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Sample records for total glance duration

  1. Does order matter? Investigating the effect of sequence on glance duration during on-road driving.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonbum Lee

    Full Text Available Previous literature has shown that vehicle crash risks increases as drivers' off-road glance duration increases. Many factors influence drivers' glance duration such as individual differences, driving environment, or task characteristics. Theories and past studies suggest that glance duration increases as the task progresses, but the exact relationship between glance sequence and glance durations is not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of glance sequence on glance duration among drivers completing a visual-manual radio tuning task and an auditory-vocal based multi-modal navigation entry task. Eighty participants drove a vehicle on urban highways while completing radio tuning and navigation entry tasks. Forty participants drove under an experimental protocol that required three button presses followed by rotation of a tuning knob to complete the radio tuning task while the other forty participants completed the task with one less button press. Multiple statistical analyses were conducted to measure the effect of glance sequence on glance duration. Results showed that across both tasks and a variety of statistical tests, glance sequence had inconsistent effects on glance duration-the effects varied according to the number of glances, task type, and data set that was being evaluated. Results suggest that other aspects of the task as well as interface design effect glance duration and should be considered in the context of examining driver attention or lack thereof. All in all, interface design and task characteristics have a more influential impact on glance duration than glance sequence, suggesting that classical design considerations impacting driver attention, such as the size and location of buttons, remain fundamental in designing in-vehicle interfaces.

  2. Beauty at a glance: The feeling of beauty and the amplitude of pleasure are independent of stimulus duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Vale, Lauren; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-12-01

    Over time, how does beauty develop and decay? Common sense suggests that beauty is intensely felt only after prolonged experience of the object. Here, we present one of various stimuli for a variable duration (1-30 s), measure the observers' pleasure over time, and, finally, ask whether they felt beauty. On each trial, participants (N = 21) either see an image that they had chosen as "movingly beautiful," see an image with prerated valence, or suck a candy. During the stimulus and a further 60 s, participants rate pleasure continuously using a custom touchscreen web app, EmotionTracker.com. After each trial, participants judge whether they felt beauty. Across all stimulus kinds, durations, and beauty responses, the dynamic pleasure rating has a stereotypical time course that is well fit by a one-parameter model with a brief exponential onset (roughly 2.5 s), a sustained plateau during stimulus presentation, and a long exponential decay (roughly 70 s). Across conditions, only the plateau amplitude varies. Beauty and pleasure amplitude are nearly independent of stimulus duration. The final beauty rating is positively correlated with pleasure amplitude (r = 0.60), and nearly independent of duration (r = 0.10). Beauty's independence from duration is unlike Bentham's 18th-century notion of value (utility), which he supposed to depend on the product of pleasure amplitude and duration. Participants report having felt pleasure as strongly after a mere 1 s stimulus as after longer durations, up to 30 s. Thus, we find that amplitude of pleasure is independent of stimulus duration.

  3. Glass half-full: On-road glance metrics differentiate crashes from near-crashes in the 100-Car data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Bobbie D; Seaman, Sean; Lee, Joonbum; Angell, Linda S; Mehler, Bruce; Reimer, Bryan

    2017-10-01

    Much of the driver distraction and inattention work to date has focused on concerns over drivers removing their eyes from the forward roadway to perform non-driving-related tasks, and its demonstrable link to safety consequences when these glances are timed at inopportune moments. This extensive literature has established, through the analyses of glance from naturalistic datasets, a clear relationship between eyes-off-road, lead vehicle closing kinematics, and near-crash/crash involvement. This paper looks at the role of driver expectation in influencing drivers' decisions about when and for how long to remove their eyes from the forward roadway in an analysis that consider the combined role of on- and off-road glances. Using glance data collected in the 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS), near-crashes were examined separately from crashes to examine how momentary differences in glance allocation over the 25-s prior to a precipitating event can differentiate between these two distinct outcomes. Individual glance metrics of mean single glance duration (MSGD), total glance time (TGT), and glance count for off-road and on-road glance locations were analyzed. Output from the AttenD algorithm (Kircher and Ahlström, 2009) was also analyzed as a hybrid measure; in threading together on- and off-road glances over time, its output produces a pattern of glance behavior meaningful for examining attentional effects. Individual glance metrics calculated at the epoch-level and binned by 10-s units of time across the available epoch lengths revealed that drivers in near-crashes have significantly longer on-road glances, and look less frequently between on- and off- road locations in the moments preceding a precipitating event as compared to crashes. During on-road glances, drivers in near-crashes were found to more frequently sample peripheral regions of the roadway than drivers in crashes. Output from the AttenD algorithm affirmed the cumulative net benefit of longer on

  4. Examining drivers' eye glance patterns during distracted driving: Insights from scanning randomness and glance transition matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Bao, Shan; Du, Wenjun; Ye, Zhirui; Sayer, James R

    2017-12-01

    Visual attention to the driving environment is of great importance for road safety. Eye glance behavior has been used as an indicator of distracted driving. This study examined and quantified drivers' glance patterns and features during distracted driving. Data from an existing naturalistic driving study were used. Entropy rate was calculated and used to assess the randomness associated with drivers' scanning patterns. A glance-transition proportion matrix was defined to quantity visual search patterns transitioning among four main eye glance locations while driving (i.e., forward on-road, phone, mirrors and others). All measurements were calculated within a 5s time window under both cell phone and non-cell phone use conditions. Results of the glance data analyses showed different patterns between distracted and non-distracted driving, featured by a higher entropy rate value and highly biased attention transferring between forward and phone locations during distracted driving. Drivers in general had higher number of glance transitions, and their on-road glance duration was significantly shorter during distracted driving when compared to non-distracted driving. Results suggest that drivers have a higher scanning randomness/disorder level and shift their main attention from surrounding areas towards phone area when engaging in visual-manual tasks. Drivers' visual search patterns during visual-manual distraction with a high scanning randomness and a high proportion of eye glance transitions towards the location of the phone provide insight into driver distraction detection. This will help to inform the design of in-vehicle human-machine interface/systems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Indicators for the total duration of premenopausal endogenous estrogen exposure in relation to BMD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagemans, M.L.C.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Kleijn, de M.J.J.; Staveren, van W.A.; Pop, V.J.M.; Leusink, G.L.; Grobbee, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that age at menopause is an important indicator of duration of endogenous estrogen exposure. The present study investigates whether combining more information on reproductive factors is useful in estimating individual total duration of exposure to endogenous

  6. NRPB at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A NRPB leaflet in the 'At-a-Glance' series describes the sources of radiation exposure to man followed by a summary of the work of the NRPB. This includes the environmental transfer of radioactive materials, dosimetric techniques, health effects from radiation exposure and radiation safety standards. (UK)

  7. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2016

    2016-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2015-16); (2) Student (2015-16); (3) Attendance & Graduation (2014-15);(4) Staff (2013-14); (5) School Funding; and (6) Student Performance (2014-15). [For the previous report…

  8. Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Wisconsin Public Schools at a Glance" provides in a single page document statistical information on the following topics: (1) Total number of public schools (2014-15); (2) Staff (2013-14); (3) Students (2013-14);(4) Report Cards (2013-14); (5) Attendance and Graduation (2012-13); (6) Student Performance (2013-14); and (7) School Funding.

  9. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  10. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alzheimer's Disease at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Alzheimer’s Disease at a Glance Researchers have explored many ... health approaches for preventing or slowing dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Currently, there is no strong evidence that ...

  12. Effectiveness of Three Different Walking Prescription Durations on Total Physical Activity in Normal- and Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Schutz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: While there is a dose-response relationship between physical activity (PA and health benefit, little is known about the effectiveness of different PA prescriptions on total daily PA. Aim: To test, under real-life conditions and using an objective, non-invasive measurement technique (accelerometry, the effect of prescribing additional physical activity (walking only of different durations (30, 60 and 90 min/day on compliance (to the activity prescribed and compensation (to total daily PA. Participants in each group were prescribed 5 sessions of walking per week over 4 weeks. Methods: 55 normal-weight and overweight women (mean BMI 25 ± 5 kg/m2, height 165 ± 1 cm, weight 68 ± 2 kg and mean age 27 ± 1 years were randomly assigned to 3 prescription groups: 30, 60 or 90 min/day PA. Results: Walking duration resulted in an almost linear increase in the number of steps per day during the prescription period from an average of about 10,000 steps per day for the 30-min prescription to about 14,000 for the 90-min prescription. Compliance was excellent for the 30-min prescription but decreased significantly with 60-min and 90-min prescriptions. In parallel, degree of compensation subsequent to exercise increased progressively as length of prescription increased. Conclusion: A 30-min prescription of extra walking 5 times per week was well tolerated. However, in order to increase total PA further, much more than 60 min of walking may need to be prescribed in the majority of individuals. While total exercise ‘volume' increased with prescriptions longer than 30 min, compliance to the prescription decreased and greater compensation was evident.

  13. Duration and frequency of every day activities in total hip patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlock, M; Schneider, E; Bluhm, A; Vollmer, M; Bergmann, G; Müller, V; Honl, M

    2001-07-01

    Little knowledge about frequency and duration of daily activities in patients after total hip arthroplasty is available. Such information is required for the definition of realistic load collectives for pre-clinical testing of prostheses. It could also be helpful for the quantitative evaluation of surgery outcome with different prosthesis types. The purpose of this study was to develop and apply a system for the determination of frequency and duration of patient activities in their habitual environment and to compare the results to a clinical outcome score (Harris hip score).A portable activity monitoring system (weight 1.6 kg including batteries) was designed using a Palm top computer, 2 inclination sensors for the thigh and calf and one goniometer positioned at the knee joint. An algorithm was developed to identify frequency and duration of the activities lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing from the signals of the 3 sensors. 42 patients participated in the study and were equipped with the system in the morning at their home. Datasets of 31 patients (age 62.5+/-11.5 y) covered more than 6h (9.8 +/- 1.6 h) and were included in the analysis. Prosthesis specific data as well as the Harris hip score were collected. The most frequent patient activity was sitting (44.3% of the time), followed by standing (24.5%), walking (10.2%), lying (5.8%) and stair climbing (0.4%). The median number of steps/stairs was 6048/164. The number of step cycles representing one year in vivo use should, consequently, be increased to 1.1 million. The Harris hip score (91.4 +/- 9.8) correlated significantly with the number of stairs (r(2) = 0.26, p = 0.003) and showed a positive tendency with the number of steps per day. No differences in activity levels between prosthesis specific factors were found.

  14. TFEB at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, Gennaro; Ballabio, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    The transcription factor EB (TFEB) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of basic cellular processes, such as lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy. The subcellular localization and activity of TFEB are regulated by mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-mediated phosphorylation, which occurs at the lysosomal surface. Phosphorylated TFEB is retained in the cytoplasm, whereas dephosphorylated TFEB translocates to the nucleus to induce the transcription of target genes. Thus, a lysosome-to-nucleus signaling pathway regulates cellular energy metabolism through TFEB. Recently, in vivo studies have revealed that TFEB is also involved in physiological processes, such as lipid catabolism. TFEB has attracted a lot of attention owing to its ability to induce the intracellular clearance of pathogenic factors in a variety of murine models of disease, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's, suggesting that novel therapeutic strategies could be based on the modulation of TFEB activity. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster, we present an overview of the latest research on TFEB function and its implication in human diseases. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months.

    Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at

  16. Time delay and duration of ionospheric total electron content responses to geomagnetic disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Liu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Although positive and negative signatures of ionospheric storms have been reported many times, global characteristics such as the time of occurrence, time delay and duration as well as their relations to the intensity of the ionospheric storms have not received enough attention. The 10 years of global ionosphere maps (GIMs of total electron content (TEC retrieved at Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL were used to conduct a statistical study of the time delay of the ionospheric responses to geomagnetic disturbances. Our results show that the time delays between geomagnetic disturbances and TEC responses depend on season, magnetic local time and magnetic latitude. In the summer hemisphere at mid- and high latitudes, the negative storm effects can propagate to the low latitudes at post-midnight to the morning sector with a time delay of 4–7 h. As the earth rotates to the sunlight, negative phase retreats to higher latitudes and starts to extend to the lower latitude toward midnight sector. In the winter hemisphere during the daytime and after sunset at mid- and low latitudes, the negative phase appearance time is delayed from 1–10 h depending on the local time, latitude and storm intensity compared to the same area in the summer hemisphere. The quick response of positive phase can be observed at the auroral area in the night-side of the winter hemisphere. At the low latitudes during the dawn-noon sector, the ionospheric negative phase responses quickly with time delays of 5–7 h in both equinoctial and solsticial months. Our results also manifest that there is a positive correlation between the intensity of geomagnetic disturbances and the time duration of both the positive phase and negative phase. The durations of both negative phase and positive phase have clear latitudinal, seasonal and magnetic local time (MLT dependence. In the winter hemisphere, long durations for the positive phase are 8–11 h and 12–14 h during the daytime at middle

  17. Intralesional Versus Oral Chloroquine in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: Comparison of Outcome, Duration of Treatment and Total Dose of Drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M. M.; Akram, K.; Mustafa, G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare intralesional versus oral chloroquine in cutaneous leishmaniasis and determine the cure rate, duration of treatment, and total dose of drug. Study Design: Randomized controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology, Sheikh Zayed Medical College/Hospital, Rahim Yar Khan, from November 2013 to June 2014. Methodology: Consecutive 86 patients of cutaneous leishmaniasis, with single to multiple lesions of various sizes were enrolled and divided randomly into group A and B for the purpose of intralesional and oral chloroquine administration, respectively to compare the effect of the two routes on duration of treatment and total dose of the drug. SPSS version 16 was used for data analysis after data entry into it. Quantitative variables like, duration, cost and total dose of treatment were calculated as mean and standard deviation and compared by using T-test. P-value of less than 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Cure rate was 100% in both groups towards the end of treatment. Mean duration of treatment was 9.17 ± 3 weeks in intralesional (A) group as against 11.37 ± 3 weeks in oral (B) group (p = 0.0028). Mean total dose of the drug given to each patient in group A was 5.8 ± 0.5 gm and in group B, it was 19.2 ± 1.5 gm, which is significantly higher (p=0.001). The total cost of treatment in group A was Rs. 90 ± 8 and in group B it was Rs. 91 ± 1 (p=0.446). Conclusion: Duration of treatment is significantly shorter and total dose is lesser with intralesional compared to oral chloroquine in treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. (author)

  18. Absence of an increase in the duration of the circadian melatonin secretory episode in totally blind human subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klerman, E. B.; Zeitzer, J. M.; Duffy, J. F.; Khalsa, S. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    2001-01-01

    The daily rhythm of melatonin influences multiple physiological measures, including sleep tendency, circadian rhythms, and reproductive function in seasonally breeding mammals. The biological signal for photoperiodic changes in seasonally breeding mammals is a change in the duration of melatonin secretion, which in a natural environment reflects the different durations of daylight across the year, with longer nights leading to a longer duration of melatonin secretion. These seasonal changes in the duration of melatonin secretion do not simply reflect the known acute suppression of melatonin secretion by ocular light exposure, but also represent long-term changes in the endogenous nocturnal melatonin episode that persist in constant conditions. As the eyes of totally blind individuals do not transmit ocular light information, we hypothesized that the duration of the melatonin secretory episode in blind subjects would be longer than those in sighted individuals, who are exposed to light for all their waking hours in an urban environment. We assessed the melatonin secretory profile during constant posture, dim light conditions in 17 blind and 157 sighted adults, all of whom were healthy and using no prescription or nonprescription medications. The duration of melatonin secretion was not significantly different between blind and sighted individuals. Healthy blind individuals after years without ocular light exposure do not have a longer duration of melatonin secretion than healthy sighted individuals.

  19. Do you like what you see? The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der L.N.; Hooge, I.T.C.; Ridder, de D.T.D.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  20. Prolonged Duration of Surgery Predicts Postoperative Hypoparathyroidism among Patients Undergoing Total Thyroidectomy in a Tertiary Referral Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne-Holm, Emilie; Holst Hahn, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    , to identify early predictive risk factors. METHODS: Based on a single-institution retrospective review, we identified 582 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy between January 2010 and March 2015. Information on age, gender, pathological diagnosis, duration of surgery, autotransplantation of parathyroid...

  1. Do you like what you see? : The role of first fixation and total fixation duration in consumer choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Laura N.; Hooge, Ignace T C; De Ridder, Denise T D; Viergever, Max A.; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-01-01

    Although there has been recent growing interest in the associations between measures of visual attention and consumer choice, there is still uncertainty about the role of the first fixation in consumer choice and the factors that drive total fixation duration. The study aimed (1) to investigate the

  2. Predicting the components of the total hemispherical solar radiation from sunshine duration measurements in Lagos, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduekwe, A.A.L.; Chendo, M.A.C.

    1994-06-01

    Correlations for the city of Lagos (latitude 6.58 deg. N, longitude 3.33 deg. E) have been found between the records of bright sunshine hours and the daily and monthly components of the total hemispherical solar radiation. Four new models have been developed which include H/H 0 as a predictor in the Angstrom type models for the diffuse and beam fractions. They contain the quadratic term of the sunshine index, (n/N) and are given as follows: Q/H 0 =a+b(H/H 0 )+c(n/N)+d(n/N) 2 Q/H 0 =a+b(H/H 0 )+d(n/N) 2 ; Q/H 0 =a+b(H/H 0 )+c(n/N)+d(n/N) 2 ; Q/H 0 =a+b(H/H 0 )+d(n/N) 2 ; where Q is the diffuse or beam radiation on a horizontal plane. The statistical test carried out showed that the new equations generally improved the prediction of the beam or diffuse components from the Angstrom type equations by over 25%. (author). 21 refs, 3 tabs

  3. Association of translocator protein total distribution volume with duration of untreated major depressive disorder: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Elaine; Attwells, Sophia; Wilson, Alan A; Mizrahi, Romina; Rusjan, Pablo M; Miler, Laura; Xu, Cynthia; Sharma, Sarita; Kish, Stephen; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2018-04-01

    People with major depressive disorder frequently exhibit increasing persistence of major depressive episodes. However, evidence for neuroprogression (ie, increasing brain pathology with longer duration of illness) is scarce. Microglial activation, which is an important component of neuroinflammation, is implicated in neuroprogression. We examined the relationship of translocator protein (TSPO) total distribution volume (V T ), a marker of microglial activation, with duration of untreated major depressive disorder, and with total illness duration and antidepressant exposure. In this cross-sectional study, we recruited participants aged 18-75 years from the Toronto area and the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (Toronto, ON, Canada). Participants either had major depressive episodes secondary to major depressive disorder or were healthy, as confirmed with a structured clinical interview and consultation with a study psychiatrist. To be enrolled, participants with major depressive episodes had to score a minimum of 17 on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and had to be medication free or taking a stable dose of medication for at least 4 weeks before PET scanning. Eligible participants were non-smokers; had no history of or concurrent alcohol or substance dependence, neurological illness, autoimmune disorder, or severe medical problems; and were free from acute medical illnesses for the previous 2 weeks before PET scanning. Participants were excluded if they had used brain stimulation treatments within the 6 months before scanning, had used anti-inflammatory drugs lasting at least 1 week within the past month, were taking hormone replacement therapy, had psychotic symptoms, had bipolar disorder (type I or II) or borderline antisocial personality disorder, or were pregnant or breastfeeding. We scanned three primary grey-matter regions of interest (prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insula) and 12 additional regions and subregions using 18

  4. Detecting anharmonicity at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giliberti, M; Stellato, M; Barbieri, S; Cavinato, M; Rigon, E; Tamborini, M

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic motion is generally presented in such a way that most of the students believe that the small oscillations of a body are all harmonic. Since the situation is not actually so simple, and since the comprehension of harmonic motion is essential in many physical contexts, we present here some suggestions, addressed to undergraduate students and pre-service teachers, that allow one to find out at a glance the anharmonicity of a motion. Starting from a didactically motivated definition of harmonic motion, and stressing the importance of the interplay between mathematics and experiments, we give a four-point criterion for anharmonicity together with some emblematic examples. The role of linear damping is also analysed in relation to the gradual changing of harmonicity into anharmonicity when the ratio between the damping coefficient and the zero-friction angular frequency increases. (paper)

  5. Youth Violence: Facts at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youth Violence Facts at a Glance 2016 Yout h Vi olence • In 2014, 4,300 young people ages 10 ... in combined medical and work loss costs. 1 Violence-related Behaviors In a 2015 nationally-representative sample ...

  6. Post-Discharge Care Duration, Charges, and Outcomes Among Medicare Patients After Primary Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnusamy, Karthikeyan E; Naseer, Zan; El Dafrawy, Mostafa H; Okafor, Louis; Alexander, Clayton; Sterling, Robert S; Khanuja, Harpal S; Skolasky, Richard L

    2017-06-07

    In April 2016, the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services initiated mandatory 90-day bundled payments for total hip and knee arthroplasty for much of the country. Our goal was to determine duration of care, 90-day charges, and readmission rates by discharge disposition and U.S. region after hip or knee arthroplasty. Using the 2008 Medicare Provider Analysis and Review database 100% sample, we identified patients who had undergone elective primary total hip or knee arthroplasty. We collected data on patient age, sex, comorbidities, U.S. Census region, discharge disposition, duration of care, 90-day charges, and readmission. Multivariate regression was used to assess factors associated with readmission (logistic) and charges (linear). Significance was set at p total hip arthroplasties were discharged to home (18%), home health care (34%), extended-care facilities (35%), and inpatient rehabilitation (13%); patients undergoing 329,233 total knee arthroplasties were discharged to home (21%), home health care (38%), extended-care facilities (31%), and inpatient rehabilitation (10%). Patients in the Northeast were more likely to be discharged to extended-care facilities or inpatient rehabilitation than patients in other regions. Patients in the West had the highest 90-day charges. Approximately 70% of patients were discharged home from extended-care facilities, whereas after inpatient rehabilitation, >50% of patients received home health care. Among those discharged to home, 90-day readmission rates were highest in the South (9.6%) for patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty and in the Midwest (8.7%) and the South (8.5%) for patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Having ≥4 comorbidities, followed by discharge to inpatient rehabilitation or an extended-care facility, had the strongest associations with readmission, whereas the region of the West and the discharge disposition to inpatient rehabilitation had the strongest association with higher charges

  7. Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system - A field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, Christer; Kircher, Katja

    2017-01-01

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway. The results show that drivers look at the system for 5-8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (>2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice. All in all, the eco-driving support system under investigation is not likely to have a strong negative impact on glance behaviour. However, there is room for improvements. We recommend that eco-driving information is integrated with the speedometer, that optional activation of sound alerts for intermittent information is made

  8. Variability and trend of diurnal temperature range in China and their relationship to total cloud cover and sunshine duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). LAGEO

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of total cloud cover (TCC) and sunshine duration (SSD) in the variation of diurnal temperature range (DTR) in China during 1954-2009. As expected, the inter-annual variation of DTR was mainly determined by TCC. Analysis of trends of 30- year moving windows of DTR and TCC time series showed that TCC changes could account for that of DTR in some cases. However, TCC decreased during 1954-2009, which did not support DTR reduction across China. DTRs under sky conditions such as clear, cloudy and overcast showed nearly the same decreasing rate that completely accounted for the overall DTR reduction. Nevertheless, correlation between SSD and DTR was weak and not significant under clear sky conditions in which aerosol direct radiative effect should be dominant. Furthermore, 30-60% of DTR reduction was associated with DTR decrease under overcast conditions in south China. This implies that aerosol direct radiative effect appears not to be one of the main factors determining long-term changes in DTR in China. (orig.)

  9. Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ® ™ ® Pediatric Palliative Care at a Glance A child’s serious illness affects the entire family. Pediatric palliative (pal-lee-uh-tiv) care can support ... extra support, palliative care can help. What is pediatric palliative care? Pediatric palliative care is supportive care ...

  10. Regional Partnerships. At a Glance. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tabatha; Curtin, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Vocational education and training (VET) has a key role in facilitating regional economic development. One way that VET can do this is by forming partnerships with other organisations, such as other training providers, business/industry, schools and local government. This "At a Glance" publication gives an overview of recent research…

  11. Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Across OECD countries, governments are seeking policies to make education more effective while searching for additional resources to meet the increasing demand for education. The 2010 edition of "Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators" enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a rich, comparable…

  12. X-ray diffractometric study on the near-surface layer structure in parallel glancing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shtypulyak, N.I.; Yakimov, I.I.; Litvintsev, V.V.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray diffraction method is suggested to use to investigate thin films and near-surface layers under the conditions of total external reflection (TER) and in the geometry of parallel glancing rays. Experimental realization of the method using the DRON-30 diffractometer is described. Calculation for the required width of the aperture of Soller slot system is presented. The described diffraction scheme is used to investigate thin film crystal structure at glancing angles in the range from TER up to 8-10 deg. The thickness of the investigated layer in this case changes from 2.5-8 nm up to 10 3 nm. The suggested diffraction method in parallel glancing rays is especially important when investigating the films with thickness lower than 1000-2000A

  13. A simulator evaluation of the effects of attention maintenance training on glance distributions of younger novice drivers inside and outside the vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divekar, Gautam; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Masserang, Kathleen M.; Reagan, Ian; Pollatsek, Alexander; Fisher, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    Driver distraction inside and outside the vehicle is increasingly a problem, especially for younger drivers. In many cases the distraction is associated with long glances away from the forward roadway. Such glances have been shown to be highly predictive of crashes. Ideally, one would like to develop and evaluate a training program which reduced these long glances. Thus, an experiment was conducted in a driving simulator to test the efficacy of a training program, FOCAL, that was developed to teach novice drivers to limit the duration of glances that are inside the vehicle while performing an in-vehicle task, such as looking for a CD or finding the 4-way flashers. The test in the simulator showed that the FOCAL trained group performed significantly better than the placebo trained group on several measures, notably on the percentage of within-vehicle glances that were greater than 2, 2.5, and 3 s. However, the training did not generalize to glances away from the roadway (e.g., when drivers were asked to attend to a sign adjacent to the roadway, both trained and untrained novice drivers were equally likely to make especially long glances at the sign). PMID:24415905

  14. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grael, F F; Maidantchik, C; Évora, L H R A; Karam, K; Moraes, L O F; Cirilli, M; Nessi, M; Pommès, K

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group and developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Moreover, the systems were not designed to handle new requirements. The maintenance has to be an easy task due to the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the database independently of its technology and modeling. Relying on Glance, a group of systems were built to support the ATLAS management and operation aspects: ATLAS Membership, ATLAS Appointments, ATLAS Speakers, ATLAS Analysis Follow-Up, ATLAS Conference Notes, ATLAS Thesis, ATLAS Traceability and DSS Alarms Viewer. This paper presents the overview of the Glance information framework and describes the privilege mechanism developed to grant different level of access for each member and system.

  15. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grael, F. F.; Maidantchik, C.; Évora, L. H. R. A.; Karam, K.; Moraes, L. O. F.; Cirilli, M.; Nessi, M.; Pommès, K.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group and developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Moreover, the systems were not designed to handle new requirements. The maintenance has to be an easy task due to the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the database independently of its technology and modeling. Relying on Glance, a group of systems were built to support the ATLAS management and operation aspects: ATLAS Membership, ATLAS Appointments, ATLAS Speakers, ATLAS Analysis Follow-Up, ATLAS Conference Notes, ATLAS Thesis, ATLAS Traceability and DSS Alarms Viewer. This paper presents the overview of the Glance information framework and describes the privilege mechanism developed to grant different level of access for each member and system.

  16. Association between duration of coronary occlusion and high-intensity signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging among patients with angiographic total occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Ehara, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Takao; Sakaguchi, Mikumo; Shimada, Kenei [Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Abeno-ku, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the association between duration of the coronary occlusion and high-intensity signal (HIS) on noncontrast T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imager among patients with angiographic coronary total occlusion. The signal intensity of the coronary target area divided by the signal intensity of the left ventricular muscle near the target area at each site (TMR) was measured. Areas with a TMR >1.0 were defined as HIS. Thirty five lesions from 33 patients were divided into the following three groups: subacute occlusion (up to 3 months; n = 7), short-duration chronic total occlusion (SD-CTO: 3-6 months; n = 9) and long-duration CTO (LD-CTO: ≥6 months; n = 19). All subacute occlusion lesions showed a HIS within the occlusion site. Among patients with CTO, the frequency of a HIS within the occlusion site was significantly higher in SD-CTO than in LD-CTO lesions (p = 0.013). In multivariate analyses, only an occlusion duration of less than 6 months was an independent factor associated with the presence of HIS (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.1-54.5; p = 0.044). The presence of a HIS in the occlusion site was associated more with SD-CTO than with LD-CTO among patients with CTO. (orig.)

  17. Association between duration of coronary occlusion and high-intensity signal on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging among patients with angiographic total occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Ehara, Shoichi; Hasegawa, Takao; Sakaguchi, Mikumo; Shimada, Kenei

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the association between duration of the coronary occlusion and high-intensity signal (HIS) on noncontrast T1-weighted imaging using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imager among patients with angiographic coronary total occlusion. The signal intensity of the coronary target area divided by the signal intensity of the left ventricular muscle near the target area at each site (TMR) was measured. Areas with a TMR >1.0 were defined as HIS. Thirty five lesions from 33 patients were divided into the following three groups: subacute occlusion (up to 3 months; n = 7), short-duration chronic total occlusion (SD-CTO: 3-6 months; n = 9) and long-duration CTO (LD-CTO: ≥6 months; n = 19). All subacute occlusion lesions showed a HIS within the occlusion site. Among patients with CTO, the frequency of a HIS within the occlusion site was significantly higher in SD-CTO than in LD-CTO lesions (p = 0.013). In multivariate analyses, only an occlusion duration of less than 6 months was an independent factor associated with the presence of HIS (odds ratio 7.6, 95% CI 1.1-54.5; p = 0.044). The presence of a HIS in the occlusion site was associated more with SD-CTO than with LD-CTO among patients with CTO. (orig.)

  18. This Issue at A Glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hormoz Chams

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the retrospective investigation titled “Risk factors evaluation of threshold retinopathy of prematurity” at a tertiary ophthalmic center in Tehran, Iran, the authors have studied 859 premature neonates during one year (2008-2009. 791 eyes have had retinopathy of prematurity (ROP and 7.4% of them presented threshold retinopathy (TROP. The investigators aim has been to present and compare the risk factors of ROP and TROP and also to emphasize that the proposed criteria1 for investigation of ROP and TROP are not very precise and valuable for the developing countries. For example they remark that 33% of their TROP had birth weight of more than 1,500 grams. In this investigation the most important risk factors for TROP have been delay in initial examination, low weight, low gestation age, and duration of oxygen therapy. In another presentation, the authors have investigated “The prevalence of viral conjunctivitis in patients who referred to eye specialist hospitals in Tehran, Iran”. They received 150 swap samples and after DNA extraction, and multiplex real-time PCR they found 14.6% of samples were positive for adenovirus and 3.3% positive for herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1. The results for herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2 and varicella-Zoster (VZV were negative. In other investigations2,3 of viral conjunctivitis adenoviruses, HSV-1, HSV-2 and VZV have been reported to be the most important causes of viral conjunctivitis. The authors propose a more extensive investigation on number of patients and the emerging viruses particularly in this part of the world. Rahimi et al in their presentation “Clinical outcomes in acanthamoeba keratitis treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide as monotherapy” have studied 27 eyes of 25 patients presenting Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK. They emphasize the importance of confocal biomicroscopy to find the cysts or trophozoites of the amoeba, indicating 96.3% of positive results compared to 81.5% of positivity in the culture

  19. How to combine in one view the global cost and duration of a trip

    OpenAIRE

    Uskokovic, Marko

    2013-01-01

    A flexibility study about the integration of other means of transport into the current system, and the presentation of a high level solution. [ANGLÈS] The purpose of this internship is to do a feasibility analysis and propose a potential solution which would allow passengers to have, in one glance, the total price and duration of their trip. The main goal of the internship is therefore to provide users with a complete picture of how much a journey will cost and how long it will be, includi...

  20. Impact of the Occlusion Duration on the Performance of J-CTO Score in Predicting Failure of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Chronic Total Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro-Filho, Antonio; Lamas, Edgar Stroppa; Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael A; Staico, Rodolfo; Siqueira, Dimytri; Costa, Ricardo A; Braga, Sergio N; Costa, J Ribamar; Chamié, Daniel; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the association between Multicenter CTO Registry in Japan (J-CTO) score in predicting failure of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) correlating with the estimated duration of chronic total occlusion (CTO). The J-CTO score does not incorporate estimated duration of the occlusion. This was an observational retrospective study that involved all consecutive procedures performed at a single tertiary-care cardiology center between January 2009 and December 2014. A total of 174 patients, median age 59.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 53-65 years), undergoing CTO-PCI were included. The median estimated occlusion duration was 7.5 months (IQR, 4.0-12.0 months). The lesions were classified as easy (score = 0), intermediate (score = 1), difficult (score = 2), and very difficult (score ≥3) in 51.1%, 33.9%, 9.2%, and 5.7% of the patients, respectively. Failure rate significantly increased with higher J-CTO score (7.9%, 20.3%, 50.0%, and 70.0% in groups with J-CTO scores of 0, 1, 2, and ≥3, respectively; PJ-CTO score predicted failure of CTO-PCI independently of the estimated occlusion duration (P=.24). Areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves were computed and it was observed that for each occlusion time period, the discriminatory capacity of the J-CTO score in predicting CTO-PCI failure was good, with a C-statistic >0.70. The estimated duration of occlusion had no influence on the J-CTO score performance in predicting failure of PCI in CTO lesions. The probability of failure was mainly determined by grade of lesion complexity.

  1. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  2. Investigating the correspondence between driver head position and glance location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonbum Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between a driver’s glance orientation and corresponding head rotation is highly complex due to its nonlinear dependence on the individual, task, and driving context. This paper presents expanded analytic detail and findings from an effort that explored the ability of head pose to serve as an estimator for driver gaze by connecting head rotation data with manually coded gaze region data using both a statistical analysis approach and a predictive (i.e., machine learning approach. For the latter, classification accuracy increased as visual angles between two glance locations increased. In other words, the greater the shift in gaze, the higher the accuracy of classification. This is an intuitive but important concept that we make explicit through our analysis. The highest accuracy achieved was 83% using the method of Hidden Markov Models (HMM for the binary gaze classification problem of (a glances to the forward roadway versus (b glances to the center stack. Results suggest that although there are individual differences in head-glance correspondence while driving, classifier models based on head-rotation data may be robust to these differences and therefore can serve as reasonable estimators for glance location. The results suggest that driver head pose can be used as a surrogate for eye gaze in several key conditions including the identification of high-eccentricity glances. Inexpensive driver head pose tracking may be a key element in detection systems developed to mitigate driver distraction and inattention.

  3. Glance Information System for ATLAS Management

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira Fernandes Moraes, L; The ATLAS collaboration; Ramos De Azevedo Evora, LH; Karam, K; Fink Grael, F; Pommes, K; Nessi, M; Cirilli, M

    2011-01-01

    ATLAS Experiment is an international collaboration where more than 37 countries, 172 institutes and laboratories, 2900 physicists, engineers, and computer scientists plus 700 students participate. The management of this teamwork involves several aspects such as institute contribution, employment records, members' appointment, authors' list, preparation and publication of papers and speakers nomination. Previously, most of the information was accessible by a limited group of people and the system used was not designed to handle new requirements easily. Moreover, developers had to face problems such as different terminology, diverse data modeling, heterogeneous databases and unlike users needs. Besides that, the maintenance has to be an easy task considering the long lifetime experiment and professionals turnover. The Glance system, a generic mechanism for accessing any database, acts as an intermediate layer isolating the user from the particularities of each database. It retrieves, inserts and updates the dat...

  4. Glancing angle x-ray studies of oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenport, A.J.; Isaacs, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    High brightness synchrotron radiation incident at glancing angles has been used to study inhibiting species present in low concentrations in oxide films on aluminum. Glancing incident angle fluorescence measurements give surface-sensitive information on the valence state of elements from the shape of the x-ray absorption edge. Angle-resolved measurements show the depth distribution of the species present. 15 refs., 4 figs

  5. Weibel-Palade bodies at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Jessica J; Lopes da Silva, Mafalda; Ferraro, Francesco; Patella, Francesca; Cutler, Daniel F

    2017-11-01

    The vascular environment can rapidly alter, and the speed with which responses to both physiological and pathological changes are required necessitates the existence of a highly responsive system. The endothelium can quickly deliver bioactive molecules by regulated exocytosis of its secretory granules, the Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs). WPBs include proteins that initiate both haemostasis and inflammation, as well those that modulate blood pressure and angiogenesis. WPB formation is driven by von Willebrand factor, their most abundant protein, which controls both shape and size of WPBs. WPB are generated in a range of sizes, with the largest granules over ten times the size of the smallest. In this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we discuss the emerging mechanisms by which WPB size is controlled and how this affects the ability of this organelle to modulate haemostasis. We will also outline the different modes of exocytosis and their polarity that are currently being explored, and illustrate that these large secretory organelles provide a model for how elements of secretory granule biogenesis and exocytosis cooperate to support a complex and diverse set of functions. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Radiation therapy in the management of symptomatic bone metastases: the effect of total dose and histology on pain relief and response duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Giovinazzo, Giuseppe; Saracino, Biancamaria; D'Angelo, Luciano; Giannarelli, Diana; Arcangeli, Giancarlo; Micheli, Adriana

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: In order to better define variables and factors that may influence the pain response to radiation, and to look for a radiation regimen that can assure the highest percentage and the longest duration of pain relief, we performed a prospective, although not randomized, study on patients with bone metastases from various primary sites. Methods and Materials: From December 1988 to March 1994, 205 patients with a total of 255 solitary or multiple bone metastases from several primary tumors were treated in our radiotherapy center with palliative intent. Irradiation fields were treated with three main fractionation schedules: (1) Conventional fractionation: 40-46 Gy/20-23 fractions in 5-5.5 weeks; (2) Short course: 30-36 Gy/10-12 fractions in 2-2.3 weeks; (3) Fast course: 8-28 Gy/1-4 consecutive fractions. Pain intensity was self-assessed by patients using a visual analogic scale graduated from 0 (no pain) to 10 (the strongest pain one can experience). Analgesic requirement was assessed by using a five-point scale, scoring both analgesic strength and frequency (0 = no drug or occasional nonopioids; 1 = Nonopioids once daily; 2 = Nonopioids more than once daily; 3 = Mild opioids (oral codeine, pentazocine, etc.), once daily; 4 = Mild opioids more than once daily; 5 = Strong opioids (morphine, meperidine, etc.). Complete pain relief meant the achievement of a score ≤ 2 in the pain scale or 0 in the analgesic requirement scale. Partial pain relief indicated a score of 3 to 4 or of 1 to 2 on the former and latter scale, respectively. Results: Total pain relief (complete + partial) was observed in 195 (76%) sites, in 158 of which (62%) a complete response was obtained. Metastases from NSC lung tumors appeared to be the least responsive among all primary tumors, with 46% complete pain relief in comparison to 65% and 83% complete relief in breast (p = 0.04) and in prostate metastases (p 0.002), respectively. A significant difference in pain relief was detected among

  7. Weight gain in women who practice moderate physical activity during pregnancy and its influence on the total duration of labor: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodriguez-Blanque

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: At present, OMS establishes that sedentarism and poor eating habits are two major problems of industrialized society, which cause high rates of overweight and obesity in the population. This fact also extends to women of reproductive age, which causes an excessive gain of weight during pregnancy, which can be a risk for the baby and for the mother. Objective: To know the benefits of moderate aquatic physical activity and its influence on the total duration of labor, according to the body mass index (BMI of pregnant women. Material and methods: Randomized clinical trial of 140 healthy pregnant women, ages between 21 and 43 years. A simple random sampling was used, the sample being conformed into two groups; Intervention (IG; n = 70 and Control (CG; n = 70. Each group was categorized according to the BMI, according to the OMS international classification. The recruitment was at 12 weeks of gestation in the ultrasound control of the first trimester, in the different obstetrical services of Granada. The program began at week 20 of gestation and ended at week 37. The perinatal results were obtained from the Labor Diagram of each woman, recorded in the Labor Ward Services of the University Hospital Complex of Granada. Results: The mean weight gain during pregnancy in the CG was 2.89 kg more compared to the IG. Significant differences were obtained in the total time of labor in the categories of BMI, Normopesus and Overweight. The Obesity variable shows that the results were not positive enough to reveal a statistical significance, although a difference of 531.89 min was recorded in the CG versus 374.14 min for the IG. This represents a difference of 2.63 hours on average, data that is clinically significant. Conclusion: Non-obese pregnant women, who have followed the SWEP method, present a statistically significant decrease in total delivery times between groups. However, in obese women there is a decrease in the total time of delivery

  8. Estimating Total Program Cost of a Long-Term, High-Technology, High-Risk Project with Task Durations and Costs That May Increase Over Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald G; Grose, Roger T; Koyak, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    .... Each task suffers some risk of delay and changed cost. Ignoring budget constraints, we use Monte Carlo simulation of the duration of each task in the project to infer the probability distribution of the project completion time...

  9. Seasonal Allergies at a Glance: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T U V W X Y Z Seasonal Allergies at a Glance If you have an allergy, your immune system reacts to something that doesn’t bother most other people. People with seasonal allergies (also called hay fever or allergic rhinitis) react ...

  10. Anxiety in Adolescents with ASD. Autism at-a-Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedges, S.; White, T.; Smith, L.

    2015-01-01

    "Autism at-a-Glance" is a series of practitioner and family-friendly documents created by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) designed for high school staff members supporting students on the autism spectrum, as well as family members of adolescents with ASD. The purpose of the "Autism…

  11. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2013-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  12. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2013

    2013-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  13. MCPS School Safety & Security at a Glance 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents. Information is presented for each Montgomery County (Maryland) public school. While much of this…

  14. Measurements of diamond-turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond-turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance, at high angles of incidence, is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The affects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  15. Measurements of diamond turned copper mirrors at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, W.D.; Saito, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    The results of glancing incidence absorptance measurements performed on diamond turned copper mirrors are presented. A photoacoustic calorimetry technique is used in which the output from a low power, chopped cw Nd:YAG laser (1.06 μm) is incident upon the mirror at angles of incidence from 0 to 87 0 , for both s and p-polarizations. Measurements are obtained as a function of the diamond turning groove orientation with respect to the plane of incidence. Minimum absorptance at high angles of incidence is achieved with s-polarized light and with the grooves aligned parallel to the plane of incidence. The effects on the absorptance of a large scratch at glancing incidence are also described

  16. Development of glancing-incidence and glancing-take-off X-ray fluorescence apparatus for surface and thin-film analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki; Yamada, Takashi; Utaka, Tadashi

    1997-01-01

    We have studied X-ray fluorescence analysis under glancing incidence and glancing take-off conditions. Recently, we have developed a third apparatus for detecting glancing-incidence and take-off X-ray fluorescence, which makes it possible to measure the incident-angle dependence, the take-off-angle dependence. X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray diffraction. Primarily, we have measured the take-off angular dependence of X-ray fluorescence using this apparatus. Glancing take-off X-ray fluorescence has some advantages in comparison with glancing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. The surface density and the absolute angles were determined by analysing the take-off angle dependence of the fluorescent X-rays emitted from identical atoms with the aid of the reciprocity theorem. (Author)

  17. Itil version 3 at a glance information quick reference

    CERN Document Server

    Long, John

    2008-01-01

    ITILA(R) Version 3 At a Glance takes a graphical approach to consolidating the information of ITILA(R) version 3. ITILA(R) is an internationally-recognized set of best practices for providing IT service management. IT organizations worldwide are implementing ITILA(R) as a vehicle for improving IT service quality and improve return on investment for IT services. The desk referencea (TM)s unique graphical approach will take otherwise complex textual descriptions and make the information accessible in a series of consistent, simple diagrams. ITILA(R) Version 3 At a Glance will be of interest to organizations looking to train their staffs in a consistent and cost-effective way. Further, this book is ideal for anyone involved in planning consulting, implementing, or testing an ITILA(R) Version 3 implementation. Each chapter in ITILA(R) Version 3 at a Glance summarizes one of the ITILA(R) v3 books in the following consistent structure: - Brief Description of the Stage - Overview Diagram of the Stage - Key Concepts ...

  18. A sequential logic circuit for coincidences randomly distributed in 'time' and 'duration', with selection and total sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carnet, Bernard; Delhumeau, Michel

    1971-06-01

    The principles of binary analysis applied to the investigation of sequential circuits were used to design a two way coincidence circuit whose input may be, random or periodic variables of constant or variable duration. The output signal strictly reproduces the characteristics of the input signal triggering the coincidence. A coincidence between input signals does not produce any output signal if one of the signals has already triggered the output signal. The characteristics of the output signal in relation to those of the input signal are: minimum time jitter, excellent duration reproducibility and maximum efficiency. Some rules are given for achieving these results. The symmetry, transitivity and non-transitivity characteristics of the edges on the primitive graph are analyzed and lead to some rules for positioning the states on a secondary graph. It is from this graph that the equations of the circuits can be calculated. The development of the circuit and its dynamic testing are discussed. For this testing, the functioning of the circuit is simulated by feeding into the input randomly generated signals

  19. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  20. X-ray fluorescence analysis of thin films at glancing-incident and -takeoff angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Sato, S.; Hirokawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    We have developed a new analytical method, Glancing-Incidence and -Takeoff X-Ray Fluorescence (GIT-XRF) method for the first time. Here, we present an idea for a thin-film analysis and a surface analysis by the GIT-XRF method. In this method, the dependence of the fluorescent x-ray intensity on takeoff angle is measured at various incident angles of the primary x-ray. Compared with a total reflection x-ray fluorescence method, the GIT-XRF method allows a detailed thin-film analysis, because the thin film is cross-checked by many experimental curves. Moreover, a surface-sensitive analysis is also possible by the GIT-XRF method. (author)

  1. Gas System 2013 at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. This document presents some key figures about GRTgaz activity in 2013: Total Consumption 2013 vs 2012: +1.4% gross consumption, -2% climate adjusted. Public Distribution Consumption 2013 vs 2012: +3.6% gross consumption, -1.9% climate adjusted. Industrial Customers Consumption 2013 vs 2012: -2.4% gross consumption. Power Generation: -50% since 2011. Industrial Customers 2012 vs 2013 (excluding power generation): +2%. Transported Quantities by GRTgaz 2013 vs 2012: Stability (-0.1%). LNG imports are down (-19%) compensated by pipe imports (+5%). Increasing outlet to the South-West, Congestion on North-South Link. Price spread between North and South. In 2013, gas gross consumption rose by 1.4 % on GRTgaz network, mainly because of colder climatic conditions, especially during the first half of the year, compared to 2012. Consumption of industrial customers connected to GRTgaz increased by 2 % (excluding power generation), mainly driven by sectors like Refineries, Chemistry, Glass and Materials. In 2013, GRTgaz transmission network ran under unusual gas flow conditions, especially with a continuing decrease of LNG imports (-19 %) and a low level in underground storages (-8 %)

  2. Pensions at a glance 2015 OECD and G20 indicators

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The 10-year anniversary edition of Pensions at a Glance highlights the pension reforms undertaken by OECD and G20 countries over the last two years. Two special chapters provide deeper analysis of first-tier pension schemes and of the impact of short or interrupted careers, due to late entry into employment, childcare or unemployment, on pension entitlements. Another chapter analyses the sensitivity of long-term pension replacement rates on various parameters. A range of indicators for comparing pension policies and their outcomes between OECD and G20 countries is also provided.

  3. The cytotoxic T lymphocyte immune synapse at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, Nele M G; Frazer, Gordon L; Asano, Yukako; Stinchcombe, Jane C; Griffiths, Gillian M

    2016-08-01

    The immune synapse provides an important structure for communication with immune cells. Studies on immune synapses formed by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) highlight the dynamic changes and specialised mechanisms required to facilitate focal signalling and polarised secretion in immune cells. In this Cell Science at a Glance article and the accompanying poster, we illustrate the different steps that reveal the specialised mechanisms used to focus secretion at the CTL immune synapse and allow CTLs to be such efficient and precise serial killers. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Glance project: a database retrieval mechanism for the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidantchik, C [COPPE, UFRJ (Brazil); Grael, F F; Galvao, K K [Escola Politecnica, UFRJ (Brazil); Pommes, K [CERN (Switzerland)

    2008-07-15

    During the construction and commissioning phases of the ATLAS detector, data related to the installation, placement, testing and performance of the equipment are stored in relational databases. Each group acquires and saves information in different servers, using diverse technologies, data modeling and terminologies. Installation and maintenance during the experiment construction and operation depends on the access to this information, as well as imply in its update. The development of retrieval and update systems for each data set requires too much effort and high maintenance cost. The Glance system retrieves and inserts/updates data independently of the modeling and technology used for the storage, recognizes the repositories internal structure and guides the user through the creation of search and insertion interfaces. Distinct and spread data sets can be transparently integrated in one interface. Data can be exported/imported to/from various formats. The system handles many independent interfaces, which can be accessed by users or other applications at any time. This paper describes the Glance conception, its development and features. The system usage is illustrated with examples. Current status and future work are also discussed.

  5. Control of ordered mesoporous titanium dioxide nanostructures formed using plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Des [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Child, David, E-mail: david.child@uws.ac.uk [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Song, Shigeng; Zhao, Chao [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Alajiani, Yahya [Institute of Thin Films, Sensors & Imaging, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of West of Scotland, Paisley, PA1 2BE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Jazan University, Jazan (Saudi Arabia); Waddell, Ewan [Thin Film Solutions Ltd, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow, G20 0TH (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    Three dimensional nanostructures of mesoporous (pore diameter between 2-50 nm) nanocrystalline titania (TiO{sub 2}) were produced using glancing angle deposition combined with plasma ion assisted deposition, providing plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition eliminating the need for post-annealing to achieve film crystallinity. Electron beam evaporation was chosen to deposit nanostructures at various azimuthal angles, achieving designed variation in three dimensional nanostructure. A thermionic broad beam hollow cathode plasma source was used to enhance electron beam deposition, with ability to vary in real time ion fluxes and energies providing a means to modify and control TiO{sub 2} nanostructure real time with controlled density and porosity along and lateral to film growth direction. Plasma ion assisted deposition was carried out at room temperature using a hollow cathode plasma source, ensuring low heat loading to the substrate during deposition. Plasma enhanced glancing angle TiO{sub 2} structures were deposited onto borosilicate microscope slides and used to characterise the effects of glancing angle and plasma ion energy distribution function on the optical and nanostructural properties. Variation in TiO{sub 2} refractive index from 1.40 to 2.45 (@ 550 nm) using PEGLAD is demonstrated. Results and analysis of the influence of plasma enhanced glancing angle deposition on evaporant path and resultant glancing angle deviation from standard GLAD are described. Control of mesoporous morphology is described, providing a means of optimising light trapping features and film porosity, relevant to applications such as fabrication of dye sensitised solar cells. - Highlights: • Plasma assistance during glancing angle deposition enables control of morphology. • Ion energy variation during glancing angle deposition varies columnar angle • Column thickness of glancing angle deposition dependant on ion current density • Ion current density variation during

  6. The Earth at a glance 2010: cities, changing trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.K.; Tubiana, L.

    2010-01-01

    The 2010 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' yearly publication is devoted to cities, areas and actors at the forefront of sustainable development. Beyond the status of stakes and obstacles to overcome, the ambition is to identify the dynamics carrying an indispensable trajectory change. More than half of the worldwide population lives in urban areas. Cities generate the most part of the prosperity and knowledge but are also the places where the most fragile populations concentrate and very often in precarious conditions. They are also at the origin of a large part of environment degradations. And yet, it is in the cities that the political, social and environmental questions of the 21. century are debated. In this framework, the cities of emerging countries may open the ways towards a new urbanism by developing new standards. Contents: status of 2009 events; calendar of main 2010 meetings; dossier: 'cities: changing the trajectory'; landmarks: maps, diagrams, world synthesis of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  7. Emerging functions of the Fanconi anemia pathway at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumpter, Rhea; Levine, Beth

    2017-08-15

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare disease, in which homozygous or compound heterozygous inactivating mutations in any of 21 genes lead to genomic instability, early-onset bone marrow failure and increased cancer risk. The FA pathway is essential for DNA damage response (DDR) to DNA interstrand crosslinks. However, proteins of the FA pathway have additional cytoprotective functions that may be independent of DDR. We have shown that many FA proteins participate in the selective autophagy pathway that is required for the destruction of unwanted intracellular constituents. In this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we briefly review the role of the FA pathway in DDR and recent findings that link proteins of the FA pathway to selective autophagy of viruses and mitochondria. Finally, we discuss how perturbations in FA protein-mediated selective autophagy may contribute to inflammatory as well as genotoxic stress. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. The Earth at a glance 2009: the sustainable development governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.; Tubiana, L.

    2009-01-01

    How to implement the sustainable development? More than 15 years after the Rio conference, the question is still pending, renewed by the intense mobilization of non-governmental actors, organizations, companies, or local communities. Observing the inadequacy of the present day governance system is not sufficient and it is advisable to identify among the numerous dynamics in progress, the beginnings of a new governance. The sustainable development governance is the theme of the 2009 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' book with the ambition to contribute to the reflexion about the present day governance system and its desirable evolutions. Content: the 2008 events status and the schedule of the main 2009 meetings; the 2009 world sustainable development governance: a system to the sustainable development test, dynamics of a changing world, sustainably managing complexity; the sustainable development benchmarks: maps, tables, chronologies, economic, social and environmental syntheses for an original mapping of sustainable development in the world. (J.S.)

  9. Glancing-angle scattering of fast ions at crystal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannami, Michihiko; Narumi, Kazumasa; Katoh, Humiya; Kimura, Kenji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Glancing angle scattering of fast ions from a single crystal surface is a novel technique to study ion-surface interaction. Results of recent studies of ion-surface interaction are reviewed for ions with velocities faster than the Fermi velocity of solid. For the ions with velocities less than the Fermi velocity of target valence electrons the ion-surface interaction shows a new aspect where only the valence electrons of target solid participate in the stopping processes. It will show that the position-dependent stopping power of a surface for these ions governed by the elastic collisions of valence electrons and the ions. A method is proposed from this position-dependent stopping power to derived the electron density distribution averaged over the plane parallel to the surface. (author)

  10. Evidence at a glance: error matrix approach for overviewing available evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keus, Frederik; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence continues to expand and is increasingly difficult to overview. We aimed at conceptualizing a visual assessment tool, i.e., a matrix for overviewing studies and their data in order to assess the clinical evidence at a glance....

  11. Memory Conditions at a Glance | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Memory & Forgetfulness Memory Conditions at a Glance Past Issues / Summer 2013 ... called MCI. It causes people to have more memory problems than other people their age. The signs ...

  12. Texture orientation of glancing angle deposited copper nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alouach, H.; Mankey, G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Self-assembled copper nanowires were deposited on native oxide Si(100) substrates using glancing angle deposition with and without substrate rotation. Wire morphology, texture and crystallographic orientation are strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. A method for determining the preferred crystal orientation is described. This orientation is found to be different from what is expected from the geometric orientation of the wires. For wires deposited without substrate rotation, the face-centered-cubic (fcc)(111) crystal orientation, which corresponds to the close-packed, low surface energy (111) plane of copper, lies between the long axis of the wire and that normal to the substrate. X-ray diffraction data show that the wires exhibit bundling behavior perpendicular to the plane of incidence. For samples deposited with azimuthal rotation of the substrate, the fcc(111) directions in the wires are evenly distributed in a cone around the long axis of the wires, which point normal to the substrate. When the substrate is rotated during deposition at an angle of 75 deg., the wires exhibit a strong fcc(220) texture. These observations show that wires deposited with substrate rotation are highly textured and have random orientations in the plane of the substrate

  13. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods.

  14. Embryo-epithelium interactions during implantation at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, John D; Ruane, Peter T

    2017-01-01

    At implantation, with the acquisition of a receptive phenotype in the uterine epithelium, an initial tenuous attachment of embryonic trophectoderm initiates reorganisation of epithelial polarity to enable stable embryo attachment and the differentiation of invasive trophoblasts. In this Cell Science at a Glance article, we describe cellular and molecular events during the epithelial phase of implantation in rodent, drawing on morphological studies both in vivo and in vitro, and genetic models. Evidence is emerging for a repertoire of transcription factors downstream of the master steroidal regulators estrogen and progesterone that coordinate alterations in epithelial polarity, delivery of signals to the stroma and epithelial cell death or displacement. We discuss what is known of the cell interactions that occur during implantation, before considering specific adhesion molecules. We compare the rodent data with our much more limited knowledge of the human system, where direct mechanistic evidence is hard to obtain. In the accompanying poster, we represent the embryo-epithelium interactions in humans and laboratory rodents, highlighting similarities and differences, as well as depict some of the key cell biological events that enable interstitial implantation to occur. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. The structure of Ta nanopillars grown by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-01-01

    Regular arrays of Ta nanopillars, 200 nm wide and 500 nm tall, were grown on SiO 2 nanosphere patterns by glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Plan-view and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy analyses show dramatic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nanopillars as a function of growth temperature T s ranging from 200 to 700 deg. C. At low temperatures, T s ≤ 300 deg. C, single nanopillars develop on each sphere and branch into subpillars near the pillar top. In contrast, T s ≥ 500 deg. C leads to branching during the nucleation stage at the pillar bottom. The top branching at low T s is associated with surface mounds on a growing pillar that, due to atomic shadowing, develop into separated subpillars. At high T s , the branching occurs during the nucleation stage where multiple nuclei on a single SiO 2 sphere develop into subpillars during a competitive growth mode which, in turn, leads to intercolumnar competition and the extinction of some nanopillars

  16. Phase stabilities at a glance: Stability diagrams of nickel dipnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachhuber, F.; Rothballer, J.; Weihrich, R.; Söhnel, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the recent advances in chemical structure prediction, a straightforward type of diagram to evaluate phase stabilities is presented based on an expedient example. Crystal structures and energetic stabilities of dipnictides NiPn 2 (Pn = N, P, As, Sb, Bi) are systematically investigated by first principles calculations within the framework of density functional theory using the generalized gradient approximation to treat exchange and correlation. These dipnictides show remarkable polymorphism that is not yet understood systematically and offers room for the discovery of new phases. Relationships between the concerned structures including the marcasite, the pyrite, the arsenopyrite/CoSb 2 , and the NiAs 2 types are highlighted by means of common structural fragments. Electronic stabilities of experimentally known and related AB 2 structure types are presented graphically in so-called stability diagrams. Additionally, competing binary phases are taken into consideration in the diagrams to evaluate the stabilities of the title compounds with respect to decomposition. The main purpose of the stability diagrams is the introduction of an image that enables the estimation of phase stabilities at a single glance. Beyond that, some of the energetically favored structure types can be identified as potential new phases

  17. The ALICE Glance Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Silva, H.; Abreu Da Silva, I.; Ronchetti, F.; Telesca, A.; Maidantchik, C.

    2015-12-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is an experiment at the CERN LHC (Large Hadron Collider) studying the physics of strongly interacting matter and the quark-gluon plasma. The experiment operation requires a 24 hours a day and 7 days a week shift crew at the experimental site, composed by the ALICE collaboration members. Shift duties are calculated for each institute according to their correlated members. In order to ensure the full coverage of the experiment operation as well as its good quality, the ALICE Shift Accounting Management System (SAMS) is used to manage the shift bookings as well as the needed training. ALICE SAMS is the result of a joint effort between the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) and the ALICE Collaboration. The Glance technology, developed by the UFRJ and the ATLAS experiment, sits at the basis of the system as an intermediate layer isolating the particularities of the databases. In this paper, we describe the ALICE SAMS development process and functionalities. The database has been modelled according to the collaboration needs and is fully integrated with the ALICE Collaboration repository to access members information and respectively roles and activities. Run, period and training coordinators can manage their subsystem operation and ensure an efficient personnel management. Members of the ALICE collaboration can book shifts and on-call according to pre-defined rights. ALICE SAMS features a user profile containing all the statistics and user contact information as well as the Institutes profile. Both the user and institute profiles are public (within the scope of the collaboration) and show the credit balance in real time. A shift calendar allows the Run Coordinator to plan data taking periods in terms of which subsystems shifts are enabled or disabled and on-call responsible people and slots. An overview display presents the shift crew present in the control room and allows the Run Coordination team to confirm the presence

  18. A field study on the effects of digital billboards on glance behavior during highway driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyusar, Daniel; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2016-03-01

    Developments in lighting technologies have allowed more dynamic digital billboards in locations visible from the roadway. Decades of laboratory research have shown that rapidly changing or moving stimuli presented in peripheral vision tends to 'capture' covert attention. We report naturalistic glance and driving behavior of a large sample of drivers who were exposed to two digital billboards on a segment of highway largely free from extraneous signage. Results show a significant shift in the number and length of glances toward the billboards and an increased percentage of time glancing off road in their presence. Findings were particularly evident at the time the billboards transitioned between advertisements. Since rapidly changing stimuli are difficult to ignore, the planned increase in episodically changing digital displays near the roadway may be argued to be a potential safety concern. The impact of digital billboards on driver safety and the need for continued research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physics at a glance full physics content of the new GCSE

    CERN Document Server

    Mills, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This book aims to cover all the GCSE Physics material needed to meet the specifications of the examining boards Edexcel, AQA, WJEC and OCR (both 21st Century Science and Gateway) both for single and double awards. The content also covers the additional topics necessary for the Physics GCSE single award. It is the third book in the series following 'Biology at a Glance' and 'Chemistry at a Glance' and it encourages learners to use a mind mapping approach to revision. Just like the other books in the series, each page contains clear annotated illustrations that will help the reader to assimilate

  20. Internet Safety for Teens with ASD. Autism at-a-Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinard, A.

    2016-01-01

    "Autism at-a-Glance" is a series of practitioner and family-friendly documents created by the Center on Secondary Education for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (CSESA) designed for high school staff members supporting students on the autism spectrum, as well as family members of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The…

  1. Structured Ti/hydrocarbon plasma polymer nanocomposites produced by magnetron sputtering with glancing angle deposition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choukourov, A.; Solar, P.; Polonskyi, O.; Hanus, J.; Drabik, M.; Kylian, O.; Pavlova, Ewa; Slavinska, D.; Biederman, H.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2010), s. 25-32 ISSN 1612-8850 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : glancing angle deposition * nanocomposites * nanostructures Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2010

  2. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) public schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  3. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2009

    2009-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  4. MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County Public Schools, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "MCPS School Safety and Security at a Glance" provides, in a single document, information about the reporting of incidents related to school safety and security, school climate, local school safety program descriptions, and serious incidents in all Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools. The information is presented for each school.…

  5. Growth characteristics of inclined columns produced by Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) and colloidal lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Morten; Besenbacher, Flemming; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2011-01-01

    Nanocolumns were produced by performing Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) onto self-assembled template arrays consisting of platinum coated polystyrene spheres. By varying the angle of incidence (θ = 35°, 10° and 5°) and the deposited surface mass density it was possible to control the shape of th...

  6. Analysis of thin films prepared by vacuum-evaporation and dropping solution by Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence spectroscopy at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Mitose, Kengo.

    1995-01-01

    We have introduced Takeoff Angle-Dependent X-Ray Fluorescence (TAD-XRF) method for thin film and surface analysis. In this method, the sample on the optically flat substrate is irradiated with the glancing incidence of the primary X-ray, and the fluorescent X-rays emitted from the sample are detected at the glancing takeoff angle. We had previously calculated the relationship between the fluorescent X-ray intensity and the takeoff angle at the glancing incidence. The characterization of the thin film is achieved by investigating the dependence of the fluorescent X-ray intensity on the takeoff angle with the calculated curve. Using this analytical method, we have reported the results of the TAD-XRF measured for the evaporated thin films and the dried films from dropping solution in this paper. The effect of the thickness of the thin film, the density of the substrate and the incident angle on the TAD-XRF curve has been reported. In the case of the dried film from the dropping solution, a broad peak was observed at the takeoff angle which was close to the critical angle for the total reflection of the fluorescent X-ray in the TAD-XRF curve. This broad peak was explained by the double-excitation of the incident beam and the refracted beam of the fluorescent X-ray with the assumption that the X-ray which has a same wavelength to the observed fluorescent X-ray impinges upon the sample surface, because the reciprocity theorem is expected in the X-ray region. (author)

  7. Synthesis of functional nanomaterials via colloidal mask templating and glancing angle deposition (GLAD)”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle durin...... of multifunctional nanomaterials which could have potential impact on devices where both controlled optical properties and cell surface interactions are needed (for instance controlled cell adhesion on optical biosensor materials).......We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle during...

  8. Driver's glance behaviour and secondary tasks; Einfluss von Nebenaufgaben auf das Fahrerblickverhalten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweigert, M. [BMW Group Forschung und Technik, Muenchen (Germany); Bubb, H. [TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Ergonomie

    2003-07-01

    This paper contains a proposal for the evaluation of drivers' glance behavior, focussing on the influence of secondary tasks during driving. In general, an evaluation can only be achieved by regarding the quality of a task completion, which can be calculated by a comparison of a measured, actual value or behavior and a defined target value or behavior. Due to this definition, a target glance behavior is defined by so called continous and situational visual tasks. As opposed to continuous visual tasks, situational visual tasks contain a concrete description for a target glance behavior. A field trial (N=30) showed, that the subjects' glance behavior fulfilled most of the defined visual tasks when driving without a secondary task. Driving with secondary tasks leads to an increasing subjects' reliance on the correct driving of the other road users, shown by decreasing visual monitoring. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Untersuchung behandelt die Bewertung des Blickverhaltens von Fahrzeugfuehrern, wobei das Hauptaugenmerk auf dem Einfluss von Zusatzaufgaben liegt, die waehrend der Fahrt zu bearbeiten sind. Eine Bewertung ist immer eng mit dem Begriff der Qualitaet verknuepft, wobei ein Ist-Wert mit einem vorgegebenen Soll-Wert zu vergleichen ist. Nur wenn die Abweichung zwischen Soll und Ist gering ist, ist die Qualitaet hoch und die Bewertung somit positiv. Bei der Definition eines Soll-Blickverhaltens wird hier zwischen kontinuierlichen und situativen visuellen Aufgaben unterschieden. Letztere beinhalten konkrete Forderungen an das Fahrerblickverhalten in bestimmten Situationen, waehrend sich die Vorgabe eines Soll-Werts fuer kontinuierliche Aufgaben einer genauen Quantifizierung weitestgehend entzieht. Im Feldversuch (N=30) konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei den Fahrten ohne Zusatzaufgabenbearbeitung (Referenzbedingung) die definierten visuellen Aufgaben zum Grossteil erfuellt werden. Ist der Fahrer jedoch durch Zusatzaufgaben beansprucht, verlaesst er

  9. Fabrication of black-gold coatings by glancing angle deposition with sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Vitrey

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of black-gold coatings using sputtering is reported here. Glancing angle deposition with a rotating substrate is needed to obtain vertical nanostructures. Enhanced light absorption is obtained in the samples prepared in the ballistic regime with high tilt angles. Under these conditions the diameter distribution of the nanostructures is centered at about 60 nm and the standard deviation is large enough to obtain black-metal behavior in the visible range.

  10. The Effect of Glancing Angle Deposition Conditions on the Morphology of a Silver Nanohelix Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Jun Jen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanohelices were grown on smooth substrates using glancing angle deposition and substrate cooling. Various nanohelix arrays were deposited under different deposition conditions—different deposition rates, substrate spin rates, deposition angles, and substrate temperatures. The effect of deposition conditions on the morphology of each nanohelix array in terms of pitch angle, pitch length, wire diameter, and radius of curvature was investigated. The dependence of circular dichroism on the size of the nanohelix arrays was also measured and demonstrated.

  11. Development of a total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometer for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    design and use of a peltier cooled solid state detector for energy dispersive detection. Alignment and ... X-ray beam at a glancing angle less than the critical angle at which total ... materials is < 1 so that external total reflection takes place at an ...

  12. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  13. Thermodynamics Calculation and Experimental Study on Separation of Bismuth from a Bismuth Glance Concentrate Through a Low-Temperature Molten Salt Smelting Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Guang; He, De-Wen; Tang, Chao-Bo; Chen, Yong-Ming; Sun, Ya-Hui; Tang, Mo-Tang

    2011-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to characterize and separate bismuth from a bismuth glance concentrate through a low-temperature, sulfur-fixing smelting process. This article reports on a study conducted on the optimization of process parameters, such as Na2CO3 and zinc oxide wt pct in charging, smelting temperature, smelting duration on the bismuth yield, resultant crude bismuth grade, and sulfur-fixing rate. A maximum bismuth recovery of 97.31 pct, crude bismuth grade of 96.93 pct, and 98.23 pct sulfur-fixing rate are obtained when a charge (containing 63.50 wt pct of Na2CO3 and 22.50 wt pct of bismuth glance, as well as 5 pct in excess of the stoichiometric requirement of zinc oxide dosage) is smelted at 1000 K (727 °C) for 150 minutes. This smelting operation is free from atmospheric pollution because zinc oxide is used as the sulfur-fixing agent, which can capture sulfur from bismuth sulfide and form the more thermodynamic-stable compound, zinc sulfide. The solid residue is subjected to a mineral dressing operation to obtain suspension, which is filtered to produce a cake, representing the solid particles of zinc sulfide. Based on the results of the chemical content analysis of the as-resultant zinc sulfide, more than 93 pct zinc sulfide can be recovered, and the recovered zinc sulfide grade can reach 60.20 pct. This material can be sold as zinc sulfide concentrate or roasted to be regenerated as zinc oxide.

  14. Discounted Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ody, Heinrich; Fränzle, Martin; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2016-01-01

    To formally reason about the temporal quality of systems discounting was introduced to CTL and LTL. However, these logic are discrete and they cannot express duration properties. In this work we introduce discounting for a variant of Duration Calculus. We prove decidability of model checking...... for a useful fragment of discounted Duration Calculus formulas on timed automata under mild assumptions. Further, we provide an extensive example to show the usefulness of the fragment....

  15. Extended Visual Glances Away from the Roadway are Associated with ADHD- and Texting-Related Driving Performance Deficits in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, Kathleen M; Narad, Megan; Garner, Annie A; Antonini, Tanya N; Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the research study was to determine whether ADHD- and texting-related driving impairments are mediated by extended visual glances away from the roadway. Sixty-one adolescents (ADHD =28, non-ADHD =33; 62% male; 11% minority) aged 16-17 with a valid driver's license were videotaped while engaging in a driving simulation that included a No Distraction, Hands-Free Phone Conversation, and Texting condition. Two indicators of visual inattention were coded: 1) percentage of time with eyes diverted from the roadway; and 2) number of extended (greater than 2 s) visual glances away from the roadway. Adolescents with ADHD displayed significantly more visual inattention to the roadway on both visual inattention measures. Increased lane position variability among adolescents with ADHD compared to those without ADHD during the Hands-Free Phone Conversation and Texting conditions was mediated by an increased number of extended glances away from the roadway. Similarly, texting resulted in decreased visual attention to the roadway. Finally, increased lane position variability during texting was also mediated by the number of extended glances away from the roadway. Both ADHD and texting impair visual attention to the roadway and the consequence of this visual inattention is increased lane position variability. Visual inattention is implicated as a possible mechanism for ADHD- and texting-related deficits and suggests that driving interventions designed to address ADHD- or texting-related deficits in adolescents need to focus on decreasing extended glances away from the roadway.

  16. Synthesis of functional nanomaterials via colloidal mask templating and glancing angle deposition (GLAD)”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, Alireza; Jensen, Thomas Bo; Vorup-Jensen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We present a simple method for the fabrication of separated brush-like networks with both improved optical and biological properties. The brush networks were fabricated by combing the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique with colloidal mask templating. By changing the deposition angle during...... indicate that localized surface plasmons are present on the GLAD templated surfaces while cell assays with monocyte cells showed an impaired attachment to the brush structures. Consequently, deposition by means of a colloidal mask templating is indeed a very tunable and suited technique for the fabrication...

  17. Gold coated metal nanostructures grown by glancing angle deposition and pulsed electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüner, Christoph; Reeck, Pascal; Jacobs, Paul-Philipp; Liedtke, Susann; Lotnyk, Andriy; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2018-05-01

    Nickel based nanostructures are grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on flat and pre-patterned substrates. These fabricated porous thin films were subsequently coated by pulsed electroplating with gold. The morphology and conformity of the gold coating were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Controlled growth of closed gold layers on the nanostructures could be achieved, while the open-pore structure of the nanosculptured thin films was preserved. Such gold coated nanostructures are a candidate for optical sensing and catalysis applications. The demonstrated method can be applied for numerous material combinations, allowing to provide GLAD thin films with new surface properties.

  18. Duration Calculus: Logical Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Reichhardt; Chaochen, Zhou

    1997-01-01

    The Duration Calculus (abbreviated DC) represents a logical approach to formal design of real-time systems, where real numbers are used to model time and Boolean valued functions over time are used to model states and events of real-time systems. Since it introduction, DC has been applied to many...

  19. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  20. duration diabetes mellitus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... group, type of diabetes, age of onset and duration of diabetes), presence of retinopathy, markers of nephropathy and biochemical variables. ... type 2 diabetes and for each ethnic group. Results. ... time of diabetes diagnosis in blacks than Indians. In the type ... countries, minority groups and disadvantaged communities in.

  1. Pensions at a glance 2011 retirement-income systems in OECD and G20 countries

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2011-01-01

    The theme of this fourth edition of Pensions at a Glance is pensions, retirement and life expectancy. Many countries have increased pension ages in the face of population ageing and longer lives. Some have introduced an automatic link between pensions and life expectancy. Improvements to the incentives to work rather than retire are also a common part of recent pension-reform packages. However, ensuring that there are enough jobs for older workers remains a challenge. An in-depth look at these important policy issues is provided by five special chapters on: pension ages, retirement behaviour, pension incentives to retire, the demand for older workers and linking pensions to life expectancy. This edition updates information on the key features of pension provision in OECD countries and provides projections of retirement income for today’s workers. It offers an expanded range of 34 indicators, covering the design of national retirement-income provision, pension entitlements, incomes of older people, the finan...

  2. Pensions at a glance 2009 retirement-income systems in OECD countries

    CERN Document Server

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Paris

    2009-01-01

    Pension and retirement policies have changed dramatically in recent years, as governments have tried to balance the goals of adequate retirement incomes and the long-term financial sustainability of pension systems in the face of population ageing. Pensions at a Glance 2009 provides a consistent framework for comparing pension policies between countries along with reliable data. This third edition updates information on key features of pension provision in OECD countries and provides projections of retirement income for todays workers. It offers an expanded range of indicators, including measures of assets, investment performance, coverage of private pensions, public pension spending, and the demographic context and outlook. Four special chapters provide an in-depth look at important issues in pension policy today. The first examines the implications of the present financial and economic crisis on pension systems. Which countries and which individuals are most affected? What can governments do to help and whi...

  3. Glance traceability – Web system for equipment traceability and radiation monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos de Azevedo Evora, L H; Pommes, K; Galvão, K K; Maidantchik, C

    2010-01-01

    During the operation, maintenance, and dismantling periods of the ATLAS Experiment, the traceability of all detector equipment must be guaranteed for logistic and safety matters. The running of the Large Hadron Collider will expose the ATLAS detector to radiation. Therefore, CERN must follow specific regulations from both the French and Swiss authorities for equipment removal, transport, repair, and disposal. GLANCE Traceability, implemented in C++ and Java/Java3D, has been developed to fulfill the requirements. The system registers and associates each equipment part to either a functional position in the detector or a zone outside the underground area through a 3D graphical user interface. Radiation control of the equipment is performed using a radiation monitor connected to the system: the local background gets stored and the threshold is automatically calculated. The system classifies the equipment as non radioactive if its radiation dose does not exceed that limit value. History for both location traceabi...

  4. The effects of visual crowding, text size, and positional uncertainty on text legibility at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobres, Jonathan; Wolfe, Benjamin; Chahine, Nadine; Reimer, Bryan

    2018-07-01

    Reading at a glance, once a relatively infrequent mode of reading, is becoming common. Mobile interaction paradigms increasingly dominate the way in which users obtain information about the world, which often requires reading at a glance, whether from a smartphone, wearable device, or in-vehicle interface. Recent research in these areas has shown that a number of factors can affect text legibility when words are briefly presented in isolation. Here we expand upon this work by examining how legibility is affected by more crowded presentations. Word arrays were combined with a lexical decision task, in which the size of the text elements and the inter-line spacing (leading) between individual items were manipulated to gauge their relative impacts on text legibility. In addition, a single-word presentation condition that randomized the location of presentation was compared with previous work that held position constant. Results show that larger text was more legible than smaller text. Wider leading significantly enhanced legibility as well, but contrary to expectations, wider leading did not fully counteract decrements in legibility at smaller text sizes. Single-word stimuli presented with random positioning were more difficult to read than stationary counterparts from earlier studies. Finally, crowded displays required much greater processing time compared to single-word displays. These results have implications for modern interface design, which often present interactions in the form of scrollable and/or selectable lists. The present findings are of practical interest to the wide community of graphic designers and interface engineers responsible for developing our interfaces of daily use. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth Assisted by Glancing Angle Deposition: A New Technique to Fabricate Highly Porous Anisotropic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Valencia, Juan Ramon; Longtin, Remi; Rossell, Marta D; Gröning, Pierangelo

    2016-04-06

    We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a "proof of concept", we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained.

  6. Modelling the Reduction of Project Making Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleinik Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article points out why earlier patterns of investment process were ineffective in developing the construction projects and shows sources for reducing of its total duration. It describes the procedure of statistical modeling and obtaining medium-term time parameters required for modern pattern of project-making; offers design formulas for assessment of total time required for project-making as well as for its main stages; reveals advantage of modern system of project-making against traditional one by comparing indicators of their duration.

  7. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  8. Effect of surface roughness on takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence of ultrathin films at glancing incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kouichi; Hirokawa, Kichinosuke; Sasaki, Atsushi.

    1994-01-01

    We had previously shown that takeoff-angle-dependent X-ray fluorescence (TAD-XRF) at glancing incidence is a useful method for the characterization of thin films. Here we report the effect of surface roughness of the substrate on TAD-XRF of an ultrathin film at a glancing incidence. An optically flat glass, scratched glasses and plano-convex lenses were used as substrates. A large-range contour such as warp and a roughness of microscopic scale affect the TAD-XRF profile. Therefore, to characterize the ultrathin film by the TAD-XRF method, the material whose roughness is being investigated should be used as the substrate in TAD-XRF measurement. (author)

  9. Morphology control of tungsten nanorods grown by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering under variable argon pressure and flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khedir, Khedir R.; Kannarpady, Ganesh K.; Ishihara, Hidetaka; Woo, Justin; Ryerson, Charles; Biris, Alexandru S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphologically novel tungsten nanorods (WNRs) with the co-existence of two crystalline phases, α-W (thermodynamically stable) and β-W, were fabricated by glancing angle RF magnetron sputtering technique under various Ar pressures and flow rates. For these nanorods, a significant variation in their morphology and surface roughness was observed. These structures could be useful in a wide range of applications such as field emission, robust superhydrophobic coatings, energy, and medicine.

  10. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  11. Organic Photovoltaic Cells Based on PbPc Nanocolumns Prepared by Glancing Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic small material lead phthalocyanine (PbPc nanocolumns were prepared via glancing angle deposition (GLAD on indium tin oxide (ITO coated glass substrates. Organic electron acceptor materials fullerene (C60 was evaporated onto the nanocolumn PbPc thin films to prepare heterojunction structure ITO/PbPc/C60/Bphen/Al organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs. It is worthwhile to mention that C60 molecules firstly fill the voids between PbPc nanocolumns and then form impact C60 layer. The interpenetrating electron donor/acceptor structure effectively enhances interface between electron donor and electron acceptor, which is beneficial to exciton dissociation. The short circuit current density (Jsc of organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs based on PbPc nanocolumn was increased from 1.19 mA/cm2 to 1.74 mA/cm2, which should be attributed to the increase of interface between donor and acceptor. The effect of illumination intensity on the performance of OPVs was investigated by controlling the distance between light source and sample, and the Jsc of two kind of OPVs was increased along with the increase of illumination intensity.

  12. Mutations in plant breeding: a glance back and a look forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, A.

    1975-01-01

    This brief retrospect of previous shortcomings and procedures really indicates the need for a better co-ordination and co-operation in plant breeding. We now know which mutagens are essential in practical mutation work, and we include radiations as well as chemicals. We now know that there is no principal difference between natural and induced variation. We can easily induce mutational events covering the gap between gross chromosomal rearrangements and DNA-base substitutions. We also know that induced variation may in the future fill and replace the loss of natural variability, or may even extend the limits of variation. We know that mutation and recombination--as evidenced, for instance, by the successful work in barley--will be united into routine procedures, also leading to new breakthroughs in plant improvement. Moreover, ingenious techniques of mass testing are under way, combining traditional and prospective ideas. The mutation method has come to stay, not alone but with gene recombination, with heterosis and with polyploidy. We say that the present is the past's future. To glance back is then to look forward; failures give rise to progress. A synthesis of breeding methods is around the corner

  13. Corrections of residual fluorescence distortions for a glancing-emergence-angle x-ray-absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewe, D.L.; Pease, D.M.; Budnick, J.I.

    1994-01-01

    Distortions appear in x-ray-absorption spectra obtained by monitoring the fluorescence from thick samples with concentrated absorbing species. The glancing-emergence-angle technique for obtaining spectra from this type of sample eliminates distortions from the measured spectra by monitoring the fluorescence leaving the sample at a small angle relative to the sample surface. This technique is limited by the small signal available from the inherently limited detector solid angle. In addition, no precise estimate of the required restriction on maximum emergent angle θ max has been available. We have calculated residual extended x-ray-absorption fine structure distortions as a function of θ max , and performed experimental tests of the calculations. These calculations provide a means to estimate the required detector geometry for negligible distortions, or alternatively, allow the use of a larger θ max , increasing the available signal, with the remaining residual distortions removed by application of the calculations. The calculations are also applicable to other detector geometries, and account for detectors subtending a large solid angle by an integration over the subtended angle. This represents an improvement over previous calculations. The application to more general detector configurations is also discussed

  14. Structure-related antibacterial activity of a titanium nanostructured surface fabricated by glancing angle sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengstock, Christina; Borgmann, Anna; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Köller, Manfred; Lopian, Michael; Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Buenconsejo, Pio John S; Ludwig, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reproduce the physico-mechanical antibacterial effect of the nanocolumnar cicada wing surface for metallic biomaterials by fabrication of titanium (Ti) nanocolumnar surfaces using glancing angle sputter deposition (GLAD). Nanocolumnar Ti thin films were fabricated by GLAD on silicon substrates. S. aureus as well as E. coli were incubated with nanostructured or reference dense Ti thin film test samples for one or three hours at 37 °C. Bacterial adherence, morphology, and viability were analyzed by fluorescence staining and scanning electron microscopy and compared to human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Bacterial adherence was not significantly different after short (1 h) incubation on the dense or the nanostructured Ti surface. In contrast to S. aureus the viability of E. coli was significantly decreased after 3 h on the nanostructured film compared to the dense film and was accompanied by an irregular morphology and a cell wall deformation. Cell adherence, spreading and viability of hMSCs were not altered on the nanostructured surface. The results show that the selective antibacterial effect of the cicada wing could be transferred to a nanostructured metallic biomaterial by mimicking the natural nanocolumnar topography. (papers)

  15. Glancing angle deposited Al-doped ZnO nanostructures with different structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, A., E-mail: yildizab@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yıldırım Beyazıt University, Ankara (Turkey); Cansizoglu, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Turkoz, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States); Department of Electrical-Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Karabuk, Karabuk (Turkey); Abdulrahman, R.; Al-Hilo, Alaa; Cansizoglu, M.F.; Demirkan, T.M.; Karabacak, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR 72204 (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructure arrays with different shapes (tilted rods, vertical rods, spirals, and zigzags) were fabricated by utilizing glancing angle deposition (GLAD) technique in a DC sputter growth unit at room temperature. During GLAD, all the samples were tilted at an oblique angle of about 90° with respect to incoming flux direction. In order to vary the shapes of nanostructures, each sample was rotated at different speeds around the substrate normal axis. Rotation speed did not only affect the shape but also changed the microstructural and optical properties of GLAD AZO nanostructures. The experimental results reveal that GLAD AZO nanostructures of different shapes each have unique morphological, crystal structure, mechanical, and optical properties determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission, and reflectance measurements. Vertical nanorods display the largest grain size, minimum strain, lowest defect density, and highest optical transmittance compared to the other shapes. Growth dynamics of GLAD has been discussed to explain the dependence of structural and optical properties of nanostructures on the substrate rotation speed. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO (AZO) nanostructures with different shapes were fabricated. • They have unique morphological, crystal structure, and optical properties. • Vertical AZO nanorods show an enhanced optical transmittance.

  16. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ''strong motion duration'' has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions

  17. The influence of glancing angle deposited nano-rough platinum surfaces on the adsorption of fibrinogen and the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatshahi-Pirouz, A; Foss, M; Chevallier, J; Besenbacher, F; Pennisi, C P; Yoshida, K; Skeldal, S; Andreasen, P; Zachar, V

    2009-01-01

    We have used the glancing angle deposition (GLAD) method as a simple and fast method to generate nano-rough surfaces for protein adsorption experiments and cell assays. The surface roughness and the detailed geometrical surface morphology of the thin films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the GLAD deposition angle approaches grazing incidence, sharp and whisker-like columnar protrusions are formed. Smaller and less sharp surface features appear for the thin films synthesized at higher deposition angles. By changing the GLAD deposition angle together with the total amount of mass deposited per area on the respective surfaces, the size of the surface features can be varied on the nanoscale. Using the GLAD topographies as model surfaces, we have investigated the influence of the nano-roughness on fibrinogen adsorption and on the proliferation of primary human fibroblasts. It is found that fibrinogen, an important blood protein, preferentially adheres on the whisker-like nano-rough substrates in comparison to a flat surface. Furthermore, the proliferation of the human fibroblasts is significantly reduced on the nano-rough substrates. These results demonstrate that the GLAD technique can be used to fabricate nano-rough surface morphologies that significantly influence both protein and cellular adhesion to surfaces and are therefore well suited for biological assays.

  18. Issue of CILRT duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougan, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests (CILRTs) represent large investments of time and money on the part of the utilities operating nuclear power plants. In the early days of containment testing, leak rate tests were conducted from a minimum of 24 hours to a maximum of several days. The minimum time period of 24 hours was adopted and continues to form the fundamental approach of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). However, there does not appear to be technical justification for the minimum test period of 24 hours. In fact, several industry sources have shown that successful CILRTs can be conducted in much less time. The NRC has recognized this fact and has approved CILRTs of less than 24 hours. But some utilities still feel constrained to use the 24 hour test due to their Technical Specifications. And although criteria for determining the duration of a CILRT have been published, no specific criteria have been agreed upon as final. Therefore, it is the purpose of this paper to highlight several of the proposed criteria and the concerns that might arise following the implementation of such criteria

  19. Duration judgements over multiple elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inci eAyhan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the limits of the number of events observers can simultaneously time. For single targets occurring in one of eight positions sensitivity to duration was improved for spatially pre-cued items as compared to post-cued items indicating that exogenous driven attention can improve duration discrimination. Sensitivity to duration for pre-cued items was also marginally better for single items as compared to eight items indicating that even after the allocation of focal attention, distracter items can interfere with the encoding of duration. For an eight item array discrimination was worse for post-cued locations as compared to pre-cued locations indicating both that attention can improve duration discrimination performance and that it was not possible to access a perfect memory trace of the duration of eight elements. The interference from the distracters in the pre-cued eight item array may reflect some mandatory averaging of target and distracter events. To further explore duration averaging we asked subjects to explicitly compare average durations of multiple item arrays against a single item standard duration. Duration discrimination thresholds were significantly lower for single elements as compared to multiple elements, showing that averaging, either automatically or intentionally, impairs duration discrimination. There was no set size effect. Performance was the same for averages of two and eight items, but performance with even an average of two items was worse than for one item. This was also true for sequential presentation indicating poor performance was not due to limits on the division of attention across items. Rather performance appears to be limited by an inability to remember or aggregate duration information from two or more items. Although it is possible to manipulate perceived duration locally, there appears to be no perceptual mechanisms for aggregating local durations across space.

  20. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  1. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  2. Duration of orthognathic-surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paunonen, Jaakko; Helminen, Mika; Peltomäki, Timo

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the duration of orthognathic-surgical treatment conducted with conventional pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment phases. The study material was comprised of the files of 185 consecutive patients treated in Oral and Maxillofacial Unit, Tampere University Hospital, Finland, in 2007-2014. The files were reviewed and the following data was obtained: gender and age of patients, ICD-10 diagnosis, type of malocclusion, duration of pre- and post-surgical orthodontic treatment and type of operation. Total treatment duration (median) from placement of separating rings for banding until fixed orthodontic appliances were removed and retention period started was 31.1 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took 24.4 months and postsurgical 6.4 months. Treatment duration (median) was in BSSO was 32.1, LeFort 1 30.1 and bimaxillary osteotomy 29.7 months. Orthodontic extractions were performed in 35 patients (19%). If the orthodontic treatment included tooth extraction, the duration of pre-surgical treatment was on average 10 months longer, which is a statistically highly significant difference (p pre-surgical orthodontic treatment prolong treatment time by an average of 8-9 months.

  3. Effect of using GPS autosteer guidance systems on the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, D; Henry, J; Mann, D D

    2012-10-01

    Tractor operators are prone to neck and back discomfort and disorders. It is well known that awkward posture is a major contributor to this problem. Previous studies have investigated the prevalence of awkward posture and the resulting discomfort and disorders among tractor operators. They have also suggested various ways to mitigate this problem. With the introduction of new autosteer guidance systems, the tractor operator is relieved from the task of steering the tractor for most of the time during field work. Therefore, it is expected that the operator's posture will change. The goal of this study was to investigate the changes in the eye-glance behavior and posture of tractor operators as a result of using autosteer guidance systems. An eye-tracking system and a camcorder were used to record the eye-glance behavior and posture of 13 tractor operators as they performed seeding operations. The experiment with each operator consisted of two sessions. In one session, the operator used an autosteer system, while in the other session the operator steered the tractor manually. Analysis of the data showed that the eye-glance behavior and posture of the operators were significantly different between the autosteer and manual steering sessions. With the autosteer system, the operators spent less time in an awkward posture, and they changed their posture less frequently. However, even with the autosteer system, the operators spent 1/3 of their time in an awkward posture. Subjective feedback from the operators indicated that more than half of them experienced back or neck/shoulder discomfort during or after seeding. It is essential that the recommendations of the previous studies, such as using large rear-view mirrors or a rotating tractor seat, be evaluated when the operator is using an autosteer system. Other tools, such as video cameras that show the attached equipment, should also be tested to evaluate their effectiveness in reducing the operator's exposure to awkward

  4. Study on initial stage of hetero-epitaxial growth by glancing angle scattering of fast ions from surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Yoshikazu; Toba, Kazuaki; Narumi, Kazumasa; Kimura, Kenji; Mannami, Michihiko

    1993-01-01

    Initial stages of epitaxial growth of lead chalcogenides on the (100) surface of SnTe under UHV conditions are studied from the angular distribution of scattered ions at glancing angle incidence of 0.7 MeV He ions on the growing surfaces. Real time measurement of the angular distribution is performed during the growth. Anomalous broadening of the angular distribution is observed at the initial stage of the growth. The broadening is attributed to the surface wrinkles induced by a square network of misfit edge dislocations. (author)

  5. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  6. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations

  7. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  8. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  9. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  10. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  11. Factors affecting gestation duration in the bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilts, Bruce E; Davidson, Autumn P; Hosgood, Giselle; Paccamonti, Dale L; Baker, David G

    2005-07-15

    A retrospective analysis was performed to determine the effects of age, breed, parity, and litter size on the duration of gestation in the bitch. Bitches at two locations were monitored from breeding to whelping. A total of 764 litters whelped from 308 bitches (36 large hounds, 34 Golden Retrievers, 23 German Shepherd Dogs (GSD), and 215 Labrador Retrievers). By breed, the number of whelpings was 152, 72, 58, and 482 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. Whelping was predicted to be 57 d from the first day of cytologic diestrus in the hounds or 65 d from the initial progesterone rise in the other breeds. The average gestation duration (calculated as 8 d prior to Day 1 of cytologic diestrus in hounds or measured from the initial progesterone rise in other breeds) by breed (days +/- S.D.) was 66.0 +/- 2.8, 64.7 +/- 1.5, 63.6 +/- 2.1, and 62.9 +/- 1.3 for the hounds, Golden Retrievers, German Shepherd Dogs, and Labrador Retrievers, respectively. The relationship of age, breed, parity, and litter size with the difference in gestation duration was evaluated using log linear modeling. Age or parity had no effect on gestation duration. Compared to Labrador Retrievers, the German Shepherd Dogs, Golden Retrievers and hounds were more likely to have a longer gestation duration; three, four and nearly eight times as likely, respectively. Bitches whelping four or fewer pups were significantly more likely to have a longer gestation duration than those whelping five or more pups; the prolongation averaging 1 d.

  12. Figure/Ground Segmentation via a Haptic Glance: Attributing Initial Finger Contacts to Objects or Their Supporting Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawluk, D; Kitada, R; Abramowicz, A; Hamilton, C; Lederman, S J

    2011-01-01

    The current study addresses the well-known "figure/ground" problem in human perception, a fundamental topic that has received surprisingly little attention from touch scientists to date. Our approach is grounded in, and directly guided by, current knowledge concerning the nature of haptic processing. Given inherent figure/ground ambiguity in natural scenes and limited sensory inputs from first contact (a "haptic glance"), we consider first whether people are even capable of differentiating figure from ground (Experiments 1 and 2). Participants were required to estimate the strength of their subjective impression that they were feeling an object (i.e., figure) as opposed to just the supporting structure (i.e., ground). Second, we propose a tripartite factor classification scheme to further assess the influence of kinetic, geometric (Experiments 1 and 2), and material (Experiment 2) factors on haptic figure/ground segmentation, complemented by more open-ended subjective responses obtained at the end of the experiment. Collectively, the results indicate that under certain conditions it is possible to segment figure from ground via a single haptic glance with a reasonable degree of certainty, and that all three factor classes influence the estimated likelihood that brief, spatially distributed fingertip contacts represent contact with an object and/or its background supporting structure.

  13. The Impact of Mission Duration on a Mars Orbital Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale; Earle, Kevin; Cirillo, Bill; Jones, Christopher; Klovstad, Jordan; Grande, Melanie; Stromgren, Chel

    2017-01-01

    Performance alone is insufficient to assess the total impact of changing mission parameters on a space mission concept, architecture, or campaign; the benefit, cost, and risk must also be understood. This paper examines the impact to benefit, cost, and risk of changing the total mission duration of a human Mars orbital mission. The changes in the sizing of the crew habitat, including consumables and spares, was assessed as a function of duration, including trades of different life support strategies; this was used to assess the impact on transportation system requirements. The impact to benefit is minimal, while the impact on cost is dominated by the increases in transportation costs to achieve shorter total durations. The risk is expected to be reduced by decreasing total mission duration; however, large uncertainty exists around the magnitude of that reduction.

  14. Synthesizing controllers from duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Duration Calculus is a logic for reasoning about requirements for real-time systems at a high level of abstraction from operational detail, which qualifies it as an interesting starting point for embedded controller design. Such a design activity is generally thought to aim at a control device...... the physical behaviours of which satisfy the requirements formula, i.e. the refinement relation between requirements and implementations is taken to be trajectory inclusion. Due to the abstractness of the vocabulary of Duration Calculus, trajectory inclusion between control requirements and controller designs...... for embedded controller design and exploit this fact for developing an automatic procedure for controller synthesis from specifications formalized in Duration Calculus. As far as we know, this is the first positive result concerning feasibility of automatic synthesis from dense-time Duration Calculus....

  15. Investigation of growth and characterization of nanostructured CuIn5S8 thin films produced by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinaoui, A.; Chaffar-Akkari, F.; Gallas, B.; Demaille, D.; Kanzari, M.

    2015-01-01

    Ternary chalcogenide of copper and indium (CuIn 5 S 8 ) thin films were grown by thermal evaporation method using GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique. The samples were prepared under different incident angles (α = 0°, 40°, 60° and 85° measured from the normal to the substrate surface) with a substrate rotation of 2 rpm. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ultraviolet–visible-infrared spectra are employed to characterize the microstructure and optical properties of the CuIn 5 S 8 thin films deposited by this technique. Under the GLAD conditions, we demonstrate that with substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to the shadowing symmetry. The optical constants of the deposited films were determined from the analysis of transmission and reflection data. The results show that the refractive index and the thickness were decreased as α rises from 0° to 85° while the porosity and the Urbach energy were increased with increasing of the incident angle. The minimum refractive index is found to be 2.03 for the helical CuIn 5 S 8 film deposited at an angle of 85° and the Urbach energy was found to increase from 0.29 to 0.5 eV as α rises from 0° to 85°. Such changes of the optical behaviors are correlated with changes of the microstructure, especially a porous architecture which is favored for high incident angle. These properties exhibit potential for use in applications such as photonic crystals, graded index optical filters, and birefrigent omnidirectional reflectors. - Highlights: • GLancing angle deposition technique was employed to prepare CuIn 5 S 8 thin films. • CuIn 5 S 8 films exhibit a spinel structure with a preferred orientation along 311. • With substrate rotation, the columns were grown vertically due to shadowing symmetry. • The refractive index decreases with increasing glancing angle deposition. • Variations of the optical behaviors were correlated to the highly porous structure

  16. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L. E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B. G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-06-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze.

  17. Modification of the morphology and optical properties of SnS films using glancing angle deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazideh, M.R., E-mail: Mohammadrezasazideh@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Dizaji, H. Rezagholipour, E-mail: hrgholipour@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ehsani, M.H., E-mail: mhe_ehsani@yahoo.com [Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, P.O. Box: 35195-363, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, R. Zarei, E-mail: r.zarei1991@gmail.com [Thin Film Lab., Faculty of Physics, Semnan University, Semnan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • SnS thin films produced by thermal evaporation method using glancing angle deposition technique. • At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range. • FESEM images showed drastic changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle deposition. - Abstract: Tin sulfide (SnS) films were prepared by thermal evaporation method using Glancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) technique at zero and different oblique incident flux angles (α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°). The physical properties of prepared films were systematically investigated. The X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the film deposited at α = 0° formed as single phase with an orthorhombic structure. However, the layers became amorphous at α = 45°, 55°, 65°, 75° and 85°. Beside the appearance of amorphous feature in the film prepared at α higher than zero, Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase was also observed. The top and cross-sectional field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images of the samples showed noticeable changes in the structure and morphology of individual nano-plates as a function of incident angle. The band gap and refractive index values of the films were calculated by optical transmission measurements. The optical band-gap values were observed to increase with increasing the incident flux angle. This can be due to presence of Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3} phase observed in the samples produced at α values other than zero. The effective refractive index and porosity exhibit an opposite evolution as the incident angle α rises. At α = 85° the layers show a considerable change in effective refractive index (Δn = 1.7) at near-IR spectral range.

  18. Cardiometabolic factors and disease duration in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassani, Erica; Cereda, Emanuele; Barichella, Michela; Madio, Carmen; Cancello, Raffaella; Caccialanza, Riccardo; Zini, Michela; Cilia, Roberto; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) have a favorable cardiometabolic risk profile. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors and the duration of disease. One hundred and fifty patients with PD (56.7% men) were studied, measuring body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF%) by impedance, fasting glucose, serum lipids, and transaminases. In sex- and age-adjusted correlation models, duration of PD was inversely related to BMI (r = -0.20; P HDL) levels were positively correlated with disease duration (P HDL-cholesterol ratio was also inversely associated with duration of PD (P HDL levels and total HDL-cholesterol ratio were favorably associated with duration of PD. This factor may contribute to cardiometabolic protection in PD. The mechanisms underlying this association deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Rhythmic constraints in durational control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grover, C.N.; Terken, J.M.B.

    1994-01-01

    Two potential factors in durational control are addressed. First, we investigate whether lengthening a syllable implies lengthening all of its constituent phonemes in a regular way. Analysis of a small corpus of syllables shows that this is not the case. Second, we investigate the influence of

  20. Rent control and unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  1. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J.; Dake, S.; Oda, H.; Miyamura, O.; Fuki, M.; Jones, W.V.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U.; Tominaga, Y.; Wefel, J.P.; Fountain, W.; Derrickson, J.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, E.; Tabuki, T.; Watts, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  3. Economic impact of antidepressant treatment duration in naturalistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M; Crott, R; Gaudron, Y; Verdoux, H

    2013-05-01

    To assess the economic impact of the duration of antidepressant drug treatment in a real-life setting. A historical fixed cohort study included 27 917 patients aged 18 and over with a new antidepressant treatment registered in the national insurance database. The economic impact concerned healthcare expenditure in the first 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Generalized linear models were used to compare two groups of treatment duration: adjustment for care costs before and during treatment episode, gender, age, chronic diseases, welfare and prescriber specialty, total healthcare costs (in log) [-0.06 (-0.14;0.01) P = 0.11] and psychiatric care costs (in square root) [-0.08 (-0.41;0.25) P = 0.6] were similar in both groups. Non-psychiatric care costs were significantly lower in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group [-11.4 (-15.8; -7.0) P costs over the antidepressant treatment episode were larger in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group. With regard to healthcare costs and global health, antidepressant drug treatments of short duration appear less effective than treatment of recommended duration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Induced abortion and subsequent pregnancy duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Wei Jin; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first-trimester ind......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether induced abortion influences subsequent pregnancy duration. METHODS: Women who had their first pregnancies during 1980, 1981, and 1982 were identified in three Danish national registries. A total of 15,727 women whose pregnancies were terminated by first......-trimester induced abortions were compared with 46,026 whose pregnancies were not terminated by induced abortions. All subsequent pregnancies until 1994 were identified by register linkage. RESULTS: Preterm and post-term singleton live births were more frequent in women with one, two, or more previous induced...... abortions. After adjusting for potential confounders and stratifying by gravidity, the odds ratios of preterm singleton live births in women with one, two, or more previous induced abortions were 1.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.70, 2.11), 2.66 (95% CI 2.09, 3.37), and 2.03 (95% CI 1.29, 3...

  5. Shorter duration of breastfeeding at elevated exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermann, Clara Amalie Gade; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Skaalum

    2017-01-01

    . Duration of breastfeeding was assessed by questionnaire and clinical interview. In adjusted linear regression models, a doubling of maternal serum PFASs was associated with a reduction in duration of both total and exclusive breastfeeding, most pronounced for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) where...... a doubling was associated with a reduction in total breastfeeding of 1.4 (95% CI: 0.6; 2.1) months and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) where a doubling was associated with a reduction in exclusive breastfeeding of 0.5 (0.3; 0.7) months. The associations were evident among both primiparous and multiparous women......, and thus cannot be explained by confounding from previous breastfeeding....

  6. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  7. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  8. Calculation of electronic stopping power along glancing swift heavy ion tracks in perovskites using ab initio electron density data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osmani, O; Duvenbeck, A; Akcoeltekin, E; Meyer, R; Schleberger, M [Department of Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Lebius, H [CIMAP, blvd Henri Becquerel, 14070 Caen (France)], E-mail: marika.schleberger@uni-due.de

    2008-08-06

    In recent experiments the irradiation of insulators of perovskite type with swift (E{approx}100 MeV) heavy ions under glancing incidence has been shown to provide a unique means to generate periodically arranged nanodots at the surface. The physical origin of these patterns has been suggested as stemming from a highly anisotropic electron density distribution within the bulk. In order to show the relevance of the electron density distribution of the target we present a model calculation for the system Xe{sup 23+} {yields} SrTiO{sub 3} that is known to produce the aforementioned surface modifications. On the basis of the Lindhard model of electronic stopping, we employ highly-resolved ab initio electron density data to describe the conversion of kinetic energy into excitation energy along the ion track. The primary particle dynamics are obtained via integration of the Newtonian equations of motion that are governed by a space- and time-dependent frictional force originating from Lindhard stopping. The analysis of the local electronic stopping power along the ion track reveals a pronounced periodic structure. The periodicity length varies strongly with the particular choice of the polar angle of incidence and is directly correlated to the experimentally observed formation of periodic nanodots at insulator surfaces.

  9. Broadband and wide-angle distributed Bragg reflectors based on amorphous germanium films by glancing angle deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Jung Woo; Yu, Jae Su

    2012-08-27

    We fabricated the distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with amorphous germanium (a-Ge) films consisted of the same materials at a center wavelength (λc) of 1.33 μm by the glancing angle deposition. Their optical reflectance properties were investigated in the infrared wavelength region of 1-1.9 μm at incident light angles (θ inc) of 8-70°, together with the theoretical analysis using a rigorous coupled-wave analysis simulation. The two alternating a-Ge films at the incident vapor flux angles of 0 and 75° were formed as the high and low refractive index materials, respectively. The a-Ge DBR with only 5 periods exhibited a normalized stop bandwidth (∆λ/λ c) of ~24.1%, maintaining high reflectance (R) values of > 99%. Even at a high θ inc of 70°, the ∆λ/λ c was ~21.9%, maintaining R values of > 85%. The a-Ge DBR with good uniformity was obtained over the area of a 2 inch Si wafer. The calculated reflectance results showed a similar tendency to the measured data.

  10. Fabrication of a Large-Area Superhydrophobic SiO2 Nanorod Structured Surface Using Glancing Angle Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A glancing angle deposition (GLAD technique was used to generate SiO2 nanorods on a glass substrate to fabricate a low-cost superhydrophobic functional nanostructured surface. GLAD-deposited SiO2 nanorod structures were fabricated using various deposition rates, substrate rotating speeds, oblique angles, and deposition times to analyze the effects of processing conditions on the characteristics of the fabricated functional nanostructures. The wettability of the surface was measured after surface modification with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM. The measured water contact angles were primarily affected by substrate rotation speed and oblique angle because the surface fraction of the GLAD nanostructure was mainly affected by these parameters. A maximum contact angle of 157° was obtained from the GLAD sample fabricated at a rotation speed of 5 rpm and an oblique angle of 87°. Although the deposition thickness (height of the nanorods was not a dominant factor for determining the wettability, we selected a deposition thickness of 260 nm as the optimum processing condition based on the measured optical transmittance of the samples because optically transparent films can serve as superhydrophobic functional nanostructures for optical applications.

  11. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E. [Universita di Brescia, Laboratorio di Chimica per le Tecnologie and INSTM, Brescia (Italy); Cartechini, L. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G. [Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy); Sgamellotti, A. [Universita di Perugia, Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari-CNR, Sezione di Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Universita di Perugia, INSTM and Centro di Eccellenza SMAArt, Dipartimento di Chimica, Perugia (Italy)

    2006-06-15

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  12. Glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction of Ag nanoparticles in gold lustre decoration of Italian Renaissance pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempi, E.; Colombi, P.; Depero, L.E.; Cartechini, L.; Presciutti, F.; Brunetti, B.G.; Sgamellotti, A.

    2006-01-01

    Lustre is known as one of the most significant decorative techniques of Medieval and Renaissance pottery in the Mediterranean basin, characterized by brilliant gold and red metallic reflections and iridescence effects. Previous studies by various techniques (SEM-EDS and TEM, UV-VIS, XRF, RBS and EXAFS) demonstrated that lustre consists of a heterogeneous metal-glass composite film, formed by Cu and Ag nanoparticles dispersed within the outer layer of a tin-opacified lead glaze. In the present work the investigation of an original gold lustre sample from Deruta has been carried out by means of glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction techniques (GIXRD). The study was aimed at providing information on structure and depth distribution of Ag nanoparticles. Exploiting the capability of controlling X-ray penetration in the glaze by changing the incidence angle, we used GIXRD measurements to estimate non-destructively thickness and depth of silver particles present in the first layers of the glaze. (orig.)

  13. Growth and properties of the CuInS2 thin films produced by glancing angle deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkari, F. Chaffar; Kanzari, M.; Rezig, B.

    2008-01-01

    We use the glancing angle deposition technique (GLAD) to grow CuInS 2 thin films by a vacuum thermal method onto glass substrates. During deposition, the substrate temperature was maintained at 200 deg. C. Due to shadowing effect the oblique angle deposition technique can produce nanorods tilted toward the incident deposition flux. The evaporated atoms arrive at the growing interface at a fixed angle θ measured from the substrate normal. The substrate is rotated with rotational speed ω fixed at 0.033 rev s -1 . We show that the use of this growth technique leads to an improvement in the optical properties of the films. Indeed high absorption coefficients (10 5 -3.10 5 cm -1 ) in the visible range and near-IR spectral range are reached. In the case of the absence of the substrate rotation, scanning electron microscopy pictures show that the structure of the resulting film consists of nanocolumns that are progressively inclined towards the evaporation source as the incident angle was increased. If a rapid azimuthal rotation accompanies the substrate tilt, the resulting nanostructure is composed of an array of pillars normal to the substrate. The surface morphology show an improvement without presence of secondary phases for higher incident angles (θ > 60 deg.)

  14. The Earth at a glance 2010: cities, changing trajectory;Regards sur la Terre 2010: Villes, changer de trajectoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, P.; Pachauri, R.K.; Tubiana, L.

    2010-07-01

    The 2010 issue of 'the Earth at a glance' yearly publication is devoted to cities, areas and actors at the forefront of sustainable development. Beyond the status of stakes and obstacles to overcome, the ambition is to identify the dynamics carrying an indispensable trajectory change. More than half of the worldwide population lives in urban areas. Cities generate the most part of the prosperity and knowledge but are also the places where the most fragile populations concentrate and very often in precarious conditions. They are also at the origin of a large part of environment degradations. And yet, it is in the cities that the political, social and environmental questions of the 21. century are debated. In this framework, the cities of emerging countries may open the ways towards a new urbanism by developing new standards. Contents: status of 2009 events; calendar of main 2010 meetings; dossier: 'cities: changing the trajectory'; landmarks: maps, diagrams, world synthesis of sustainable development. (J.S.)

  15. Towards engineered branch placement: Unreal™ match between vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition nanowire growth and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taschuk, M. T.; Tucker, R. T.; LaForge, J. M.; Beaudry, A. L.; Kupsta, M. R.; Brett, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    The vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) process is capable of producing complex nanotree structures with control over azimuthal branch orientation and height. We have developed a thin film growth simulation including ballistic deposition, simplified surface diffusion, and droplet-mediated cubic crystal growth for the VLS-GLAD process using the Unreal TM Development Kit. The use of a commercial game engine has provided an interactive environment while allowing a custom physics implementation. Our simulation's output is verified against experimental data, including a volumetric film reconstruction produced using focused ion beam and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), crystallographic texture, and morphological characteristics such as branch orientation. We achieve excellent morphological and texture agreement with experimental data, as well as qualitative agreement with SEM imagery. The simplified physics in our model reproduces the experimental films, indicating that the dominant role flux geometry plays in the VLS-GLAD competitive growth process responsible for azimuthally oriented branches and biaxial crystal texture evolution. The simulation's successful reproduction of experimental data indicates that it should have predictive power in designing novel VLS-GLAD structures

  16. Towards engineered branch placement: Unreal™ match between vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition nanowire growth and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taschuk, M. T.; Tucker, R. T.; LaForge, J. M.; Beaudry, A. L.; Kupsta, M. R.; Brett, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The vapour-liquid-solid glancing angle deposition (VLS-GLAD) process is capable of producing complex nanotree structures with control over azimuthal branch orientation and height. We have developed a thin film growth simulation including ballistic deposition, simplified surface diffusion, and droplet-mediated cubic crystal growth for the VLS-GLAD process using the UnrealTM Development Kit. The use of a commercial game engine has provided an interactive environment while allowing a custom physics implementation. Our simulation's output is verified against experimental data, including a volumetric film reconstruction produced using focused ion beam and scanning-electron microscopy (SEM), crystallographic texture, and morphological characteristics such as branch orientation. We achieve excellent morphological and texture agreement with experimental data, as well as qualitative agreement with SEM imagery. The simplified physics in our model reproduces the experimental films, indicating that the dominant role flux geometry plays in the VLS-GLAD competitive growth process responsible for azimuthally oriented branches and biaxial crystal texture evolution. The simulation's successful reproduction of experimental data indicates that it should have predictive power in designing novel VLS-GLAD structures.

  17. Prediction uncertainty in seasonal partial duration series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan

    1991-01-01

    In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...... for prediction purposes due to the large number of parameters required. In the particular case with exponentially distributed exceedances and Poissonian occurrence times the precision of the T year event estimator has been thoroughly examined considering both seasonal and nonseasonal models. The two......-seasonal probability density function of the T year event estimator has been deduced and used in the assessment of the precision of approximate moments. The nonseasonal approach covered both a total omission of seasonality by pooling data from different flood seasons and a discarding of nonsignificant season(s) before...

  18. [Longevity, disease, and duration of disability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, S

    1996-12-01

    Disability and the resulting lowered quality of life are serious issues accompanying increased longevity. Active life expectancy #(8) can be to used to distinguish the number of years without disability from the number with disability; increases were found in both in longevity #(9, 19). With the same rate of age-related new disability in the cohorts between 1970 and 1990, the total disability increased three fold #(11). In elderly patients I showed that 1) the duration of disability of those at a specific age at death (predeath) #(1) increased with age, and it decreased in those who remained without disability, 2) the cumulative number of days of disability for patients who died at a specific age (a convolution function of predeath and mortality) #(2), approached a normal distribution, which is consistent with the central limit theorem, 3) competing risk with chronic disease in a patient greatly affects the incidence and duration of disability, 4) using the central limit theorem we can predict that preventing dementia will retard premature rectangularization of the disability-free survival curve, and will thus reduce the total disability, 5) disability is an example of how variation and selection of chronic diseases (disease Darwinism) can alter population structure. Insights into the evolution of senescence #(14-21), pleiotropy, and slower rates of molecular evolution in the core than at the border #(26, 27), reveal that the central nervous system is relatively robust and conservative for pleiotropy and may senesce relatively slowly, which support a new way of thinking #(3, 4) about old age. To minimize disability, public knowledge and education about an ideal lifestyle and the evolution of senescence is essential.

  19. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development and comparison of different intensity duration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Technology ... Microsoft Excel software was used to develop exponential, logarithmic and power intensity-duration-frequency models for return period (T) of duration-frequency models for return period (T) of between 2 years and 100 years using rainfall intensity data for durations of 2, 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, ...

  1. Speaker-specific variability of phoneme durations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, CJ

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The durations of phonemes varies for different speakers. To this end, the correlations between phonemes across different speakers are studied and a novel approach to predict unknown phoneme durations from the values of known phoneme durations for a...

  2. Climate change - a glance in the rearview mirror, and at the road ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Guy

    2000-01-01

    The article reviews the events that led to the Kyoto protocol and considers possible future developments in international energy policy. Some 'facts' with regard to global temperatures, carbon dioxide levels and impacts on the environment are mentioned together with some phenomena which are less clear. The insurance industry claims that total economic losses from natural events were around $100 bn in the 1970s compared with $500 bn in the 1990s. Although actions have been taken to limit emissions of greenhouse gases, it will take tens or possibly hundreds of years to have an effect on the Earth's climate. It is suggested that the forthcoming US elections and COP6 may influence energy policy

  3. A comparative study on omnidirectional anti-reflection SiO2 nanostructure films coating by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachachet, R.; Samransuksamer, B.; Horprathum, M.; Eiamchai, P.; Limwichean, S.; Chananonnawathorn, C.; Lertvanithphol, T.; Muthitamongkol, P.; Boonruang, S.; Buranasiri, P.

    2018-02-01

    Fabricated omnidirectional anti-reflection nanostructure films as a one of the promising alternative solar cell applications have attracted enormous scientific and industrial research benefits to their broadband, effective over a wide range of incident angles, lithography-free and high-throughput process. Recently, the nanostructure SiO2 film was the most inclusive study on anti-reflection with omnidirectional and broadband characteristics. In this work, the three-dimensional silicon dioxide (SiO2) nanostructured thin film with different morphologies including vertical align, slant, spiral and thin films were fabricated by electron beam evaporation with glancing angle deposition (GLAD) on the glass slide and silicon wafer substrate. The morphological of the prepared samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The transmission, omnidirectional and birefringence property of the nanostructure SiO2 films were investigated by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE). The spectrophotometer measurement was performed at normal incident angle and a full spectral range of 200 - 2000 nm. The angle dependent transmission measurements were investigated by rotating the specimen, with incidence angle defined relative to the surface normal of the prepared samples. This study demonstrates that the obtained SiO2 nanostructure film coated on glass slide substrate exhibits a higher transmission was 93% at normal incident angle. In addition, transmission measurement in visible wavelength and wide incident angles -80 to 80 were increased in comparison with the SiO2 thin film and glass slide substrate due to the transition in the refractive index profile from air to the nanostructure layer that improve the antireflection characteristics. The results clearly showed the enhanced omnidirectional and broadband characteristic of the three dimensional Si

  4. The Duration of Motor Responses Evoked with Intracortical Microstimulation in Rats Is Primarily Modulated by Stimulus Amplitude and Train Duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Watson

    Full Text Available Microstimulation of brain tissue plays a key role in a variety of sensory prosthetics, clinical therapies and research applications, however the effects of stimulation parameters on the responses they evoke remain widely unknown. In particular, the effects of parameters when delivered in the form of a stimulus train as opposed to a single pulse are not well understood despite the prevalence of stimulus train use. We aimed to investigate the contribution of each parameter of a stimulus train to the duration of the motor responses they evoke in forelimb muscles. We used constant-current, biphasic, square wave pulse trains in acute terminal experiments under ketamine anaesthesia. Stimulation parameters were systematically tested in a pair-wise fashion in the caudal forelimb region of the motor cortex in 7 Sprague-Dawley rats while motor evoked potential (MEP recordings from the forelimb were used to quantify the influence of each parameter in the train. Stimulus amplitude and train duration were shown to be the dominant parameters responsible for increasing the total duration of the MEP, while interphase interval had no effect. Increasing stimulus frequency from 100-200 Hz or pulse duration from 0.18-0.34 ms were also effective methods of extending response durations. Response duration was strongly correlated with peak time and amplitude. Our findings suggest that motor cortex intracortical microstimulations are often conducted at a higher frequency rate and longer train duration than necessary to evoke maximal response duration. We demonstrated that the temporal properties of the evoked response can be both predicted by certain response metrics and modulated via alterations to the stimulation signal parameters.

  5. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: joosun@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  6. U.S. Department of Energy Office of Health, Safety and Security Illness and Injury Surveillance Program Worker Health at a Glance, 2000-2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strader, Cliff [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Richter, Bonnie [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-01-23

    The Worker Health at a Glance, 2000 – 2009 provides an overview of selected illness and injury patterns among the current DOE contractor workforce that have emerged over the 10-years covered by this report. This report is a roll-up of data from 16 individual DOE sites, assigned to one of three program offices (Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and the National Nuclear Security Administration). In this report, an absences is defined as 40 or more consecutive work hours (5+ calendar days) off the job. Shorter absences were not included.

  7. The effect of predictability on subjective duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Events can sometimes appear longer or shorter in duration than other events of equal length. For example, in a repeated presentation of auditory or visual stimuli, an unexpected object of equivalent duration appears to last longer. Illusions of duration distortion beg an important question of time representation: when durations dilate or contract, does time in general slow down or speed up during that moment? In other words, what entailments do duration distortions have with respect to other timing judgments? We here show that when a sound or visual flicker is presented in conjunction with an unexpected visual stimulus, neither the pitch of the sound nor the frequency of the flicker is affected by the apparent duration dilation. This demonstrates that subjective time in general is not slowed; instead, duration judgments can be manipulated with no concurrent impact on other temporal judgments. Like spatial vision, time perception appears to be underpinned by a collaboration of separate neural mechanisms that usually work in concert but are separable. We further show that the duration dilation of an unexpected stimulus is not enhanced by increasing its saliency, suggesting that the effect is more closely related to prediction violation than enhanced attention. Finally, duration distortions induced by violations of progressive number sequences implicate the involvement of high-level predictability, suggesting the involvement of areas higher than primary visual cortex. We suggest that duration distortions can be understood in terms of repetition suppression, in which neural responses to repeated stimuli are diminished.

  8. Estimating pediatric general anesthesia exposure: Quantifying duration and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Devan Darby; McCann, Mary Ellen; Davidson, Andrew J; Polaner, David M; Whitlock, Elizabeth L; Bateman, Brian T

    2018-05-02

    Understanding the duration of pediatric general anesthesia exposure in contemporary practice is important for identifying groups at risk for long general anesthesia exposures and designing trials examining associations between general anesthesia exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis to estimate pediatric general anesthesia exposure duration during 2010-2015 using the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. A total of 1 548 021 pediatric general anesthetics were included. Median general anesthesia duration was 57 minutes (IQR: 28-86) with 90th percentile 145 minutes. Children aged 3 hours. High ASA physical status and care at a university hospital were associated with longer exposure times. While the vast majority (94%) of children undergoing general anesthesia are exposed for risk for longer exposures. These findings may help guide the design of future trials aimed at understanding neurodevelopmental impact of prolonged exposure in these high-risk groups. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  11. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariyadath, Vani; Eagleman, David M

    2012-01-01

    Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression. Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli) followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus). We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials. Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  12. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  13. Effects of terraces, surface steps and 'over-specular' reflection due to inelastic energy losses on angular scattering spectra for glancing incidence scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Danailov, D; O'Connor, D J

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments and our molecular-dynamics simulations indicate that the main signal of the angular scattering spectra of glancing incidence scattering are not affected by the thermal motion of surface atoms and can be explained by our row-model with averaged cylindrical potentials. At the ICACS-18 Conference [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 164-165 (2000) 583] we reported good agreement between experimental and calculated multimodal azimuthal angular scattering spectra for the glancing scattering of 10 and 15 keV [Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 180 (2001) 265, Appl. Surf. Sci. 171 (2001) 113] He sup 0 beam along the [1 0 0] direction on the Fe(1 0 0) face. Our simulations also predicted that in contrast to the 2D angular scattering distribution, the 1D azimuthal angular distribution of scattered particles is very sensitive to the interaction potential used. Here, we report more detailed calculations incorporating the influence of terraces and surface steps on surface channeling, which show a reduction of the angular s...

  14. A semi-Markov model for the duration of stay in a non-homogenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semi-Markov approach to a non-homogenous manpower system is considered. The mean duration of stay in a grade and the total duration of stay in the system are obtained. A renewal type equation is developed and used in deriving the limiting distribution of the semi – Markov process. Empirical estimators of the ...

  15. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  16. Unemployment Duration over the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...

  17. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  18. On the Limitation of Warranty Duration.

    OpenAIRE

    Emons, Winand

    1989-01-01

    This paper analyzes the frequently-observed phenomenon that firms offer product warranties that are of much shorter duration than the life expectancy of these products. It is shown that competitive equilibria may entail limitation of warranty duration if firms face adverse selection problems with respect to different consumers. Copyright 1989 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    OpenAIRE

    DM Seegmuller; SE Visagie; HC de Kock; WJ Pienaar

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job. Furthermore, some jobs (restricted to subsets of the total pool of jobs) can, to different extents, run in parallel. In addition, not all the jobs need necessarily be implemen...

  20. A glance at Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, C

    1997-01-01

    Appalachia is usually written about in romantic terms; rarely are the citizens of Appalachia portrayed as contributors to society. Appalachia is made up of many cultures--African American, European American, Melungeon, Native American and others. Appalachian cultures are not locked in a fixed state; one needs only to review the history of Appalachia to understand this concept (Tice & Billings, 1991). Appalachian cultures are fluid and ever-changing. The cultures are expressed in literature, oral histories, music and regional history.

  1. IAEA at a glance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinley, D. III

    1997-12-01

    The publication briefly describes the 'peaceful universe' and the work carries out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN organisation responsible for accelerating and enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The following subjects are presented: Ensuring safe nuclear energy; Protecting against radiation risks; Safeguarding nuclear materials; Assisting developing countries; Nuclear Technologies solving problems; Providing information and technical services

  2. Facts at a Glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kristin Anderson, Comp.; Manlove, Jennifer, Comp.; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth, Comp.; Williams, Stephanie, Comp.; Papillo, Angela Romano, Comp.; Scarpa, Juliet, Comp.

    This publication reports trends in teen childbearing in the Nation, in each state, and in large cities using data from the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Rates of teenage childbearing steadily declined during the 1990s, reaching a record low in 2000. Rates declined for both younger and older teens and for blacks, whites, and…

  3. Herbs at a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cautions, and resources for more information. Acai Aloe Vera Asian Ginseng Astragalus Bilberry Bitter Orange Black Cohosh ... app today. Subscribe Get dietary supplement updates by e-mail Email Address This page last modified June ...

  4. Statistics at a glance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ector, Hugo

    2010-12-01

    I still remember my first book on statistics: "Elementary statistics with applications in medicine and the biological sciences" by Frederick E. Croxton. For me, it has been the start of pursuing understanding statistics in daily life and in medical practice. It was the first volume in a long row of books. In his introduction, Croxton pretends that"nearly everyone involved in any aspect of medicine needs to have some knowledge of statistics". The reality is that for many clinicians, statistics are limited to a "P statistical methods. They have never had the opportunity to learn concise and clear descriptions of the key features. I have experienced how some authors can describe difficult methods in a well understandable language. Others fail completely. As a teacher, I tell my students that life is impossible without a basic knowledge of statistics. This feeling has resulted in an annual seminar of 90 minutes. This tutorial is the summary of this seminar. It is a summary and a transcription of the best pages I have detected.

  5. Passionflower: At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pregnancy as it may induce contractions. Keep in Mind Tell all your health care providers about any ... Privacy and Policies Accessibility en Español FOIA Site Map Contact Us U.S. Department of Health & Human Services , ...

  6. IAEA at a glance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinley, D III

    1997-12-01

    The publication briefly describes the `peaceful universe` and the work carries out by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), UN organisation responsible for accelerating and enlarging the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The following subjects are presented: Ensuring safe nuclear energy; Protecting against radiation risks; Safeguarding nuclear materials; Assisting developing countries; Nuclear Technologies solving problems; Providing information and technical services

  7. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within...... the framework of the IDEFICS study, the present research was conducted in 609 German resident children aged 2–9 years with information on fasting insulin, C-reactive protein and cortisol levels next to anthropometric measurements and parental questionnaires. Emphasising methodological aspects, an age......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...

  8. Developing Project Duration Models in Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pierre Bourque; Serge Oligny; Alain Abran; Bertrand Fournier

    2007-01-01

    Based on the empirical analysis of data contained in the International Software Benchmarking Standards Group(ISBSG) repository, this paper presents software engineering project duration models based on project effort. Duration models are built for the entire dataset and for subsets of projects developed for personal computer, mid-range and mainframeplatforms. Duration models are also constructed for projects requiring fewer than 400 person-hours of effort and for projectsre quiring more than 400 person-hours of effort. The usefulness of adding the maximum number of assigned resources as asecond independent variable to explain duration is also analyzed. The opportunity to build duration models directly fromproject functional size in function points is investigated as well.

  9. Subjective duration distortions mirror neural repetition suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani Pariyadath

    Full Text Available Subjective duration is strongly influenced by repetition and novelty, such that an oddball stimulus in a stream of repeated stimuli appears to last longer in duration in comparison. We hypothesize that this duration illusion, called the temporal oddball effect, is a result of the difference in expectation between the oddball and the repeated stimuli. Specifically, we conjecture that the repeated stimuli contract in duration as a result of increased predictability; these duration contractions, we suggest, result from decreased neural response amplitude with repetition, known as repetition suppression.Participants viewed trials consisting of lines presented at a particular orientation (standard stimuli followed by a line presented at a different orientation (oddball stimulus. We found that the size of the oddball effect correlates with the number of repetitions of the standard stimulus as well as the amount of deviance from the oddball stimulus; both of these results are consistent with a repetition suppression hypothesis. Further, we find that the temporal oddball effect is sensitive to experimental context--that is, the size of the oddball effect for a particular experimental trial is influenced by the range of duration distortions seen in preceding trials.Our data suggest that the repetition-related duration contractions causing the oddball effect are a result of neural repetition suppression. More generally, subjective duration may reflect the prediction error associated with a stimulus and, consequently, the efficiency of encoding that stimulus. Additionally, we emphasize that experimental context effects need to be taken into consideration when designing duration-related tasks.

  10. Duration of therapy – Does it matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer Schmidt, Lotte; Bojesen, Anders Bo; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard

    2018-01-01

    Background The recommendations in clinical guidelines for duration of therapy for alcohol use disorder (AUD) are based on consensus decisions. In reality, we do not know the optimal duration of an alcohol treatment course. Methods A systematic review and meta-regression of randomized controlled...... project in itself may influence outcome in studies of psychosocial treatment for alcohol use disorder....... across studies. Treatment outcome was defined as long-term alcohol use measured in percentage of days abstinent (PDA), percentage of heavy days drinking (PHD), and/or proportion of participants abstinent (ABS). Results 48 studies encompassing 8984 participants. Mean planned duration of therapy: 18 (8...

  11. Measuring Chemotherapy Appointment Duration and Variation Using Real-Time Location Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barysauskas, Constance M; Hudgins, Gina; Gill, Katie Kupferberg; Camuso, Kristen M; Bagley, Janet; Rozanski, Sheila; Kadish, Sarah

    Clinical schedules drive resource utilization, cost, and patient wait time. Accurate appointment duration allocation ensures appropriate staffing ratios to daily caseloads and maximizes scarce resources. Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) infusion appointment duration is adjusted by regimen using a consensus method of experts including pharmacists, nurses, and administrators. Using real-time location system (RTLS), we examined the accuracy of observed appointment duration compared with the scheduled duration. Appointment duration was calculated using RTLS at DFCI between August 1, 2013, and September 30, 2013. Duration was defined as the total time a patient occupied an infusion chair. The top 10 administered infusion regimens were investigated (n = 805). Median observed appointment durations were statistically different than the scheduled durations. Appointment durations were shorter than scheduled 98% (C), 95% (I), and 75% (F) of the time and longer than scheduled 77% (A) and 76% (G) of the time. Fifty-six percent of the longer than scheduled (A) appointments were at least 30 minute longer. RTLS provides reliable and unbiased data to improve schedule accuracy. Replacing consensus with system-based data may improve clinic flow, relieve staff stress, and increase patient satisfaction. Further investigation is warranted to elucidate factors that impact variation in appointment duration.

  12. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France...... and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  13. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  14. Satellite-Based Sunshine Duration for Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodo Ahrens

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, two different methods were applied to derive daily and monthly sunshine duration based on high-resolution satellite products provided by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring using data from Meteosat Second Generation (MSG SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The satellite products were either hourly cloud type or hourly surface incoming direct radiation. The satellite sunshine duration estimates were not found to be significantly different using the native 15-minute temporal resolution of SEVIRI. The satellite-based sunshine duration products give additional spatial information over the European continent compared with equivalent in situ-based products. An evaluation of the satellite sunshine duration by product intercomparison and against station measurements was carried out to determine their accuracy. The satellite data were found to be within ±1 h/day compared to high-quality Baseline Surface Radiation Network or surface synoptic observations (SYNOP station measurements. The satellite-based products differ more over the oceans than over land, mainly because of the treatment of fractional clouds in the cloud type-based sunshine duration product. This paper presents the methods used to derive the satellite sunshine duration products and the performance of the different retrievals. The main benefits and disadvantages compared to station-based products are also discussed.

  15. Collective behaviors of book holding durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ren-De; Guo, Qiang; Han, Jing-Ti; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2016-10-01

    Duration can directly reflect the collective reading behaviors of library user book holding. In this paper, by introducing the burstiness and memory coefficients, we empirically investigate the collective book holding behavior of three university libraries. The statistical results show that there are similar properties among the students with different backgrounds, presenting the burstiness = - 0.2 and memory = 0.5 for three datasets, which indicates that memory and random effects coexist in student book holding durations. In addition, we analyze the behavior patterns without duplicate durations by merging a series of books borrowed and returned at the same time. The results show the average burstiness B increases to -0.16 and memory M drops to 0.16 for three datasets, which indicates that both duplicate behavior and student's preference affect the memory effect. Furthermore, we present a model which assumes student's next book holding duration follows the previous one with probability p, and with probability 1 - p, the student would hold the book independently. The experimental results show that the presented model can reproduce the burstiness and memory effect of student book holding durations when p = 0.5 for empirical datasets and p = 0.2 for de-duplicate datasets, which indicate that the student's preferential holding behavior occurs with the probability p. This work helps in deeply understanding the regularity of duration-based human behaviors.

  16. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  17. [Duration of breast feeding after mandatory early discharge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, O

    1993-08-23

    A trial arrangement for mandatory early discharge for all normal multiparae was started in 1990 and the duration of breastfeeding was investigated by a questionnaire. 89 mothers who stayed at the hospital were compared to 113 mothers who were discharged within 24 hours after delivery. The latter group was also compared to 122 early discharged mothers who delivered 14-17 months after the trial arrangement had started. The three groups were comparable in all aspects. After four weeks a large proportion of the later discharged mothers were still breastfeeding compared to the other two groups (p < 0.001). This difference disappeared later, hence when comparing the total duration of breastfeeding no differences were found between the three groups.

  18. Examining Hurricane Track Length and Stage Duration Since 1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrich, K. M.; Pennington, D.

    2017-12-01

    Each year, tropical systems impact thousands of people worldwide. Current research shows a correlation between the intensity and frequency of hurricanes and the changing climate. However, little is known about other prominent hurricane features. This includes information about hurricane track length (the total distance traveled from tropical depression through a hurricane's final category assignment) and how this distance may have changed with time. Also unknown is the typical duration of a hurricane stage, such as tropical storm to category one, and if the time spent in each stage has changed in recent decades. This research aims to examine changes in hurricane stage duration and track lengths for the 319 storms in NOAA's National Ocean Service Hurricane Reanalysis dataset that reached Category 2 - 5 from 1980 - 2015. Based on evident ocean warming, it is hypothesized that a general increase in track length with time will be detected, thus modern hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than past hurricanes. It is also expected that stage durations are decreasing with time so that hurricanes mature faster than in past decades. For each storm, coordinates are acquired at 4-times daily intervals throughout its duration and track lengths are computed for each 6-hour period. Total track lengths are then computed and storms are analyzed graphically and statistically by category for temporal track length changes. The stage durations of each storm are calculated as the time difference between two consecutive stages. Results indicate that average track lengths for Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes are increasing through time. These findings show that these hurricanes are traveling a longer distance than earlier Cat 2 and 3 hurricanes. In contrast, average track lengths for Cat 4 and 5 hurricanes are decreasing through time, showing less distance traveled than earlier decades. Stage durations for all Cat 2, 4 and 5 storms decrease through the decades but Cat 3 storms show a

  19. Duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häll, Birgitta; Jämsä, Tapio; Soukka, Tero; Peltomäki, Timo

    2008-10-01

    To study the duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment with special reference to patients' age and the type of tooth movements, i.e. extraction vs. non-extraction and intrusion before or extrusion after surgery to level the curve of Spee. The material consisted files of 37 consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients. The files were reviewed and gender, diagnosis, type of malocclusion, age at the initiation of treatment, duration of treatment, type of tooth movements (extraction vs. non-extraction and levelling of the curve of Spee before or after operation) and type of operation were retrieved. For statistical analyses two sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank correlation tests were used. Mean treatment duration of the sample was 26.8 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took on average 17.5 months. Patients with extractions as part of the treatment had statistically and clinically significantly longer treatment duration, on average 8 months, than those without extractions. No other studied variable seemed to have an impact on the treatment time. The present small sample size prevents reliable conclusions to be made. However, the findings suggest, and patients should be informed, that extractions included in the treatment plan increase chances of longer duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

  20. Sleep duration is significantly associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis incidence in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tsueko; Aoki, Toshinari; Yata, Syogo; Okada, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep duration is associated with total mortality in a U-shaped fashion. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a Japanese population. In 2009-2010, a total of 2498 participants (1195 men, 1303 women; age range, 23-92 years) were recruited from members of a Japanese community receiving annual health check-up at a local health center who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: age <40 or ≥85 years; and more than one missing value from either laboratory data or questionnaire responses. A total of 2214 participants were entered into the study. Carotid artery arteriosclerosis was evaluated ultrasonographically and quantified as intima-medial thickness (IMT). The presence of carotid artery atherosclerosis was defined as IMT≥1.2 mm. Sleep durations were compared with IMT measurements after controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, alcohol intake, and smoking habit. Sleep duration ≥7 h correlated significantly with the incidence of IMT≥1.2 m when compared with a sleep duration of 6 h (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.263; 95% confidence interval, 1.031-1.546, P=0.024). Shorter sleep duration ≤5 h did not correlate significantly with the risk compared with a sleep duration of 6 h. Long sleep duration (≥7 h) correlated significantly with the incidence of carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with a sleep duration of 6 h, but shorter sleep duration did not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  2. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  3. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  4. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DM Seegmuller

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two mathematical programming models, both with multiple objective functions, are proposed to solve four related categories of job scheduling problems. All four of these categories have the property that the duration of the jobs is dependent on the time of implementation and in some cases the preceding job. Furthermore, some jobs (restricted to subsets of the total pool of jobs can, to different extents, run in parallel. In addition, not all the jobs need necessarily be implemented during the given time period.

  5. MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF TOTAL LARYNGECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Spirić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical technique of total laryngectomy is well presented in many surgical textbooks. Essentially, it has remained the same since Gluck an Soerensen in 1922 described all its details. Generally, it stresses the U shape skin incision with releasing laryngeal structures and removing larynx from up to down. Further, pharyngeal reconstruction is performed with different kinds of sutures in two or more layers and is finished with skin suture and suction drainage. One of worst complications following this surgery is pharyngocutaneous fistula (PF. Modifications proposed in this this article suggests vertical skin incision with larynx removal from below upwards. In pharyngeal reconstruction we used the running locked suture in submucosal plan with „tobacco sac“ at the end on the tongue base instead of traditional T shaped suture. Suction drains were not used.The aim of study was to present the modified surgical technique of total laryingectomy and its impact on hospital stay duration and pharyngocutanous fistula formation. In this randomized study we analyzed 49 patients operated with modified surgical technique compared to 49 patient operated with traditional surgical technique of total laryngectomy. The modified technique of total laryngectomy was presented. Using modified technique we managed to decrease the PF percentage from previous 20,41% to acceptable 8,16% (p=0,0334. Also, the average hospital stay was shortened from 14,96 to 10,63 days (t =-2.9850; p=0.0358.The modified technique of total laryngectomy is safe, short and efficient surgical intervention which decreases the number of pharyngocutaneos fistulas and shortens the hospital stay.

  6. Duration of Nasal Packs in the Management of Epistaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundi, N. A.; Raza, M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To compare the efficacy of nasal packs for 12 and 24 hours in the management of epistaxis. Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Nowshera and Heavy Industries Taxilla Hospital, from October 2012 to April 2013. Methodology: A total of 60 patients presenting with epistaxis were selected and were divided into two groups of 30 patients each. Patients in both the groups were managed by nasal packs. In group-A packs were removed after 12 hours while in group-B after 24 hours. Symptoms of headache, lacrimation and recurrence of bleeding were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis and p-value less than 0.01 was considered significant. Results: There was significant difference for headache between removal of nasal packs after 12 hours and 24 hours (p < 0.001). There was significant difference for excessive lacrimation at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.001). No significant difference was observed for recurrence of bleed when nasal packs were removed at 12 and 24 hours (p = 0.317). Conclusion: Duration in removal of nasal packs after 12 or 24 hours made a difference in the management of epistaxis. Symptoms of headache and excessive lacrimation were significantly higher when nasal packs were removed after 24 hours. It is recommended that patient could be managed with lesser duration of packs after episode of epistaxis to avoid inconvenience. (author)

  7. Qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions and durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Grand H L; Chan, Darius K S; Tong, Po Yee

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to examine the qualities of online friendships with different gender compositions that had been maintained for varying periods of time. A total of 167 Hong Kong Internet-users rated the qualities of their same-sex and cross-sex online friendships on measures such as intimacy, trust, self-disclosure, and relational satisfaction. A 2 (gender of respondents: male vs. female) x 2 (gender of online friends: same-sex vs. opposite-sex) x 3 (duration of friendships: less than 1 year vs. 1-2 years vs. more than 2 years) factorial design was adopted. MANOVA results reveal the three-way interaction effect on intimacy, trust, and relational satisfaction. Specifically, the qualities of male-female, female-male, and female-female online friendships were generally higher for those with a longer duration than those at the early stage of friendship development. However, the qualities of male-male friendships that had been maintained for more than 2 years were lower than those maintained for 2 years or less. These findings suggest that qualities of online friendships are subject to effects of gender composition and duration. The conceptual implications of these results are discussed.

  8. Pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy enhance follow-up treatment duration in gambling disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Shin, Young-Chul; Youn, HyunChul; Lim, Se-Won; Ha, Juwon

    2016-01-01

    Longer treatment duration is important for the successful treatment of gambling disorder (GD). This retrospective study investigated the factors and interventions that might enhance treatment duration in GD patients in South Korea. A total of 758 outpatients with a primary diagnosis of GD, who were treated in a clinical practice from 2002 to 2011, were assessed by retrospective chart review. We compared the treatment duration according to pharmacotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Pharmacotherapy contributed to a longer duration of treatment maintenance, despite the patients' gambling severity (p gambling severity. The treatment maintenance duration was the longest in those receiving combined antidepressant pharmacotherapy and group CBT (F = 35.79, p prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. Association between QRS duration on prehospital ECG and mortality in patients with suspected STEMI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke; Frydland, Martin; Møller-Helgestad, Ole Kristian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: QRS duration has previously shown association with mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytics, less is known in patients with suspected ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when assessing QRS duration on prehospital ECG. Thus......, the objective was to investigate the prognostic effect of QRS duration on prehospital ECG and presence of classic left and right bundle branch block (LBBB/RBBB) for all-cause mortality in patients with suspected STEMI. METHOD: In total 2105 consecutive patients (mean age 64±13years, 72% men) with suspected...... STEMI were prospectively included. QRS duration was registered from automated QRS measurement on prehospital ECG and patients were divided according to quartiles of QRS duration (111ms). Primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. Predictors of all-cause mortality were...

  10. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.; Rao, S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P= 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P= 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P= 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P= 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  11. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION... those alterations performed in accordance with an applicable consensus standard and authorized by the...

  12. Associated Information Increases Subjective Perception of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, Richard; Trapp, Sabrina; Bar, Moshe

    2017-08-01

    Our sense of time is prone to various biases. For instance, one factor that can dilate an event's perceived duration is the violation of predictions; when a series of repeated stimuli is interrupted by an unpredictable oddball. On the other hand, when the probability of a repetition itself is manipulated, predictable conditions can also increase estimated duration. This suggests that manipulations of expectations have different or even opposing effects on time perception. In previous studies, expectations were generated because stimuli were repeated or because the likelihood of a sequence or a repetition was varied. In the natural environment, however, expectations are often built via associative processes, for example, the context of a kitchen promotes the expectation of plates, appliances, and other associated objects. Here, we manipulated such association-based expectations by using oddballs that were either contextually associated or nonassociated with the standard items. We find that duration was more strongly overestimated for contextually associated oddballs. We reason that top-down attention is biased toward associated information, and thereby dilates subjective duration for associated oddballs. Based on this finding, we propose an interplay between top-down attention and predictive processing in the perception of time.

  13. The Cognitive Representation of Time and Duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulrich, Rolf; Rattat, Anne-Claire; Ogden, Ruth; Van Rijn, Hedderik; Bratzke, Daniel

    How do people represent the duration of an event in memory and which mechanisms except timing are involved in processing and maintaining temporal information within the cognitive system? The speakers of this symposium will address this and related questions. Anne-Claire Rattat focuses on long-term

  14. Verifying duration properties of timed transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhiming; Ravn, Anders P.; Li, Xiaoshan

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for formal real-time systems development:Requirements and high level design decisions are time interval properties and are therefore specified in the Duration Calculus (DC), while implementations are described bytimed transition systems (TTS). A link from implementati...

  15. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration insomnia with a sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia with sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  16. Sleep Duration, Mortality, and Heredity-A Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Association of the Duration of Active Pushing With Obstetric Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the associations between the duration of active pushing during the second stage of labor and maternal and neonatal outcomes. We performed an observational study in which data were obtained by trained abstractors from maternal and neonatal charts of deliveries at 25 hospitals over a 3-year period. In this secondary analysis, women with no prior cesarean delivery who had a term, singleton, cephalic gestation and reached complete dilation were analyzed. The duration of pushing, defined as the time from initiation of pushing to either vaginal delivery or the decision to proceed with a cesarean delivery, was determined. The primary maternal outcome was cesarean delivery and the primary neonatal outcome was a composite that included: mechanical ventilation, proven sepsis, brachial plexus palsy, clavicular fracture, skull fracture, other fracture, seizures, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, or death. Nulliparous and parous women were analyzed separately in univariable and then multivariable analyses. A total of 53,285 women were analyzed. In both nulliparous and parous women, longer duration of pushing was associated with increased odds of both cesarean delivery and the neonatal adverse outcome composite. Nevertheless, even after 4 hours of pushing, approximately 78% of nulliparous women who continued with active pushing had a vaginal delivery and more than 97% did not have the composite adverse neonatal outcome. Similarly, after more than 2 hours of pushing, approximately 82% of parous women who continued active pushing delivered vaginally and more than 97% did not have the adverse neonatal outcome. A longer duration of pushing is associated with an increased relative risk, but small absolute difference in risk, of neonatal complications. Approximately 78% of nulliparous women delivered vaginally even after 4 hours of pushing.

  18. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Durkin, Michael J; Anderson, Deverick J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J; Weber, David J; Lewis, Sarah S

    2015-12-01

    To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. Retrospective cohort study A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.56; Poperative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.37; P=.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.64; Poperative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis.

  19. Duration of Agitation, Fluctuations of Consciousness, and Associations with Outcome in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznik, Michael E; Mahta, Ali; Schmidt, J Michael; Frey, Hans-Peter; Park, Soojin; Roh, David J; Agarwal, Sachin; Claassen, Jan

    2018-01-08

    Agitation is common after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and may be independently associated with outcomes. We sought to determine whether the duration of agitation and fluctuating consciousness were also associated with outcomes in patients with SAH. We identified all patients with positive Richmond Agitation Sedation Scale (RASS) scores from a prospective observational cohort of patients with SAH from 2011 to 2015. Total duration of agitation was extrapolated for each patient using available RASS scores, and 24-h mean and standard deviation (SD) of RASS scores were calculated for each patient. We also calculated each patient's duration of substantial fluctuation of consciousness, defined as the number of days with 24-h RASS SD > 1. Patients were stratified by 3-month outcome using the modified Rankin scale, and associations with outcome were assessed via logistic regression. There were 98 patients with at least one positive RASS score, with median total duration of agitation 8 h (interquartile range [IQR] 4-18), and median duration of substantially fluctuating consciousness 2 days (IQR 1-3). Unfavorable 3-month outcome was significantly associated with a longer duration of fluctuating consciousness (odds ratio [OR] per day, 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.20; p = 0.031), but a briefer duration of agitation (OR per hour, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.89-0.99; p = 0.031). Though a longer duration of fluctuating consciousness was associated with worse outcomes in our cohort, total duration of agitation was not, and may have had the opposite effect. Our findings should therefore challenge the intensity with which agitation is often treated in SAH patients.

  20. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panprivech, Siriwan; Lerno, Larry A; Brenneman, Charles A; Block, David E; Oberholster, Anita

    2015-05-04

    The impact of increasing cold soak (CS) duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C) on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months' bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  1. Shorter epilepsy duration is associated with better seizure outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence of patient’s age and seizure onset on surgical outcome of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method A retrospective observational investigation performed from a cohort of patients from 2000 to 2012. Results A total of 229 patients were included. One-hundred and eleven of 179 patients (62% were classified as Engel I in the group with < 50 years old, whereas 33 of 50 (66% in the group with ≥ 50 years old group (p = 0.82. From those Engel I, 88 (61% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 56 (39% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. From the total of patients not seizure free, 36 (42% reported epilepsy duration inferior to 10 years and 49 (58% superior to 10 years (p < 0.01. Conclusion Patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery had better postoperative seizure control than patients with longer duration of seizures.

  2. Investigating the Effect of Cold Soak Duration on Phenolic Extraction during Cabernet Sauvignon Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Panprivech

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The impact of increasing cold soak (CS duration (0, 1, 4, 7, and 10 days at 10 °C on the extraction of phenolic compounds during the CS period and primary fermentation as well as the final composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wine was investigated. The results showed that CS duration had no effect on hydroxycinnamate and flavonol extractions. Greater amounts of gallic acid, (+-catechin, (−-epicatechin, and total tannins were extracted with increasing CS duration, with differences maintained during bottle aging. Anthocyanin extraction and color density increased with longer periods of CS; however, by the end of primary fermentation, as well as three months’ bottle aging, there were no significant differences due to CS duration. The wines made with seven and 10 days of CS had higher seed tannin contributions and total tannin compared to the non-CS wine, which could potentially result in increased astringency.

  3. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  5. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  6. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  7. RetroMine, or how to provide in-depth retrospective studies from Medline in a glance: the hepcidin use-case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cadeville Bertrand Ameline de

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of biomedical literature has provoked an increased development of advanced text mining tools to rapidly extract relevant events from the continuously increasing amount of knowledge published periodically in PubMed. However, bioinvestigators are still reluctant to use these tools for two reasons: i a large volume of events is often extracted upon a query, and this volume is hard to manage, and ii background events dominate search results and overshadow more pertinent published information, especially for domain experts. In this paper, we propose an approach that incorporates the temporal dimension of published events to the process of information extraction to improve data selection and prioritize more pertinent periodically published knowledge for scientists. Indeed, instead of providing the total knowledge associated with a PubMed query, which is usually a mix of trivial background information and nonbackground information, we propose a method that incorporates time and selects non background and highly relevant biological entities and events published over time for bioinvestigators. Before excluding background events from the total knowledge extracted, a quantification of their amount is also provided. This work is illustrated by a case study regarding Hepcidin gene publications over a decade, a duration that is sufficiently long enough to generate alternative views on the overall data extracted.

  8. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  9. Rethinking non-inferiority: a practical trial design for optimising treatment duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartagno, Matteo; Walker, A Sarah; Carpenter, James R; Phillips, Patrick Pj; Parmar, Mahesh Kb

    2018-06-01

    Background Trials to identify the minimal effective treatment duration are needed in different therapeutic areas, including bacterial infections, tuberculosis and hepatitis C. However, standard non-inferiority designs have several limitations, including arbitrariness of non-inferiority margins, choice of research arms and very large sample sizes. Methods We recast the problem of finding an appropriate non-inferior treatment duration in terms of modelling the entire duration-response curve within a pre-specified range. We propose a multi-arm randomised trial design, allocating patients to different treatment durations. We use fractional polynomials and spline-based methods to flexibly model the duration-response curve. We call this a 'Durations design'. We compare different methods in terms of a scaled version of the area between true and estimated prediction curves. We evaluate sensitivity to key design parameters, including sample size, number and position of arms. Results A total sample size of ~ 500 patients divided into a moderate number of equidistant arms (5-7) is sufficient to estimate the duration-response curve within a 5% error margin in 95% of the simulations. Fractional polynomials provide similar or better results than spline-based methods in most scenarios. Conclusion Our proposed practical randomised trial 'Durations design' shows promising performance in the estimation of the duration-response curve; subject to a pending careful investigation of its inferential properties, it provides a potential alternative to standard non-inferiority designs, avoiding many of their limitations, and yet being fairly robust to different possible duration-response curves. The trial outcome is the whole duration-response curve, which may be used by clinicians and policymakers to make informed decisions, facilitating a move away from a forced binary hypothesis testing paradigm.

  10. [Interaction between quality and duration of sleep on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Peipei; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng; Dong, Zongmei

    2014-09-01

    To explore the effects related to quality and duration of sleep and their interactions on the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). 9 622 people aged 18 years and over were recruited for our cross-sectional study during March 2013 to May 2013. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between quality and duration of sleep on T2DM. Bootstrap was used to calculate the relative excess risk of interaction (RERI), the attributable proportion (AP) of interaction and the synergy index (SI). 95% confidence intervals (CI) of RERI, AP and SI were estimated. Concerning the comparison between cases and controls on both individual and total scores, other scores were all significantly different (P quality was higher than that in volunteers with good sleeping quality (P quality and short duration (OR = 4.78, 95% CI:3.32-6.99; P quality and 6-8 h sleep duration. The risk of T2DM still increased in people who had poor sleep or long duration (OR = 1.92, 95% CI:1.18-3.31; P interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, while 0.33 (-0.12-1.13), 0.17 (-0.03-0.51), 1.56 (0.76-2.74) for the interaction between good sleep quality and long sleep duration. Our results suggested that there were additive interactions between poor quality and shorter duration of sleep.

  11. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernandez-Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG, clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep and objective “short” sleep duration as a PSG total sleep time ≤7 h. A significant interaction showed that objective short sleep duration modified the association of insomnia symptoms with internalizing problems. Consistently, adolescents with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration were characterized by depression, rumination, mood dysregulation and social isolation, while adolescents with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were characterized by rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors and, to a lesser extent, rumination. These findings indicate that objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles among adolescents with insomnia symptoms. The insomnia with objective short sleep duration phenotype is associated with an increased risk of depression earlier in the lifespan than previously believed.

  12. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  13. Modeling and Forecasting Persistent Financial Durations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikeš, F.; Baruník, Jozef; Shenai, N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2017), s. 1081-1110 ISSN 0747-4938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-32263S EU Projects: European Commission 612955 - FINMAP Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : price durations * long memory * multifractal models * realized volatility * Whittle estimation Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics , Econometrics Impact factor: 1.333, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0434201.pdf

  14. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  15. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  16. A glance on recent progresses in diagnosis and treatment of primary immunodeficiencies/ Progrese recente în diagnosticul şi tratamentul imunodeficienţelor primare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Späth Peter J.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs* belong to the group of rare diseases which need more awareness by the relevant medical disciplines. Below a review on recent progresses in diagnosis and treatment of PIDs is given. Reducing the regrettable delay in diagnosis of PIDs (worldwide is possible only when awareness is increased by doctors who may encounter patients with PID. This review shall serve this purpose. Progresses in understanding what the link might be between one genetic defect presenting in various phenotypes or how various gene defects may manifest by very similar PID phenotypes helps building awareness. Knowledge of PID favours early diagnosis, a cornerstone of optimal, sometimes life-long care at justifiable costs. The complexity of PIDs calls for clinical laboratory and clinical diagnostic performed by experts only. Exciting laboratory diagnostic progresses in early diagnosis of the most severe forms of PID are reviewed below. Progresses in curative therapies for PIDs, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and gene therapies, are mentioned in short. About 80% of PID patients suffer from an antibody deficiency syndrome and can profit from non-curative replacement therapies with human immunoglobulin G concentrates. Modes of application, safety and hints for dosing of replacement therapies to reduce frequencies of severe infections are mentioned below. Thanks to the increasing quality of care, patients survive adolescence. A glance is given on the problems of transition to the adult medicine setting.

  17. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  18. The Frequency and Duration of Uterine Contractions during Labour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-17

    Apr 17, 1974 ... n-e;.l. Fig. 12. Indian primigravidas: duration of contractions. Fig. 11. Indian multiparas: duration of contractions. Fig. 10. Black primigravidas (all ages): duration of con- tractiom. Indian multiparas: Fig. 11 shows the duration of con- tractions in labour of Indian multiparas studied. Again, the pattern is similar to ...

  19. Characteristics of snow cover duration across the northeast United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathers, Daniel J.; Luff, Barbara L.

    1997-11-01

    The presence or absence of a snow cover affects a myriad of environmental and societal systems through its modification of the surface radiation balance and its ultimate impact on near-surface air temperatures. Daily snow cover data were collected for a network of 91 stations covering the northeast USA from Maine, south through to West Virginia. The snow cover data along with ancillary temperature, snowfall and precipitation data were used to investigate the characteristics of snow cover duration in this region and the effects of the snow cover on boundary layer climate variables for the snow cover seasons 1948-1949 through to 1987-1988.Results indicate that snow cover duration is variable in both space and time. The duration of a snow cover of 2.5 cm or greater varies from greater than 100 days in northern New England to less than 20 days across areas of Delaware, Maryland and West Virginia. Temporally, snow cover duration for the region as a whole was very short from the late 1940s through to the mid-1950s. From the late 1950s to the end of the period snow cover duration has varied around a consistent mean value. No long-term trends in snow cover duration are apparent in the record for the northeast USA.Principal components analysis and clustering techniques were utilized to isolate spatially coherent regions in which snow cover duration has varied similarly over the period of record. This analysis resulted in the identification of four snow-cover-duration regions across the northeast USA: including (i) the West Virginia area, (ii) the mid-Atlantic from southern New England through to western Pennsylvania, (iii) western and central New York and (iv) northern New England. Snow cover duration is shown to be highly associated with snowfall and temperature but not strongly related to total liquid precipitation. The intra-annual variability of snow cover duration is also investigated for each region.

  20. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  2. Loss aversion and duration of residence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip S. Morrison

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of internal migration ask who moves, why they move, and what are the consequences - to themselves, their origin, and their destination. By contrast, studies of those who stay for very long durations are less common, despite the fact that most people move relatively infrequently. Objective: We argue that staying is the dominant, preferred state and that moving is simply an adjustment toward a desired state of stability (or equilibrium. The core of our argument, already recognized in the literature, is that migration is risky. However, we extend the argument to loss aversion as developed within prospect theory. Prospect theory posits that existing possessions, including the dwelling and existing commodities, are attributed a value well beyond their purchase price and that this extends the average period of staying among the loss-averse. Methods: Applying prospect theory has several challenges, including measurement of the reference point and potential degrees of gain and loss households face in deciding to change residence, as well as their own degree of loss aversion. The growing number of large panel sets should make it possible to estimate the degree to which endowment effects are likely to extend durations of residence as predicted by prospect theory. Conclusions: Rational expectations models of mobility focus on the changes in the level of consumption of residential services. By contrast, prospect theory focuses on potential gains and losses relative to the existing dwelling - the reference point. As we confront increasing durations of residence in contemporary society, an application of prospect theory is likely to yield important advantages over existing models of mobility and staying.

  3. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  4. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    We transfer the concept of robust interpretation from arithmetic first-order theories to metric-time temporal logics. The idea is that the interpretation of a formula is robust iff its truth value does not change under small variation of the constants in the formula. Exemplifying this on Duration...... Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  5. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  6. Modeling Change in Project Duration and Completion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Pirtle, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    In complex work domains and organizations, understanding scheduleing dynamics can ensure objectives are reached and delays are mitigated. In the current paper, we examine the scheduling dynamics for NASA’s Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) activities. For this examination, we specifically modeled...... simultaneous change in percent complete and estimated duration for a given project as they were included in monthly reports over time. In short, we utilized latent change score mixture modeling to extract the attractor dynamics within the scheduling data. We found three primarily patterns: an attractor at low...

  7. Competing Risks Copula Models for Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...

  8. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  9. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  10. Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Johnston, Smith; Pierson, Duane L; Ott, C Mark; Sams, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut's clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical "incidence" data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS). Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20.57 total flight years. Incidence for immunological-related adverse health events or relevant clinical symptoms was tabulated in a non-identifiable fashion. Event categories included infectious diseases, allergies, and rashes/hypersensitivities. A subsequent re-evaluation of more notable events, either of prolonged duration or unresponsive to treatment, was performed. For the disease/symptom categories used in this evaluation, the ISS incidence rate was 3.40 events per flight year. Skin rashes were the most reported event (1.12/flight year) followed by upper respiratory symptoms (0.97/flight year) and various other (non-respiratory) infectious processes. During flight, 46% of crew members reported an event deemed "notable". Among the notable events, 40% were classified as rashes/hypersensitivities. Characterization of on-orbit rashes manifested as redness with irritation, and could present on a variety of body locations. Based on reported symptoms, astronauts experience adverse medical events of varying severity during long-duration spaceflights. The data suggests caution, from both a vehicle design and biomedical countermeasures perspective, as space agencies plan for prolonged deep space exploration missions.

  11. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  13. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  14. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  15. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  16. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  17. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  18. Timing and duration of autumn leaf development in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolmgren, Kjell

    2014-05-01

    The growing season is changing in both ends and autumn phases seem to be responding in more diverse ways than spring events. Indeed, we know little about autumn leaf phenological strategies and how they are correlated with fitness components or ecosystem properties, and how they vary between species and over bioclimatic gradients. In this study more than 10 000 students were involved in observing autumn leaf development at 378 sites all over Sweden (55-68°N). They followed an image based observation protocol classifying autumn leaf development into five levels, from summer green (level 0) to 100% autumn leaf colored (level 4) canopy. In total, they submitted almost 12 000 observations between August 9 and November 15. 75% of the observations were made on the common species of Populus tremula, Betula pendula/pubescens and Sorbus aucuparia. The expected (negative) correlation between latitude and start of leaf senescence (level 2) was found in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. The duration of the leaf senescence period, defined as the period between 1/3 (level 2) and 100% (level 4) of the canopy autumn leaf colored, was negatively correlated with latitude in Populus and Betula, but not in Sorbus. There was also a strong (negative) correlation of the start (level 2) and the duration of the leaf senescence in the early senescing Sorbus and Betula, while this effect was weaker in the late senescing Populus.

  19. Long Duration Balloon Charge Controller Stack Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Kyle

    NASA and the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility are interested in updating the design of the charge controller on their long duration balloon (LDB) in order to enable the charge controllers to be directly interfaced via RS232 serial communication by a ground testing computers and the balloon's flight computer without the need to have an external electronics stack. The design involves creating a board that will interface with the existing boards in the charge controller in order to receive telemetry from and send commands to those boards, and interface with a computer through serial communication. The inputs to the board are digital status inputs indicating things like whether the photovoltaic panels are connected or disconnected; and analog inputs with information such as the battery voltage and temperature. The outputs of the board are 100ms duration command pulses that will switch relays that do things like connect the photovoltaic panels. The main component of this design is a PIC microcontroller which translates the outputs of the existing charge controller into serial data when interrogated by a ground testing or flight computer. Other components involved in the design are an AD7888 12-bit analog to digital converter, a MAX3232 serial transceiver, various other ICs, capacitors, resistors, and connectors.

  20. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  1. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  2. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  3. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Toshiaki; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tsuji, Michiko; Tamura, Takashi; Konishi, Kie; Nagata, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke). During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke) were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16-1.97) and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16-2.35) for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep) was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.01), although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06). The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98; P for trend = 0.08). The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16-0.64). Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  4. The Duration of Energy Deposition on Unresolved Flaring Loops in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reep, Jeffrey W.; Polito, Vanessa; Warren, Harry P.; Crump, Nicholas A.

    2018-04-01

    Solar flares form and release energy across a large number of magnetic loops. The global parameters of flares, such as the total energy released, duration, physical size, etc., are routinely measured, and the hydrodynamics of a coronal loop subjected to intense heating have been extensively studied. It is not clear, however, how many loops comprise a flare, nor how the total energy is partitioned between them. In this work, we employ a hydrodynamic model to better understand the energy partition by synthesizing Si IV and Fe XXI line emission and comparing to observations of these lines with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). We find that the observed temporal evolution of the Doppler shifts holds important information on the heating duration. To demonstrate this, we first examine a single loop model, and find that the properties of chromospheric evaporation seen in Fe XXI can be reproduced by loops heated for long durations, while persistent redshifts seen in Si IV cannot be reproduced by any single loop model. We then examine a multithreaded model, assuming both a fixed heating duration on all loops and a distribution of heating durations. For a fixed heating duration, we find that durations of 100–200 s do a fair job of reproducing both the red- and blueshifts, while a distribution of durations, with a median of about 50–100 s, does a better job. Finally, we compare our simulations directly to observations of an M-class flare seen by IRIS, and find good agreement between the modeled and observed values given these constraints.

  5. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Zhang, Wen; Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Hairui; Zhai, Tianqi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance. Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT). We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h. A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years). In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI) was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448), and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s). In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s) and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s); longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h), by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s). In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women.

  6. The effects of breathing techniques training on the duration of labor and anxiety levels of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicek, Sevil; Basar, Fatma

    2017-11-01

    To assess the effects of breathing techniques training on anxiety levels of pregnant women and the duration of labor. The study utilizes a randomized controlled trial design. The pregnant women were divided into control (n = 35) or experimental group (n = 35) randomly. The experimental group received breathing techniques training in the latent phase and these techniques were applied in the following phases accordingly. The anxiety levels of pregnant women were evaluated three times in total. The duration of labor was considered as the duration of the first stage of labor and the duration of the second stage of labor. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding the mean State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) and the mean duration of labor. This study concludes that breathing techniques are an effective method in the reduction of anxiety and influence the duration of delivery during labor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. TOXICITY OF INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT ON TOTAL CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT OF CERTAIN AQUATIC MACROPHYTES

    OpenAIRE

    Singh Priti; Vishen Ashish; Wadhwani R; Pandey Y.N

    2012-01-01

    To assess the toxicity of industrial effluents on certain macrophytes, the total chlorophyll content of free floating, submerged and emergent macrophytes were estimated in concentrations of industrial effluents at varying exposure duration. The result revealed reduction in total chlorophyll content of exposed macrophytes at higher concentrations of industrial effluents on prolonged duration.

  8. Adaptation to an Illusory Duration: Nothing Like the Real Thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hotchkiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that adapting to a visual or auditory stimulus of a particular duration leads to a repulsive distortion of the perceived duration of a subsequently presented test stimulus. This distortion seems to be modality-specific and manifests itself as an expansion or contraction of perceived duration dependent upon whether the test stimulus is longer or shorter than the adapted duration. It has been shown (Berger et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3, 406–412 that perceived events can be as effective as actual events in inducing improvements in performance. In light of this, we investigated whether an illusory visual duration was capable of inducing a duration after-effect in a visual test stimulus that was actually no different in duration from the adaptor. Pairing a visual stimulus with a concurrent auditory stimulus of subtly longer or shorter duration expands or contracts the duration of the visual stimulus. We mapped out this effect and then chose two auditory durations (one long, one short that produced the maximum distortion in the perceived duration of the visual stimulus. After adapting to this bimodal stimulus, our participants were asked to reproduce a visual duration. Group data showed that participants, on average, reproduced the physical duration of the visual test stimulus accurately; in other words, there was no consistent effect of adaptation to an illusory duration.

  9. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  10. Estimating potential diapause duration in Calanus finmarchicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumweber, Whitley J.; Durbin, Edward G.

    2006-11-01

    Deep basins in the Gulf of Maine act as refuge for a large population of diapausing Calanus finmarchicus during the summer and fall. This population acts as the primary seed population for Georges Bank in the spring and is thought to be composed primarily of individuals that developed during the previous spring bloom. The factors affecting growth and mortality in the summer-fall population are not well understood, however, and loss terms from advection and starvation may be large. To assess the potential energetic limitation and loss of C. finmarchicus from the Gulf of Maine basins, a new nitrogen-specific respiration model has been developed for the resting stage of the species. Stage C5 C. finmarchicus were collected during July, September, and December 2003 from Wilkinson and Georges Basins. Animals were collected using both MOCNESS tows and zooplankton samplers on the Johnson Sea Link II submersible. Metabolic rates were measured using a Micro-Oxymax gas analyzer and Winkler incubation techniques both at sea and on animals kept in culture on shore. Respiration rates measured in the field were not significantly different from those measured on shore, with a mean of 130 μmol O 2 gN -1 h -1 (14.4 μmol O 2 gC -1 h -1) at 0 °C and a Q10 of 2.77 (2.58 for carbon-specific respiration). Using the nitrogen-specific rates in conjunction with visual estimates of nitrogen weight and lipid stores, we derived a discrete function for predicting potential diapause duration based on an animal's length, oil sac volume, and the in situ temperature. The maximum potential diapause duration for a C5 C. finmarchicus is predicted to range from 280 days at 0 °C to approximately 90 days at 11 °C. The maximum potential diapause duration in the Gulf of Maine is predicted to be between 3.5 and 5.5 months. These results suggest that energetic limitation may play a role in controlling the population dynamics of diapausing C. finmarchicus in the Gulf of Maine. A reassessment of the

  11. Does Treatment Duration Affect Outcome After Radiotherapy for Prostate Cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, David J.; Li Tianyu; Horwitz, Eric M.; Chen, David Y.T.; Pollack, Alan; Buyyounouski, Mark K.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The protraction of external beam radiotherapy (RT) time is detrimental in several disease sites. In prostate cancer, the overall treatment time can be considerable, as can the potential for treatment breaks. We evaluated the effect of elapsed treatment time on outcome after RT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between April 1989 and November 2004, 1,796 men with prostate cancer were treated with RT alone. The nontreatment day ratio (NTDR) was defined as the number of nontreatment days divided by the total elapsed days of RT. This ratio was used to account for the relationship between treatment duration and total RT dose. Men were stratified into low risk (n = 789), intermediate risk (n = 798), and high risk (n = 209) using a single-factor model. Results: The 10-year freedom from biochemical failure (FFBF) rate was 68% for a NTDR <33% vs. 58% for NTDR ≥33% (p = 0.02; BF was defined as a prostate-specific antigen nadir + 2 ng/mL). In the low-risk group, the 10-year FFBF rate was 82% for NTDR <33% vs. 57% for NTDR ≥33% (p = 0.0019). The NTDR was independently predictive for FFBF (p = 0.03), in addition to T stage (p = 0.005) and initial prostate-specific antigen level (p < 0.0001) on multivariate analysis, including Gleason score and radiation dose. The NTDR was not a significant predictor of FFBF when examined in the intermediate-risk group, high-risk group, or all risk groups combined. Conclusions: A proportionally longer treatment duration was identified as an adverse factor in low-risk patients. Treatment breaks resulting in a NTDR of ≥33% (e.g., four or more breaks during a 40-fraction treatment, 5 d/wk) should be avoided

  12. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  13. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  14. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  15. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 (micro)m diameter pinhole in a 75 (micro)m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 (micro)m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times

  16. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  17. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maternal obesity and its effect on labour duration in nulliparous women: a retrospective observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellekjaer, Karen Louise; Bergholt, Thomas; Løkkegaard, Ellen

    2017-07-12

    Obesity is increasing among primipara women. We aimed to describe the association between body mass index (BMI) during early-pregnancy and duration of labour in nulliparous women. Retrospective observational cohort study of 1885 nulliparous women with a single cephalic presentation from 37 0/7 to 42 6/7 weeks of completed gestation and spontaneous or induced labour at Nordsjællands Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, in 2011 and 2012. Total duration of labour and the first and second stages of labour were compared between early-pregnancy normal-weight (BMI women. Proportional hazards and multiple logistic regression models were applied. Early pregnancy BMI classified 1246 (66.1%) women as normal weight, 350 (18.6%) as overweight and 203 (10.8%) as obese. No difference in the duration of total or first stage of active labour was found for overweight (adjusted HR = 1.01, 95% CI 0.88-1.16) or obese (adjusted HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.90-1.28) compared to normal weight women. Median active labour duration was 5.83 h for normal weight, 6.08 h for overweight and 5.90 h for obese women. The risk of caesarean delivery increased significantly for overweight and obese compared to normal weight women (odds ratios (OR) 1.62; 95%CI 1.18-2.22 and 1.76; 95%CI 1.20-2.58, respectively). Caesarean deliveries were performed earlier in labour in obese than normal-weight women (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.28-2.54). BMI had no significant effect on total duration of active labour. Risk of caesarean delivery increased with increasing BMI. Caesarean deliveries are undertaken earlier in obese women compared to normal weight women following the onset of active labour, shortening the total duration of active labour.

  19. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  1. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  2. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  3. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  4. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  5. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  6. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  7. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti- HCV protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Duration of therapy. Total. (n=250). X2-Test†. (p-value). ≤ 6 months. (n=122). > 6 months. (n=128) ..... E, Mukaide M, Williams R, Lau JY. New hepatitis C virus ... Jain K, Lam WC, Waheeb S, Thai Q, Heathcote J. Retinopathy in chronic ...

  8. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  9. All-sky search for long-duration gravitational wave transients with initial LIGO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Phythian-Adams, A.T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.T.; Aguiar, O. D.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amariutei, D. V.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, R.D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, M.J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, A.L.S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, J.G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, T.C; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, A.D.; Brown, D.; Brown, D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderon Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, D. S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Qian; Chua, S. E.; Chung, E.S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, A.C.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, A.L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.A.; DeRosa, R. T.; Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Giovanni, M.G.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, T. M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.M.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J. -D.; Franco, S; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.P.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; Gonzalez, Idelmis G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Lee-Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.M.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunwald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Buffoni-Hall, R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.L.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, P.J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, D.H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W.; Jones, I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.H.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kefelian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.E.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan., S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, M.H.; Lee, K.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lueck, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R.M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B.C.; Moore, J.C.; Moraru, D.; Gutierrez Moreno, M.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, S.D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P.G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Gutierrez-Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton-Howes, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M. B.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.S; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Pereira, R.R.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.A.; Sachdev, P.S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.B.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, K.E.C.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, M.S.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, António Dias da; Simakov, D.; Singer, A; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, N.D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, J.R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.D.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, W.R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Toeyrae, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifiro, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; Van Beuzekom, Martin; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.F.F.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, MT; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.M.; Wessels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, D.R.; Williamson, R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J.L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in two sets of data collected by the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston detectors between November 5, 2005 and September 30, 2007, and July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010, with a total observational time of 283.0 days and

  10. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  11. Modulating action duration to establish non-conventional communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Knoblich, Günther

    2017-01-01

    communication. The current study investigated whether systematic modulations of action duration provide a sufficient basis for communication. The results of three experiments demonstrate that knowledgeable actors spontaneously and systematically adjusted the duration of their actions to communicate task...

  12. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Eight thousand four adolescent students. N/A. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using chi2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia.

  13. The duration perception of loading applications in smartphone: Effects of different loading types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenguo; Ge, Yan; Qu, Weina; Zhang, Kan; Sun, Xianghong

    2017-11-01

    The loading time of a smartphone application is an important issue, which affects the satisfaction of phone users. This study evaluated the effects of black loading screen (BLS) and animation loading screen (ALS) during application loading on users' duration perception and satisfaction. A total of 43 volunteers were enrolled. They were asked to complete several tasks by clicking the icons of each application, such as camera or message. The duration of loading time for each application was manipulated. The participants were asked to estimate the duration, evaluate the loading speed and their satisfaction. The results showed that the estimated duration increased and the satisfaction for loading period declined along with the loading time increased. Compared with the BLS, the ALS prolonged the estimated duration, and lowered the evaluation of speed and satisfaction. We also discussed the tendency and key inflection points of the curves involving the estimated duration, speed evaluation and satisfaction with the loading time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  15. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  16. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  17. Association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Haiyu; Xu, Shaonan; Zhang, Jun; Zheng, Jiayin; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng; Ru, Bin; Jin, Yongming; Zhang, Qi; Ying, Qifeng

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the association between duration of playing video games and bone mineral density (BMD) in Chinese adolescents. Three hundred eighty-four Chinese adolescents aged 14-18 yr (148 males and 236 females) were analyzed. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard procedures. Total body and regional BMD were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Duration of playing video games, defined as hours per day, was measured by a self-report questionnaire. We examined the association between duration of playing video games and BMD using multiple linear regression analysis. After adjustment for age, sex, pubertal stage, parental education, body mass index, adolescents with longer video game duration were more likely to have lower legs, trunk, pelvic, spine, and total BMD (p video game was negatively associated with BMD in Chinese adolescents. These findings provide support for reducing duration of playing video games as a possible means to increase BMD in adolescents. Future research is needed to elucidate the underlined mechanisms linking playing video games and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  19. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.; Stocks, T.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Seidell, J.C.; Renders, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of

  20. Duration of Load Effects on Different Sized Timber Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report submitted to EC in connection with a project on duration of load. The report contains the results of the experimental work on duration of load for beams and notched beams of LVL and of glulam. The report also contains experimental results from duration of load experiments...

  1. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  2. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  3. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  4. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  5. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  6. Long duration mild temperature hyperthermia and brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, E P; Raaphorst, G P

    2004-03-01

    Combining long duration mild temperature hyperthermia (LDMH) and low dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy to enhance therapeutic killing of cancer cells was proposed many years ago. The cellular and tumour research that supports this hypothesis is presented in this review. Research describing LDMH interaction with pulsed brachytherapy and high dose-rate brachytherapy using clinically relevant parameters are compared with LDMH/LDR brachytherapy. The mechanism by which LDMH sensitizes LDR has been established as the inhibition of sublethal damage repair. The molecular mechanisms have been shown to involve DNA repair enzymes, but the exact nature of these processes is still under investigation. The relative differences between LDMH interactions with human and rodent cells are presented to help in the understanding of possible roles of LDMH in clinical application. The role of LDMH in modifying tumour blood flow and its possible role in LDR sensitization of tumours is also presented. The positive aspects of LDMH-brachytherapy for clinical application are sixfold; (1) the thermal goals (temperature, time and volume) are achievable with currently available technology, (2) the hyperthermia by itself has no detectable toxic effects, (3) thermotolerance appears to play a minor if any role in radiation sensitization, (4) TER of around 2 can be expected, (5) hypoxic fraction may be decreased due to blood flow modification and (6) simultaneous chemotherapy may also be sensitized. Combined LDMH and brachytherapy is a cancer therapy that has established biological rationale and sufficient technical and clinical advancements to be appropriately applied. This modality is ripe for clinical testing.

  7. Insomnia in patients on hemodialysis for a short versus long duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsu Tomita,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Masaki Oka,1 Takaaki Shimizu,2 Aya Nagashima,2 Kento Mitsuhashi,2 Hisao Saito,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, 2School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 3Department of Urology, Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute, Hirosaki, Japan Background: Many studies have investigated insomnia and the factors associated with this condition in hemodialysis (HD patients, although the influence of HD duration has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the factors, especially the duration of HD, associated with insomnia in HD patients.Patients and methods: A total of 138 patients undergoing HD were recruited, and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to assess the quality of sleep. Subjects with a total PSQI score up to 4 and those with a score of at least 5 were identified as normal subjects and subjects with insomnia, respectively. Additionally, we assessed restless legs syndrome, depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and health-related quality of life (QOL using the Short Form 8 Health Survey. We divided the subjects into two groups according to the median HD duration.Results: The prevalence rate of insomnia was 54.3% among all the subjects. Twenty-one subjects (15.2% had depression, 26 (18.8% had restless legs syndrome, and 75 (54.3% had insomnia. The median HD duration was 4 years. The scores of components 1 and 4 of the PSQI, subjective sleep quality and habitual sleep efficiency, did not show a significant difference between the normal and insomnia groups. The score of component 7, daytime dysfunction, showed a significant difference between the short and long HD duration groups. In multiple regression analysis, the score of the Short Form 8 Health Survey showed a significant association with the PSQI score in the long HD duration group, but no variable showed a

  8. Effects of methylprednisolone on the duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weilian; Nie, Yuyan; Huang, Shaoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: We aim to investigate whether intraoperative use of methylprednisolone could affect the duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. Methods: A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted. A total of 136 patients underwent gynecologic laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 3 groups: pregroup, receiving intravenous injection of methylprednisolone (40 mg) 30 minutes before induction of anesthesia; postgroup, receiving intravenous injection of methylprednisolone (40 mg) immediately after induction of anesthesia and intubation; and control group, receiving intravenous injection of normal saline. Patients were intravenously administrated with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, and changes in adductor policies evoked twitch responses were measured by ulnar nerve stimulator. Results: We found that all patients achieved maximum blockade effects, and there was no difference in onset time among the 2 groups. For time required to achieve train-of-four ratio (TOFR) 90%, pregroup (64.50 ± 10.52 minutes) and postgroup (65.29 ± 11.64 minutes) were significantly shorter than that of the control group (71.04 ± 10.55 minutes, P = .027), whereas clinical duration and total duration were significantly shorter in the 2 groups received methylprednisolone than the control group. However, there was no significant difference between the 2 treatment groups either in clinical duration and total duration of muscle relaxants, or time required to achieve TOFR 90%. No significant difference was found in recovery index among the 3 groups. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that a single intravenous injection of methylprednisolone, no matter preoperatively or intraoperatively, could shorten the duration of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade. PMID:28953616

  9. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2016-12-06

    Breast milk is well recognised as the best food source for infants. The impact of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. To assess the effectiveness of antenatal breastfeeding (BF) education for increasing BF initiation and duration. We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register on 1 March 2016, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1966 to 1 March 2016) and Scopus (January 1985 to 1 March 2016). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on the duration of BF. We included RCTs that only included antenatal interventions and excluded those that combined antenatal and intrapartum or postpartum BF education components. Cluster-randomised trials were included in this review. Quasi-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. This review update includes 24 studies (10,056 women). Twenty studies (9789 women) contribute data to analyses. Most studies took place in high-income countries such as the USA, UK, Canada and Australia. In the first five comparisons, we display the included trials according to type of intervention without pooling data. For the 'Summary of findings' we pooled data for a summary effect.Five included studies were cluster-randomised trials: all of these adjusted data and reported adjustments as odds ratios (OR). We have analysed the data using the generic inverse variance method and presented results as odds ratios, because we were

  10. Total Synthesis of Hyperforin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Chi P; Maimone, Thomas J

    2015-08-26

    A 10-step total synthesis of the polycyclic polyprenylated acylphloroglucinol (PPAP) natural product hyperforin from 2-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one is reported. This route was enabled by a diketene annulation reaction and an oxidative ring expansion strategy designed to complement the presumed biosynthesis of this complex meroterpene. The described work enables the preparation of a highly substituted bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane-1,3,5-trione motif in only six steps and thus serves as a platform for the construction of easily synthesized, highly diverse PPAPs modifiable at every position.

  11. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  12. Total quality accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrijašević Maja

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of competitive "battle" shifted from the price towards non-price instruments, above all, towards quality that became the key variable for profitability increase and achievement of better comparative position of a company. Under such conditions, management of a company, which, according to the established and certified system of total quality, strives towards achieving of a better market position, faces the problem of quality cost measurement and determination. Management, above all, cost accounting can help in solving of this problem, but the question is how much of its potential is being used for that purpose.

  13. Total_Aktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2008-01-01

    digitale medier er registreringen og muligheden for at opbevare og håndtere digital data uden begrænsninger. Oplevelse, registrering og bevaring knyttes sammen i en ny museal virkelighed, hvor samlingens særlige dokumentariske karakter og fokus, som er unikt for Museet for Samtidskunst, er i centrum...... at mikse deres personlige drinks. TOTAL_AKTION viser Hørbar#3, som er en videreudvikling af den første version. METASYN af Carl Emil Carlsen: Metadata er centralt for Carl Emil Carlsens projekt, der betragter museets samling som et ”univers” af værker (analoge og digitale), beskrivelser og relationer. I...

  14. Total Logistic Plant Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Dorcak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Total Logistics Plant Solutions, plant logistics system - TLPS, based on the philosophy of advanced control processes enables complex coordination of business processes and flows and the management and scheduling of production in the appropriate production plans and planning periods. Main attributes of TLPS is to create a comprehensive, multi-level, enterprise logistics information system, with a certain degree of intelligence, which accepts the latest science and research results in the field of production technology and logistics. Logistic model of company understands as a system of mutually transforming flows of materials, energy, information, finance, which is realized by chain activities and operations

  15. Total Factbook 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2003. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  16. Total 2004 fact book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the activities and results of the Group Total-Fina-Elf for the year 2004. It brings information and economic data on the following topics: the corporate and business; the upstream activities with the reserves, the costs, standardized measure and changes of discounted future net cash flow,oil and gas acreage, drilling, liquefied natural gas, pipelines; downstream activities with refining and marketing maps, refinery, petroleum products, sales, retail gasoline outlets; chemicals with sales and operating income by sector, major applications, base chemicals and polymers, intermediates and performance polymers. (A.L.B.)

  17. TOTAL annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2003 annual report of the Group Total provides economical results and information of the society on the following topics: keys data, the corporate governance (Directors charter, board of directors, audit committee, nomination and remuneration committee, internal control procedures, compensation of directors and executive officers), the corporate social responsibility (environmental stewardship, the future of energy management, the safety enhancement, the human resources, ethics and local development), the investor relations, the management report, the upstream exploration and production, the downstream refining, marketing, trading and shipping, the chemicals and financial and legal information. (A.L.B.)

  18. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise...... surgeon seems to positively influence the rate of surgical complications and implant survival. The painful TKA knee should be thoroughly evaluated, but not revised except if a relevant indication can be established. The most frequent indications for revision are: aseptic loosening, instability, infection...

  19. Incidence of clinical symptoms during long-duration orbital spaceflight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crucian B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Brian Crucian,1 Adriana Babiak-Vazquez,2 Smith Johnston,1 Duane L Pierson,1 C Mark Ott,1 Clarence Sams1 1Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division, NASA-Johnson Space Center, 2Epidemiology/Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health, KBR-Wyle, Houston, TX, USA Background: The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut’s clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical “incidence” data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS.Methods: Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20.57 total flight years. Incidence for immunological-related adverse health events or relevant clinical symptoms was tabulated in a non-identifiable fashion. Event categories included infectious diseases, allergies, and rashes/hypersensitivities. A subsequent re-evaluation of more notable events, either of prolonged duration or unresponsive to treatment, was performed.Results: For the disease/symptom categories used in this evaluation, the ISS incidence rate was 3.40 events per flight year. Skin rashes were the most reported event (1.12/flight year followed by upper respiratory symptoms (0.97/flight year and various other (non-respiratory infectious processes. During flight, 46% of crew members reported an event deemed “notable”. Among the notable events, 40% were classified as rashes/hypersensitivities. Characterization of on-orbit rashes manifested as redness with irritation, and could present on a variety of body locations.Conclusion: Based on reported symptoms, astronauts experience adverse medical events of varying severity during long-duration spaceflights. The data suggests caution, from both a vehicle design and biomedical countermeasures perspective, as space

  20. Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren B. Angotti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to hospital crowding, mechanically ventilated patients are increasingly spending hours boarding in emergency departments (ED before intensive care unit (ICU admission. This study aims to evaluate the association between time ventilated in the ED and in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS. Methods: This was a multi-center, prospective, observational study of patients ventilated in the ED, conducted at three academic Level I Trauma Centers from July 2011 to March 2013. All consecutive adult patients on invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment. We performed a Cox regression to assess for a mortality effect for mechanically ventilated patients with each hour of increasing LOS in the ED and multivariable regression analyses to assess for independently significant contributors to in-hospital mortality. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, with secondary outcomes of ventilator days, ICU LOS and hospital LOS. We further commented on use of lung protective ventilation and frequency of ventilator changes made in this cohort. Results: We enrolled 535 patients, of whom 525 met all inclusion criteria. Altered mental status without respiratory pathology was the most common reason for intubation, followed by trauma and respiratory failure. Using iterated Cox regression, a mortality effect occurred at ED time of mechanical ventilation > 7 hours, and the longer ED stay was also associated with a longer total duration of intubation. However, adjusted multivariable regression analysis demonstrated only older age and admission to the neurosciences ICU as independently associated with increased mortality. Of interest, only 23.8% of patients ventilated in the ED for over seven hours had changes made to their ventilator. Conclusion: In a prospective observational study of patients mechanically ventilated in the ED, there was a significant mortality benefit to

  1. Duration of Mechanical Ventilation in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotti, Lauren B; Richards, Jeremy B; Fisher, Daniel F; Sankoff, Jeffrey D; Seigel, Todd A; Al Ashry, Haitham S; Wilcox, Susan R

    2017-08-01

    Due to hospital crowding, mechanically ventilated patients are increasingly spending hours boarding in emergency departments (ED) before intensive care unit (ICU) admission. This study aims to evaluate the association between time ventilated in the ED and in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS). This was a multi-center, prospective, observational study of patients ventilated in the ED, conducted at three academic Level I Trauma Centers from July 2011 to March 2013. All consecutive adult patients on invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible for enrollment. We performed a Cox regression to assess for a mortality effect for mechanically ventilated patients with each hour of increasing LOS in the ED and multivariable regression analyses to assess for independently significant contributors to in-hospital mortality. Our primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, with secondary outcomes of ventilator days, ICU LOS and hospital LOS. We further commented on use of lung protective ventilation and frequency of ventilator changes made in this cohort. We enrolled 535 patients, of whom 525 met all inclusion criteria. Altered mental status without respiratory pathology was the most common reason for intubation, followed by trauma and respiratory failure. Using iterated Cox regression, a mortality effect occurred at ED time of mechanical ventilation > 7 hours, and the longer ED stay was also associated with a longer total duration of intubation. However, adjusted multivariable regression analysis demonstrated only older age and admission to the neurosciences ICU as independently associated with increased mortality. Of interest, only 23.8% of patients ventilated in the ED for over seven hours had changes made to their ventilator. In a prospective observational study of patients mechanically ventilated in the ED, there was a significant mortality benefit to expedited transfer of patients into an appropriate ICU setting.

  2. Minimal Window Duration for Accurate HRV Recording in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdillon, Nicolas; Schmitt, Laurent; Yazdani, Sasan; Vesin, Jean-Marc; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2017-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is non-invasive and commonly used for monitoring responses to training loads, fitness, or overreaching in athletes. Yet, the recording duration for a series of RR-intervals varies from 1 to 15 min in the literature. The aim of the present work was to assess the minimum record duration to obtain reliable HRV results. RR-intervals from 159 orthostatic tests (7 min supine, SU, followed by 6 min standing, ST) were analyzed. Reference windows were 4 min in SU (min 3–7) and 4 min in ST (min 9–13). Those windows were subsequently divided and the analyses were repeated on eight different fractioned windows: the first min (0–1), the second min (1–2), the third min (2–3), the fourth min (3–4), the first 2 min (0–2), the last 2 min (2–4), the first 3 min (0–3), and the last 3 min (1–4). Correlation and Bland & Altman statistical analyses were systematically performed. The analysis window could be shortened to 0–2 instead of 0–4 for RMSSD only, whereas the 4-min window was necessary for LF and total power. Since there is a need for 1 min of baseline to obtain a steady signal prior the analysis window, we conclude that studies relying on RMSSD may shorten the windows to 3 min (= 1+2) in SU or seated position only and to 6 min (= 1+2 min SU plus 1+2 min ST) if there is an orthostatic test. Studies relying on time- and frequency-domain parameters need a minimum of 5 min (= 1+4) min SU or seated position only but require 10 min (= 1+4 min SU plus 1+4 min ST) for the orthostatic test. PMID:28848382

  3. Minimal Window Duration for Accurate HRV Recording in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bourdillon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV is non-invasive and commonly used for monitoring responses to training loads, fitness, or overreaching in athletes. Yet, the recording duration for a series of RR-intervals varies from 1 to 15 min in the literature. The aim of the present work was to assess the minimum record duration to obtain reliable HRV results. RR-intervals from 159 orthostatic tests (7 min supine, SU, followed by 6 min standing, ST were analyzed. Reference windows were 4 min in SU (min 3–7 and 4 min in ST (min 9–13. Those windows were subsequently divided and the analyses were repeated on eight different fractioned windows: the first min (0–1, the second min (1–2, the third min (2–3, the fourth min (3–4, the first 2 min (0–2, the last 2 min (2–4, the first 3 min (0–3, and the last 3 min (1–4. Correlation and Bland & Altman statistical analyses were systematically performed. The analysis window could be shortened to 0–2 instead of 0–4 for RMSSD only, whereas the 4-min window was necessary for LF and total power. Since there is a need for 1 min of baseline to obtain a steady signal prior the analysis window, we conclude that studies relying on RMSSD may shorten the windows to 3 min (= 1+2 in SU or seated position only and to 6 min (= 1+2 min SU plus 1+2 min ST if there is an orthostatic test. Studies relying on time- and frequency-domain parameters need a minimum of 5 min (= 1+4 min SU or seated position only but require 10 min (= 1+4 min SU plus 1+4 min ST for the orthostatic test.

  4. Duration of in vivo endotoxin tolerance in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, Susan J; Jacobs, Carrie C; Cook, Vanessa L; Gandy, Jeffery C; Hauptman, Joseph G; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2016-05-01

    Endotoxemia models are used to study mechanisms and treatments of early sepsis. Repeated endotoxin exposures induce periods of endotoxin tolerance, characterized by diminished proinflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and modulated production of proinflammatory cytokines. Repeated measure designs using equine endotoxemia models are rarely performed, despite the advantages associated with reduced variability, because the altered responsiveness would confound study results and because the duration of equine endotoxin tolerance is unknown. We determined the interval of endotoxin tolerance, in vivo, in horses based on physical, clinicopathologic, and proinflammatory gene expression responses to repeated endotoxin exposures. Six horses received 30 ng/kg LPS in saline infused over 30 min. Behavior pain scores, physical examination parameters, and blood for complete blood count and proinflammatory gene expression were obtained at predetermined intervals for 24h. Horses received a total of 3 endotoxin exposures. The first exposure was LPS 1, followed 7 days later by LPS 7 or 14-21 days later by LPS 14-21. Lipopolysaccharide exposures were allocated in a randomized, crossover design. Lipopolysaccharide produced clinical and clinicopathologic signs of endotoxemia and increased expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8, PHorses exhibited evidence of endotoxin tolerance following LPS 7 but not following LPS 14-21. Horses had significantly lower pain scores, heart rates, respiratory rates and duration of fever, after LPS 7 compared to LPS 1 and LPS 14-21, Phorses after LPS 7, P=0.05. Clinical parameters and TNFα gene expression were similar or slightly increased in horses following LPS 14-21 compared to measurements made in horses following LPS 1, suggesting that endotoxin tolerance had subsided. A minimum of 3 weeks between experiments is warranted if repeated measures designs are used to assess in vivo response to endotoxin in

  5. Time-to-code converter with selection of time intervals on duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atanasov, I.Kh.; Rusanov, I.R.; )

    2001-01-01

    Identification of elementary particles on the basis of time-of-flight represents the important approach of the preliminary selection procedure. Paper describes a time-to-code converter with preliminary selection of the measured time intervals as to duration. It consists of a time-to-amplitude converter, an analog-to-digital converter, a unit of selection of time intervals as to duration, a unit of total reset and CAMAC command decoder. The time-to-code converter enables to measure time intervals with 100 ns accuracy within 0-100 ns range. Output code capacity is of 10. Selection time constitutes 50 ns [ru

  6. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  7. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    Full Text Available Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6-1.1 s. We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias.

  8. TOTAL user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sally C.; Boerschlein, David P.

    1994-01-01

    Semi-Markov models can be used to analyze the reliability of virtually any fault-tolerant system. However, the process of delineating all of the states and transitions in the model of a complex system can be devastatingly tedious and error-prone. Even with tools such as the Abstract Semi-Markov Specification Interface to the SURE Tool (ASSIST), the user must describe a system by specifying the rules governing the behavior of the system in order to generate the model. With the Table Oriented Translator to the ASSIST Language (TOTAL), the user can specify the components of a typical system and their attributes in the form of a table. The conditions that lead to system failure are also listed in a tabular form. The user can also abstractly specify dependencies with causes and effects. The level of information required is appropriate for system designers with little or no background in the details of reliability calculations. A menu-driven interface guides the user through the system description process, and the program updates the tables as new information is entered. The TOTAL program automatically generates an ASSIST input description to match the system description.

  9. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  10. Total process surveillance: (TOPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.H.P.

    1992-01-01

    A Total Process Surveillance system is under development which can provide, in real-time, additional process information from a limited number of raw measurement signals. This is achieved by using a robust model based observer to generate estimates of the process' internal states. The observer utilises the analytical reduncancy among a diverse range of transducers and can thus accommodate off-normal conditions which lead to transducer loss or damage. The modular hierarchical structure of the system enables the maximum amount of information to be assimilated from the available instrument signals no matter how diverse. This structure also constitutes a data reduction path thus reducing operator cognitive overload from a large number of varying, and possibly contradictory, raw plant signals. (orig.)

  11. Total and EDF invest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, St.

    2008-01-01

    So as to prepare the future of their industrial sector,the Total company plans to invest (14 billion Euros in 2008) to increase its production capacities and strengthen in of other activities as the liquefied natural gas and the renewable energies; EDF plans to inject 35 billion Euros over three years to multiply the new projects of power plants (wind turbines, coal in Germany, gas in Great Britain and nuclear power in Flamanville). EDF wants to exploit its knowledge of leader to run more than ten E.P.R.(European pressurized water reactor) in the world before 2020, projects are in examination with China, Great Britain, South Africa and United States. (N.C.)

  12. Total quality at source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiandone, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Total Quality at Source philosophy is based on optimizing the effectiveness of people in achieving ZERO-DEFECT results. In this paper a philosophy of what, I have come to perceive, it takes to get people to perform to the very best of their abilities and thereby achieve the best results they can, is presented. In the examples I shall describe I have played an instrumental role since it has become my belief that any job can always be done better provided that the people doing it can themselves become convinced that they can do better. Clearly there are many ideas on how to do this. The philosophy that I am presenting in this paper is based on my own experience, where I have both participated and observed it being applied; its effectiveness may be judged by the results. (author)

  13. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Evaluation of different pre-slaughter light intensities and fasting duration in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Ramão

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different levels of light intensity (0, 5 or 20 lx and different pre-slaughter feed fasting duration (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hours on the parameters body weight loss, carcass yield, commercial cuts yield, water carcass retention, bacterial counts and breast meat pH. A number of 72 broiler chickens at 45 days of age (Cobb 500 strain was distributed in three chambers, in a total of 24 broilers per chamber. The results showed that feed fasting significantly influenced (p0.05. The presence of feed in the crop and gizzard did not depend on light intensity, but was affected by pre-slaughter feed fasting duration. Bacterial counts decreased with feed fasting duration (p<0.05.

  15. Duration of patients’ visits to the hospital emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaca Zeynal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Length of stay is an important indicator of quality of care in Emergency Departments (ED. This study explores the duration of patients’ visits to the ED for which they are treated and released (T&R. Methods Retrospective data analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted to investigate the duration of T&R ED visits. Duration for each visit was computed by taking the difference between admission and discharge times. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP State Emergency Department Databases (SEDD for 2008 were used in the analysis. Results The mean duration of T&R ED visit was 195.7 minutes. The average duration of ED visits increased from 8 a.m. until noon, then decreased until midnight at which we observed an approximately 70-minute spike in average duration. We found a substantial difference in mean duration of ED visits (over 90 minutes between Mondays and other weekdays during the transition time from the evening of the day before to the early morning hours. Black / African American patients had a 21.4-minute longer mean duration of visits compared to white patients. The mean duration of visits at teaching hospitals was substantially longer than at non-teaching hospitals (243.8 versus 175.6 minutes. Hospitals with large bed size were associated with longer duration of visits (222.2 minutes when compared to hospitals with small bed size (172.4 minutes or those with medium bed size (166.5 minutes. The risk-adjusted results show that mean duration of visits on Mondays are longer by about 4 and 9 percents when compared to mean duration of visits on non-Monday workdays and weekends, respectively. Conclusions The duration of T&R ED visits varied significantly by admission hour, day of the week, patient volume, patient characteristics, hospital characteristics and area characteristics.

  16. Association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka diabetes registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Few studies have so far investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients ≥20 years of age were divided into six groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 4.5 hours, 4.5-5.4 hours, 5.5-6.4 hours, 6.5-7.4 hours, 7.5-8.4 hours and more than 8.5 hours. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. RESULTS: Both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with albuminuria (≥30 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared with a sleep duration of 6.5-7.4 hours (P for quadratic trend <0.001. A U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking habits, former smoking habits, current drinking habits, regular exercise habits, total energy intake, total protein intake, hypnotic use and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the association remained substantially unchanged after additional adjustment for body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sleep duration has a U-shaped association with the UACR levels in type 2 diabetic patients, independent of potential confounders.

  17. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  18. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required

  19. Maternal plasma cholesterol and duration of pregnancy: A prospective cohort study in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Brietta M; Stewart, Christine P; Laugero, Kevin D; Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Vosti, Stephen A; Ashorn, Per; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-10-01

    Low plasma cholesterol may be associated with preterm birth; however, results are mixed and limited primarily to high-income countries. Our objective was to determine whether maternal plasma lipid concentrations are associated with pregnancy duration. We performed a nested cohort (n = 320) study of pregnant Ghanaian women enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations were analyzed in plasma at ≤20and 36 weeks gestation as continuous variables and also categorized into low, referent, or high (90th percentile). At ≤20 weeks, plasma lipid concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. At 36 weeks, total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were not associated with pregnancy duration. Higher HDL-C at 36 weeks was associated with a longer pregnancy duration (adjusted β-coefficient ± standard error: 0.05 ± 0.02 days mg -1 /dL, p = .02); pregnancy duration was 5.9 ± 2.0 (mean ± standard error) days shorter among women with low HDL-C compared with the referent group (10th-90th percentile) (p = .02) and 8.6 ± 2.6 days shorter when compared with the high HDL-C group (p = .003). Pregnancy duration was 4.9 ± 2.1 days longer among women with low low-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 36 weeks gestation when compared with the referent group (p = .051). Our data suggest that low HDL-C in the third trimester of pregnancy is associated with a shorter duration of pregnancy in this study population but do not support the hypothesis that low total cholesterol is associated with a shorter pregnancy duration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Self-reported sleep duration and daytime napping are associated with renal hyperfiltration in general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Miao; Su, Qing; Wen, Junping; Wei, Shichao; Yao, Jin; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Li, Liantao; Lin, Wei; Lin, Lixiang; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Chen, Gang

    2018-03-01

    Renal hyperfiltration (RHF) has emerged as a novel marker of early renal damage in various conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aberrant sleep duration and excessive daytime napping may affect the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, the association between sleep duration, daytime napping, and renal hyperfiltration was assessed. This study was conducted in three communities in China. A total of 16,119 community volunteers (5735 males and 10,384 females) aged 40-65 years without CKD were included for the study. Participants with short sleep duration (naps longer than 1.5 h per day had a higher risk of renal hyperfiltration compared with those without napping (OR 1.400, 95% CI 1.018-1.924). Further joint analysis indicated that participants with long sleep duration (≥10 h/day) had a more than twofold increased risk of RHF regardless of nap status compared with those who slept 8-9 h per day without daytime napping. The association between sleep duration or daytime napping and RHF could not be explained by the influence of sleep quality. Additional subgroup analysis showed long sleep duration (≥9 h/day) and long daytime napping (≥1.5 h) were associated with an increased risk of RHF among individuals with good sleep quality. Sleep duration less than 6 h/day or more than 10 h/day and long daytime napping tend to be associated with an increased risk of renal hyperfiltration in middle-aged general population, and this relationship was independent of diabetes, hypertension, obesity, or poor sleep quality.

  1. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: Singapore Chinese health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-06-01

    Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63 257 Chinese adults aged 45 to 74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. During 926 752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1059 from ischemic or nonspecified strokes). Compared with individuals with 7 hours per day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours per day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours per day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours per day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours per day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long durations of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or nonspecified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  3. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    An outline review notes recent work on total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as a means of preparing patients for grafts and particularly for bone-marrow transplantation. T.L.I. has proved immunosuppressive in rats, mice, dogs, monkeys and baboons; when given before bone-marrow transplantation, engraftment took place without, or with delayed rejection or graft-versus-host disease. Work with mice has indicated that the thymus needs to be included within the irradiation field, since screening of the thymus reduced skin-graft survival from 50 to 18 days, though irradiation of the thymus alone has proved ineffective. A more lasting tolerance has been observed when T.L.I. is followed by an injection of donor bone marrow. 50% of mice treated in this way accepted allogenic skin grafts for more than 100 days, the animals proving to be stable chimeras with 50% of their peripheral blood lymphocytes being of donor origin. Experiments of a similar nature with dogs and baboons were not so successful. (U.K.)

  4. The total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jason A; Shah, Keyur B; Quader, Mohammed A; Cooke, Richard H; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Rao, Kris K; Smallfield, Melissa C; Tchoukina, Inna; Tang, Daniel G

    2015-12-01

    The total artificial heart (TAH) is a form of mechanical circulatory support in which the patient's native ventricles and valves are explanted and replaced by a pneumatically powered artificial heart. Currently, the TAH is approved for use in end-stage biventricular heart failure as a bridge to heart transplantation. However, with an increasing global burden of cardiovascular disease and congestive heart failure, the number of patients with end-stage heart failure awaiting heart transplantation now far exceeds the number of available hearts. As a result, the use of mechanical circulatory support, including the TAH and left ventricular assist device (LVAD), is growing exponentially. The LVAD is already widely used as destination therapy, and destination therapy for the TAH is under investigation. While most patients requiring mechanical circulatory support are effectively treated with LVADs, there is a subset of patients with concurrent right ventricular failure or major structural barriers to LVAD placement in whom TAH may be more appropriate. The history, indications, surgical implantation, post device management, outcomes, complications, and future direction of the TAH are discussed in this review.

  5. Insomnia Patients With Objective Short Sleep Duration Have a Blunted Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia (CBT-I) when compared to individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Secondary analyses of a randomized, clinical trial with 60 adult participants (n = 31 women) from a single academic medical center. Outpatient treatment lasted 8 weeks, with a final follow-up conducted at 6 months. Mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, CBT-I treatment group assignment, and treatment provider examined sleep parameters gathered via actigraphy, sleep diaries, and an Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) across the treatment and follow-up period. Six months post-CBT-I treatment, individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h fared significantly better on clinical improvement milestones than did those with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration had significantly higher insomnia remission (ISQ 80%; χ2[1, N = 60] = 21, p 50% decline in MWASO (χ2[1, N = 60] = 60, p insomnia and short sleep duration. Additionally, those with insomnia and normal sleep duration had more success decreasing their total wake time (TWT) at the 6-month follow-up compared to those with insomnia and short sleep duration (χ2[2, N = 60] = 44.1, p insomnia remission, with the area under the curve = 0.986. Findings suggest that individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Using an actigraphy TST cutoff of 6 hours to classify sleep duration groups was highly accurate and provided good discriminant value for determining insomnia remission. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  7. EDF at a glance 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document presents the organization and key data of Electricite de France (EdF) group for 2003: business, priorities, values, different branches of the group (continental Europe, western Europe, Mediterranean branch, Africa, Asia-Pacific, Americas, Dalkia energy services, development branch), management, board of directors, market opening in France, human resource strategy, R and D, customers (residential, commercial, business and industrial, local authorities), industrial tool (fossil-fired generation, network management, renewable energy sources), reliability, financial flexibility, sustainable development (role of renewables in generation, CO 2 emissions, radiation protection, nuclear waste, environment, handling fuel poverty, landscape conservation), contacts and affiliates outside France. (J.S.)

  8. INTERNET ADVERTISING AT A GLANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai-based Internet analysis and consulting company iResearch released its China Advertising Online Research Report 2005 in March. The report indicates that the market value of online advertising in China reached 3.13 billion yuan in 2005, up 77.1 percent over the previous year. The market observer predicts a 48 percent growth to 4.6 billion yuan for 2006.

  9. A Map Worth Glancing At

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagh, Jesper; Freudendal-Pedersen, Malene

    2014-01-01

    it seemed like she had been right, and more and more in urban planning and design today, the market forces seem at least as important as the human condition. But why is it meant to be unrealistic to propose decent housing for all or an urbanism that puts the needs of people above those of profit? And what...... is inconceivable about an urbanism that is no longer based around private property, or that emphasises the pleasures and joys of living? In this e-mail conversation the British geographer David Pinder makes a defence for utopian thinking as a means to imagine alternatives that seem impossible today but may...

  10. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  11. CATHETER DURATION AND THE RISK OF SEPSIS IN PREMATURE BABIES WITH UMBILICAL VEIN CATHETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartojo Hartojo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical catheters are frequently required in the management of severely ill premature babies. The risk of complications may increase with duration of UVC use. Objective: To determine whether the risk of central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLA-BSIs and sepsis remained constant over the duration of umbilical vein catheters (UVCs in high-risk premature neonates. Methods:retrospective analysis. The data were collected from the medical record of high risk premature neonates who had a UVC placed in neonatal care unit of Husada Utama Hospital between April 1st 2008 to April 30th 2011 with purposive sampling. Catheter duration was observed before and after 14 days on placement. Blood and UVC culture was performed to establish the risk of CLA-BSIs and sepsis. Chi-square and logistic regression analysis were performed in the laboratorium data. Result: A total 44 high risk premature babies with UVCs were enrolled (sepsis group: n = 23 and non sepsis group: n = 21. Baseline demographics were similar between the groups. 15 babies in sepsis group have UVCs duration > 14 days, and 8 babies have UVCs 14 days show blood culture performance in 11 babies with positive evidence, UVCs culture performance is negative in 18 babies (p = 0.456. Burkholderia cepacia and Klebsiella pneumonia mostly appeared in blood culture performance. 25% of UVC culture performance shows Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Conclusions: The catheter duration have no significant difference in risk of sepsis in premature babies with Umbilical Vein Catheters.

  12. Sleep Duration and Patterns in Chinese Older Adults: a Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Wang, Shi-Bin; Rao, Wen-Wang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Zhang, Juan; Kou, Changgui; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the mean sleep duration and patterns in Chinese older adult population. A literature search was systematically conducted covering major English (PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO) and Chinese (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang and SinoMed) databases. Data in studies with the mean and standard deviation of sleep duration and/or the proportion of short and long sleep durations in Chinese older adults were extracted and pooled using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to gender, region, area, survey time and sample size. A total of 36 studies with 150,616 subjects were included for analyses. The pooled mean sleep duration of 21 studies with available data was 6.82 hours/day (95% CI: 6.59-7.05 hours/day). The estimated proportions of sleep duration 8 hours/day) and 17.6% (95% CI: 12.4%-22.9%) (>9 hours/day). Given the adverse effects of unhealthy sleep patterns, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in this population in China.

  13. [Distribution of the duration of nonoccupational sick leave by medical diagnosis (Catalonia, Spain, 2006-2008)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delclós, Jordi; Gimeno, David; Torá, Isabel; Martínez, José Miguel; Manzanera, Rafael; Jardí, Josefina; Alberti, Constança; G Benavides, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple and practical tool that allows the usual distribution of the duration of non-occupational sick leave to be determined by medical diagnosis. A total of 2,646,352 episodes of medically certified sick leave, registered by the Catalan Institute of Medical Evaluations for the period 2006-2008, were followed to closure and were entered into a spreadsheet. Given its asymmetric distribution, the median duration of sick leave was 9 days. Musculoskeletal disorders were the most frequent diagnostic group (22.5%), while neoplasms had the longest median duration (56 days). The most common specific diagnoses were diarrhea-gastroenteritis (8.2%; median: 3 days) and acute rhinopharyngitis (5.2%; median: 4 days). The distribution of the duration of sick leave in a population varies by diagnosis and is asymmetric, with most episodes being much shorter than the mean duration. This finding is important for better clinical and administrative management of sick leave episodes. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  15. Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring for Long Duration Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Atmosphere Resource Recovery & Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) for Long Duration Exploration Project project is maturing Atmosphere Revitalization...

  16. Observed and Unobserved Heterogeneity in the Duration Dependency Parameter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    2000-01-01

    We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR......We present a duration model, which allows for non-homogenous duration dependence with respect to observed and unobserved variables. The model is examined in a simulation study, and it is estimated on unemployment spells of a sample of Danish workers. Udgivelsesdato: MAR...

  17. Incapacidad laboral total

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Díaz Tabares

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio longitudinal, descriptivo y retrospectivo con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento de la incapacidad permanente para el trabajo en el municipio "San Cristóbal" durante el decenio 1982-1991, y se aplicó el método de encuesta por el que se recogieron datos que fueron extraídos del modelo oficial de peritaje médico laboral y de la entrevista con el peritado. Los resultados fueron plasmados en tablas de contingencias donde se relacionan las variables por cada año estudiado, y se aplicó la prueba estadística de chi cuadrado. El número de individuos dictaminados con incapacidad laboral total fue de 693; predominó en reportes el año 1988 con 114 casos y muy discretamente el sexo femenino sobre el masculino, el grupo etáreo de 45 a 54 años con 360 casos y la artrosis como entidad valorada por ortopedia, con análisis estadísticos significativos. No resultó estadísticamente significativo, el predominio de la hipertensión arterial sistémica entre las entidades valoradas por la especialidad de medicina interna como causas de incapacidad laboral. Fue muy significativa la variación del número de dictaminados por la comisión en cada uno de los años estudiados y que el porcentaje de ellos que se encontraban realizando trabajos que demandan esfuerzo físico de moderado a intenso al momento de aplicar la encuesta, ascendió al 64,9.A longitudinal, descriptive and retrospective study was conducted in order to know the behavior of permanent labor disability at the municipality of San Cristóbal during 1982-1991. A survey was done to collect data taken from the official model of medical inspections and from the interview with the disabled worker. The results were shown in contingency tables where the variables are related by every year studied. The chi square statistical test was applied. The number of individuals with labor disability was 693. As for reports, the year 1988 predominated with 114. There was a discreet

  18. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  19. The impact of attention on judgments of frequency and duration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Winkler

    Full Text Available Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures, and (b extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm. Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested.

  20. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  1. A stepwise algorithm using an at-a-glance first-line test for the non-invasive diagnosis of advanced liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; de Ledinghen, Victor; Leroy, Vincent; Anty, Rodolphe; Francque, Sven; Salmon, Dominique; Lannes, Adrien; Bertrais, Sandrine; Oberti, Frederic; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Calès, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are common, and are therefore mainly managed by non-hepatologists. These physicians lack access to the best non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis, and consequently cannot accurately determine the disease severity. Referral to a hepatologist is then needed. We aimed to implement an algorithm, comprising a new first-line test usable by all physicians, for the detection of advanced liver fibrosis in all CLD patients. Diagnostic study: 3754 CLD patients with liver biopsy were 2:1 randomized into derivation and validation sets. Prognostic study: longitudinal follow-up of 1275 CLD patients with baseline fibrosis tests. Diagnostic study: the easy liver fibrosis test (eLIFT), an "at-a-glance" sum of points attributed to age, gender, gamma-glutamyl transferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), platelets and prothrombin time, was developed for the diagnosis of advanced fibrosis. In the validation set, eLIFT and fibrosis-4 (FIB4) had the same sensitivity (78.0% vs. 76.6%, p=0.470) but eLIFT gave fewer false positive results, especially in patients ≥60years old (53.8% vs. 82.0%, ptest. FibroMeter with vibration controlled transient elastography (VCTE) was the most accurate among the eight fibrosis tests evaluated. The sensitivity of the eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm (first-line eLIFT, second-line FibroMeter VCTE ) was 76.1% for advanced fibrosis and 92.1% for cirrhosis. Prognostic study: patients diagnosed as having "no/mild fibrosis" by the algorithm had excellent liver-related prognosis with thus no need for referral to a hepatologist. The eLIFT-FM VCTE algorithm extends the detection of advanced liver fibrosis to all CLD patients and reduces unnecessary referrals of patients without significant CLD to hepatologists. Blood fibrosis tests and transient elastography accurately diagnose advanced liver fibrosis in the large population of patients having chronic liver disease, but these non-invasive tests are only currently available in specialized

  2. Effect of early release of tourniquet in total knee arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, K.; Raza, H.; Umer, M.; Hafiz, K.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether tourniquet release intraoperatively is better than postoperative release in reducing overall blood loss, duration of surgery, duration of tourniquet, length of hospital stay, wound related complications and transfusion requirement. Study Design: Comparative study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Surgery, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2004 to June 2007. Methodology: One hundred and thirty patient files were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups. Group-A consisted of 65 patients with early deflation of tourniquet and group-B comprised of 65 patients with the release of tourniquet after applying compressive dressing. Total blood loss (determined by Gross method) and other study variables were noted as per objective and computed. Results: There were 22 males and 108 females with comparable BMI. All had undergone posterior stabilized cemented total knee replacement. Calculated blood loss was 1.208 L and 1.108 L in group-A and B respectively (p = 0.27). Significant increase in duration of surgery was noted in group-A patients. Four patients in group-B showed complication related to wound with 3 being minor and 1 requiring additional operation room visit. Mean length of hospital stay was 9 days. Transfusion frequency was higher in group-B despite comparable postoperative haemoglobin values. Conclusion: Intraoperative tourniquet release does not reduce overall blood loss with no effect in conserving blood after total knee replacement, however, this group had relatively shorter hospital stay. (author)

  3. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such period...

  4. How Changes in Financial Incentives Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how changes in the two key parameters of unemployment insurance - the benefit replacement rate (RR) and the potential duration of benefits (PBD) - affect the duration of unemployment.In 1989, the Austrian government made unemployment insurance more generous by changing,

  5. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the time...

  6. Determinants of sick-leave duration : A tool for managers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, P.A.; Krol, B.; Groothoff, J.W.

    AIMS: To provide managers with tools to manage episodes of sick-leave of their employees, the influence of factors such as age, gender, duration of tenure, working full-time or part-time, cause and history of sick-leave, salary and education on sick-leave duration was studied. METHOD: In a

  7. Surface sterilization and duration of seed storage influenced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of factorial combinations of four storage duration (in days after seed extraction) and surface sterilization with three dilution levels of sodium hypochlorite on seedling emergence and seedling quality of African breadfruit were studied. Storage duration significantly influenced days to seedling emergence, ...

  8. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as is...

  9. Breastfeeding Duration Predicts Greater Maternal Sensitivity over the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.; Papp, Lauren M.

    2018-01-01

    The current study represents the first longitudinal investigation of the potential effects of breastfeeding duration on maternal sensitivity over the following decade. This study also examined whether infant attachment security at 24 months would mediate longitudinal relations between breastfeeding duration and changes in maternal sensitivity over…

  10. P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas B; Kühl, Jørgen T; Pietersen, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Results on the association between P-wave duration and the risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) are conflicting. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to obtain a detailed description of the relationship between P-wave duration and the risk of AF. METHODS: Using computerized analysis o...

  11. Instrumental variable estimation of treatment effects for duration outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this article we propose and implement an instrumental variable estimation procedure to obtain treatment effects on duration outcomes. The method can handle the typical complications that arise with duration data of time-varying treatment and censoring. The treatment effect we

  12. The effects of odor and body posture on perceived duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, E.; Hoeksma, M.R.; Smeets, M.A.M.; Semin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports an examination of the internal clock model, according to which subjective time duration is influenced by attention and arousal state. In a time production task, we examine the hypothesis that an arousing odor and an upright body posture affect perceived duration. The experimental

  13. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension does... drilling is continued with reasonable diligence until the well is completed to production or abandoned...

  14. Breastfeeding duration and associated factors between 1960 and 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Soares de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To describe a historical series on the median duration of breastfeeding in a population of mothers whose children were born from the 1960s onwards, identifying factors associated with the interruption of breastfeeding in each decade. Methods: Data were analyzed from the Pró-Saúde Study, a longitudinal epidemiological investigation started in 1999 among technical and administrative employees of a university in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Breastfeeding duration was collected in two study phases: Phase 1 (1999, and phase 4 (2011-2012. Of these, those who had at least one child and reported the duration of breastfeeding for the first child were selected (n = 1539. To analyze the duration of breastfeeding, survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the effect of covariates on the duration of breastfeeding was estimated by Cox regression model. Results: It was found that the median duration of breastfeeding was higher in the 1990s and 2000s and lower in the 1970s, compared to the 1960s. In addition, there was an association between higher income and maternal age with breastfeeding interruption, which was focused in the 1970s. Conclusion: There was shorter duration of breastfeeding in the 1970s compared to the 1960s. Increased duration and prevalence of breastfeeding from the 1970s onwards coincided with the national trend and the promotion of this practice since 1980.

  15. Syllable Durations of Preword and Early Word Vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Michael P.; Saxman, John H.

    1990-01-01

    The continuity in development of syllable duration patterns was examined in seven young children as they progressed from preword to multiword periods of vocalization development. Results revealed no systematic increase or decrease in the duration of bisyllables produced by the children as a group, whereas lengthening of final syllables was…

  16. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  17. Grammatical Aspect in uences Event Duration Estimations: Evidence from Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flecken, M.E.P.; Gerwien, J.; Knauff, M.; Pauen, M.; Sebanz, N.; Wachsmuth, I.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of grammatical aspect marking in Dutch sentences, on speakers’ estimations of the duration of highly familiar, everyday events. We first established the ‘inherent’ or natural duration of different events (Exp. 1). This was then used for the manipulation of aspect

  18. 40 CFR 40.125-1 - Limitations on duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on duration. 40.125-1 Section 40.125-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS § 40.125-1 Limitations on duration. (a) [Reserved] (b) No...

  19. Association Between Sleep Duration and Health Outcome in Elderly Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: A U-shaped relationship was observed between the self-reported sleep duration with risk prevalence and health outcome in the elderly population, although not all results showed a significant difference. A progressively higher change was observed during short and long sleep durations in our study.

  20. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph...

  1. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee, or...

  2. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision § 702.402 Employer's duty to furnish; duration. It is the duty of the employer to furnish appropriate medical care (as defined in § 702.401(a)) for the employee's injury, and for such... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration. 702.402...

  3. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions of...

  4. Central aortic systolic blood pressure can predict prolonged QTc duration better than brachial artery systolic blood pressure in rural community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Tang, Songtao; Chen, Ji-Yan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jie; Cai, An-Ping; Feng, Yingqing

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prolonged electrocardiogram QTc duration was independent risk factor for both increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but there was no dating about the relationship between central aortic systolic blood pressure (CASP) and QTc duration. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between CASP and QTc duration, and assess whether CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP. A total of 500 patients were enrolled in this study, central and brachial aortic blood pressure and electrocardiogram QTc duration were measured. Pearson correlation was assessed for determining the associations of QTc duration with clinical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor of prolonged QTc duration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the utility of blood pressure for prolonged QTc duration. We found QTc durations were significantly positive with CASP (r = 0.308, p AUC: 0.771 vs. 0.646, p < 0.001) BSBP. Our results suggested that the non-invasive CASP is independently correlated with QTc duration, and CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP.

  5. Post-Test Inspection of Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long Duration Test Hardware: Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Shastry, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    A Long Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 as a part of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) service life validation approach. Testing was voluntarily terminated in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation will present the post-test inspection results to date for the thrusters ion optics.

  6. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lallukka Tea; Sares-Jäske Laura; Kronholm Erkki; Sääksjärvi Katri; Lundqvist Annamari; Partonen Timo; Rahkonen Ossi; Knekt Paul

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. METHODS: We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000-2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30-79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-rel...

  7. Smoking and immunomodulators do not influence the response or duration of response to infliximab in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fefferman, David S; Lodhavia, Parag J; Alsahli, Mazen; Falchuk, Kenneth R; Peppercorn, Mark A; Shah, Samir A; Farrell, Richard J

    2004-07-01

    Clinical predictors for infliximab response are still unknown. Identifying predictors of response to infliximab in Crohn's disease may improve our selection of patients. Two hundred patients with luminal (61%) or fistulous (39%) Crohn's disease and at least 6 months of follow-up following a total of 416 infliximab infusions were evaluated. Clinical response and duration of response were the primary endpoints. Patients with fistulous disease had a higher response rate (83% versus 70%, P = 0.044) and a significantly longer duration of response compared with patients with luminal disease (17.4 versus 10.1 wks, P = 0.017). For luminal disease, nonsmokers and smokers had similar response rates (74% versus 64%, P = 0.5) and similar durations of response (9.4 wks versus 8.4 wks P = 0.6) while patients taking concurrent immunomodulators had similar response rates compared with those not taking immunomodulators (74% versus 71%, P = 0.9) and similar durations of response (10.4 wks versus 10.6 wks, P = 0.9). For fistulous disease, response rates (89% versus 83% P = 0.9) and duration of response (16.9 wks versus 10.1 wks, P = 0.10) were similar between nonsmokers and smokers and concurrent immunomodulators had no effect on response (89% versus 86%, P = 0.9) or duration of response (19.8 wks versus 15.4 wks, P = 0.46). Multivariable analysis confirmed that neither smoking, corticosteroids, immunomodulator therapy, gender, age, age of disease onset, disease duration, nor luminal disease location significantly influenced response or duration of response. Patients with fistulous disease had a higher response rate and a significantly longer duration of response compared with patients with luminal disease. However, among patients with luminal or fistulous disease, neither smoking nor immunomodulators had any effect on response or duration of response.

  8. Encoding, storage and judgment of experienced frequency and duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilmann Betsch

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines conditions that do or do not lead to accurate judgments of frequency (JOF and judgments of duration (JOD. In three experiments, duration and frequency of visually presented stimuli are varied orthogonally in a within-subjects design. Experiment 1 reveals an asymmetric judgment pattern. JOFs reflected actual presentation frequency quite accurately and were unbiased by exposure duration. Conversely, JODs were almost insensitive to actual exposure duration and were systematically biased by presentation frequency. We show, however, that a tendency towards a symmetric judgment pattern can be obtained by manipulating encoding conditions. Sustaining attention during encoding (Experiment 2 or enhancing richness of the encoded stimuli (Experiment 3 increases judgment sensitivity in JOD and yields biases in both directions (JOF biased by exposure duration, JOD biased by presentation frequency. The implications of these findings for underlying memory mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Type III Radio Burst Duration and SEP Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration (>15 min), low-frequency (25 MeV. The 1-MHz duration of the type III burst (28 rein) is near the median value of type III durations found for gradual SEP events and ground level enhancement (GLE) events. Yet, there was no sign of SEP events. On the other hand, two other type III bursts from the same active region had similar duration but accompanied by WAVES type 11 bursts; these bursts were also accompanied by SEP events detected by SOHO/ERNE. This study suggests that the type III burst duration may not be a good indicator of an SEP event, consistent with the statistical study of Cliver and Ling (2009, ApJ ).

  10. Model-checking dense-time Duration Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fränzle, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Since the seminal work of Zhou Chaochen, M. R. Hansen, and P. Sestoft on decidability of dense-time Duration Calculus [Zhou, Hansen, Sestoft, 1993] it is well-known that decidable fragments of Duration Calculus can only be obtained through withdrawal of much of the interesting vocabulary...... of this logic. While this was formerly taken as an indication that key-press verification of implementations with respect to elaborate Duration Calculus specifications were also impossible, we show that the model property is well decidable for realistic designs which feature natural constraints...... suitably sparser model classes we obtain model-checking procedures for rich subsets of Duration Calculus. Together with undecidability results also obtained, this sheds light upon the exact borderline between decidability and undecidability of Duration Calculi and related logics....

  11. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.......06, 0.95; P DNA copy number within twin pairs. Thus every 1-minute decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated...

  12. Opportunistic maintenance considering non-homogenous opportunity arrivals and stochastic opportunity durations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong Ba, H.; Cholette, M.E.; Borghesani, P.; Zhou, Y.; Ma, L.

    2017-01-01

    Many systems and manufacturing processes undergo intermittent operation due to external factors (e.g. weather, low market prices), offering opportunities to conduct maintenance with reduced production losses. Making use of appropriate opportunities can thus lead to significant reduction in the total cost of maintenance and improvement in productivity. In this paper, an opportunistic maintenance (OM) model is developed considering two critical properties of real world opportunities: (i) non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and (ii) stochastic opportunity duration. The model enables exploiting downtime cost savings from “partial” opportunities (stops shorter than the required maintenance time) thus extending the potential benefit of OM. The criteria for accepting maintenance opportunities are found by minimizing the single-cycle total cost. A closed form expression of the single-cycle total cost is derived for a given PM/OM policy and then a Genetic Algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. Numerical results are presented to assess the benefit of opportunistic maintenance and the marginal benefit of considering partial opportunities. Results indicate that significant savings can be achieved by considering OM. Moreover, it is shown that the novel consideration of partial opportunities significantly increase the benefit of OM. - Highlights: • Opportunistic and time-based preventive maintenance jointly optimized. • Non-homogeneous opportunity arrivals and stochastic durations considered. • “Partial” opportunities considered for the first time. • Opportunity duration thresholds used as a decision criterion. • Numerical study conducted to evaluate benefit of optimized policy.

  13. The periodicity of sleep duration – an infradian rhythm in spontaneous living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong SN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Shi Ngar Wong, Mark Halaki, Chin Moi ChowDiscipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: The sleep–wake cycle is a process not only dictated by homeostatic and circadian factors but also by social and environmental influences. Thus, the total sleep time partly reflects sleep need, which is integral to the dynamics of sleep loss recovery. This study explored the nature of the observed oscillations in total sleep time in healthy adults under spontaneous living conditions. Actigraph-measured sleep data for 13 healthy young male adults were collected over 14 consecutive days and analyzed for habitual sleep duration. The total sleep time periodicity was modeled using the cosinor method for each individual across the 14 days. The findings confirm the existence of periodicity in habitual sleep duration as there were clear periodic patterns in the majority of the participants. Although exclusive to each individual, the observed oscillations may be a resultant response of homeostatic sleep need, circadian timing, and/or social and environmental influences. These findings instigate further indepth studies into the periodicity of sleep duration in healthy individuals to provide a better understanding of sleep need in short versus long sleepers, in predicting work performance, and reducing sleepiness-related accidents following shift work, and how this periodicity may impact sleep treatment outcome in clinical populations.Keywords: sleep regulation, homeostasis, habitual sleep, spontaneous living, healthy males

  14. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  15. Changes in duration of dry and wet spells associated with air temperatures in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hengchun

    2018-03-01

    This study uses daily precipitation records from 517 Russian stations (1966-2010) to examine the relationships between continuous dry and wet day duration and surface air temperature for all four seasons. The study found that both mean and extreme durations of dry periods increase with air temperature at about 7.0% (0.24 day/°C) and 7.7% (0.86 day/°C) respectively, while those of wet periods decrease at about 1.3% (-0.02 day/°C) and 2.2% (-0.10 day/°C) respectively averaged over the entire study region during summer. An increase in the duration of dry periods with higher air temperature is also found in other seasons at locations with a mean seasonal air temperature of about -5 °C or higher. Opposite relationships of shorter durations of dry periods and longer wet periods associated with higher air temperature are observed over the northern part of the study region in winter. The changes in durations of both dry and wet periods have significant correlations with the changes in total dry and wet days but are about 2.5 times higher for dry periods and 0.5 times lower for wet periods. The study also found that locations with longer durations of dry periods experience faster rates of increase in air temperature, suggesting the likelihood of exacerbating drought severity in drier and/or warmer locations for all seasons.

  16. Prevalence of Healthy Sleep Duration among Adults--United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Cunningham, Timothy J; Lu, Hua; Croft, Janet B

    2016-02-19

    To promote optimal health and well-being, adults aged 18-60 years are recommended to sleep at least 7 hours each night (1). Sleeping disease, stroke, frequent mental distress, and all-cause mortality (2-4). Insufficient sleep impairs cognitive performance, which can increase the likelihood of motor vehicle and other transportation accidents, industrial accidents, medical errors, and loss of work productivity that could affect the wider community (5). CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to determine the prevalence of a healthy sleep duration (≥ 7 hours) among 444,306 adult respondents in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A total of 65.2% of respondents reported a healthy sleep duration; the age-adjusted prevalence of healthy sleep was lower among non-Hispanic blacks, American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders, and multiracial respondents, compared with non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics, and Asians. State-based estimates of healthy sleep duration prevalence ranged from 56.1% in Hawaii to 71.6% in South Dakota. Geographic clustering of the lowest prevalence of healthy sleep duration was observed in the southeastern United States and in states along the Appalachian Mountains, and the highest prevalence was observed in the Great Plains states. More than one third of U.S. respondents reported typically sleeping sleep health; worksite shift policies that ensure healthy sleep duration for shift workers, particularly medical professionals, emergency response personnel, and transportation industry personnel; and opportunities for health care providers to discuss the importance of healthy sleep duration with patients and address reasons for poor sleep health.

  17. Manifestation of arsenicosis patients and factors determining the duration of arsenic symptoms in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.K.; Khan, M.M.H.; Alam, M.A.; Chowdhury, A.K.; Delwar Hossain, M.; Feroze Ahmed, M.; Kobayashi, Kota; Sakauchi, Fumio; Mori, Mitsuru

    2005-01-01

    This study analyzed a total of 1482 arsenicosis patients living in 6 of 496 upzilas (sub-districts) of Bangladesh, who were identified through household screening and then confirmed by a trained medical team headed by medical officer. Melanosis was common (97%) among them but about two-thirds (68.7%) of the patients were suffering from keratosis. Average age was 36 years and average duration of arsenic symptoms was 3 (median) years. About 50% of the patients had been drinking tubewell water more than 24 years. Melanosis was significantly associated with younger patients (P = 0.031), shallower tubewell (P = 0.005), and complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001). Keratosis was also significantly associated with older age (P 0.022), shallower tubewell (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P < 0.001), bronchitis (P < 0.001), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), and wasting (P < 0.001). Duration of arsenic symptoms was significantly associated with older age (P < 0.001), male (P = 0.002), married (P < 0.001), smoking (P 0.002), longer duration of consuming tubewell water (P < 0.001), complication of conjunctivitis (P = 0.002), loss of appetite (P < 0.001), wasting (P 0.006), and social problem faced having arsenicosis (P = 0.040). Multivariate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) indicated that keratosis (OR 2.00; 95% CI: 1.56-2.56) was significantly associated with longer duration of arsenic symptoms; loss of appetite (OR = 1.40; 95% CI: 1.12-1.74) was a significant complication for longer duration. Similarly smoking (OR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.06-1.68) was positively associated with longer duration of arsenic symptom. These findings will help the policy makers of Bangladesh to understand about the factors that may affect the severity condition of the patients through prolongation of arsenic symptoms

  18. Eating behavior by sleep duration in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Jung, Molly; Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Arens, Raanan; Ramos, Alberto; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Van Horn, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (≤6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (≥9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ≥30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02060344. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Duration of Disease on Gait Parameters in Parkinson’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygün Özşahin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posture and gait disturbances are major components which cause functional disability in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Three dimensional gait and motion analysis systems provide quantitative data of gait. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to correlate between duration of disease and gait parameters of Parkinson patients during the on-phase. METHODS: We investigated temporospatial and kinematics variables of gait in 23 subjects with PD as measured in the on-phase of their medication cycle using motion analysis. We evaluated the correlation between all gait parameters and Gait and Balance Scale (GABS, unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS total-motor scores, Hoehn&Yahr (H&Y stages and duration of the disease. RESULTS: We found positive correlation between cadance and duration of disease. Patients had negative correlation between stride time and duration of disease. And also there was positive correlation between UPDRS total score and duration of disease. CONCLUSION: Increasing of cadance and decreasing of stride time exhibited by PD subjects is a compensatory mechanism for the difficulty in regulating stride lenght. It was reported that stride lenght control mediate by basal ganglia. Scaling of lower limb amplitude during locomotion can be controlled by higher levels of the Central Nervous System. Patients tend to increase pelvic rotation to keep their center of mass stabilised because of shortness of stride lenght. We thought that reduction pelvic and hip ROMs in coronal plane are impaired muscles of leg in the swing phase. These findings possibly indicate that shortness of stride lenght with the progression of disease is related to cortical centers. Three dimentional analysis systems provide detailed gait examination in PD patients to assess of progression and efficacy for therapies. Also, this method will guide us to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of PD

  20. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012-2013 participants aged 60-83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34 and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42. This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a "count" based, device specific method.

  1. Zigzag and Helical AlN Layer Prepared by Glancing Angle Deposition and Its Application as a Buffer Layer in a GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chien Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates an aluminum nitride (AlN nanorod structure sputtered by glancing angle deposition (GLAD and its application as a buffer layer for GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs that are fabricated on sapphire substrates. The ray tracing method is adopted with a three-dimensional model in TracePro software. Simulation results indicate that the zigzag AlN nanorod structure is an optimal buffer layer in a GaN-based LED. Furthermore, the light output power of a GaN-based LED with a zigzag AlN nanorod structure improves to as much as 28.6% at a forward current of 20 mA over that of the GaN-based LED with a normal AlN buffer layer.

  2. Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics Pre and Post Short and Long-Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Noam; Barr, Yael; Lee, Sang H.; Mason,Sara; Bagci, Ahmet M.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are based on analyses of data from 17 crewmembers. The initial analysis compares pre to post-flight changes in total cerebral blood flow (CBF) and craniospinal CSF flow volume. Total CBF is obtained by summation of the mean flow rates through the 4 blood vessels supplying the brain (right and left internal carotid and vertebral arteries). Volumetric flow rates were obtained using an automated lumen segmentation technique shown to have 3-4-fold improved reproducibility and accuracy over manual lumen segmentation (6). Two cohorts, 5 short-duration and 8 long-duration crewmembers, who were scanned within 3 to 8 days post landing were included (4 short-duration crewmembers with MRI scans occurring beyond 10 days post flight were excluded). The VIIP Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) classification is being used initially as a measure for VIIP syndrome severity. Median CPG scores of the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 2. Mean preflight total CBF for the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 863+/-144 and 747+/-119 mL/min, respectively. Percentage CBF changes for all short duration crewmembers were 11% or lower, within the range of normal physiological fluctuations in healthy individuals. In contrast, in 4 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers, the change in CBF exceeded the range of normal physiological fluctuation. In 3 of the 4 subjects an increase in CBF was measured. Large pre to post-flight changes in the craniospinal CSF flow volume were found in 6 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers. Box-Whisker plots of the CPG and the percent CBF and CSF flow changes for the two cohorts are shown in Figure 4. Examples of CSF flow waveforms for a short and two long-duration (CPG 0 and 3) are shown in Figure 5. Changes in CBF and CSF flow dynamics larger than normal physiological fluctuations were observed in the long-duration crewmembers. Changes in CSF flow were more pronounced than changes in CBF. Decreased CSF flow dynamics were observed

  3. Restoring normoglycaemia by use of a very low calorie diet in long- and short-duration Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, S; Taylor, R

    2015-09-01

    To establish whether an 8-week very-low-calorie diet could improve glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes of long duration. A total of 29 people with Type 2 diabetes [short-duration group (diabetes duration diabetes duration > 8 years), n = 14] completed an 8-week very-low-calorie diet, with assessments of fasting anthropometry, blood tests and blood pressure at baseline and weeks 1, 4 and 8 of the diet. Similar weight loss was achieved in the short- and long-duration groups (14.8 ± 0.8% and 14.4 ± 0.7% respectively; P = 0.662). The glucose response to acute calorie restriction was heterogeneous in the long-duration group with some responding similarly to those in the short-duration group, some responding, but only slowly, and others not responding at all. Overall, HbA1c concentration in the short- vs. long-duration groups fell to 44 ± 2 vs. 64 ± 6 mmol/l (6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 8.0 ± 0.5%; P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose levels decreased to 5.8 ± 0.2 vs. 8.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l (P = 0.024) respectively. A total of 87% of the short-duration group and 50% of the long-duration group achieved non-diabetic fasting plasma glucose levels at week 8. Clinically significant improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile were seen regardless of diabetes duration. In people with Type 2 diabetes of > 8 years' duration, a therapeutic trial of a very-low-calorie diet may be undertaken with a 50% chance of achieving non-diabetic fasting glucose levels off all antidiabetic therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  4. Association between sleep duration and blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciência, Inês; Barros, Henrique; Araújo, Joana; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-08-01

    In adults, sleep has an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, in young adolescents, the effect is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) in subjects of 13 years of age. We evaluated 1771 adolescents as part of a population-based cohort (Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers). Sleep duration was estimated based on the difference between self-reported usual bedtimes and wake-up times, and adolescents were classified into three categories: 8.5 h (reference class), >8.5 h and sleep duration, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed by fitting binary logistic regression models with adjustments for caffeine intake and depressive symptoms in females and for caffeine intake and sports activities in males. The mean (s.d.) sleep duration was 9.0 (0.80) h per day. The prevalence of high BP was 32.5%, higher in males (35.3%) than in females (30.1%, P=0.019). After adjustment, in females, a positive association was found between sleep duration and high BP (>8.5 and sleep duration and BP. Sleep duration was positively associated with BP in both sexes, although after adjustment for potential confounders, this association was significant only for female adolescents.

  5. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  6. Duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to ophthalmothology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Rustamova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted the comparison of the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement owing to the different groups of eye disease in work. The difference between the duration of coming life of country population and the patient’ age were used as the gauge of life duration associated with disablement at the moment of the primary recognition by an invalid. It was determined that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement changed and shook in the groups from 11,31 to 36,37 years for men and from 17,58 to 42,37 years for women subject to the reason of disablement. It is considered that the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement is integral criterion for an estimation of the medico-social burden of disease. It is differed 3 degrees of heaviness of the medico-social burden. The moderate heaviness of the medico-social burden (the middle duration of coming lif associated with disablement less than 20 years is characteristic for diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and uveitis and the high degree of heaviness (the middle duration of coming life associated with disablement more than 30 years for disease of eyeball, visual nerve, eye traumas, myopia and anophthalmia.

  7. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  8. Partnership duration, concurrency, and HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry; Isaac, Alan

    2017-07-01

    A widely accepted explanation for the exceptionally high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is the practice of long-term overlapping heterosexual partnering. This article shows that long-duration concurrent partnering can be protective against HIV transmission rather than promoting it. Monogamous partnering prevents sexual transmission to anyone outside the partnership and, in an initially concordant-seronegative partnership, prevents sexual acquisition of HIV by either partner. Those protections against transmission and acquisition last as long as the partnership persists without new outside partnerships. Correspondingly, these two protective effects characterise polygynous partnerships, whether or not the polygyny is formal or informal, until a partner initiates a new partnership. Stable and exclusive unions of any size protect against HIV transmission, and more durable unions provide a longer protective effect. Survey research provides little information on partnership duration in sub-Saharan Africa and sheds no light on the interaction of duration, concurrency, and HIV. This article shows how assumptions about partnership duration in individual-based sexual-network models affect the contours of simulated HIV epidemics. Longer mean partnership duration slows the pace at which simulated epidemics grow. With plausible assumptions about partnership duration and at levels of concurrency found in the region, simulated HIV epidemics grow slowly or not at all. Those results are consistent with the hypothesis that long-duration partnering is protective against HIV and inconsistent with the hypothesis that long-term concurrency drives the HIV epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Association between QRS duration and obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shuchita; Cepeda-Valery, Beatriz; Romero-Corral, Abel; Shamsuzzaman, Abu; Somers, Virend K; Pressman, Gregg S

    2012-12-15

    Both obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and prolonged QRS duration are associated with hypertension, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. However, possible links between QRS duration and OSA have not been explored. Cross-sectional study of 221 patients who underwent polysomnography at our center. Demographics, cardiovascular risk factors and ECG were collected to explore a relationship between OSA and QRS duration. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was positively correlated with QRS duration (r = 0.141, p = 0.03). Patients were divided into 3 groups: AHI 30 (55). The mean QRS duration prolonged significantly as OSA worsened (AHI 30, 95 ± 19.9 ms, p = 0.001). QRS ≥ 100 ms was present in 12.7% of patients with severe OSA compared with 0% in the rest of the sample (p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age, race, and cardiovascular risk factors, this association remained significant in women but not in men. QRS duration and OSA were significantly associated. Severity of OSA independently predicted prolonged QRS in women but not men. Nevertheless, prolongation of QRS duration in either sex may potentiate arrhythmic risks associated with OSA.

  10. The role of musical aptitude and language skills in preattentive duration processing in school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanov, Riia; Huotilainen, Minna; Esquef, Paulo A A; Alku, Paavo; Välimäki, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2009-08-28

    We examined 10-12-year old elementary school children's ability to preattentively process sound durations in music and speech stimuli. In total, 40 children had either advanced foreign language production skills and higher musical aptitude or less advanced results in both musicality and linguistic tests. Event-related potential (ERP) recordings of the mismatch negativity (MMN) show that the duration changes in musical sounds are more prominently and accurately processed than changes in speech sounds. Moreover, children with advanced pronunciation and musicality skills displayed enhanced MMNs to duration changes in both speech and musical sounds. Thus, our study provides further evidence for the claim that musical aptitude and linguistic skills are interconnected and the musical features of the stimuli could have a preponderant role in preattentive duration processing.

  11. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. DESIGN: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI...... and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. RESULTS: We observed a significant association between...... sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P macronutrient intake were evident in age- and sex-stratified analyses only. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower saturated...

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  13. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  14. Duration Adaptation Occurs Across the Sub- and Supra-Second Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1) and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2). Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations.

  15. [Sedentary lifestyle: physical activity duration versus percentage of energy expenditure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera de León, Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, María del C; Rodríguez-Benjumeda, Luis M; Anía-Lafuente, Basilio; Brito-Díaz, Buenaventura; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Almeida-González, Delia; Batista-Medina, Marta; Aguirre-Jaime, Armando

    2007-03-01

    To compare different definitions of a sedentary lifestyle and to determine which is the most appropriate for demonstrating its relationship with the metabolic syndrome and other cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study of 5814 individuals was carried out. Comparisons were made between two definitions of a sedentary lifestyle: one based on active energy expenditure being less than 10% of total energy expenditure, and the other, on performing less than 25-30 minutes of physical activity per day. Reported levels of physical activity, anthropometric measurements, and biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk were recorded. The associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome and other risk factors were adjusted for gender, age and tobacco use. The prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle was higher in women (70%) than in men (45-60%, according to the definition used). The definitions based on physical activity duration and on energy expenditure were equally useful: there were direct associations between a sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome, body mass index, abdominal and pelvic circumferences, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides, and inverse associations with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and paraoxonase activity, which demonstrated the greatest percentage difference between sedentary and active individuals. An incidental finding was that both definitions of a sedentary lifestyle were more strongly associated with the metabolic syndrome as defined by International Diabetes Federation criteria than by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Given that it is relatively easy to determine whether a patient performs less than 25 minutes of physical activity per day, use of this definition of a sedentary lifestyle is recommended for clinical practice. The serum paraoxonase activity level could provide a useful marker for studying sedentary lifestyles.

  16. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  17. Effect of freezing method and frozen storage duration on instrumental quality of lamb throughout display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muela, E; Sañudo, C; Campo, M M; Medel, I; Beltrán, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of freezing method (FM) (air blast freezer, freezing tunnel, or nitrogen chamber) and frozen storage duration (FSD) (1, 3, or 6 months) on the instrumental measurements of quality of thawed lamb, aged for a total of 72 h, throughout a 10-d display period, compared to the quality of fresh meat. pH, colour, lipid oxidation, thawing, and cooking losses in Longissimus thoracis and lumborum muscle, were determined following standard methods. FM affected yellowness, FSD redness and thawing losses, and both affected oxidation (increased as freezing rate decreased and/or as storage duration increased). When compared with fresh meat, the main differences appeared on oxidation (where a significant interaction between treatment (3FM x 3FSD + fresh meat) with display duration was detected), and on total losses (thaw + cook losses). Oxidation was lower in fresh meat, but values were not significantly different from those stored frozen for 1 month. Fresh meat had smaller total losses than did thawed meat, but losses were not significantly different from meat frozen in the freezing tunnel and stored frozen for 1 month. Display duration had a greater effect on instrumental quality parameters than did FM or FSD. pH, b*, and oxidation increased, and L* and a* decreased with an increase in the number of days on display. In conclusion, neither freezing method nor frozen storage up to 6 months influenced extensively the properties of lamb when instrumental measurements of quality were measured in meat that had been displayed for 1d after thawing. The small deterioration shown in this study should not give consumers concerns about frozen meat. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in healthy black and white adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Dahl, Ronald E; Owens, Jane F; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica

    2012-10-01

    Poor sleep may play a role in insulin resistance and diabetes risk. Yet few studies of sleep and insulin resistance have focused on the important developmental period of adolescence. To address this gap, we examined the association of sleep and insulin resistance in healthy adolescents. Cross-sectional. Community setting in one high school. 245 (137 African Americans, 116 males) high school students. Participants provided a fasting blood draw and kept a sleep log and wore a wrist actigraph for one week during the school year. Participants' families were from low to middle class based on family Hollingshead scores. Total sleep time across the week averaged 7.4 h by diary and 6.4 h by actigraph; homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance ([HOMA-IR] unadjusted) averaged 4.13. Linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race, gender, body mass index, and waist circumference showed that the shorter the sleep, the higher the HOMA-IR, primarily due to sleep duration during the week. No evidence was found for long sleep being associated with elevated HOMA-IR. Fragmented sleep was not associated with HOMA-IR but was associated with glucose levels. Reduced sleep duration is associated with HOMA-IR in adolescence. Long sleep duration is not associated. Interventions to extend sleep duration may reduce diabetes risk in youth.

  19. Concurrent Associations between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration with Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Gentile, Douglas A; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7-12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently.

  20. Placebo controlled trial of zinc supplementation on duration of hospital stay in children with pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Iqbal, M.J.; Akhtar, R.; Afzal, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years of age. Zinc may have an important protective role in cases of childhood pneumonia. Objectives: To study the effect of zinc supplementation on duration of hospital stay in children (6 months to 5 years) with pneumonia. Methodology: This Randomized control trial was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics Unit - I, King Edward Medical University / Mayo Hospital, Lahore from January to December 2011. After consent, 150 children from 6 months to 5 years of age with pneumonia consistent with WHO ARI definition along with crepitations on auscultation were registered by non-probability purposive sampling and were randomized into treatment group (Group A) and placebo group (Group B). Seventy five children supplemented with zinc for 14 days while 75 children were supplemented with placebo. Outcome measure was duration of hospital stay. T-test was used to compare the groups. Results: Out of total study population of 150, majority (35%) of children were below 2 years. There was male predominance (64%). Mean duration of hospital stay was significantly reduced in treatment group (p value < 0.05). Conclusion: Zinc supplementation results in statistically significant reduction in the duration of hospital stay in children (6 months to 5 years) with pneumonia. (author)

  1. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly connected recurrent networks of excitatory groups of neurons can possess a multitude of attractor states. When the internal excitatory synapses of these networks are depressing, the attractor states can be destabilized with increasing input. This leads to an itinerancy, where with either repeated transient stimuli, or increasing duration of a single stimulus, the network activity advances through sequences of attractor states. We find that the resulting network state, which persists beyond stimulus offset, can encode the number of stimuli presented via a distributed representation of neural activity with non-monotonic tuning curves for most neurons. Increased duration of a single stimulus is encoded via different distributed representations, so unlike an integrator, the network distinguishes separate successive presentations of a short stimulus from a single presentation of a longer stimulus with equal total duration. Moreover, different amplitudes of stimulus cause new, distinct activity patterns, such that changes in stimulus number, duration and amplitude can be distinguished from each other. These properties of the network depend on dynamic depressing synapses, as they disappear if synapses are static. Thus short-term synaptic depression allows a network to store separately the different dynamic properties of a spatially constant stimulus.

  2. Association between genetic variants of the clock gene and obesity and sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Obregón, Ana María; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors related to lifestyle aspects. It has been shown that reduced sleep is associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) gene variants have also been associated with obesity. The objective of this mini-review was to discuss the available literature related to CLOCK gene variants associated with adiposity and sleep duration in humans. In total, 16 articles complied with the terms of the search that reported CLOCK variants associated with sleep duration, energy intake, and BMI. Overall, six CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with sleep duration, and three variants have been associated with energy intake variables. Overall, the most studied area has been the association of CLOCK gene with obesity; close to eight common variants have been associated with obesity. The most studied CLOCK SNP in different populations is rs1801260, and most of these populations correspond to European populations. Collectively, identifying at risk CLOCK genotypes is a new area of research that may help identify individuals who are more susceptible to overeating and gaining weight when exposed to short sleep durations.

  3. Sociality Affects REM Sleep Episode Duration Under Controlled Laboratory Conditions in the Rock Hyrax, Procavia capensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Gravett

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The rock hyrax, Procavia capensis, is a highly social, diurnal mammal. In the current study several physiologically measurable parameters of sleep, as well as the accompanying behavior, were recorded continuously from five rock hyraxes, for 72 h under solitary (experimental animal alone in the recording chamber, and social conditions (experimental animal with 1 or 2 additional, non-implanted animals in the recording chamber. The results revealed no significant differences between solitary and social conditions for total sleep times, number of episodes, episode duration or slow wave activity (SWA for all states examined. The only significant difference observed between social and solitary conditions was the average duration of rapid eye movement (REM sleep episodes. REM sleep episode duration was on average 20 s and 40 s longer under social conditions daily and during the dark period, respectively. It is hypothesized that the increase in REM sleep episode duration under social conditions could possibly be attributed to improved thermoregulation strategies, however considering the limited sample size and design of the current study further investigations are needed to confirm this finding. Whether the conclusions and the observations made in this study can be generalized to all naturally socially sleeping mammals remains an open question.

  4. Influence of tow duration on catch performance of trawl survey in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Sala

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tow duration on catch per unit of swept area (CPUE, trawl catch performance, and the proportion of the species caught in a trawl survey. Longer tows are expected to have a greater probability of catching species. An average of 26 species were caught in the first 30 minutes, whereas only about one additional species was caught in the next 30 minutes in longer tows. The shorter tows involved a decrement in catch weight for 11 of the 12 target species sampled, demonstrating that tow duration did affect catch per unit of swept area CPUE. The shorter tows were associated with a significant reduction of the overall CPUE in terms of weight of the main target species and of the total catch (circa 60%. The same strong reduction of around 70% was found in particular for European hake (Merluccius merluccius and surmullet (Mullus spp and 50% for Nephrops (Nephrops norvegicus. The shorter tows were less efficient in catching large-sized hake, surmullet, Nephrops, Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus, and poor cod (Trisopterus minutus, even though the difference was significant only for Nephrops. Regardless of the p-value statistic, these findings suggest that the continuity of survey time series would be severely impaired by changing tow duration. Further work is required to explore a way to reduce tow duration without reducing CPUE.

  5. Duration in Poverty-Related Programs and Number of Child Maltreatment Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunil; Drake, Brett

    2017-02-01

    This study examined the relationship of a family's duration in poverty-related programs (i.e., Aid to Families with Dependent Children/Temporary Assistance for Needy Families and Medicaid) to the subject child's number of maltreatment reports while considering race and baseline neighborhood poverty. Children from a large Midwestern metropolitan area were followed through a linked cross-sector administrative database from birth to age 15. Generalized multilevel models were employed to account for the multilevel structure of the data (i.e., nesting of families within neighborhoods). The data showed a unique and significant contribution of duration in poverty-related programs to the number of maltreatment reports. The predicted number of maltreatment reports increased by between 2.5 and 3.7 times, as duration in poverty-related programs increased from 0 to 9 years. This relationship was consistent between Whites and non-Whites (over 98% Black), but non-Whites showed a significantly lower number of total maltreatment reports while controlling for duration in poverty-related programs. We were unable to find a significant association between child maltreatment reports and baseline neighborhood poverty.

  6. The motility and motion duration of jatimbulan tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) spermatozoa in different salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, J.; Kintani, D.; Luqman, E. M.; Pujiastuti, D. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Tilapia hatchery is still conducted in freshwater and seeds are death simultaneousy when cultivated in high salinity due to the acclimatization process. An alternative method to implement hatchery at high salinity is required. This study aims to determine the salinity of activation medium that provides the best Jatimbulan Tilapia sperm motility and motion duration at high salinity. The study applies completely randomized design (CRD), which consists of 5 treatments (0 ppt, 4 ppt, 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt) and 4 repetitions. The parameters consists of sperm motility, motion duration, fresh sperm data (volume, color, odor, pH, consistency, and the concentration of sperm) and sperm abnormalities. The results exhibited that salinity significantly (p < 0.05). Influeneed the sperm motility and motion duration. Motility reaches its best at 0 ppt and 4 ppt (93.4 % and 87.8 %). For motion duration, best condition was in 0 ppt and 4 ppt treatments, totaling 2128 seconds and 1961.5 seconds. Meanwhile, sperm did not move when treated in waters with 9 ppt, 14 ppt and 19 ppt salinities.

  7. The use of patient factors to improve the prediction of operative duration using laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiels, Cornelius A; Yu, Denny; Abdelrahman, Amro M; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Hallbeck, Susan; Pasupathy, Kalyan S; Bingener, Juliane

    2017-01-01

    Reliable prediction of operative duration is essential for improving patient and care team satisfaction, optimizing resource utilization and reducing cost. Current operative scheduling systems are unreliable and contribute to costly over- and underestimation of operative time. We hypothesized that the inclusion of patient-specific factors would improve the accuracy in predicting operative duration. We reviewed all elective laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed at a single institution between 01/2007 and 06/2013. Concurrent procedures were excluded. Univariate analysis evaluated the effect of age, gender, BMI, ASA, laboratory values, smoking, and comorbidities on operative duration. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed using the significant factors (p historical surgeon-specific and procedure-specific operative duration. External validation was done using the ACS-NSQIP database (n = 11,842). A total of 1801 laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients met inclusion criteria. Female sex was associated with reduced operative duration (-7.5 min, p < 0.001 vs. male sex) while increasing BMI (+5.1 min BMI 25-29.9, +6.9 min BMI 30-34.9, +10.4 min BMI 35-39.9, +17.0 min BMI 40 + , all p < 0.05 vs. normal BMI), increasing ASA (+7.4 min ASA III, +38.3 min ASA IV, all p < 0.01 vs. ASA I), and elevated liver function tests (+7.9 min, p < 0.01 vs. normal) were predictive of increased operative duration on univariate analysis. A model was then constructed using these predictive factors. The traditional surgical scheduling system was poorly predictive of actual operative duration (R 2  = 0.001) compared to the patient factors model (R 2  = 0.08). The model remained predictive on external validation (R 2  = 0.14).The addition of surgeon as a variable in the institutional model further improved predictive ability of the model (R 2  = 0.18). The use of routinely available pre-operative patient factors improves the prediction of operative

  8. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6-79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6-8 h/day, 11.5% slept 5h or less, and 8.7% slept 9h or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around 7 h/day (6.5-7.4h/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep

  9. The influence of population density and duration of breeding on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of population density and duration of breeding on broiler chickens productivity and profitability. S Mitrovic, V Dermanovi c, M Radivojevi c, Z Raji c, D Živkovi c, D Ostoji c, N Filipovi c ...

  10. Analysis of the Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, I.; Veres, P.; Balazs, L. G.; Kelemen, J.; Bagoly, Z.; Tusnady, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two classes of gamma-ray bursts have been identified in the BATSE catalogs characterized by durations shorter and longer than about 2 seconds. There are, however, some indications for the existence of a third type of burst. Swift satellite detectors have different spectral sensitivity than pre-Swift ones for gamma-ray bursts. Therefore it is worth to reanalyze the durations and their distribution and also the classification of GRBs. Using The First BAT Catalog the maximum likelihood estimation was used to analyzed the duration distribution of GRBs. The three log-normal fit is significantly (99.54% probability) better than the two for the duration distribution. Monte-Carlo simulations also confirm this probability (99.2%).

  11. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  12. intensity, duration and frequency of rainstorms in lokoja

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shuaibu et al.

    This study analyzed the Intensity, duration and frequency (IDF) of rainstorms in Lokoja. ... INTRODUCTION. Rainfall worldwide has certain characteristics where it occurs. ..... State University of Science and Technology, Port. Harcourt, Nigeria.

  13. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  14. How climate seasonality modifies drought duration and deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van A.F.; Tijdeman, E.; Wanders, N.; Lanen, van H.A.J.; Teuling, A.J.; Uijlenhoet, R.

    2014-01-01

    Drought propagation through the terrestrial hydrological cycle is associated with a change in drought characteristics (duration and deficit), moving from precipitation via soil moisture to discharge. Here we investigate climate controls on drought propagation with a modeling experiment in 1271

  15. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  16. influence of drying temperature and storage duration on fissuring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    age duration on the cracking behaviour and head rice yield of a local rice variety - Jasmine 85. ... harvesting, processing and storage. The rice industry ... cm deep which is within the thickness consid- ered as a ..... Tracing fissure information by.

  17. Selection and scheduling of jobs with time-dependent duration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    †Department of Logistics, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, ... station must apply to occupy the test station and sometimes may even choose ... are considered where the job duration and cost are dependent on the time and sequence.

  18. Regional flow duration curves for ungauged sites in Sicily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Viola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow duration curves are simple and powerful tools to deal with many hydrological and environmental problems related to water quality assessment, water-use assessment and water allocation. Unfortunately the scarcity of streamflow data enables the use of these instruments only for gauged basins. A regional model is developed here for estimating flow duration curves at ungauged basins in Sicily, Italy. Due to the complex ephemeral behavior of the examined region, this study distinguishes dry periods, when flows are zero, from wet periods using a three parameters power law to describe the frequency distribution of flows. A large dataset of streamflows has been analyzed and the parameters of flow duration curves have been derived for about fifty basins. Regional regression equations have been developed to derive flow duration curves starting from morphological basin characteristics.

  19. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... This study explores this expectation by using historical short-duration ... weather station 5-min rainfall data were combined to extend the effective ... evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities.

  20. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  1. Bond portfolio's duration and investment term-structure management problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Daobai

    2006-01-01

    In the considered bond market, there are N zero-coupon bonds transacted continuously, which will mature at equally spaced dates. A duration of bond portfolios under stochastic interest rate model is introduced, which provides a measurement for the interest rate risk. Then we consider an optimal bond investment term-structure management problem using this duration as a performance index, and with the short-term interest rate process satisfying some stochastic differential ...

  2. PSA Duration: Conquering the Prepayment Risk of Mortgage Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Boleslav Gulko

    1996-01-01

    Money managers have little control over the values of their individual holdings, but they have considerable control over the risk exposure of their portfolios. This article introduces new tools for the risk management of mortgage portfolios. We extend the traditional duration analysis to two dimensions, interest rates and mortgage prepayments, and develop independent hedging rules for the interest rate risk and the prepayment risk. In particular, we define the PSA duration as a formal measure...

  3. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kukkonen, Helja; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antii

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE. Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. \\ud \\ud METHODS. Contrast energy thresho...

  4. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  5. High-voltage variable-duration pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Nikonov, Yu.P.; Malinin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A high-voltage generator is described that allows pulse duration tau to be varied within wide limits and has high efficiency (at least 50% for tau = 0.5 tau/sub max/) and an amplitude of up to 5 kV, a repetition frequency of up to 200 Hz,and a variable duration of 0-30 μsec. The generator is used in the controller of an electron accelerator

  6. On nuclear reaction duration at the range of overlapping resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olkhovsky, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear reaction duration above the threshold of overlapping resonances is investigated and its importance to obtain a new information on a collision mechanism is evidenced. It is shown also that the duration of resonant nuclear reactions is asymptotically decreasing according to the law[E 2 n(E)] -1 when the energy E and the number of open channels n(E) are increasing [ru

  7. Particle Astrophysics in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorham, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    A century after Viktor Hess' discovery of cosmic rays, balloon flights still play a central role in the investigation of cosmic rays over nearly their entire spectrum. We report on the current status of NASA balloon program for particle astrophysics, with particular emphasis on the very successful Antarctic long-duration balloon program, and new developments in the progress toward ultra-long duration balloons

  8. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  9. Disease duration and age influence CARD15 expression in Crohn’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Poniewierka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the susceptibility genes in Crohn’s disease (CD is CARD15. Our study examined the relationship between peripheral CARD15 expression and phenotype and duration of CD, treatment methods and inflammatory indices. Sixty patients with CD and 30 healthy volunteers as controls were enrolled in the study. Total RNA was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs with E.Z.N.A. Total RNA Kit (Omega Bio-tek then quantitative real-time PCR was performed on the ABI Prism 7900 HT Real-Time PCR System. CARD15 gene expression in PBMCs in CD was significantly higher than in the control group. The highest level of gene expression was found in CD patients in the fourth decade of life. The mRNA level of the CARD15 gene was higher in patients with disease duration between 12 and 60 months. A positive correlation was found between erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR and gene expression level. Gene expression increased with increasing level of C-reactive protein and ESR, but it was not statistically significant. CARD15 expression significantly decreased in CD patients treated with anti-TNFα agents compared to azathioprine or steroid treatment groups. Expression of the CARD15 gene in Crohn›s disease is higher than in healthy individuals. Disease duration and age of patients seem to be the most important factors influencing CARD15 expression.

  10. Scaling in the distribution of intertrade durations of Chinese stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2008-10-01

    The distribution of intertrade durations, defined as the waiting times between two consecutive transactions, is investigated based upon the limit order book data of 23 liquid Chinese stocks listed on the Shenzhen Stock Exchange in the whole year 2003. A scaling pattern is observed in the distributions of intertrade durations, where the empirical density functions of the normalized intertrade durations of all 23 stocks collapse onto a single curve. The scaling pattern is also observed in the intertrade duration distributions for filled and partially filled trades and in the conditional distributions. The ensemble distributions for all stocks are modeled by the Weibull and the Tsallis q-exponential distributions. Maximum likelihood estimation shows that the Weibull distribution outperforms the q-exponential for not-too-large intertrade durations which account for more than 98.5% of the data. Alternatively, nonlinear least-squares estimation selects the q-exponential as a better model, in which the optimization is conducted on the distance between empirical and theoretical values of the logarithmic probability densities. The distribution of intertrade durations is Weibull followed by a power-law tail with an asymptotic tail exponent close to 3.

  11. Modeling Spatial Dependence of Rainfall Extremes Across Multiple Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Phuong Dong; Leonard, Michael; Westra, Seth

    2018-03-01

    Determining the probability of a flood event in a catchment given that another flood has occurred in a nearby catchment is useful in the design of infrastructure such as road networks that have multiple river crossings. These conditional flood probabilities can be estimated by calculating conditional probabilities of extreme rainfall and then transforming rainfall to runoff through a hydrologic model. Each catchment's hydrological response times are unlikely to be the same, so in order to estimate these conditional probabilities one must consider the dependence of extreme rainfall both across space and across critical storm durations. To represent these types of dependence, this study proposes a new approach for combining extreme rainfall across different durations within a spatial extreme value model using max-stable process theory. This is achieved in a stepwise manner. The first step defines a set of common parameters for the marginal distributions across multiple durations. The parameters are then spatially interpolated to develop a spatial field. Storm-level dependence is represented through the max-stable process for rainfall extremes across different durations. The dependence model shows a reasonable fit between the observed pairwise extremal coefficients and the theoretical pairwise extremal coefficient function across all durations. The study demonstrates how the approach can be applied to develop conditional maps of the return period and return level across different durations.

  12. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  13. Effect of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Ronald P; Block, Richard A

    2003-07-01

    The effects of caffeine on prospective and retrospective duration judgements were evaluated in a double-blind placebo-controlled experiment. After taking either 200 mg caffeine or a placebo, participants touched a 17-sided polygon for 15 s. Then they verbally estimated the number of angles and the duration. Participants in the prospective group were told in advance they would be making a duration estimate, whereas those in the retrospective group were not told. Caffeine reduced duration estimates in the prospective condition but not in the retrospective condition. The effect of caffeine on very long duration comparisons (the past year compared with a year at one-half and one-quarter of one's age) was also evaluated, but none was found. The findings do not support the hypothesis that caffeine affects duration experience by increasing the internal clock rate as a result of its dopamine D(2) agonist properties. The hypothesis that caffeine produces its effect by enhancing memory was considered and rejected. The most parsimonious explanation is that caffeine increased arousal level, which led to a narrowing of the focus of attention to the most salient task. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Duration estimates within a modality are integrated sub-optimally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Bo eCai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perceived duration can be influenced by various properties of sensory stimuli. For example, visual stimuli of higher temporal frequency are perceived to last longer than those of lower temporal frequency. How does the brain form a representation of duration when each of two simultaneously presented stimuli influences perceived duration in different way? To answer this question, we investigated the perceived duration of a pair of dynamic visual stimuli of different temporal frequencies in comparison to that of a single visual stimulus of either low or high temporal frequency. We found that the duration representation of simultaneously occurring visual stimuli is best described by weighting the estimates of duration based on each individual stimulus. However, the weighting performance deviates from the prediction of statistically optimal integration. In addition, we provided a Bayesian account to explain a difference in the apparent sensitivity of the psychometric curves introduced by the order in which the two stimuli are displayed in a two-alternative forced-choice task.

  15. Duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Simon John; Newby, David E; Dawson, Dana; Irving, John; Berry, Colin

    2017-04-01

    Despite a large volume of evidence supporting the use of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome, there remains major uncertainty regarding the optimal duration of therapy. Clinical trials have varied markedly in the duration of therapy, both across and within trials. Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses suggest that shorter durations of dual antiplatelet therapy are superior because the avoidance of atherothrombotic events is counterbalanced by the greater risks of excess major bleeding with apparent increases in all-cause mortality with longer durations. These findings did not show significant heterogeneity according to whether patients had stable or unstable coronary heart disease. Moreover, the potential hazards and benefits may differ when applied to the general broad population of patients encountered in everyday clinical practice who have markedly higher bleeding and atherothrombotic event rates. Clinicians lack definitive information regarding the duration of therapy in patients with acute coronary syndrome and risk scores do not appear to be sufficiently robust to address these concerns. We believe that there is a pressing need to undertake a broad inclusive safety trial of shorter durations of therapy in real world populations of patients with acute coronary syndrome. The clinical evidence would further inform future research into strategies for personalised medicine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Estimating Drilling Cost and Duration Using Copulas Dependencies Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al Kindi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of drilling budget and duration is a high-level challenge for oil and gas industry. This is due to the many uncertain activities in the drilling procedure such as material prices, overhead cost, inflation, oil prices, well type, and depth of drilling. Therefore, it is essential to consider all these uncertain variables and the nature of relationships between them. This eventually leads into the minimization of the level of uncertainty and yet makes a "good" estimation points for budget and duration given the well type. In this paper, the copula probability theory is used in order to model the dependencies between cost/duration and MRI (mechanical risk index. The MRI is a mathematical computation, which relates various drilling factors such as: water depth, measured depth, true vertical depth in addition to mud weight and horizontal displacement. In general, the value of MRI is utilized as an input for the drilling cost and duration estimations. Therefore, modeling the uncertain dependencies between MRI and both cost and duration using copulas is important. The cost and duration estimates for each well were extracted from the copula dependency model where research study simulate over 10,000 scenarios. These new estimates were later compared to the actual data in order to validate the performance of the procedure. Most of the wells show moderate - weak relationship of MRI dependence, which means that the variation in these wells can be related to MRI but to the extent that it is not the primary source.

  17. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    This review will highlight evidence from crew members flown on space missions greater than 90 days to suggest that the adaptations of the skeletal system to mechanical unloading may predispose crew members to an accelerated onset of osteoporosis after return to Earth. By definition, osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder - characterized by low bone mineral density and structural deterioration - that reduces the ability of bones to resist fracture under the loading of normal daily activities. Involutional or agerelated osteoporosis is readily recognized as a syndrome afflicting the elderly population because of the insipid and asymptomatic nature of bone loss that does not typically manifest as fractures until after age approximately 60. It is not the thesis of this review to suggest that spaceflight-induced bone loss is similar to bone loss induced by metabolic bone disease; rather this review draws parallels between the rapid and earlier loss in females that occurs with menopause and the rapid bone loss in middle-aged crew members that occurs with spaceflight unloading and how the cumulative effects of spaceflight and ageing could be detrimental, particularly if skeletal effects are totally or partially irreversible. In brief, this report will provide detailed evidence that long-duration crew members, exposed to the weightlessness of space for the typical long-duration (4-6 months) mission on Mir or the International Space Station -- 1. Display bone resorption that is aggressive, that targets normally weight-bearing skeletal sites, that is uncoupled to bone formation and that results in areal BMD deficits that can range between 6-20% of preflight BMD; 2. Display compartment-specific declines in volumetric BMD in the proximal femur (a skeletal site of clinical interest) that significantly reduces its compressive and bending strength and which may account for the loss in hip bone strength (i.e., force to failure); 3. Recover BMD over a post-flight time period that

  18. Naturally occurring circadian rhythm and sleep duration are related to executive functions in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Wolke, Dieter; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-02-01

    Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1.7). Performance-based executive function was assessed with the Trail-Making Test, Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Stroop. The self-rated adult version of Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was used to assess trait-like executive function. We found that performance-based and self-reported trait-like executive function correlated only modestly (all correlations ≤0.17). Shorter sleep duration associated with more commission errors. Later circadian rhythm associated with poorer trait-like executive function, as indicated by the Brief Metacognitive Index and the Behavior Regulation Index. Those belonging to the group with the most irregular sleep duration performed slower than others in the Trail-Making Test Part A. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status and body mass index. In conclusion, naturally occurring insufficient sleep and later circadian rhythm showed modest associations with poorer executive function. Shorter habitual sleep duration was associated with lower scores of performance-based tests of executive function, and later circadian rhythm was associated mainly with poorer trait-like executive function characteristics. Our findings suggest additionally that sleep duration and circadian rhythm associate with different domains of executive function, and there are no additive effects between the two. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  19. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  20. Lactation counseling increases breast-feeding duration but not breast milk intake as measured by isotopic methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albernaz, Elaine; Victora, Cesar G; Haisma, Hinke; Wright, Antony; Coward, William A

    The importance of exclusive breast-feeding in the first 6 mo of life is widely recognized, but most mothers still do not reach this goal. Several studies have shown that face-to-face lactation counseling is effective in increasing not only exclusive breast-feeding rates but also the total duration

  1. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations betw...

  2. Physiological and Behavioral Parameters of Infants' Categorization: Changes in Heart Rate and Duration of Examining across Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsner, Birgit; Pauen, Sabina; Jeschonek, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    This report investigates the relations between duration of examining and heart rate (HR) across several trials of an object-examination task. A total of N= 20 11-month-olds were familiarized with a sequence of 10 different exemplars from the same global category (animals or furniture) before they received an exemplar from the contrasting category…

  3. Factors associated with first return to work and sick leave durations in workers with common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Krol, Boudien; Bultmann, Ute

    Background: Associations are examined between socio-demographic, medical, work-related and organizational factors and the moment of first return to work (RTW) (within or after 6 weeks of sick leave) and total sick leave duration in sick leave spells due to common mental disorders. Methods: Data are

  4. Flexible resource management and its effect on project cost and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinha, Denis C.; Ahluwalia, Rashpal S.

    2018-06-01

    In practice, most projects result in cost overruns and schedule slippage due to poor resource management. This paper presents an approach that aims at reducing project duration and costs by empowering project managers to assess different scenarios. The proposed approach addresses combinatorial modes for tasks, multi-skilled resources, and multiple calendars for resources. A case study reported in the literature is presented to demonstrate the capabilities of this method. As for practical implications, this approach enhances the decision-making process which results in improved solutions in terms of total project duration and cost. From an academic viewpoint, this paper adds empirical evidence to enrich the existing literature, as it highlights relevant issues to model properly the complexity of real-life projects.

  5. Effect of greenhouse vegetable farming duration on Zinc accumulation in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yu, Peiying; Cui, Shuang; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2018-02-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has rapidly expanded, and reqiures more attention due to its heavy metal contamination. In this study, different cultivation greenhouses of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 13 years were selected to investigate the effects of GVP duration on Zn accumulation. The results revealed high Zn (total Zn and available Zn) accumulation in GVP surface layers (0-20 cm), and Zn contents in 0-20 cm soil layers were positively correlated with GVP duration (P<0.01). Zn accumulation was mainly attributed to manure fertilizer application due to higher concentrations of Zn in manures. For greenhouse sustainability, reduction of manure application and reasonable use of passivation materials may alleviate metal phytoavailability and the health risk.

  6. Climate change impacts on the duration and frequency of combined sewer overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, C.; Mailhot, A.

    2012-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSO) occur when large rainwater inflow from heavy precipitation exceeds the capacity of urban combined sewage systems. Many American and European cities with old sewage systems see their water quality significantly deteriorate during such events. In the long term, changes in the rainfall regime due to climate change may lead to more severe and more frequent CSO episodes and thus compel cities to review their global water management. The overall objective of this study is to investigate how climate change will impact CSO frequency and duration. Data from rain gauges located nearby 30 overflow outfalls, in southern Quebec, Canada, were used to identify rain events leading to overflows, using CSO monitored data from May to October during the period 2007-2009. For each site, occurrence and duration of CSO events were recorded and linked to a rainfall event. Many rain events features can be used to predict CSO events, such as total depth, duration, average intensity and peak intensity. Results based on Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis show that CSO occurrence is best predicted by total rainfall. A methodology is proposed to calculate the CSO probability of occurrence and duration for each site of interest using rainfall series as input data. Monte Carlo method is then used to estimate CSO frequency. To evaluate the climate change impact on CSO, these relationships are used with simulated data from the Canadian Regional Climate Model to compare the distribution of annual number of CSO events over the 1960-1990 period and the 2070-2100 period.

  7. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniëlle eBouman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may modulate whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated before. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to 7 different durations, varying from 100 to 4000ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli.The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. In contrast, the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach

  9. Magnitude and duration of stretch modulate fibroblast remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Jenna L; Billiar, Kristen L

    2009-05-01

    Mechanical cues modulate fibroblast tractional forces and remodeling of extracellular matrix in healthy tissue, healing wounds, and engineered matrices. The goal of the present study is to establish dose-response relationships between stretch parameters (magnitude and duration per day) and matrix remodeling metrics (compaction, strength, extensibility, collagen content, contraction, and cellularity). Cyclic equibiaxial stretch of 2-16% was applied to fibroblast-populated fibrin gels for either 6 h or 24 h/day for 8 days. Trends in matrix remodeling metrics as a function of stretch magnitude and duration were analyzed using regression analysis. The compaction and ultimate tensile strength of the tissues increased in a dose-dependent manner with increasing stretch magnitude, yet remained unaffected by the duration in which they were cycled (6 h/day versus 24 h/day). Collagen density increased exponentially as a function of both the magnitude and duration of stretch, with samples stretched for the reduced duration per day having the highest levels of collagen accumulation. Cell number and failure tension were also dependent on both the magnitude and duration of stretch, although stretch-induced increases in these metrics were only present in the samples loaded for 6 h/day. Our results indicate that both the magnitude and the duration per day of stretch are critical parameters in modulating fibroblast remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and that these two factors regulate different aspects of this remodeling. These findings move us one step closer to fully characterizing culture conditions for tissue equivalents, developing improved wound healing treatments and understanding tissue responses to changes in mechanical environments during growth, repair, and disease states.

  10. Electric stimulus duration alters network-mediated responses depending on retinal ganglion cell type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Maesoon; Werginz, Paul; Fried, Shelley I.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. To improve the quality of artificial vision that arises from retinal prostheses, it is important to bring electrically-elicited neural activity more in line with the physiological signaling patterns that arise normally in the healthy retina. Our previous study reported that indirect activation produces a closer match to physiological responses in ON retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) than in OFF cells (Im and Fried 2015 J. Physiol. 593 3677-96). This suggests that a preferential activation of ON RGCs would shape the overall retinal response closer to natural signaling. Recently, we found that changes to the rate at which stimulation was delivered could bias responses towards a stronger ON component (Im and Fried 2016a J. Neural Eng. 13 025002), raising the possibility that changes to other stimulus parameters can similarly bias towards stronger ON responses. Here, we explore the effects of changing stimulus duration on the responses in ON and OFF types of brisk transient (BT) and brisk sustained (BS) RGCs. Approach. We used cell-attached patch clamp to record RGC spiking in the isolated rabbit retina. Targeted RGCs were first classified as ON or OFF type by their light responses, and further sub-classified as BT or BS types by their responses to both light and electric stimuli. Spiking in targeted RGCs was recorded in response to electric pulses with durations varying from 5 to100 ms. Stimulus amplitude was adjusted at each duration to hold total charge constant for all experiments. Main results. We found that varying stimulus durations modulated responses differentially for ON versus OFF cells: in ON cells, spike counts decreased significantly with increasing stimulus duration while in OFF cells the changes were more modest. The maximum ratio of ON versus OFF responses occurred at a duration of ~10 ms. The difference in response strength for BT versus BS cells was much larger in ON cells than in OFF cells. Significance. The stimulation rates preferred by

  11. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  12. Comparison of Serum Concentrations of Total Cholesterol and Total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most dangerous tropical diseases that complicates HIV infection in Nigeria to date. Over two million Nigerians are known to be infected with TB and many more are at risk of the infection. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol and total lipid of 117 female TB patients attending chest clinic at ...

  13. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  14. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. A cross-sectional study of the association between working hours and sleep duration among the Japanese working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Aritake, Sayaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Makoto; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Uchimura, Naohisa; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between long working hours and short sleep duration among Japanese workers. We selected 4,000 households from across Japan by stratified random sampling and conducted an interview survey of a total of 662 participants (372 men; 290 women) in November 2009. Logistic regression analyses were performed using "sleep duration hours per day" as a dependent variable to examine the association between working hours/overtime hours and short sleep duration. When male participants who worked for ≥7 but hours per day were used as a reference, the odds ratio (OR) for short sleep duration in those who worked for ≥ 11 hours was 8.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.94-18.86). With regard to overtime hours among men, when participants without overtime were used as a reference, the OR for those whose period of overtime was ≥ 3 hours but hours was 3.59 (95% CI: 1.42-9.08). For both men and women, those with long weekday working hours tended to have a short sleep duration during weekdays and holidays. It is essential to avoid working long hours in order to prevent short sleep duration.

  16. Night Sleep Duration and Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Population: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiao Feng; Liu, Xiao Xue; Hu, Wan Ning; Han, Xiao Chen; Zhou, Wen Hua; Lu, Ai Dong; Wang, Xi Zhu; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-10-01

    Although sleep is one of the most important health-related behavioral factors, the association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment has not been fully understood. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 2,514 participants (⋝ 40 years of age; 46.6% women) in China to examine the association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment. Night sleep duration was categorized as ⋜ 5, 6, 7, 8, or ⋝ 9 h per night. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. A multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the association of night sleep duration with cognitive impairment. A total of 122 participants were diagnosed with cognitive impairment. A U-shaped association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment was found. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of cognitive impairment (with 7 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference) for individuals reporting ⋜ 5, 6, 8, and ⋝ 9 h were 2.14 (1.20-3.83), 1.13 (0.67-1.89), 1.51 (0.82-2.79), and 5.37 (1.62-17.80), respectively (P ⋜ 0.01). Short or long night sleep duration was an important sleep-related factor independently associated with cognitive impairment and may be a useful marker for increased risk of cognitive impairment.. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing rabbits reared on different feed access times and restriction durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obasa, O.A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixty growing rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes were used for 10 wk in a 4 x 3 factorial experimental design to test for the effect of different feed access times (2, 4, 6 and 24 h and different restriction durations (2, 4 and 6 wk on the performance, haematological parameters and cost benefits of growing rabbits. Data obtained were subject to a 2�way analysis of variance. Results showed significantly higher (p0.05 across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access time for 6-wk duration of restriction while all other parameters measured for haematology were not significantly affected by the feed access time and restriction duration. Total cost of feed consumed was highest in growing rabbits maintained on 24-h feed access time. Cost of feed per kg weight gain was not significantly influenced across the feed access times and the restriction durations. It was concluded that for a reduced cost of feeding without an adverse effect on the performance and haematological profile, growing rabbits should be raised on not less than 4-h feed access time for 2-wk restriction duration.

  18. Natural History of Tuberculosis: Duration and Fatality of Untreated Pulmonary Tuberculosis in HIV Negative Patients: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiemersma, Edine W.; van der Werf, Marieke J.; Borgdorff, Martien W.; Williams, Brian G.; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.

    2011-01-01

    Background The prognosis, specifically the case fatality and duration, of untreated tuberculosis is important as many patients are not correctly diagnosed and therefore receive inadequate or no treatment. Furthermore, duration and case fatality of tuberculosis are key parameters in interpreting epidemiological data. Methodology and Principal Findings To estimate the duration and case fatality of untreated pulmonary tuberculosis in HIV negative patients we reviewed studies from the pre-chemotherapy era. Untreated smear-positive tuberculosis among HIV negative individuals has a 10-year case fatality variously reported between 53% and 86%, with a weighted mean of 70%. Ten-year case fatality of culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis was nowhere reported directly but can be indirectly estimated to be approximately 20%. The duration of tuberculosis from onset to cure or death is approximately 3 years and appears to be similar for smear-positive and smear-negative tuberculosis. Conclusions Current models of untreated tuberculosis that assume a total duration of 2 years until self-cure or death underestimate the duration of disease by about one year, but their case fatality estimates of 70% for smear-positive and 20% for culture-positive smear-negative tuberculosis appear to be satisfactory. PMID:21483732

  19. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  20. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

  1. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  2. Rhythm-based heartbeat duration normalization for atrial fibrillation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Saiful; Ammour, Nassim; Alajlan, Naif; Aboalsamh, Hatim

    2016-05-01

    Screening of atrial fibrillation (AF) for high-risk patients including all patients aged 65 years and older is important for prevention of risk of stroke. Different technologies such as modified blood pressure monitor, single lead ECG-based finger-probe, and smart phone using plethysmogram signal have been emerging for this purpose. All these technologies use irregularity of heartbeat duration as a feature for AF detection. We have investigated a normalization method of heartbeat duration for improved AF detection. AF is an arrhythmia in which heartbeat duration generally becomes irregularly irregular. From a window of heartbeat duration, we estimate the possible rhythm of the majority of heartbeats and normalize duration of all heartbeats in the window based on the rhythm so that we can measure the irregularity of heartbeats for both AF and non-AF rhythms in the same scale. Irregularity is measured by the entropy of distribution of the normalized duration. Then we classify a window of heartbeats as AF or non-AF by thresholding the measured irregularity. The effect of this normalization is evaluated by comparing AF detection performances using duration with the normalization, without normalization, and with other existing normalizations. Sensitivity and specificity of AF detection using normalized heartbeat duration were tested on two landmark databases available online and compared with results of other methods (with/without normalization) by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC analysis showed that the normalization was able to improve the performance of AF detection and it was consistent for a wide range of sensitivity and specificity for use of different thresholds. Detection accuracy was also computed for equal rates of sensitivity and specificity for different methods. Using normalized heartbeat duration, we obtained 96.38% accuracy which is more than 4% improvement compared to AF detection without normalization. The proposed normalization

  3. Earth-Space Links and Fade-Duration Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, fade-duration statistics have been the subject of several experimental investigations. A good knowledge of the fade-duration distribution is important for the assessment of a satellite communication system's channel dynamics: What is a typical link outage duration? How often do link outages exceeding a given duration occur? Unfortunately there is yet no model that can universally answer the above questions. The available field measurements mainly come from temperate climatic zones and only from a few sites. Furthermore, the available statistics are also limited in the choice of frequency and path elevation angle. Yet, much can be learned from the available information. For example, we now know that the fade-duration distribution is approximately lognormal. Under certain conditions, we can even determine the median and other percentiles of the distribution. This paper reviews the available data obtained by several experimenters in different parts of the world. Areas of emphasis are mobile and fixed satellite links. Fades in mobile links are due to roadside-tree shadowing, whereas fades in fixed links are due to rain attenuation.

  4. Operative Duration and Risk of Surgical Site Infection in Neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekelis, Kimon; Coy, Shannon; Simmons, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    The association of surgical duration with the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) has not been quantified in neurosurgery. We investigated the association of operative duration in neurosurgical procedures with the incidence of SSI. We performed a retrospective cohort study involving patients who underwent neurosurgical procedures from 2005 to 2012 and were registered in the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Project registry. To control for confounding, we used multivariable regression models and propensity score conditioning. During the study period there were 94,744 patients who underwent a neurosurgical procedure and met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 4.1% developed a postoperative SSI within 30 days. Multivariable logistic regression showed an association between longer operative duration with higher incidence of SSI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-1.20). Compared with procedures of moderate duration (third quintile, 40th-60th percentile), patients undergoing the longest procedures (>80th percentile) had higher odds (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.86-2.31) of developing SSI. The shortest procedures (operative duration was associated with increased incidence of SSI for neurosurgical procedures. These results can be used by neurosurgeons to inform operative management and to stratify patients with regard to SSI risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Building a Shared Definitional Model of Long Duration Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Sandoval, L.; Leveton, L.; Arias, D.

    2011-01-01

    In 1956, on the eve of human space travel Strughold first proposed a simple classification of the present and future stages of manned flight that identified key factors, risks and developmental stages for the evolutionary journey ahead. As we look to optimize the potential of the ISS as a gateway to new destinations, we need a current shared working definitional model of long duration human space flight to help guide our path. Initial search of formal and grey literature augmented by liaison with subject matter experts. Search strategy focused on both the use of term long duration mission and long duration spaceflight, and also broader related current and historical definitions and classification models of spaceflight. The related sea and air travel literature was also subsequently explored with a view to identifying analogous models or classification systems. There are multiple different definitions and classification systems for spaceflight including phase and type of mission, craft and payload and related risk management models. However the frequently used concepts of long duration mission and long duration spaceflight are infrequently operationally defined by authors, and no commonly referenced classical or gold standard definition or model of these terms emerged from the search. The categorization (Cat) system for sailing was found to be of potential analogous utility, with its focus on understanding the need for crew and craft autonomy at various levels of potential adversity and inability to gain outside support or return to a safe location, due to factors of time, distance and location.

  6. Incident Duration Modeling Using Flexible Parametric Hazard-Based Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing and prioritizing the duration time and effects of traffic incidents on major roads present significant challenges for road network managers. This study examines the effect of numerous factors associated with various types of incidents on their duration and proposes an incident duration prediction model. Several parametric accelerated failure time hazard-based models were examined, including Weibull, log-logistic, log-normal, and generalized gamma, as well as all models with gamma heterogeneity and flexible parametric hazard-based models with freedom ranging from one to ten, by analyzing a traffic incident dataset obtained from the Incident Reporting and Dispatching System in Beijing in 2008. Results show that different factors significantly affect different incident time phases, whose best distributions were diverse. Given the best hazard-based models of each incident time phase, the prediction result can be reasonable for most incidents. The results of this study can aid traffic incident management agencies not only in implementing strategies that would reduce incident duration, and thus reduce congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses, but also in effectively predicting incident duration time.

  7. Stocking density, milking duration, and lying times of lactating cows on Canadian freestall dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, G L; Haley, D B; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M

    2014-05-01

    Lying time is an important measure of cow comfort, and the lying behavior of dairy cattle can now be recorded automatically with the use of accelerometers. To assess the effect that stall stocking density and the time that cows spend away from the home pen being milked has on the lying behavior of Holstein cattle, a total of 111 commercial freestall dairy farms were visited in Canada. Accelerometers were used to automatically record the lying behavior of 40 focal cows per farm. Total duration of lying, lying bout frequency, and the mean duration of lying bouts were calculated. Pen population was the total number of cows in the pen. To calculate stall stocking density (%) the number of cows in the pen and the number of useable stalls were counted and multiplied by 100, and the length × width of the pen was divided by the number of cows in the pen to calculate area/cow (m(2)). Time away from the pen per day was recorded from when the first cow in each pen was taken out of the home pen for milking until the last cow returned to the home pen after milking, and this time was multiplied by daily milking frequency. The median value for lying duration at the farm level was 10.6h/d, with 10.5 lying bouts/d, and a median lying bout duration of 1.2h. Stall stocking density ranged from 52.2 to 160.0%, with very few farms (7%) stocking at greater than 120%. Although stall stocking density was not significantly correlated with lying behavior, the results showed that no farm with stocking density greater that 100% achieved an average herd lying duration of 12h/d or higher, whereas 21.6% of farms with a stocking density of 100% or less did achieve the target lying time of ≥ 12 h/d, as recommended by the Canadian Code of Practice (χ(2)=4.86, degrees of freedom = 1). Area/cow (m(2)) was not correlated with any aspect of lying behavior, but regardless of space per cow, pen population was correlated with daily frequency and duration of lying bouts. As the number of cows in the pen

  8. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  9. U-shaped association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in Korean adults: 2011-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    Full Text Available Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. Subjects with both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared to those with a sleep duration of 7 hours. The U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, income, exercise, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The U-shaped association is more evident in the subgroup aged 65 or older, or in female subjects. Our findings suggest that both short and long sleep durations have a U-shaped association with UACR levels in the general population, independent of potential confounders.

  10. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerges Mistry

    Full Text Available Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai.A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values.The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days and retreatment patients (25 days. Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation.Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of point of care diagnostics

  11. Durations and Delays in Care Seeking, Diagnosis and Treatment Initiation in Uncomplicated Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Nerges; Rangan, Sheela; Dholakia, Yatin; Lobo, Eunice; Shah, Shimoni; Patil, Akshaya

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment initiation are critical to reduce the chain of transmission of Tuberculosis (TB) in places like Mumbai, where almost 60% of the inhabitants reside in overcrowded slums. This study documents the pathway from the onset of symptoms suggestive of TB to initiation of TB treatment and examines factors responsible for delay among uncomplicated pulmonary TB patients in Mumbai. A population-based retrospective survey was conducted in the slums of 15 high TB burden administrative wards to identify 153 self-reported TB patients. Subsequently in-depth interviews of 76 consenting patients that fit the inclusion criteria were undertaken using an open-ended interview schedule. Mean total, first care seeking, diagnosis and treatment initiation duration and delays were computed for new and retreatment patients. Patients showing defined delays were divided into outliers and non-outliers for all three delays using the median values. The mean duration for the total pathway was 65 days with 29% of patients being outliers. Importantly the mean duration of first care seeking was similar in new (24 days) and retreatment patients (25 days). Diagnostic duration contributed to 55% of the total pathway largely in new patients. Treatment initiation was noted to be the least among the three durations with mean duration in retreatment patients twice that of new patients. Significantly more female patients experienced diagnostic delay. Major shift of patients from the private to public sector and non-allopaths to allopaths was observed, particularly for treatment initiation. Achieving positive behavioural changes in providers (especially non-allopaths) and patients needs to be considered in TB control strategies. Specific attention is required in counselling of TB patients so that timely care seeking is effected at the time of relapse. Prioritizing improvement of environmental health in vulnerable locations and provision of point of care diagnostics would be

  12. Total hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma Becic; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Overgaard, Søren

    2005-01-01

    The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs.......The annual number of total hip arthroplasties (THA) has increased in Denmark over the past 15 years. There is, however, limited detailed data available on the incidence of THAs....

  13. Congruences of totally geodesic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plebanski, J.F.; Rozga, K.

    1989-01-01

    A general theory of congruences of totally geodesic surfaces is presented. In particular their classification, based on the properties of induced affine connections, is provided. In the four-dimensional case canonical forms of the metric tensor admitting congruences of two-dimensional totally geodesic surfaces of rank one are given. Finally, congruences of two-dimensional extremal surfaces are studied. (author)

  14. Pump pulse duration dependence of coherent phonon amplitudes in antimony

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misochko, O. V., E-mail: misochko@issp.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solid State Physics (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Coherent optical phonons of A{sub 1k} and E{sub k} symmetry in antimony have been studied using the femtosecond pump–probe technique. By varying the pump-pulse duration and keeping the probe duration constant, it was shown that the amplitude of coherent phonons of both symmetries exponentially decreases with increasing pulse width. It was found that the amplitude decay rate for the fully symmetric phonons with larger frequency is greater than that of the doubly degenerate phonons, whereas the frequency and lifetime for coherent phonons of both symmetries do not depend on the pump-pulse duration. Based on this data, the possibility of separation between dynamic and kinematic contributions to the generation mechanism of coherent phonons is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the Planned Outage Durations in EU-APR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Byung Joon; Lee, Keun Sung [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    EU-APR has been designed to comply with European Utility Requirements (EUR) and nuclear design requirements of the European countries. And it is modified and improved from its original design of APR1400. The whole duration varies depending on items for additional process. Refueling and regular maintenance outage is comprised of basic processes and Main turbine-generator outage includes dismantling inspection of main generator and high pressure turbine as a critical path in addition to basic processes. In-Service Inspection Outage includes Automatic ultrasonic inspection on the upper side/lower side of a nuclear reactor as a critical path in addition to basic processes. The planned outage durations of EU-APR are optimized according to the above results. And they are complied with EUR Requirement (EUR 2.2.7.2.2 B), respectively. In addition, outage duration can be reduced with improved operating technology and more maintenance friendly environment including betterment of filling, drain and ventilation.

  16. Genetic Associations with Gestational Duration and Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, G.; Feenstra, B.; Bacelis, J.

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: We performed a genomewide association study in a discovery set of samples obtained from 43,568 women of European ancestry using gestational duration as a continuous trait and term or preterm (... of 8643 women) to test for replication of genomic loci that had significant genomewide association (Pdiscovery set. RESULTS: In the discovery and replication data sets, four loci (EBF1, EEFSEC, AGTR2, and WNT4) were...... significantly associated with gestational duration. Functional analysis showed that an implicated variant in WNT4 alters the binding of the estrogen receptor. The association between variants in ADCY5 and RAP2C and gestational duration had suggestive significance in the discovery set and significant evidence...

  17. New fat suppression RF pulse with shorter duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro; Ukai, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    The fat suppression radio frequency pulse currently employed for MRI, which selectively saturates the frequency of the fat, has the narrow-band frequency characteristics. Therefore, the application duration for the pulse employed tends to be prolonged. In the present study, we designed a new fat suppression radiofrequency (RF) pulse using the Laguerre function in order to shorten the duration for fat suppression RF pulse and conducted an evaluation with the clinical equipment. The length of the RF pulse that we created allowed to reduce the duration by 47.3% compared with that employed for the clinical equipment. In addition, in the MR imaging evaluation, the new pulse was confirmed to have the fat suppression effect equivalent to that employed for the clinical equipment. (author)

  18. Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.

  19. Dual-Priced Modal Transition Systems with Time Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beneš, Nikola; Kretínsky, Jan; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    Modal transition systems are a well-established specification formalism for a high-level modelling of component-based software systems. We present a novel extension of the formalism called modal transition systems with durations where time durations are modelled as controllable or uncontrollable...... intervals. We further equip the model with two kinds of quantitative aspects: each action has its own running cost per time unit, and actions may require several hardware components of different costs. We ask the question, given a fixed budget for the hardware components, what is the implementation...... with the cheapest long-run average reward. We give an algorithm for computing such optimal implementations via a reduction to a new extension of mean payoff games with time durations and analyse the complexity of the algorithm....

  20. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry