of the parity-violation mode as 5 and estimate projected bounds with future detectors assuming that signals are consistent with no parity violation. In an ideal situation in which all the source parameters and binary black hole merger-rate history are known a priori, we find that a network of two third-generation detectors is able to place bounds that are comparable to or slightly stronger than binary pulsar bounds. In a more realistic situation in which one does not have

  4. Multiplet mass splitting in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    An expression for the mass splitting of particles belonging to the same spin multiplet defined in a space-time of general relativity is derived. The geometrical symmetry is a subgroup of SO(r,s), 9 >=r > 3, 5 >=s >=1, the mass operator being proportional to the second order Casimir operator of that subgroup. A brief analysis of the calculated values as compared to the experimental data is included. (Author) [pt

  5. Limits on the Mass and Abundance of Primordial Black Holes from Quasar Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jiménez-Vicente, J.; Calderón-Infante, J. [Departamento de Física Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Muñoz, J. A.; Vives-Arias, H. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2017-02-20

    The idea that dark matter can be made of intermediate-mass primordial black holes (PBHs) in the 10 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 200 M {sub ⊙} range has recently been reconsidered, particularly in the light of the detection of gravitational waves by the LIGO experiment. The existence of even a small fraction of dark matter in black holes should nevertheless result in noticeable quasar gravitational microlensing. Quasar microlensing is sensitive to any type of compact objects in the lens galaxy, to their abundance, and to their mass. We have analyzed optical and X-ray microlensing data from 24 gravitationally lensed quasars to estimate the abundance of compact objects in a very wide range of masses. We conclude that the fraction of mass in black holes or any type of compact objects is negligible outside of the 0.05 M {sub ⊙} ≲ M ≲ 0.45 M {sub ⊙} mass range and that it amounts to 20% ± 5% of the total matter, in agreement with the expected masses and abundances of the stellar component. Consequently, the existence of a significant population of intermediate-mass PBHs appears to be inconsistent with current microlensing observations. Therefore, primordial massive black holes are a very unlikely source of the gravitational radiation detected by LIGO.

  6. The notions of mass in gravitational and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Gianluca

    It is presently thought that the mass of all of the elementary particles is determined by the Higgs field. This scalar field couples directly into the trace of the energy momentum tensor of the elementary particles. The attraction between two or more masses arises from the exchange of gravitational quantum particles of spin 2, called gravitons. The gravitational field couples directly into the energy momentum tensor. Then there is a close connection between the Higgs field, that originates the mass, and the gravitational field that dictates how the masses interact. Our purpose in this thesis is to discuss this close connection in terms of fundamental definitions of inertial and gravitational masses. On a practical level we explore two properties of mass from the viewpoint of coupling into the Higgs field: (i) The coupling of the both the Higgs and gravity to the energy-pressure tensor allows for the decay of the Higgs particle into two gravitons. We use the self energy part of the Higgs propagator to calculate the electromagnetic, weak, fermionic and gravitational decay rate of the Higgs particle. We show that the former process appears to dominate the other decay modes. Since the gravitons are detectable with virtually zero probability, the number of Higgs particles with observable decay products will be much less than previously expected. (ii) Some new experimental results seem to indicate that the mass of the heavy elementary particles like the Z,W+,W- and especially the top quark, depends on the particle environment in which these particles are produced. The presence of a Higgs field due to neighboring particles could be responsible for induced mass shifts. Further measurements of mass shift effects might give an indirect proof of the Higgs particle. Such can be in principle done by re-analyzing some of the production data e +e- → ZZ (or W+W-) already collected at the LEP experiment. About the physical property of the top quark, it is too early to arrive at

  7. Do Gravitational Fields Have Mass? Or on the Nature of Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Kunst, Ernst Karl

    1999-01-01

    As has been shown before (a brief comment will be given in the text), relativistic mass and relativistic time dilation of moving bodies are equivalent as well as time and mass in the rest frame. This implies that the time dilation due to the gravitational field is combined with inertial and gravitational mass as well and permits the computation of the gravitational action of the vacuum constituting the gravitational field in any distance from the source of the field. Theoretical predictions a...

  8. Response functions of free mass gravitational wave antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    The work of Gursel, Linsay, Spero, Saulson, Whitcomb and Weiss (1984) on the response of a free-mass interferometric antenna is extended. Starting from first principles, the earlier work derived the response of a 2-arm gravitational wave antenna to plane polarized gravitational waves. Equivalent formulas (generalized slightly to allow for arbitrary elliptical polarization) are obtained by a simple differencing of the '3-pulse' Doppler response functions of two 1-arm antennas. A '4-pulse' response function is found, with quite complicated angular dependences for arbitrary incident polarization. The differencing method can as readily be used to write exact response functions ('3n+1 pulse') for antennas having multiple passes or more arms.

  9. Asymptotically simple spacetimes and mass loss due to gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    The cosmological constant Λ used to be a freedom in Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR), where one had a proclivity to set it to zero purely for convenience. The signs of Λ or Λ being zero would describe universes with different properties. For instance, the conformal structure of spacetime directly depends on Λ: null infinity ℐ is a spacelike, null, or timelike hypersurface, if Λ > 0, Λ = 0, or Λ 0 in Einstein’s theory of GR. A quantity that depends on the conformal structure of spacetime, especially on the nature of ℐ, is the Bondi mass which in turn dictates the mass loss of an isolated gravitating system due to energy carried away by gravitational waves. This problem of extending the Bondi mass to a universe with Λ > 0 has spawned intense research activity over the past several years. Some aspects include a closer inspection on the conformal properties, working with linearization, attempts using a Hamiltonian formulation based on “linearized” asymptotic symmetries, as well as obtaining the general asymptotic solutions of de Sitter-like spacetimes. We consolidate on the progress thus far from the various approaches that have been undertaken, as well as discuss the current open problems and possible directions in this area.

  10. Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.; Dam, H. van

    1970-01-01

    Massive and mass-less Yang-Mills and gravitational fields are considered. It is found that there is a discrete difference between the zero-mass theories and the very small, but non-zero mass theories. In the case of gravitation, comparison of massive and mass-less theories with experiment, in

  11. Experimental limit on the ratio of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajans, Joel; Wurtele, Jonathan; Charman, Andrew; Zhmoginov, Andrey

    2012-10-01

    Physicists have long wondered if the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. While there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist, i.e., that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. By searching for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap, we have determined that we can reject ratios of the gravitational mass to the inertial mass of antihydrogen greater than about 100 at a statistical significance level of 5%. A similar search places somewhat lower limits on a negative gravitational mass, i.e., on antigravity.

  12. Optimal design of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, to be operated at ultralow temperatures, is under development by several research groups. This paper presents a theory for the optimal design of the new antennas. First, a general sensitivity limit is derived, which may be applied to any linear instrument for which the design figure of merit is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). By replacing the amplifier by its noise resistance and considering the energy dissipated in the noise resistance when a signal is applied, it is possible to show that the optimally filtered SNR is less than or equal to E/sub r//(kT/sub n/), the energy dissipated in the noise resistance divided by Boltzmann's constant times the amplifier noise temperature. This sensitivity limit will be achieved if the instrument is lossless, in which case the energy dissipated in the noise resistance is equal to the energy deposited in the system by the signal. For resonant-mass gravitational wave antennas, if the amplifier is identified as the mechanical amplifier (transducer and electronic amplifier together), then the lossless limit is accessible in practice. A useful point of view is that optimal antenna designs are those that are most loss tolerant: those that achieve the limiting SNR with the lowest possible mechanical Q values. The techniques of network synthesis may be used to design mechanical networks for matching the main antenna mass to the mechanical amplifier that are optimal in this sense. A class of loss-tolerant networks has been synthesized; their properties are summarized in a set of design charts that give the Q requirements and bandwidth as a function of the number of modes, the temperature, and the amplifier noise resistance and noise temperature

  13. Dark Energy and Dark Matter Phenomena and the Universe with Variable Gravitational Mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorkavyi, N.

    2005-12-01

    Generation of high-frequency gravitational waves near the singularity is a crucial factor for understanding the origin and dynamics of the Universe. Emission of gravitational waves increases with a decreasing radius of collapsed object much faster than a gravitational force itself. Gravitationally unstable matter of the Universe will be completely converted into gravitational radiation during the Big Crunch. According to Misner, Thorne & Wheeler (Gravitation, 1977, p.959) plane gravitational waves have not gravitational mass or spacetime is flat everywhere outside the pulse. We can propose that the gravitational mass of the Universe is vanished after converting matter into gravitational waves. This hypothesis in the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation can solve the problem of singularity without contradiction with theorems by Penrose-Hawking; explain the acceleration of our Universe as the effect of a retarded gravitational potential (Gorkavyi, BAAS, 2003, 35, #3) and the low quadrupole in fluctuations in CMB as result of blue-shift effect in a gravitational field. Proposed solution of dark energy problem free from coincidence problems. The hypothesis keeps best parts of Big Bang theory and inflation model without any unknown physical fields or new dimensions. According to this hypothesis a relic sea of high-frequency gravitational radiation in our Universe can be very dense. Interaction of relic gravitational waves with gravitational fields of galaxies and stars can create an additional dynamical effects like pressure of relic radiation that proportional to gravitational potential GM/(Rc2). This effect can be responsible for dark matter phenomena in galaxies and the Pioneer acceleration in the solar system (Gorkavyi, BAAS, 2005, 37, #2).

  14. Search for Gravitational Wave Ringdowns from Perturbed Intermediate Mass Black Holes in LIGO-Virgo Data from 2005-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Blackburn, Lindy L.; Camp, J. B.; Gehrels, N.; Graff, P. B.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency 50 less than or equal to italic f0/Hz less than or equal to 2000 and decay timescale 0.0001 approximately less than t/s approximately less than 0.1 characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant gravitational wave candidate was detected. We report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of IMBHs with total binary mass 50 less than or equal to M/solar mass less than or equal to 450 and component mass ratios of either 1:1 or 4:1. For systems with total mass 100 less than or equal to M/solar mass 150, we report a 90%-confidence upper limit on the rate of binary IMBH mergers with non-spinning and equal mass components of 6:9 x 10(exp 8) Mpc(exp -3)yr(exp -1). We also report a rate upper limit for ringdown waveforms from perturbed IMBHs, radiating 1% of their mass as gravitational waves in the fundamental, l=m=2, oscillation mode, that is nearly three orders of magnitude more stringent than previous results.

  15. Measuring Intermediate-Mass Black-Hole Binaries with Advanced Gravitational Wave Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, John; Pürrer, Michael; Mandel, Ilya

    2015-10-02

    We perform a systematic study to explore the accuracy with which the parameters of intermediate-mass black-hole binary systems can be measured from their gravitational wave (GW) signatures using second-generation GW detectors. We make use of the most recent reduced-order models containing inspiral, merger, and ringdown signals of aligned-spin effective-one-body waveforms to significantly speed up the calculations. We explore the phenomenology of the measurement accuracies for binaries with total masses between 50M(⊙) and 500M(⊙) and mass ratios between 0.1 and 1. We find that (i) at total masses below ∼200M(⊙), where the signal-to-noise ratio is dominated by the inspiral portion of the signal, the chirp mass parameter can be accurately measured; (ii) at higher masses, the information content is dominated by the ringdown, and total mass is measured more accurately; (iii) the mass of the lower-mass companion is poorly estimated, especially at high total mass and more extreme mass ratios; and (iv) spin cannot be accurately measured for our injection set with nonspinning components. Most importantly, we find that for binaries with nonspinning components at all values of the mass ratio in the considered range and at a network signal-to-noise ratio of 15, analyzed with spin-aligned templates, the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole with mass >100M(⊙) can be confirmed with 95% confidence in any binary that includes a component with a mass of 130M(⊙) or greater.

  16. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M.D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.

    2013-01-01

    of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled...

  17. Accurate light-time correction due to a gravitating mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, Neil [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bertotti, Bruno, E-mail: ashby@boulder.nist.go [Dipartimento di Fisica Nucleare e Teorica, Universita di Pavia (Italy)

    2010-07-21

    corresponds just to the second-order terms introduced in the ODP. Gravitational deflection of the image of a far away source when observed from a finite distance from the mass is obtained up to O(m{sup 2}).

  18. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manko, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the vacuum Einstein equations representing the exterior gravitational field of a stationary axisymmetric mass with an arbitrary mass-multipole structure is presented

  19. A Robust Mass Estimator for Dark Matter Subhalo Perturbations in Strong Gravitational Lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minor, Quinn E. [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Kaplinghat, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine CA 92697 (United States); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    A few dark matter substructures have recently been detected in strong gravitational lenses through their perturbations of highly magnified images. We derive a characteristic scale for lensing perturbations and show that they are significantly larger than the perturber’s Einstein radius. We show that the perturber’s projected mass enclosed within this radius, scaled by the log-slope of the host galaxy’s density profile, can be robustly inferred even if the inferred density profile and tidal radius of the perturber are biased. We demonstrate the validity of our analytic derivation using several gravitational lens simulations where the tidal radii and the inner log-slopes of the density profile of the perturbing subhalo are allowed to vary. By modeling these simulated data, we find that our mass estimator, which we call the effective subhalo lensing mass, is accurate to within about 10% or smaller in each case, whereas the inferred total subhalo mass can potentially be biased by nearly an order of magnitude. We therefore recommend that the effective subhalo lensing mass be reported in future lensing reconstructions, as this will allow for a more accurate comparison with the results of dark matter simulations.

  20. Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Misner, Charles W; Wheeler, John Archibald

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein’s general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it “a pedagogic masterpiece,” and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field’s frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level...

  1. Does the Equivalence between Gravitational Mass and Energy Survive for a Quantum Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebed A. G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We show that passive gravitational mass operator of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity does not commute with its energy operator, taken in the absence of the field. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectations values of passive gravitational mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equiva- lence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for station- ary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported and moved in the Earth gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite.

  2. Gravitational radiation in relativistic theory of gravity with a nonzero graviton mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation of gravitation waves have been analysed in the linear approximation of the relative theory of gravity, with the mass of graviton being nonzero. It is shown that the main contribution to the energy loss due to gravitational radiation has been described by the well-known quadrupole formula. Linear approximation applicability conditions have been analysed

  3. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.A.; Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fong, H.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton-Ayers, M.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.A.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, D.M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson-Moore, P.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, D.S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was

  4. Does the Equivalence between Gravitational Mass and Energy Survive for a Composite Quantum Body?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Lebed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We define passive and active gravitational mass operators of the simplest composite quantum body—a hydrogen atom. Although they do not commute with its energy operator, the equivalence between the expectation values of passive and active gravitational masses and energy is shown to survive for stationary quantum states. In our calculations of passive gravitational mass operator, we take into account not only kinetic and Coulomb potential energies but also the so-called relativistic corrections to electron motion in a hydrogen atom. Inequivalence between passive and active gravitational masses and energy at a macroscopic level is demonstrated to reveal itself as time-dependent oscillations of the expectation values of the gravitational masses for superpositions of stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level reveals itself as unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by macroscopic ensemble of hydrogen atoms, moved by small spacecraft with constant velocity in the Earth’s gravitational field. We suggest the corresponding experiment on the Earth’s orbit to detect this radiation, which would be the first direct experiment where quantum effects in general relativity are observed.

  5. Quadrupole mass detector in the field of weak plane gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    Studied is the behaviour of the system which consists of two test particles connected by a string (quadrupole mass detector) and placed in the field of weak plane monochromatic gravitational waves. It is shown that at cross orientation of the detector the gravitational wave effecting such a system excites oscillations in it with the frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave source. The role of the driving force is played by the periodical change with the time of the equilibrium position. The gravitational wave does not influence the detector at its longitudinal orientation

  6. Interplay of gravitation and linear superposition of different mass eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, D.V.

    1998-01-01

    The interplay of gravitation and the quantum-mechanical principle of linear superposition induces a new set of neutrino oscillation phases. These ensure that the flavor-oscillation clocks, inherent in the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations, redshift precisely as required by Einstein close-quote s theory of gravitation. The physical observability of these phases in the context of the solar neutrino anomaly, type-II supernova, and certain atomic systems is briefly discussed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Mass loss due to gravitational waves with $\\Lambda>0$

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, Vee-Liem

    2017-01-01

    The theoretical basis for the energy carried away by gravitational waves that an isolated gravitating system emits was first formulated by Hermann Bondi during the 1960s. Recent findings from looking at distant supernovae revealed that the rate of expansion of our universe is accelerating, which may be well-explained by sticking in a positive cosmological constant into the Einstein field equations for general relativity. By solving the Newman-Penrose equations (which are equivalent to the Ein...

  8. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a charged spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, A.; Manko, V.S.; Denisova, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing the exterior gravitational field of a charged rotating axisymmetric mass possessing an arbitrary set of multipole moments is presented explicitly

  9. Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G.

    2016-01-01

    We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity. (paper)

  10. Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennelly, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of several problems of gravitation are discussed. The question of the existence of black holes is considered. While black holes like those in Einstein's theory may not exist in other gravity theories, trapped surfaces implying such black holes certainly do. The theories include those of Brans-Dicke, Lightman-Lee, Rosen, and Yang. A similar two-tensor theory of Yilmaz is investigated and found inconsistent and nonviable. The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian geometries is adapted to general gravity theories and used to implement a search for twisting solutions of the gravity theories for empty and nonempty spaces. The method can be used to find the gravitational fields for all viable gravity theories. The rotating solutions are of particular importance for strong field interpretation of the Stanford/Marshall gyroscope experiment. Inhomogeneous cosmologies are examined in Einstein's theory as generalizations of homogeneous ones by raising the dimension of the invariance groups by one more parameter. The nine Bianchi classifications are extended to Rosen's theory of gravity for homogeneous cosmological models

  11. The variability of the gravitational constant and the mass-energy conservation in the Dirac cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybak, M.; Krygier, B.; Krempec-Krygier, J.

    1985-01-01

    The Hubble-Sandage diagrams for the Dirac cosmology have been discussed in the case of the modified dependence of luminosity upon the gravitational parameter G and mass. It is shown that the observational data for galaxies and the brightest quasars can be explained by the Dirac cosmology with the reasonably chosen changes of the gravitational parameter and of mass with the time. 41 refs., 2 figs. (author)

  12. Breakdown of the equivalence between gravitational mass and energy for a composite quantum body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebed, Andrei G

    2014-01-01

    The simplest quantum composite body, a hydrogen atom, is considered in the presence of a weak external gravitational field. We define an operator for the passive gravitational mass of the atom in the post-Newtonian approximation of the general relativity and show that it does not commute with its energy operator. Nevertheless, the equivalence between the expectation values of the mass and energy is shown to survive at a macroscopic level for stationary quantum states. Breakdown of the equivalence between passive gravitational mass and energy at a microscopic level for stationary quantum states can be experimentally detected by studying unusual electromagnetic radiation, emitted by the atoms, supported by and moving in the Earth's gravitational field with constant velocity, using spacecraft or satellite

  13. Search for gravitational waves from low mass compact binary coalescence in 186 days of LIGO's fifth science run

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Aso, Y.; Ballmer, S.; Barton, M. A.; Betzwieser, J.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Brooks, A. F.; Cannon, K. C.; Cardenas, L.; Cepeda, C.; Chalermsongsak, T.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a search for gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries, of total mass between 2 and 35M · , using LIGO observations between November 14, 2006 and May 18, 2007. No gravitational-wave signals were detected. We report upper limits on the rate of compact binary coalescence as a function of total mass. The LIGO cumulative 90%-confidence rate upper limits of the binary coalescence of neutron stars, black holes and black hole-neutron star systems are 1.4x10 -2 , 7.3x10 -4 and 3.6x10 -3 yr -1 L 10 -1 , respectively, where L 10 is 10 10 times the blue solar luminosity.

  14. Total evaporation in thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of impurities on the total evaporation method for mass spectrometric measurement of the isotope ratio of uranium. Standard samples were spiked with Na, Ca, Fe, Zr and Ba. The results indicated that only Fe, and possible Na, displayed any interference, and then only at high concentrations. One problem limiting the accuracy of the method is the determination of the relative efficiency of the collectors in the multicollector system. 3 refs., 1 tab

  15. Fake signals caused by heavy-mass motions near a sensitive spherical gravitational wave antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Alberto; Cerdonio, Massimo; Montero, Alvaro

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyse in quantitative detail the effect of a moving mass on a spherical gravitational wave detector. This applies to situations where heavy traffic or similar disturbances occur near the GW antenna. Such disturbances result in quadrupole tidal stresses in the antenna mass, and they therefore precisely fake a real gravitational signal. The study shows that there are always characteristic frequencies, depending on the motion of the external masses, at which the fake signals are most intense. It however appears that, even at those frequencies, fake signals should be orders of magnitude below the sensitivity curve of an optimized detector, in likely realistic situations

  16. CAN THE MASSES OF ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES BE MEASURED BY TERRESTRIAL PARALLAX?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, M.; Botzler, C. S.; Bray, J. C.; Cherrie, J. M.; Rattenbury, N. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Philpott, L. C. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Abe, F.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Christie, G. W.; Natusch, T. [Auckland Observatory, PO Box 180, Royal Oak, Auckland 1345 (New Zealand); Dionnet, Z. [Université d' Orsay, bat 470, F-91400 Orsay (France); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heyrovský, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); McCormick, J. M. [Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Pakuranga, Auckland 2012 (New Zealand); Moorhouse, D. M. [Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu (New Zealand); Skowron, J., E-mail: mfre070@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warszawa (Poland); and others

    2015-02-01

    Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≥10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 M {sub J} and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass.

  17. Detecting free-mass common-mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Kazuaki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation. The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common-mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations. The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth.

  18. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, Jordan B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5(sigma). The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4(+0.7/-0.9) x 10(exp -22). The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2(+8.3/-3.7 Stellar Mass and 7.5(+2.3/-2.3) Stellar Mass, and the final black hole mass is 20.8(+6.1/-1.7) Stellar Mass. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440(+180/-190) Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.090(+.030/-0.04). All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  19. THE MASS OF (4) VESTA DERIVED FROM ITS LARGEST GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmanoski, Mike; Novakovic, Bojan; Apostolovska, Gordana

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a recalculated value of the mass of (4) Vesta, derived from its largest gravitational perturbations on selected asteroids during their mutual close encounters. This was done by using a new method for mass determination, which is based on the linking of pre-encounter observations to the orbit determined from post-encounter ones. The estimated weighted mean of the mass of (4) Vesta is (1.300 ± 0.001) x 10 -10 M sun .

  20. On the generation of magnetostatic solutions from gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, A. [B.K.C. College, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Chaudhuri, S. [University of Burdwan, Department of Physics, Burdwan (India)

    2017-11-15

    In the paper, magnetostatic solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations are generated from the gravitational two-soliton solutions of a stationary mass. Using the soliton technique of Belinskii and Zakharov (Sov Phys JETP 48:985, 1978, Sov Phys JETP 50:1, 1979), we construct diagonal two-soliton solutions of Einstein's gravitational field equations for an axially symmetric stationary space-time and investigate some properties of the generated stationary gravitational metric. Magnetostatic solutions corresponding to the generated stationary gravitational solutions are then constructed using the transformation technique of Das and Chaudhuri (Pramana J Phys 40:277, 1993). The mass and the dipole moment of the source are evaluated. In our analysis we make use of a second transformation (Chaudhuri in Pramana J Phys 58:449, 2002), probably for the first time in the literature, to generate magnetostatic solutions from the stationary gravitational two-soliton solutions which give us simple and straightforward expressions for the mass and the magnetic dipole moment. (orig.)

  1. Comparison of parametric instabilities for different test mass materials in advanced gravitational wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, L.; Zhao, C.; Gras, S.; Degallaix, J.; Blair, D.G.; Munch, J.; Reitze, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Following the recognition that parametric instabilities can significantly compromise the performance of advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, we compare the performance of three different test mass configurations: all fused silica test masses, all sapphire test masses and fused silica inboard test masses with sapphire end test masses. We show that the configuration with sapphire end test masses offers the opportunity for thermal tuning on a time scale comparable to the ring up time of oscillatory instabilities. This approach may enable significant reduction of parametric gain

  2. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted

  3. Relativistic Mechanics in Gravitational Fields Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous Mass Distributions within Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available General Relativistic metric tensors for gravitational fields exterior to homogeneous spherical mass distributions rotating with constant angular velocity about a fixed di- ameter are constructed. The coeffcients of affine connection for the gravitational field are used to derive equations of motion for test particles. The laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum are deduced using the generalized Lagrangian. The law of conservation of angular momentum is found to be equal to that in Schwarzschild’s gravitational field. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion for a photon in the vicinity of the rotating spherical mass distribution have rotational terms not found in Schwarzschild’s field.

  4. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha Collaboration; Amole, C.; Ashkezari, M. D.; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J. S.; Hardy, W. N.; Hayden, M. E.; Isaac, C. A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J. T. K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S. C.; Nolan, P.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C. Ø.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D. M.; So, C.; Thompson, R. I.; van der Werf, D. P.; Wurtele, J. S.; Zhmoginov, A. I.; Charman, A. E.

    2013-04-01

    Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5% worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regime.

  5. Description and first application of a new technique to measure the gravitational mass of antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Charman, A E; Menary, S; Capra, A; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Fajans, J; Ashkezari, M D; Bertsche, W; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Eriksson, S; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Thompson, R I; Van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Zhmoginov, A I

    2013-01-01

    Physicists have long wondered whether the gravitational interactions between matter and antimatter might be different from those between matter and itself. Although there are many indirect indications that no such differences exist and that the weak equivalence principle holds, there have been no direct, free-fall style, experimental tests of gravity on antimatter. Here we describe a novel direct test methodology; we search for a propensity for antihydrogen atoms to fall downward when released from the ALPHA antihydrogen trap. In the absence of systematic errors, we can reject ratios of the gravitational to inertial mass of antihydrogen >75 at a statistical significance level of 5%; worst-case systematic errors increase the minimum rejection ratio to 110. A similar search places somewhat tighter bounds on a negative gravitational mass, that is, on antigravity. This methodology, coupled with ongoing experimental improvements, should allow us to bound the ratio within the more interesting near equivalence regim...

  6. Neutron-star mass limit in the bimetric theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caporaso, G.; Brecher, K.

    1977-01-01

    The ''neutron''-star upper mass limit is examined in Rosen's bimetric theory of gravitation. An exact solution, approximate scaling law, and numerical integration of the hydrostatic equilibrium equation show the dependence of the mass limit on the assumed equation of state. As in general relativity, that limit varies roughly as 1/√rho 0 , where rho 0 is the density above which the equation of state becomes ''stiff.'' Unlike general relativity, the stiffer the equation of state, the higher the mass limit. For rho 0 = 2 x 10 14 g/cm 3 and P = (rho - rho 0 ) c 2 , we found M/sub max/ = 81M/sub sun/. This mass is consistent with causality and experimental tests of gravitation and nuclear physics. For dp/drho > c 2 it appears that the upper mass limit can become arbitrarily large

  7. Consistency of the Mach principle and the gravitational-to-inertial mass equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granada, Kh.K.; Chubykalo, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Kinematics of the system, composed of two bodies, interacting with each other according to inverse-square law, was investigated. It is shown that the Mach principle, earlier rejected by the general relativity theory, can be used as an alternative for the absolute space concept, if it is proposed, that distant star background dictates both inertial and gravitational mass of a body

  8. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R. X.; Anderson, S. B.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barish, B. C.; Berger, B. K.; Billingsley, G.; Blackburn, J. K.; Bork, R.; Brooks, A. F.; Brunett, S.; Cahillane, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a signifi...

  9. A recalculation of the gravitational mass difference between the K0 and anti K0 mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1990-01-01

    The method first applied by Good to determine the gravitational mass difference ΔM g between the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons is repeated using recent measurements of the parameters of neutral K meson decays and of the location and mass of the supergalactic centre. The ratio ΔM g /M≤2x10 -13 , which constitutes one of the severest tests of the weak equivalence principle. (orig.)

  10. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    CERN Document Server

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between th...

  11. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, H.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magaña Zertuche, L.; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Hemberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; VIRGO Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5 σ . The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3. 4-0.9+0.7×10-22 . The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2-3.7+8.3 M⊙ and 7. 5-2.3+2.3 M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 20.8-1.7+6.1 M⊙. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 44 0-190+180 Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.0 9-0.04+0.03. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  12. Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.

  13. On the equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass of extended bodies in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that in any metric theory of gravitation passessing conservation laws for energy-momentum of the substance and gravitational field taken together, the motion of centre of extended body mass occurs not according to the geodesic Riemann space-time. The centre of mass of the extended body during its motion about the orbit makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic. Application of obtained general formulas to the Sun-Earth system and the use of experimental results on the Moon location with the regard of other experiments has shown with high accuracy of 10 -10 that the relation of gravitational passive Earth mass to its inert mass does not equal to 1 differing from it about 10 -8 . The Earth at its orbital motion makes a vibrational movement in relation to supporting geodesic with a period of 1 hour and amplitude not less than 10 -2 sm. the deviation of the Earth mass center motion from geodesic movement can be found in a corresponding experiment having a postnewton accuracy degree

  14. Mass Distribution and Gravitational Potential of the Milky Way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Slobodan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Models of mass distribution in the Milky Way are discussed where those yielding the potential analytically are preferred. It is noted that there are three main contributors to the Milky Way potential: bulge, disc and dark halo. In the case of the disc the Miyamoto-Nagai formula, as simple enough, has shown as a very good solution, but it has not been able to satisfy all requirements. Therefore, improvements, such as adding new terms or combining several Miyamoto-Nagai terms, have been attempted. Unlike the disc, in studying the bulge and dark halo the flattening is usually neglected, which offers the possibility of obtaining an exact solution of the Poisson equation. It is emphasized that the Hernquist formula, used very often for the bulge potential, is a special case of another formula and the properties of that formula are analysed. In the case of the dark halo, the slopes of its cumulative mass for the inner and outer parts are explained through a new formalism presented here for the first time.

  15. Charge measurement and mitigation for the main test masses of the GEO 600 gravitational wave observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitson, M; Danzmann, K; Grote, H; Hild, S; Hough, J; Lueck, H; Rowan, S; Smith, J R; Strain, K A; Willke, B

    2007-01-01

    Spurious charging of the test masses in gravitational wave interferometers is a well-known problem. Typically, concern arises due to the possibility of increased thermal noise due to a lowering of the quality factor of modes of the test-mass suspension, or due to the potential for increased displacement noise arising from charge migration on the surface of the test masses. Recent experience gained at the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector has highlighted an additional problem. GEO 600 uses electrostatic actuators to control the longitudinal position of the main test masses. The presence of charge on the test masses is shown to strongly affect the performance of the electrostatic actuators. This paper reports on a measurement scheme whereby the charge state of the GEO 600 test masses can be measured using the electrostatic actuators. The resulting measurements are expressed in terms of an effective bias voltage on the electrostatic actuators. We also describe attempts to remove the charge from the test masses and we show that the use of UV illumination was the most successful. Using UV illumination we were able to discharge and re-charge the test masses

  16. Gravitational wave generated by mass ejection in protoneutron star neutrino burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, L. G.; Rodrigues, H.; Portes, D. JR.; Duarte, S. B.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we discuss the mechanism of mass ejection in protoneutron stars induced by diffusion of neutrinos. A dynamical calculation is employed in order to determine the amount of matter ejected and the properties of the remnant compact object [1]. The equations of state of this supra-nuclear regime [2] is properly linked with others describing the different sub-nuclear regimes of density [3, 4, 5]. For specified initial configurations of the protoneutron star, we solve numerically the set of equations of motion together with a schematic treatment of the neutrino transport through the dense stellar medium. We investigate the gravitational waves production accompanying the mass ejection induced by the neutrino burst. It is estimated the gravitational wave intensity and the detection of such wave by the existing detector or near future project for this purpose is discussed.

  17. Hangup effect in unequal mass binary black hole mergers and further studies of their gravitational radiation and remnant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.

  18. Gravitational-wave localization alone can probe origin of stellar-mass black hole mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Haiman, Z; Marka, Z; Metzger, B D; Stone, N C; Marka, S

    2017-10-10

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves from stellar-mass binary black hole mergers by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory opened the door to alternative probes of stellar and galactic evolution, cosmology and fundamental physics. Probing the origin of binary black hole mergers will be difficult due to the expected lack of electromagnetic emission and limited localization accuracy. Associations with rare host galaxy types-such as active galactic nuclei-can nevertheless be identified statistically through spatial correlation. Here we establish the feasibility of statistically proving the connection between binary black hole mergers and active galactic nuclei as hosts, even if only a sub-population of mergers originate from active galactic nuclei. Our results are the demonstration that the limited localization of gravitational waves, previously written off as not useful to distinguish progenitor channels, can in fact contribute key information, broadening the range of astrophysical questions probed by binary black hole observations.Binary black hole mergers have recently been observed through the detection of gravitational wave signatures. The authors demonstrate that their association with active galactic nuclei can be made through a statistical spatial correlation.

  19. GW151226: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a 22-Solar-Mass Binary Black Hole Coalescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fenyvesi, E; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Geng, P; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hamilton, H; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jian, L; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, N; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Lewis, J B; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magaña Zertuche, L; Magee, R M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O E S; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J; Boyle, M; Hemberger, D; Kidder, L E; Lovelace, G; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S

    2016-06-17

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a significance greater than 5σ. The signal persisted in the LIGO frequency band for approximately 1 s, increasing in frequency and amplitude over about 55 cycles from 35 to 450 Hz, and reached a peak gravitational strain of 3.4_{-0.9}^{+0.7}×10^{-22}. The inferred source-frame initial black hole masses are 14.2_{-3.7}^{+8.3}M_{⊙} and 7.5_{-2.3}^{+2.3}M_{⊙}, and the final black hole mass is 20.8_{-1.7}^{+6.1}M_{⊙}. We find that at least one of the component black holes has spin greater than 0.2. This source is located at a luminosity distance of 440_{-190}^{+180}  Mpc corresponding to a redshift of 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03}. All uncertainties define a 90% credible interval. This second gravitational-wave observation provides improved constraints on stellar populations and on deviations from general relativity.

  20. Installation with magnetic suspension of test bodies for measurement of small forces. Verification of equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalebin, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Torsion installation with magnetic suspension of test bodies for detection of small forces is considered. Installation application for verification of equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass in the case of test body incidence on the Earth (Etvesh experiment) and in the case of their incidene on the Sun (Dicke experiment) is discussed. The total mass of test bodies, produced in the form of cylinders with 3 cm radius, equals 50 kg (one lead body and one copper body); beam radius of test bodies equals 3 cm (the cylinders are tight against one another); ferrite cylinder with 3 cm radius and 10 cm height is used for their suspension in magnetic field. Effect of thermal noise and electromagnetic force disturbances on measurement results is considered. Conducted calculations show that suggested installation enables to improve the accuracy of verifying mentioned equivalence at least by one order and upwards. This suggests that such installation is a matter of interest for experiments on small force detection

  1. Orthogonal ribbons for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D.G.

    2005-01-01

    We show that a simple modification of proposed ribbon suspensions for laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors can substantially reduce the amplitude of violin modes at the expense of a small deterioration of suspension thermal noise. Using low loss fused silica, large amplitude peaks which cause dynamic range problems can be reduced by 21 dB. The total number of horizontal longitudinal direction violin modes below 5 kHz is reduced to less than half that expected with conventional ribbon suspensions

  2. Orthogonal ribbons for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)]. E-mail: bhl@physics.uwa.edu.au; Ju, L. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia); Blair, D.G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2005-05-23

    We show that a simple modification of proposed ribbon suspensions for laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors can substantially reduce the amplitude of violin modes at the expense of a small deterioration of suspension thermal noise. Using low loss fused silica, large amplitude peaks which cause dynamic range problems can be reduced by 21 dB. The total number of horizontal longitudinal direction violin modes below 5 kHz is reduced to less than half that expected with conventional ribbon suspensions.

  3. Measuring test mass acceleration noise in space-based gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    The basic constituent of interferometric gravitational wave detectors—the test-mass-to-test-mass interferometric link—behaves as a differential dynamometer measuring effective differential forces, comprising an integrated measure of gravity curvature, inertial effects, as well as nongravitational spurious forces. This last contribution is going to be characterized by the LISA Pathfinder mission, a technology precursor of future space-borne detectors like eLISA. Changing the perspective from displacement to acceleration can benefit the data analysis of LISA Pathfinder and future detectors. The response in differential acceleration to gravitational waves is derived for a space-based detector's interferometric link. The acceleration formalism can also be integrated into time delay interferometry by building up the unequal-arm Michelson differential acceleration combination. The differential acceleration is nominally insensitive to the system's free evolution dominating the slow displacement dynamics of low-frequency detectors. Working with acceleration also provides an effective way to subtract measured signals acting as systematics, including the actuation forces. Because of the strong similarity with the equations of motion, the optimal subtraction of systematic signals, known within some amplitude and time shift, with the focus on measuring the noise provides an effective way to solve the problem and marginalize over nuisance parameters. The F statistic, in widespread use throughout the gravitation waves community, is included in the method and suitably generalized to marginalize over linear parameters and noise at the same time. The method is applied to LPF simulator data and, thanks to its generality, can also be applied to the data reduction and analysis of future gravitational wave detectors.

  4. Equation of Motion of a Mass Point in Gravitational Field and Classical Tests of Gauge Theory of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Ning; Zhang Dahua

    2007-01-01

    A systematic method is developed to study the classical motion of a mass point in gravitational gauge field. First, by using Mathematica, a spherical symmetric solution of the field equation of gravitational gauge field is obtained, which is just the traditional Schwarzschild solution. Combining the principle of gauge covariance and Newton's second law of motion, the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field is deduced. Based on the spherical symmetric solution of the field equation and the equation of motion of a mass point in gravitational field, we can discuss classical tests of gauge theory of gravity, including the deflection of light by the sun, the precession of the perihelia of the orbits of the inner planets and the time delay of radar echoes passing the sun. It is found that the theoretical predictions of these classical tests given by gauge theory of gravity are completely the same as those given by general relativity.

  5. Stellar mass black holes in star clusters: gravitational wave emission and detection rates

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of stellar-mass black holes (BH) in star clusters focusing on the dynamical formation of BH-BH binaries, which are very important sources of gravitational waves (GW). We examine the properties of these BH-BH binaries through direct N-body computations of Plummer clusters, having initially N(0) = 5 X 10^4, typically a few of them dynamically harden to the extent that they can merge via GW emission within the cluster. Also, for each of such clusters, there are a few ...

  6. Imprint of accretion disk-induced migration on gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-10-21

    We study the effects of a thin gaseous accretion disk on the inspiral of a stellar-mass black hole into a supermassive black hole. We construct a phenomenological angular momentum transport equation that reproduces known disk effects. Disk torques modify the gravitational wave phase evolution to detectable levels with LISA for reasonable disk parameters. The Fourier transform of disk-modified waveforms acquires a correction with a different frequency trend than post-Newtonian vacuum terms. Such inspirals could be used to detect accretion disks with LISA and to probe their physical parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society

  7. Event Rates of Gravitational Waves from merging Intermediate mass Black Holes: based on a Runaway Path to a SMBH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai, Hisaaki

    2018-01-01

    Based on a dynamical formation model of a supermassive black hole (SMBH), we estimate the expected observational profile of gravitational wave at ground-based detectors, such as KAGRA or advanced LIGO/VIRGO. Noting that the second generation of detectors have enough sensitivity from 10 Hz and up, we are able to detect the ring-down gravitational wave of a BH with the mass M 1 per year for ρ = 10. Thus, if we observe a BH with more than 100M⊙ in future gravitational-wave observations, our model naturally explains its source.

  8. Relativistic gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter

  9. Search for gravitational wave ringdowns from perturbed intermediate mass black holes in LIGO-Virgo data from 2005-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Aasi, J.; Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O.

    2014-01-01

    We report results from a search for gravitational waves produced by perturbed intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in data collected by LIGO and Virgo between 2005 and 2010. The search was sensitive to astrophysical sources that produced damped sinusoid gravitational wave signals, also known as ringdowns, with frequency $50\\le f_{0}/\\mathrm{Hz} \\le 2000$ and decay timescale $0.0001\\lesssim \\tau/\\mathrm{s} \\lesssim 0.1$ characteristic of those produced in mergers of IMBH pairs. No significant ...

  10. Gravitational microlensing by low-mass objects in the globular cluster M22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, K C; Casertano, S; Livio, M; Gilliland, R L; Panagia, N; Albrow, M D; Potter, M

    2001-06-28

    Gravitational microlensing offers a means of determining directly the masses of objects ranging from planets to stars, provided that the distances and motions of the lenses and sources can be determined. A globular cluster observed against the dense stellar field of the Galactic bulge presents ideal conditions for such observations because the probability of lensing is high and the distances and kinematics of the lenses and sources are well constrained. The abundance of low-mass objects in a globular cluster is of particular interest, because it may be representative of the very early stages of star formation in the Universe, and therefore indicative of the amount of dark baryonic matter in such clusters. Here we report a microlensing event associated with the globular cluster M22. We determine the mass of the lens to be 0.13(+0.03)(-0.02) solar masses. We have also detected six events that are unresolved in time. If these are also microlensing events, they imply that a non-negligible fraction of the cluster mass resides in the form of free-floating planetary-mass objects.

  11. New template family for the detection of gravitational waves from comparable-mass black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, Edward K.

    2007-01-01

    In order to improve the phasing of the comparable-mass waveform as we approach the last stable orbit for a system, various resummation methods have been used to improve the standard post-Newtonian waveforms. In this work we present a new family of templates for the detection of gravitational waves from the inspiral of two comparable-mass black hole binaries. These new adiabatic templates are based on reexpressing the derivative of the binding energy and the gravitational wave flux functions in terms of shifted Chebyshev polynomials. The Chebyshev polynomials are a useful tool in numerical methods as they display the fastest convergence of any of the orthogonal polynomials. In this case they are also particularly useful as they eliminate one of the features that plagues the post-Newtonian expansion. The Chebyshev binding energy now has information at all post-Newtonian orders, compared to the post-Newtonian templates which only have information at full integer orders. In this work, we compare both the post-Newtonian and Chebyshev templates against a fiducially exact waveform. This waveform is constructed from a hybrid method of using the test-mass results combined with the mass dependent parts of the post-Newtonian expansions for the binding energy and flux functions. Our results show that the Chebyshev templates achieve extremely high fitting factors at all post-Newtonian orders and provide excellent parameter extraction. We also show that this new template family has a faster Cauchy convergence, gives a better prediction of the position of the last stable orbit and in general recovers higher Signal-to-Noise ratios than the post-Newtonian templates

  12. Testing effective quantum gravity with gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunes, N; Sopuerta, C F

    2010-01-01

    Testing deviation of GR is one of the main goals of the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna. For the first time, we consistently compute the generation of gravitational waves from extreme-mass ratio inspirals (stellar compact objects into supermassive black holes) in a well-motivated alternative theory of gravity, that to date remains weakly constrained by double binary pulsar observations. The theory we concentrate on is Chern-Simons (CS) modified gravity, a 4-D, effective theory that is motivated both from string theory and loop-quantum gravity, and which enhances the Einstein-Hilbert action through the addition of a dynamical scalar field and the parity-violating Pontryagin density. We show that although point particles continue to follow geodesics in the modified theory, the background about which they inspiral is a modification to the Kerr metric, which imprints a CS correction on the gravitational waves emitted. CS modified gravitational waves are sufficiently different from the General Relativistic expectation that they lead to significant dephasing after 3 weeks of evolution, but such dephasing will probably not prevent detection of these signals, but instead lead to a systematic error in the determination of parameters. We end with a study of radiation-reaction in the modified theory and show that, to leading-order, energy-momentum emission is not CS modified, except possibly for the subdominant effect of scalar-field emission. The inclusion of radiation-reaction will allow for tests of CS modified gravity with space-borne detectors that might be two orders of magnitude larger than current binary pulsar bounds.

  13. Gravitational lens recovery with GLASS: measuring the mass profile and shape of a lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Jonathan P.; Read, Justin I.; Saha, Prasenjit

    2014-12-01

    We use a new non-parametric gravitational modelling tool - GLASS - to determine what quality of data (strong lensing, stellar kinematics, and/or stellar masses) are required to measure the circularly averaged mass profile of a lens and its shape. GLASS uses an underconstrained adaptive grid of mass pixels to model the lens, searching through thousands of models to marginalize over model uncertainties. Our key findings are as follows: (i) for pure lens data, multiple sources with wide redshift separation give the strongest constraints as this breaks the well-known mass-sheet or steepness degeneracy; (ii) a single quad with time delays also performs well, giving a good recovery of both the mass profile and its shape; (iii) stellar masses - for lenses where the stars dominate the central potential - can also break the steepness degeneracy, giving a recovery for doubles almost as good as having a quad with time-delay data, or multiple source redshifts; (iv) stellar kinematics provide a robust measure of the mass at the half-light radius of the stars r1/2 that can also break the steepness degeneracy if the Einstein radius rE ≠ r1/2; and (v) if rE ˜ r1/2, then stellar kinematic data can be used to probe the stellar velocity anisotropy β - an interesting quantity in its own right. Where information on the mass distribution from lensing and/or other probes becomes redundant, this opens up the possibility of using strong lensing to constrain cosmological models.

  14. MASS TRANSPORT AND TURBULENCE IN GRAVITATIONALLY UNSTABLE DISK GALAXIES. II. THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldbaum, Nathan J. [National Center for Supercomputing Applications, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1205 W. Clark St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Krumholz, Mark R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Forbes, John C., E-mail: ngoldbau@illinois.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Self-gravity and stellar feedback are capable of driving turbulence and transporting mass and angular momentum in disk galaxies, but the balance between them is not well understood. In the previous paper in this series, we showed that gravity alone can drive turbulence in galactic disks, regulate their Toomre Q parameters to ∼1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to fuel star formation in the centers of present-day galaxies. In this paper we extend our models to include the effects of star formation feedback. We show that feedback suppresses galaxies’ star formation rates by a factor of ∼5 and leads to the formation of a multi-phase atomic and molecular interstellar medium. Both the star formation rate and the phase balance produced in our simulations agree well with observations of nearby spirals. After our galaxies reach steady state, we find that the inclusion of feedback actually lowers the gas velocity dispersion slightly compared to the case of pure self-gravity, and also slightly reduces the rate of inward mass transport. Nevertheless, we find that, even with feedback included, our galactic disks self-regulate to Q ∼ 1, and transport mass inwards at a rate sufficient to supply a substantial fraction of the inner disk star formation. We argue that gravitational instability is therefore likely to be the dominant source of turbulence and transport in galactic disks, and that it is responsible for fueling star formation in the inner parts of galactic disks over cosmological times.

  15. Low-mass neutron stars: universal relations, the nuclear symmetry energy and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Silva, Hector; Berti, Emanuele; Sotani, Hajime

    2016-03-01

    Compact objects such as neutron stars are ideal astrophysical laboratories to test our understanding of the fundamental interactions in the regime of supranuclear densities, unachievable by terrestrial experiments. Despite recent progress, the description of matter (i.e., the equation of state) at such densities is still debatable. This translates into uncertainties in the bulk properties of neutron stars, masses and radii for instance. Here we will consider low-mass neutron stars. Such stars are expected to carry important information on nuclear matter near the nuclear saturation point. It has recently been shown that the masses and surface redshifts of low-mass neutron stars smoothly depend on simple functions of the central density and of a characteristic parameter η associated with the choice of equation of state. Here we extend these results to slowly-rotating and tidally deformed stars and obtain empirical relations for various quantities, such as the moment of inertia, quadrupole moment and ellipticity, tidal and rotational Love numbers, and rotational apsidal constants. We discuss how these relations might be used to constrain the equation of state by future observations in the electromagnetic and gravitational-wave spectra.

  16. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter

  17. Bursts of gravitational radiation from superconducting cosmic strings and the neutrino mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Cuesta, Herman J.

    2001-02-01

    Berezinsky, Hnatyk and Vilenkin showed that superconducting cosmic strings could be central engines for cosmological gamma-ray bursts and for producing the neutrino component of ultra-high energy cosmic rays. A consequence of this mechanism would be that a detectable cusp-triggered gravitational wave burst should be release simultaneously with the γ-ray surge. If contemporary measurements of both γ and ν radiation could be made for any particular source, then the cosmological time-delay between them might be useful for putting unprecedently tight bounds on the neutrino mass spectrum. Such measurements could consistently verify or rule out the model since strictly correlated behaviour is expected for the duration of the event and for the time variability of the spectra. (author)

  18. Probabilities for gravitational lensing by point masses in a locally inhomogeneous universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, J.A.; Canizares, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    Probability functions for gravitational lensing by point masses that incorporate Poisson statistics and flux conservation are formulated in the Dyer-Roeder construction. Optical depths to lensing for distant sources are calculated using both the method of Press and Gunn (1973) which counts lenses in an otherwise empty cone, and the method of Ehlers and Schneider (1986) which projects lensing cross sections onto the source sphere. These are then used as parameters of the probability density for lensing in the case of a critical (q0 = 1/2) Friedmann universe. A comparison of the probability functions indicates that the effects of angle-averaging can be well approximated by adjusting the average magnification along a random line of sight so as to conserve flux. 17 references

  19. Astrophysically Satisfactory Solutions to Einstein's R-33 Gravitational Field Equations Exterior/Interior to Static Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formulate solutions to Einstein's geometrical field equations derived using our new approach. Our field equations exterior and interior to the mass distribution have only one unknown function determined by the mass or pressure distribution. Our obtained solutions yield the unknown function as generalizations of Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Thus, our solution puts Einstein's geometrical theory of gravity on same footing with Newton's dynamical theory; with the dependence of the field on one and only one unknown function comparable to Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Our results in this article are of much significance as the Sun and planets in the solar system are known to be more precisely oblate spheroidal in geometry. The oblate spheroidal geometries of these bodies have effects on their gravitational fields and the motions of test particles and photons in these fields.

  20. On the photo-gravitational restricted four-body problem with variable mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Amit; Agarwal, Rajiv; Suraj, Md Sanam; Arora, Monika

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with the photo-gravitational restricted four-body problem (PR4BP) with variable mass. Following the procedure given by Gascheau (C. R. 16:393-394, 1843) and Routh (Proc. Lond. Math. Soc. 6:86-97, 1875), the conditions of linear stability of Lagrange triangle solution in the PR4BP are determined. The three radiating primaries having masses m1, m2 and m3 in an equilateral triangle with m2=m3 will be stable as long as they satisfy the linear stability condition of the Lagrangian triangle solution. We have derived the equations of motion of the mentioned problem and observed that there exist eight libration points for a fixed value of parameters γ (m at time t/m at initial time, 0Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1928), 0≤α≤2.2), the mass parameter μ=0.005 and radiation parameters qi, (0< qi≤1, i=1, 2, 3). All the libration points are non-collinear if q2≠ q3. It has been observed that the collinear and out-of-plane libration points also exist for q2=q3. In all the cases, each libration point is found to be unstable. Further, zero velocity curves (ZVCs) and Newton-Raphson basins of attraction are also discussed.

  1. GW151226: observation of gravitational waves from a 22-solar-mass binary black hole \\ud coalescence

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the observation of a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar-mass black holes. The signal, GW151226, was observed by the twin detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) on December 26, 2015 at 03:38:53 UTC. The signal was initially identified within 70 s by an online matched-filter search targeting binary coalescences. Subsequent off-line analyses recovered GW151226 with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a signifi...

  2. Gravitational Waves and Intermediate-mass Black Hole Retention in Globular Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Ginsburg, Idan; Kocsis, Bence

    2018-04-01

    The recent discovery of gravitational waves (GWs) has opened new horizons for physics. Current and upcoming missions, such as LIGO, VIRGO, KAGRA, and LISA, promise to shed light on black holes of every size from stellar mass (SBH) sizes up to supermassive black holes. The intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) family has not been detected beyond any reasonable doubt. Recent analyses suggest observational evidence for the presence of IMBHs in the centers of two Galactic globular clusters (GCs). In this paper, we investigate the possibility that GCs were born with a central IMBH, which undergoes repeated merger events with SBHs in the cluster core. By means of a semi-analytical method, we follow the evolution of the primordial cluster population in the galactic potential and the mergers of the binary IMBH-SBH systems. Our models predict ≈1000 IMBHs within 1 kpc from the galactic center and show that the IMBH-SBH merger rate density changes from { \\mathcal R }≈ 1000 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 beyond z ≈ 2 to { \\mathcal R }≈ 1{--}10 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 at z ≈ 0. The rates at low redshifts may be significantly higher if young massive star clusters host IMBHs. The merger rates are dominated by IMBHs with masses between 103 and 104 M ⊙. Currently, there are no LIGO/VIRGO upper limits for GW sources in this mass range, but our results show that at design sensitivity, these instruments will detect IMBH-SBH mergers in the coming years. LISA and the Einstein Telescope will be best suited to detect these events. The inspirals of IMBH-SBH systems may also generate an unresolved GW background.

  3. Optical-Gravitation Nonlinearity: A Change of Gravitational Coefficient G induced by Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.

  4. A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan

    1992-01-01

    We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.

  5. The gravitational wave contribution to cosmic microwave background anisotropies and the amplitude of mass fluctuations from COBE results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchin, Francesco; Matarrese, Sabino; Mollerach, Silvia

    1992-01-01

    A stochastic background of primordial gravitational waves may substantially contribute, via the Sachs-Wolfe effect, to the large-scale cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies recently detected by COBE. This implies a bias in any resulting determination of the primordial amplitude of density fluctuations. We consider the constraints imposed on n is less than 1 ('tilted') power-law fluctuation spectra, taking into account the contribution from both scalar and tensor waves, as predicted by power-law inflation. The gravitational wave contribution to CMB anisotropies generally reduces the required rms level of mass fluctuation, thereby increasing the linear bias parameter, even in models where the spectral index is close to the Harrison-Zel'dovich value n = 1. This 'gravitational wave bias' helps to reconcile the predictions of CDM models with observations on pairwise galaxy velocity dispersion on small scales.

  6. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter

  7. Novel Remarks on Point Mass Sources, Firewalls, Null Singularities and Gravitational Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Carlos Castro

    2016-01-01

    A continuous family of static spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's vacuum field equations with a spatial singularity at the origin r = 0 is found. These solutions are parametrized by a real valued parameter λ (ranging from 0 to 1) and such that the radial horizon's location is displaced continuously towards the singularity ( r = 0 ) as λ increases. In the extreme limit λ = 1, the location of the singularity and horizon merges leading to a null singularity. In this extreme case, any infalling observer hits the null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. An heuristic argument is provided how one might avoid the Hawking particle emission process in this extreme case when the singularity and horizon merges. The field equations due to a delta-function point-mass source at r = 0 are solved and the Euclidean gravitational action corresponding to those solutions is evaluated explicitly. It is found that the Euclidean action is precisely equal to the black hole entropy (in Planck area units). This result holds in any dimensions D ≥ 3.

  8. A fast search strategy for gravitational waves from low-mass x-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messenger, C; Woan, G

    2007-01-01

    We present a new type of search strategy designed specifically to find continuously emitting gravitational wave sources in known binary systems. A component of this strategy is based on the incoherent summation of frequency-modulated binary signal sidebands, a method previously employed in the detection of electromagnetic pulsar signals from radio observations. The search pipeline can be divided into three stages: the first is a wide bandwidth, F-statistic search demodulated for sky position. This is followed by a fast second stage in which areas in frequency space are identified as signal candidates through the frequency domain convolution of the F-statistic with an approximate signal template. For this second stage only precise information on the orbit period and approximate information on the orbital semi-major axis are required a priori. For the final stage we propose a fully coherent Markov chain Monte Carlo based follow-up search on the frequency subspace defined by the candidates identified by the second stage. This search is particularly suited to the low-mass x-ray binaries, for which orbital period and sky position are typically well known and additional orbital parameters and neutron star spin frequency are not. We note that for the accreting x-ray millisecond pulsars, for which spin frequency and orbital parameters are well known, the second stage can be omitted and the fully coherent search stage can be performed. We describe the search pipeline with respect to its application to a simplified phase model and derive the corresponding sensitivity of the search

  9. Solution of Einstein's Geometrical Gravitational Field Equations Exterior to Astrophysically Real or Hypothetical Time Varying Distributions of Mass within Regions of Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a profound and complete analytical solution to Einstein’s gravitational field equations exterior to astrophysically real or hypothetical time varying distribu- tions of mass or pressure within regions of spherical geometry. The single arbitrary function f in our proposed exterior metric tensor and constructed field equations makes our method unique, mathematically less combersome and astrophysically satisfactory. The obtained solution of Einstein’s gravitational field equations tends out to be a gen- eralization of Newton’s gravitational scalar potential exterior to the spherical mass or pressure distribution under consideration

  10. Experimental tests of the gravitational inverse-square law for mass separations from 2 to 105 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoskins, J.K.; Newman, R.D.; Spero, R.; Schultz, J.

    1985-01-01

    We report two experiments which test the inverse-square distance dependence of the Newtonian gravitational force law. One experiment uses a torsion balance consisting of a 60-cm-long copper bar suspended at its midpoint by a tungsten wire, to compare the torque produced by copper masses 105 cm from the balance axis with the torque produced by a copper mass 5 cm from the side of the balance bar, near its end. Defining R/sub expt/ to be the measured ratio of the torques due to the masses at 105 cm and 5 cm, and R/sub Newton/ to be the corresponding ratio computed assuming an inverse-square force law, we find deltaequivalent(R/sub expt//R/sub Newton/-1) = (1.2 +- 7) x 10 -4 . Assuming a force deviating from an inverse-square distance dependence by a factor [1+epsilon lnr(cm)], this result implies epsilon = (0.5 +- 2.7) x 10 -4 . An earlier experiment, which has been reported previously, is described here in detail. This experiment tested the inverse-square law over a distance range of approximately 2 to 5 cm, by probing the gravitational field inside a steel mass tube using a copper test mass suspended from the end of a torsion balance bar. This experiment yielded a value for the parameter epsilon defined above: epsilon = (1 +- 7) x 10 -5 . The results of both of these experiments are in good agreement with the Newton- ian prediction. Limits on the strength and range of a Yukawa potential term superimposed on the Newtonian gravitational potential are discussed

  11. Exploring the Relationship between Skeletal Mass and Total Body Mass in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Silverstone, Elizabeth; Vincze, Orsolya; McCann, Ria; Jonsson, Carl H W; Palmer, Colin; Kaiser, Gary; Dyke, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Total body mass (TBM) is known to be related to a number of different osteological features in vertebrates, including limb element measurements and total skeletal mass. The relationship between skeletal mass and TBM in birds has been suggested as a way of estimating the latter in cases where only the skeleton is known (e.g., fossils). This relationship has thus also been applied to other extinct vertebrates, including the non-avian pterosaurs, while other studies have used additional skeletal correlates found in modern birds to estimate TBM. However, most previous studies have used TBM compiled from the literature rather than from direct measurements, producing values from population averages rather than from individuals. Here, we report a new dataset of 487 extant birds encompassing 79 species that have skeletal mass and TBM recorded at the time of collection or preparation. We combine both historical and new data for analyses with phylogenetic control and find a similar and well-correlated relationship between skeletal mass and TBM. Thus, we confirm that TBM and skeletal mass are accurate proxies for estimating one another. We also look at other factors that may have an effect on avian body mass, including sex, ontogenetic stage, and flight mode. While data are well-correlated in all cases, phylogeny is a major control on TBM in birds strongly suggesting that this relationship is not appropriate for estimating the total mass of taxa outside of crown birds, Neornithes (e.g., non-avian dinosaurs, pterosaurs). Data also reveal large variability in both bird skeletal and TBM within single species; caution should thus be applied when using published mass to test direct correlations with skeletal mass and bone lengths.

  12. Cooling the center-of-mass motion of a diamond nanocrystal in a magneto-gravitational trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng

    A magneto-gravitational trap for micro/nanometer sized diamagnetic particles, such as diamond nanocrystals, is tested and characterized. After exploring various other systems, such as a suspended graphene beam and an optical trap, this magneto-gravitational nanomechanical trapping system for diamond with nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers presents unique advantages for experiments in fundamental quantum mechanics. Those include, for example, the generation of large quantum superposition states and tests of quantum gravity. Features are demonstrated for this system, such as stable and passive levitation from atmospheric pressure to high vacuum, low resonant frequencies and damping rates, and cooling of the center-of-mass motions to below 1 K. The construction of the trap, vacuum system, optics, and motion detection electronics are described in detail.

  13. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  14. Detection of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1994-01-01

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

  15. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  16. A determination of H-0 with the class gravitational lens B1608+656. II. Mass models and the Hubble constant from lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, LVE; Fassnacht, CD

    1999-01-01

    We present mass models of the four-image gravitational lens system B1608 + 656, based on information obtained through VLBA imaging, VLA monitoring, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and NICMOS imaging. We have determined a mass model for the lens galaxies that reproduces (1) all image positions

  17. Maternal obesity influences the relationship between location of neonate fat mass and total fat mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, H R; Thornton, J; Paley, C; Navder, K; Gallagher, D

    2015-08-01

    It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 days old). Linear regression models examined the relationship between total FM and location of FM (central vs. peripheral). Location of FM was calculated by skin-folds: peripheral was the sum of (biceps and triceps)/2 and central was represented by the subscapular skin-fold. A significant interaction was found for location of FM and maternal obesity. Holding all predictors constant, in offspring born to non-obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 15 g greater total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 66 g greater total FM. However, in offspring born to obese mothers, a 0.5 mm increase in central FM predicted a 56 g total FM, whereas a 0.5 mm increase in peripheral FM predicted a 14 g greater total FM. The relationship between total FM and location of FM is influenced by maternal obesity. © 2014 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  18. Noise in gravitational-wave detectors and other classical-force measurements is not influenced by test-mass quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that photon shot noise and radiation-pressure back-action noise are the sole forms of quantum noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors that operate near or below the standard quantum limit, if one filters the interferometer output appropriately. No additional noise arises from the test masses' initial quantum state or from reduction of the test-mass state due to measurement of the interferometer output or from the uncertainty principle associated with the test-mass state. Two features of interferometers are central to these conclusions: (i) The interferometer output [the photon number flux N(t) entering the final photodetector] commutes with itself at different times in the Heisenberg picture, [N(t),N(t ' )]=0 and thus can be regarded as classical. (ii) This number flux is linear to high accuracy in the test-mass initial position and momentum operators x o and p o , and those operators influence the measured photon flux N(t) in manners that can easily be removed by filtering. For example, in most interferometers x o and p o appear in N(t) only at the test masses' ∼1 Hz pendular swinging frequency and their influence is removed when the output data are high-pass filtered to get rid of noise below ∼10 Hz. The test-mass operators x o and p o contained in the unfiltered output N(t) make a nonzero contribution to the commutator [N(t),N(t ' )]. That contribution is precisely canceled by a nonzero commutation of the photon shot noise and radiation-pressure noise, which also are contained in N(t). This cancellation of commutators is responsible for the fact that it is possible to derive an interferometer's standard quantum limit from test-mass considerations, and independently from photon-noise considerations, and get identically the same result. These conclusions are all true for a far wider class of measurements than just gravitational-wave interferometers. To elucidate them, this paper presents a series of idealized thought experiments that

  19. Limits on a gravitational field dependence of the proton-electron mass ratio from H2 in white dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdonaite, J; Salumbides, E J; Preval, S P; Barstow, M A; Barrow, J D; Murphy, M T; Ubachs, W

    2014-09-19

    Spectra of molecular hydrogen (H2) are employed to search for a possible proton-to-electron mass ratio (μ) dependence on gravity. The Lyman transitions of H2, observed with the Hubble Space Telescope towards white dwarf stars that underwent a gravitational collapse, are compared to accurate laboratory spectra taking into account the high temperature conditions (T∼13 000  K) of their photospheres. We derive sensitivity coefficients Ki which define how the individual H2 transitions shift due to μ dependence. The spectrum of white dwarf star GD133 yields a Δμ/μ constraint of (-2.7±4.7stat±0.2syst)×10(-5) for a local environment of a gravitational potential ϕ∼10(4) ϕEarth, while that of G29-38 yields Δμ/μ=(-5.8±3.8stat±0.3syst)×10(-5) for a potential of 2×10(4) ϕEarth.

  20. Revealing the Formation of Stellar-mass Black Hole Binaries: The Need for Deci-Hertz Gravitational-wave Observatories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xian [Astronomy Department, School of Physics, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China); Amaro-Seoane, Pau, E-mail: xian.chen@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: pau@ice.cat [Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (CSIC-IEEC) at Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-06-10

    The formation of compact stellar-mass binaries is a difficult, but interesting problem in astrophysics. There are two main formation channels: in the field via binary star evolution, or in dense stellar systems via dynamical interactions. The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected black hole binaries (BHBs) via their gravitational radiation. These detections provide us with information about the physical parameters of the system. It has been claimed that when the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is operating, the joint observation of these binaries with LIGO will allow us to derive the channels that lead to their formation. However, we show that for BHBs in dense stellar systems dynamical interactions could lead to high eccentricities such that a fraction of the relativistic mergers are not audible to LISA. A non-detection by LISA puts a lower limit of about 0.005 on the eccentricity of a BHB entering the LIGO band. On the other hand, a deci-Hertz observatory, like DECIGO or Tian Qin, would significantly enhance the chances of a joint detection and shed light on the formation channels of these binaries.

  1. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)]. E-mail: bhl@physics.uwa.edu.au; Ju, L. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia); Blair, D.G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-02-13

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB.

  2. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB

  3. A Triple Iron Triathlon Leads to a Decrease in Total Body Mass but Not to Dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas; Oliver, Senn

    2010-01-01

    A loss in total body mass during an ultraendurance performance is usually attributed to dehydration. We identified the changes in total body mass, fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, and selected markers of hydration status in 31 male nonprofessional ultratriathletes participating in a Triple Iron triathlon involving 11.4 km swimming, 540 km cycling…

  4. THE IMPACT OF MASS SEGREGATION AND STAR FORMATION ON THE RATES OF GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE SOURCES FROM EXTREME MASS RATIO INSPIRALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aharon, Danor; Perets, Hagai B. [Physics Department, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 3200003 (Israel)

    2016-10-10

    Compact stellar objects inspiraling into massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei are some of the most promising gravitational-wave (GWs) sources for next-generation GW detectors. The rates of such extreme mass ratio inspirals (EMRIs) depend on the dynamics and distribution of compact objects (COs) around the MBH. Here, we study the impact of mass-segregation processes on EMRI rates. In particular, we provide the expected mass function (MF) of EMRIs, given an initial MF of stellar black holes (SBHs), and relate it to the mass-dependent detection rate of EMRIs. We then consider the role of star formation (SF) on the distribution of COs and its implication on EMRI rates. We find that the existence of a wide spectrum of SBH masses leads to the overall increase of EMRI rates and to high rates of the EMRIs from the most massive SBHs. However, it also leads to a relative quenching of EMRI rates from lower-mass SBHs, and together produces a steep dependence of the EMRI MF on the highest-mass SBHs. SF history plays a relatively small role in determining the EMRI rates of SBHs, since most of them migrate close to the MBH through mass segregation rather than forming in situ. However, the EMRI rate of neutron stars (NSs) can be significantly increased when they form in situ close to the MBH, as they can inspiral before relaxation processes significantly segregate them outward. A reverse but weaker effect of decreasing the EMRI rates from NSs and white dwarfs occurs when SF proceeds far from the MBH.

  5. DID FOMALHAUT, HR 8799, AND HL TAURI FORM PLANETS VIA THE GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITY? PLACING LIMITS ON THE REQUIRED DISK MASSES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, D.; Bjorkman, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    Disk fragmentation resulting from the gravitational instability has been proposed as an efficient mechanism for forming giant planets. We use the planet Fomalhaut b, the triple-planetary system HR 8799, and the potential protoplanet associated with HL Tau to test the viability of this mechanism. We choose the above systems since they harbor planets with masses and orbital characteristics favored by the fragmentation mechanism. We do not claim that these planets must have formed as the result of fragmentation, rather the reverse: if planets can form from disk fragmentation, then these systems are consistent with what we should expect to see. We use the orbital characteristics of these recently discovered planets, along with a new technique to more accurately determine the disk cooling times, to place both lower and upper limits on the disk surface density-and thus mass-required to form these objects by disk fragmentation. Our cooling times are over an order of magnitude shorter than those of Rafikov, which makes disk fragmentation more feasible for these objects. We find that the required mass interior to the planet's orbital radius is ∼0.1 M sun for Fomalhaut b, the protoplanet orbiting HL Tau, and the outermost planet of HR 8799. The two inner planets of HR 8799 probably could not have formed in situ by disk fragmentation.

  6. MPAI (mass probes aided ionization) method for total analysis of biomolecules by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Aki; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Hifumi, Hiroki; Honma, Yuya; Tanji, Noriyuki; Iwasawa, Naoko; Suzuki, Yoshio; Suzuki, Koji

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and synthesized various mass probes, which enable us to effectively ionize various molecules to be detected with mass spectrometry. We call the ionization method using mass probes the "MPAI (mass probes aided ionization)" method. We aim at the sensitive detection of various biological molecules, and also the detection of bio-molecules by a single mass spectrometry serially without changing the mechanical settings. Here, we review mass probes for small molecules with various functional groups and mass probes for proteins. Further, we introduce newly developed mass probes for proteins for highly sensitive detection.

  7. On the Effect of the Cosmological Expansion on the Gravitational Lensing by a Point Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver F. Piattella

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of the cosmological expansion on the deflection of light caused by a point mass, adopting the McVittie metric as the geometrical description of a point-like lens embedded in an expanding universe. In the case of a generic, non-constant Hubble parameter, H, we derive and approximately solve the null geodesic equations, finding an expression for the bending angle δ, which we expand in powers of the mass-to-closest approach distance ratio and of the impact parameter-to-lens distance ratio. It turns out that the leading order of the aforementioned expansion is the same as the one calculated for the Schwarzschild metric and that cosmological corrections contribute to δ only at sub-dominant orders. We explicitly calculate these cosmological corrections for the case of the H constant and find that they provide a correction of order 10−11 on the lens mass estimate.

  8. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2015-01-01

    -DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from...... away from the metallicity in the centre of the galaxy, second the path of the sightline through different parts of the potential well of the dark matter halo will cause different velocity fields to be sampled. We report evidence suggesting that this second effect may have been detected....

  9. On neutron stars and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    From the variational principle for the total internal energy of a neutron star and some restrictions of the form of the metric coefficients, equations of structure which are valid for every metric theory of gravitation have been found. Some simple solutions of the structure equations to find the maximum mass of a neutron star are also presented. Finally it is studied this problem using a post post-Newtonian parametrization

  10. Verified solutions for the gravitational attraction to an oblate spheroid: Implications for planet mass and satellite orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Anne M.; Criss, Robert E.; Criss, Everett M.

    2018-03-01

    Forces external to the oblate spheroid shape, observed from planetary to galactic scales, are demonstrably non-central, which has important ramifications for planetary science. We simplify historic formulae and derive new analytical solutions for the gravitational potential and force outside a constant density oblate. Numerical calculations that sum point mass contributions in a >109 element mesh confirm our equations. We show that contours of constant force and potential about oblate bodies are closely approximated by two confocal families whose foci (f) respectively are (9/10)½ae and (3/5)½ae for a body with f = ae. This leads to useful approximations that address internal density variations. We demonstrate that the force on a general point is not directed towards the oblate's center, nor are forces simply proportional to the inverse square of that distance, despite forces in the equatorial and axial directions pointing towards the center. Our results explain complex dynamics of galactic systems. Because most planets and stars have an aspect ratio >0.9, the spherical approximation is reasonable except for orbits within ∼2 body radii. We show that applying the "generalized" potential, which assumes central forces, yields J2 values half those expected for oblate bodies, and probably underestimates masses of Uranus and Neptune by ∼0.2%. We show that the inner Saturnian moons are subject to non-central forces, which may affect calculations of their orbital precession. Our new series should improve interpretation of flyby data.

  11. Influence of Endurance Training During Childhood on Total Hemoglobin Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prommer, Nicole; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Thieme, Ina; Wachsmuth, Christian; Mancera-Soto, Erica M; Hohmann, Andreas; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2018-01-01

    Elite endurance athletes are characterized by markedly increased hemoglobin mass (Hbmass). It has been hypothesized that this adaptation may occur as a response to training at a very young age. Therefore, the aim of this study was to monitor changes in Hbmass in children aged 8-14 years following systematic endurance training. In the first study, Hbmass, VO2max, and lean body mass (LBM) were measured in 17 endurance-trained children (13 boys and 4 girls; aged 9.7 ± 1.3 years; training history 1.5±1.8 years; training volume 3.5 ± 1.6 h) twice a year for up to 3.5 years. The same parameters were measured once in a control group of 18 age-matched untrained children. Hbmass and blood volume (BV) were measured using the optimized CO-rebreathing technique, VO2max by an incremental test on a treadmill, and LBM by skin-fold measurements. In the second pilot study, the same parameters were measured in 9 young soccer athletes (aged 7.8 ± 0.2 years), and results were assessed in relation to soccer performance 2.5 years later. The increase in mean Hbmass during the period of study was 50% which was closely related to changes in LBM ( r = 0.959). A significant impact of endurance training on Hbmass was observed in athletes exercising more than 4 h/week [+25.4 g compared to the group with low training volume (LBM (11.4 g·kg -1 LBM) and overlapped with the effects of age. A strong relationship was present between absolute Hbmass and VO2max ( r = 0.939), showing that an increase of 1 g hemoglobin increases VO2max by 3.6 ml·min -1 . Study 2 showed a positive correlation between Hbmass and soccer performance 2.5 years later at age 10.3 ± 0.3 years ( r = 0.627, p = 0.035). In conclusion, children with a weekly training volume of more than 4 h show a 7% higher Hbmass than untrained children. Although this training effect is significant and independent of changes in LBM, the major factor driving the increase in Hbmass is still LBM.

  12. International Conference on Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    CERN Document Server

    Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...

  13. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  14. Effect of scalar field mass on gravitating charged scalar solitons and black holes in a cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponglertsakul, Supakchai, E-mail: supakchai.p@gmail.com; Winstanley, Elizabeth, E-mail: E.Winstanley@sheffield.ac.uk

    2017-01-10

    We study soliton and black hole solutions of Einstein charged scalar field theory in cavity. We examine the effect of introducing a scalar field mass on static, spherically symmetric solutions of the field equations. We focus particularly on the spaces of soliton and black hole solutions, as well as studying their stability under linear, spherically symmetric perturbations of the metric, electromagnetic field, and scalar field.

  15. Alteration of glacigenic landforms by gravitational mass movements, Ragnarbreen and Ebbabreen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek; Pleskot, Krzysztof; Tomczyk, Aleksandra

    2015-04-01

    The extensive recession of Svalbard's glaciers exposed areas containing large amount of dead-ice covered by relatively thin - usually less than a couple of meters - veneer of debris. This landscape can be very dynamic, mainly due to the mass movement processes and dead-ice melting. Continuous redistribution of sediments causes several phases of debris transfer and relief inversion. Hence, the primary glacial deposits released from ice are subsequently transferred by mass movement processes, until they finally reach more stable position. Investigations of dynamics of the mass movement and the way in which they alter the property of glacigenic sediments are therefore cruicial for proper understanding of sedimentary records of previous glaciations. The main objectives of this study were to: (1) quantify short-term dynamic of mass wasting processes; (2) investigate the transformation of the sediment's characteristic by mass wasting processes; (3) asses the contribution of different process to the overall dynamic of proglacial landscape. We focused on the mass-wasting processes in the forelands of two glaciers, Ebbabreen and Ragnarbreen, located near the Petuniabukta at the northern end of the Billefjorden, Spitsbergen. Repetitive topographic scanning was combined with sedimentological analysis of: grain size, clast shape in macro and micro scale and thin sections. Debris falls, slides, rolls and flows were the most important processes leading to reworking of glacigenic sediments and altering their properties. Contribution of different processes to the overall dynamic of the landforms was related mainly to the local conditions. Four different morphological types of sites were identified: (1) near vertical ice-cliffs covered with debris, transformed mainly due to dead-ice backwasting and debris falls and slides, (2) steep debris slopes with exposed ice-cores dominated by debris slides, (3) gentle sediment-mantled slopes transformed due to debris flows, and (4) non

  16. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  17. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  18. VIGOR: Virtual Interaction with Gravitational Waves to Observe Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Midori; Kesden, Michael; Tranm, Ngoc; Venlayudam, Thulasi Sivampillai; Urquhart, Mary; Malina, Roger

    2017-05-01

    In 2015, a century after Albert Einstein published his theory of general relativity, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves from binary black holes fully consistent with this theory. Our goal for VIGOR (Virtual-reality Interaction with Gravitational waves to Observe Relativity) is to communicate this revolutionary discovery to the public by visualizing the gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes. VIGOR has been developed using the Unity game engine and VR headsets (Oculus Rift DK2 and Samsung Gear VR). Wearing a VR headset, VIGOR users control an avatar to "fly" around binary black holes, experiment on the black holes by manipulating their total mass, mass ratio, and orbital separation, and witness how gravitational waves emitted by the black holes stretch and squeeze the avatar. We evaluated our prototype of VIGOR with high school students in 2016 and are further improving VIGOR based on our findings.

  19. Dissipative Evolution of Unequal-mass Binary–single Interactions and Its Relevance to Gravitational-wave Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2018-02-01

    We present a study of binary–single interactions with energy-loss terms such as tidal dissipation and gravitational-wave (GW) emission added to the equation of motion. The inclusion of such terms leads to the formation of compact binaries that form during the three-body interaction through two-body captures. These binaries predominantly merge relatively promptly at high eccentricity, with several observable and dynamical consequences to follow. Despite their possibility for being observed in both present and upcoming transient surveys, their outcomes are not firmly constrained. In this paper, we present an analytical framework that allows to estimate the cross section of such two-body captures, which permits us to study how the corresponding rates depend on the initial orbital parameters, the mass hierarchy, the type of interacting object, and the energy dissipation mechanism. This formalism is applied here to study the formation of two-body GW captures, for which we estimate absolute and relative rates relevant to Advanced LIGO detections. It is shown that two-body GW captures should have compelling observational implications if a sizable fraction of detected compact binaries are formed via dynamical interactions.

  20. Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.

    2017-09-01

    Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.

  1. Associations of Infant Subcutaneous Fat Mass with Total and Abdominal Fat Mass at School-Age: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-09-01

    Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal, and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height(3) ), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat), and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures. A 1-standard-deviation scores higher total subcutaneous fat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.36, 2.12). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared with body mass index. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Associations of infant subcutaneous fat mass with total and abdominal fat mass at school-age. The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Gaillard, Romy; Oliveira, Andreia; Barros, Henrique; Abrahamse-Berkeveld, Marieke; van der Beek, Eline M; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent WV

    2017-01-01

    Background Skinfold thickness enables the measurement of overall and regional subcutaneous fatness in infancy and may be associated with total and abdominal body fat in later childhood. We examined the associations of subcutaneous fat in infancy with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 821 children, we calculated total subcutaneous fat (sum of biceps, triceps, suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses) and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio (sum of suprailiacal and subscapular skinfold thicknesses/total subcutaneous fat) at 1.5 and 24 months. At 6 years, we measured fat mass index (total fat/height3), central-to-total fat ratio (trunk fat/total fat) and android-to-gynoid fat ratio (android fat/gynoid fat) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and preperitoneal fat mass area by abdominal ultrasound. Results Central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 1.5 months was positively associated with fat mass index and central-to-total fat ratio at 6 years, whereas both total and central-to-total subcutaneous fat ratio at 24 months were positively associated with all childhood adiposity measures (pfat at 24 months was associated with an increased risk of childhood overweight (Odds Ratio 1.70 [95% Confidence Interval 1.36, 2.12]). These associations were weaker than those for body mass index and stronger among girls than boys. Conclusions Subcutaneous fat in infancy is positively associated with total and abdominal fat at school-age. Our results also suggest that skinfold thicknesses add little value to estimate later body fat, as compared to body mass index. PMID:27225335

  3. STELLAR AND TOTAL BARYON MASS FRACTIONS IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS SINCE REDSHIFT 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giodini, S.; Pierini, D.; Finoguenov, A.; Pratt, G. W.; Boehringer, H.; Leauthaud, A.; Guzzo, L.; Aussel, H.; Bolzonella, M.; Capak, P.; Elvis, M.; Hasinger, G.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Lilly, S. J.; Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Salvato, M.; McCracken, H. J.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the discrepancy between estimates of the total baryon mass fraction obtained from observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and of galaxy groups/clusters persists when a large sample of groups is considered. To this purpose, 91 candidate X-ray groups/poor clusters at redshift 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 1 are selected from the COSMOS 2 deg 2 survey, based only on their X-ray luminosity and extent. This sample is complemented by 27 nearby clusters with a robust, analogous determination of the total and stellar mass inside R 500 . The total sample of 118 groups and clusters with z ≤ 1 spans a range in M 500 of ∼10 13 -10 15 M sun . We find that the stellar mass fraction associated with galaxies at R 500 decreases with increasing total mass as M -0.37±0.04 500 , independent of redshift. Estimating the total gas mass fraction from a recently derived, high-quality scaling relation, the total baryon mass fraction (f stars+gas 500 = f stars 500 + f gas 500 ) is found to increase by ∼25%, when M 500 increases from (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun to (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . After consideration of a plausible contribution due to intracluster light (11%-22% of the total stellar mass) and gas depletion through the hierarchical assembly process (10% of the gas mass), the estimated values of the total baryon mass fraction are still lower than the latest CMB measure of the same quantity (WMAP5), at a significance level of 3.3σ for groups of (M) = 5 x 10 13 M sun . The discrepancy decreases toward higher total masses, such that it is 1σ at (M) = 7 x 10 14 M sun . We discuss this result in terms of nongravitational processes such as feedback and filamentary heating.

  4. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  5. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  6. Sensitivity of gravitational wave searches to the full signal of intermediate-mass black hole binaries during the first observing run of Advanced LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Bustillo, Juan; Salemi, Francesco; Dal Canton, Tito; Jani, Karan P.

    2018-01-01

    The sensitivity of gravitational wave searches for binary black holes is estimated via the injection and posterior recovery of simulated gravitational wave signals in the detector data streams. When a search reports no detections, the estimated sensitivity is then used to place upper limits on the coalescence rate of the target source. In order to obtain correct sensitivity and rate estimates, the injected waveforms must be faithful representations of the real signals. Up to date, however, injected waveforms have neglected radiation modes of order higher than the quadrupole, potentially biasing sensitivity and coalescence rate estimates. In particular, higher-order modes are known to have a large impact in the gravitational waves emitted by intermediate-mass black holes binaries. In this work, we evaluate the impact of this approximation in the context of two search algorithms run by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration in their search for intermediate-mass black hole binaries in the O1 LIGO Science Run data: a matched filter-based pipeline and a coherent unmodeled one. To this end, we estimate the sensitivity of both searches to simulated signals for nonspinning binaries including and omitting higher-order modes. We find that omission of higher-order modes leads to biases in the sensitivity estimates which depend on the masses of the binary, the search algorithm, and the required level of significance for detection. In addition, we compare the sensitivity of the two search algorithms across the studied parameter space. We conclude that the most recent LIGO-Virgo upper limits on the rate of coalescence of intermediate-mass black hole binaries are conservative for the case of highly asymmetric binaries. However, the tightest upper limits, placed for nearly equal-mass sources, remain unchanged due to the small contribution of higher modes to the corresponding sources.

  7. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  8. Gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)

  9. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...

  10. Gravitation and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation together with the equations of electromagnetism in terms of the General Theory of Relativity allow to conceive an interdependence between the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. However the technical difficulties of the relevant problems have precluded from expressing clearly this interdependence. Even the simple problem related to the field generated by a charged spherical mass is not correctly solved. In the present paper we reexamine from the outset this problem and propose a new solution.

  11. Total body skeletal muscle mass: estimation by creatine (methyl-d3) dilution in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ann C.; O'Connor-Semmes, Robin L.; Leonard, Michael S.; Miller, Ram R.; Stimpson, Stephen A.; Turner, Scott M.; Ravussin, Eric; Cefalu, William T.; Hellerstein, Marc K.; Evans, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Current methods for clinical estimation of total body skeletal muscle mass have significant limitations. We tested the hypothesis that creatine (methyl-d3) dilution (D3-creatine) measured by enrichment of urine D3-creatinine reveals total body creatine pool size, providing an accurate estimate of total body skeletal muscle mass. Healthy subjects with different muscle masses [n = 35: 20 men (19–30 yr, 70–84 yr), 15 postmenopausal women (51–62 yr, 70–84 yr)] were housed for 5 days. Optimal tracer dose was explored with single oral doses of 30, 60, or 100 mg D3-creatine given on day 1. Serial plasma samples were collected for D3-creatine pharmacokinetics. All urine was collected through day 5. Creatine and creatinine (deuterated and unlabeled) were measured by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Total body creatine pool size and muscle mass were calculated from D3-creatinine enrichment in urine. Muscle mass was also measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and traditional 24-h urine creatinine. D3-creatine was rapidly absorbed and cleared with variable urinary excretion. Isotopic steady-state of D3-creatinine enrichment in the urine was achieved by 30.7 ± 11.2 h. Mean steady-state enrichment in urine provided muscle mass estimates that correlated well with MRI estimates for all subjects (r = 0.868, P creatine dose determined by urine D3-creatinine enrichment provides an estimate of total body muscle mass strongly correlated with estimates from serial MRI with less bias than total lean body mass assessment by DXA. PMID:24764133

  12. Mass fragmentographic analysis of total cholesterol in serum using a heptadeuterated internal standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthers, B.G.; Hindriks, F.R.; Muskiet, F.A.J.; Groen, A.

    1980-01-01

    A mass fragmentographic method for the determination of total cholesterol in serum using heptadeuterated [25,26,26,26,27,27,27- 2 H] cholesterol as internal standard is presented. The results obtained are compared with a colorimetric and gas chromatographic method which were previously proposed as reference methods. Criteria for the development of absolute measurement by means of mass fragmentography and stable isotopically labelled internal standards are given. The conclusion is drawn that, at present, mass fragmentographic methods for the determination of total cholesterol in serum do not fulfil the criteria required for absolute methods. (Auth.)

  13. EXTRACTION OF THE MEAN RADIAL MASS-DISTRIBUTION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES BY OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK GRAVITATIONAL IMAGING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BREIMER, TG

    The gravitational fields of clusters of galaxies cause systematic distortions of the images of background galaxies. Recently, the lens inversion problem, reconstruction of the mean surface density distribution in the lens from the pattern of systematic distortions, has been the object of several

  14. Orbital circularisation of white dwarfs and the formation of gravitational radiation sources in star clusters containing an intermediate mass black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, P. B.; Papaloizou, J. C. B.

    2007-01-01

    (abbreviated) We consider how tight binaries consisting of a super-massive black hole of mass $M=10^{3}-10^{4}M_{\\odot}$ and a white dwarf can be formed in a globular cluster. We point out that a major fraction of white dwarfs tidally captured by the black hole may be destroyed by tidal inflation during ongoing circularisation, and the formation of tight binaries is inhibited. However, some stars may survive being spun up to high rotation rates. Then the energy loss through gravitational wave...

  15. Increase of Total Body Water with Decrease of Body Mass while Running 100 km Nonstop--Formation of Edema?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knechtle, Beat; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether ultraendurance runners in a 100-km run suffer a decrease of body mass and whether this loss consists of fat mass, skeletal muscle mass, or total body water. Male ultrarunners were measured pre- and postrace to determine body mass, fat mass, and skeletal muscle mass by using the anthropometric method. In addition,…

  16. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  17. Fission fragment mass and total kinetic energy distributions of spontaneously fissioning plutonium isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, K.; Nerlo-Pomorska, B.; Bartel, J.; Schmitt, C.

    2018-03-01

    The fission-fragment mass and total kinetic energy (TKE) distributions are evaluated in a quantum mechanical framework using elongation, mass asymmetry, neck degree of freedom as the relevant collective parameters in the Fourier shape parametrization recently developed by us. The potential energy surfaces (PES) are calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic model based on the Lublin-Strasbourg Drop (LSD), the Yukawa-folded (YF) single-particle potential and a monopole pairing force. The PES are presented and analysed in detail for even-even Plutonium isotopes with A = 236-246. They reveal deep asymmetric valleys. The fission-fragment mass and TKE distributions are obtained from the ground state of a collective Hamiltonian computed within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation, in the WKB approach by introducing a neck-dependent fission probability. The calculated mass and total kinetic energy distributions are found in good agreement with the data.

  18. Chemical effect on total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.; Colak, S.; Bueyuekkasap, E.; Kuecuekoender, A.

    2002-01-01

    Detailed interpretation of data obtained from X-ray transmission measurements usually depends on the assumption that the contribution of each element is additive. This assumption yields the mixture rule for X-ray attenuation coefficients which is valid if molecular and chemical effects are negligible. Total mass attenuation coefficients of V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni in various their compounds was measured. Absorption corrections were carried on data for ligands in the compounds. It was found that V, Cr, Mn, Co and Ni had different total mass attenuation coefficients in the different compounds. Results were compared with theoretical values of HUBBELL and SELTZER. (author)

  19. Efficiency of ETV diagrams as diagnostic tools for long-term period variations. II. Non-conservative mass transfer, and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanouris, N.; Kalimeris, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.

    2015-03-01

    Context. The credibility of an eclipse timing variation (ETV) diagram analysis is investigated for various manifestations of the mass transfer and gravitational radiation processes in binary systems. The monotonicity of the period variations and the morphology of the respective ETV diagrams are thoroughly explored in both the direct impact and the accretion disk mode of mass transfer, accompanied by different types of mass and angular momentum losses (through a hot-spot emission from the gainer and via the L2/L3 points). Aims: Our primary objective concerns the traceability of each physical mechanism by means of an ETV diagram analysis. Also, possible critical mass ratio values are sought for those transfer modes that involve orbital angular momentum losses strong enough to dictate the secular period changes even when highly competitive mechanisms with the opposite direction act simultaneously. Methods: The dot{J-dot{P}} relation that governs the orbital evolution of a binary system is set to provide the exact solution for the period and the function expected to represent the subsequent eclipse timing variations. The angular momentum transport is parameterized through appropriate empirical relations, which are inferred from semi-analytical ballistic models. Then, we numerically determine the minimum temporal range over which a particular mechanism is rendered measurable, as well as the critical mass ratio values that signify monotonicity inversion in the period modulations. Results: Mass transfer rates comparable to or greater than 10-8 M⊙ yr-1 are measurable for typical noise levels of the ETV diagrams, regardless of whether the process is conservative. However, the presence of a transient disk around the more massive component defines a critical mass ratio (qcr ≈ 0.83) above which the period turns out to decrease when still in the conservative regime, rendering the measurability of the anticipated variations a much more complicated task. The effects of

  20. Dark-Matter in Galaxies from Gravitational Lensing and Stellar Dynamics Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L. V. E.; Corbett, IF

    2010-01-01

    Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary methods in the study of the mass distribution of dark matter in galaxies out to redshift of unity. They are particularly powerful in the determination of the total mass and the density profile of mass early-type galaxies on

  1. Absorption of mass and angular momentum by a black hole: Time-domain formalisms for gravitational perturbations, and the small-hole or slow-motion approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The first objective of this work is to obtain practical prescriptions to calculate the absorption of mass and angular momentum by a black hole when external processes produce gravitational radiation. These prescriptions are formulated in the time domain (in contrast with the frequency-domain formalism of Teukolsky and Press) within the framework of black-hole perturbation theory. Two such prescriptions are presented. The first is based on the Teukolsky equation and it applies to general (rotating) black holes. The second is based on the Regge-Wheeler and Zerilli equations and it applies to nonrotating black holes. The second objective of this work is to apply the time-domain absorption formalisms to situations in which the black hole is either small or slowly moving; the mass of the black hole is then assumed to be much smaller than the radius of curvature of the external spacetime in which the hole moves. In the context of this small-hole/slow-motion approximation, the equations of black-hole perturbation theory can be solved analytically, and explicit expressions can be obtained for the absorption of mass and angular momentum. The changes in the black-hole parameters can then be understood in terms of an interaction between the tidal gravitational fields supplied by the external universe and the hole's tidally-induced mass and current quadrupole moments. For a nonrotating black hole the quadrupole moments are proportional to the rate of change of the tidal fields on the hole's world line. For a rotating black hole they are proportional to the tidal fields themselves. When placed in identical environments, a rotating black hole absorbs more energy and angular momentum than a nonrotating black hole

  2. Total cholesterol in serum determined by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry, with liquid-chromatographic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takatsu, Akiko; Nishi, Sueo

    1988-01-01

    We describe an accurate, precise method for determination of total serum cholesterol by isotope dilution/mass spectrometry (IDMS) with liquid chromatographic separation. After adding [3,4- 13 C] cholesterol to serum and hydrolyzing the cholesterol esters, we extract the total cholesterol. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the extracted cholesterol for measurement by electron-impact mass spectrometry with use of a direct-insertion device. To evaluate the specificity and the accuracy of this method, we also studied the conventional IDMS method, which involves converting cholesterol to the trimethylsilyl ether and assay by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with use of a capillary column. The coefficient of variation for the HPLC method was a little larger than for the conventional method, but mean values by each method agreed within 1% for all sera tested. (author)

  3. THE BOSS EMISSION-LINE LENS SURVEY. II. INVESTIGATING MASS-DENSITY PROFILE EVOLUTION IN THE SLACS+BELLS STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, Adam S.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Shu Yiping; Arneson, Ryan A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, 115 South 1400 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Kochanek, Christopher S. [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Schlegel, David J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wake, David A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Connolly, Natalia [Department of Physics, Hamilton College, Clinton, NY 13323 (United States); Maraston, Claudia [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Weaver, Benjamin A., E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We present an analysis of the evolution of the central mass-density profile of massive elliptical galaxies from the SLACS and BELLS strong gravitational lens samples over the redshift interval z Almost-Equal-To 0.1-0.6, based on the combination of strong-lensing aperture mass and stellar velocity-dispersion constraints. We find a significant trend toward steeper mass profiles (parameterized by the power-law density model with {rho}{proportional_to}r {sup -{gamma}}) at later cosmic times, with magnitude d < {gamma} > /dz = -0.60 {+-} 0.15. We show that the combined lens-galaxy sample is consistent with a non-evolving distribution of stellar velocity dispersions. Considering possible additional dependence of <{gamma} > on lens-galaxy stellar mass, effective radius, and Sersic index, we find marginal evidence for shallower mass profiles at higher masses and larger sizes, but with a significance that is subdominant to the redshift dependence. Using the results of published Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys, we verify that our mass-profile evolution result cannot be explained by lensing selection biases as a function of redshift. Interpreted as a true evolutionary signal, our result suggests that major dry mergers involving off-axis trajectories play a significant role in the evolution of the average mass-density structure of massive early-type galaxies over the past 6 Gyr. We also consider an alternative non-evolutionary hypothesis based on variations in the strong-lensing measurement aperture with redshift, which would imply the detection of an 'inflection zone' marking the transition between the baryon-dominated and dark-matter halo-dominated regions of the lens galaxies. Further observations of the combined SLACS+BELLS sample can constrain this picture more precisely, and enable a more detailed investigation of the multivariate dependences of galaxy mass structure across cosmic time.

  4. Correlation of total body potassium and leukemic cell mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, P.; Sawitsky, A.; Chanana, A.D.; Chikkappa, G.; Cohn, S.H.; Rai, K.R.; Cronkity, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Total body leukemic mass in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was measured by quantitation of total body potassium (TBK) with a whole-body counter. In addition, the predicted normal total body potassium (Kp) for each patient was calculated from an empirically derived relationship involving height, weight age, and sex. Both the absolute TBK and the relative excess of total body potassium (TBK/Kp) were related to the stage of disease. Patients in the early stages of CLL were found to have lower TBK and TBK/Kp than patients in the late stages of disease. Both of these parameters increased with the successively advanced stages of the disease. The clinically monitored reduction of leukemic cell mass following therapy was accompanied by reductions in TBK and TBK/Kp. Data presented support the notion that TBK/Kp is a useful indicator of the total body leukemic mass. Futhermore, the results of these studies quantitatively validate the proposed clinical staging system for CLL. Quantitation of TBK by a whole-body counter is an accurate and noninvasive procedure and does not require administration of isotopes

  5. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  6. Gravitational states of antihydrogen near material surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voronin, Alexei Yu., E-mail: dr.a.voronin@gmail.com [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Froelich, Piotr [Uppsala University, Department of Quantum Chemistry (Sweden); Nesvizhevsky, Valery V. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) (France)

    2012-12-15

    We present a theoretical study of the motion of antihydrogen atoms in the Earth's gravitational field near a material surface. We predict the existence of long-living quasistationary states of antihydrogen in a superposition of the gravitational and Casimir-van der Waals potentials of the surface. We suggest an interferometric method of measuring the energy difference between such gravitational states, hence the gravitational mass of antihydrogen.

  7. Gravitational wave reception by a sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important

  8. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  9. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  10. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

  11. Conservation laws and gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastall, P.

    1977-01-01

    A total stress-momentum is defined for gravitational fields and their sources. The Lagrangian density is slightly different from that in the previous version of the theory, and the field equations are considerably simplified. The post-Newtonian approximation of the theory is unchanged. The existence and nature of weak gravitational waves are discussed. (author)

  12. H0LiCOW - III. Quantifying the effect of mass along the line of sight to the gravitational lens HE 0435-1223 through weighted galaxy counts★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Cristian E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Sluse, Dominique; Hilbert, Stefan; Wong, Kenneth C.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Suyu, Sherry H.; Collett, Thomas E.; Marshall, Philip J.; Treu, Tommaso; Koopmans, Leon V. E.

    2017-06-01

    Based on spectroscopy and multiband wide-field observations of the gravitationally lensed quasar HE 0435-1223, we determine the probability distribution function of the external convergence κext for this system. We measure the under/overdensity of the line of sight towards the lens system and compare it to the average line of sight throughout the Universe, determined by using the CFHTLenS (The Canada France Hawaii Lensing Survey) as a control field. Aiming to constrain κext as tightly as possible, we determine under/overdensities using various combinations of relevant informative weighting schemes for the galaxy counts, such as projected distance to the lens, redshift and stellar mass. We then convert the measured under/overdensities into a κext distribution, using ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. We explore several limiting magnitudes and apertures, and account for systematic and statistical uncertainties relevant to the quality of the observational data, which we further test through simulations. Our most robust estimate of κext has a median value κ^med_ext = 0.004 and a standard deviation σκ = 0.025. The measured σκ corresponds to 2.5 per cent relative uncertainty on the time delay distance, and hence the Hubble constant H0 inferred from this system. The median κ^med_ext value varies by ˜0.005 with the adopted aperture radius, limiting magnitude and weighting scheme, as long as the latter incorporates galaxy number counts, the projected distance to the main lens and a prior on the external shear obtained from mass modelling. This corresponds to just ˜0.5 per cent systematic impact on H0. The availability of a well-constrained κext makes HE 0435-1223 a valuable system for measuring cosmological parameters using strong gravitational lens time delays.

  13. Total and Lower Extremity Lean Mass Percentage Positively Correlates With Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mitchell L; Smith, Derek T; Heinbaugh, Erika M; Moynes, Rebecca C; Rockey, Shawn S; Thomas, Joi J; Dai, Boyi

    2015-08-01

    Strength and power have been identified as valuable components in both athletic performance and daily function. A major component of strength and power is the muscle mass, which can be assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the relationship between total body lean mass percentage (TBLM%) and lower extremity lean mass percentage (LELM%) and lower extremity force/power production during a countermovement jump (CMJ) in a general population. Researchers performed a DXA analysis on 40 younger participants aged 18-35 years, 28 middle-aged participants aged 36-55 years, and 34 older participants aged 56-75 years. Participants performed 3 CMJ on force platforms. Correlations revealed significant and strong relationships between TBLM% and LELM% compared with CMJ normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (p lean mass percentages. The findings have implications in including DXA-assessed lean mass percentage as a component for evaluating lower extremity strength and power. A paired DXA analysis and CMJ jump test may be useful for identifying neuromuscular deficits that limit performance.

  14. Redox Evolution via Gravitational Differentiation on Low-mass Planets: Implications for Abiotic Oxygen, Water Loss, and Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wordsworth, R. D.; Schaefer, L. K.; Fischer, R. A.

    2018-05-01

    The oxidation of rocky planet surfaces and atmospheres, which arises from the twin forces of stellar nucleosynthesis and gravitational differentiation, is a universal process of key importance to habitability and exoplanet biosignature detection. Here we take a generalized approach to this phenomenon. Using a single parameter to describe the redox state, we model the evolution of terrestrial planets around nearby M stars and the Sun. Our model includes atmospheric photochemistry, diffusion and escape, line-by-line climate calculations, and interior thermodynamics and chemistry. In most cases, we find abiotic atmospheric {{{O}}}2 buildup around M stars during the pre-main-sequence phase to be much less than calculated previously, because the planet’s magma ocean absorbs most oxygen liberated from {{{H}}}2{{O}} photolysis. However, loss of noncondensing atmospheric gases after the mantle solidifies remains a significant potential route to abiotic atmospheric {{{O}}}2 subsequently. In all cases, we predict that exoplanets that receive lower stellar fluxes, such as LHS1140b and TRAPPIST-1f and g, have the lowest probability of abiotic {{{O}}}2 buildup and hence may be the most interesting targets for future searches for biogenic {{{O}}}2. Key remaining uncertainties can be minimized in future by comparing our predictions for the atmospheres of hot, sterile exoplanets such as GJ1132b and TRAPPIST-1b and c with observations.

  15. Investigation of ultra-high sensitivity Klystron cavity transducers for broadband resonant-mass gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Guilherme Leite

    2008-01-01

    We show that, with a suitable choice of the parameters of the gravitational wave detector Mario Schoenberg, with technological accessible parameters (using state-of-art electronics), its sensitivity curve can be improved over the current project curve to become competitive with interferometric detectors in a frequency band of 1500 Hz, in the region from 1000 to 10000 Hz (these competitive bands are centered at the sphere's quadrupole modes). The sensitivity curve of an array of 100 identical spheres identical to the Schoenberg one is also analyzed, and is competitive against advanced LIGO in the entire band. A detailed study of the project's viability is conducted, with an emphasis on the project of the klystron resonant cavity, which will have a center post with a 1 nm gap, which represents a great technological challenge. This challenge is analyzed in terms of the cavity project as well as with a focus on the Casimir effect on the cavity. This could open an opportunity for precise measurements of this effect on a new distance scale compared to current measurements (in the μm scale). (author)

  16. Using Vertical Structure to Infer the Total Mass Hidden in a Debris Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Cail; Hughes, A. Meredith; Carter, Evan; Flaherty, Kevin; Stafford Lambros, Zachary; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Disks of optically thin debris dust surround ≥ 20% of main sequence stars and mark the final stage of planetary system evolution. The features of debris disks encode dynamical interactions between the dust and any unseen planets embedded in the disk. The vertical distribution of the dust is particularly sensitive to the total mass of planetesimal bodies in the disk, and is therefore well suited for constraining the prevalence of otherwise unobservable Uranus and Neptune analogs. Inferences of mass from debris disk vertical structure have previously been applied to infrared and optical observations of several systems, but the smaller particles traced by short-wavelength observations are ‘puffed up’ by radiation pressure, yielding only upper limits on the total embedded mass. The large grains that dominate the emission at millimeter wavelengths are essentially impervious to the effects of stellar radiation, and therefore trace the underlying mass distribution more directly. Here we present 1.3mm dust continuum observations of the debris disk around the nearby M star AU Mic with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The 3 au spatial resolution of the observations, combined with the favorable edge-on geometry of the system, allows us to measure the vertical structure of a debris disk at millimeter wavelengths for the first time. We analyze the data using a ray-tracing code that translates a 2-D density and temperature structure into a model sky image of the disk. This model image is then compared directly to the interferometric data in the visibility domain, and the model parameters are explored using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo routine. We measure a scale height-to-radius ratio of 0.03, which we then compare to a theoretical model of steady-state, size-dependent velocity distributions in the collisional cascade to infer a total mass within the disk of ∼ 1.7 Earth masses. These measurements rule out the presence of a gas giant or Neptune

  17. Total β-decay energies and atomic masses in regions far from β-stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleklett, K.

    1977-01-01

    This thesis is a summary of experimental investigations on total β-decay energies and deduced atomic masses of nuclei far from the region of β-stability. The Qsub(β) values are given for isotopes of Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Br, Rb, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Cs, Fr, Ra and Ac, with β-unstable nuclei. These unstable nuclei have very short half-lives, often below 10s, and the experimental techniques for the production, separation and collection of these short-lived nuclei are described. Neutron deficient nuclides were produced by spallation, in the ISOLDE facility, and neutron deficient nuclides were produced by thermal neutron induced fission of 235 U in the OSIRIS facility. β-spectra were recorded using an Si(Li)-detector and a coincidence system. Qsub(β) values obtained from mass formulae have been compared with experimental values obtained in different mass regions and a comparison made between results obtained from different droplet mass formulae. (B.D.)

  18. Gravitational Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, G.; Schutz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity is truly universal. It is the force that pulls us to the Earth, that keeps the planets and moons in their orbits, and that causes the tides on the Earth to ebb and flow. It even keeps the Sun shining. Yet on a laboratory scale gravity is extremely weak. The Coulomb force between two protons is 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them. Moreover, Newton's gravitational constant is the least accurately known of the fundamental constants: it has been measured to 1 par...

  19. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  20. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip......-joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...

  1. Measuring the total and baryonic mass profiles of the very massive CASSOWARY 31 strong lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grillo, Claudio; Christensen, L.; Gallazzi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the total and baryonic mass distributions in deflector number 31 (CSWA 31) of the Cambridge And Sloan Survey Of Wide ARcs in the skY (CASSOWARY). We confirm spectroscopically a four-image lensing system at redshift 1.4870 with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter observations. The lensed...... find that the CSWA 31 deflector has properties suggesting it to be among the most distant and massive fossil systems studied so far. The unusually strong central dark matter dominance and the possible fossil nature of this system render it an interesting target for detailed tests of cosmological models...

  2. Quality control for total evaporation technique by surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seikou; Inoue, Sinichi; Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    For the measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition, the surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometry is widely used at the both nuclear facilities and safeguards verification laboratories. The progress of instrument specification makes higher sensitivity. The total evaporation technique is one of the latest measurement techniques by using this progress, in which all of uranium or plutonium on the filament would be evaporated by increasing the filament current. The accuracy and precision of this technique is normally checked by using the certified isotope reference materials measurement. But the fluctuation of ion beam is very different by each filament, depending on the chemical form of evaporation. So, it should be considered how to check the measurement quality of unknown samples which has no certified values. This presentation is focused on the monitoring of ion yields and pattern of isotope ratio fluctuation to attain the traceability between reference material and unknown sample as quality control approach of total evaporation technique. (author)

  3. Gravitational decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Großardt, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    We discuss effects of loss of coherence in low energy quantum systems caused by or related to gravitation, referred to as gravitational decoherence. These effects, resulting from random metric fluctuations, for instance, promise to be accessible by relatively inexpensive table-top experiments, way before the scales where true quantum gravity effects become important. Therefore, they can provide a first experimental view on gravity in the quantum regime. We will survey models of decoherence induced both by classical and quantum gravitational fluctuations; it will be manifest that a clear understanding of gravitational decoherence is still lacking. Next we will review models where quantum theory is modified, under the assumption that gravity causes the collapse of the wave functions, when systems are large enough. These models challenge the quantum-gravity interplay, and can be tested experimentally. In the last part we have a look at the state of the art of experimental research. We will review efforts aiming at more and more accurate measurements of gravity ( G and g ) and ideas for measuring conventional and unconventional gravity effects on nonrelativistic quantum systems. (topical review)

  4. Gravitational Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we study the interaction of the electromagnetic wave (EW) from a distant quasar with the gravitational wave (GW) sourced by the binary stars. While in the regime of geometric optics, the light bending due to this interaction is negligible, we show that the phase shifting on the wavefront of an EW can produce the diffraction pattern on the observer plane. The diffraction of the light (with the wavelength of λe) by the gravitational wave playing the role of gravitational grating (with the wavelength of λg) has the diffraction angle of Δβ ˜ λe/λg. The relative motion of the observer, the source of gravitational wave and the quasar results in a relative motion of the observer through the interference pattern on the observer plane. The consequence of this fringe crossing is the modulation in the light curve of a quasar with the period of few hours in the microwave wavelength. The optical depth for the observation of this phenomenon for a Quasar with the multiple images strongly lensed by a galaxy where the light trajectory of some of the images crosses the lensing galaxy is τ ≃ 0.2. By shifting the time-delay of the light curves of the multiple images in a strong lensed quasar and removing the intrinsic variations of a quasar, our desired signals, as a new method for detection of GWs can be detected.

  5. On the gravitational radiation formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.

    1980-01-01

    For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)

  6. Mass flow discharge and total temperature characterisation of a pyrotechnic gas generator formulation for airbag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Determining total hemoglobin mass by means of {sup 13}CO breath analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, Marcus; Hering, Peter [Institut fuer Lasermedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of our investigations is the development of a non-invasive method for the determination of the total hemoglobin mass in the human body by means of Cavity Leak-Out Spectroscopy (CALOS). The mentioned CALOS system utilizes a CO gas laser in the mid infrared region around 5{mu}m. This system allows isotopologue selective online measurements of {sup 13}CO with a sensitivity of 7 ppb.Hz{sup -1/2}. {sup 13}CO is a non radioactive isotopologue occurring in a ratio of about 1.1 % of the natural CO composition. CO is commonly known as a highly toxic gas but it is also endogenously produced during heme degradation. About 80 % of this CO is exhaled yielding to CO concentrations between 1 ppm to 4 ppm in healthy humans. Transportation of CO through the body is established by hemoglobin which has a high affinity towards CO. Because of this fact inhaled CO is taken up by the blood until equilibrium between the alveolar air and the blood is reached. By determining the exhaled CO concentrations before and after the inhalation of a certain amount of CO a measure for the t-Hb mass can be calculated. The enormous advantage of the isotopologue measurement is the very small amount of {sup 13}CO which can be used for harmless CO inhalation. All data necessary for calculating the t-Hb mass are obtained from breath measurements making this method non invasive.

  8. Total molecular gas masses of Planck - Herschel selected strongly lensed hyper luminous infrared galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K. C.; Yun, M. S.; Magnelli, B.; Frayer, D. T.; Karim, A.; Weiß, A.; Riechers, D.; Jiménez-Andrade, E. F.; Berman, D.; Lowenthal, J.; Bertoldi, F.

    2018-03-01

    We report the detection of CO(1-0) line emission from seven Planck and Herschel selected hyper luminous ({L_{IR (8-1000{μ m})} > 10^{13} L_{⊙}) infrared galaxies with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT). CO(1-0) measurements are a vital tool to trace the bulk molecular gas mass across all redshifts. Our results place tight constraints on the total gas content of these most apparently luminous high-z star-forming galaxies (apparent IR luminosities of LIR > 1013 - 14 L⊙), while we confirm their predetermined redshifts measured using the Large Millimeter Telescope, LMT (zCO = 1.33-3.26). The CO(1-0) lines show similar profiles as compared to Jup = 2-4 transitions previously observed with the LMT. We report enhanced infrared to CO line luminosity ratios of = 110 ± 22 L_{⊙} (K km s^{-1} pc^{-2})^{-1} compared to normal star-forming galaxies, yet similar to those of well-studied IR-luminous galaxies at high-z. We find average brightness temperature ratios of 〈 r21〉 = 0.93 (2 sources), 〈 r31〉 = 0.34 (5 sources), and 〈 r41〉 = 0.18 (1 source). The r31 and r41 values are roughly half the average values for SMGs. We estimate the total gas mass content as {μ M_{H2} = (0.9-27.2) × 10^{11} (α _CO/0.8) M_{⊙}, where μ is the magnification factor and αCO is the CO line luminosity to molecular hydrogen gas mass conversion factor. The rapid gas depletion times, = 80} Myr, reveal vigorous starburst activity, and contrast the Gyr depletion time-scales observed in local, normal star-forming galaxies.

  9. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  10. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  11. How Spherical Is a Cube (Gravitationally)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, Jeff; Smith, David

    2015-01-01

    An important concept that is presented in the discussion of Newton's law of universal gravitation is that the gravitational effect external to a spherically symmetric mass distribution is the same as if all of the mass of the distribution were concentrated at the center. By integrating over ring elements of a spherical shell, we show that the…

  12. Development of a totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, C.M.; Crawford, R.W.; Barton, V.C.; Brand, H.R.; Neufeld, K.W.; Bowman, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    A totally computer-controlled triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQMS) is described. It has a number of unique features not available on current commercial instruments, including: complete computer control of source and all ion axial potentials; use of dual computers for data acquisition and data processing; and capability for self-adaptive control of experiments. Furthermore, it has been possible to produce this instrument at a cost significantly below that of commercial instruments. This triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has been constructed using components commercially available from several different manufacturers. The source is a standard Hewlett-Packard 5985B GC/MS source. The two quadrupole analyzers and the quadrupole CAD region contain Balzers QMA 150 rods with Balzers QMG 511 rf controllers for the analyzers and a Balzers QHS-511 controller for the CAD region. The pulsed-positive-ion-negative-ion-chemical ionization (PPINICI) detector is made by Finnigan Corporation. The mechanical and electronics design were developed at LLNL for linking these diverse elements into a functional TQMS as described. The computer design for total control of the system is unique in that two separate LSI-11/23 minicomputers and assorted I/O peripherals and interfaces from several manufacturers are used. The evolution of this design concept from totally computer-controlled instrumentation into future self-adaptive or ''expert'' systems for instrumental analysis is described. Operational characteristics of the instrument and initial results from experiments involving the analysis of the high explosive HMX (1,3,5,7-Tetranitro-1,3,5,7-Tetrazacyclooctane) are presented

  13. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  14. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  15. Increased body mass index is a predisposition for treatment by total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Steffen; Sonne-Holm, Stig

    2005-01-01

    -joint degeneration and dysplasia. Sequential body mass index (BMI) measurements from 1976 to 1992, age, exposure to daily lifting and hip dysplasia were entered into logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of hip dysplasia ranged from 5.4% to 12.8% depending on the radiographical index used. Radiological hip OA...... prevalence was 1.0--2.5% in subjects or=60 years of age. While radiological OA was significantly influenced by hip dysplasia in men and hip dysplasia and age in women, the risk of THR being performed was only influenced by BMI assessed in 1976. Hip......We investigated the radiological and epidemiological data of 4,151 subjects followed up from 1976 to 2003 to determine individual risk factors for hip osteoarthritis (OA), hip pain and/or treatment by total hip replacement (THR). Pelvic radiographs recorded in 1992 were assessed for evidence of hip...

  16. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  17. Precision Timing of PSR J0437-4715: An Accurate Pulsar Distance, a High Pulsar Mass, and a Limit on the Variation of Newton's Gravitational Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbiest, J. P. W.; Bailes, M.; van Straten, W.; Hobbs, G. B.; Edwards, R. T.; Manchester, R. N.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Jacoby, B. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.

    2008-05-01

    Analysis of 10 years of high-precision timing data on the millisecond pulsar PSR J0437-4715 has resulted in a model-independent kinematic distance based on an apparent orbital period derivative, dot Pb , determined at the 1.5% level of precision (Dk = 157.0 +/- 2.4 pc), making it one of the most accurate stellar distance estimates published to date. The discrepancy between this measurement and a previously published parallax distance estimate is attributed to errors in the DE200 solar system ephemerides. The precise measurement of dot Pb allows a limit on the variation of Newton's gravitational constant, |Ġ/G| <= 23 × 10-12 yr-1. We also constrain any anomalous acceleration along the line of sight to the pulsar to |a⊙/c| <= 1.5 × 10-18 s-1 at 95% confidence, and derive a pulsar mass, mpsr = 1.76 +/- 0.20 M⊙, one of the highest estimates so far obtained.

  18. Analytic models of plausible gravitational lens potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sérsic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sérsic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses

  19. Stellar-mass black holes in young massive and open stellar clusters and their role in gravitational-wave generation - II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sambaran

    2018-01-01

    The study of stellar-remnant black holes (BH) in dense stellar clusters is now in the spotlight, especially due to their intrinsic ability to form binary black holes (BBH) through dynamical encounters, which potentially coalesce via gravitational-wave (GW) radiation. In this work, which is a continuation from a recent study (Paper I), additional models of compact stellar clusters with initial masses ≲ 105 M⊙ and also those with small fractions of primordial binaries (≲ 10 per cent) are evolved for long term, applying the direct N-body approach, assuming state-of-the-art stellar-wind and remnant-formation prescriptions. That way, a substantially broader range of computed models than that in Paper I is achieved. As in Paper I, the general-relativistic BBH mergers continue to be mostly mediated by triples that are bound to the clusters rather than happen among the ejected BBHs. In fact, the number of such in situ BBH mergers, per cluster, tends to increase significantly with the introduction of a small population of primordial binaries. Despite the presence of massive primordial binaries, the merging BBHs, especially the in situ ones, are found to be exclusively dynamically assembled and hence would be spin-orbit misaligned. The BBHs typically traverse through both the LISA's and the LIGO's detection bands, being audible to both instruments. The 'dynamical heating' of the BHs keeps the electron-capture-supernova (ECS) neutron stars (NS) from effectively mass segregating and participating in exchange interactions; the dynamically active BHs would also exchange into any NS binary within ≲1 Gyr. Such young massive and open clusters have the potential to contribute to the dynamical BBH merger detection rate to a similar extent as their more massive globular-cluster counterparts.

  20. Quantification of total hexose on dry blood spot by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenhua; Tian, Guoli; Huang, Qiwei; Wang, Yanmin; Ge, Qingwei

    2012-12-01

    Because hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia are harmful and not always associated with overt clinical signs, it is necessary to have methods available to screen for glucose levels to detect hypoglycemia and diabetes as early as possible. A new method for such screening and the clinical determination of blood total hexose on a dry blood spot (DBS) using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was developed. The serum glucose controls and blood were prepared as DBS and then extracted into a methanol solution containing isotope-labeled internal standards. The methanolic extraction was subjected to HPLC, followed by MS/MS in positive ion mode. Multiple-reaction monitoring of m/z 203.1→23 was used to detect hexose, and m/z 209.0→23 was used for 13C6-D-glucose. The recoveries of blood glucose by MS/MS were 90%-102% with an R(2) value of 0.999 after linear regression (pblood total hexose in neonates aged 3-7 days (6.41±1.46 mmol/L) was lower than that in neonates aged 8-30 days (6.66±1.38 mmol/L), and it was lower in neonates than in children aged 1-72 months (7.19±1.87 mmol/L). Quantification of total hexose on a dry blood spot by MS/MS is accurate, reliable and feasible for screening and clinical tests. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Total homocysteine is positively correlated with body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat mass among overweight reproductive women: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Bayyari, Nahla; Hamadneh, Jehan; Hailat, Rae'd; Hamadneh, Shereen

    2017-12-01

    Conflicting associations between total homocysteine (tHcy), body mass index (BMI) lean body mass, and fat mass in the general population have been reported. We investigated the hypothesis that elevated tHcy levels are associated with increased BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body fat mass percent. In Jordan, obesity and overweight are prevalent among reproductive women and hyperhomocysteinemia, along with obesity and overweight, are independent risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. The participants used in this cross-sectional study were 325 overweight Jordanian women aged between 18 and 49 years old. The main outcome measures were tHcy, BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat-free mass, and total body water. Serum tHcy was analyzed using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrophotometry (LC-MS/MS) complete kit. The body compositions were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Study participants were stratified according to their tHcy level into two groups, ≤10 μmol/L and >10 μmol/L, and the difference between mean values of body compositions was evaluated. The tHcy was significantly and negatively correlated with age, fat-free mass, and total body water, and significantly and positively correlated with BMI, hip circumference, WHR, fat mass, and dry lean weight. The chi-square and the independent sample t-tests showed statistically significant (P ≤ .05) differences between tHcy and BMI, WHR, fat and fat-free mass, and total body water percentages. In conclusion, BMI, WHR and body fat mass were found to be associated with elevated tHcy levels among overweight reproductive women, and they might be used as independent predictors of the tHcy level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The gravitational-optical methods for examination of the hypothesis about galaxies and antigalaxies in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribov, I. A.; Trigger, S. A.

    2018-01-01

    The optical-gravitational methods for distinction between photons and antiphotons (galaxies, emitting photons and antigalaxies, emitting antiphotons) in the proposed hypothesis of totally gravitationally neutral (TGN)-Universe are considered. These methods are based on the extension of the earlier proposed the gravitationally neutral Universe concept, including now gravitational neutrality of vacuum. This concept contains (i) enlarged unbroken baryon-like, charge, parity and time and full ±M gr gravitational symmetries between all massive elementary particles-antiparticles, including (ia) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (ib) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM) and (ii) the resulting gravitational repulsion between equally presented (OM+DM)-galactic and (OAM+DAM)-antigalactic clusters, what spatially isolates and preserves their mutual annihilations in the large-scale TGN-Universe. It is assumed the gravitational balance not only between positive and negative gravitational masses of elementary particles and antiparticles, but also between all massless fields of the quantum field theory (QFT), including the opposite gravitational properties of photons and antiphotons, etc, realizing the totally gravitationally neutral vacuum in the QFT. These photons and antiphotons could be distinguishable optically-gravitationally, if one can observe a massive, deviating OM-star or a deviating (OM+DM)-galaxy from our galactic group, moving fast enough on the heavenly sphere, crossing the line directed to spatially separated far-remote galactic clusters (with the visible OM-markers, emitting photons) or antigalactic cluster (with the visible OAM-markers, emitting antiphotons). The deviations and gravitational microlensing with temporarily increased or decreased brightness of their OM and OAM rays will be opposite, indicating the galaxies and antigalaxies in the Universe.

  3. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  4. Total β-decay energies and masses of tin, antimony and tellurium isotopes in the vicinity of 50132Sn82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.; Aleklett, K.; Rudstam, G.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental β-decay energies for short-lived isotopes of tin, antimony and tellurium are presented. Mass-separated sources were produced at the on-line isotope separator OSIRIS. By applying β-γ coincidence methods, total β-decay energies have been determined for the following nuclides: 127-131 Sn, 128 130 131 134 Sb and 134 135 Te. The atomic mass excess has been derived for these nuclei, and comparisons are made with mass formula predictions. (Auth.)

  5. Mass number dependence of total neutron cross section; a discussion based on the semi-classical optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Istvan

    1990-01-01

    The dependence of total neutron cross section on mass number can be calculated by the black nucleus formula, according to the optical model. The fine structure of mass number dependence is studied, and a correction factor formula is given on the basis of a semi-classical optical model. Yielding results in good agreement with experimental data. In addition to the mass number dependence, the neutron-energy dependence can also be calculated using this model. (K.A.)

  6. Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong

    2018-01-01

    In the purely gravitational dark matter scenario, the dark matter particle does not have any interaction except for gravitational one. We study the gravitational particle production of dark matter particle in such a minimal setup and show that correct amount of dark matter can be produced depending on the inflation model and the dark matter mass. In particular, we carefully evaluate the particle production rate from the transition epoch to the inflaton oscillation epoch in a realistic inflati...

  7. A Closer Earth and the Faint Young Sun Paradox: Modification of the Laws of Gravitation or Sun/Earth Mass Losses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Iorio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Given a solar luminosity LAr = 0.75L0 at the beginning of the Archean 3.8 Ga ago, where L0 is the present-day one, if the heliocentric distance, r, of the Earth was rAr = 0.956r0, the solar irradiance would have been as large as IAr = 0.82I0. It would have allowed for a liquid ocean on the terrestrial surface, which, otherwise, would have been frozen, contrary to the empirical evidence. By further assuming that some physical mechanism subsequently displaced the Earth towards its current distance in such a way that the irradiance stayed substantially constant over the entire Archean from 3.8 to 2.5 Ga ago, a relative recession per year as large as r˙/r ≈3.4 × 10−11 a−1 would have been required. Although such a figure is roughly of the same order of magnitude of the value of the Hubble parameter 3.8 Ga ago HAr = 1.192H0 = 8.2 × 10−11 a−1, standard general relativity rules out cosmological explanations for the hypothesized Earth’s recession rate. Instead, a class of modified theories of gravitation with nonminimal coupling between the matter and the metric naturally predicts a secular variation of the relative distance of a localized two-body system, thus yielding a potentially viable candidate to explain the putative recession of the Earth’s orbit. Another competing mechanism of classical origin that could, in principle, allow for the desired effect is the mass loss, which either the Sun or the Earth itself may have experienced during the Archean. On the one hand, this implies that our planet should have lost 2% of its present mass in the form of eroded/evaporated hydrosphere. On the other hand, it is widely believed that the Sun could have lost mass at an enhanced rate, due to a stronger solar wind in the past for not more than ≈ 0.2–0.3 Ga.

  8. Body mass and weight thresholds for increased prosthetic joint infection rates after primary total joint arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübbeke, Anne; Zingg, Matthieu; Vu, Diemlan; Miozzari, Hermes H; Christofilopoulos, Panayiotis; Uçkay, Ilker; Harbarth, Stephan; Hoffmeyer, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Obesity increases the risk of deep infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Our objective was to determine whether there may be body mass index (BMI) and weight thresholds indicating a higher prosthetic joint infection rate. We included all 9,061 primary hip and knee arthroplasties (mean age 70 years, 61% women) performed between March 1996 and December 2013 where the patient had received intravenous cefuroxime (1.5 g) perioperatively. The main exposures of interest were BMI (5 categories: prosthetic joint infection. The mean follow-up time was 6.5 years (0.5-18 years). 111 prosthetic joint infections were observed: 68 postoperative, 16 hematogenous, and 27 of undetermined cause. Incidence rates were similar in the first 3 BMI categories (infection from the early postoperative period onward (adjusted HR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.6). BMI ≥ 35 or weight ≥ 100 kg may serve as a cutoff for higher perioperative dosage of antibiotics.

  9. A new geometrical gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, T.; Chiba, J.; Oshima, H.

    1981-01-01

    A geometrical gravitational theory is developed. The field equations are uniquely determined apart from one unknown dimensionless parameter ω 2 . It is based on an extension of the Weyl geometry, and by the extension the gravitational coupling constant and the gravitational mass are made to be dynamical and geometrical. The fundamental geometrical objects in the theory are a metric gsub(μν) and two gauge scalars phi and psi. The theory satisfies the weak equivalence principle, but breaks the strong one generally. u(phi, psi) = phi is found out on the assumption that the strong one keeps holding good at least for bosons of low spins. Thus there is the simple correspondence between the geometrical objects and the gravitational objects. Since the theory satisfies the weak one, the inertial mass is also dynamical and geometrical in the same way as is the gravitational mass. Moreover, the cosmological term in the theory is a coscalar of power -4 algebraically made of psi and u(phi, psi), so it is dynamical, too. Finally spherically symmetric exact solutions are given. The permissible range of the unknown parameter ω 2 is experimentally determined by applying the solutions to the solar system. (author)

  10. Standard test method for analysis of total and isotopic uranium and total thorium in soils by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of total uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations in soils, as well as the determination of the isotopic weight percentages of 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U, thereby allowing for the calculation of individual isotopic uranium activity or total uranium activity. This inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method is intended as an alternative analysis to methods such as alpha spectroscopy or thermal ionization mass spectroscopy (TIMS). Also, while this test method covers only those isotopes listed above, the instrumental technique may be expanded to cover other long-lived radioisotopes since the preparation technique includes the preconcentration of the actinide series of elements. The resultant sample volume can be further reduced for introduction into the ICP-MS via an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) unit or other sample introduction device, even though the standard peristaltic pump introduction is applied for this test method. The sample preparatio...

  11. Gravitational microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F [Russian Federation State Scientific Center ' A.I. Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Sazhin, Mikhail V [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-31

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Gravitational microlensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F; Sazhin, Mikhail V

    1998-01-01

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Amplification caused by gravitational bending of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, P.

    1985-01-01

    Gravitational bending of light may not only lead to multiple imaging (gravitational lens effect), but also affects the apparent luminosity of a source. It is shown here that a mass distribution near the line-of-sight to any source always increases the observable flux relative to the case in which the deflector is absent

  14. Physics of interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Caltech-MIT joint LIGO project is operating three long-baseline interferometers (one of 2 km and two of 4 km) in order to unambiguously measure the infinitesimal displacements of isolated test masses which convey the signature of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. An interferometric gravitational wave ...

  15. Gravitational bending of light rays in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsupko, O. Yu.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in presence of plasma. We observe that in a homogeneous plasma the gravitational deflection angle differs from that in vacuum, and it depends on the frequency of the photon. We discuss observational consequences of this dependence for the point-mass lensing and estimate possibility of the observation of this effect by the planned project Radioastron.

  16. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H.; Gavazzi, Raphaël; Marshall, Philip J.; Auger, Matthew W.; Nipoti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z d = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z s = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r -γ ' ), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ * = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M * and R eff , γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M * ,R eff with the evolution of the R eff -M * taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work

  17. Feasibility analysis of gravitational experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everitt, C. W. F.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro relativity experiment; (2) experiments to test the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass; (3) an experiment to look for nongeodesic motion of spinning bodies in orbit around the earth; (4) experiments to look for changes of the gravitational constant G with time; (5) a variety of suggestions; laboratory tests of experimental gravity; and (6) gravitational wave experiments.

  18. Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.

  19. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on Total, Abdominal and Visceral Fat Mass: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, Florie; Pereira, Bruno; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2018-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is promoted as a time-efficient strategy to improve body composition. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of HIIT in reducing total, abdominal, and visceral fat mass in normal-weight and overweight/obese adults. Electronic databases were searched to identify all related articles on HIIT and fat mass. Stratified analysis was performed using the nature of HIIT (cycling versus running, target intensity), sex and/or body weight, and the methods of measuring body composition. Heterogeneity was also determined RESULTS: A total of 39 studies involving 617 subjects were included (mean age 38.8 years ± 14.4, 52% females). HIIT significantly reduced total (p = 0.003), abdominal (p = 0.007), and visceral (p = 0.018) fat mass, with no differences between the sexes. A comparison showed that running was more effective than cycling in reducing total and visceral fat mass. High-intensity (above 90% peak heart rate) training was more successful in reducing whole body adiposity, while lower intensities had a greater effect on changes in abdominal and visceral fat mass. Our analysis also indicated that only computed tomography scan or magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abdominal and/or visceral fat-mass loss after HIIT interventions. HIIT is a time-efficient strategy to decrease fat-mass deposits, including those of abdominal and visceral fat mass. There was some evidence of the greater effectiveness of HIIT running versus cycling, but owing to the wide variety of protocols used and the lack of full details about cycling training, further comparisons need to be made. Large, multicenter, prospective studies are required to establish the best HIIT protocols for reducing fat mass according to subject characteristics.

  20. Hydrodynamics, fields and constants in gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanyukovich, K.P.; Mel'nikov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Results of original inveatigations into problems of standard gravitation theory and its generalizations are presented. The main attention is paid to the application of methods of continuous media techniques in the gravitation theory; to the specification of the gravitation role in phenomena of macro- and microworld, accurate solutions in the case, when the medium is the matter, assigned by hydrodynamic energy-momentum tensor; and to accurate solutions for the case when the medium is the field. GRT generalizations are analyzed, such as the new cosmologic hypothesis which is based on the gravitation vacuum theory. Investigations are performed into the quantization of cosmological models, effects of spontaneous symmetry violation and particle production in cosmology. Graeity theory with fundamental Higgs field is suggested in the framework of which in the atomic unit number one can explain possible variations of the effective gravitational bonds, and in the gravitation bond, variations of masses of all particles

  1. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blagojevic, N; Allen, B J; Baur, L; Gaskin, K

    1988-12-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value.

  2. In-vivo determination of total body water and lean body mass in subjects by deuterium dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blagojevic, N.; Allen, B.J.; Baur, L.; Gaskin, K.

    1988-01-01

    Total body water (TBW) estimation is one of a number of basic techniques required for the determination of body composition in normal and malnourished subjects. When combined with total body nitrogen (TBN) analysis by prompt gamma neutron activation, an accurate compartmental model of in vivo body composition can be formed, providing valuable nutritional and other data. This study examines the role of TBW on its own in evaluating lean body mass. Total body water was studied in six male and five female subjects using deuterium oxide and a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. The lean body mass calculated from the results was compared with the lean body mass deduced from established total body nitrogen measurements. A four-compartment model was also used to calculate lean body mass. Excellent agreement was shown between lean body mass derived from TBW, the four-compartment model and TBN. Hence, TBW can provide a fast, cost-efficient method for evaluating normal subjects. However, for disease-induced malnutrition, or highly developed athletes, both TBN and TBW measurements are essential to establish an accurate picture of their body composition. TBW measurements alone can monitor the hydration state of patients and as such have a useful diagnostic value

  3. The role of total body fat mass and trunk fat mass, combined with other endocrine factors, in menstrual recovery and psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karountzos, Vasileios; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Tsitsika, Artemis; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios

    2017-10-01

    To determine the threshold of total body and trunk fat mass required for menstrual recovery and to assess the impact of body composition in psychopathology of adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Prospective study of 60 adolescents presented with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed with AN. Anthropometrics, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, hormonal studies and responses to mental health screens (EAT-26), were obtained at the beginning and at complete weight restoration, in all adolescents, independently of menstrual recovery (Group A) or not (Group B). At weight restoration, Group A total body fat mass, trunk fat mass, and trunk/extremities fat ratio were significantly higher (p psychopathology of adolescents with AN.

  4. Influence of gravitational and vibrational convection on the heat- and mass transfer in the melt during crystal growing by Bridgman and floating zone methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    2016-07-01

    Space materials science is one of the priorities of different national and international space programs. The physical processes of heat and mass transfer in microgravity (including effect of g-jitter) is far from complete clarity, especially for important practical technology for producing crystals from the melt. The idea of the impact on crystallizing melt by low frequency vibration includes not only the possibility to suppress unwanted microaccelerations, but also to actively influence the structure of the crystallization front. This approach is one of the most effective ways to influence the quality of materials produced in flight conditions. The subject of this work is the effect of vibrations on the thermal and hydrodynamic processes during crystal growth using Bridgman and floating zone techniques, which have the greatest prospect of practical application in space. In the present approach we consider the gravitational convection, Marangoni convection, as well as the effect of vibration on the melt for some special cases. The results of simulation were compared with some experimental data obtained by the authors using a transparent model substance - succinonitrile (Bridgman method), and silicon (floating zone method). Substances used, process parameters and characteristics of the experimental units correspond the equipment developed for onboard research and serve as a basis for selecting optimum conditions vibration exposure as a factor affecting the solidification pattern. The direction of imposing vibrations coincides with the axis of the crystal, the frequency is presented by the harmonic law, and the force of gravity was varied by changing its absolute value. Mathematical model considered axisymmetric approximation of joint convective-conductive energy transfer in the system crystal - melt. Upon application of low-frequency oscillations of small amplitude along the axis of growing it was found the suppression of the secondary vortex flows near the

  5. Modeling the Complete Gravitational Wave Spectrum of Neutron Star Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Nagar, Alessandro

    2015-08-28

    In the context of neutron star mergers, we study the gravitational wave spectrum of the merger remnant using numerical relativity simulations. Postmerger spectra are characterized by a main peak frequency f2 related to the particular structure and dynamics of the remnant hot hypermassive neutron star. We show that f(2) is correlated with the tidal coupling constant κ(2)^T that characterizes the binary tidal interactions during the late-inspiral merger. The relation f(2)(κ(2)^T) depends very weakly on the binary total mass, mass ratio, equation of state, and thermal effects. This observation opens up the possibility of developing a model of the gravitational spectrum of every merger unifying the late-inspiral and postmerger descriptions.

  6. Considerations concerning the definition and distribution of gravitational energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottlieb, I.; Ionescu-Pallas, N.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews Einstein's gravitational field equations in a covariant form in a flat space-time. Several equations are examined for gravitational energy distribution. For a single pointlike gravitational source at rest, of mass, M/sub o/, they obtain E = M/sub o/c/sup 2/. For the case of Cartesian coordinates, agreement is obtained with Landau-Fock formulation of gravitational energy

  7. Gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations and supermassive black hole formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhalani, V.; Kharkwal, H.; Singh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Dark energy is the dominant component of the total energy density of our Universe. The primary interaction of dark energy with the rest of the Universe is gravitational. It is therefore important to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy. Since dark energy is a low-energy phenomenon from the perspective of particle physics and field theory, a fundamental approach based on fields in curved space should be sufficient to understand the current dynamics of dark energy. Here, we take a field theory approach to dark energy. We discuss the evolution equations for a generic dark energy field in curved space-time and then discuss the gravitational collapse for dark energy field configurations. We describe the 3 + 1 BSSN formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields for any general potential for the fields and apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting equations for the time evolution of field configurations and the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our Universe. We also demonstrate the black hole formation as a result of the gravitational collapse of the dark energy field configurations. The black holes produced by the collapse of dark energy fields are in the supermassive black hole category with the masses of these black holes being comparable to the masses of black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  8. Gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations and supermassive black hole formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jhalani, V.; Kharkwal, H.; Singh, A., E-mail: anupamsingh.iitk@gmail.com [L. N. Mittal Institute of Information Technology, Physics Department (India)

    2016-11-15

    Dark energy is the dominant component of the total energy density of our Universe. The primary interaction of dark energy with the rest of the Universe is gravitational. It is therefore important to understand the gravitational dynamics of dark energy. Since dark energy is a low-energy phenomenon from the perspective of particle physics and field theory, a fundamental approach based on fields in curved space should be sufficient to understand the current dynamics of dark energy. Here, we take a field theory approach to dark energy. We discuss the evolution equations for a generic dark energy field in curved space-time and then discuss the gravitational collapse for dark energy field configurations. We describe the 3 + 1 BSSN formalism to study the gravitational collapse of fields for any general potential for the fields and apply this formalism to models of dark energy motivated by particle physics considerations. We solve the resulting equations for the time evolution of field configurations and the dynamics of space-time. Our results show that gravitational collapse of dark energy field configurations occurs and must be considered in any complete picture of our Universe. We also demonstrate the black hole formation as a result of the gravitational collapse of the dark energy field configurations. The black holes produced by the collapse of dark energy fields are in the supermassive black hole category with the masses of these black holes being comparable to the masses of black holes at the centers of galaxies.

  9. The Study of Prompt and Delayed Muon Induced Fission. I.Total kinetic energies and mass distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, P; Hartfiel, J.; Janszen, H.; Petitjean, C.; Reist, H.W.; Polikanov, S.M.; Konijn, J.; Laat, de C.T.A.M.; Taal, A.; Krogulski, T.; Johansson, T.; Tibell, G.; Achard van Enschut, d' J.F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Mass yield and total kinetic energy release (TKE) distributions of fragments from prompt and delayed muon induced fission, separately, have been measured for the isotopes235U,238U,237Np and242Pu. The distributions from prompt muon induced fission are compared with the corresponding distributions

  10. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was

  11. Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests

  12. Determination of total uranium by mass spectrometry utilizing the isotopic dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cretella, R.F.; Noutary, C.J.; Servant, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic dilution associated to mass spectrometry is a high-sensitivity technique that allows to work with microquantities of the sample, making it possible to analize the content in highly radioactive solutions with excellent accuracy and minimum risk. The proposed technique is described and its results are discussed through the analysis of: 1) A synthetic sample that simulates dissolved spent fuel elements; 2) Uranium dioxide of nuclear purity and 3) Uranium concentrate. 233 U(ORNL) was employed as a tracer and a Nuclide 12-90-SU mass spectrometer of simple magnetic focus as measurement instrument. The accuracy reached in the analyses is better than 0.5% with a reliability of 95%. The analysis of the errors shows that their main contributing source are the errors in the measurement of the isotopic ratios. (M.E.L.) [es

  13. A totally automated data acquisition/reduction system for routine treatment of mass spectroscopic data by factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tway, P.C.; Love, L.J.C.; Woodruff, H.B.

    1980-01-01

    Target transformation factor analysis is applied to typical data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and solid-probe mass spectrometry to determine rapidly the number of components in unresolved or partially resolved peaks. This technique allows the detection of hidden impurities which often make interpretation or quantification impossible. The error theory of Malinowski is used to assess the reliability of the results. The totally automated system uses a commercially available g.c.-m.s. data system interfaced to the large computer, and the number of components under a peak can be determined routinely and rapidly. (Auth.)

  14. Entropy of self-gravitating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, R.D.; Wald, R.M.; Jiu, Z.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The entropy of self-gravitating radiation confined to a spherical box of radius R is examined in the context of general relativity. It is expected that configurations (i.e., initial data) which extremize total entropy will be spherically symmetric, time symmetric distributions of radiation in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Assuming this is the case, it is proved that extrema of S coincide precisely with static equilibrium configurations of the radiation fluid. Furthermore, dynamically stable equilibrium configurations are shown to coincide with local maxima of S. The equilibrium configurations and their entropies are calculated and their properties are discussed. However, it is shown that entropies higher than these local extrema can be achieved and, indeed, arbitrarily high entropies can be attained by configurations inside of or outside but arbitrarily near their own Schwarzschild radius. However, consideration is limited to configurations which are outside their own Schwarzschild radius by at least one radiation wavelength, then the entropy is bounded and it is found Ssub(max) < is approximately equal to MR, where M is the total mass. This supports the validity for self-gravitating systems of the Bekenstein upper limit on the entropy to energy ratio of material bodies. (author)

  15. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  16. Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biesiada, M.

    1999-01-01

    Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)

  17. Sensitivity of a combined gravitational antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulagin, V.V.; Rudenko, V.N.

    1986-01-01

    A modification of a combined optico-acoustic gravitational antenna: a long-base laser interferometer, where free masses are changed by Weber resonators, is suggested. The combined gravitational antenna can possess sensitivity h min ∼ 10 -18 without deep cooling of Weber resonators and h min ∼ 10 -19 at helium temperaure of the resonators. This antenna has the following new quantities: presence of three independent responses, that permits to a considerable extent to exclude non-gravitational effects; presence of responses of two separated Weber resonators, that permits to register the wave character of gravitational perturbation by measuring phase shift between relaxation ''tails''. It means that one may with certainty register the wave structure of gravitational radiation for perturbation of metrics h, exceeding the threshold sensitivity of the known detectors by an order

  18. Gravitational Wave Experiments - Proceedings of the First Edoardo Amaldi Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccia, E.; Pizzella, G.; Ronga, F.

    1995-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Foreword * Notes on Edoardo Amaldi's Life and Activity * PART I. INVITED LECTURES * Sources and Telescopes * Sources of Gravitational Radiation for Detectors of the 21st Century * Neutrino Telescopes * γ-Ray Bursts * Space Detectors * LISA — Laser Interferometer Space Antenna for Gravitational Wave Measurements * Search for Massive Coalescing Binaries with the Spacecraft ULYSSES * Interferometers * The LIGO Project: Progress and Prospects * The VIRGO Experiment: Status of the Art * GEO 600 — A 600-m Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Antenna * 300-m Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Detector (TAMA300) in Japan * Resonant Detectors * Search for Continuous Gravitational Wave from Pulsars with Resonant Detector * Operation of the ALLEGRO Detector at LSU * Preliminary Results of the New Run of Measurements with the Resonant Antenna EXPLORER * Operation of the Perth Cryogenic Resonant-Bar Gravitational Wave Detector * The NAUTILUS Experiment * Status of the AURIGA Gravitational Wave Antenna and Perspectives for the Gravitational Waves Search with Ultracryogenic Resonant Detectors * Ultralow Temperature Resonant-Mass Gravitational Radiation Detectors: Current Status of the Stanford Program * Electromechanical Transducers and Bandwidth of Resonant-Mass Gravitational-Wave Detectors * Fully Numerical Data Analysis for Resonant Gravitational Wave Detectors: Optimal Filter and Available Information * PART II. CONTRIBUTED PAPERS * Sources and Telescopes * The Local Supernova Production * Periodic Gravitational Signals from Galactic Pulsars * On a Possibility of Scalar Gravitational Wave Detection from the Binary Pulsars PSR 1913+16 * Kazan Gravitational Wave Detector “Dulkyn”: General Concept and Prospects of Construction * Hierarchical Approach to the Theory of Detection of Periodic Gravitational Radiation * Application of Gravitational Antennae for Fundamental Geophysical Problems * On

  19. Experimental studies of the gravitational agglomeration of aerosols. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, M.H.E.; Mitchell, J.P.; Kissane, M.P.

    1990-06-01

    Experiments have been performed to determine the extent of gravitational agglomeration between micron-sized airborne particles suspended initially as two discrete log-normal number-size distributions. These aerosols were generated from commercially-available glass microspheres using a standard dry powder dispersing technique. They were injected directly into a sedimentation vessel and their settling behaviour was studied using a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS33B) to obtain particle number-size data, and a deposition sampler to obtain the corresponding mass-based data. Additionally, samples were collected on membrane filters to measure total aerosol mass concentrations, and a Faraday-cup aerosol electrometer was used to determine the net average electrostatic charge of the particles. While mass-based techniques were not sufficiently sensitive to detect gravitational agglomeration, the process could be monitored with reasonable success by number-based methods. APS33B measurements were made in the presence and absence of larger particles. No significant increase in the rate of removal of the small particles was observed. These studies therefore indicated that gravitational agglomeration is small or negligible under the specified test conditions. (author)

  20. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1978-01-01

    We present formulae and numerical results for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies (''gravitational bremsstrahlung''). Our results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. We discuss in detail the gravitational waveform (transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation tensor), the toal luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy (antenna pattern), and the frequency spectrum. We also present a method of ''boosting'' the accuracy of these quantities to post-3/2-Newtonian order. A numerical comparison of our results with those of Peters and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post-Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1% at v=0.1c, to a few percent at v=0.35c, and to 10--20% at v=0.5c. We also compare our results with those of Smarr

  1. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  2. Underdevelopment’s gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.

  3. Total radiative width (Γγ) as a function of mass number A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynh, V.D.; Barros, S. De; Chevillon, P.L.; Julien, J.; Poittevin, G. Le; Morgenstern, J.; Samour, C.

    1967-01-01

    The total radiative width Γ γ was measured accurately for a large number of nuclei. These values, which are important for reactor calculations, are difficult to determine. The fluctuations in Γ γ from resonance to resonance in the same nucleus are discussed in terms of level parity and the de-excitation scheme. The authors compare the experimental values with those predicted by theory. (author) [fr

  4. Gravitational wave experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, W O

    1993-01-01

    There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The first two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the field since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...

  5. Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry determination of total budesonide levels in dog plasma after inhalation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Seija; Melamies, Marika; Rajamäki, Minna; Vainio, Outi; Peltonen, Kimmo

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive and selective method to quantify budesonide in dog plasma samples was developed and fully validated. Liquid-liquid extraction was followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization. After reconstitution of the analytes in the mobile phase, samples were analysed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with isocratic elution. d8-Budesonide was used as an internal standard, and characteristic transitions of d8-budesonide and budesonide were used for quantification. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, specificity, linearity, recovery, repeatability, reproducibility and limits of detection and quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to monitor the plasma levels of budesonide in dogs exposed to clinical doses of inhaled and intravenous drug.

  6. THE SL2S GALAXY-SCALE LENS SAMPLE. IV. THE DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL MASS DENSITY PROFILE OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES ON REDSHIFT, STELLAR MASS, AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenfeld, Alessandro; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. [Physics Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Gavazzi, Raphaël [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Auger, Matthew W. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Nipoti, Carlo, E-mail: sonnen@physics.ucsb.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2013-11-10

    We present optical and near-infrared spectroscopy obtained at Keck, Very Large Telescope, and Gemini for a sample of 36 secure strong gravitational lens systems and 17 candidates identified as part of the Strong Lensing Legacy Survey. The deflectors are massive early-type galaxies in the redshift range z{sub d} = 0.2-0.8, while the lensed sources are at z{sub s} = 1-3.5. We combine these data with photometric and lensing measurements presented in the companion paper III and with lenses from the Sloan Lens Advanced Camera for Surveys and Lènses Structure and Dynamics surveys to investigate the cosmic evolution of the internal structure of massive early-type galaxies over half the age of the universe. We study the dependence of the slope of the total mass density profile, γ' (ρ(r)∝r{sup -γ{sup '}}), on stellar mass, size, and redshift. We find that two parameters are sufficient to determine γ' with less than 6% residual scatter. At fixed redshift, γ' depends solely on the surface stellar mass density ∂γ'/∂Σ{sub *} = 0.38 ± 0.07, i.e., galaxies with denser stars also have steeper slopes. At fixed M{sub *} and R{sub eff}, γ' depends on redshift, in the sense that galaxies at a lower redshift have steeper slopes (∂γ'/∂z = –0.31 ± 0.10). However, the mean redshift evolution of γ' for an individual galaxy is consistent with zero dγ'/dz = –0.10 ± 0.12. This result is obtained by combining our measured dependencies of γ' on z, M{sub *},R{sub eff} with the evolution of the R{sub eff}-M{sub *} taken from the literature, and is broadly consistent with current models of the formation and evolution of massive early-type galaxies. Detailed quantitative comparisons of our results with theory will provide qualitatively new information on the detailed physical processes at work.

  7. Gravitation in Material Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  8. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  9. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    similar to that of viscoelastic fluid where both properties work together. They also ... cylindrical gravitational waves provides a strong motivation in this regard. .... which represents the solenoidal character of the magnetic field and the total stress.

  10. New case of gravitational lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-10-22

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.

  11. Non-Euclidean Geometry and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of misunderstandings and mathematical errors are involved in the currently accepted theory of the gravitational field generated by an isotropic spherical mass. The purpose of the present paper is to provide a short account of the rigorous mathematical theory and exhibit a new formulation of the problem. The solution of the corresponding equations of gravitation points out several new and unusual features of the stationary gravitational field which are related to the non-Euclidean structure of the space. Moreover it precludes the black hole from being a mathematical and physical notion.

  12. Comparison of nodal staging with lean body mass based and with total body weight based in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. Y.; Chung, J. K.; Kang, W. J.; So, Y.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The standardized uptake (SUV) is semiquantitative evaluation parameter in positron emission tomography (PET). But there is no consensus about the application or process of SUV measurement. In this study, we used measured lean body mass (LBM) and total weight for application in SUV measurement. Also we compared the each nodal staging with SUV between measured LBM, and total weight, in non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Total 21 patients with lung cancer were enrolled (M:F=17:4, age 45[+-]8 years). PET-CT was done before operation with Gemini (Philips, Milpitas, U.S.). Each image was reconstructed twice with measured weight and lean body mass. Maximum SUVs of 103 dissected lymph nodes were measured and compared with histological result. For the deciding on the cut off value, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was done. 14 lymph nodes in the 103 dissected lymph nodes were metastatic lesions. From the ROC analysis, the cut off value of SUV was 1.7 with measured LBM and 2.3 with total weight. With measured LBM, Sensitivity and specificity were 92.5%. 78.2% and area under curve was 0.881. With total weight, sensitivity and specificity was 92.5% and 77%, Area under curve was 0.859. The normalization of SUV could be done with measured LBM. With the normalization of SUV with LBM, the nodal staging of NSCLC using SUV could be more accurate than using total weight in the reconstruction and measurement of SUV for lymph node lesions

  13. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  14. An electric field in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harpaz, Amos

    2005-01-01

    The behaviour of an electric field in a gravitational field is analysed. It is found that due to the mass (energy) of the electric field, it is subjected to gravity and it falls in the gravitational field. This fall curves the electric field, a stress force (a reaction force) is created, and the interaction of this reaction force with the static charge gives rise to the creation of radiation

  15. Matter and gravitons in the gravitational collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the effects of gravitons in the collapse of baryonic matter that forms a black hole. We first note that the effective number of (soft off-shell gravitons that account for the (negative Newtonian potential energy generated by the baryons is conserved and always in agreement with Bekenstein's area law of black holes. Moreover, their (positive interaction energy reproduces the expected post-Newtonian correction and becomes of the order of the total ADM mass of the system when the size of the collapsing object approaches its gravitational radius. This result supports a scenario in which the gravitational collapse of regular baryonic matter produces a corpuscular black hole without central singularity, in which both gravitons and baryons are marginally bound and form a Bose–Einstein condensate at the critical point. The Hawking emission of baryons and gravitons is then described by the quantum depletion of the condensate and we show the two energy fluxes are comparable, albeit negligibly small on astrophysical scales.

  16. Matter and gravitons in the gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casadio, Roberto, E-mail: casadio@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Universià di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, IS FLAG, viale B. Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Giugno, Andrea, E-mail: A.Giugno@physik.uni-muenchen.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany); Giusti, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.giusti@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Alma Mater Universià di Bologna, via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); I.N.F.N., Sezione di Bologna, IS FLAG, viale B. Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-12-10

    We consider the effects of gravitons in the collapse of baryonic matter that forms a black hole. We first note that the effective number of (soft off-shell) gravitons that account for the (negative) Newtonian potential energy generated by the baryons is conserved and always in agreement with Bekenstein's area law of black holes. Moreover, their (positive) interaction energy reproduces the expected post-Newtonian correction and becomes of the order of the total ADM mass of the system when the size of the collapsing object approaches its gravitational radius. This result supports a scenario in which the gravitational collapse of regular baryonic matter produces a corpuscular black hole without central singularity, in which both gravitons and baryons are marginally bound and form a Bose–Einstein condensate at the critical point. The Hawking emission of baryons and gravitons is then described by the quantum depletion of the condensate and we show the two energy fluxes are comparable, albeit negligibly small on astrophysical scales.

  17. Space-time algebra for the generalization of gravitational field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analogy in formulation between massive gravitational theory and electromagnetism has ... as the dual mass, gravitomagnetic charge (monopole) or magnetic mass [7]. ... cation in the definitions of the GEM fields in the following manner:.

  18. Missing mass spectra in pp inelastic scattering at total energies of 23 GeV and 31 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Barber, D P; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Gee, C N P; Locke, D H; Loebinger, F K; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Van der Veen, F

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements of the momentum spectra of protons emitted at small angles in inelastic reactions at the CERN ISR. The data are for total energies s/sup 1///sub 2/ of 23 GeV and 31 GeV. The structure of the peak at low values of the missing mass M (of the system recoiling against the observed proton) is studied. The missing mass distributions have the form (M/sup 2/)-/sup B(t)/ where t is the four-momentum transfer squared. B(t) drops from 0.98+or-0.06 at t=-0.15 GeV/sup 2/ to 0.20+or-0.15 at t=-1.65 GeV/sup 2/. The results are compared with a simple triple-Regge formula. (12 refs).

  19. Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim

    2018-03-01

    We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.

  20. Gravitational-Wave Luminosity of Binary Neutron Stars Mergers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Francesco; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Radice, David; Perego, Albino; Dietrich, Tim

    2018-03-16

    We study the gravitational-wave peak luminosity and radiated energy of quasicircular neutron star mergers using a large sample of numerical relativity simulations with different binary parameters and input physics. The peak luminosity for all the binaries can be described in terms of the mass ratio and of the leading-order post-Newtonian tidal parameter solely. The mergers resulting in a prompt collapse to black hole have the largest peak luminosities. However, the largest amount of energy per unit mass is radiated by mergers that produce a hypermassive neutron star or a massive neutron star remnant. We quantify the gravitational-wave luminosity of binary neutron star merger events, and set upper limits on the radiated energy and the remnant angular momentum from these events. We find that there is an empirical universal relation connecting the total gravitational radiation and the angular momentum of the remnant. Our results constrain the final spin of the remnant black hole and also indicate that stable neutron star remnant forms with super-Keplerian angular momentum.

  1. Induced forces in the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the expression for the magnitude of the so-called induced force, acting on a mass particle, is deduced. The origin of this force is causally connected to the increase of the rest mass of the particle in the gravitational field. (orig.)

  2. Gravitational waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  3. A constraint on the distance dependence of the gravitational constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hut, P.

    1981-01-01

    Extended supergravity theories predict the existence of vector and scalar bosons, besides the gravitation, which in the static limit couple to the mass. An example is the gravitation, leading to antigravity. If these bosons have a small mass (approx. -4 eV), an observable Yukawa term would be present in the gravitational potential in the newtonian limit. This can be parametrized by a distance dependent effective gravitational constant G(γ). Defining G 0 = G (10 cm) and Gsub(e) = G (10 3 km), the comparison between theory and observations of the white dwarf Sirius B results in Gsub(c)/G 0 = 0.98 +- 0.08. (orig.)

  4. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  5. Comparison of 15N analysis by optical emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry for clinical studies during total parenteral nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragon, A.; Reynier, J.P.; Guiraud, G.

    1985-01-01

    During total and stable parenteral nutrition, a branched chain amino acid enriched solution containing [ 15 N]leucine was infused into a patient to determine the fate of the nitrogen administered through this formulation. Measurements of 15 N isotopic enrichments were performed on the same biological samples (urinary urea, total plasma proteins and albumin) by optical emission spectrometry (OES) and mass spectrometry (MS) to determine if OES with its specific advantages (cost, handling maintenance) constituted even with low enrichments a useful alternative technique to MS considered as the reference method. The results show that OES constituted a very useful analytical technique to obtain reliable information in clinical metabolic studies when low 15 N enrichments must be determined. (Auth.)

  6. EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh

    2007-11-01

    relation of cluster light and mass. An interesting twist in cluster lensing was provided by the post-merger Bullet Cluster (identified as 1E0657-558). In this and other merging clusters, the lensing mass is displaced from the baryonic center of mass, presenting a challenge to theories that attempt to explain away dark matter by positing a modification to the law of gravity. Detailed modeling and multi-wavelength data on these systems will provide interesting limits on dark matter as well as the possibility of a major surprise. Other advances may come from the gravitational telescope effect of galaxy clusters: regions with very high magnification can be used to image proto-galaxies at z ~ 10. Statistical studies of galaxy and cluster lenses and of invisible, diffuse large-scale structures via weak lensing have come into their own in recent years. A census of the mass distribution at low redshift has been made using the technique of galaxy galaxy lensing: the mean mass profiles of galaxies and clusters have been measured using the weak tangential shear imprinted on background galaxies. These can be correlated with a variety of luminous tracers to study galaxy/cluster properties at a level of detail not possible until recently. Equally impressive is the measurement of excess mass correlations out to ~30 Mpc from these halos, requiring measurements of shear signals below 0.01%. These measurements account for the total matter density inferred from the CMB plus other observations, thus providing a direct measure of dark matter in the present day universe. Cosmic shear refers to the more challenging measurement of shear shear correlations without the use of foreground objects to orient the shear. The first detections of such correlations were published in 2001; since then measurements from arcminute to degree scales have been made with much improved accuracy. Theoretical techniques of lensing tomography and advances in analysis methods to eliminate systematic errors have

  7. Particle production in a gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Singleton, Douglas

    2017-03-01

    We study the possibility that massless particles, such as photons, are produced by a gravitational wave. That such a process should occur is implied by tree-level Feynman diagrams such as two gravitons turning into two photons, i.e., g +g →γ +γ . Here we calculate the rate at which a gravitational wave creates a massless scalar field. This is done by placing the scalar field in the background of a plane gravitational wave and calculating the 4-current of the scalar field. Even in the vacuum limit of the scalar field it has a nonzero vacuum expectation value (similar to what occurs in the Higgs mechanism) and a nonzero current. We associate this with the production of scalar field quanta by the gravitational field. This effect has potential consequences for the attenuation of gravitational waves since the massless field is being produced at the expense of the gravitational field. This is related to the time-dependent Schwinger effect, but with the electric field replaced by the gravitational wave background and the electron/positron field quanta replaced by massless scalar "photons." Since the produced scalar quanta are massless there is no exponential suppression, as occurs in the Schwinger effect due to the electron mass.

  8. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  9. Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.; Will, C.M.

    1977-07-01

    Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c

  10. Search for substructure in anti pp total cross section in the 2200 MeV mass region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaslee, D.C.; DeMarzo, C.; Guerriero, L.

    1975-01-01

    The anti pp total cross section is measured in an apparatus with a small target and high resolution beam in order to supplement previous work by looking for narrow structure that might be hidden in broad-mass bins. One could set limits on the partial widths of bosons coupling to the anti pp system. The product of an unknown production cross section and a partial width was determined. From the data the existence of resolution-sized structure above the smooth fit with the product of cross section and width greater than 7 MeV mb. It can be shown that a Breit--Wigner resonance of spin J coupled to the anti pp system in this region must have partial width GAMMA/sub anti pp/ less than 1.8/(2J + 1) MeV. Also it is found that the broad enhancement observed in the anti pp total cross section persists without modification in an observation with mass resolution six times that of previous work

  11. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level.

  12. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  13. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  14. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  15. Fundamentals of the relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    An extended exposition of the relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) proposed by Logunov, Vlasov, and Mestvirishvili is presented. The RTG was constructed uniquely on the basis of the relativity principle and the geometrization principle by regarding the gravitational field as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell possessing energy, momentum, and spins 2 and 0. In the theory, conservation laws for the energy, momentum, and angular momentum for the matter and gravitational field taken together are strictly satisfied. The theory explains all the existing gravitational experiments. When the evolution of the universe is analyzed, the theory leads to the conclusion that the universe is infinite and flat, and it is predicted to contain a large amount of hidden mass. This missing mass exceeds by almost 40 times the amount of matter currently observed in the universe. The RTG predicts that gravitational collapse, which for a comoving observer occurs after a finite proper time, does not lead to infinite compression of matter but is halted at a certain finite density of the collapsing body. Therefore, according to the RTG there cannot be any objects in nature in which the gravitational contraction of matter to infinite density occurs, i.e., there are no black holes

  16. Gravitation in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.

  17. Total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) - a tool to obtain information about different air masses and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeling, M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols are solid particles dissolved in the atmosphere and have strong influence in the earth climate. Their solid surfaces are the only atmospheric medium for condensation of water leading to cloud formation and ultimately to precipitation. Besides their role in cloud formation, the elemental composition of aerosols reveals useful information about air masses and their transport patterns as well as air pollution. The elemental composition can be considered like a fingerprint of an air mass telling the story about its origin and fate. The presence of Al, Ti and Fe for instance indicates a source located in a highly exposed soil or often desert region, whereas Ni, V and Pb can be traced back to anthropogenic activities like fuel combustion or industrial processes. Other important source regions are the oceans, which emit the main aerosol constituents Na, Cl, and S. The concentrations of these elements in the atmosphere are extremely low and long sampling times are necessary to gain reliable results with most of the common analysis techniques. In contrast to this total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF), as a technique capable to cope with tiny sample amounts, offers the unique possibility to reduce collection times to a minimum of minutes to hours. Such short sampling times in turn render it possible to monitor different air masses either passing through a ground based station or -in the ideal case- flown into by a small research aircraft. Different aerosol samples were taken by aircraft during the second aerosol characterization experiment (ACE-2) with sampling times ranging from 15 minutes up to one hour. These filter samples were analyzed by TXRF for trace elements subsequently. Together with background information about back trajectories and size distribution covering the time of sampling the presence of different air masses could be detected. In another project, short-term samples in the Chicago/Lake Michigan area are collected to study the air mass

  18. The gravitational-wave memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, Marc

    2010-01-01

    The nonlinear memory effect is a slowly growing, non-oscillatory contribution to the gravitational-wave amplitude. It originates from gravitational waves that are sourced by the previously emitted waves. In an ideal gravitational-wave interferometer a gravitational wave with memory causes a permanent displacement of the test masses that persists after the wave has passed. Surprisingly, the nonlinear memory affects the signal amplitude starting at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order. Despite this fact, the nonlinear memory is not easily extracted from current numerical relativity simulations. After reviewing the linear and nonlinear memory I summarize some recent work, including (1) computations of the memory contribution to the inspiral waveform amplitude (thus completing the waveform to third post-Newtonian order); (2) the first calculations of the nonlinear memory that include all phases of binary black hole coalescence (inspiral, merger, ringdown); and (3) realistic estimates of the detectability of the memory with LISA.

  19. Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Giudice, Gian F.; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.

  20. Hunting for Dark Particles with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giudice, Gian F.

    2017-12-01

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking's area theorem.

  1. Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo [CERN, Theoretical Physics Department,Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-10-03

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.

  2. Hunting for dark particles with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudice, Gian F.; McCullough, Matthew; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    The LIGO observation of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger has begun a new era in fundamental physics. If new dark sector particles, be they bosons or fermions, can coalesce into exotic compact objects (ECOs) of astronomical size, then the first evidence for such objects, and their underlying microphysical description, may arise in gravitational wave observations. In this work we study how the macroscopic properties of ECOs are related to their microscopic properties, such as dark particle mass and couplings. We then demonstrate the smoking gun exotic signatures that would provide observational evidence for ECOs, and hence new particles, in terrestrial gravitational wave observatories. Finally, we discuss how gravitational waves can test a core concept in general relativity: Hawking’s area theorem.

  3. A Practical Theorem on Gravitational Wave Backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Phinney, E. S.

    2001-01-01

    There is an extremely simple relationship between the spectrum of the gravitational wave background produced by a cosmological distribution of discrete gravitational wave sources, the total time-integrated energy spectrum of an individual source, and the present-day comoving number density of remnants. Stated in this way, the background is entirely independent of the cosmology, and only weakly dependent on the evolutionary history of the sources. This relationship allows one easily to compute...

  4. A Motivational Model of Physical Education and Links to Enjoyment, Knowledge, Performance, Total Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto Gråstén, Anthony Watt

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examined the full sequence of the Hierarchical Model of Motivation in physical education (PE including motivational climate, basic psychological needs, intrinsic motivation, and related links to contextual enjoyment, knowledge, performance, and total moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Gender differences and correlations with body mass index (BMI were also analyzed. Cross-sectional data was represented by self-reports and objective assessments of 770 middle school students (52% of girls in North-East Finland. The results showed that task-involving climate in girls’ PE classes was related to enjoyment and knowledge through physical competence and intrinsic motivation, whereas task-involving climate was associated with enjoyment and knowledge via competence and autonomy, and total MVPA via autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and knowledge within boys. This may indicate that girls and boys perceive PE classes in a different way. Graded PE assessments appeared to be essential in motivating both girls and boys to participate in greater total MVPA, whereas BMI was negatively linked with competence and social relatedness only among girls. Although, the current and previous empirical findings supported task-involving teaching methods in PE, in some cases, ego-involving climate should be considered. Therefore, both task- and ego-involving teaching practices can be useful ways of developing preferred behaviors in PE classes.

  5. Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered

  6. Measurement of total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Cobo-Sacristán, Sara; Gonzalo-Diego, Núria; Colom, Helena; Muñoz-Sánchez, Carmen; Urruticoechea, Ander; Falo, Catalina; Alía, Pedro

    2016-01-05

    Docetaxel is a semi-synthetic taxane with cytotoxic anti-neoplastic activity and, currently used as anticancer agent in several types of cancer. Docetaxel is highly bound to plasma proteins, and this significantly determines its clearance and activity. Therefore, measurement of free docetaxel in plasma is pharmacologically important when pharmacokinetics is investigated. We developed and validated chromatographic methods by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to measure total and free docetaxel concentration in human plasma. The final validated methods involved liquid-liquid extraction followed by dryness under nitrogen evaporation. To measure free docetaxel concentration, sample preparation was preceded by ultrafiltration. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity(®) UPLC(®) BEH™ (2.1×100 mm id, 1.7 μm) reverse-phase C18 column at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, using isocratic elution mode containing ammonium acetate/formic acid in water/methanol (30:70 v/v) as mobile phase. Docetaxel and its internal standard (paclitaxel) were detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion multiple reaction monitoring mode using mass-to-charge (m/z) transitions of 808.3→527.0 (quantifier) and 808.3→509.0 (qualifier); and 854.3→569.0 (quantifier) and 854,3→509,0 (qualifier), respectively. The run time per sample was 3.5 min. The limits of quantification were 1,95 and 0.42 μg/L and linearity was observed between 1.95 and 1000 and 0.42-100 μg/L for total and free docetaxel, respectively. Coefficients of variation and absolute relative biases were less than 13.8% and 10.0%. Recovery values were greater than 79.4%. Evaluation of the matrix effect showed ion suppression and no carry-over was observed. The validated methods could be useful for both therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies. They could be applied to daily clinical laboratory practice to measure the concentration of total and free

  7. Electromagnetic and gravitational scattering at Planckian energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Majumdar, P.

    1994-11-01

    The scattering of pointlike particles at very large center of mass energies and fixed low momentum transfers, occurring due to both their electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is re-examined in the particular case when one of the particles carries magnetic charge. At Planckian center-of-mass energies, when gravitational dominance is normally expected, the presence of magnetic charge is shown to produce dramatic modifications to the scattering cross section as well as to the holomorphic structure of the scattering amplitude. (author). 20 refs

  8. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  9. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-10

    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  10. Trace analysis of total naphthenic acids in aqueous environmental matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry direct injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunswick, Pamela; Shang, Dayue; van Aggelen, Graham; Hindle, Ralph; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Haberl, Maxine; Kim, Marcus

    2015-07-31

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight method has been established for the determination of total naphthenic acid concentrations in aqueous samples. This is the first methodology that has been adopted for routine, high resolution, high throughput analysis of total naphthenic acids at trace levels in unprocessed samples. A calibration range from 0.02 to 1.0μgmL(-1) total Merichem naphthenic acids was validated and demonstrated excellent accuracy (97-111% recovery) and precision (1.9% RSD at 0.02μgmL(-1)). Quantitative validation was also demonstrated in a non-commercial oil sands process water (OSPW) acid extractable organics (AEOs) fraction containing a higher percentage of polycarboxylic acid isomers than the Merichem technical mix. The chromatographic method showed good calibration linearity of ≥0.999 RSQ to 0.005μgmL(-1) total naphthenic acids with a precision <3.1% RSD and a calculated detection limit of 0.0004μgmL(-1) employing Merichem technical mix reference material. The method is well suited to monitoring naturally occurring and industrially derived naphthenic acids (and other AEOs) present in surface and ground waters in the vicinity of mining developments. The advantage of the current method is its direct application to unprocessed environmental samples and to examine natural naphthenic acid isomer profiles. It is noted that where the isomer profile of samples differs from that of the reference material, results should be considered semi-quantitative due to the lack of matching isomer content. The fingerprint profile of naphthenic acids is known to be transitory during aging and the present method has the ability to adapt to monitoring of these changes in naphthenic acid content. The method's total ion scan approach allows for data previously collected to be examined retrospectively for specific analyte mass ions of interest. A list of potential naphthenic acid isomers that decrease in response with aging is proposed

  11. Proton-proton total cross sections and the neglect of masses in data fitting in the Regge region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, M.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown by taking the example of pp total cross sections that the use of the approximation s is appoximately equal to 2qsup(1/2) while fitting data in the Regge region can be misleading. Several standard fits to sigmasub(tot)pp data are based on the assumption of weak rho-f-ω-A 2 exchange degeneracy (EXD). However, these fits involve the use of the approximation mentioned. It is found that it is impossible to fit the sigmasub(tot)pp data in the range 6 2 EXD. This investigation shows that sigmasub(tot)pp data alone seem to indicate either a breaking of weak rho-f-ω-A 2 EXD or the presence of low-lying contributions, or both, provided the masses of the interacting particles in data fitting in the Regge region ((Pi)ab>=5GeV/c) are not ignored

  12. Measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point distribution in petroleum products by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Kuangnan; Edwards, Kathleen E; Dechert, Gary J; Jaffe, Stephen B; Green, Larry A; Olmstead, William N

    2008-02-01

    We report a new method for rapid measurement of total acid number (TAN) and TAN boiling point (BP) distribution for petroleum crude and products. The technology is based on negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for selective ionization of petroleum acid and quantification of acid structures and molecular weight distributions. A chip-based nanoelectrospray system enables microscale (boiling point distributions of TAN values can be calculated from the composition. The rapid measurement of TAN BP distributions by ESI is demonstrated for a series of high-TAN crudes and distillation cuts. TAN values determined by the technique agree well with those by the titration method. The distributed properties compare favorably with those measured by distillation and measurement of TAN of corresponding cuts.

  13. Total and species-specific quantitative analyses of trace elements in sediment by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Yarita, Takashi; Okamoto, Kensaku; Chiba, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) is one of the reliable methods for total and species-specific quantitative analysis of trace elements. However, several technical problems (e.g. spectral interference caused from sample constituents) should be overcome to obtain reliable analytical results when environmental samples are analyzed by ID-ICP-MS. In our laboratory, various methods based on ID-ICP-MS have been investigated for reliable quantitative analyses of trace elements in environmental samples. In this paper, coprecipitate separation/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of trace elements in sediment, cation exchange disk filtration/ID-ICP-MS for the determination of selenium in sediment, species-specific ID-ICP-MS using 118 Sn/labeled organotin compounds for the determination of butyltins and phenyltins, and the application of the ID-ICP-MS methods to the certification of sediment reference materials are described. (author)

  14. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

  15. Measurement of total and partial photon proton cross sections at 180 GeV center of mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.

    1994-03-01

    Photon proton cross sections for elastic light vector meson production, σ el γp , inelastic diffractive production, σ d γp , non-diffractive procution, σ nd γp , as well as the total cross section, σ γp tot , have been measured at an average γp center of mass energy of 180 GeV with the ZEUS detector at HERA. The resulting values are σ el γp =18±7 μb, σ d γp =33±8 μb, σ nd γp =91±11 μb, and σ γp tot =143±17 μb, where the errors include statistical and systematic errors added in quadrature. (orig.)

  16. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  17. The SLUGGS survey: a comparison of total-mass profiles of early-type galaxies from observations and cosmological simulations, to ˜4 effective radii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Remus, Rhea-Silvia; Stevens, Adam R. H.; Brodie, Jean P.; Poci, Adriano; McDermid, Richard; Alabi, Adebusola; Chevalier, Leonie; Adams, Caitlin; Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Wasserman, Asher; Pandya, Viraj

    2018-06-01

    We apply the Jeans Anisotropic Multi-Gaussian Expansion dynamical modelling method to SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey data of early-type galaxies in the stellar mass range 1010 physical processes shaping the mass distributions of galaxies in cosmological simulations are still incomplete. For galaxies with M* > 1010.7 M⊙ in the Magneticum simulations, we identify a significant anticorrelation between total-mass density profile slopes and the fraction of stellar mass formed ex situ (i.e. accreted), whereas this anticorrelation is weaker for lower stellar masses, implying that the measured total-mass density slopes for low-mass galaxies are less likely to be determined by merger activity.

  18. Simultaneous measurement of total Estradiol and Testosterone in human serum by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wang, Yuesong; Gatcombe, Matthew; Farris, Jacob; Botelho, Julianne C.; Caudill, Samuel P.; Vesper, Hubert W.

    2017-01-01

    Reliable measurement of total testosterone and estradiol is critical for their use as biomarkers of hormone related disorders in patient care and translation research. We developed and validated a mass spectrometry method to simultaneously quantify these analytes in human serum without chemical derivatization. Serum is equilibrated with isotopic internal standards and treated with acidic buffer to release hormones from their binding proteins. Lipids are isolated and polar impurities are removed by two serial liquid-liquid extraction steps. Total testosterone and estradiol are measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in combination of positive and negative electrospray ionization modes. The method shows broad analytical measurement range for both testosterone 0.03–48.5 nM (0.75–1400 ng/dL) and estradiol 11.0–5138 pM (2.99–1400 pg/mL) and excellent agreement with certified reference materials (mean bias less than 2.1% to SRM 971, BCR 576, 577, and 578) and a high order reference method (mean bias 1.25% for testosterone and −0.84% for estradiol). The high accuracy of the method was monitored and certified by CDC Hormone Standardization (HoSt) Program for two years with mean bias −0.7% (95%CI: −1.6% to 0.2%) for testosterone and 0.1% (95%CI: −2.2% to 2.3%) for estradiol. The method precision over a 2-year period for Quality Control pools at low, medium and high concentrations was 2.7–2.9% for testosterone and 3.3–5.3% for estradiol. With the consistently excellent accuracy and precision, this method is readily applicable for high-throughput clinical and epidemiological studies. PMID:28801832

  19. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  20. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  1. Relationship of total body fat mass to weight-bearing bone volumetric density, geometry, and strength in young girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Joshua N; Chen, Zhao; Lisse, Jeffrey R; Lohman, Timothy G; Going, Scott B

    2010-04-01

    Understanding the influence of total body fat mass (TBFM) on bone during the peri-pubertal years is critical for the development of future interventions aimed at improving bone strength and reducing fracture risk. Thus, we evaluated the relationship of TBFM to volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), geometry, and strength at metaphyseal and diaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia of young girls. Data from 396 girls aged 8-13 years from the "Jump-In: Building Better Bones" study were analyzed. Bone parameters were assessed using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) at the 4% and 20% distal femur and 4% and 66% distal tibia of the non-dominant leg. Bone parameters at the 4% sites included trabecular vBMD, periosteal circumference, and bone strength index (BSI), while at the 20% femur and 66% tibia, parameters included cortical vBMD, periosteal circumference, and strength-strain index (SSI). Multiple linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between bone parameters and TBFM, controlling for muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA). Regression analyses were then repeated with maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity as additional covariates. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare bone parameters among tertiles of TBFM. In regression models with TBFM and MCSA, associations between TBFM and bone parameters at all sites were not significant. TBFM explained very little variance in all bone parameters (0.2-2.3%). In contrast, MCSA was strongly related (p<0.001) to all bone parameters, except cortical vBMD. The addition of maturity, bone length, physical activity, and ethnicity did not alter the relationship between TBFM and bone parameters. With bone parameters expressed relative to total body mass, ANCOVA showed that all outcomes were significantly (p<0.001) greater in the lowest compared to the middle and highest tertiles of TBFM. Although TBFM is correlated with femur and tibia vBMD, periosteal circumference, and

  2. Probing a gravitational cat state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)

  3. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  4. Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields interaction: Particlelike solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, K.A.; Melnikov, V.N.; Shikin, G.N.; Staniukovich, K.P.

    1979-01-01

    Particlelike static spherically symmetric solutions to massless scalar and electromagnetic field equations combined with gravitational field equations are considered. Two criteria for particlelike solutions are formulated: the strong one (solutions are required to be singularity free) and the weak one (singularities are admitted but the total energy and material field energy should be finite). Exact solutions for the following physical systems are considered with their own gravitational field: (i) linear scalar (minimally coupled or conformal) plus electromagnetic field; (ii) the same fields with a bare mass source in the form of charged incoherent matter distributions; (iii) nonlinear electromagnetic field with an abritrary dependence on the invariant F/sub alphabeta/F/sup alphabeta/; and (iv) directly interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields. Case (i) solutions are not particlelike (except those with horizons, in which static regions formally satisfy the weak criterion). For systems (ii), examples of nonsingular models are constructed, in particular, a model for a particle--antiparticle pair of a Wheeler-handle type, without scalar field and explict electric charges. Besides, a number of limitations upon nonsingular model parameters is indicated. Systems (iii) are proved to violate the strong criterion for any type of nonlinearity but can satisfy the weak criterion (e.g., the Born--Infeld nonlinearity). For systems (iv) some particlelike solutions by the weak criterion are constructed and a regularizing role of gravitation is demonstrated. Finally, an example of a field system satisfying the strong criterion is given

  5. LIGO GW150914 and GW151226 gravitational wave detection and generalized gravitation theory (MOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Moffat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of gravitational waves in a generalized gravitation theory is investigated. The linearized field equations and the metric tensor quadrupole moment power and the decrease in radius of an inspiralling binary system of two compact objects are derived. The generalized Kerr metric describing a spinning black hole is determined by its mass M and the spin parameter a=cS/GM2. The LIGO-Virgo collaboration data is fitted with smaller binary black hole masses in agreement with the current electromagnetic, observed X-ray binary upper bound for a black hole mass, M≲10M⊙.

  6. Perceptual and Brain Response to Odors Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Postprandial Total Ghrelin Reactivity to a Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue; Veldhuizen, Maria G; Babbs, Amanda E; Sinha, Rajita; Small, Dana M

    2016-03-01

    Animal studies have shown that olfactory sensitivity is greater when fasted than when fed. However, human research has generated inconsistent results. One possible explanation for these conflicting findings is metabolic health. Many metabolic peptides, including ghrelin, are moderated by adiposity and influence olfaction and olfactory-guided behaviors. We tested whether the effect of a meal on the perceived intensity of suprathreshold chemosensory stimuli is influenced by body mass index and/or metabolic response to a meal. We found that overweight or obese (n = 13), but not healthy weight (n = 20) subjects perceived odors, but not flavored solutions, as more intense when hungry than when sated. This effect was correlated with reduced postprandial total ghrelin suppression (n = 23) and differential brain response to odors in the cerebellum, as measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast, it was unrelated to circulating leptin, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, or free fatty acids; or to odor pleasantness or sniffing (n = 24). These findings demonstrate that the effect of a meal on suprathreshold odor intensity perception is associated with metabolic measures such as body weight and total ghrelin reactivity, supporting endocrine influences on olfactory perception. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Determination of total and isotopic uranium by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry at the Fernald Environmental Management Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L.; Bolin, R.N.; Feller, M.T.; Danahy, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    At the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) in southwestern Ohio, ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with sample introduction by peristaltic pumping, is used to determine total and isotopic uranium (U-234, U-235, U-236 and U-238) in soil samples. These analyses are conducted in support of the environmental cleanup of the FEMP site. Various aspects of the sample preparation and instrumental analysis will be discussed. Initial sample preparation consists of oven drying to determine moisture content, and grinding and rolling to homogenize the sample. This is followed by a nitric/hydrofluoric acid digestion to bring the uranium in the sample into solution. Bismuth is added to the sample prior to digestion to monitor for losses. The total uranium (U-238) content of this solution and the U 235 /U 238 ratio are measured on the first pass through the ICP-MS. To determine the concentration of the less abundant U 234 and U 236 isotopes, the digestate is further concentrated by using Eichrom TRU-Spec extraction columns before the second pass through the ICP-MS. Quality controls for both the sample preparation and instrumental protocols will also be discussed. Finally, an explanation of the calculations used to report the data in either weight percent or activity units will be given

  8. Discretization of space and time: consequences of modified gravitational law

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, it is shown that the modified law of gravitational attraction implies that the third principle of dynamics is not fully respected and that only bodies with sufficient mass can exert gravitational attraction.

  9. Gravitation in the 'quasi-classical' theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wignall, J.W.G.; Zangari, M.

    1990-01-01

    The 'quasi-classical' picture of particles as extendend periodic disturbances in a classical nonlinear field, previously shown to imply all the equations of Maxwell electrodynamics with very little formal input, is here applied to the other known long-range force, gravitation. It is shown that the picture's absolute interpretation of inertial mass and four-potential as measures of the local spacing between equal-phase hypersurfaces, together with the empirically established proportionality of gravitational 'charge' to inertial mass, leads naturally to the gravitational red-shift formula, and it thus provides a physical basis for the spacetime curvature that is the central idea of Einstein's general theory of relativity. 16 refs., 1 fig

  10. Detecting high-frequency gravitational waves with optically levitated sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitaki, Asimina; Geraci, Andrew A

    2013-02-15

    We propose a tunable resonant sensor to detect gravitational waves in the frequency range of 50-300 kHz using optically trapped and cooled dielectric microspheres or microdisks. The technique we describe can exceed the sensitivity of laser-based gravitational wave observatories in this frequency range, using an instrument of only a few percent of their size. Such a device extends the search volume for gravitational wave sources above 100 kHz by 1 to 3 orders of magnitude, and could detect monochromatic gravitational radiation from the annihilation of QCD axions in the cloud they form around stellar mass black holes within our galaxy due to the superradiance effect.

  11. Gravitational Wave Detection in the Introductory Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burko, Lior M.

    2017-05-01

    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, two black holes, one of mass 36 solar masses and the other of mass 29 solar masses, were dancing their death waltz, leading to their coalescence and the emission of gravitational waves carrying away with them three solar masses of energy. More precisely, it happened 1.3 billion years ago at a distance of 410 Mpc. When the waves were emitted, the most complex life forms on Earth were eukaryotes. As the gravitational waves propagated toward Earth, it changed much. Five hundred million years after the waves were emitted, or 800 million years ago, the first multicellular life forms emerged on Earth. Earth saw the Cambrian explosion 500 million years ago. Sixty-six million years ago the Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event caused the disappearance of the dinosaurs. The first modern humans appeared 250,000 years ago.

  12. Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular

  13. The Scales of Gravitational Lensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco De Paolis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.

  14. Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2013-06-15

    We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.

  15. A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system

  16. Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  17. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  18. Presenting Newtonian gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counihan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The basic principles of the Newtonian theory of gravitation are presented in a way which students may find more logically coherent, mathematically accessible and physically interesting than other approaches. After giving relatively simple derivations of the circular hodograph and the elliptical orbit from the inverse-square law, the concept of gravitational energy is developed from vector calculus. It is argued that the energy density of a gravitational field may reasonably be regarded as -g 2 /8πG, and that the inverse-square law may be replaced by a Schwarzschild-like force law without the need to invoke non-Euclidean geometry

  19. Influence of body mass index (BMI on functional improvements at 3 years following total knee replacement: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Baker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of patients presenting for total knee replacement who are classified as obese is increasing. The functional benefits of performing TKR in these patients are unclear. AIM: To assess the influence pre-operative body mass index has upon knee specific function, general health status and patient satisfaction at 3 years following total knee replacement. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative cohort study using prospectively collected data from an institutional arthroplasty register. METHODS: 1367 patients were assessed using the Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC and Medical Outcomes Trust Short Form-36 (SF-36 scores supplemented by a validated measure of satisfaction pre-operatively and subsequently at 1,2 and 3 year post-operatively. Comparisons were made by dividing the cohort into 4 groups based on body mass index (BMI 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 (n = 253;>25.0-30.0 kg/m(2 (n = 559;>30.0-35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 373;>35.0 kg/m(2 (n = 182. RESULTS: Despite lower pre-operative, 1 and 3 year WOMAC and SF-36 scores patients with the highest BMIs >35.0 kg/m(2 experienced similar improvements to patients with a 'normal' BMI (18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 at 1 year (Difference in WOMAC improvement = 0.0 (95%CI -5.2 to 5.2, p = 1.00 and this improvement was sustained at up to 3 years (Difference in 1 year to 3 year improvement = 2.2 (95%CI: -2.1 to 6.5, p = 1.00. This effect was also observed for the SF-36 mental and physical component scores. Despite equivalent functional improvements levels of satisfaction in the >35.0 kg/m(2 group were lower than for any other BMI group (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 84.6% satisfied versus 18.5-5.0 kg/m(2 = 93.3% satisfied,p = 0.01 as was the proportion of patients who stated they would have the operation again (>35.0 kg/m(2 = 69.6% versus 18.5-25.0 kg/m(2 = 82.2%,p = 0.01. CONCLUSION: Obese and morbidly obese patients gain as much functional benefit from

  20. Spherically symmetric radiation in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridy, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates a previously neglected mode by which a star may lose energy in the late stages of gravitational collapse to the black hole state. A model consisting of a Schwarzschild exterior matched to a Friedman interior of collapsing pressureless dust is studied. The matter of the collapsing star is taken as the source of a massive vector boson field and a detailed boundary value problem is carried out. Vector mesons are strongly coupled to all nucleons and will be radiated by ordinary matter during the collapse. The time dependent coupling between interior and exterior modes matched across the moving boundary of the collapsing star and the presence of the gravitational fields and their gradients in the field equations may give rise to a parametric amplification mechanism and permit the gravitational field to pump energy into the boson field, greatly enhancing the amount of boson radiation. The significance of a radiative mechanism driven by collapse is that it can react back upon the collapsing source and deprive it of some of the very mass that drives the collapse via its self gravitation. If the mass loss is great enough, this may provide a mechanism to slow or even halt gravitational collapse in some cases

  1. Possibility of Landau damping of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayer, S.; Kennel, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty in the literature concerning whether or not transverse traceless gravitational waves can Landau damp. Physically, the issue is whether particles of nonzero mass can comove with surfaces of constant wave phase, and therefore, loosely, whether gravitational waves can have phase speeds less than that of light. We approach the question of Landau damping in various ways. We consider first the propagation of small-amplitude gravitational waves in an ideal fluid-filled Robertson-Walker universe of zero spatial curvature. We argue that the principle of equivalence requires those modes to be lightlike. We show that a freely moving particle interacting only with the collective fields cannot comove with such waves if it has nonzero mass. The equation for gravitational waves in collisionless kinetic gases differs from that for fluid media only by terms so small that deviations from lightlike propagation are unmeasurable. Thus, we conclude that Landau damping of small-amplitude, transverse traceless gravitational waves is not possible

  2. Quantum gravity. On the entity of gravitation generating interacting fields and the elementary fields of quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencivinni, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    The chapters about the propagation of the electromagnetic field, its properties in view of the propagation in space, the accompanying momentum, its kinetic energy and its mass-equivalent distribution of the total energy coupled to the relativistic mass represent today known and scientifically for a long time acknowledged as well as proved description of each phenomena. They are successively in a mathematically simple way formally listed and explained. The fundamental results of quantum mechanics, the quantum-mechanical momentum, Planck's action quantum etc. are also presented in a simplified way. Also the essential forms of special relativity theory concerning the propagation of energy and momentum are presented. In a last setpit is checked, whether a possible common entity between the listed scientific experiences can be established. Possible explanation approaches on the described connections and the subsequent results are presented. If the gravitational waves are interpreted as quantized electromagnetic quantum waves, as matter waves, which can be assigned to a mass in the sense of Louis de Broglie and are for instance detectable as electron waves, by means of the relativistic quantum-mechanical spatial radiation gravitation could be described. So the ''quantum-mechanical wave'' could be responsible for the generation of mass via the interaction of elementary quantum fields. The propagation of one of these as mass appearing interaction of bound quantum fields can carry a conventional momentum because of its kinetic energy. The interaction in the Bose-Einstein condensate shows that the cooled rest mass exhibits the picture of a standing wave, the wave front of which propagates into the space. Because of the massive superposition of interference pattern warns the gravitational respectively matter wave can no more be isolated. A spatial radiation is however possible. Matter can generate a radiation in front of the inertial mass (quantum waves). If it succeeds to

  3. Gravitational microlensing in Verlinde's emergent gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Leihua; Prokopec, Tom

    2017-01-01

    We propose gravitational microlensing as a way of testing the emergent gravity theory recently proposed by Eric Verlinde [1]. We consider two limiting cases: the dark mass of maximally anisotropic pressures (Case I) and of isotropic pressures (Case II). Our analysis of perihelion advancement of a

  4. Astrometric Observation of MACHO Gravitational Microlensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, A. F.; Shao, M.; Van Buren, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the prospects for astrometric observation of MACHO gravitational microlensing events. We derive the expected astrometric observables for a simple microlensing event assuming a dark MACHO, and demonstrate that accurate astrometry can determine the lens mass, distance, and proper motion in a very general fashion.

  5. Effect of Body Mass Index and Psychosocial Traits on Total Knee Replacement Costs in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waimann, Christian A; Fernandez-Mazarambroz, Rodrigo J; Cantor, Scott B; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Barbo, Andrea G; Landon, Glenn C; Siff, Sherwin J; Lin, Heather; Suarez-Almazor, Maria E

    2016-08-01

    Clinical and psychosocial attributes are associated with clinical outcomes after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery in patients with osteoarthritis (OA), but their relationship with TKR-related costs is less clear. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of clinical and psychosocial attributes on TKR costs. We conducted a 6-month prospective cohort study of patients with knee OA who underwent TKR. We examined baseline demographic, clinical [body mass index (BMI) and comorbidities], and psychosocial attributes (social support, locus of control, coping, depression, anxiety, stress, and self-efficacy); baseline and 6-month OA clinical outcomes [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function]; and 6-month direct and indirect TKR-related costs. Multiple regression was performed to identify determinants of TKR-related costs. We included 212 patients; 66% were women, 71% were white, and the mean age was 65.2 years. The mean baseline WOMAC pain score was 55 (SD 19) and WOMAC function score was 54 (SD 20). Mean total TKR-related costs were US$30,831 (SD $9893). Multivariate regression analyses showed that increasing BMI and anxiety levels and decreasing levels of positive social interactions were associated with increased costs. A lower cost scenario with a lower range of normal BMI (19.5), highest positive social interaction, and no anxiety predicted TKR costs to be $22,247. Predicted costs in obese patients (BMI 36) with lowest positive social interaction and highest anxiety were $58,447. Increased baseline BMI, anxiety, and poor social support lead to higher TKR-related costs in patients with knee OA. Preoperative interventions targeting these factors may reduce TKR-related costs, and therefore be cost-effective.

  6. On the gravitational wave background from black hole binaries after the first LIGO detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cholis, Ilias, E-mail: icholis1@jhu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 21218 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The detection of gravitational waves from the merger of binary black holes by the LIGO Collaboration has opened a new window to astrophysics. With the sensitivities of ground based detectors in the coming years, we will principally detect local binary black hole mergers. The integrated merger rate can instead be probed by the gravitational-wave background, the incoherent superposition of the released energy in gravitational waves during binary-black-hole coalescence. Through that, the properties of the binary black holes can be studied. In this work we show that by measuring the energy density Ω{sub GW} (in units of the cosmic critical density) of the gravitational-wave background, we can search for the rare ∼ 100 M {sub ⊙} massive black holes formed in the Universe. In addition, we can answer how often the least massive BHs of mass ≳ 3 M {sub ⊙} form. Finally, if there are multiple channels for the formation of binary black holes and if any of them predicts a narrow mass range for the black holes, then the total Ω{sub GW} spectrum may have features that with the future Einstein Telescope can be detected.

  7. Gravitational Wave Speed: Undefined. Experiments Proposed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Russell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since changes in all 4 dimensions of spacetime are components of displacement for gravitational waves, a theoretical result is presented that their speed is undefined, and that the Theory of Relativity is not reliable to predict their speed. Astrophysical experiments are proposed with objectives to directly measure gravitational wave speed, and to verify these theoretical results. From the circumference of two merging black hole's final orbit, it is proposed to make an estimate of a total duration of the last ten orbits, before gravitational collapse, for comparison with durations of reported gravitational wave signals. It is proposed to open a new field of engineering of spacetime wave modulation with an objective of faster and better data transmission and communication through the Earth, the Sun, and deep space. If experiments verify that gravitational waves have infinite speed, it is concluded that a catastrophic gravitational collapse, such as a merger of quasars, today, would re-define the geometry and curvature of spacetime on Earth, instantly, without optical observations of this merger visible, until billions of years in the future.

  8. Gravitation and source theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, H.

    1975-01-01

    Schwinger's source theory is applied to the problem of gravitation and its quantization. It is shown that within the framework of a flat-space the source theory implementation leads to a violation of probability. To avoid the difficulty one must introduce a curved space-time hence the source concept may be said to necessitate the transition to a curved-space theory of gravitation. It is further shown that the curved-space theory of gravitation implied by the source theory is not equivalent to the conventional Einstein theory. The source concept leads to a different theory where the gravitational field has a stress-energy tensor t/sup nu//sub mu/ which contributes to geometric curvatures

  9. Gravitational lensing of quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Eigenbrod, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...

  10. Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Sturani, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.

  11. Gravitational wave astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.

  12. A liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitating total and unbound ceritinib in patient plasma and brain tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Bao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, sensitive, and robust reversed-phase liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of total and unbound ceritinib, a second-generation ALK inhibitor, in patient plasma and brain tumor tissue samples. Sample preparation involved simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Waters ACQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column using a 4-min gradient elution consisting of mobile phase A (0.1% formic acid in water and mobile phase B (0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile, at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Ceritinib and the internal standard ([13C6]ceritinib were monitored using multiple reaction monitoring mode under positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ was 1 nM of ceritinib in plasma. The calibration curve was linear over ceritinib concentration range of 1–2000 nM in plasma. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were within the generally accepted criteria for bioanalytical method (<15%. The method was successfully applied to assess ceritinib brain tumor penetration, as assessed by the unbound drug brain concentration to unbound drug plasma concentration ratio, in patients with brain tumors.

  13. Measuring the level of public understanding of total solar eclipse from the mass media: Palembang as sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwati, F. G.; Ekawanti, N.; Luthfiandari; Premadi, P. W.

    2016-11-01

    The Total Solar Eclipse (TSE) on the 9th March 2016 received a huge attention from the mass media. Some of them intensively write articles about it even months before the TSE day. As we know media plays strategic role not only in raising public awareness but also interest. The aim of this project is to study the relation between the number of accesses to the media information and how well public learned the information delivered by the media. We prepared questionnaire consisting of seven semi-multiple choices on how public got information about TSE. We gave them choices of what they had heard to measure their basic understanding of TSE. Furthermore we add two “wrong” choices in the last questions to identify less serious respondents. We analyze 60 respondents of Palembang who visited Ampera bridge area. Our result shows no correlation between the number of information access and the level of understanding about TSE. We also found that local media did not provide the scientific content of TSE as well as the national media.

  14. Listening music of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Achievements of precision experiments in Japan (TAMA project) and USA (LIGO Laboratory) in the field of registration of gravitation waves using interferometric gravitational wave detectors are described. Works of the GEO groups in Hannover (Germany) and Vigro (Italy) are noted. Interferometer operation in synchronization during 160 hours demonstrating viability of the technique and its reliability is recorded. Advances in the field of the data analysis with the aim of recording of cosmic signal from noise of the interferometer are noted [ru

  15. Bunge on gravitational waves

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Gustavo E.

    2017-01-01

    I discuss the recent claims made by Mario Bunge on the philosophical implications of the discovery of gravitational waves. I think that Bunge is right when he points out that the detection implies the materiality of spacetime, but I reject his identification of spacetime with the gravitational field. I show that Bunge's analysis of the spacetime inside a hollow sphere is defective, but this in no way affects his main claim.

  16. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy. (paper)

  17. A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein's general theory of relativity....

  18. Total mass difference statistics algorithm: a new approach to identification of high-mass building blocks in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometry data of natural organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunenkov, Erast V; Kononikhin, Alexey S; Perminova, Irina V; Hertkorn, Norbert; Gaspar, Andras; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Popov, Igor A; Garmash, Andrew V; Nikolaev, Evgeniy N

    2009-12-15

    The ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrum of natural organic matter (NOM) contains several thousand peaks with dozens of molecules matching the same nominal mass. Such a complexity poses a significant challenge for automatic data interpretation, in which the most difficult task is molecular formula assignment, especially in the case of heavy and/or multielement ions. In this study, a new universal algorithm for automatic treatment of FTICR mass spectra of NOM and humic substances based on total mass difference statistics (TMDS) has been developed and implemented. The algorithm enables a blind search for unknown building blocks (instead of a priori known ones) by revealing repetitive patterns present in spectra. In this respect, it differs from all previously developed approaches. This algorithm was implemented in designing FIRAN-software for fully automated analysis of mass data with high peak density. The specific feature of FIRAN is its ability to assign formulas to heavy and/or multielement molecules using "virtual elements" approach. To verify the approach, it was used for processing mass spectra of sodium polystyrene sulfonate (PSS, M(w) = 2200 Da) and polymethacrylate (PMA, M(w) = 3290 Da) which produce heavy multielement and multiply-charged ions. Application of TMDS identified unambiguously monomers present in the polymers consistent with their structure: C(8)H(7)SO(3)Na for PSS and C(4)H(6)O(2) for PMA. It also allowed unambiguous formula assignment to all multiply-charged peaks including the heaviest peak in PMA spectrum at mass 4025.6625 with charge state 6- (mass bias -0.33 ppm). Application of the TMDS-algorithm to processing data on the Suwannee River FA has proven its unique capacities in analysis of spectra with high peak density: it has not only identified the known small building blocks in the structure of FA such as CH(2), H(2), C(2)H(2)O, O but the heavier unit at 154.027 amu. The latter was

  19. Fasting gall bladder volume and lithogenicity in relation to glucose tolerance, total and intra-abdominal fat masses in obese non-diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Højgaard, L; Andersen, T

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether total body fat mass or fat distribution and associated metabolic disturbances in glucose and lipid metabolism influence the well known gallstone pathogenetic factors in obese subjects in order to explain why some obese subjects develop gallstones and some do not...... with a specific radioimmunoassay. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Minimal Model and glucose tolerance by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Serum lipid concentrations were measured by standard methods. RESULTS: The gallbladder volume in the fasting state increased with increasing intra-abdominal fat...... mass (P=0.006) and was increased in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (41 vs 27 ml, P=0.001). The lithogenic index was > 1 in all subjects and correlated with total fat mass (P=0.04). CONCLUSION: Gallstone pathogenesis in obesity seems to be influenced by the total body fat mass and its regional...

  20. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu...

  1. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  2. Gravity's shadow the search for gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry

    2004-01-01

    According to the theory of relativity, we are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation. When stars explode or collide, a portion of their mass becomes energy that disturbs the very fabric of the space-time continuum like ripples in a pond. But proving the existence of these waves has been difficult; the cosmic shudders are so weak that only the most sensitive instruments can be expected to observe them directly. Fifteen times during the last thirty years scientists have claimed to have detected gravitational waves, but so far none of those claims have survived the scrutiny of the scie

  3. Virgo an interferometer for gravitational wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passaquieti, R.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational waves propagating from rapidly accelerating star masses can be detected by means of interfer- ometric techniques. The Virgo detector is a Michelson interferometer, with two 3 km long Fabry-Perot cavities, that is going to be built in the countryside of Pisa (Italy). Principles of interferometric gravitational wave detection, and the main noise sources in the Virgo apparatus are treated. The Virgo optical scheme and its main components are also described. Finally, an overview on the status of works at the Virgo site is presented

  4. Gravitational particle production in braneworld cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, C; Urban, F R

    2007-11-09

    Gravitational particle production in a time variable metric of an expanding universe is efficient only when the Hubble parameter H is not too small in comparison with the particle mass. In standard cosmology, the huge value of the Planck mass M{Pl} makes the mechanism phenomenologically irrelevant. On the other hand, in braneworld cosmology, the expansion rate of the early Universe can be much faster, and many weakly interacting particles can be abundantly created. Cosmological implications are discussed.

  5. The influence of carbon monoxide bolus on the measurement of total haemoglobin mass using the optimized CO-rebreathing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G; Richardson, A J; Maxwell, N S; Pringle, J S M; Ingham, S A; Fudge, B W

    2014-01-01

    The optimized carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (oCOR-method) is routinely used to measure total haemoglobin mass (tHbmass). The tHbmass measure is subject to a test-retest typical error of ∼2%, mostly from the precision of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO) measurement. We hypothesized that tHbmass would be robust to differences in the bolus of CO administered during the oCOR-method. Twelve participants (ten males and two females; age 27 ± 6 yr, height 177 ± 11 cm and mass 73.9 ± 12.1 kg) completed the oCOR-method on four occasions. Different bolus of CO were administered (LOW: 0.6 ml kg −1 ; MED 1 : 1.0 ml kg −1  and HIGH: 1.4 ml kg −1 ); to determine the reliability of MED 1 , a second trial was conducted (MED 2 ). tHbmass was found to be significantly less from the HIGH CO bolus (776 ± 148 g) when compared to the LOW CO (791 ± 149 g) or MED 1  CO (788 ± 149 g) trials. MED 2  CO was 785 ± 150 g. The measurement of tHbmass is repeatable to within 0.8%, but a small and notable difference was seen when using a HIGH CO bolus (1.4 to 1.9% less), potentially due to differences in CO uptake kinetics. Previously, an improved precision of the oCOR-method was thought to require a higher bolus of CO (i.e. larger ▵%HbCO), as commercial hemoximeters only estimate %HbCO levels to a single decimal place (usually ± 0.1%). With the new hemoximeter used in this study, a bolus of 1.0 ml kg −1  allows adequate precision with acceptable safety. (note)

  6. Tandem mass spectrometric identification of dextrose markers in dried-blood spots from infants receiving total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chace, Donald H; De Jesús, Víctor R; Lim, Timothy H; Hannon, W Harry; Spitzer, Alan R

    2010-11-11

    The false positive rate for the newborn screening of disorders of amino acid metabolism for premature infants is higher than full term infants. This may be due to very low birth weight infants receiving high concentrations of amino acids from total parenteral nutrition (TPN) administration and/or immature metabolism. An investigation of the possible influence of TPN on screening of premature infants resulted in the detection of three unusual peaks in the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) acylcarnitine profile. These markers were closely correlated with the detection of very high multiple amino acid increases in the profiles of newborns administered with TPN and who were ultimately found to be normal and free of inherited metabolic disorders. TPN solutions contain a concentrated mixture of amino acids and dextrose and other nutrients in saline. Due to its high concentration and suggestion of a carbohydrate, it was hypothesized that dextrose (D-glucose) was the contaminant and source of the markers detected. Dextrose, stable isotope-labeled 13C6-dextrose and various TPN solutions were analyzed directly or after enrichment in whole blood by multiple MS/MS acquisition modes including MS-only, product and precursor ion and neutral loss scans. Analysis of dried-blood spots (DBS) prepared from whole blood spiked with TPN solutions containing 12.5% dextrose and amino acid formulations designed to deliver 2.5 gm/kg/day of an amino acid mixture had moderate increases of all 3 dextrose markers detected at m/z 325, 399 and 473 as compared to controls. MS-only scans, product and precursor ion scans of dextrose and 13C6-dextrose in positive ion mode confirmed that these 3 peaks are derived from dextrose. Mass spectral analysis of labeled and unlabeled dextrose suggested that these peaks were dimers derived from dextrose. The identification of dextrose markers in DBS indicates that high concentrations of dextrose were present in blood and the likely source was contamination by TPN

  7. Issues in gravitational wave detection with space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.W.

    1974-01-01

    Two masses gravitating freely in the solar system and separated by several astronomical units can be used as antennae for the detection of monochromatic gravitational radiations emitted by double stars. If one of these masses is an artificial satellite the relative acceleration can be measured by employing the Doppler effect of the radio signal from the satellite. For this purpose the standard clock should be stable to within 10 -18

  8. Theory of gravitational-inertial field of universe. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davtyan, O.K.

    1978-01-01

    Application of the equations of the gravitational-inertial field to the problem of free motion in the inertial field (to the cosmologic problem) leads to results according to which (1) all Galaxies in the Universe 'disperse' from each other according to Hubble's law, (2) the 'dispersion' of bodies represents a free motion in the inertial field and Hubble's law represents a law of motion of free body in the inertial field, (3) for arbitrary mean distribution densities of space masses different from zero the space is Lobachevskian. All critical systems (with Schwarzschild radius) are specific because they exist in maximal-inertial and gravitational potentials. The Universe represents a critical system, it exists under the Schwarzschild radius. In high-potential inertial and gravitational fields the material mass in a static state or in motion with deceleration is subject to an inertial and gravitational 'annihilation'. At the maximal value of inertial and gravitational potentials (= c 2 ) the material mass is being completely 'evaporated' transforming into radiation mass. The latter is being concentrated in the 'horizon' of the critical system. All critical systems-black holes-represent geon systems, i.e. local formations of gravitational-electromagnetic radiations, held together by their own gravitational and inertial fields. The Universe, being a critical system, is 'wrapped' in a geon crown. (author)

  9. Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)

  10. Gravitational waves from primordial black hole mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raidal, Martti; Vaskonen, Ville; Veermäe, Hardi, E-mail: martti.raidal@cern.ch, E-mail: ville.vaskonen@kbfi.ee, E-mail: hardi.veermae@cern.ch [NICPB, Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-09-01

    We study the production of primordial black hole (PBH) binaries and the resulting merger rate, accounting for an extended PBH mass function and the possibility of a clustered spatial distribution. Under the hypothesis that the gravitational wave events observed by LIGO were caused by PBH mergers, we show that it is possible to satisfy all present constraints on the PBH abundance, and find the viable parameter range for the lognormal PBH mass function. The non-observation of a gravitational wave background allows us to derive constraints on the fraction of dark matter in PBHs, which are stronger than any other current constraint in the PBH mass range 0.5−30 M {sub ⊙}. We show that the predicted gravitational wave background can be observed by the coming runs of LIGO, and its non-observation would indicate that the observed events are not of primordial origin. As the PBH mergers convert matter into radiation, they may have interesting cosmological implications, for example in the context of relieving the tension between high and low redshift measurements of the Hubble constant. However, we find that these effects are suppressed as, after recombination, no more that 1% of dark matter can be converted into gravitational waves.

  11. Gravitational waves, neutrino emissions and effects of hyperons in binary neutron star mergers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Kenta; Sekiguchi, Yuichiro; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in full general relativity incorporating both nucleonic and hyperonic finite-temperature equations of state (EOS) and neutrino cooling. It is found that for the nucleonic and hyperonic EOS, a hyper-massive neutron star (HMNS) with a long lifetime (t life ≥ 10 ms) is the outcome for the total mass ≅2.7M sun . For the total mass ≅3 M sun , a long-lived (short-lived with t life ≅ 3 ms) HMNS is the outcome for the nucleonic (hyperonic) EOS. It is shown that the typical total neutrino luminosity of the HMNS is ∼3-6 x 10 53 erg s -1 and the effective amplitude of gravitational waves from the HMNS is 1-4 x 10 -22 at f ≅ 2-3.2 kHz for a source of distance of 100 Mpc. During the HMNS phase, characteristic frequencies of gravitational waves shift to a higher frequency for the hyperonic EOS in contrast to the nucleonic EOS in which they remain constant approximately. Our finding suggests that the effects of hyperons are well imprinted in gravitational waves and their detection will give us a potential opportunity to explore the composition of the neutron star matter. We present the neutrino luminosity curve when a black hole is formed as well. (paper)

  12. Neutron stars, magnetic fields, and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, F.K.

    2001-01-01

    The r-modes of rapidly spinning young neutron stars have recently attracted attention as a promising source of detectable gravitational radiation. These neutron stars are expected to have magnetic fields ∼ 10 12 G. The r-mode velocity perturbation causes differential motion of the fluid in the star; this is a kinematic effect. In addition, the radiation-reaction associated with emission of gravitational radiation by r-waves drives additional differential fluid motions; this is a dynamic effect. These differential fluid motions distort the magnetic fields of neutron stars and may therefore play an important role in determining the structure of neutron star magnetic fields. If the stellar field is ∼ 10 16 (Ω/Ω B ) G or stronger, the usual r-modes are no longer normal modes of the star; here Ω and Ω B are the angular velocities of the star and at which mass shedding occurs. Much weaker magnetic fields can prevent gravitational radiation from amplifying the r-modes or damp existing r-mode oscillations on a relatively short timescale by extracting energy from the modes faster than gravitational wave emission can pump energy into them. The onset of proton superconductivity in the cores of newly formed magnetic neutron stars typically increases the effect on the r-modes of the magnetic field in the core by many orders of magnitude. Once the core has become superconducting, magnetic fields of the order of 10 12 G or greater are usually sufficient to damp r-modes that have been excited by emission of gravitational radiation and to suppress any further emission. A rapid drop in the strength of r-mode gravitational radiation from young neutron stars may therefore signal the onset of superconductivity in the core and provide a lower bound on the strength of the magnetic field there. Hence, measurements of r-mode gravitational waves from newly formed neutron stars may provide valuable diagnostic information about magnetic field strengths, cooling processes, and the

  13. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Krasimir; Zaprjanova, Penka; Petkova, Milena; Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana; Angelova, Violina

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO 4 digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner–Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner–Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower P

  14. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Krasimir, E-mail: kivanov1@abv.bg [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Zaprjanova, Penka [Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Petkova, Milena [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Plovdiv University ' Paisii Hilendarski,' Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Angelova, Violina [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2012-05-15

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO{sub 4} digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner-Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner-Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower

  15. Investigation of forced and total degradation products of amlodipine besylate by liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Zora Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was applied for the investigation of the degradation products of amlodipine besylate under the stressed conditions in solution. Amlodipine besylate stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation and photodegradation as well as to the electrochemical degradation by cyclic voltammetry in 0.05 mol/L NaHCO3 on gold electrode. The total degradation of amlodipine besylate was achieved in 5 mol/L NaOH at 80°C for 6 h and the compound with molecular formula C15H16NOCl was identified as a main degradation product. Under acidic (5 mol/L HCl at 80°C for 6 h stress conditions 75.2% of amlodipine besylate degradation was recorded. Oxidative degradation in the solution of 3% H2O2-methanol 80:20 at 80°C for 6 h showed that amlodipine besylate degraded to 80.1%. After 14 days of expose in photostability chamber amlodipine besylate solution showed degradation of 32.2%. In electrochemical degradation after 9 hours of cyclization the beginning of amlodipine oxidation was shifted for 200 mV to more negative potentials, with the degradation of 66.5%. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of dehydro amlodipine derivate with molecular formula C20H23N2O5Cl in oxidative and acidic conditions while in electrochemical degradation was detected in traces. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  16. New method to determine the total carbonyl functional group content in extractable particulate organic matter by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, J; Zheng, W; Marchand, N; Wortham, H

    2008-08-01

    A functional group analysis method was developed to determine the quantitative content of carbonyl functional groups in atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) using constant neutral loss scanning-tandem mass spectrometry (CNLS-MS/MS). The neutral loss method consists in monitoring the loss of a neutral fragment produced by the fragmentation of a precursor ion in a collision cell. The only ions detected are the daughter ions resulting from the loss of the neutral fragment under study. Then, scanning the loss of a neutral fragment characteristic of a functional group enables the selective detection of the compounds bearing the chemical function under study within a complex mixture. The selective detection of carbonyl functional groups was achieved after derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH) by monitoring the neutral loss of C(6)F(5)N (181 amu), which was characteristic of a large panel of derivatized carbonyl compounds. The method was tested on 25 reference mixtures of different composition, all containing 24 carbonyl compounds at randomly determined concentrations. The repeatability and calibration tests were satisfying as they resulted in a relative standard deviation below 5% and a linear range between 0.01 and 0.65 mM with a calculated detection limit of 0.0035 mM. Also, the relative deviation induced by changing the composition of the mixture while keeping the total concentration of carbonyl functional groups constant was less than 20%. These reliability experiments demonstrate the high robustness of the developed procedure for accurate carbonyl functional group measurement, which was applied to atmospheric POM samples. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings using total lymphocyte counts, hemoglobin and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solberg Peter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD4+ T lymphocyte (CD4 cell count testing is the standard method for determining eligibility for antiretroviral therapy (ART, but is not widely available in sub-Saharan Africa. Total lymphocyte counts (TLCs have not proven sufficiently accurate in identifying subjects with low CD4 counts. We developed clinical algorithms using TLCs, hemoglobin (Hb, and body mass index (BMI to identify patients who require ART. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV-infected adults in Uganda, who presented for assessment for ART-eligibility with WHO clinical stages I, II or III. Two by two tables were constructed to examine TLC thresholds, which maximized sensitivity for CD4 cell counts ≤ 200 cells μL, while minimizing the number offered ART with counts > 350 cells μL. Hb and BMI values were then examined to try to improve model performance. Results 1787 subjects were available for analysis. Median CD4 cell counts and TLCs, were 239 cells/μL and 1830 cells/μL, respectively. Offering ART to all subjects with a TLCs ≤ 2250 cells/μL produced a sensitivity of 0.88 and a false positive ratio of 0.21. Algorithms that treated all patients with a TLC 3000 cells/μL, and used Hb and/or BMI values to determine eligibility for those with TLC values between 2000 and 3000 cells/μL, marginally improved accuracy. Conclusion TLCs appear useful in predicting who would be eligible for ART based on CD4 cell count criteria. Hb and BMI values may be useful in prioritizing patients for ART, but did not improve model accuracy.

  18. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Maria; de Koning, Tom J; Lefeber, Dirk; Fleer, André; Prinsen, Berthil H C M T; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was validated. The method utilized a simple sample-preparation procedure of protein precipitation for FSA and acid hydrolysis for TSA. Negative electrospray ionisation was used to monitor the transitions m/z 308.2-->87.0 (SA) and m/z 311.2--> 90.0 ((13)C(3)-SA). Conjugated sialic acid (CSA) was calculated by subtracting FSA from TSA. We established reference intervals for FSA, TSA and CSA in CSF in 217 control subjects. The method has been applied to patients' samples with known differences in SA metabolites like meningitis (n=6), brain tumour (n=2), leukaemia (n=5), and Salla disease (n=1). Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.54 microM for FSA and 0.45 mM for TSA. Intra- and inter-assay variation for FSA (21.8 microM) were 4.8% (n=10) and 10.4% (n=40) respectively. Intra- and inter-assay variation for TSA (35.6 microM) were 9.7% (n=10) and 12.8% (n=40) respectively. Tested patients showed values of TSA above established reference value. The validated method allows sensitive and specific measurement of SA metabolites in CSF and can be applied for clinical diagnoses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Can JWST Follow Up on Gravitational-Wave Detections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Bitten by the gravitational-wave bug? While we await Thursdays press conference, heres some food for thought: if LIGO were able to detect gravitational waves from compact-object mergers, how could we follow up on the detections? A new study investigates whether the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will be able to observe electromagnetic signatures of some compact-object mergers.Hunting for MergersStudying compact-object mergers (mergers of black holes and neutron stars) can help us understand a wealth of subjects, like high-energy physics, how matter behaves at nuclear densities, how stars evolve, and how heavy elements in the universe were created.The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) is searching for the signature ripples in spacetime identifying these mergers, but gravitational waves are squirrelly: LIGO will only be able to localize wave sources to tens of square degrees. If we want to find out more about any mergers LIGO discovers in gravitational waves, well need a follow-up search for electromagnetic counterparts with other observatories.The Kilonova KeyOne possible electromagnetic counterpart is kilonovae, explosions that can be produced during a merger of a binary neutron star or a neutron starblack hole system. If the neutron star is disrupted during the merger, some of the hot mass is flung outward and shines brightly by radioactive decay.Kilonovae are especially promising as electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves for three reasons:They emit isotropically, so the number of observable mergers isnt limited by relativistic beaming.They shine for a week, giving follow-up observatories time to search for them.The source location can beeasily recovered.The only problem? We dont currently have any sensitive survey instruments in the near-infrared band (where kilonova emission peaks) that can provide coverage over tens of square degrees. Luckily, we will soon have just the thing: JWST, launching in 2018!JWSTs

  20. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1984-06-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP-violation, the Witten effect [a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP-non-conservation] is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a theta R-tilde R term in the Lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))

    1985-07-22

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed.

  2. The gravitational analogue of the Witten effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1985-01-01

    In the presence of massive fermions, and assuming a non-vanishing theta-parameter as the only source of CP violation, the Witten effect (a shift in the electric charge of a magnetic monopole due to CP non-conservation) is shown to follow from an anomalous chiral commutator. Next, given the gravitational contribution to the chiral anomaly, the corresponding anomalous commutator for Dirac fermion currents in a gravitational background is derived. From that, we infer the equivalence of a thetaR tildeR term in the lagrangian to a shift in the mass parameter of the NUT metric, in proportion to theta. This is interpreted as the gravitational analogue of the Witten effect. Its relevance to certain Kaluza-Klein monopoles is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  3. Gravitational waves from plunges into Gargantua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Fransen, Kwinten; Hertog, Thomas; Long, Jiang

    2018-05-01

    We analytically compute time domain gravitational waveforms produced in the final stages of extreme mass ratio inspirals of non-spinning compact objects into supermassive nearly extremal Kerr black holes. Conformal symmetry relates all corotating equatorial orbits in the geodesic approximation to circular orbits through complex conformal transformations. We use this to obtain the time domain Teukolsky perturbations for generic equatorial corotating plunges in closed form. The resulting gravitational waveforms consist of an intermediate polynomial ringdown phase in which the decay rate depends on the impact parameters, followed by an exponential quasi-normal mode decay. The waveform amplitude exhibits critical behavior when the orbital angular momentum tends to a minimal value determined by the innermost stable circular orbit. We show that either near-critical or large angular momentum leads to a significant extension of the LISA observable volume of gravitational wave sources of this kind.

  4. The Gravitational Field in the Relativistic Uniform Model within the Framework of the Covariant Theory of Gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosin, Sergey G.

    2018-01-01

    For the relativistic uniform system with an invariant mass density the exact expressions are determined for the potentials and strengths of the gravitational field, the energy of particles and fields. It is shown that, as in the classical case for bodies with a constant mass density, in the system with a zero vector potential of the gravitational field, the energy of the particles, associated with the scalar field potential, is twice as large in the absolute value as the energy defined by the...

  5. Evidence for secondary gravitationally lensed images in radio quasistellar objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousey, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Evidence is sought for the observability of the gravitational lens effect by studying the internal radio structures of quasistellar objects. Since the majority of the radio emitting quasars were observed to be multiply structured at radio wavelengths, and since the gravitational deflection of light is essentially frequency independent, these sources are very suitable objects for the investigation of gravitational imaging. From the theoretical framework of gravitational imaging, particularly in the treatment of the gravitational lenses as ''point-mass'' deflectors, several selection criteria were imposed on a sample of 208 radio emitting quasars in order to filter out only those sources which may be exhibiting radio imaging. The employment of further selection criteria, obtained from the consideration of the observed optical fields around the quasars, resulted in a small filtered sample of 10 quasars which are good candidates for exhibiting the gravitational lens effect. In particular, two quasars, 3C 268.4 and 3C 286, are observed to have good evidence for the presence of suitable gravitational lenses. Image models were computed for the image candidates which predict the masses and distances of the gravitational deflectors as well as estimations of the ''time delays'' of the images. It is also suggested that measurements of these image time delays may enable one to place stringent limits on the value of the Hubble constant

  6. The Association between Total Protein and Vegetable Protein Intake and Low Muscle Mass among the Community-Dwelling Elderly Population in Northern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru-Yi Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, highly linked with fall, frailty, and disease burden, is an emerging problem in aging society. Higher protein intake has been suggested to maintain nitrogen balance. Our objective was to investigate whether pre-sarcopenia status was associated with lower protein intake. A total of 327 community-dwelling elderly people were recruited for a cross-sectional study. We adopted the multivariate nutrient density model to identify associations between low muscle mass and dietary protein intake. The general linear regression models were applied to estimate skeletal muscle mass index across the quartiles of total protein and vegetable protein density. Participants with diets in the lowest quartile of total protein density (<13.2% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (odds ratio (OR 3.03, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.37–6.72 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥17.2%. Similarly, participants with diets in the lowest quartile of vegetable protein density (<5.8% were at a higher risk for low muscle mass (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.14–4.83 than those with diets in the highest quartile (≥9.4%. Furthermore, the estimated skeletal muscle mass index increased significantly across the quartiles of total protein density (p = 0.023 and vegetable protein density (p = 0.025. Increasing daily intakes of total protein and vegetable protein densities appears to confer protection against pre-sarcopenia status.

  7. A new data-processing approach to study particle motion using ultrafast X-ray tomography scanner: case study of gravitational mass flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waktola, Selam; Bieberle, Andre; Barthel, Frank; Bieberle, Martina; Hampel, Uwe; Grudzień, Krzysztof; Babout, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    In most industrial products, granular materials are often required to flow under gravity in various kinds of silo shapes and usually through an outlet in the bottom. There are several interrelated parameters which affect the flow, such as internal friction, bulk and packing density, hopper geometry, and material type. Due to the low-spatial resolution of electrical capacitance tomography or scanning speed limitation of standard X-ray CT systems, it is extremely challenging to measure the flow velocity and possible centrifugal effects of granular materials flow effectively. However, ROFEX (ROssendorf Fast Electron beam X-ray tomography) opens new avenues of granular flow investigation due to its very high temporal resolution. This paper aims to track particle movements and evaluate the local grain velocity during silo discharging process in the case of mass flow. The study has considered the use of the Seramis material, which can also serve as a type of tracer particles after impregnation, due to its porous nature. The presented novel image processing and analysis approach allows satisfyingly measuring individual particle velocities but also tracking their lateral movement and three-dimensional rotations.

  8. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION, INDUCED GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE, AND BINARY-DRIVEN HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm has been successfully applied to the explanation of the concomitance of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with supernovae (SNe) Ic. The progenitor is a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The explosion of the SN leads to hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion, which reaches the critical mass, hence inducing its gravitational collapse to a black hole (BH) with consequent emission of the GRB. The first estimates of this process were based on a simplified model of the binary parameters and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion rate. We present here the first full numerical simulations of the IGC phenomenon. We simulate the core-collapse and SN explosion of CO stars to obtain the density and ejection velocity of the SN ejecta. We follow the hydrodynamic evolution of the accreting material falling into the Bondi-Hoyle surface of the NS all the way up to its incorporation in the NS surface. The simulations go up to BH formation when the NS reaches the critical mass. For appropriate binary parameters, the IGC occurs in short timescales ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s owing to the combined effective action of the photon trapping and the neutrino cooling near the NS surface. We also show that the IGC scenario leads to a natural explanation for why GRBs are associated only with SNe Ic with totally absent or very little helium.

  9. Perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of increased total and visceral fat mass levels in schoolchildren in Greece: the Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschonis, George; Kaliora, Adriana C; Karatzi, Kalliopi; Michaletos, Aggelos; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Karachaliou, Alexandra K; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2017-03-01

    To identify possibly independent associations of perinatal, sociodemographic and lifestyle factors with childhood total and visceral body fat. A representative sample of 2655 schoolchildren (9-13 years) participated in the Healthy Growth Study, a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Seventy-seven primary schools in four large regions in Greece. A sample of 1228 children having full data on total and visceral fat mass levels, as well as on anthropometric, dietary, physical activity, physical examination, socio-economic and perinatal indices, was examined. Maternal (OR=3·03 and 1·77) and paternal obesity (OR=1·62 and 1·78), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR=1·72 and 1·93) and rapid infant weight gain (OR=1·42 and 1·96) were significantly and positively associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Children's television watching for >2 h/d (OR=1·40) and maternal pre-pregnancy obesity (OR=2·46) were associated with children's increased total and visceral fat mass level, respectively. Furthermore, increased children's physical activity (OR=0·66 and 0·47) were significantly and negatively associated with children's total and visceral fat mass levels, respectively. Lastly, both father's age >46 years (OR=0·57) and higher maternal educational level (OR=0·45) were associated with children's increased total visceral fat mass level. Parental sociodemographic characteristics, perinatal indices and pre-adolescent lifestyle behaviours were associated with children's abnormal levels of total and visceral fat mass. Any future programme for childhood prevention either from the perinatal age or at late childhood should take these indices into consideration.

  10. On thermal gravitational contribution to particle production and dark matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Tang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the particle production from thermal gravitational annihilation in the very early universe, which is an important contribution for particles that might not be in thermal equilibrium or/and might only have gravitational interaction, such as dark matter (DM. For particles with spin 0,1/2 and 1 we calculate the relevant cross sections through gravitational annihilation and give the analytic formulas with full mass-dependent terms. We find that DM with mass between TeV and 1016 GeV could have the relic abundance that fits the observation, with small dependence on its spin. We also discuss the effects of gravitational annihilation from inflatons. Interestingly, contributions from inflatons could be dominant and have the same power dependence on Hubble parameter of inflation as that from vacuum fluctuation. Also, fermion production from inflaton, in comparison to boson, is suppressed by its mass due to helicity selection.

  11. Gravitational waves and antennas

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...

  12. Gravitation and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ohanian, Hans C

    2013-01-01

    The third edition of this classic textbook is a quantitative introduction for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It gently guides students from Newton's gravitational theory to special relativity, and then to the relativistic theory of gravitation. General relativity is approached from several perspectives: as a theory constructed by analogy with Maxwell's electrodynamics, as a relativistic generalization of Newton's theory, and as a theory of curved spacetime. The authors provide a concise overview of the important concepts and formulas, coupled with the experimental results underpinning the latest research in the field. Numerous exercises in Newtonian gravitational theory and Maxwell's equations help students master essential concepts for advanced work in general relativity, while detailed spacetime diagrams encourage them to think in terms of four-dimensional geometry. Featuring comprehensive reviews of recent experimental and observational data, the text concludes with chapters on cosmology an...

  13. Numerical relativity reaching into post-Newtonian territory: a compact-object binary simulation spanning 350 gravitational-wave cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Mark; Szilagyi, Bela; Blackman, Jonathan; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Buonanno, Alessandra; Pan, Yi; Taracchini, Andrea; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors such as LIGO, Virgo and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45 . 5M⊙ . We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a loss in detection rate due to modeling error smaller than 0 . 3 % . In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display much greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  14. The relationship of endogenous plasma concentrations of β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB) to age and total appendicular lean mass in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, Rebecca; Lokesh, Deepa P; Selvam, Sumithra; Jayakumar, J; Philip, Mamatha G; Shreeram, Sathyavageeswaran; Kurpad, Anura V

    2016-08-01

    The maintenance of muscle mass and muscle strength is important for reducing the risk of chronic diseases. The age- related loss of muscle mass and strength is associated with adverse outcomes of physical disability, frailty and death. β-Hydroxy β-Methyl Butyrate (HMB), a metabolite of leucine, has beneficial effects on muscle mass and strength under various catabolic conditions. The objectives of the present study were to determine if age- related differences existed in endogenous plasma HMB levels, and to assess if HMB levels correlated to total appendicular lean mass and forearm grip strength. Anthropometry, dietary and physical activity assessment, and the estimation of fasting plasma HMB concentrations and handgrip strength were performed on the 305 subjects (children, young adults and older adults). Lean mass, which serves as a surrogate for muscle mass was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Mean plasma HMB concentrations were significantly lower with increasing age groups, with children having highest mean HMB concentration (pHMB concentrations. A significant positive correlation between HMB concentrations and appendicular lean mass normalized for body weight (%), appendicular lean mass (r=0.37; pHMB concentrations in young adults (r=0.58; pHMB concentrations in humans and the HMB concentrations were positively correlated with appendicular lean mass and hand grip strength in young adults and older adults group. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gravitational radiation from stellar collapse: The initial burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The burst of gravitational radiation emitted during the initial collapse and rebound of a homogeneous, uniformly rotating spheroid with internal pressure is analyzed numerically. The surface of the collapsing spheroid is assumed to start at rest from infinity with negligible eccentricity (''zero-energy collapse''). The adopted internal pressure function is constant on self-similar spheroidal surfaces, and its central value is described by a polytropic law with index n< or =3. The Newtonian equations of motion are integrated numerically to follow the initial collapse and rebound of the configuration for the special case in which the collapse is time-reversal invariant about the moment of maximum compression, and the total energy and frequency spectrum of the emitted quadrupole radiation are computed. The results are employed to estimate the (approx.minimum) total energy and frequency distribution of the initial burst of gravitational radiation emitted during the formation of low-mass (Mapproximately-less-thanM/sub sun/) neutron stars and during the collapse of supermassive gas clouds

  16. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Ramón; Fayos, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust) particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls

  17. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Torres

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls.

  18. On the quantum corrected gravitational collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ramón; Fayos, Francesc

    2015-07-01

    Based on a previously found general class of quantum improved exact solutions composed of non-interacting (dust) particles, we model the gravitational collapse of stars. As the modeled star collapses a closed apparent 3-horizon is generated due to the consideration of quantum effects. The effect of the subsequent emission of Hawking radiation related to this horizon is taken into consideration. Our computations lead us to argue that a total evaporation could be reached. The inferred global picture of the spacetime corresponding to gravitational collapse is devoid of both event horizons and shell-focusing singularities. As a consequence, there is no information paradox and no need of firewalls.

  19. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bernard J.

    2010-01-01

    Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.

  20. Supersymmetry and gravitational duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argurio, Riccardo; Dehouck, Francois; Houart, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    We study how the supersymmetry algebra copes with gravitational duality. As a playground, we consider a charged Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino(NUT) solution of D=4, N=2 supergravity. We find explicitly its Killing spinors, and the projection they obey provides evidence that the dual magnetic momenta necessarily have to appear in the supersymmetry algebra. The existence of such a modification is further supported using an approach based on the Nester form. In the process, we find new expressions for the dual magnetic momenta, including the NUT charge. The same expressions are then rederived using gravitational duality.

  1. Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2014-08-01

    In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.

  2. On the Induced Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Becerra Laura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm has been applied to explain the long gamma ray burst (GRB associated with type Ic supernova, and recently the Xray flashes (XRFs. The progenitor is a binary systems of a carbon-oxygen core (CO and a neutron star (NS. The CO core collapses and undergoes a supernova explosion which triggers the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion (up to 10-2 M⊙s-1. For the binary driven hypernova (BdHNe, the binary system is enough bound, the NS reach its critical mass, and collapse to a black hole (BH with a GRB emission characterized by an isotropic energy Eiso > 1052 erg. Otherwise, for binary systems with larger binary separations, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS is not sufficient to induced its gravitational collapse, a X-ray flash is produced with Eiso < 1052 erg. We’re going to focus in identify the binary parameters that limits the BdHNe systems with the XRFs systems.

  3. Dark matter structures and emission of very long gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Formation of large structure in the Universe as a result of gravitational instability in cold dark matter is investigated in a simple analytical model. Collapse of the rotating spheroid is approximated by a system of ordinary differential equations describing its dynamics. The gravitational potential is approximated by the one of the uniform Maclaurin spheroid. Development of gravitational instability and collapse in the dark matter medium do not lead to any shock formation or radiation, but is characterized by non-collisional relaxation, which is accompanied by the mass and angular momentum losses. Phenomenological account of these processes is done in this model. Formation of the equilibrium configuration dynamics of collapse is investigated. A very long gravitational wave emission during the collapse is estimated, and their possible connection with the observed gravitational lenses is discussed

  4. Einstein-Rosen gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astefanoaei, Iordana; Maftei, Gh.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the behaviour of the gravitational waves in the approximation of the far matter fields, considering the indirect interaction between the matter sources and the gravitational field, in a cosmological model based on the Einstein-Rosen solution, Because the properties of the gravitational waves obtained as the solutions of Einstein fields equations (the gravitational field equations) are most obvious in the weak gravitational fields we consider here, the gravitational field in the linear approximation. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate in the null-tetradic base (e a ), the spin coefficients, the directional derivates and the tetradic components of Ricci and Weyl tensors. From the Einstein field equations we obtained the solution for b(z, t) what described the behaviour of gravitational wave in Einstein-Rosen Universe and in the particular case, when t → ∞, p(z, t) leads us to the primordial gravitational waves in the Einstein-Rosen Universe. (authors)

  5. Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Gerald L.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)

  6. GW170817: Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Neutron Star Inspiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Ju, L; Junker, J; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kamai, B; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Kapadia, S J; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Kastaun, W; Katolik, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kemball, A J; Kennedy, R; Kent, C; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, K; Kim, W; Kim, W S; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kinley-Hanlon, M; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Knowles, T D; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Krämer, C; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kumar, S; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwang, S; Lackey, B D; Lai, K H; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Larson, S L; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, H W; Lee, K; 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McManus, D J; McNeill, L; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Mehmet, M; Meidam, J; Mejuto-Villa, E; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Milovich-Goff, M C; Minazzoli, O; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moffa, D; Moggi, A; Mogushi, K; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Molina, I; Montani, M; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morisaki, S; Morriss, S R; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Muñiz, E A; Muratore, M; Murray, P G; Nagar, A; Napier, K; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Neilson, J; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Nery, M; Neunzert, A; Nevin, L; Newport, J M; Newton, G; Ng, K K Y; Nguyen, P; Nguyen, T T; Nichols, D; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Noack, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; North, C; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; O'Dea, G D; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Okada, M A; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; Ormiston, R; Ortega, L F; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ossokine, S; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pace, A E; Page, J; Page, M A; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B; Pang, P T H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Parida, A; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patil, M; Patricelli, B; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perez, C J; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pirello, M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Porter, E K; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J W W; Pratten, G; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rajbhandari, B; Rakhmanov, M; Ramirez, K E; Ramos-Buades, A; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Ren, W; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Ricker, P M; Rieger, S; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romel, C L; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Ross, M P; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Rutins, G; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sanchez, L E; Sanchis-Gual, N; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Scheel, M; Scheuer, J; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schulte, B W; Schutz, B F; Schwalbe, S G; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Seidel, E; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shah, A A; Shahriar, M S; Shaner, M B; Shao, L; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Somala, S; Son, E J; Sonnenberg, J A; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staats, K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Stops, D J; Strain, K A; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Strunk, A; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Suresh, J; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Tait, S C; Talbot, C; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Tasson, J D; Taylor, J A; Taylor, R; Tewari, S V; Theeg, T; Thies, F; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torres-Forné, A; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tsang, K W; Tse, M; Tso, R; Tsukada, L; Tsuna, D; Tuyenbayev, D; Ueno, K; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walet, R; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J Z; Wang, W H; Wang, Y F; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Wessel, E K; Weßels, P; Westerweck, J; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Wilken, D; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Wofford, J; Wong, K W K; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wysocki, D M; Xiao, S; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yang, L; Yap, M J; Yazback, M; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zanolin, M; Zelenova, T; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y-H; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zimmerman, A B; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J

    2017-10-20

    On August 17, 2017 at 12∶41:04 UTC the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors made their first observation of a binary neutron star inspiral. The signal, GW170817, was detected with a combined signal-to-noise ratio of 32.4 and a false-alarm-rate estimate of less than one per 8.0×10^{4}  years. We infer the component masses of the binary to be between 0.86 and 2.26  M_{⊙}, in agreement with masses of known neutron stars. Restricting the component spins to the range inferred in binary neutron stars, we find the component masses to be in the range 1.17-1.60  M_{⊙}, with the total mass of the system 2.74_{-0.01}^{+0.04}M_{⊙}. The source was localized within a sky region of 28  deg^{2} (90% probability) and had a luminosity distance of 40_{-14}^{+8}  Mpc, the closest and most precisely localized gravitational-wave signal yet. The association with the γ-ray burst GRB 170817A, detected by Fermi-GBM 1.7 s after the coalescence, corroborates the hypothesis of a neutron star merger and provides the first direct evidence of a link between these mergers and short γ-ray bursts. Subsequent identification of transient counterparts across the electromagnetic spectrum in the same location further supports the interpretation of this event as a neutron star merger. This unprecedented joint gravitational and electromagnetic observation provides insight into astrophysics, dense matter, gravitation, and cosmology.

  7. The problem of infinite self-energy in electrodynamics and gravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, K P; Sivaram, C [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore. Div. of Physics and Mathematical Sciences

    1975-02-01

    The appearance of infinities in the self-energies of point particles in both classical and quantum electrodynamics has been a persistent problem for the last several decades. This problem is discussed at length in relation to the Newtonian theory of gravitation and the modern (relativity) theory on gravitation. Gravitational contraction and the mass and radius of the electron are treated in detail. The spacetime properties around the Schwarzchild radius of the electron are modified to explain the divergences. The quantum gravitational mass and the quantum gravitational length are mentioned. It is pointed out that the out-off at the Schwarzchild radius applies not only to photon but also to the virtual quanta of all fields with which the particle interacts. Arguments are extended to explain the gravitational interactions of the proton. The interactions of the hadrons through f-gravity are explained. Recent work on renormalisibility (i.e. removal of divergences) of quantum gravitation are mentioned.

  8. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  9. Alternative equations of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto Neto, N.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.) [pt

  10. Glitches and gravitational waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A M Srivastava

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing ... efficient source of energy loss during the cooling of the neutron star. ..... [3] U S Gupta, R K Mohapatra, A M Srivastava and V K. Tiwari, Phys. Rev. D 82 ...

  11. Extragalactic Gravitational Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Martin J.

    After some introductory "numerology", routes towards black hole formation are briefly reviewed; some properties of black holes relevant to theories for active galactic nuclei are then described. Applications are considered to specific models for energy generation and the production of relativistic beams. The paper concludes with a discussion of extragalactic sources of gravitational waves.

  12. Gravitational-Wave Astronomy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. General relativity; gravitational waves; astrophysics; interferometry. Author Affiliations. P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai ...

  13. Gauge theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikkawa, Keiji; Nakanishi, Noboru; Nariai, Hidekazu

    1983-01-01

    These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named symposium. They deal with geometrical aspects of gauge theory and gravitation, special problems in gauge theories, quantum field theory in curved space-time, quantum gravity, supersymmetry including supergravity, and grand unification. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  14. Puzzles of large scale structure and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidharth, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    We consider the puzzle of cosmic voids bounded by two-dimensional structures of galactic clusters as also a puzzle pointed out by Weinberg: How can the mass of a typical elementary particle depend on a cosmic parameter like the Hubble constant? An answer to the first puzzle is proposed in terms of 'Scaled' Quantum Mechanical like behaviour which appears at large scales. The second puzzle can be answered by showing that the gravitational mass of an elementary particle has a Machian character (see Ahmed N. Cantorian small worked, Mach's principle and the universal mass network. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;21(4))

  15. Cosmological constant and advanced gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.; Turner, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    Interferometric gravitational wave detectors could measure the frequency sweep of a binary inspiral (characterized by its chirp mass) to high accuracy. The observed chirp mass is the intrinsic chirp mass of the binary source multiplied by (1+z), where z is the redshift of the source. Assuming a nonzero cosmological constant, we compute the expected redshift distribution of observed events for an advanced LIGO detector. We find that the redshift distribution has a robust and sizable dependence on the cosmological constant; the data from advanced LIGO detectors could provide an independent measurement of the cosmological constant. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Gravitational effects of global strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryal, M.; Everett, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    We have obtained the gravitational field, in the weak-field approximation, of cosmic strings formed in a phase transition in which a global symmetry is broken (global strings). The effect of this field on light rays passing a global string is found, and the resulting formation of double images and production of discontinuities in the microwave background temperature compared with the corresponding results for gauge strings. There are some differences in the case of global strings, reflecting the fact that the space surrounding such strings is not purely conical. However, the differences between gauge and global strings with masses suitable to explain galaxy formation are small, and the task of distinguishing them observationally appears difficult at best

  17. Determination of Total Arsenic and Speciation in Apple Juice by Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: An Experiment for the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Colon, Luis A.; Aga, Diana S.

    2016-01-01

    A two-part laboratory experiment was designed for upper-level analytical chemistry students to provide hands-on experience in the use of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for separation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for detection. In the first part of the experiment, the students analyze total arsenic in…

  18. Total fine root mass and nutrient content in forest ecosystems (Pinus patula Schltdl and Cham Cupressus lusitanica Mill and Quercus humboldtii bonpl.) from Piedras Blancas, Antioquia - Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto Sanchez, Luis Hernan; Leon Pelaez, Juan Diego

    2005-01-01

    In the Piedras Blancas region, Antioquia - Colombia, a sampling of fine roots K > Mg > Fe > P this study sought to highlight the importance of fine roots and their concentrations of nutrients in natural forests and plantations and their relationship with nutrient cycling. For this purpose, the methodological approach comprised total root mass, both dead and alive

  19. Gravitational-wave detector realized by a superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishidoshiro, K.; Ando, M.; Takamori, A.; Okada, K.; Tsubono, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we present a new gravitational-wave detector based on superconducting magnetic levitation and results of its prototype test. Our detector is composed of the suspended test mass that is rotated by gravitational waves. Gravitational wave signals are readout by monitoring its angular motion. Superconducting magnetic levitation is used for the suspension of the test mass, since it has many advantages, such as zero mechanical loss and resonant frequency around its suspension axis in an ideal situation. For the study of actual performance of such gravitational-wave detector, a prototype detector has been developed. Using the prototype detector, the actual loss factor and resonant frequency are measured as 1.2 x 10 -8 Nms/rad and 5 mHz respectively. A detector noise is also evaluated. The current noise level is determined by the magnetic coupling with external magnetic field and mechanical coupling between translation and angular motion. The prototype detector has already one of the lowest noise levels for gravitational waves at 0.1 Hz among current gravitational-wave detectors. We have succeeded at the demonstration of the advantages of our torsion gravitational-wave detector.

  20. Total cyanide mass measurement with micro-ion selective electrode for determination of specific activity of carbon-11 cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Colleen; Alexoff, David L; Kim, Dohyun; Hoque, Ruma; Schueller, Michael J; Fowler, Joanna S; Qu, Wenchao

    2015-08-01

    In this research, we aim to directly measure the specific activity (SA) of the carbon-11 cyanide ([(11)C]CN¯) produced by our in-house built automated [(11)C]HCN production system and to identify the major sources of (12)C-cyanide ((12)CN¯). The [(11)C]CN¯ is produced from [(11)C]CO2, which is generated by the (14)N(p,α)(11)C nuclear reaction using a cyclotron. Direct measurement of cyanide concentrations was accomplished using a relatively inexpensive, and easy to use ion selective electrode (ISE) which offered an appropriate range of sensitivity for detecting mass. Multiple components of the [(11)C]HCN production system were isolated in order to determine their relative contributions to (12)CN¯ mass. It was determined that the system gases were responsible for approximately 30% of the mass, and that the molecular sieve/nickel furnace unit contributed approximately 70% of the mass. Beam on target (33µA for 1 and 10min) did not contribute significantly to the mass. Additionally, we compared the SA of our [(11)C]HCN precursor determined using the ISE to the SA of our current [(11)C]CN¯ derived radiotracers determined by HPLC to assure there was no significant difference between the two methods. These results are the first reported use of an ion selective electrode to determine the SA of no-carrier-added cyanide ion, and clearly show that it is a valuable, inexpensive and readily available tool suitable for this purpose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A new case of gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.

    1987-01-01

    The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10 11 M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to Δt approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO. (author)

  2. On tidal phenomena in a strong gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashoon, B.

    1975-01-01

    A simple framework based on the concept of quadrupole tidal potential is presented for the calculation of tidal deformation of an extended test body in a gravitational field. This method is used to study the behavior of an initially faraway nonrotating spherical body that moves close to a Schwarzschild or an extreme Kerr black hole. In general, an extended body moving in an external gravitational field emits gravitational radiation due to its center of mass motion, internal tidal deformation, and the coupling between the internal and center of mass motions. Estimates are given of the amount of tidal radiation emitted by the body in the gravitational fields considered. The results reported in this paper are expected to be of importance in the dynamical evolution of a dense stellar system with a massive black hole in its center

  3. A new method for testing Newton's gravitational law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, J.; Klein, N.; Meyer, H.; Piel, H.; Walesch, H.

    1991-01-01

    A new experimental method is reported for determining the gravitational force of a laboratory test mass on a Fabry-Perot microwave resonator. The resonator consists of two Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended as pendulums. Changes of 2·10 -11 m in the pendulum separation can be resolved as a shift of the resonance frequency of the resonator. This limit corresponds to an acceleration of 7·10 -11 m s -2 of one mirror with respect to the other. In a first experiment, the gravitational acceleration generated by a 125 kg test mass was measured as a function of distance in the range of 10 to 15 cm and tested Newton's gravitational law with an accuracy of 1%. No deviation is found. Furthermore, the gravitational constant G is determined with similar precision. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs

  4. A generalization of the Newton-Cartan theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsure, Nitin

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that even in the absence of the equivalence principle, the Newtonian theory of gravitation can be given a geometric form in a five-dimensional manifold. The fifth dimension is taken as the ratio of gravitational and inertial mass, which is allowed to be different for different particles. The resulting pondoromotive and field equations in this 5-dimensional space (which are generalizations of Cartan's formulation of Newtonian gravitation) are formulated and their consequences are discussed. It is argued that as general relativity is a 'metric' theory, a similar generalization of general relativity is not possible. (author)

  5. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei

    2004-01-01

    We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves

  6. Gravitational waves from the axial perturbations of hyperon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen De-Hua; Yan Jing; Liu Xue-Mei

    2012-01-01

    The eigen-frequencies of the axial w-mode oscillations of hyperon stars are examined. It is shown that as the appearance of hyperons softens the equation of state of the super-density matter, the frequency of gravitational waves from the axial w-mode of hyperon star becomes smaller than that of a traditional neutron star at the same stellar mass. Moreover, the eigenfrequencies of hyperon stars also have scaling universality. It is shown that the EURO third-generation gravitational-wave detector has the potential to detect the gravitational-wave signal emitted from the axial w-mode oscillations of a hyperon star. (general)

  7. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Camp, Jordan B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 x 10(exp -21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ring down of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 Sigma. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(+160/-180) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z = 0.09(+0.03/-0.04). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(+5/-4) Mass compared to the sun, and 29(+4/-4) Mass compared to the sun, and the final black hole mass is 62(+4/-4) Mass compared to the sun, with 3.0(+0.5/-0.5)sq c radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

  8. Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation

  9. GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.D.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black

  10. Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereno, Mauro

    2003-01-01

    Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other

  11. Dynamics of continua and particles from general covariance of Newtonian gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, C.; Kunzle, H.P.

    1976-07-01

    The principle of general covariance, which states that the total action functional in General Relativity is independent of coordinate transformations, is shown to be also applicable to the four-dimensional geometric theory of Newtonian gravitation. It leads to the correct conservation (or balance) equations of continuum mechanics as well as the equations of motion of test particles in a gravitational field. The degeneracy of the ''metric'' of Newtonian space-time forces to introduce a ''gauge field'' which fixes the connection and leads to a conserved current, the mass flow. The particle equations are also derived from an invariant Hamiltonian structure on the extended Galilei group and a minimal interaction principle. One not only finds the same equations of motion but even the same gauge fields

  12. Quantum gravitational optics in the field of a gravitomagnetic monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, N [Department of Physics, North Karegar Avenue, University of Tehran, P O Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoeini-Moghaddam, S [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P O Box 19365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri-Zonoz, M [Department of Physics, North Karegar Avenue, University of Tehran, P O Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which effectively modify the classical picture of light rays as the null geodesies of spacetime. After a short introduction on the main aspects of the quantum gravitational optics, as a nontrivial example, we study this effect in the background of NUT space characterizing the spacetime of a spherical mass endowed with a gravitomagnetic monopole charge, the so called NUT factor.

  13. Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Gravitational lensing of the CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challinor, A.; Allison, R.; Carron, J.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Kitching, T.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Zubeldía, Í.; Achucarro, A.; Ade, P.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Castellano, G.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; d'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Di Valentino, E.; Diego, J.-M.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Genova-Santos, R.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hervías-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Valiviita, J.; Van de Weijgaert, R.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.

    2018-04-01

    Lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is now a well-developed probe of the clustering of the large-scale mass distribution over a broad range of redshifts. By exploiting the non-Gaussian imprints of lensing in the polarization of the CMB, the CORE mission will allow production of a clean map of the lensing deflections over nearly the full-sky. The number of high-S/N modes in this map will exceed current CMB lensing maps by a factor of 40, and the measurement will be sample-variance limited on all scales where linear theory is valid. Here, we summarise this mission product and discuss the science that will follow from its power spectrum and the cross-correlation with other clustering data. For example, the summed mass of neutrinos will be determined to an accuracy of 17 meV combining CORE lensing and CMB two-point information with contemporaneous measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies, three times smaller than the minimum total mass allowed by neutrino oscillation measurements. Lensing has applications across many other science goals of CORE, including the search for B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves. Here, lens-induced B-modes will dominate over instrument noise, limiting constraints on the power spectrum amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. With lensing reconstructed by CORE, one can "delens" the observed polarization internally, reducing the lensing B-mode power by 60 %. This can be improved to 70 % by combining lensing and measurements of the cosmic infrared background from CORE, leading to an improvement of a factor of 2.5 in the error on the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves compared to no delensing (in the null hypothesis of no primordial B-modes). Lensing measurements from CORE will allow calibration of the halo masses of the tens of thousands of galaxy clusters that it will find, with constraints dominated by the clean polarization-based estimators. The 19

  14. STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING BY THE SUPER-MASSIVE cD GALAXY IN ABELL 3827

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P. L.; Lee, H.; Diaz, R.; Bergmann, M.; Turner, J. E. H.; Miller, B. W.; West, M. J.; Verdugo, T.

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered strong gravitational lensing features in the core of the nearby cluster Abell 3827 by analyzing Gemini South GMOS images. The most prominent strong lensing feature is a highly magnified, ring-shaped configuration of four images around the central cD galaxy. GMOS spectroscopic analysis puts this source at z ∼ 0.2. Located ∼20'' away from the central galaxy is a secondary tangential arc feature which has been identified as a background galaxy with z ∼ 0.4. We have modeled the gravitational potential of the cluster core, taking into account the mass from the cluster, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and other galaxies. We derive a total mass of (2.7 ± 0.4) x 10 13 M sun within 37 h -1 kpc. This mass is an order of magnitude larger than that derived from X-ray observations. The total mass derived from lensing data suggests that the BCG in this cluster is perhaps the most massive galaxy in the nearby universe.

  15. Large-scale retrospective evaluation of regulated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry bioanalysis projects using different total error approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Saffaj, Taoufiq; Musuku, Adrien; Awaiye, Kayode; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Jhilal, Fayçal; Sosse, Saad Alaoui; Trabelsi, Fethi

    2015-03-01

    The current approach in regulated LC-MS bioanalysis, which evaluates the precision and trueness of an assay separately, has long been criticized for inadequate balancing of lab-customer risks. Accordingly, different total error approaches have been proposed. The aims of this research were to evaluate the aforementioned risks in reality and the difference among four common total error approaches (β-expectation, β-content, uncertainty, and risk profile) through retrospective analysis of regulated LC-MS projects. Twenty-eight projects (14 validations and 14 productions) were randomly selected from two GLP bioanalytical laboratories, which represent a wide variety of assays. The results show that the risk of accepting unacceptable batches did exist with the current approach (9% and 4% of the evaluated QC levels failed for validation and production, respectively). The fact that the risk was not wide-spread was only because the precision and bias of modern LC-MS assays are usually much better than the minimum regulatory requirements. Despite minor differences in magnitude, very similar accuracy profiles and/or conclusions were obtained from the four different total error approaches. High correlation was even observed in the width of bias intervals. For example, the mean width of SFSTP's β-expectation is 1.10-fold (CV=7.6%) of that of Saffaj-Ihssane's uncertainty approach, while the latter is 1.13-fold (CV=6.0%) of that of Hoffman-Kringle's β-content approach. To conclude, the risk of accepting unacceptable batches was real with the current approach, suggesting that total error approaches should be used instead. Moreover, any of the four total error approaches may be used because of their overall similarity. Lastly, the difficulties/obstacles associated with the application of total error approaches in routine analysis and their desirable future improvements are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Gravitational theory in atomic scale units in Dirac cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, W.

    1984-01-01

    The implication of Dirac's large numbers hypothesis (LNH) that there are two cosmological space-time metrics, gravitational (E) and atomic (A), is used to formulate the gravitational laws for a general mass system in atomic scale units within such a cosmology. The gravitational laws are illustrated in application to the case of a single spherical mass immersed in the smoothed out expanding universe. The condition is determined for such a metric to apply approximately just outside a typical member of a cosmic distribution of such masses. Conversely, the condition is given when the influence of the universe as a whole can be neglected outside such a mass. In the latter situation, which applies in particular to stars, a Schwarzschild-type metric is derived which incorporates variable G in accordance with the LNH. The dynamics of freely moving particles and photons in such a metric are examined according to the theory and observational tests are formulated. (author)

  17. Global gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witten, E.

    1985-01-01

    A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)

  18. Gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references

  19. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  20. Spacetime and gravitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopczyński, W.; Trautman, A.

    This book is a revised translation of the Polish original "Czasoprzestrzeń i grawitacja", Warszawa (Poland), Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1984. Ideas about space and time are at the root of one's understanding of nature, both at the intuitive level of everyday experience and in the framework of sophisticated physical theories. These ideas have led to the development of geometry and its applications to physics. The contemporary physical theory of space and time, including its extention to the phenomena of gravitation, is Einstein's theory of relativity. The book is a short introduction to this theory. A great deal of emphasis is given to the geometrical aspects of relativity theory and its comparison with the Newtonian view of the world. There are short chapters on the origins of Einstein's theory, gravitational waves, cosmology, spinors and the Einstein-Cartan theory.

  1. Neutrinos from gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs

  2. Bimetric Machian gravitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldoni, R

    1980-11-22

    A bimetric theory of gravitation within a Machian framework is developed on the basis of considerations which are completely divorced from Newton's theory. The theory is assumed to hold in any conceivable cosmos and possesses the Machian properties of being singular in the absence of matter and of explicitly incorporating the idea that properties of space-time are determined not only by local matter, but also by the average distribution of cosmological matter.

  3. Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Jamie

    2001-04-01

    This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.

  4. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...

  5. Fivebrane gravitational anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie

    2000-01-01

    Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten

  6. Change in fat-free mass assessed by bioelectrical impedance, total body potassium and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry during prolonged weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendel, H W; Gotfredsen, A; Højgaard, L

    1996-01-01

    A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK). These measu......A total of 16 obese women (body mass index (BMI) 30-43 kg m(-2)) participated in a weight reduction study. Before and after a weight loss of 11.7 +/- 7.4 kg (mean +/- SD), body composition was assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and total body potassium counting (TBK......). These measurements were compared with bioimpedance analysis (BIA) by applying 11 predictive BIA equations published in the literature. Predictive equations for the present study population were developed, with the use of fat-free mass (FFM) as assessed by TBK and DXA as references in multiple regression analysis....... The results of the BIA equations varied widely; FFM was generally overestimated by BIA as compared with DXA and TBK before and after weight loss. During weight loss, the FFM did not change, as estimated by DXA (1.3 +/- 2.3 kg, p > 0.05) and TBK (0.9 +/- 2.9 kg, p > 0.05). The recorded change in impedance (R...

  7. Nondissipative gravitational turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.

    1988-01-01

    The nonlinear stage of development of the Jeans instability in a cold nondissipative gravitating gas is considered. It is shown that for a time exceeding the Jeans time a nondissipative gravitational singularity (NGS) is formed in the vicinity of a local density maximum. The NGS is a stationary dynamic structure, the basis of which is the singularity. The density of the gas at the center of the NGS (for r → 0) tends to infinity, and the field potential and the mean velocity of the trapped gas, possess a power singularity. The turbulent state arises as the result of development of the instability in the case of an irregular initial density distribution. It is an hierarchic structure consisting of nested moving NGS of various sizes, the NGS of smaller dimensions being trapped in the field of a NGS of larger dimensions. The scaling relations for each given NGS in this case hold for both the gas density and density of smaller size trapped NGS. A brief comparison with the observational data shows that the real hierarchic structure of the Universe ranging from scales pertaining to spherical stellar clusters up to those of rich galaxy clusters is apparently a developed gravitational turbulence

  8. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  9. Verifying black hole orbits with gravitational spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drasco, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves from test masses bound to geodesic orbits of rotating black holes are simulated, using Teukolsky's black hole perturbation formalism, for about ten thousand generic orbital configurations. Each binary radiates power exclusively in modes with frequencies that are integer-linear combinations of the orbit's three fundamental frequencies. General spectral properties are found with a survey of orbits about a black hole taken to be rotating at 80% of the maximal spin. The orbital eccentricity is varied from 0.1 to 0.9. Inclination ranges from 20 deg. to 160 deg. and comes to within 20 deg. of polar. Semilatus rectum is varied from 1.2 to 3 times the value at the innermost stable circular orbits. The following general spectral properties are found: (i) 99% of the radiated power is typically carried by a few hundred modes, and at most by about a thousand modes, (ii) the dominant frequencies can be grouped into a small number of families defined by fixing two of the three integer frequency multipliers, and (iii) the specifics of these trends can be qualitatively inferred from the geometry of the orbit under consideration. Detections using triperiodic analytic templates modeled on these general properties would constitute a verification of radiation from an adiabatic sequence of black hole orbits and would recover the evolution of the fundamental orbital frequencies. In an analogy with ordinary spectroscopy, this would compare to observing the Bohr model's atomic hydrogen spectrum without being able to rule out alternative atomic theories or nuclei. The suitability of such a detection technique is demonstrated using snapshots computed at 12-hour intervals throughout the last three years before merger of a kludged inspiral. The system chosen is typical of those thought to occur in galactic nuclei and to be observable with space-based gravitational wave detectors like LISA. Because of circularization, the number of excited modes decreases as the binary

  10. Massive scalar counterpart of gravitational waves in scalarized neutron star binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jing [Sun Yat-sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-09-15

    In analogy with spontaneous magnetization of ferromagnets below the Curie temperature, a neutron star (NS), with a compactness above a certain critical value, may undergo spontaneous scalarization and exhibit an interior nontrivial scalar configuration. Consequently, the exterior spacetime is changed, and an external scalar field appears, which subsequently triggers a scalarization of its companion. The dynamical interplay produces a gravitational scalar counterpart of tensor gravitational waves. In this paper, we resort to scalar-tensor theory and demonstrate that the gravitational scalar counterpart from a double neutron star (DNS) and a neutron star-white dwarf (NS-WD) system become massive. We report that (1) a gravitational scalar background field, arising from convergence of external scalar fields, plays the role of gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized DNS binary, and the appearance of a mass-dimensional constant in a Higgs-like gravitational scalar potential is responsible for a massive gravitational scalar counterpart with a mass of the order of the Planck scale; (2) a dipolar gravitational scalar radiated field, resulting from differing binding energies of NS and WD, plays the role of a gravitational scalar counterpart in scalarized orbital shrinking NS-WDs, which oscillates around a local and scalar-energy-density-dependent minimum of the gravitational scalar potential and obtains a mass of the order of about 10{sup -21} eV/c{sup 2}. (orig.)

  11. The Spectroscopy and H-band Imaging of Virgo Cluster Galaxies (SHIVir) Survey: Scaling Relations and the Stellar-to-total Mass Relation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Nathalie N.-Q.; Courteau, Stéphane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, 88003-8001 (United States); Dutton, Aaron A. [Department of Physics, New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Cappellari, Michele [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Dalcanton, Julianne J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195 (United States); McDonald, Michael [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Roediger, Joel C.; Côté, Patrick; Ferrarese, Laura [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, National Research Council, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Taylor, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Peng, Eric W. [Department of Astronomy, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2017-07-01

    We present parameter distributions and fundamental scaling relations for 190 Virgo cluster galaxies in the SHIVir survey. The distribution of galaxy velocities is bimodal about V {sub circ} ∼ 125 km s{sup −1}, hinting at the existence of dynamically unstable modes in the inner regions of galaxies. An analysis of the Tully-Fisher relation (TFR) of late-type galaxies (LTGs) and the fundamental plane (FP) of early-type galaxies (ETGs) is presented, yielding a compendium of galaxy scaling relations. The slope and zero-point of the Virgo TFR match those of field galaxies, while scatter differences likely reflect distinct evolutionary histories. The velocities minimizing scatter for the TFR and FP are measured at large apertures where the baryonic fraction becomes subdominant. While TFR residuals remain independent of any galaxy parameters, FP residuals (i.e., the FP “tilt”) correlate strongly with the dynamical-to-stellar mass ratio, yielding stringent galaxy formation constraints. We construct a stellar-to-total mass relation (STMR) for ETGs and LTGs and find linear but distinct trends over the range M {sub *} = 10{sup 8–11} M {sub ⊙}. Stellar-to-halo mass relations (SHMRs), which probe the extended dark matter halo, can be scaled down to masses estimated within the optical radius, showing a tight match with the Virgo STMR at low masses; possibly inadequate halo abundance matching prescriptions and broad radial scalings complicate this comparison at all masses. While ETGs appear to be more compact than LTGs of the same stellar mass in projected space, their mass-size relations in physical space are identical. The trends reported here may soon be validated through well-resolved numerical simulations.

  12. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  13. On gravitational wave energy in Einstein gravitational theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folomeshkin, V.N.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    By the example of precise wave solutions for the Einstein equations it is shown that a standard commonly adopted formulation of energy-momentum problem with pseudotensors provides us either with a zero or sign-variable values for the energy of gravitational waves. It is shown that if in the Einstein gravitational theory a strict transition to the limits of weak fields is realised then the theory gives us an unambiguous zero result for weak gravitational waves. The well-known non-zero result arises due to incorrect transition to weak field approximation in the Einstein gravitation theory

  14. Total cross section for hadron production by electron-positron annihilation between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV center-of-mass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augustin, J.; Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.; Dakin, J.T.; Feldman, G.J.; Fischer, G.E.; Fryberger, D.; Hanson, G.; Jean-Marie, B.; Larsen, R.R.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H.L.; Lyon, D.; Morehouse, C.C.; Paterson, J.M.; Perl, M.L.; Richter, B.; Schwitters, R.F.; Vannucci, F.; Abrams, G.S.; Briggs, D.; Chinowsky, W.; Friedberg, C.E.; Goldhaber, G.; Hollebeek, R.J.; Kadyk, J.A.; Trilling, G.H.; Whitaker, J.S.; Zipse, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The total cross section for hadron production by e + e - annihilation has been measured at center-of-mass energies between 2.4 and 5.0 GeV. Aside from the very narrow resonances psi (3105) and psi (3695), the cross section varies between 32 and 17 nb over this region with structure in the vicinity of 4.1 GeV

  15. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  17. The Gravitational Wave Detector EXPLORER

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    %RE5 EXPLORER is a cryogenic resonant-mass gravitational wave (GW) detector. It is in operation at CERN since 1984 and it has been the first cryogenic GW antenna to perform continuous observations (since 1990).\\\\ \\\\EXPLORER is actually part of the international network of resonant-mass detectors which includes ALLEGRO at the Louisiana State University, AURIGA at the INFN Legnaro Laboratories, NAUTILUS at the INFN Frascati Laboratories and NIOBE at the University of Western Australia. The EXPLORER sensitivity, at present of the same order of the other antennas, is 10$^{-20}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ over a bandwidth of 20 Hz and 6 10$^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ with a bandwidth of about 0.5 Hz, corresponding to a sensitivity to short GW bursts of \\textit{h} = 6 10$^{-19}$.\\\\ \\\\This sensitivity should allow the detection of the burst sources in our Galaxy and in the Local Group. No evidence of GW signals has been reported up to now.\\\\ \\\\The principle of operation is based on the assumption that any vibrational mode of a resonant bo...

  18. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  19. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  20. Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2015-07-01

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.

  1. Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibyan, Vahagn

    2015-07-15

    An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.

  2. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.

  3. Quantum phenomena in gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)

  4. Gravitational Physics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational physics research at ISPAE is connected with NASA's Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe B (GP-B)) which will perform a test of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. GP-B will measure the geodetic and motional effect predicted by General Relativity Theory with extremely stable and sensitive gyroscopes in an earth orbiting satellite. Both effects cause a very small precession of the gyroscope spin axis. The goal of the GP-B experiment is the measurement of the gyroscope precession with very high precision. GP-B is being developed by a team at Stanford University and is scheduled for launch in the year 2001. The related UAH research is a collaboration with Stanford University and MSFC. This research is focussed primarily on the error analysis and data reduction methods of the experiment but includes other topics concerned with experiment systems and their performance affecting the science measurements. The hydrogen maser is the most accurate and stable clock available. It will be used in future gravitational physics missions to measure relativistic effects such as the second order Doppler effect. The HMC experiment, currently under development at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), will test the performance and capability of the hydrogen maser clock for gravitational physics measurements. UAH in collaboration with the SAO science team will study methods to evaluate the behavior and performance of the HMC. The GP-B data analysis developed by the Stanford group involves complicated mathematical operations. This situation led to the idea to investigate alternate and possibly simpler mathematical procedures to extract the GP-B measurements form the data stream. Comparison of different methods would increase the confidence in the selected scheme.

  5. Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system

  6. Gravitationally bound BCS state as dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, Stephon [Department of Physics, Brown University, Providence, RI 20912 (United States); Cormack, Sam, E-mail: stephon_alexander@brown.edu, E-mail: samuel.c.cormack.gr@dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    We explore the possibility that fermionic dark matter undergoes a BCS transition to form a superfluid. This requires an attractive interaction between fermions and we describe a possible source of this interaction induced by torsion. We describe the gravitating fermion system with the Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism in the local density approximation. We solve the Poisson equation along with the equations for the density and gap energy of the fermions to find a self-gravitating, superfluid solution for dark matter halos. In order to produce halos the size of dwarf galaxies, we require a particle mass of ∼ 200 eV. We find a maximum attractive coupling strength before the halo becomes unstable. If dark matter halos do have a superfluid component, this raises the possibility that they contain vortex lines.

  7. Comparison of advanced gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harry, Gregory M.; Houser, Janet L.; Strain, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    We compare two advanced designs for gravitational-wave antennas in terms of their ability to detect two possible gravitational wave sources. Spherical, resonant mass antennas and interferometers incorporating resonant sideband extraction (RSE) were modeled using experimentally measurable parameters. The signal-to-noise ratio of each detector for a binary neutron star system and a rapidly rotating stellar core were calculated. For a range of plausible parameters we found that the advanced LIGO interferometer incorporating RSE gave higher signal-to-noise ratios than a spherical detector resonant at the same frequency for both sources. Spheres were found to be sensitive to these sources at distances beyond our galaxy. Interferometers were sensitive to these sources at far enough distances that several events per year would be expected

  8. Measurements of total lead concentrations and of lead isotope ratios in whole blood by use of inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delves, H.T.; Campbell, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for the accurate and precise determination of total lead and its isotopic composition in whole blood using inductively coupled plasma source mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Sensitivities of up to 3 x 10 6 counts s -1 for 208 Pb at a total lead concentration of 5 μmol l -1 (1 μg ml -1 ) enabled total blood lead levels to be measured in 4 min per sample, with a detection limit of 0.072 μmol l -1 (15 μg l -1 ). The agreement between ICP-MS and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) for this analysis was excellent: ICP-MS 0.996 x AAS -0.0165 μmol l -1 ; r 0.994. Isotope ratio measurements required 15 min to achieve the required accuracy and precision both of which were generally better than 0.5% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb and 208 Pb: 206 Pb isotopic lead ratios. The ICP-MS data for these ratios in ten quality control blood specimens has a mean bias relative to isotope dilution mass spectrometry of -0.412% for 206 Pb: 207 Pb ratios and of +0.055% for the 208 Pb: 206 Pb ratios. This level of accuracy and that of the total blood lead measurements is sufficient to permit application of these ICP-MS methods to environmental studies. (author)

  9. Gravitational radiation from dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, R.A.; Welling, J.S.; Winicour, J.

    1985-01-01

    A dust cloud is examined within the framework of the general relativistic characteristic initial value problem. Unique gravitational initial data are obtained by requiring that the space-time be quasi-Newtonian. Explicit calculations of metric and matter fields are presented, which include all post-Newtonian corrections necessary to discuss the major physical properties of null infinity. These results establish a curved space version of the Einstein quadrupole formula, in the form ''news function equals third time derivative of transverse quadrupole moment,'' for this system. However, these results imply that some weakened notion of asymptotic flatness is necessary for the description of quasi-Newtonian systems

  10. The earth's gravitational field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...

  11. Superstatistics and Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Obregón

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We suggest to consider the spacetime as a non-equilibrium system with a long-term stationary state that possess as a spatio-temporally fluctuating quantity ß . These systems can be described by a superposition of several statistics, superstatistics. We propose a Gamma distribution for f(ß that depends on a parameter ρ1. By means of it the corresponding entropy is calculated, ρ1 is identified with the probability corresponding to this model. A generalized Newton’s law of gravitation is then obtained following the entropic force formulation. We discuss some of the difficulties to try to get an associated theory of gravity.

  12. Gravbox - The First Augmented Reality Sandbox for Gravitational Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Jacob; Deam, Sophie; Reed, Mason; Bettis, Wyatt; Lu, Jianbo; Luppen, Zachary; Maier, Erin; McCurdy, Ross; Moore, Sadie; Fu, Hai

    2018-01-01

    Gravitational effects are an overarching theme in astronomy education, yet existing classroom demonstrations are insufficient in elucidating complex gravitational interactions. Inspired by the augmented reality (AR) sandbox developed by geologists, we have developed Gravbox, the first AR sandbox to demonstrate gravitational dynamics. The arbitrary topography of the sand surface represents the mass distribution of a two-dimensional universe. The computer reads the topography with a Kinect camera, calculates the orbit of a test particle with user-defined position and velocity, and projects the topography contour map and orbit animation with an overhead projector, all within a duty cycle of one second. This creates an interactive and intuitive tool to help students at all levels understand gravitational effects. In this contribution, we will describe the development of the Gravbox prototype and show its current capabilities. The Gravbox software will be publicly available along with a building tutorial.

  13. Development of Mirror Coatings for Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart Reid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The first detections of gravitational waves, GW150914 and GW151226, were associated with the coalescence of stellar mass black holes, heralding the opening of an entirely new way to observe the Universe. Many decades of development were invested to achieve the sensitivities required to observe gravitational waves, with peak strains associated with GW150914 at the level of 10−21. Gravitational wave detectors currently operate as modified Michelson interferometers, where thermal noise associated with the highly reflective mirror coatings sets a critical limit to the sensitivity of current and future instruments. This article presents an overview of the mirror coating development relevant to gravitational wave detection and the prospective for future developments in the field.

  14. [Determination of total mass and morphology analysis of heavy metal in soil with potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jiao; Yuan, Xing; Cong, Qiao; Wang, Shuang

    2008-11-01

    Blank soil was used as quality controlling samples, soil sample dealt by potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution was used as check sample, mixed acid HNO3-HF-HClO4 was chosen to nitrify soil samples, and plasma emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) was used as detecting method. The authors determined the total metal mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the extracted and dealt soil samples, and determined the mass of Mo, Pb, As, Hg, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu and Ni in the three chemical morphologies, including acid extractable morphology, oxide associated morphology, and organics associated modality. The experimental results indicated that the different pH of potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution had obvious influence on the total mass of heavy metal and morphology transformation. Except for metal element Pb and Zn, the addition of different pH potassium dihydrogen phosphate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could accelerate the soil samples nitrification and the total mass determination of heavy metal in the soil samples. The potassium biphthalate-sodium hydroxide buffer solution could facilitate the acid extractable morphology of Cr, Cu, Hg and Pb, oxidation associated morphology of As, Hg, Pb and Zn and the organic associated morphology transforming of As and Hg. At pH 5.8, the maximum acid extractable morphology contents of Cu and Hg were 2.180 and 0.632 mg x kg(-1), respectively; at pH 6.2, the maximal oxidation associated morphology content of Pb could achieve 27.792 mg x kg(-1); at pH 6.0, the maximum organic associated morphology content of heavy metal Hg was 4.715 mg x kg(-1).

  15. Total body calcium by neutron activation analysis in normals and osteoporotic populations: a discriminator of significant bone mass loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.M.; Murano, R.; Lewellen, T.K.; Nelp, W.B.; Chesnut, C.M.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of total body calcium by neutron activation (TBC) in 94 normal individuals and 86 osteoporotic patients are reported. The ability of TBC to discriminate normal from osteoporotic females was evaluated with decision analysis. Bone mineral content (BMC) by single-photon absorptiometry was also measured. TBC was higher in males (range 826 to 1363 gm vs 537 to 1054 in females) and correlated with height in all normals. In females over age 55 there was a negative correlation with age. Thus, for normals an algorithm was derived to allow comparison between measured TBC and that predicted by sex, age, and height (TBCp). In the 28 normal females over age 55, the TBC was 764 +/- 115 gm vs. 616 +/- 90 in the osteoporotics. In 63 of the osteoporotic females an estimated height, from tibial length, was used to predict TBC. In normals the TBC/TBCp ratio was 1.00 +/- 0.12, whereas in osteoporotic females it was 0.80 +/- 0.12. A receiver operating characteristic curve showed better discrimination of osteoporosis with TBC/TBCp than with wrist BMC. By using Bayes' theorem, with a 25% prevalence of osteoporosis (estimate for postmenopausal women), the posttest probability of disease was 90% when the TBC/TBCp ratio was less than 0.84. The authors conclude that a low TBC/TBCp ratio is very helpful in determining osteoporosis

  16. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the spec- ulation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  17. The Point Mass Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehnert B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A point-mass concept has been elaborated from the equations of the gravitational field. One application of these deductions results in a black hole configuration of the Schwarzschild type, having no electric charge and no angular momentum. The critical mass of a gravitational collapse with respect to the nuclear binding energy is found to be in the range of 0.4 to 90 solar masses. A second application is connected with the speculation about an extended symmetric law of gravitation, based on the options of positive and negative mass for a particle at given positive energy. This would make masses of equal polarity attract each other, while masses of opposite polarity repel each other. Matter and antimatter are further proposed to be associated with the states of positive and negative mass. Under fully symmetric conditions this could provide a mechanism for the separation of antimatter from matter at an early stage of the universe.

  18. The gravitational Schwinger effect and attenuation of gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Patrick Guarneri

    This paper will discuss the possible production of photons from gravitational waves. This process is shown to be possible by examining Feynman diagrams, the Schwinger Effect, and Hawking Radiation. The end goal of this project is to find the decay length of a gravitational wave and assert that this decay is due to photons being created at the expense of the gravitational wave. To do this, we first find the state function using the Klein Gordon equation, then find the current due to this state function. We then take the current to be directly proportional to the production rate per volume. This is then used to find the decay length that this kind of production would produce, gives a prediction of how this effect will change the distance an event creating a gravitational wave will be located, and shows that this effect is small but can be significant near the source of a gravitational wave.

  19. Titan's Gravitational Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.

  20. UCN gravitational spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, Yuji

    1988-01-01

    Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)

  1. General Relativity and Gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.

  2. On geometrized gravitation theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe

  3. Approaching the Post-Newtonian Regime with Numerical Relativity: A Compact-Object Binary Simulation Spanning 350 Gravitational-Wave Cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Béla; Blackman, Jonathan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Scheel, Mark A; Chu, Tony; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pan, Yi

    2015-07-17

    We present the first numerical-relativity simulation of a compact-object binary whose gravitational waveform is long enough to cover the entire frequency band of advanced gravitational-wave detectors, such as LIGO, Virgo, and KAGRA, for mass ratio 7 and total mass as low as 45.5M_{⊙}. We find that effective-one-body models, either uncalibrated or calibrated against substantially shorter numerical-relativity waveforms at smaller mass ratios, reproduce our new waveform remarkably well, with a negligible loss in detection rate due to modeling error. In contrast, post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms and existing calibrated phenomenological inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms display greater disagreement with our new simulation. The disagreement varies substantially depending on the specific post-Newtonian approximant used.

  4. The intergalactic Newtonian gravitational field and the shell theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaninetti L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The release of the 2MASS Redshift Survey (2MRS with its 44599 galaxies allows the deduction of their masses in nearly complete sample. A cubic box with side of 37 Mpc containing 2429 galaxies is extracted and the Newtonian gravitational field is evaluated both at the center of the box as well as in 101 x 101 x 101 grid points of the box. The obtained results are then discussed in the light of the shell theorem which states that inside of a sphere the gravitational field is zero.

  5. Determination of the gravitational constant with a beam balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlamminger, St.; Holzschuh, E.; Kuendig, W.

    2002-01-01

    The Newtonian gravitational constant G was determined by means of a novel beam-balance experiment with an accuracy comparable to that of the most precise torsion-balance experiments. The gravitational force of two stainless steel tanks filled with 13 521 kg mercury on 1.1 kg test masses was measured using a commercial mass comparator. A careful analysis of the data and the experimental error yields G=6.674 07(22)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 . This value is in excellent agreement with most values previously obtained with different methods

  6. Does the source energy change when gravitaion waves are emitted in the einstein's gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that in the Einstein's gravitation theory the total ''energy'' of a plane gravitational wave calculated with any pseudotensor is equal to zero. The known Einstein's result, according to which the energy of a sourceis decreased when plane weak gravitational waves are emitted, have no place in the Einstein's gravitational theory. The examples are given of exact wave solutions for which the pseudotensor is strictly equal to zero. The energy-momentum of any weak gravitational waves is always equal to zero in the Einstein's gravitation theory. When such waves are emitted the energy of the source cannot change, although these waves are real curvature waves. By the means in the Einstein's gravitation theory the energy, e, is in essenc generated from nothing

  7. Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.

    2018-03-01

    Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.

  8. Characterization of a catalyst-based conversion technique to measure total particulate nitrogen and organic carbon and comparison to a particle mass measurement instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Kupc, Agnieszka; Witkowski, Bartłomiej; Talukdar, Ranajit K.; Liu, Yong; Selimovic, Vanessa; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Sekimoto, Kanako; Warneke, Carsten; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Roberts, James M.

    2018-05-01

    The chemical composition of aerosol particles is a key aspect in determining their impact on the environment. For example, nitrogen-containing particles impact atmospheric chemistry, air quality, and ecological N deposition. Instruments that measure total reactive nitrogen (Nr = all nitrogen compounds except for N2 and N2O) focus on gas-phase nitrogen and very few studies directly discuss the instrument capacity to measure the mass of Nr-containing particles. Here, we investigate the mass quantification of particle-bound nitrogen using a custom Nr system that involves total conversion to nitric oxide (NO) across platinum and molybdenum catalysts followed by NO-O3 chemiluminescence detection. We evaluate the particle conversion of the Nr instrument by comparing to mass-derived concentrations of size-selected and counted ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), ammonium chloride (NH4Cl), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and ammonium oxalate ((NH4)2C2O4) particles determined using instruments that measure particle number and size. These measurements demonstrate Nr-particle conversion across the Nr catalysts that is independent of particle size with 98 ± 10 % efficiency for 100-600 nm particle diameters. We also show efficient conversion of particle-phase organic carbon species to CO2 across the instrument's platinum catalyst followed by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) CO2 detector. However, the application of this method to the atmosphere presents a challenge due to the small signal above background at high ambient levels of common gas-phase carbon compounds (e.g., CO2). We show the Nr system is an accurate particle mass measurement method and demonstrate its ability to calibrate particle mass measurement instrumentation using single-component, laboratory-generated, Nr-containing particles below 2.5 µm in size. In addition we show agreement with mass measurements of an independently calibrated online particle-into-liquid sampler directly coupled to the

  9. The bone mass density in men aged over 50 and its relation to the concentration of free and total testosterone in the blood serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purzycka-Jazdon, A.; Lasek, W.; Serafin, Z.; Manysiak, S.

    2003-01-01

    As the mean length of life increases, osteoporosis affects a growing number of men and women, thus becoming an important medical and socioeconomic problem in many countries. Pathogenesis and the prevalence of the osteoporosis in women are well established, however, in men, they are still controversial. In this study, the bone mass density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was determined in 100 healthy men age 50-83, using quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Also, the total serum and free testosterone was measured. The mean BMD was 123.1I39.3 mg/cm 3 , and the values below a fracture threshold were noted in 39% of subjects. The mean concentration of total and free serum testosterone was 4.3I1.7 ng/ml and 6.2I3.7 pg/ml, respectively. There was a significant (p 3 , respectively). There was no correlation found between total testosterone and BMD. Results indicate that reduced bone mass density in males over 50 is as frequent as recently reported in females. Moreover, sex hormones seem to be related to osteoporosis development in men as well. (author)

  10. Numerical investigations of gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1121 (Hungary)

    2010-03-01

    Some properties of a new framework for simulating generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems are discussed. The framework can be used to investigate spacetimes that undergo complete gravitational collapse. The analytic setup is chosen to ensure that our numerical method is capable to follow the time evolution everywhere, including the black hole region.

  11. To theory of gravitational interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Minkevich, A. V.

    2008-01-01

    Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.

  12. Gravitational Casimir–Polder effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir–Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z−5 in the near zone, and z−6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose–Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10−21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.

  13. Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Meent, M.

    2011-01-01

    We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to

  14. Laboratory generation of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.M.; Rotoli, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have performed calculations on the basic type of gravitational wave electromagnetic laboratory generators. Their results show that laboratory generations of gravitational wave is at limit of state-of-the-art of present-day giant electromagnetic field generation

  15. The gravitational properties of antimatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.

    1986-09-01

    It is argued that a determination of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter towards the earth is capable of imposing powerful constraints on modern quantum gravity theories. Theoretical reasons to expect non-Newtonian non-Einsteinian effects of gravitational strength and experimental suggestions of such effects are reviewed. 41 refs

  16. Interaction of gravitational plane waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, V.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed

  17. Critical Effects in Gravitational Collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmaj, T.

    2000-01-01

    The models of gravitational collapse of a dynamical system are investigated by means of the Einstein equations. Different types conjunctions to gravitational field are analyzed and it is shown that in the case of week scalar field (low energy density) the system evaluated to flat space while in the case of strong field (high energy density) to black hole

  18. Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Sriramkumar, L

    2012-01-01

    This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.

  19. Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; 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Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; 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Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Haris, K; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Koranda, S; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J H; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C R; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, G H; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; Vallisneri, M; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Waldman, S J; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, H; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whitcomb, S E; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Wiesner, K; Wilkinson, C; Willems, P A; Williams, L; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J

    2016-02-12

    On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160)  Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.

  20. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha; Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew; Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Richter, Philipp; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Charlton, Jane C.; Westmeier, Tobias; Misawa, Toru; Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg 2 , or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10 9 M ☉ (d/55 kpc) 2 , with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M ☉ yr –1 , potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  1. The COS/UVES absorption survey of the Magellanic stream. III. Ionization, total mass, and inflow rate onto the Milky Way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Andrew J.; Thom, Christopher; Tumlinson, Jason; Ely, Justin; Kumari, Nimisha [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wakker, Bart P.; Hernandez, Audra K.; Haffner, L. Matthew [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Barger, Kathleen A.; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Richter, Philipp [Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Haus 28, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24/25, D-14476, Potsdam (Germany); Bland-Hawthorn, Joss [Institute of Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Charlton, Jane C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Westmeier, Tobias [ICRAR, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Misawa, Toru [School of General Education, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Rodriguez-Hidalgo, Paola, E-mail: afox@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic interactions between the two Magellanic Clouds have flung large quantities of gas into the halo of the Milky Way. The result is a spectacular arrangement of gaseous structures, including the Magellanic Stream, the Magellanic Bridge, and the Leading Arm (collectively referred to as the Magellanic System). In this third paper of a series studying the Magellanic gas in absorption, we analyze the gas ionization level using a sample of 69 Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph sightlines that pass through or within 30° of the 21 cm emitting regions. We find that 81% (56/69) of the sightlines show UV absorption at Magellanic velocities, indicating that the total cross-section of the Magellanic System is ≈11,000 deg{sup 2}, or around one-quarter of the entire sky. Using observations of the Si III/Si II ratio together with Cloudy photoionization modeling, we calculate the total gas mass (atomic plus ionized) of the Magellanic System to be ≈2.0 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉} (d/55 kpc){sup 2}, with the ionized gas contributing around three times as much mass as the atomic gas. This is larger than the current-day interstellar H I mass of both Magellanic Clouds combined, indicating that they have lost most of their initial gas mass. If the gas in the Magellanic System survives to reach the Galactic disk over its inflow time of ∼0.5-1.0 Gyr, it will represent an average inflow rate of ∼3.7-6.7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, potentially raising the Galactic star formation rate. However, multiple signs of an evaporative interaction with the hot Galactic corona indicate that the Magellanic gas may not survive its journey to the disk fully intact and will instead add material to (and cool) the corona.

  2. Are the gravitational waves quantised?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, Istvan

    1997-01-01

    If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. If they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then their correlation function is again 1, or they are only partially coherent, then their correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. Unfortunately such a deviation is not a sufficient proof for the quantised character of the gravitational waves. If the gravitational waves are quantised and generated by the change of the background metrical then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. The observation of such a correlation would be a genuine proof of the quantised character of the gravitational wave

  3. Changes in total and central fat mass after a hypocaloric diet associate with changes of apoC-I in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Hanny; Davignon, Jean; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Faraj, May

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the secretion of apolipoprotein apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE from adipose tissue in postmenopausal obese women, suggesting their potential regulation by energy balance in humans. We examined the changes of these apolipoproteins, in relation to changes in cardiometabolic risks, following a hypocaloric diet in overweight/obese women. A total of 137 postmenopausal overweight/obese women who were free of chronic disease were examined at baseline, 56 women of whom were reevaluated following a 6-month hypocaloric diet. At baseline, there was no association between the plasma transferable apolipoproteins with any index of adiposity, insulin sensitivity, lipids, or inflammation, except for apoE with peripheral fat mass (r = 0.18, P hypocaloric diet reduced adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers but had no significant effects on plasma transferable apolipoproteins or lipids, whose average concentrations were within normal range at baseline. The changes in total and central, but not peripheral, fat mass associated with changes of apoC-I only (r = 0.28 and r = 0.43; respectively, P < .05). Post-weight-loss apoC-I increased in some women (52%) yet it decreased in others, however there were no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors between the 2 groups. Plasma apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE are not associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or inflammation in obese but healthy postmenopausal women. Post-weight-loss changes of total and central fat mass associate with changes of apoC-I. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bipolar outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon - Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi

    2010-01-01

    This paper is part of a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG). This theory is built on Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown that the ASTG is capable of explaining, from a purely classical physics standpoint, the precession of the perihelion of solar planets as a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG, under some critical conditions determined by the spin, do possess repulsive gravitational fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG on an interesting pedestal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. Outflows are a ubiquitous phenomenon found in star forming systems and their true origin is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origin, the direction that the present paper takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift because gravitation is not at all associated with this process, but rather it is thought to be an all-attractive force that only tries to squash matter together onto a single point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at ∼ 8-10 M sun , radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk and from there, this material will be channeled onto the forming star via the equatorial plane, thus accretion of mass continues well past the value of ∼ 8-10 M sun , albeit via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included) on any

  5. Gravitating discs around black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karas, V; Hure, J-M; Semerak, O

    2004-01-01

    Fluid discs and tori around black holes are discussed within different approaches and with the emphasis on the role of disc gravity. First reviewed are the prospects of investigating the gravitational field of a black hole-disc system using analytical solutions of stationary, axially symmetric Einstein equations. Then, more detailed considerations are focused to the middle and outer parts of extended disc-like configurations where relativistic effects are small and the Newtonian description is adequate. Within general relativity, only a static case has been analysed in detail. Results are often very inspiring. However, simplifying assumptions must be imposed: ad hoc profiles of the disc density are commonly assumed and the effects of frame-dragging are completely lacking. Astrophysical discs (e.g. accretion discs in active galactic nuclei) typically extend far beyond the relativistic domain and are fairly diluted. However, self-gravity is still essential for their structure and evolution, as well as for their radiation emission and the impact on the surrounding environment. For example, a nuclear star cluster in a galactic centre may bear various imprints of mutual star-disc interactions, which can be recognized in observational properties, such as the relation between the central mass and stellar velocity dispersion. (topical review)

  6. Gravitational plasmas and galactic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertin, G.

    1999-01-01

    The discovery of dark halos, spectroscopic evidence that elliptical galaxies are dominated by collisionless dynamics and the opening of new observational windows (especially in the near-infrared) able to provide direct information on the underlying mass distribution in spiral galaxies, have significantly changed our perception of the internal structure of galaxies. The modelling tools and the theories developed to explain many interesting observations (from the study of global spiral and bar modes of galaxy disks to the construction of self-consistent anisotropic collisionless models to explain the universality of the luminosity profile of elliptical galaxies) present many analogies with parallel work in the physics of electromagnetic plasmas. Beyond specific mechanisms, the main source of similarities between the two fields is probably to be found in the common semi-empirical approach, where the major struggle is to set up the most appropriate equations to describe inherently complex systems, governed by collective behaviour in the presence of long-range forces. At the frontier of current research in extragalactic astrophysics, the Hubble space telescope and new large telescopes from the ground are giving us a view of the early dynamical stages of galaxies and on the small scale for relatively nearby galaxies, unprecedented accurate data on their structure and kinematics. After focusing on some recent results relative to the collective dynamics of stellar systems, we will identify a few basic questions that remain unresolved, where the study of galaxies as gravitational plasmas may help significantly towards further progress. (author)

  7. Gravitational entropy of nonstationary black holes and spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of defining the gravitational entropy of a nonstationary black hole is considered in a simple model consisting of a spherical shell which collapses into a preexisting black hole. The second law of black-hole mechanics strongly suggests identifying one-quarter of the area of the event horizon as the gravitational entropy of the system. It is, however, impossible to accurately locate the position of the global event horizon using only local measurements. In order to maintain a local thermodynamics, it is suggested that the entropy of the black hole be identified with one-quarter the area of the apparent horizon. The difference between the event-horizon entropy (to the extent it can be determined) and the apparent-horizon entropy may then be interpreted as the gravitational entropy of the collapsing shell. The total (event-horizon) gravitational entropy evolves in a smooth (C 0 ) fashion, even in the presence of δ-functional shells of matter

  8. A gravitationally lensed quasar discovered in OGLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lemon, Cameron; Anguita, T.; Greiner, J.; Auger, M. W.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Apostolovski, Y.; Bolmer, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.

    2018-05-01

    We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar (double) from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) identified inside the ˜670deg2 area encompassing the Magellanic Clouds. The source was selected as one of ˜60 `red W1 - W2' mid-infrared objects from WISE and having a significant amount of variability in OGLE for both two (or more) nearby sources. This is the first detection of a gravitational lens, where the discovery is made `the other way around', meaning we first measured the time delay between the two lensed quasar images of -132 Technology Telescope spectra. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with the fixed source redshift provided the estimate of the lensing galaxy redshift of z ≈ 0.9 ± 0.2 (90 per cent CL), while its type is more likely to be elliptical (the SED-inferred and lens-model stellar mass is more likely present in ellipticals) than spiral (preferred redshift by the lens model).

  9. GRAVITATIONAL FIELD SHIELDING AND SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T. X.

    2010-01-01

    A new mechanism for supernova explosions called gravitational field shielding is proposed, in accord with a five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field that unifies the four-dimensional Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory. It is shown that a dense compact collapsing core of a star will suddenly turn off or completely shield its gravitational field when the core collapses to a critical density, which is inversely proportional to the square of mass of the core. As the core suddenly turns off its gravity, the extremely large pressure immediately stops the core collapse and pushes the mantle material of supernova moving outward. The work done by the pressure in the expansion can be the order of energy released in a supernova explosion. The gravity will resume and stop the core from a further expansion when the core density becomes less than the critical density. Therefore, the gravitational field shielding leads a supernova to impulsively explode and form a compact object such as a neutron star as a remnant. It works such that a compressed spring will shoot the oscillator out when the compressed force is suddenly removed.

  10. Gravitational production of superheavy dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daniel J. H.; Crotty, Patrick; Kolb, Edward W.; Riotto, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    The dark matter in the universe can be in the form of a superheavy matter species (wimpzilla). Several mechanisms have been proposed for the production of wimpzilla particles during or immediately following the inflationary epoch. Perhaps the most attractive mechanism is through gravitational particle production, where particles are produced simply as a result of the expansion of the universe. In this paper we present a detailed numerical calculation of wimpzilla gravitational production in hybrid-inflation models and natural-inflation models. Generalizing these findings, we also explore the dependence of the gravitational production mechanism on various models of inflation. We show that superheavy dark matter production seems to be robust, with Omega X h 2 ∼(M X /10 11 GeV) 2 (T RH /10 9 GeV), so long as M X I , where M X is the wimpzilla mass, T RH is the reheat temperature, and H I is the expansion rate of the universe during inflation

  11. Measurement of the photon-proton total cross section at a center-of-mass energy of 209 GeV at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekanov, S.; Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Musgrave, B.; Pellegrino, A.; Repond, J.; Yoshida, R.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Antonioli, P.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Cara Romeo, G.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; De Pasquale, S.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Palmonari, F.; Pesci, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Zichichi, A.; Aghuzumtsyan, G.; Bartsch, D.; Brock, I.; Crittenden, J.; Goers, S.; Hartmann, H.; Hilger, E.; Irrgang, P.; Jakob, H.-P.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Kerger, R.; Kind, O.; Paul, E.; Rautenberg, J.; Renner, R.; Schnurbusch, H.; Stifutkin, A.; Tandler, J.; Voss, K.C.; Weber, A.; Wessoleck, H.; Bailey, D.S.; Brook, N.H.; Cole, J.E.; Foster, B.; Heath, G.P.; Heath, H.F.; Robins, S.; Rodrigues, E.; Scott, J.; Tapper, R.J.; Wing, M.; Capua, M.; Mastroberardino, A.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Jeoung, H.Y.; Kim, J.Y.; Lee, J.H.; Lim, I.T.; Ma, K.J.; Pac, M.Y.; Caldwell, A.; Helbich, M.; Liu, X.; Mellado, B.; Paganis, S.; Schmidke, W.B.; Sciulli, F.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Figiel, J.; Olkiewicz, K.; Przybycien, M.B.; Stopa, P.; Zawiejski, L.; Bednarek, B.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Jelen, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowal, A.M.; Kowal, M.; Kowalski, T.; Mindur, B.; Przybycien, M.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Suszycki, L.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Kotanski, A.; Slominski, W.; Bauerdick, L.A.T.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Chiochia, V.; Dannheim, D.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Fourletova, J.; Fox-Murphy, A.; Fricke, U.; Geiser, A.; Goebel, F.; Goettlicher, P.; Graciani, R.; Haas, T.; Hain, W.; Hartner, G.F.; Hillert, S.; Koetz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labes, H.; Lelas, D.; Loehr, B.; Mankel, R.; Martens, J.; Martinez, M.; Moritz, M.; Notz, D.; Petrucci, M.C.; Polini, A.; Schneekloth, U.; Selonke, F.; Stonjek, S.; Surrow, B.; Whitmore, J.J.; Wichmann, R.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W.; Coldewey, C.; Lopez-Duran Viani, A.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Barbagli, G.; Gallo, E.; Genta, C.; Pelfer, P.G.; Bamberger, A.; Benen, A.; Coppola, N.; Markun, P.; Raach, H.; Woelfle, S.; Bell, M.; Bussey, P.J.; Doyle, A.T.; Glasman, C.; Hanlon, S.; Lee, S.W.; Lupi, A.; McCance, G.J.; Saxon, D.H.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Bodmann, B.; Holm, U.; Salehi, H.; Wick, K.; Ziegler, A.; Ziegler, Ar.; Carli, T.; Gialas, I.; Klimek, K.; Lohrmann, E.; Milite, M.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Foudas, C.; Goncalo, R.; Long, K.R.; Metlica, F.; Miller, D.B.; Tapper, A.D.; Walker, R.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; Kuze, M.; Nagano, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Boos, E.G.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, S.B.; Park, S.K.; Lim, H.; Son, D.; Barreiro, F.; Garcia, G.; Gonzalez, O.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Redondo, I.; Terron, J.; Vazquez, M.; Barbi, M.; Bertolin, A.; Corriveau, F.; Ochs, A.; Padhi, S.; Stairs, D.G.; St-Laurent, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Antonov, A.; Bashkirov, V.; Danilov, P.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Gladkov, D.; Sosnovtsev, V.; Suchkov, S.; Dementiev, R.K.; Ermolov, P.F.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Katkov, I.I.; Khein, L.A.; Korotkova, N.A.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Solomin, A.N.; Vlasov, N.N.; Zotkin, S.A.; Bokel, C.; Engelen, J.; Grijpink, S.; Koffeman, E.; Kooijman, P.; Maddox, E.; Schagen, S.; Tassi, E.; Tiecke, H.; Tuning, N.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; Bruemmer, N.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L.S.; Gilmore, J.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Kim, C.L.; Ling, T.Y.; Boogert, S.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Ferrando, J.; Matsushita, T.; Rigby, M.; Ruske, O.; Sutton, M.R.; Walczak, R.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Garfagnini, A.; Limentani, S.; Longhin, A.; Parenti, A.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Turcato, M.; Adamczyk, L.; Oh, B.Y.; Saull, P.R.B.; Iga, Y.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Cormack, C.; Hart, J.C.; McCubbin, N.A.; Heusch, C.; Park, I.H.; Pavel, N.; Abramowicz, H.; Dagan, S.; Gabareen, A.; Kananov, S.; Kreisel, A.; Levy, A.; Abe, T.; Fusayasu, T.; Kohno, T.; Umemori, K.; Yamashita, T.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Inuzuka, M.; Kitamura, S.; Matsuzawa, K.; Nishimura, T.; Arneodo, M.; Cartiglia, N.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Maselli, S.; Monaco, V.; Peroni, C.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Galea, R.; Koop, T.; Levman, G.M.; Martin, J.F.; Mirea, A.; Sabetfakhri, A.; Butterworth, J.M.; Gwenlan, C.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Hayes, M.E.; Heaphy, E.A.; Jones, T.W.; Lane, J.B.; Lightwood, M.S.; West, B.J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Grzelak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Pawlak, J.M.; Smalska, B.; Sztuk, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Ukleja, A.; Ukleja, J.; Zakrzewski, J.A.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Adamus, M.; Plucinski, P.; Eisenberg, Y.; Gladilin, L.K.; Hochman, D.; Karshon, U.; Breitweg, J.; Chapin, D.; Cross, R.; Kcira, D.; Lammers, S.; Reeder, D.D.; Savin, A.A.; Smith, W.H.; Deshpande, A.; Dhawan, S.; Hughes, V.W.; Straub, P.B.; Bhadra, S.; Catterall, C.D.; Fourletov, S.; Menary, S.; Soares, M.; Standage, J.

    2002-01-01

    The photon-proton total cross section has been measured in the process e + p→e + γp→e + X with the ZEUS detector at HERA. Events were collected with photon virtuality Q 2 2 and average γp center-of-mass energy W γp =209 GeV in a dedicated run, designed to control systematic effects, with an integrated luminosity of 49 nb -1 . The measured total cross section is σ tot γp =174±1 (stat.)±13 (syst.) μb. The energy dependence of the cross section is compatible with parameterizations of high-energy pp and pp-bar data

  12. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  13. Atomic and gravitational clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York; Goldman, I.

    1982-01-01

    Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous-whose rates are related by a non-constant function βsub(a)-is demonstrated. The cosmological character of βsub(a) is also discussed. (author)

  14. Solar gravitational redshift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopresto, J.C.; Chapman, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Wavelengths of solar spectrum lines should be shifted toward the red by the Sun's gravitational field as predicted by metric theories of gravity according to the principle of equivalence. Photographic wavelengths of 738 solar Fe 1 lines and their corresponding laboratory wavelengths have been studied. The measured solar wavelength minus the laboratory wavelength (Δlambdasub(observed)) averaged for the strong lines agrees well with the theoretically predicted shift (Δlambdasub(theoretical)). Studies show that the departures depend on line strength. No dependence of the departures on wavelength was found within the existing data. By studying strong lines over a wide spectral range, velocity shifts caused by the complex motions in the solar atmosphere seem to affect the results in a minimal fashion. (orig.)

  15. Observations of gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fort, B.

    1990-01-01

    During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)

  16. Feynman Lectures on Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcherds, P

    2003-01-01

    In the early 1960s Feynman lectured to physics undergraduates and, with the assistance of his colleagues Leighton and Sands, produced the three-volume classic Feynman Lectures in Physics. These lectures were delivered in the mornings. In the afternoons Feynman was giving postgraduate lectures on gravitation. This book is based on notes compiled by two students on that course: Morinigo and Wagner. Their notes were checked and approved by Feynman and were available at Caltech. They have now been edited by Brian Hatfield and made more widely available. The book has a substantial preface by John Preskill and Kip Thorne, and an introduction entitled 'Quantum Gravity' by Brian Hatfield. You should read these before going on to the lectures themselves. Preskill and Thorne identify three categories of potential readers of this book. 1. Those with a postgraduate training in theoretical physics. 2. 'Readers with a solid undergraduate training in physics'. 3. 'Admirers of Feynman who do not have a strong physics background'. The title of the book is perhaps misleading: readers in category 2 who think that this book is an extension of the Feynman Lectures in Physics may be disappointed. It is not: it is a book aimed mainly at those in category 1. If you want to get to grips with gravitation (and general relativity) then you need to read an introductory text first e.g. General Relativity by I R Kenyon (Oxford: Oxford University Press) or A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics by Ian D Lawrie (Bristol: IoP). But there is no Royal Road. As pointed out in the preface and in the introduction, the book represents Feynman's thinking about gravitation some 40 years ago: the lecture course was part of his attempts to understand the subject himself, and for readers in all three categories it is this that makes the book one of interest: the opportunity to observe how a great physicist attempts to tackle some of the hardest challenges of physics. However, the book was written 40

  17. iPTF SEARCH FOR AN OPTICAL COUNTERPART TO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE TRANSIENT GW150914

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.; Barlow, T.; Bellm, E.; Cook, D.; Duggan, G. E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Lunnan, R. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B.; Singer, L. P. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corsi, A.; Palliyaguru, N. [Texas Tech University, Physics Department, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Bhalerao, V. [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCAA), Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Ferretti, R. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Frail, D. A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); Horesh, A.; Manulis, I. [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Kendrick, R. [Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Laher, R. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, M/S 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Masci, F. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2016-06-20

    The intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF) autonomously responded to and promptly tiled the error region of the first gravitational-wave event GW150914 to search for an optical counterpart. Only a small fraction of the total localized region was immediately visible in the northern night sky, due both to Sun-angle and elevation constraints. Here, we report on the transient candidates identified and rapid follow-up undertaken to determine the nature of each candidate. Even in the small area imaged of 126 deg{sup 2}, after extensive filtering, eight candidates were deemed worthy of additional follow-up. Within two hours, all eight were spectroscopically classified by the Keck II telescope. Curiously, even though such events are rare, one of our candidates was a superluminous supernova. We obtained radio data with the Jansky Very Large Array and X-ray follow-up with the Swift satellite for this transient. None of our candidates appear to be associated with the gravitational-wave trigger, which is unsurprising given that GW150914 came from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes. This end-to-end discovery and follow-up campaign bodes well for future searches in this post-detection era of gravitational waves.

  18. On gravitational energy in conformal teleparallel gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, J. G.; Ulhoa, S. C.

    2017-07-01

    The paper deals with the definition of gravitational energy in conformal teleparallel gravity. The total energy is defined by means of the field equations which allow a local conservation law. Then such an expression is analyzed for a homogeneous and isotropic Universe. This model is implemented by the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) line element. The energy of the Universe in the absence of matter is identified with the dark energy, however it can be expanded for curved models defining such an energy as the difference between the total energy and the energy of the perfect fluid which is the matter field in the FRW model.

  19. Einstein's equations of motion in the gravitational field of an oblate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an earlier paper we derived Einstein's geometrical gravitational field equations for the metric tensor due to an oblate spheroidal massive body. In this paper we derive the corresponding Einstein's equations of motion for a test particle of nonzero rest mass in the gravitational field exterior to a homogeneous oblate ...

  20. Gravitational wave emission from a bounded source: A treatment in the full nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveiral, H.P. de; Damiao Soares, I.

    2004-03-01

    The dynamics of a bounded gravitational collapsing configuration emitting gravitational waves is studied. The exterior spacetime is described by Robinson-Trautman geometries and have the Schwarzschild black hole as its final gravitational configuration, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The full nonlinear regime is examined by using the Galerkin method that allows us to reduce the equations governing the dynamics to a finite-dimensional dynamical system, after a proper truncation procedure. Gravitational wave emission patterns from given initial configurations are exhibited for several phases of the collapse and the mass-loss ratio that characterizes the amount of mass extracted by the gravitational wave emission is evaluated. We obtain that the smaller initial mass M init of the configuration, the more rapidly the Schwarzschild solution is attained and a larger fraction of M init is lost in the process of gravitational wave emission. Within all our numerical experiments, the distribution of the mass fraction extracted by gravitational wave emission is shown to satisfy the distribution law of nonextensive statistics and this result is independent of the initial configurations considered. (author)