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Sample records for total gaba uptake

  1. Isoguvacine binding, uptake, and release: relation to the GABA system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, W F; Snodgrass, S R

    1983-06-01

    Isoguvacine (1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-carboxylic acid) is a GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) agonist with limited conformational flexibility. In these studies we investigated the binding, uptake, and release of (3H) isoguvacine by use of tissue preparations of rat CNS, comparing the results with similar studies of (3H)GABA. The results from these investigations indicate that isoguvacine binds to membrane preparations of rat forebrain with pharmacological characteristics similar to the post-synaptic GABA recognition site; that it is transported into synaptosomal preparations by an uptake system similar to the high-affinity GABA uptake system; and that recently accumulated isoguvacine is released in a Ca2+-dependent manner and by heteroexchange with external GABA. The ability of isoguvacine and gamma-hydroxybutyric acid to decrease the K+-stimulated Ca2+-dependent release process was also investigated. The results indicate that isoguvacine interactions have many of the biochemical features of GABA synaptic function, isoguvacine being, however, less potent than GABA.

  2. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA

  3. GABA uptake inhibitors. Design, molecular pharmacology and therapeutic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard-Larsen, P; Frølund, B; Frydenvang, Karla Andrea

    2000-01-01

    demonstrated that neuronal and glial GABA transport mechanisms have dissimilar substrate specificities. With GABA transport mechanisms as pharmacological targets, strategies for pharmacological interventions with the purpose of stimulating GABA neurotransmission seem to be (1) effective blockade of neuronal......, tiagabine (49) containing (R)-nipecotic acid (24) as the GABA transport carrier-recognizing structure element, is now marketed as an antiepileptic agent....

  4. Characterization of GABA/sub A/ receptor-mediated 36chloride uptake in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu, M.D.; Morrow, A.L.; Paul, S.M.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-mediated 36 chloride ( 36 Cl - ) uptake was measured in synaptoneurosomes from rat brain. GABA and GABA agonists stimulated 36 Cl - uptake in a concentration-dependent manner with the following order of potency: Muscimol>GABA>piperidine-4-sulfonic acid (P4S)>4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP)=3-aminopropanesulfonic acid (3APS)>>taurine. Both P4S and 3APS behaved as partial agonists, while the GABA/sub B/ agonist, baclofen, was ineffective. The response to muscimol was inhibited by bicuculline and picrotoxin in a mixed competitive/non-competitive manner. Other inhibitors of GABA receptor-opened channels or non-neuronal anion channels such as penicillin, picrate, furosemide and disulfonic acid stilbenes also inhibited the response to muscimol. A regional variation in muscimol-stimulated 36 Cl - uptake was observed; the largest responses were observed in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus, moderate responses were obtained in the striatum and hypothalamus and the smallest response was observed in the pons-medulla. GABA receptor-mediated 36 Cl - uptake was also dependent on the anion present in the media. The muscinol response varied in media containing the following anions: Br - >Cl - ≥NO 3 - >I - ≥SCN - >>C 3 H 5 OO - ≥ClO 4 - >F - , consistent with the relative anion permeability through GABA receptor-gated anion channels and the enhancement of convulsant binding to the GABA receptor-gated Cl - channel. 43 references, 4 figures, 3 tables

  5. Selective mGAT2 (BGT-1) GABA Uptake Inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Jørgensen, Lars; Madsen, Karsten Kirkegaard

    2013-01-01

    β-Amino acids sharing a lipophilic diaromatic side chain were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically on mouse GABA transporter subtypes mGAT1−4. The parent amino acids were also characterized. Compounds 13a, 13b, and 17b displayed more than 6-fold selectivity for mGAT2 over mGAT1. Compou...... 17b displayed anticonvulsive properties inferring a role of mGAT2 in epileptic disorders. These results provide new neuropharmacological tools and a strategy for designing subtype selective GABA transport inhibitors....

  6. Vesicular GABA Uptake Can Be Rate Limiting for Recovery of IPSCs from Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Yamashita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging. The time course of this recovery coincided with that of IPSCs from activity-dependent depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that vesicular GABA uptake can be a limiting step for the recovery of inhibitory neurotransmission from synaptic depression. : Recovery of inhibitory synaptic transmission from activity-dependent depression requires refilling of vesicles with GABA. Yamashita et al. find that vesicular uptake rate of GABA is a slow process, limiting the recovery rate of IPSCs from depression.

  7. GABA and glutamate uptake and metabolism in retinal glial (Müller cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eBringmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Müller cells, the principal glial cells of the retina, support the synaptic activity by the uptake and metabolization of extracellular neurotransmitters. Müller cells express uptake and exchange systems for various neurotransmitters including glutamate and -aminobutyric acid (GABA. Müller cells remove the bulk of extracellular glutamate in the inner retina and contribute to the glutamate clearance around photoreceptor terminals. By the uptake of glutamate, Müller cells are involved in the shaping and termination of the synaptic activity, particularly in the inner retina. Reactive Müller cells are neuroprotective, e.g., by the clearance of excess extracellular glutamate, but may also contribute to neuronal degeneration by a malfunctioning or even reversal of glial glutamate transporters, or by a downregulation of the key enzyme, glutamine synthetase. This review summarizes the present knowledge about the role of Müller cells in the clearance and metabolization of extracellular glutamate and GABA. Some major pathways of GABA and glutamate metabolism in Müller cells are described; these pathways are involved in the glutamate-glutamine cycle of the retina, in the defense against oxidative stress via the production of glutathione, and in the production of substrates for the neuronal energy metabolism.

  8. The GABA uptake inhibitor beta-alanine reduces pilocarpine-induced tremor and increases extracellular GABA in substantia nigra pars reticulata as measured by microdialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Mingote, Susana; Correa, Merce; Trevitt, Jennifer T; Carlson, Brian B; Salamone, John D

    2004-12-30

    Substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia that receives GABAergic projections from neostriatum and globus pallidus. Previous research has shown that local pharmacological manipulations of GABA in SNr can influence tremulous jaw movements in rats. Tremulous jaw movements are defined as rapid vertical deflections of the lower jaw that resemble chewing but are not directed at a particular stimulus, and evidence indicates that these movements share many characteristics with parkinsonian tremor in humans. In order to investigate the role of GABA in motor functions related to tremor, the present study tested the GABA uptake blocker beta-alanine for its ability to reduce pilocarpine-induced tremulous jaw movements. In a parallel experiment, the effect of an active dose of beta-alanine on dialysate levels of GABA in SNr was assessed using microdialysis methods. GABA levels in dialysis samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. beta-Alanine (250-500 mg/kg) significantly reduced tremulous jaw movements induced by pilocarpine (4.0 mg/kg). Moreover, systemic administration of beta-alanine at a dose that reduced tremulous jaw movements (500 mg/kg) resulted in a substantial increase in extracellular levels of GABA in SNr compared to the pre-injection baseline. Thus, the present results are consistent with the hypothesis that GABAergic tone in SNr plays a role in the regulation of tremulous jaw movements. This research may lead to a better understanding of how parkinsonian symptoms are modulated by SNr GABA mechanisms.

  9. Distribution and ultrastructure of neurons in opossum piriform cortex displaying immunoreactivity to GABA and GAD and high-affinity tritiated GABA uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberly, L.B.; Hansen, D.J.; Feig, S.L.; Presto, S.

    1987-01-01

    GABAergic neurons have been identified in the piriform cortex of the opossum at light and electron microscopic levels by immunocytochemical localization of GABA and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase and by autoradiographic visualization of high-affinity 3 H-GABA uptake. Four major neuron populations have been distinguished on the basis of soma size, shape, and segregation at specific depths and locations: large horizontal cells in layer Ia of the anterior piriform cortex, small globular cells with thin dendrites concentrated in layers Ib and II of the posterior piriform cortex, and multipolar and fusiform cells concentrated in the deep part of layer III in anterior and posterior parts of the piriform cortex and the subjacent endopiriform nucleus. All four populations were well visualized with both antisera, but the large layer Ia horizontal cells displayed only very light 3 H-GABA uptake, thus suggesting a lack of local axon collaterals or lack of high-affinity GABA uptake sites. The large, ultrastructurally distinctive somata of layer Ia horizontal cells receive a very small number of symmetrical synapses; the thin, axonlike dendrites of small globular cells are exclusively postsynaptic and receive large numbers of both symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses, in contrast to somata which receive a small number of both types; and the deep multipolar and fusiform cells receive a highly variable number of symmetrical and asymmetrical synapses on somata and proximal dendrites. Labeled puncta of axon terminal dimensions were found in large numbers in the neuropil surrounding pyramidal cell somata in layer II and in the endopiriform nucleus. Moderately large numbers of labeled puncta were found in layer I at the depth of pyramidal cell apical dendrites with greater numbers in layer Ia at the depth of distal apical segments than in layer Ib

  10. [3H]GABA uptake as a marker for cell type in primary cultures of cerebellum and olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, D.N.; Dutton, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    Uptake of [ 3 H]GABA into cell cultures of rat cerebellum and olfactory bulb was studied by autoradiography, using β-alanine and aminocyclohexane carboxylic acid to distinguish neuronal-specific and glial-specific uptake. Neurons and astrocytes were also labelled by tetanus toxin and anti-GFAP respectively. This combination of markers allowed identification and quantification of several cell types. Cerebellar cultures were found to contain 77% granule neurons, 7.5% inhibitory neurons (probably stellate and basket cells) and 15% astrocytes. Olfactory bulb cultures were over 50% in small neurons which accumulated GABA, the olfactory bulb granule neuron being GABAergic in vivo. (Auth.)

  11. Enhanced astroglial GABA uptake attenuates tonic GABAA inhibition of the presympathetic hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus neurons in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sudip; Jo, Ji Yoon; Lee, Sang Ung; Lee, Young Jae; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong; Lee, Jung Un; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Park, Jin Bong

    2015-08-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) generates persistent tonic inhibitory currents (Itonic) and conventional inhibitory postsynaptic currents in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) via activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We investigated the pathophysiological significance of astroglial GABA uptake in the regulation of Itonic in the PVN neurons projecting to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (PVN-RVLM). The Itonic of PVN-RVLM neurons were significantly reduced in heart failure (HF) compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats. Reduced Itonic sensitivity to THIP argued for the decreased function of GABAAR δ subunits in HF, whereas similar Itonic sensitivity to benzodiazepines argued against the difference of γ2 subunit-containing GABAARs in SHAM and HF rats. HF Itonic attenuation was reversed by a nonselective GABA transporter (GAT) blocker (nipecotic acid, NPA) and a GAT-3 selective blocker, but not by a GAT-1 blocker, suggesting that astroglial GABA clearance increased in HF. Similar and minimal Itonic responses to bestrophin-1 blockade in SHAM and HF neurons further argued against a role for astroglial GABA release in HF Itonic attenuation. Finally, the NPA-induced inhibition of spontaneous firing was greater in HF than in SHAM PVN-RVLM neurons, whereas diazepam induced less inhibition of spontaneous firing in HF than in SHAM neurons. Overall, our results showed that combined with reduced GABAARs function, the enhanced astroglial GABA uptake-induced attenuation of Itonic in HF PVN-RVLM neurons explains the deficit in tonic GABAergic inhibition and increased sympathetic outflow from the PVN during heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Uptake and release of [14C] GABA from rabbit retina synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redburn, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    A partial separation of two synaptosomal fractions was achieved using modifications of conventional homogenization and centrifugation techniques. The two fractions contained morphologically distinct synaptosomal populations, receptor cell synaptosomes (large synaptosomes, P 1 ), and synaptosomes from the other cell types (smaller, conventional-sized synaptosomes, P 2 ). [ 14 C]GABA was bound and released from subcellular fractions from retina under conditions which support its role as a neurotransmitter in retina. On the other hand, [ 3 H]leucine, which is very likely a non-transmitter compound, was bound by retinal fractions but not released to the appropriate stimulation. [ 14 C]GABA binding and release sites were more prevalent in P 2 fractions. [ 14 C]GABA was bound by P 1 fractions containing photoreceptor synaptosomes; however, the K + stimulated release of [ 14 C]GABA appeared to be insensitive to external Ca 2+ . Possible mechanisms are discussed. (author)

  13. Early changes in GABA and dlutamine levels and aminotransferase activity in rat brain after total-body γ-irradiation with absolutely lethal doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanov, V.A.; Karpovich, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The contents of gaama-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate (GL) as well as GABA-aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activities were measured in rat cerebellum, cerebral cortex and truncus cerebri 1, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hr following total-body γ-irradiation ( 60 Co) with a dose of 30 Gy. All the indices under study changed in a similar way in the cortex and truncus cerebri while in the cerebellum, GABA level increased and GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransfearse activity decreased 60 min after irradiation. The levels of GABA and GL in the cortex and truncus cerebri decreased immediately and increased 24 hr after irradiation. Activity of aminotransferases changed in a phase manner: changes in aspartate- and alanine aminotransferase activity were more pronounced than those of GABA-α-ketoglutarate aminotransferase activity and correlated with the glutamate level changes

  14. Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates monosodium glutamate induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by modulating hippocampal BDNF-Akt pathway and uptake of GABA and serotonin neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer used in food, administered to neonatal rats causes neuronal lesions and leads to anxiety when adulthood. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and its mechanisms on anxiety induced by MSG. Neonatal male and female Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4 g/kg/day) from the 1st to 10th postnatal day. At 60 days of life, the rats received (PhSe)2 (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle by the intragastric route for 7 days. The spontaneous locomotor activity (LAM), elevated plus maze test (EPM) and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) as well as neurochemical ([(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake) and molecular analyses (Akt and p-Akt and BDNF levels) were carried out after treatment with (PhSe)2. Neonatal exposure to MSG increased all anxiogenic parameters in LAM, EPM and CFC tests. MSG increased GABA and 5-HT uptake in hippocampus of rats, without changing uptake in cerebral cortex. The levels of BDNF and p-Akt were reduced in hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. The administration of (PhSe)2 to rats reversed all behavioral anxiogenic parameters altered by MSG. The increase in hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake induced by MSG was reversed by (PhSe)2. (PhSe)2 reversed the reduction in hippocampal BDNF and p-Akt levels induced by MSG. In conclusion, the anxiolytic-like action of (PhSe)2 in rats exposed to MSG during their neonatal period is related to its modulation of hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake as well as the BDNF-Akt pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuromodulatory properties of fluorescent carbon dots: effect on exocytotic release, uptake and ambient level of glutamate and GABA in brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Nazarova, Anastasia; Dekaliuk, Mariia; Krisanova, Natalia; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Borysov, Arsenii; Sivko, Roman; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2015-02-01

    Carbon dots (C-dots), a recently discovered class of fluorescent nano-sized particles with pure carbon core, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of fluorescent C-dots obtained from β-alanine by microwave heating were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on the key characteristics of GABA- and glutamatergic neurotransmission in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was found that C-dots (40-800 μg/ml) in dose-dependent manner: (1) decreased exocytotic release of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (2) reduced acidification of synaptic vesicles; (3) attenuated the initial velocity of Na(+)-dependent transporter-mediated uptake of [(3)H]GABA and L-[(14)C]glutamate; (4) increased the ambient level of the neurotransmitters, nevertheless (5) did not change significantly the potential of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals. Almost complete suppression of exocytotic release of the neurotransmitters was caused by C-dots at a concentration of 800 μg/ml. Fluorescent and neuromodulatory features combined in C-dots create base for their potential usage for labeling and visualization of key processes in nerve terminals, and also in theranostics. In addition, natural presence of carbon-containing nanoparticles in the human food chain and in the air may provoke the development of neurologic consequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A mechanistic compartmental model for total antibody uptake in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Dane Wittrup, K

    2012-12-07

    Antibodies are under development to treat a variety of cancers, such as lymphomas, colon, and breast cancer. A major limitation to greater efficacy for this class of drugs is poor distribution in vivo. Localization of antibodies occurs slowly, often in insufficient therapeutic amounts, and distributes heterogeneously throughout the tumor. While the microdistribution around individual vessels is important for many therapies, the total amount of antibody localized in the tumor is paramount for many applications such as imaging, determining the therapeutic index with antibody drug conjugates, and dosing in radioimmunotherapy. With imaging and pretargeted therapeutic strategies, the time course of uptake is critical in determining when to take an image or deliver a secondary reagent. We present here a simple mechanistic model of antibody uptake and retention that captures the major rates that determine the time course of antibody concentration within a tumor including dose, affinity, plasma clearance, target expression, internalization, permeability, and vascularization. Since many of the parameters are known or can be estimated in vitro, this model can approximate the time course of antibody concentration in tumors to aid in experimental design, data interpretation, and strategies to improve localization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is an innovative community led drive to set up pit latrines in rural Kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable sanitation through behaviour change. It's a behaviour change approach based on social capital that triggers households to build pit latrines without subsidy.

  18. Aluminum-Activated Malate Transporters Can Facilitate GABA Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Kamran, Muhammad; Sullivan, Wendy; Chirkova, Larissa; Okamoto, Mamoru; Degryse, Fien; McLaughlin, Michael; Gilliham, Matthew; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2018-05-01

    Plant aluminum-activated malate transporters (ALMTs) are currently classified as anion channels; they are also known to be regulated by diverse signals, leading to a range of physiological responses. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) regulation of anion flux through ALMT proteins requires a specific amino acid motif in ALMTs that shares similarity with a GABA binding site in mammalian GABA A receptors. Here, we explore why TaALMT1 activation leads to a negative correlation between malate efflux and endogenous GABA concentrations ([GABA] i ) in both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) root tips and in heterologous expression systems. We show that TaALMT1 activation reduces [GABA] i because TaALMT1 facilitates GABA efflux but GABA does not complex Al 3+ TaALMT1 also leads to GABA transport into cells, demonstrated by a yeast complementation assay and via 14 C-GABA uptake into TaALMT1 -expressing Xenopus laevis oocytes; this was found to be a general feature of all ALMTs we examined. Mutation of the GABA motif (TaALMT1 F213C ) prevented both GABA influx and efflux, and resulted in no correlation between malate efflux and [GABA] i We conclude that ALMTs are likely to act as both GABA and anion transporters in planta. GABA and malate appear to interact with ALMTs in a complex manner to regulate each other's transport, suggestive of a role for ALMTs in communicating metabolic status. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  19. The glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2006-01-01

    Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttle known as the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle describes the release of neurotransmitter glutamate...... or GABA from neurons and subsequent uptake into astrocytes. In return, astrocytes release glutamine to be taken up into neurons for use as neurotransmitter precursor. In this review, the basic properties of the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle will be discussed, including aspects of transport and metabolism...... of intercellular transfer of ammonia produced in neurons (when glutamine is deamidated to glutamate) and utilized in astrocytes (for amidation of glutamate) when the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle is operating. A main objective of this review is to endorse the view that the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle must...

  20. Use of 3H-muscimol for GABA receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snodgrass, S.R.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major transmitter in the mammalian central nervous system and studies of synaptic receptors for neurotransmitters have been useful in many areas of neuropharmacology. Although GABA receptors can be studied using 3 H-GABA itself, a ligand which does not bind to GABA uptake sites would be valuable for autoradiography and for other studies of receptor function. Muscimol (3-hydroxy-5-aminomethly-isoxazole) is a naturally occurring GABA analogue found in Amanita muscaria. It seems to enter the brain after peripheral injection. Evidence is here presented of the binding of 3 H-muscimol by brain tissue. The ability of muscimol to alter evoked release of GABA by synaptosomes was also of muscimol to alter evoked release of GABA by synaptosomes was also used to verify the ability of muscimol to alter the function of GABA neurones. (author)

  1. Inhibition of total oxygen uptake by silica nanoparticles in activated sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sibag, Mark [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byeong-Gyu [School of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, Korea University, 145, Anam-ro, Sungbuk-ku, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Changwon [Energy Lab, Environment Group, Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-803 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kwan Hyung; Lee, Jae Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering and Program in Environmental Technology and Policy, Korea University, Sejong 339-700 (Korea, Republic of); Maeng, Sung Kyu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jinwoo, E-mail: jinwoocho@sejong.edu [Department of Environment and Energy, Sejong University, 98 Gunja-Dong, Gwangjin-Gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Silica nanoparticles (SNP) inhibit total oxygen uptake in activated sludge. • Relatively smaller SNP are inhibitorier than larger SNP. • SNP alters C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in activated sludge fatty acid methyl ester profile. - Abstract: Nanoparticle toxicity to biological activities in activated sludge is largely unknown. Among the widely used nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SNP) have a limited number of studies associated with inhibition to the activated sludge process (ASP). We demonstrated SNP inhibition of activated sludge respiration through oxygen uptake rate (OUR) measurement. Based on the percentage inhibition of total oxygen consumption (I{sub T}), we observed that smaller SNPs (12 nm, I{sub T} = 33 ± 3%; 151 nm, I{sub T} = 23 ± 2%) were stronger inhibitors than larger SNPs (442 and 683 nm, I{sub T} = 5 ± 1%). Transmission electron micrographs showed that some of the SNPs were adsorbed on and/or apparently embedded somewhere in the microbial cell membrane. Whether SNPs are directly associated with the inhibition of total oxygen uptake warrants further studies. However, it is clear that SNPs statistically significantly altered the composition of microbial membrane lipids, which was more clearly described by principal component analysis and weighted Euclidian distance (PCA-ED) of the fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. This study suggests that SNPs potentially affect the biological activity in activated sludge through the inhibition of total oxygen uptake.

  2. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, H.T.

    1985-01-01

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10 -5 M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3 H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  3. Total skeletal uptake of diphosphonate in Paget's bone disease and rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrejas, M.J.; Mautclen, C.A.; Fromm, G.

    1982-01-01

    Sup(99m) Technetium-diphosphonates (99m-Tc-DP) are very satifactory agents to quantify total skeletal uptake (TSU) in normal and pathological conditions. Although the intimate mechanism of skeletal localization of 99m-Tc-DP is not completely understood the test appears to be a very sensitive index of increased bone turnover. TSU can be determined by several methods: urine collection, whole body counter retention and gamma camara body retention studies. The urine collection method seems to be an easy and reliable method, having the advantage that no expensive device is needed. Further studies on the skeletal uptake of 99m-Tc-DP, in normal subjects and pathological conditions, with special emphasis on patients with rheumatoid arthritis, are reported. Correlation of these data with other tests indicating bone turnover, such as cortical bone loss determined by densitometry or urinary hydroxyproline excretion, supports previous reports that the TSU is a useful parameter to evaluate bone metabolism

  4. GABA accumulating neurons are relatively resistant to chronic hypoxia in vitro: An autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sher, P.K.; Hu, S.

    1990-01-01

    Whether there is preferential loss of certain types of nerve cells or specific cellular functions after hypoxic or ischemic insults remains unclear. To evaluate this phenomenon in vitro, the vulnerability of GABAergic neurons to hypoxia was investigated both quantitatively and with autoradiography. Immature neuronal cortical cultures obtained from fetal mice were subjected to chronic hypoxia (5% O2) for 24 h or 48 h and then returned to the normoxic condition for 48 h. The shorter hypoxic exposure resulted in significantly reduced numbers of neurons in comparison to the longer exposure and also to controls (29% and 26%, respectively; p less than 0.001). LDH efflux, a reliable indicator of cell damage, also was higher after the shorter exposure insult. Nevertheless, in these same 24 h hypoxic cultures there was prominent sparing of those neurons which accumulate GABA: by 48 h of recovery GABAergic neurons constituted 29.3 +/- 2.0% of the remaining neuronal population in comparison to 11.6 +/- 0.6 and 14.4 +/- 0.8% for controls and 48 h hypoxia, respectively; (p less than 0.001). Although total GABA uptake per neuron was significantly decreased after both types of insult, there was a concomitant increase in glial GABA uptake (i.e., that which could be displaced by beta-alanine). These observations suggest that certain GABAergic cortical neurons are relatively more resistant to chronic hypoxia than the general neuronal population and that depression of overall neuronal GABA uptake may be associated with enhanced glial GABA uptake

  5. GABA receptor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Doo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA{sub A}-receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA{sub B}-receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA{sub A}-receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA{sub A}-receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with {sup 11}C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, {sup 18}F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome {sup 11}C's short half-life. {sup 18}F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1{sup 1}C-FMZ PET instead of {sup 18}F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA{sub A} receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas.

  6. GABA receptor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Doo

    2007-01-01

    GABA is primary an inhibitory neurotransmitter that is localized in inhibitory interneurons. GABA is released from presynaptic terminals and functions by binding to GABA receptors. There are two types of GABA receptors, GABA A -receptor that allows chloride to pass through a ligand gated ion channel and GABA B -receptor that uses G-proteins for signaling. The GABA A -receptor has a GABA binding site as well as a benzodiazepine binding sites, which modulate GABA A -receptor function. Benzodiazepine GABAA receptor imaging can be accomplished by radiolabeling derivates that activates benzodiazepine binding sites. There has been much research on flumazenil (FMZ) labeled with 11 C-FMZ, a benzodiazepine derivate that is a selective, reversible antagonist to GABAA receptors. Recently, 18 F-fluoroflumazenil (FFMZ) has been developed to overcome 11 C's short half-life. 18 F-FFMZ shows high selective affinity and good pharmacodynamics, and is a promising PET agent with better central benzodiazepine receptor imaging capabilities. In an epileptic focus, because the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor amount is decreased, using '1 1 C-FMZ PET instead of 18 F-FDG, PET, restrict the foci better and may also help find lesions better than high resolution MR. GABA A receptors are widely distributed in the cerebral cortex, and can be used as an viable neuronal marker. Therefore it can be used as a neuronal cell viability marker in cerebral ischemia. Also, GABA-receptors decrease in areas where neuronal plasticity develops, therefore, GABA imaging can be used to evaluate plasticity. Besides these usages, GABA receptors are related with psychological diseases, especially depression and schizophrenia as well as cerebral palsy, a motor-related disorder, so further in-depth studies are needed for these areas

  7. GABA(A) receptor- and GABA transporter polymorphisms and risk for essential tremor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thier, S; Kuhlenbäumer, G; Lorenz, D

    2011-01-01

    Background:  Clinical features and animal models of essential tremor (ET) suggest gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor (GABA(A) R) subunits and GABA transporters as putative candidate genes. Methods:  A total of 503 ET cases and 818 controls were investigated for an association between polymorphisms...

  8. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  9. GABA predicts visual intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Emily; Hammett, Stephen T; Larsson, Jonas

    2016-10-06

    Early psychological researchers proposed a link between intelligence and low-level perceptual performance. It was recently suggested that this link is driven by individual variations in the ability to suppress irrelevant information, evidenced by the observation of strong correlations between perceptual surround suppression and cognitive performance. However, the neural mechanisms underlying such a link remain unclear. A candidate mechanism is neural inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), but direct experimental support for GABA-mediated inhibition underlying suppression is inconsistent. Here we report evidence consistent with a global suppressive mechanism involving GABA underlying the link between sensory performance and intelligence. We measured visual cortical GABA concentration, visuo-spatial intelligence and visual surround suppression in a group of healthy adults. Levels of GABA were strongly predictive of both intelligence and surround suppression, with higher levels of intelligence associated with higher levels of GABA and stronger surround suppression. These results indicate that GABA-mediated neural inhibition may be a key factor determining cognitive performance and suggests a physiological mechanism linking surround suppression and intelligence. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: Total uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.O.; Tank, J.L.; Sobota, D.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; O'Brien, J. M.; Dodds, W.K.; Webster, J.R.; Valett, H.M.; Poole, G.C.; Peterson, B.J.; Meyer, J.L.; McDowell, W.H.; Johnson, S.L.; Hamilton, S.K.; Grimm, N. B.; Gregory, S.V.; Dahm, Clifford N.; Cooper, L.W.; Ashkenas, L.R.; Thomas, S.M.; Sheibley, R.W.; Potter, J.D.; Niederlehner, B.R.; Johnson, L.T.; Helton, A.M.; Crenshaw, C.M.; Burgin, A.J.; Bernot, M.J.; Beaulieu, J.J.; Arangob, C.P.

    2009-01-01

    We measured uptake length of 15NO-3 in 72 streams in eight regions across the United States and Puerto Rico to develop quantitative predictive models on controls of NO-3 uptake length. As part of the Lotic Intersite Nitrogen eXperiment II project, we chose nine streams in each region corresponding to natural (reference), suburban-urban, and agricultural land uses. Study streams spanned a range of human land use to maximize variation in NO-3 concentration, geomorphology, and metabolism. We tested a causal model predicting controls on NO-3 uptake length using structural equation modeling. The model included concomitant measurements of ecosystem metabolism, hydraulic parameters, and nitrogen concentration. We compared this structural equation model to multiple regression models which included additional biotic, catchment, and riparian variables. The structural equation model explained 79% of the variation in log uptake length (S Wtot). Uptake length increased with specific discharge (Q/w) and increasing NO-3 concentrations, showing a loss in removal efficiency in streams with high NO-3 concentration. Uptake lengths shortened with increasing gross primary production, suggesting autotrophic assimilation dominated NO-3 removal. The fraction of catchment area as agriculture and suburban-urban land use weakly predicted NO-3 uptake in bivariate regression, and did improve prediction in a set of multiple regression models. Adding land use to the structural equation model showed that land use indirectly affected NO-3 uptake lengths via directly increasing both gross primary production and NO-3 concentration. Gross primary production shortened SWtot, while increasing NO-3 lengthened SWtot resulting in no net effect of land use on NO- 3 removal. ?? 2009.

  11. In vitro GABA transport in the neurohypophysis from rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus and after osmotic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, A.; Norstroem, A.; Sandberg, M.; Svanberg, U.

    1979-01-01

    The present study reports on a series of experiments in which the osmotic state of the animal correlates with the concentration of GABA in the pituitary as well as with uptake and release of exogenous GABA. Male rats (200-250 g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain and Brattleboro rats with hereditary hypothalamic diabetes insipidus (D.I.) were used and the uptake of [ 3 H]GABA into the posterior pituitary, studied. Radioactivity was determined by liquid scintillation spectrometry. The radioactivity expressed as cpm/mg protein did not differ proportionally from that expressed as cpm/mg wet weight among control and experimental rats. For radiolabelling of neurophysin in vivo, L-[ 35 S]cystein-hydrochloride was injected into the supraoptic nucleus. The total release of [ 35 S] was proportional to the release of labelled neurophysin. The endogenous levels of most amino acids in the neurohypophysis did not differ appreciably from those of whole brain. The GABA level in the D.I. glands was close to the detection limit of the method and was reduced compared to control glands. Otherwise, no marked difference appeared between control and D.I. glands. (Auth.)

  12. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvill, Gemma L; McMahon, Jacinta M; Schneider, Amy

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutatio...

  13. Regional uptake an variations in orthopaedic enhanced recovery pathways in knee and hip total arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, M J; Baker, P N; Desai, A; Green, R N; Jevons, L

    2016-05-01

    The use of enhanced recovery (ER) pathways for hip and knee arthroplasty has increased over the last decade, and the adoption within orthopaedics is becoming more common. We have demonstrated a regional variation and institutional inconsistency of uptake and delivery of ER pathways in our region. Units that have a unified pathway were more likely to have consistency in treatment and early analgesia for patients. We would advocate that units use an agreed enhanced recovery pathway to optimise patient recovery from hip and knee arthroplasties.

  14. The four human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Trine; Christiansen, Bolette; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn

    2009-01-01

    in high throughput screening. We find that the assay is categorized by high Z'-factors (Z' > 0.5) for all four GAT subtypes, demonstrating that the assay is excellent for a high throughput screen. This [3H]GABA uptake assay therefore enables future high through put screening of compound libraries...

  15. [Schizophrenia and cortical GABA neurotransmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Matsubara, Takuro; Lewis, David A

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia show disturbances in a number of brain functions that regulate cognitive, affective, motor, and sensory processing. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related molecules. First, mRNA levels for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), an enzyme principally responsible for GABA synthesis, and the GABA membrane transporter GAT1, which regulates the reuptake of synaptically released GABA, are decreased in a subset of GABA neurons. Second, affected GABA neurons include those that express the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin (PV), because PV mRNA levels are decreased in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia and GAD67 mRNA is undetectable in almost half of PV-containing neurons. These changes are accompanied by decreased GAT1 expression in the presynaptic terminals of PV-containing neurons and by increased postsynaptic GABA-A receptor alpha2 subunit expression at the axon initial segments of pyramidal neurons. These findings indicate decreased GABA synthesis/release by PV-containing GABA neurons and compensatory changes at synapses formed by these neurons. Third, another subset of GABA neurons that express the neuropeptide somatostatin (SST) also appear to be affected because their specific markers, SST and neuropeptide Y mRNAs, are decreased in a manner highly correlated with the decreases in GAD67 mRNA. Finally, mRNA levels for GABA-A receptor subunits for synaptic (alpha1 and gamma2) and extra-synaptic (delta) receptors are decreased, indicating alterations in both synaptic and extra-synaptic GABA neurotransmission. Together, this pattern of changes indicates that the altered GABA neurotransmission is specific to PV-containing and SST-containing GABA neuron subsets and involves both synaptic and extra

  16. Effects of new fluorinated analogues of GABA, pregabalin bioisosters, on the ambient level and exocytotic release of [3H]GABA from rat brain nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, T; Pozdnyakova, N; Shaitanova, E; Gerus, I; Dudarenko, M; Haufe, G; Kukhar, V

    2017-01-15

    Recently, we have shown that new fluorinated analogues of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), bioisosters of pregabalin (β-i-Bu-GABA), i.e. β-polyfluoroalkyl-GABAs (FGABAs), with substituents: β-CF 3 -β-OH (1), β-CF 3 (2); β-CF 2 CF 2 H (3), are able to increase the initial rate of [ 3 H]GABA uptake by isolated rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes), and this effect is higher than that of pregabalin. So, synthesized FGABAs are structural but not functional analogues of GABA. Herein, we assessed the effects of synthesized FGABAs (100μM) on the ambient level and exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA in nerve terminals and compared with those of pregabalin (100μM). It was shown that FGABAs 1-3 did not influence the ambient level of [ 3 H]GABA in the synaptosomal preparations, and this parameter was also not altered by pregabalin. During blockage of GABA transporters GAT1 by specific inhibitor NO-711, FGABAs and pregabalin also did not change ambient [ 3 H]GABA in synaptosomal preparations. Exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from synaptosomes decreased in the presence of FGABAs 1-3 and pregabalin, and the effects of FGABAs 1 &3 were more significant than those of FGABAs 2 and pregabalin. FGABAs 1-3/pregabalin-induced decrease in exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from synaptosomes was not a result of changes in the potential of the plasma membrane. Therefore, new synthesized FGABAs 1 &3 were able to decrease exocytotic release of [ 3 H]GABA from nerve terminals more effectively in comparison to pregabalin. Absence of unspecific side effects of FGABAs 1 &3 on the membrane potential makes these compounds perspective for medical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic field effect on growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity on mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S.; Elizalde Galindo, José T.; Castillo-Michelle, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R.; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic field is closely related to the cell metabolism of plants [N. A. Belyavskaya, Adv. Space Res. 34, 1566 (2004)]. In order to see the effect of magnetic field on the plant growth, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina) seeds, ten sets of 80 seeds were selected to be oriented with the long axis parallel or randomly oriented to an external magnetic field. The external magnetic field magnitude was 1 T, and the exposition time t = 30 min. Then, the seeds were stored for three days in a plastic bag and then sown on paper towels in a modified Hoagland's nutrient solution. After three days of germination in the dark and three days in light, seedlings were grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland's nutrient solution (high PO42-) containing 0, 10, or 20 ppm of arsenic as As (III) and (V). The results show that the germination ratios, growth, elongation, arsenic uptake, and total amylolytic activity of the long axis oriented mesquite seeds were much higher than those of the randomly oriented seeds. Also, these two sets of seeds showed higher properties than the ones that were not exposed to external magnetic field.

  18. Determination of GABA and vigabatrin in human plasma by a rapid and simple HPLC method: correlation between clinical response to vigabatrin and increase in plasma GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löscher, W; Fassbender, C P; Gram, L; Gramer, M; Hörstermann, D; Zahner, B; Stefan, H

    1993-03-01

    The novel antiepileptic drug vigabatrin (Sabril) acts by inhibiting degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), increasing the GABA concentrations in the brain. Because the GABA degrading enzyme GABA aminotransferase (GABA-T) is also present in peripheral tissues, including blood platelets, measurement of plasma GABA levels might be a useful indication of the pharmacological response to vigabatrin during therapeutic monitoring. However, because of the very low concentrations of GABA in plasma, the few methods available for plasma GABA analysis are time-consuming, difficult to perform and/or not selective enough because of potential interference with other plasma constituents. In the present study, a rapid, selective and sensitive amino acid analysis HPLC method has been developed for plasma GABA determination with fluorescence detection, using o-phthaldialdehyde as a precolumn derivatizing agent. By employing a 3 microns particle size reversed-phase column and a multi-step gradient system of two solvents, the very low endogenous concentration of GABA in human plasma could be reproducibly quantitated without interference of other endogenous compounds. Incubation of human plasma samples with GABA degrading enzyme(s) resulted in an almost total loss of the GABA peak, thus demonstrating the specificity of the method for GABA analysis. In addition to GABA and other endogenous amino acids, the HPLC method could be used to quantitate plasma levels of vigabatrin. Thus, this improved HPLC amino acid assay might be used to examine whether concomitant monitoring of plasma GABA and vigabatrin is useful for clinical purposes. This was examined in 20 epileptic patients undergoing chronic treatment with vigabatrin. The average plasma GABA level of these 20 patients did not differ significantly from non-epileptic controls. However, when epileptic patients were subdivided according to their clinical response to vigabatrin, vigabatrin responders

  19. Total {sup 18}F-dopa PET tumour uptake reflects metabolic endocrine tumour activity in patients with a carcinoid tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Walenkamp, Annemiek M.; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Medical Oncology, Groningen (Netherlands); Jong, Johan R. de; Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Brouwers, Adrienne H. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Kema, Ido P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Groningen (Netherlands); Sluiter, Wim; Links, Thera P. [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Endocrinology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine ({sup 18}F-dopa) has an excellent sensitivity to detect carcinoid tumour lesions. {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake and the levels of biochemical tumour markers are mediated by tumour endocrine metabolic activity. We evaluated whether total {sup 18}F-dopa tumour uptake on PET, defined as whole-body metabolic tumour burden (WBMTB), reflects tumour load per patient, as measured with tumour markers. Seventy-seven consecutive carcinoid patients who underwent an {sup 18}F-dopa PET scan in two previously published studies were analysed. For all tumour lesions mean standardised uptake values (SUVs) at 40% of the maximal SUV and tumour volume on {sup 18}F-dopa PET were determined and multiplied to calculate a metabolic burden per lesion. WBMTB was the sum of the metabolic burden of all individual lesions per patient. The 24-h urinary serotonin, urine and plasma 5-hydroxindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), catecholamines (nor)epinephrine, dopamine and their metabolites, measured in urine and plasma, and serum chromogranin A served as tumour markers. All but 1 were evaluable for WBMTB; 74 patients had metastatic disease. {sup 18}F-dopa PET detected 979 lesions. SUV{sub max} on {sup 18}F-dopa PET varied up to 29-fold between individual lesions within the same patients. WBMTB correlated with urinary serotonin (r = 0.51) and urinary and plasma 5-HIAA (r = 0.78 and 0.66). WBMTB also correlated with urinary norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and plasma dopamine, but not with serum chromogranin A. Tumour load per patient measured with {sup 18}F-dopa PET correlates with tumour markers of the serotonin and catecholamine pathway in urine and plasma in carcinoid patients, reflecting metabolic tumour activity. (orig.)

  20. Noninvasive method for the assessment of dermal uptake of pesticides using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Angela; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2005-03-01

    Dermal absorption of pesticides is a primary exposure route for agricultural workers, but is not well characterized. Current measurement techniques are either invasive, such as tape-stripping, or require extensive sample preparation or analysis time, such as urinary metabolite monitoring or wipe sampling followed by gas chromatography analysis. We present the application of a noninvasive, spectroscopic approach for the measurement of pesticide absorption into skin. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) was used to monitor directly the absorption of two pesticides--captan and azinphos-methyl--in ten volunteers over 20 min under occlusive conditions. We found substantial variability in absorption across subjects. Our results were comparable to those measured by the more traditional method of wipe-sampling followed by extraction and gas chromatography analysis. Multivariate data analysis, in the form of multivariate curve resolution (MCR), is a novel addition to this type of experiment, yielding time-resolved information unachievable by standard methods. These data are potentially more informative than the monitoring of blood or urinary metabolites because they can be acquired in essentially real-time, allowing observations of pesticide absorption on a rapid timescale rather than over hours or days.

  1. Exogenous Application of GABA Improves PEG-Induced Drought Tolerance Positively Associated with GABA-Shunt, Polyamines, and Proline Metabolism in White Clover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Bin; Xie, Huan; Li, Zhou; Li, Ya-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Nie, Gang; Zhang, Xin-Quan; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Lin-Kai; Yan, Yan-Hong; Peng, Yan

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on drought tolerance in white clover (Trifolium repens), GABA shunt, polyamines (PAs), and proline (Pro) metabolism were examined after plants pretreated with or without GABA (8 mM) and then exposed to water or 15% PEG-induced drought stress in growth chamber. In this study, exogenous application of GABA effectively alleviated drought-induced damage in leaves, as reflected by significantly higher relative water content, lower electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation, and leaf wilt. Exogenous GABA further promoted drought-induced increases in GABA transaminase and alpha ketone glutarate dehydrogenase activities, but inhibited glutamate decarboxylase activity under both control and drought conditions, resulting in an increase in endogenous glutamate (Glu) and GABA content. Besides, exogenous GABA could well accelerated PAs synthesis and suppressed PAs catabolism, which lead to the extremely enhanced different types of PAs content (free Put and Spd, insoluble bound Spd and Spm, soluble conjugated Spd and Spm, and total Put, Spd and Spm) under drought stress. In addition, exogenous GABA application further activated drought-induced Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase and proline dehydrogenase activities, but suppressed drought-facilitated ornithine -δ-amino transferase activities, leading to a higher Pro accumulation and metabolism in GABA-pretreated plants in the middle and last period of drought. The results suggested that increased endogenous GABA by exogenous GABA treatment could improve drought tolerance of white clover associated with a positive regulation in the GABA-shunt, PAs and Pro metabolism.

  2. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Misenheimer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As and lead (Pb are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the region. This study examined total and bioaccessible soil As and Pb concentrations and accumulation in 10 commonly grown garden plants collected from three urban community gardens in Puerto Rico. Bioavailability values were predicted using bioaccessibility data to compare site-specific bioavailability estimates to commonly used default exposure assumptions. Total and bioaccessible As levels in study soils ranged from 2 to 55 mg/kg and 1 to 18 mg/kg, respectively. Total and bioaccessible Pb levels ranged from 19 to 172 mg/kg and 17 to 97 mg/kg, respectively. Measured bioaccessibility values corresponded to 19% to 42% bioaccessible As and 61% to 100% bioaccessible Pb when expressed as a percent of total As and Pb respectively. Predicted relative percent bioavailability of soil As and Pb based on measured bioaccessibility values ranged from 18% to 36% and 51% to 85% for As and Pb respectively. Transfer factors (TFs measuring uptake of As in plants from soil ranged from 0 to 0.073 in the edible flesh (fruit or vegetable of plant tissues analyzed and 0.073 to 0.444 in edible leaves. Pb TFs ranged from 0.002 to 0.012 in flesh and 0.023 to 0.204 in leaves. Consistent with TF values, leaves accumulated higher concentrations of As and Pb than the flesh, with the highest tissue concentrations observed in the culantro leaf (3.2 mg/kg dw of As and 8.9 mg/kg dw of Pb. Leaves showed a general but not statistically-significant (α = 0.05 trend of increased As and Pb concentration with increased soil levels, while no trend was observed for flesh tissues. These findings provide critical data that can improve accuracy and reduce uncertainty when conducting site-specific risk determination of

  3. Glucose, Lactate, β-Hydroxybutyrate, Acetate, GABA, and Succinate as Substrates for Synthesis of Glutamate and GABA in the Glutamine-Glutamate/GABA Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Leif; Rothman, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    The glutamine-glutamate/GABA cycle is an astrocytic-neuronal pathway transferring precursors for transmitter glutamate and GABA from astrocytes to neurons. In addition, the cycle carries released transmitter back to astrocytes, where a minor fraction (~25 %) is degraded (requiring a similar amount of resynthesis) and the remainder returned to the neurons for reuse. The flux in the cycle is intense, amounting to the same value as neuronal glucose utilization rate or 75-80 % of total cortical glucose consumption. This glucose:glutamate ratio is reduced when high amounts of β-hydroxybutyrate are present, but β-hydroxybutyrate can at most replace 60 % of glucose during awake brain function. The cycle is initiated by α-ketoglutarate production in astrocytes and its conversion via glutamate to glutamine which is released. A crucial reaction in the cycle is metabolism of glutamine after its accumulation in neurons. In glutamatergic neurons all generated glutamate enters the mitochondria and its exit to the cytosol occurs in a process resembling the malate-aspartate shuttle and therefore requiring concomitant pyruvate metabolism. In GABAergic neurons one half enters the mitochondria, whereas the other one half is released directly from the cytosol. A revised concept is proposed for the synthesis and metabolism of vesicular and nonvesicular GABA. It includes the well-established neuronal GABA reuptake, its metabolism, and use for resynthesis of vesicular GABA. In contrast, mitochondrial glutamate is by transamination to α-ketoglutarate and subsequent retransamination to releasable glutamate essential for the transaminations occurring during metabolism of accumulated GABA and subsequent resynthesis of vesicular GABA.

  4. Measuring coral calcification under ocean acidification: methodological considerations for the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity anomaly technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Cohen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As the oceans become less alkaline due to rising CO2 levels, deleterious consequences are expected for calcifying corals. Predicting how coral calcification will be affected by on-going ocean acidification (OA requires an accurate assessment of CaCO3 deposition and an understanding of the relative importance that decreasing calcification and/or increasing dissolution play for the overall calcification budget of individual corals. Here, we assessed the compatibility of the 45Ca-uptake and total alkalinity (TA anomaly techniques as measures of gross and net calcification (GC, NC, respectively, to determine coral calcification at pHT 8.1 and 7.5. Considering the differing buffering capacity of seawater at both pH values, we were also interested in how strongly coral calcification alters the seawater carbonate chemistry under prolonged incubation in sealed chambers, potentially interfering with physiological functioning. Our data indicate that NC estimates by TA are erroneously ∼5% and ∼21% higher than GC estimates from 45Ca for ambient and reduced pH, respectively. Considering also previous data, we show that the consistent discrepancy between both techniques across studies is not constant, but largely depends on the absolute value of CaCO3 deposition. Deriving rates of coral dissolution from the difference between NC and GC was not possible and we advocate a more direct approach for the future by simultaneously measuring skeletal calcium influx and efflux. Substantial changes in carbonate system parameters for incubation times beyond two hours in our experiment demonstrate the necessity to test and optimize experimental incubation setups when measuring coral calcification in closed systems, especially under OA conditions.

  5. Short-term effects of a dung pat on N2 fixation and total N uptake in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, F.V.; Jensen, E.S.

    1997-01-01

    The short-term effects of a simulated cattle dung pat on N-2 fixation and total uptake of N in a perennial ryegrass/white clover mixture was studied in a container experiment using sheep faeces mixed with water to a DM content of 13%. We used a new N-15 cross-labelling technique to determine...

  6. Patterns of bone tracer uptake on SPECT-CT in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients with primary total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweizer, Thierry; Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland (Bruderholz, Liestal, Laufen), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland); University of Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Schiapparelli, Filippo-Franco; Rotigliano, Niccolo [Kantonsspital Baselland (Bruderholz, Liestal, Laufen), Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Rasch, Helmut [Kantonsspital Baselland, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Amsler, Felix [Amsler Consulting, Basel (Switzerland)

    2018-02-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare bone tracer uptake (BTU) on SPECT/CT in symptomatic and asymptomatic total hip arthroplasty (THA) and identify a possible relationship between BTU patterns and patient's symptoms. The secondary purpose was to investigate if the fixation methods (cemented versus uncemented) lead to different BTU patterns. A total of 58 THAs, 31 symptomatic (group S) and 27 asymptomatic (group AS), were prospectively collected and retrospectively analyzed. All symptomatic patients underwent standardized detailed history, clinical examination, radiographs and 99mTc-HDP SPECT/CT. BTU in SPECT/CT was quantified in three dimensions and anatomically localized in a scheme of quadrants and levels using a customized previously validated software. T tests were used on both quadrants and levels inside and between groups. A Pearson correlation was performed for BTU within the quadrants. An area under receiver operating characteristic curves was drawn in order to find a BTU value that could differentiate the two groups. Within the groups, patients with cemented and uncemented stems were compared for influences on BTU intensity. The causes of pain were identified in 61% of the patients. The most common problem was aseptic loosening (n = 12). In group AS, levels 1, 2 and 5 had similar BTUs. BTUs in these levels were significantly higher than in level 3, 4 and 6. In group S, no significant differences were seen in terms of BTU in level 1-5. However, BTU here was significantly higher than at level 6 (p < 0.001). In both groups, level 1, the superior, had a significantly higher BTU than level 2 (group AS p < 0.01, group S p < 0.05). Comparing the BTU of the two groups among levels, significant differences were found for level 4, level 5 and the entire stem areas (p < 0.05). The ROC curve calculated on the whole stem allowed identification of a BTU ratio of 3.1 that separated the 92.6% patients of group AS with BTU < 3.1 from the 54.8% of patients

  7. Activation induced changes in GABA: Functional MRS at 7T with MEGA-sLASER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Sigurdsson, Hilmar P; Pépés, Sophia E; Auer, Dorothee P; Morris, Peter G; Morgan, Paul S; Gowland, Penny A; Jackson, Stephen R

    2017-08-01

    Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (fMRS) has been used to assess the dynamic metabolic responses of the brain to a physiological stimulus non-invasively. However, only limited information on the dynamic functional response of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, is available. We aimed to measure the activation-induced changes in GABA unambiguously using a spectral editing method, instead of the conventional direct detection techniques used in previous fMRS studies. The Mescher-Garwood-semi-localised by adiabatic selective refocusing (MEGA-sLASER) sequence was developed at 7T to obtain the time course of GABA concentration without macromolecular contamination. A significant decrease (-12±5%) in the GABA to total creatine ratio (GABA/tCr) was observed in the motor cortex during a period of 10min of hand-clenching, compared to an initial baseline level (GABA/tCr =0.11±0.02) at rest. An increase in the Glx (glutamate and glutamine) to tCr ratio was also found, which is in agreement with previous findings. In contrast, no significant changes in NAA/tCr and tCr were detected. With consistent and highly efficient editing performance for GABA detection and the advantage of visually identifying GABA resonances in the spectra, MEGA-sLASER is demonstrated to be an effective method for studying of dynamic changes in GABA at 7T. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Total and Bioaccessible Soil Arsenic and Lead Levels and Plant Uptake in Three Urban Community Gardens in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) are two contaminants of concern associated with urban gardening. In Puerto Rico, data currently is limited on As and Pb levels in urban garden soils, soil metal (loid) bioaccessibility, and uptake of As and Pb in soil by edible plants grown in the regio...

  9. Regulation of GABA and benzodiazepine receptors following neurotoxin-induced striatal and medial forebrain bundle lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, H.S.I.

    1985-01-01

    GABA, a major inhibitory transmitter, is used by many projection neurons of the striatum. To investigate the role of GABA in striatal function, the GABA receptor complex was studied after lesions of the striatum or the nigrostriatal neurons. Quantitative receptor autoradiography using thaw-mounted tissue slices was developed for the study of GABA and benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptors. With the technique established, binding to GABA and BDZ receptors after unilateral striatal kainate lesions was examined. Subsequently, changes in GABA and BDZ receptors were studied following the destruction of dopaminergic nigrostriatal cells by unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the medial forebrain bundle. In summary, quantitative receptor autoradiography allowed the detection of GABA and BDZ receptor changes in multiple small areas in each lesioned brain. This technique made it feasible to carry out kinetic saturation, and competition studies using less than 1 mg of tissue. The data suggest that dopamine is functionally inhibitory on striatopallidal neurons but is functionally excitatory on striatoentopeduncular and striatonigral cells which in turn inhibit the thalamus. This quantitative autoradiographic technique can be generalized to study other transmitter receptors and can be combined with 2-deoxyglucose uptake studies

  10. Bone turnover markers are correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenora, Janaka; Norrgren, Kristina; Thorsson, Ola; Wollmer, Per; Obrant, Karl J; Ivaska, Kaisa K

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal uptake of 99m Tc labelled methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) is used for producing images of pathological bone uptake due to its incorporation to the sites of active bone turnover. This study was done to validate bone turnover markers using total skeletal uptake (TSU) of 99m Tc-MDP. 22 postmenopausal women (52–80 years) volunteered to participate. Scintigraphy was performed by injecting 520 MBq of 99m Tc-MDP and taking whole body images after 3 minutes, and 5 hours. TSU was calculated from these two images by taking into account the urinary loss and soft tissue uptake. Bone turnover markers used were bone specific alkaline phosphatase (S-Bone ALP), three different assays for serum osteocalcin (OC), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase 5b (S-TRACP5b), serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptides of type I collagen (S-CTX-I) and three assays for urinary osteocalcin (U-OC). The median TSU of 99m Tc-MDP was 23% of the administered activity. All bone turnover markers were significantly correlated with TSU with r-values from 0.52 (p = 0.013) to 0.90 (p < 0.001). The two resorption markers had numerically higher correlations (S-TRACP5b r = 0.90, S-CTX-I r = 0.80) than the formation markers (S-Total OC r = 0.72, S-Bone ALP r = 0.66), but the difference was not statistically significant. TSU did not correlate with age, weight, body mass index or bone mineral density. In conclusion, bone turnover markers are strongly correlated with total skeletal uptake of 99m Tc-MDP. There were no significant differences in correlations for bone formation and resorption markers. This should be due to the coupling between formation and resorption

  11. GABA, a natural immunomodulator of T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjurstöm, Helen; Wang, Junyang; Ericsson, Ida

    2008-01-01

    gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could...

  12. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  13. GABA Levels Are Decreased After Stroke and GABA Changes During Rehabilitation Correlate With Motor Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicher, Jakob Udby; Near, Jamie; Næss-Schmidt, Erhard; Stagg, Charlotte J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk; Østergaard, Leif; Ho, Yi-Ching Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the dominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain and is important in motor learning. We aimed to measure GABA content in primary motor cortex poststroke (using GABA-edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy [MRS]) and in relation to motor recovery during 2 weeks of constraint-induced movement therapy (CIMT). Methods Twenty-one patients (3-12 months poststroke) and 20 healthy subjects were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging structural T1 and GABA-edited MRS were performed at baseline and after CIMT, and once in healthy subjects. GABA:creatine (GABA:Cr) ratio was measured by GABA-edited MRS. Motor function was measured using Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT). Results Baseline comparison between stroke patients (n = 19) and healthy subjects showed a significantly lower GABA:Cr ratio in stroke patients (P GABA relative to N-acetylaspartic acid (NAA; P = .03). After 2 weeks of CIMT patients improved significantly on WMFT, but no consistent change across the group was observed for the GABA:Cr ratio (n = 17). However, the extent of improvement on WMFT correlated significantly with the magnitude of GABA:Cr changes (P GABA:Cr ratio being associated with better improvements in motor function. Conclusions In patients 3 to 12 months poststroke, GABA levels are lower in the primary motor cortex than in healthy subjects. The observed association between GABA and recovery warrants further studies on the potential use of GABA MRS as a biomarker in poststroke recovery. PMID:25055837

  14. Effect of thyroxine on cellular oxygen-consumption and glucose uptake: evidence of an effect of total T4 and not "free T4"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvetny, J; Matzen, L E

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies of cellular T4 and T3 uptake have indicated active transport of the hormones into the cell rather than passive diffusion of the non-protein bound fraction. In order to study the significance of the extracellular environment, oxygen consumption and glucose uptake were examined...... in human mononuclear blood cells. Cells were incubated in protein free medium and in human serum totally depleted of thyroid hormones by resin treatment and fixed amounts of T4 (total T4 = 0-50-100-5000 nmol/l; free T4 = 0-5-11-5600 pmol/l) were added. Thyroxine stimulated glucose uptake and oxygen......-consumption in a dose dependent manner but the T4 stimulation was dependent on the total concentration of T4 and did not differ between serum incubation or non-protein containing medium. Addition of ANS (100 mg/l) which inhibits binding of T4 to TBG, did not increase T4 effect in serum. Inhibition of the Na...

  15. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) synthesis of Lactobacillus in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dat, Lai Quoc; Ngan, Tran Thi Kim; Nu, Nguyen Thi Xuan

    2017-09-01

    This research focused on the synthesis of GABA by Lactobacillus bacteria in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract without adding glutamate. Two strains of Lactobacillus were investigated into capacity of GABA synthesis. Result indicates that, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 exhibited the higher capacity of GABA synthesis in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract than that of Lactobacillus plantarum VTCC - B - 890. Total dissolved solid (TDS), free amino acids (AA) and reducing sugar (RS) contents in fermentation of defatted rice bran extract with two strains also significantly decreased. At pH 5 and 9 %w/w of TDS content in defatted rice bran extract, Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 accumulated 2,952 ppm of GABA in 24 hours of fermentation. The result implies that fermentation with Lactobacillus brevis VTCC - B - 454 can be applied for GABA production from defatted rice bran extract.

  16. Mutations in the GABA Transporter SLC6A1 Cause Epilepsy with Myoclonic-Atonic Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvill, Gemma L.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Schneider, Amy; Zemel, Matthew; Myers, Candace T.; Saykally, Julia; Nguyen, John; Robbiano, Angela; Zara, Federico; Specchio, Nicola; Mecarelli, Oriano; Smith, Robert L.; Leventer, Richard J.; Møller, Rikke S.; Nikanorova, Marina; Dimova, Petia; Jordanova, Albena; Petrou, Steven; Helbig, Ingo; Striano, Pasquale; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Berkovic, Samuel F.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    GAT-1, encoded by SLC6A1, is one of the major gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters in the brain and is responsible for re-uptake of GABA from the synapse. In this study, targeted resequencing of 644 individuals with epileptic encephalopathies led to the identification of six SLC6A1 mutations in seven individuals, all of whom have epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures (MAE). We describe two truncations and four missense alterations, all of which most likely lead to loss of function of GAT-1 and thus reduced GABA re-uptake from the synapse. These individuals share many of the electrophysiological properties of Gat1-deficient mice, including spontaneous spike-wave discharges. Overall, pathogenic mutations occurred in 6/160 individuals with MAE, accounting for ∼4% of unsolved MAE cases. PMID:25865495

  17. Effects of salinity and Cu on total uptake of micronutrient in shoot and root of pistachio cultivars (Pistacia vera L.)

    OpenAIRE

    S. Eskandari; V. Mozaffari

    2013-01-01

    To study the effects of soil Cu and salinity levels on uptake of micronutrients by shoots and roots of pistachio seedlings, a factorial experiment was carried out as completely randomized design with three replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran, in May 2008. Treatments consisted of five salinity levels (0, 800, 1600, 2400 and 3200 mg NaCl per kg soil), four Cu levels (0, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg Cu per kg soil) and two pistachio cultivars (Bada...

  18. The effect of glucose stimulation on 45calcium uptake of rat pancreatic islets and their total calcium content as measured by a fluorometric micro-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolters, G.H.J.; Wiegman, J.B.; Konijnendijk, W.

    1982-01-01

    Glucose-stimulated 45 calcium uptake and total calcium content of rat pancreatic islets has been studied, using a new fluorometric micro-method to estimate total calcium. Extracellular calcium was separated from incubated tissue by a rapid micro-filtration procedure. Islets incubated up to 60 min with calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l and glucose 2.5 mmol/l maintained the same calcium content (670 +- 7.5 pmol/μg DNA). When the glucose concentration was raised to 15 mmol/l no change in the total calcium content could be detected. On incubation with glucose 2.5 mmol/l in the absence of calcium, the calcium content decreased to 488 +- 27 pmol/μg DNA. On incubation with 45 calcium chloride 2.5 mmol/l for 5 or 30 min at 2.5 mmol/l glucose, islets exchanged 21 +- 2 and 28 +- 1% of their total calcium content and, at 15 mmol/l glucose, 30 +- 3 and 45 +- 2%, respectively. Thus, islet calcium has a high turn-over rate. Glucose stimulation results in an increase of the calcium uptake without enhancing the total calcium content and hence must increase the calcium-exchangeable pool. (orig.)

  19. In vivo quantification of intracerebral GABA by single-voxel {sup 1}H-MRS-How reproducible are the results?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogner, W. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at; Gruber, S. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: stephan@nmr.at; Doelken, M. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: marc.doelken@uk-erlangen.de; Stadlbauer, A. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: andi@nmr.at; Ganslandt, O. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: oliver.ganslandt@uk-erlangen.de; Boettcher, U. [Siemens Medical Solution, Karl-Schall Str. 6, D-91052 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: uwe.boettcher@siemens.com; Trattnig, S. [MR Centre of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at; Doerfler, A. [Department of Neuroradiology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Austria)], E-mail: a.doerfler@nrad.imed.uni-erlangen.de; Stefan, H. [Center Epilepsy Erlangen (ZEE), Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: Hermann.Stefan@uk-erlangen.de; Hammen, T. [Center Epilepsy Erlangen (ZEE), Department of Neurology, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Schwabachanlage 6, D-91054 Erlangen (Germany)], E-mail: thilo.hammen@uk-erlangen.de

    2010-03-15

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing sequence with Point Resolved Spectroscopy localization (MEGA-PRESS) was determined on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in healthy adults. Eleven volunteers were measured in long- and short-term intervals. Intra- and inter-subject reproducibility were evaluated. Internal referencing of GABA+ to total creatine (tCr) and water (H{sub 2}O), as well as two different post-processing methods for the evaluation (signal integration and time-domain fitting) were compared. In all subjects lower coefficient of variation and therefore higher reproducibility can be observed for fitting compared to integration. The GABA+/tCr ratio performs better than the GABA+/H{sub 2}O ratio or GABA+ without internal referencing for both fitting and integration (GABA+/tCr: 13.3% and 17.0%; GABA+/H{sub 2}O: 15.0% and 17.8%; GABA+: 19.2% and 21.7%). Four-day measurements on three subjects showed higher intra- than inter-subject reproducibility (GABA+/tCr {approx}10-12%). With a coefficient of variation of about 13% for inter-subject and 10-12% for intra-subject variability of GABA+/tCr, this technique seems to be a precise tool that can detect GABA confidently. The results of this study show the reproducibility limitations of GABA quantification in vivo, which are necessary for further clinical studies.

  20. In vivo quantification of intracerebral GABA by single-voxel 1H-MRS-How reproducible are the results?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogner, W.; Gruber, S.; Doelken, M.; Stadlbauer, A.; Ganslandt, O.; Boettcher, U.; Trattnig, S.; Doerfler, A.; Stefan, H.; Hammen, T.

    2010-01-01

    Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. It plays a decisive role in a variety of nervous system disorders, such as anxiety disorders, epilepsy, schizophrenia, insomnia, and many others. The reproducibility of GABA quantification results obtained with a single-voxel spectroscopy J-difference editing sequence with Point Resolved Spectroscopy localization (MEGA-PRESS) was determined on a 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in healthy adults. Eleven volunteers were measured in long- and short-term intervals. Intra- and inter-subject reproducibility were evaluated. Internal referencing of GABA+ to total creatine (tCr) and water (H 2 O), as well as two different post-processing methods for the evaluation (signal integration and time-domain fitting) were compared. In all subjects lower coefficient of variation and therefore higher reproducibility can be observed for fitting compared to integration. The GABA+/tCr ratio performs better than the GABA+/H 2 O ratio or GABA+ without internal referencing for both fitting and integration (GABA+/tCr: 13.3% and 17.0%; GABA+/H 2 O: 15.0% and 17.8%; GABA+: 19.2% and 21.7%). Four-day measurements on three subjects showed higher intra- than inter-subject reproducibility (GABA+/tCr ∼10-12%). With a coefficient of variation of about 13% for inter-subject and 10-12% for intra-subject variability of GABA+/tCr, this technique seems to be a precise tool that can detect GABA confidently. The results of this study show the reproducibility limitations of GABA quantification in vivo, which are necessary for further clinical studies.

  1. The Subcellular Localization of GABA Transporters and Its Implication for Seizure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; Hansen, Gert H; Danielsen, E Michael

    2015-01-01

    anticonvulsant effect in several seizure models in mice. The pharmacological profile of these and similar compounds has been thoroughly investigated in in vitro systems, comparing the GAT subtype selectivity with the ability to inhibit GABA uptake in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes. However, an exact...

  2. Glutamate/GABA+ ratio is associated with the psychosocial domain of autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Nibbs, Richard; Crewther, David P

    2017-01-01

    The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity. Hence, the relationship between the glutamate/GABA ratio and autism and schizophrenia spectrum traits in an unmedicated, subclinical population was investigated. A total of 37 adults (19 female, 18 male) aged 18-38 years completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ), and participated in the resting state proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in which sequences specific for quantification of glutamate and GABA+ concentration were applied to a right and left superior temporal voxel. There were significant, moderate, positive relationships between right superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio and AQ, SPQ and AQ+SPQ total scores (pGABA+ coinciding with higher scores on these subscales. Only the relationships between glutamate/GABA+ ratio and Social Anxiety, Constricted Affect, Social Skills and Communication survived multiple comparison correction (pGABA+ ratio reduced with increasing restricted imagination (pschizophrenia spectra.

  3. GABA Shunt in Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petronia Carillo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to salinity are complex, especially when combined with other stresses, and involve many changes in gene expression and metabolic fluxes. Until now, plant stress studies have been mainly dealt only with a single stress approach. However, plants exposed to multiple stresses at the same time, a combinatorial approach reflecting real-world scenarios, show tailored responses completely different from the response to the individual stresses, due to the stress-related plasticity of plant genome and to specific metabolic modifications. In this view, recently it has been found that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA but not glycine betaine (GB is accumulated in durum wheat plants under salinity only when it is combined with high nitrate and high light. In these conditions, plants show lower reactive oxygen species levels and higher photosynthetic efficiency than plants under salinity at low light. This is certainly relevant because the most of drought or salinity studies performed on cereal seedlings have been done in growth chambers under controlled culture conditions and artificial lighting set at low light. However, it is very difficult to interpret these data. To unravel the reason of GABA accumulation and its possible mode of action, in this review, all possible roles for GABA shunt under stress are considered, and an additional mechanism of action triggered by salinity and high light suggested.

  4. Anion transport and GABA signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Andreas Huebner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas activation of GABAA receptors by GABA usually results in a hyperpolarizing influx of chloride into the neuron, the reversed chloride driving force in the immature nervous system results in a depolarizing efflux of chloride. This GABAergic depolarization is deemed to be important for the maturation of the neuronal network. The concept of a developmental GABA switch has mainly been derived from in vitro experiments and reliable in vivo evidence is still missing. As GABAA receptors are permeable for both chloride and bicarbonate, the net effect of GABA also critically depends on the distribution of bicarbonate. Whereas chloride can either mediate depolarizing or hyperpolarizing currents, bicarbonate invariably mediates a depolarizing current under physiological conditions. Intracellular bicarbonate is quickly replenished by cytosolic carbonic anhydrases. Intracellular bicarbonate levels also depend on different bicarbonate transporters expressed by neurons. The expression of these proteins is not only developmentally regulated but also differs between cell types and even subcellular regions. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about the role of some of these transporters for brain development and brain function.

  5. Reconstruction of a metabolic regulatory network in Escherichia coli for purposeful switching from cell growth mode to production mode in direct GABA fermentation from glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Yuki; Fujiwara, Yuri; Nakagawa, Takuya; Tsuruno, Keigo; Hanai, Taizo

    2017-09-01

    γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a drug and functional food additive and is used as a monomer for producing the biodegradable plastic, polyamide 4. Recently, direct GABA fermentation from glucose has been developed as an alternative to glutamate-based whole cell bioconversion. Although total productivity in fermentation is determined by the specific productivity and cell amount responsible for GABA production, the optimal metabolic state for GABA production conflicts with that for bacterial cell growth. Herein, we demonstrated metabolic state switching from the cell growth mode based on the metabolic pathways of the wild type strain to a GABA production mode based on a synthetic metabolic pathway in Escherichia coli through rewriting of the metabolic regulatory network and pathway engineering. The GABA production mode was achieved by multiple strategies such as conditional interruption of the TCA and glyoxylate cycles, engineering of GABA production pathway including a bypass for precursor metabolite supply, and upregulation of GABA transporter. As a result, we achieved 3-fold improvement in total GABA production titer and yield (4.8g/L, 49.2% (mol/mol glucose)) in batch fermentation compared to the case without metabolic state switching (1.6g/L, 16.4% (mol/mol glucose)). This study reports the highest GABA production performance among previous reports on GABA fermentation from glucose using engineered E. coli. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of arsenic (III) and (V) on plant growth, element uptake, and total amylolytic activity of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng S; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2008-01-01

    The effects of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] on the growth of roots, stems, and leaves and the uptake of arsenic (As), micro- and macronutrients, and total amylolytic activity were investigated to elucidate the phytotoxicity of As to the mesquite plant (Prosopis juliflora x P. velutina). The plant growth was evaluated by measuring the root and shoot length, and the element uptake was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The root and leaf elongation decreased significantly with increasing As(III) and As(V) concentrations; whereas, stem elongation remained unchanged. The As uptake increased with increasing As(III) or As(V) concentrations in the medium. Plants treated with 50 mg/L As(III) accumulated up to 920 mg/kg dry weight (d wt) in roots and 522 mg/kg d wt in leaves, while plants exposed to 50 mg/L As(V) accumulated 1980 and 210 mg/kg d wt in roots and leaves, respectively. Increasing the As(V) concentration up to 20 mg/L resulted in a decrease in the total amylolytic activity. On the contrary, total amylolytic activity in As(III)-treated plants increased with increasing As concentration up to 20 mg/L. The macro- and micronutrient concentrations changed in As-treated plants. In shoots, Mo and K were reduced but Ca was increased, while in roots Fe and Ca were increased but K was reduced. These changes reduced the size of the plants, mainly in the As(III)-treated plants; however, there were no visible sign of As toxicity.

  7. GABA interaction with lipids in organic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltramo, D.; Kivatinitz, S.; Lassaga, E.; Arce, A.

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of 3 H-GABA and 14 C-glutamate with lipids in an aqueous organic partition system was studied. With this partition system 3 H-GABA and 14 C-glutamate were able to interact with sphingomyelin, sulfatide, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid but not with cholesterol or ceramide. In an homogeneous aqueous medium the authors could not demonstrate any interaction between 3 H-GABA-lipids. The apparent dissociation constants (K/sub d/) for 3 H-GABA-lipids or 14 C-glutamate-lipids interactions inorganic medium were in the millimolar range and maximal charge between 3 and 7 moles of GABA or glutamate by mole of lipid. Amino acids such as glutamic acid, β-alanine and glycine displaced 3 H-GABA with the same potency as GABA itself; thus these results show that the interaction lacks pharmacological specificity. To detect this interaction lipid concentrations higher than 2 μM were required and in the partition system 3 H-GABA and lipid phosphorus were both concentrated at the interface. Therefore, lipids tested with a biphasic partition system do not fulfill the classical criteria for a neurotransmitter receptor at least not for GABA and glutamate. 15 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  8. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2011-04-27

    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p GABA-enriched white tea.

  9. Functional loss of GABA transaminase (GABA-T) expressed early leaf senescence under various stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil, Syed Uzma; Ahmad, Iqbal; Ansari, Mohammad Israil

    2017-01-01

    GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism during the plant development process via GABA shunt and GABA-T mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism, is ideal model to examine the role of GABA-T in plant development and leaf senescence of plant. We have characterized GABA transaminase knock out mutant pop2-1 that is transition and pop2-3 which is T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.The GABA-T knockout mutant plants disp...

  10. Uptake of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Oryza sativa L. Grown in Soil Contaminated with Crude Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patowary, Rupshikha; Patowary, Kaustuvmani; Devi, Arundhuti; Kalita, Mohan Chandra; Deka, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in crude oil contaminated sites are transferred to roots, shoots and finally the grains of rice crops (Oryza sativa L.) grown in those sites. Soil was artificially contaminated with crude oil at concentrations of 0, 1000, 5000, 10,000, and 15,000 mg/kg, followed by planting of rice seedlings. After harvest, TPH in plant samples were measured, and it was determined that the uptake of TPH by the plants gradually increased as the concentration of oil in soil increased. Further, from GC-MS analysis, it was observed that PAHs including naphthalene and phenanthrene bioaccumulated in rice plant parts. Vital physico-chemical properties of soil were also altered due to crude oil contamination. Our study revealed that rice plants grown in crude oil polluted sites can uptake TPH including PAHs, thus emphasising the importance of prior investigation of soil condition before cultivation of crops.

  11. Induction of the GABA cell phenotype: an in vitro model for studying neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivan Subburaju

    Full Text Available Recent studies of the hippocampus have suggested that a network of genes is associated with the regulation of the GAD₆₇ (GAD1 expression and may play a role in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA dysfunction in schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD. To obtain a more detailed understanding of how GAD₆₇ regulation may result in GABAergic dysfunction, we have developed an in vitro model in which GABA cells are differentiated from the hippocampal precursor cell line, HiB5. Growth factors, such as PDGF, and BDNF, regulate the GABA phenotype by inducing the expression of GAD₆₇ and stimulating the growth of cellular processes, many with growth cones that form appositions with the cell bodies and processes of other GAD₆₇-positive cells. These changes are associated with increased expression of acetylated tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 and the post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95. The addition of BDNF, together with PDGF, increases the levels of mRNA and protein for GAD₆₇, as well as the high affinity GABA uptake protein, GAT1. These changes are associated with increased concentrations of GABA in the cytoplasm of "differentiated" HiB5 neurons. In the presence of Ca²⁺ and K⁺, newly synthesized GABA is released extracellularly. When the HiB5 cells appear to be fully differentiated, they also express GAD₆₅, parvalbumin and calbindin, and GluR subtypes as well as HDAC1, DAXX, PAX5, Runx2, associated with GAD₆₇ regulation. Overall, these results suggest that the HiB5 cells can differentiate into functionally mature GABA neurons in the presence of gene products that are associated with GAD₆₇ regulation in the adult hippocampus.

  12. Uptake of carbon monoxide by C3H mice following X irradiation of lung only or total-body irradiation with 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rappaport, D.S.; Niewoehner, D.E.; Kim, T.H.; Song, C.W.; Levitt, S.H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide uptake (V/sub co/) and ventilation rate (VR) of C3H mice were determined at 14 weeks following either X irradiation of lungs only or total-body irradiation with 60 Co at different dose rates. Following localized X irradiation of lung at 97 /sub c/Gy/min there was a reduction in V/sub co/, which was inversely related to radiation dose, with a small reduction below control levels being detected at 7 Gy, the lowest dose tested. An increase in VR could be detected only at doses of 11 Gy, or more. Another group of animals received 11.5 Gy total-body irradiation at either 26.2 or 4.85 /sub c/Gy/min fllowed by transplantation with syngeneic bone marrow. Following total-body irradiation, V/sub co/ was significantly reduced by about 37% at the higher dose rate and 23% at the lower dose rate. In contrast, a trend toward elevated VR was detected only at the higher dose rate.The results indicate that V/sub co/ is a sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury and that under the experimental conditions used V/sub co/ is a more sensitive indicator of radiation-induced lung injury in C3H mice than VR

  13. Turnover and release of GABA in rat cortical slices: effect of a GABA-T inhibitor, gabaculine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerb, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The turnover and release of endogenous and labeled GABA were followed in rat cortical slices after incubation with [ 3 H]GABA. High performance liquid chromatography was used to measure endogenous GABA and to separate [ 3 H]GABA from its metabolites. During superfusion with 3 mM K + the slices rapidly lost their [ 3 H]GABA content while maintaining constant GABA levels. Exposure to 50 mM K + for 25 min caused an initial rapid rise in the release of both endogenous and [ 3 H]GABA followed by a more rapid decline in the release of the latter. The specific activity of released GABA was two to four times higher than that in the slices. Depolarization lead to a net synthesis of GABA. The GABA -T inhibitor, gabaculine, (5 micrometers) in vitro arrested the metabolism of [ 3 H]GABA and rapidly doubled the GABA content but did not significantly increase the high K + evoked release of endogenous GABA. In vivo pretreatment with 0.5 mM/kg gabaculine quadrupled GABA content and increased both the spontaneous and evoked release of endogenous GABA but while its Ca 2 + -dependent release increased by 50%, the Ca 2 + -independent release was enhanced sevenfold. This large Ca 2 + -independent release of GABA is likely to have different functional significance from the normal Ca 2 + -dependent release

  14. Pulmonary uptake of thallium-201 in patients with congenital heart disease; Comparison between total anomalous pulmonary venous connection and tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohata, Tohru; Ono, Yasuo; Iwatani, Hajime; Fukushima, Hideki; Kamiya, Tetsuro; Yagihara, Toshikatsu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Takamiya, Makoto (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the pulmonary extravascular space in patients with congenital heart disease, lung uptake of Tl-201 was quantitatively studied. Patients' diseases consisted of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC)--supracardiac (I), paracardiac (II) and infracardiac (III) types--, tetralogy of Fallot (T/F), ventricular septal defect (VSD), and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Tl-201 imaging was performed before operation and in the early and late stages after operation. Twenty-five other patients with arrhythemias or a history of Kawasaki disease without perfusion defects served as controls. Lung uptake of Tl-201 was analyzed with a computer using the anterior image of the chest, and the averge count ratio of the right lung (P) to the left ventricular wall (LV) was calculated. P/LV values were compared between the patients before and after operation, and differences in anatomical types in TAPVC were also evaluated. In TAPVC, P/LV values decreased gradually after operation, but were significantly higher than those of controls even in the late stage. In the late stage after operation, type I TAPVC had significantly higher P/LV values than those of type-II. In T/F, the P/LV values were significantly higher after operation, even in the late stage, than before operation. In the VSD or PDA group, the P/LV value returned to normal after operation and was significantly lower than that before operation. In conclusion, TAPVC patients was considered to have a larger pulmonary extravascular space even in the late stage after operation, suggesting a sign of pulmonary congestion due to intrapulmonary vascular damage in utero. In T/F, scanty pulmonary vascular beds before operation were perfused with increased pulmonary blood flow after operation. Therefore, postoperative increases in pulmonary blood flow may be responsible for the increased pulmonary extravascular space. (N.K.).

  15. Genetics Home Reference: GABA-transaminase deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Description GABA-transaminase deficiency is a brain disease (encephalopathy) that begins in infancy. Babies with this disorder ... genetic testing? What is precision medicine? What is newborn screening? New Pages LMNA-related congenital muscular dystrophy ...

  16. Transport of amino acids and GABA analogues via the human proton-coupled amino acid transporter, hPAT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mie; Larsen, Birger Brodin; Frølund, Bente

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate transepithelial amino acid transport as a function of Caco-2 cell culture time. Furthermore, the objective was to investigate apical uptake characteristics of hPAT1-mediated transport under various experimental conditions. Apical amino acid uptake......, which has been shown to function as a carboxylic acid bioisostere for substrates of the GABA receptor and transport systems....

  17. Effect of ouabain on the gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid uptake and release in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, M.S.; Goncalves, P.P.; Carvalho, A.P.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of ouabain on the uptake of tritiated [ 3 H]GABA and on its release in the absence of Ca(+)+ was studied in brain cortex synaptosomes. Ouabain, in the absence of Ca(+)+ and K(+)-depolarization, induces the release of [ 3 H]GABA with half-maximal effect occurring at a concentration of about 7 X 10(-6) M. Parallel measurements of the effects of ouabain on the [ 3 H]GABA uptake and the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity show that ouabain inhibits both mechanisms and that the half-maximal effect also occurs at about the same ouabain concentration. Although [ 3 H]GABA release is stimulated by ouabain, it appears that the inhibition of [ 3 H]GABA uptake is due to a direct effect on the uptake mechanism, inasmuch as the initial velocity of the process is inhibited by ouabain. Ouabain requires extracellular Na+ for [ 3 H]GABA release and for membrane depolarization and, in the absence of Na+, ouabain does not cause either [ 3 H]GABA release or membrane depolarization. No significant changes in the Na+ gradients occur under conditions which permit release of [ 3 H]GABA, but the Na+,K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase activity is inhibited, which may be responsible for membrane depolarization, which in turn may cause [ 3 H]GABA release or inhibit its uptake

  18. Novel GABA receptor pesticide targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, John E; Durkin, Kathleen A

    2015-06-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has four distinct but overlapping and coupled targets of pesticide action importantly associated with little or no cross-resistance. The target sites are differentiated by binding assays with specific radioligands, resistant strains, site-directed mutagenesis and molecular modeling. Three of the targets are for non-competitive antagonists (NCAs) or channel blockers of widely varied chemotypes. The target of the first generation (20th century) NCAs differs between the larger or elongated compounds (NCA-IA) including many important insecticides of the past (cyclodienes and polychlorocycloalkanes) or present (fiproles) and the smaller or compact compounds (NCA-IB) highly toxic to mammals and known as cage convulsants, rodenticides or chemical threat agents. The target of greatest current interest is designated NCA-II for the second generation (21st century) of NCAs consisting for now of isoxazolines and meta-diamides. This new and uniquely different NCA-II site apparently differs enough between insects and mammals to confer selective toxicity. The fourth target is the avermectin site (AVE) for allosteric modulators of the chloride channel. NCA pesticides vary in molecular surface area and solvent accessible volume relative to avermectin with NCA-IBs at 20-22%, NCA-IAs at 40-45% and NCA-IIs at 57-60%. The same type of relationship relative to ligand-docked length is 27-43% for NCA-IBs, 63-71% for NCA-IAs and 85-105% for NCA-IIs. The four targets are compared by molecular modeling for the Drosophila melanogaster GABA-R. The principal sites of interaction are proposed to be: pore V1' and A2' for NCA-IB compounds; pore A2', L6' and T9' for NCA-IA compounds; pore T9' to S15' in proximity to M1/M3 subunit interface (or alternatively an interstitial site) for NCA-II compounds; and M1/M3, M2 interfaces for AVE. Understanding the relationships of these four binding sites is important in resistance management and in the discovery and use

  19. Glutamate/GABA+ ratio is associated with the psychosocial domain of autistic and schizotypal traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C Ford

    Full Text Available The autism and schizophrenia spectra overlap to a large degree in the social and interpersonal domains. Similarly, abnormal excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurotransmitter concentrations have been reported for both spectra, with the interplay of these neurotransmitters important for cortical excitation to inhibition regulation. This study investigates whether these neurotransmitter abnormalities are specific to the shared symptomatology, and whether the degree of abnormality increases with increasing symptom severity. Hence, the relationship between the glutamate/GABA ratio and autism and schizophrenia spectrum traits in an unmedicated, subclinical population was investigated.A total of 37 adults (19 female, 18 male aged 18-38 years completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ and Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ, and participated in the resting state proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study in which sequences specific for quantification of glutamate and GABA+ concentration were applied to a right and left superior temporal voxel.There were significant, moderate, positive relationships between right superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio and AQ, SPQ and AQ+SPQ total scores (p<0.05, SPQ subscales Social Anxiety, No Close Friend, Constricted Affect, Odd Behaviour, Odd Speech, Ideas of Reference and Suspiciousness, and AQ subscales Social Skills, Communication and Attention Switching (p<0.05; increased glutamate/GABA+ coinciding with higher scores on these subscales. Only the relationships between glutamate/GABA+ ratio and Social Anxiety, Constricted Affect, Social Skills and Communication survived multiple comparison correction (p< 0.004. Left superior temporal glutamate/GABA+ ratio reduced with increasing restricted imagination (p<0.05.These findings demonstrate evidence for an association between excitatory/inhibitory neurotransmitter concentrations and symptoms that are shared between the autism and

  20. Gaba /SUB a/ vs gaba /SUB b/ modulation of septal-hippocampal interconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaker, W.D.; Cheney, D.L.; Costa, E.

    1986-01-01

    The authors perform studies to correlate pharmacologically induced decreases in the hippocampal TR /SUB ACh/ with changes in extinction of a foodreinforced lever press response. The authors differentiate the behavioral effects elicited by GABAergic vs. non-GABAergic inhibition of hippocampal cholinergic activity as well as show that GABA /SUB A/ receptor activation in the septum produces a behavioral-biochemical profile different from that elicited by GABA /SUB B/ receptor activation. To characterize GABA receptors tritium-GABA binding was performed in rats injected bilaterally with 1 ug kainic acid into the ventral and dorsal hippocampi. Representative cumulative recorder tracings showing the effect of varius intraseptal doses of the GABA /SUB A/ agonist muscimol on extinction after CRF training are show for one experiment. The most marked differences between muscimol and saline treated rats were seen in the extinction response patterns

  1. Production of gaba (γ - aminobutyric acid by microorganisms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Dhakal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB, which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods.

  2. Production of gaba (γ - Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods.

  3. In vivo measurement of GABA transmission in healthy subjects and schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankle, W Gordon; Cho, Raymond Y; Prasad, Konasale M; Mason, N Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L; Walker, Christopher; Lewis, David A; Narendran, Rajesh

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem studies in schizophrenia reveal alterations in gene products that regulate the release and extracellular persistence of GABA. However, results of in vivo studies of schizophrenia measuring total tissue GABA with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been inconsistent. Neither the postmortem nor the MRS studies directly address the physiological properties of GABA neurotransmission. The present study addresses this question through an innovative positron emission tomography (PET) paradigm. The binding of [(11)C]flumazenil, a benzodiazepine-specific PET radiotracer, was measured before and after administration of tiagabine (0.2 mg/kg of body weight), a GABA membrane transporter (GAT1) blocker, in 17 off-medication patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy comparison subjects. Increased extracellular GABA, through GAT1 blockade, enhances the affinity of GABAA receptors for benzodiazepine ligands, detected as an increase in [(11)C]flumazenil tissue distribution volume (VT). [(11)C]Flumazenil VT was significantly increased across all cortical brain regions in the healthy comparison group but not in the schizophrenia group. This lack of effect was most prominent in the antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia group. In this subgroup, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT in the medial temporal lobe was correlated with positive symptoms, and baseline [(11)C]flumazenil VT in the medial temporal lobe was negatively correlated with visual learning. In the healthy comparison group but not the schizophrenia group, [(11)C]flumazenil ΔVT was positively associated with gamma-band oscillation power. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an in vivo impairment in GABA transmission in schizophrenia, most prominent in antipsychotic-naive individuals. The impairment in GABA transmission appears to be linked to clinical symptoms, disturbances in cortical oscillations, and cognition.

  4. Effect of Songyu Anshen Fang on expression of hypothalamic GABA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. Available online ... GABA and GABA(B) receptor proteins in insomniac rats induced by ..... induced by PCPA; ***p < 0.001 vs Saline group ; ###p.

  5. Analysis of 18 F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U.; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D.; Buell, U.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [de

  6. GABA signalling during development: new data and old questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varju, P; Katarova, Z; Madarász, E; Szabó, G

    2001-08-01

    In addition to being the major inhibitory neurotransmitter, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a morphogenetic role in embryonic development. During the last decade, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in GABA synthesis and biological action. The present review is an attempt to summarise recent results on the ontogeny of the different components of embryonic GABA signalling with an emphasis on the synthesis of GABA by different molecular forms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD).

  7. Action of bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues on GABA transporters and its relation to anticonvulsant activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, T; Larsson, O M; Pickering, D S

    1999-01-01

    The inhibitory action of bicyclic isoxazole gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) analogues and their 4,4-diphenyl-3-butenyl (DPB) substituted derivatives has been investigated in cortical neurones and astrocytes as well as in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells transiently expressing either mouse GA...... anticonvulsant activity, lack of proconvulsant activity and the ability of THPO to increase extracellular GABA concentration, indicate that these bicyclic isoxazole GABA analogues and their DPB derivatives may be useful lead structures in future search for new antiepileptic drugs....

  8. Nitrate uptake and utilization is modulated by exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jose M; Singh, Narendra K; Cherry, Joe H; Locy, Robert D

    2010-06-01

    Exogenously applied GABA modulates root growth by inhibition of root elongation when seedlings were grown in vitro on full-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) salts, but root elongation was stimulated when seedlings were grown on 1/8 strength MS salts. When the concentration of single ions in MS salts was individually varied, the control of growth between inhibition and stimulation was found to be related to the level of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in the growth medium. At NO(3)(-) concentrations below 40 mM (full-strength MS salts level), root growth was stimulated by the addition of GABA to the growth medium; whereas at concentrations above 40 mM NO(3)(-), the addition of GABA to the growth medium inhibited root elongation. GABA promoted NO(3)(-) uptake at low NO(3)(-), while GABA inhibited NO(3)(-) uptake at high NO(3)(-). Activities of several enzymes involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism including nitrate reductase (NR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT), NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH), and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) were regulated by GABA in the growth medium. Supplementing 1/8 strength MS medium with 50 mM GABA enhanced the activities of all of the above enzymes except ICDH activities in root tissues. However, at full-strength MS, GABA showed no inhibitory effect on the activities of these enzymes, except on GS in both root and shoot tissues, and PEPCase activity in shoot tissues. Exogenous GABA increased the amount of NR protein rather than its activation status in the tissues. This study shows that GABA affects the growth of Arabidopsis, possibly by acting as a signaling molecule, modulating the activity of enzymes involved in primary nitrogen metabolism and nitrate uptake.

  9. L-Proline, GABA Synthesis and Gamma Oscillations in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, David W.; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Lewis, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Altered inhibition from parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons is thought to contribute to impaired gamma frequency oscillations and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crabtree and colleagues report that proline dehydrogenase deficits produce excessive cytosolic levels of the GABA-mimetic L-proline which impairs GABA synthesis and gamma oscillations in a manner that mimics schizophrenia.

  10. GABA, its receptors, and GABAergic inhibition in mouse taste buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvoryanchikov, Gennady; Huang, Yijen A; Barro-Soria, Rene; Chaudhari, Nirupa; Roper, Stephen D

    2011-04-13

    Taste buds consist of at least three principal cell types that have different functions in processing gustatory signals: glial-like (type I) cells, receptor (type II) cells, and presynaptic (type III) cells. Using a combination of Ca2+ imaging, single-cell reverse transcriptase-PCR and immunostaining, we show that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter in mouse taste buds, acting on GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors to suppress transmitter (ATP) secretion from receptor cells during taste stimulation. Specifically, receptor cells express GABA(A) receptor subunits β2, δ, and π, as well as GABA(B) receptors. In contrast, presynaptic cells express the GABA(A) β3 subunit and only occasionally GABA(B) receptors. In keeping with the distinct expression pattern of GABA receptors in presynaptic cells, we detected no GABAergic suppression of transmitter release from presynaptic cells. We suggest that GABA may serve function(s) in taste buds in addition to synaptic inhibition. Finally, we also defined the source of GABA in taste buds: GABA is synthesized by GAD65 in type I taste cells as well as by GAD67 in presynaptic (type III) taste cells and is stored in both those two cell types. We conclude that GABA is an inhibitory transmitter released during taste stimulation and possibly also during growth and differentiation of taste buds.

  11. GABA sensitivity of spectrally classified horizontal cells in goldfish retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, J.; Kamermans, M.; Negishi, K.; Spekreijse, H.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the GABA sensitivity of horizontal cells in the isolated goldfish retina. After the glutamatergic input to the horizontal cells was blocked with DNQX, GABA depolarized the monophasic and biphasic horizontal cells. The pharmacology of these GABA-induced depolarizations was tested with the

  12. Synthesis of γ-amino[4-11C]butyric acid (GABA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoni, G.; Laangstroem, B.

    1989-01-01

    A one-pot synthesis of no-carrier added γ-amino[4- 11 C]butyric acid (GABA) starting with hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide prepared from [ 11 C]carbon dioxide, is presented. Hydrogen [ 11 C]cyanide was trapped in tetrahydrofuran/potassium hydroxide in the presence of the amino polyether Krytofix 2.2.2. A Michael addition with ethyl acrylate followed by a selective reduction and hydrolysis of the resulting amino ester gave [4- 11 C]GABA. The radiochemical purity of GABA was higher than 99% and the decay corrected radiochemical yield was 60-65% based on the amount of H[ 11 C]CN used. The total synthesis time including purification was around 40 min, counted from the start of the Michael addition reaction. (Author)

  13. GABA, 5-HT and amino acids in the rotifers Brachionus plicatilis and Brachionus rotundiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, W G; Hagiwara, A; Hara, K; Soyano, K; Snell, T W

    2000-11-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) have been shown to increase the reproduction of the Brachionus plicatilis (NH3L strain). In the present study, the endogenous presence of GABA and 5-HT in the rotifers B. plicatilis (NH3L and Kamiura strains) and Brachionus rotundiformis (Langkawi strain) were confirmed by dot blot immunoassay and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). HPLC showed that GABA and 5-HT concentrations in the three rotifer strains range from 71 to 188 pmol/mg and from 12 to 64 pmol/mg, respectively. A total of 33 amino acids were also detected in B. plicatilis and B. rotundiformis, with glutamic acid, serine, glycine, taurine, threonine, alanine, arginine, proline, valine and isoleucine in high concentrations relative to other amino acids.

  14. Drug-induced GABA transporter currents enhance GABA release to induce opioid withdrawal behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Elena E; Hacker, Jennifer; Chefer, Vladimir I; Mallet, Christophe; McNally, Gavan P; Chieng, Billy C H; Perroud, Julie; Shippenberg, Toni S; Christie, MacDonald J

    2011-10-30

    Neurotransmitter transporters can affect neuronal excitability indirectly via modulation of neurotransmitter concentrations or directly via transporter currents. A physiological or pathophysiological role for transporter currents has not been described. We found that GABA transporter 1 (GAT-1) cation currents directly increased GABAergic neuronal excitability and synaptic GABA release in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) during opioid withdrawal in rodents. In contrast, GAT-1 did not indirectly alter GABA receptor responses via modulation of extracellular GABA concentrations. Notably, we found that GAT-1-induced increases in GABAergic activity contributed to many PAG-mediated signs of opioid withdrawal. Together, these data support the hypothesis that GAT-1 activity directly produces opioid withdrawal signs through direct hyperexcitation of GABAergic PAG neurons and nerve terminals, which presumably enhances GABAergic inhibition of PAG output neurons. These data provide, to the best of our knowledge, the first evidence that dysregulation of a neurotransmitter transporter current is important for the maladaptive plasticity that underlies opiate withdrawal.

  15. Analysis of {sup 18} F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik; Buell, U.

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Identifikation von Befundmustern in der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F

  16. The effects of elevated endogenous GABA levels on movement-related network oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaraswamy, S D; Myers, J F M; Wilson, S J; Nutt, D J; Lingford-Hughes, A; Singh, K D; Hamandi, K

    2013-02-01

    The EEG/MEG signal is generated primarily by the summation of the post-synaptic potentials of cortical principal cells. At a microcircuit level, these glutamatergic principal cells are reciprocally connected to GABAergic interneurons and cortical oscillations are thought to be dependent on the balance of excitation and inhibition between these cell types. To investigate the dependence of movement-related cortical oscillations on excitation-inhibition balance, we pharmacologically manipulated the GABA system using tiagabine, which blocks GABA Transporter 1(GAT-1), the GABA uptake transporter and increases endogenous GABA activity. In a blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover design, in 15 healthy participants we administered either 15mg of tiagabine or a placebo. We recorded whole-head magnetoencephalograms, while the participants performed a movement task, prior to, one hour post, three hour post and five hour post tiagabine ingestion. Using time-frequency analysis of beamformer source reconstructions, we quantified the baseline level of beta activity (15-30Hz), the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR), beta event-related desynchronisation (beta-ERD) and movement-related gamma synchronisation (MRGS) (60-90Hz). Our results demonstrated that tiagabine, and hence elevated endogenous GABA levels causes, an elevation of baseline beta power, enhanced beta-ERD and reduced PMBR, but no modulation of MRGS. Comparing our results to recent literature (Hall et al., 2011) we suggest that beta-ERD may be a GABAA receptor mediated process while PMBR may be GABAB receptor mediated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Astrocytic GABA transporter activity modulates excitatory neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boddum, Kim; Jensen, Thomas P.; Magloire, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    unrecognized role for the astrocytic GABA transporter, GAT-3. GAT-3 activity results in a rise in astrocytic Na(+) concentrations and a consequent increase in astrocytic Ca(2+) through Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange. This leads to the release of ATP/adenosine by astrocytes, which then diffusely inhibits neuronal...

  18. Glutamate and GABA in appetite regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cardoso Delgado

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Appetite is regulated by a coordinated interplay between gut, adipose tissue and brain. A primary site for the regulation of appetite is the hypothalamus where interaction between orexigenic neurons, expressing Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related protein, and anorexigenic neurons, expressing Pro-opiomelanocortin cocaine/Amphetamine-related transcript, controls energy homeostasis. Within the hypothalamus, several peripheral signals have been shown to modulate the activity of these neurons, including the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and the anorexigenic hormones insulin and leptin. In addition to the accumulated knowledge on neuropeptide signaling, presence and function of amino acid neurotransmitters in key hypothalamic neurons brought a new light into appetite regulation. Therefore, the principal aim of this review will be to describe the current knowledge of the role of amino acid neurotransmitters in the mechanism of neuronal activation during appetite regulation and the associated neuronal-astrocytic metabolic coupling mechanisms.Glutamate and GABA dominate synaptic transmission in the hypothalamus and administration of their receptors agonists into hypothalamic nuclei stimulates feeding. By using 13C High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy based analysis, the Cerdán group has shown that increased neuronal firing in mice hypothalamus, as triggered by appetite during the feeding-fasting paradigm, may stimulate the use of lactate as neuronal fuel leading to increased astrocytic glucose consumption and glycolysis. Moreover, fasted mice showed increased hypothalamic [2-13C]GABA content, which may be explained by the existence of GABAergic neurons in key appetite regulation hypothalamic nuclei. Interestingly, increased [2-13C]GABA concentration in the hypothalamus of fasted animals appears to result mainly from reduction in GABA metabolizing pathways, rather than increased GABA synthesis by augmented activity of the

  19. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Mariko; Ezura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via reactions catalysed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehy...

  20. GABA content within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex is related to trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delli Pizzi, Stefano; Padulo, Caterina; Brancucci, Alfredo; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A; Ferretti, Antonio; Franciotti, Raffaella; Manippa, Valerio; Marzoli, Daniele; Onofrj, Marco; Sepede, Gianna; Tartaro, Armando; Tommasi, Luca; Puglisi-Allegra, Stefano; Bonanni, Laura

    2016-05-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) plays a key role in emotion processing and regulation. vmPFC dysfunction may lead to disinhibition of amygdala causing high anxiety levels. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) inter-neurons within vmPFC shape the information flow to amygdala. Thus, we hypothesize that GABA content within vmPFC could be relevant to trait anxiety. Forty-three healthy volunteers aged between 20 and 88 years were assessed for trait anxiety with the Subscale-2 of the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y2) and were studied with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate GABA and Glx (glutamate+glutamine) contents within vmPFC. Total creatine (tCr) was used as internal reference. Partial correlations assessed the association between metabolite levels and STAI-Y2 scores, removing the effect of possible nuisance factors including age, educational level, volumes of gray matter and white matter within magnetic resonance spectroscopy voxel. We observed a positive relationship between GABA/tCr and STAI-Y2 scores. No significant relationships were found between Glx/tCr and STAI-Y2 and between tCr/water and STAI-Y2. No differences were found between males and females as regards to age, STAI-Y2, GABA/tCr, Glx/tCr, tCr/water, gray matter and white matter volumes. We suggest a close relationship between GABA content within vmPFC and trait anxiety providing new insights in the physiology of emotional brain. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Abnormal relationship between GABA, neurophysiology and impulsive behavior in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Maria J; Violante, Inês R; Bernardino, Inês; Edden, Richard A E; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive deficits. In particular, executive dysfunction is recognized as a core deficit of NF1, including impairments in executive attention and inhibitory control. Yet, the neural mechanisms behind these important deficits are still unknown. Here, we studied inhibitory control in a visual go/no-go task in children and adolescents with NF1 and age- and gender-matched controls (n = 16 per group). We applied a multimodal approach using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), to study the evoked brain responses, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure the levels of GABA and glutamate + glutamine in the medial frontal cortex, a brain region that plays a pivotal role in inhibitory control, and also in a control region, the occipital cortex. Finally, we run correlation analyses to identify the relationship between inhibitory control, levels of neurotransmitters, and EEG markers of neural function. Individuals with NF1 showed impaired impulse control and reduced EEG correlates of early visual processing (parieto-occipital P1) and inhibitory control (frontal P3). MRS data revealed a reduction in medial frontal GABA+/tCr (total Creatine) levels in the NF1 group, in parallel with the already reported reduced occipital GABA levels. In contrast, glutamate + glutamine/tCr levels were normal, suggesting the existence of abnormal inhibition/excitation balance in this disorder. Notably, medial frontal but not occipital GABA levels correlated with general intellectual abilities (IQ) in NF1, and inhibitory control in both groups. Surprisingly, the relationship between inhibitory control and medial frontal GABA was reversed in NF1: higher GABA was associated with a faster response style whereas in controls it was related to a cautious strategy. Abnormal GABAergic physiology appears, thus, as an important factor underlying impaired cognition in NF1, in a level and

  2. Functional loss of GABA transaminase (GABA-T expressed early leaf senescence under various stress conditions in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Uzma Jalil

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available GABA-transaminase (GABA-T involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism during the plant development process via GABA shunt and GABA-T mutant, which is defective in GABA catabolism, is ideal model to examine the role of GABA-T in plant development and leaf senescence of plant. We have characterized GABA transaminase knock out mutant pop2-1 that is transition and pop2-3 which is T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.The GABA-T knockout mutant plants displayed precocious leaf senescence, which was accompanied by the assays of physiological parameters of leaf senescence during various stress conditions. Furthermore, our physiological evidence indicates that pop2-1 and pop2-3 mutations rapidly decreased the efficiency of leaf photosynthesis, chlorophyll content, GABA content, GABA-T, and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity and on the other hand increases membrane ion leakage, malondialdehyde (MDA level in stress induced leaves. However, cell viability assay by trypan blue and insitu Hydrogen peroxidation assay by 3,3-diaminobenzidine (DAB in stress induced leaves also display that pop2-1 and pop2-3 mutant leaves show oversensitivity in response to different stress conditions as compared to wild type. These results strongly indicate that the loss-of-function of GABA transaminase gene induces early leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana during various stress conditions.

  3. Big GABA: Edited MR spectroscopy at 24 research sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, Mark; Barker, Peter B; Bhattacharyya, Pallab K; Brix, Maiken K; Buur, Pieter F; Cecil, Kim M; Chan, Kimberly L; Chen, David Y-T; Craven, Alexander R; Cuypers, Koen; Dacko, Michael; Duncan, Niall W; Dydak, Ulrike; Edmondson, David A; Ende, Gabriele; Ersland, Lars; Gao, Fei; Greenhouse, Ian; Harris, Ashley D; He, Naying; Heba, Stefanie; Hoggard, Nigel; Hsu, Tun-Wei; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Kangarlu, Alayar; Lange, Thomas; Lebel, R Marc; Li, Yan; Lin, Chien-Yuan E; Liou, Jy-Kang; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Liu, Feng; Ma, Ruoyun; Maes, Celine; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Murray, Scott O; Noah, Sean; Noeske, Ralph; Noseworthy, Michael D; Oeltzschner, Georg; Prisciandaro, James J; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Roberts, Timothy P L; Sack, Markus; Sailasuta, Napapon; Saleh, Muhammad G; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Simard, Nicholas; Swinnen, Stephan P; Tegenthoff, Martin; Truong, Peter; Wang, Guangbin; Wilkinson, Iain D; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Xu, Hongmin; Yan, Fuhua; Zhang, Chencheng; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Zöllner, Helge J; Edden, Richard A E

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only biomedical imaging method that can noninvasively detect endogenous signals from the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain. Its increasing popularity has been aided by improvements in scanner hardware and acquisition methodology, as well as by broader access to pulse sequences that can selectively detect GABA, in particular J-difference spectral editing sequences. Nevertheless, implementations of GABA-edited MRS remain diverse across research sites, making comparisons between studies challenging. This large-scale multi-vendor, multi-site study seeks to better understand the factors that impact measurement outcomes of GABA-edited MRS. An international consortium of 24 research sites was formed. Data from 272 healthy adults were acquired on scanners from the three major MRI vendors and analyzed using the Gannet processing pipeline. MRS data were acquired in the medial parietal lobe with standard GABA+ and macromolecule- (MM-) suppressed GABA editing. The coefficient of variation across the entire cohort was 12% for GABA+ measurements and 28% for MM-suppressed GABA measurements. A multilevel analysis revealed that most of the variance (72%) in the GABA+ data was accounted for by differences between participants within-site, while site-level differences accounted for comparatively more variance (20%) than vendor-level differences (8%). For MM-suppressed GABA data, the variance was distributed equally between site- (50%) and participant-level (50%) differences. The findings show that GABA+ measurements exhibit strong agreement when implemented with a standard protocol. There is, however, increased variability for MM-suppressed GABA measurements that is attributed in part to differences in site-to-site data acquisition. This study's protocol establishes a framework for future methodological standardization of GABA-edited MRS, while the results provide valuable benchmarks for the MRS community

  4. Dietary GABA and food selection by rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1986-01-01

    To obtain further information pertaining to amino acid-induced alterations in feeding behavior, studies were performed to examine the food choices made by rats fed low protein diets made more or less aversive by the addition of various amino acids. When rats were allowed to choose between two diets, they preferred a low protein control, threonine-imbalanced or nonprotein diet to one containing 2.5% gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Acceptance increased when GABA content was lowered to 1.5%; rats preferred this diet when the alternative diet was made sufficiently aversive. There were large individual differences among rats selecting from pairs of unacceptable diets. Avoidance of, or preference for, a given diet is clearly affected by the relative aversive qualities of the offered pair of diets.

  5. GABA shapes the dynamics of bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Anouk M; Knapen, Tomas; Scholte, H Steven; St John-Saaltink, Elexa; Donner, Tobias H; Lamme, Victor A F

    2013-05-06

    Sometimes, perception fluctuates spontaneously between two distinct interpretations of a constant sensory input. These bistable perceptual phenomena provide a unique window into the neural mechanisms that create the contents of conscious perception. Models of bistable perception posit that mutual inhibition between stimulus-selective neural populations in visual cortex plays a key role in these spontaneous perceptual fluctuations. However, a direct link between neural inhibition and bistable perception has not yet been established experimentally. Here, we link perceptual dynamics in three distinct bistable visual illusions (binocular rivalry, motion-induced blindness, and structure from motion) to measurements of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in human visual cortex (as measured with magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and to pharmacological stimulation of the GABAA receptor by means of lorazepam. As predicted by a model of neural interactions underlying bistability, both higher GABA concentrations in visual cortex and lorazepam administration induced slower perceptual dynamics, as reflected in a reduced number of perceptual switches and a lengthening of percept durations. Thus, we show that GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter, shapes the dynamics of bistable perception. These results pave the way for future studies into the competitive neural interactions across the visual cortical hierarchy that elicit conscious perception. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interaction of GABA-mimetics with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6) in hyperosmotic treated Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and rat renal SKPT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Nørgaard; Lagunas, Candela; Plum, Jakob; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if basic GABA-mimetics interact with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6), and to find a suitable cell based model that is robust towards extracellular changes in osmolality during uptake studies. Taurine uptake was measured in human Caco-2 cells, porcine LLC-PK1 cells, and rat SKPT cells using radiolabelled taurine. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by incubation with raffinose (final osmolality of 500mOsm) for 24h prior to the uptake experiments. Expression of the taurine transporter, TauT, was investigated at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Uptake of the GABA-mimetics gaboxadol and vigabatrin was investigated in SKPT cells, and quantified by liquid scintillation or HPLC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. The uptake rate of [(3)H]-taurine was Na(+) and Cl(-) and concentration dependent with taurine with an apparent Vmax of 6.3±1.6pmolcm(-2)min(-1) and a Km of 24.9±15.0μM. β-alanine, nipecotic acid, gaboxadol, GABA, vigabatrin, δ-ALA and guvacine inhibited the taurine uptake rate in a concentration dependent manner. The order of affinity for TauT was β-alanine>GABA>nipecotic acid>guvacine>δ-ALA>vigabatrin>gaboxadol with IC50-values of 0.04, 1.07, 2.02, 4.19, 4.94, 31.4 and 39.9mM, respectively. In conclusion, GABA mimetics inhibited taurine uptake in hyperosmotic rat renal SKPT cells. SKPT cells, which seem to be a useful model for investigating taurine transport in the short-term presence of high concentrations of osmolytes. Furthermore, analogues of β-alanine appear to have higher affinities for TauT than GABA-analogues. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel agents acting on GABA2 receptors: potential cognitive enhancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebib, M.

    2001-01-01

    γ- Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a low molecular weight ammo acid found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a very flexible molecule and thus can attain a number of low-energy conformations which are recognised by a series of enzymes, receptors and transporter systems. This article will concentrate on the effects of GABA C as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA C receptors belong to the superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels that include nicotinic acetylcholine, GABA A , strychnine-sensitive glycine, and serotonin type 3 receptors. The compound outlined in this article provide us with novel leads for the design and development of compounds that may be selective for GABA receptors. Such compounds will help in the study of GABA C receptors both in vitro and in vivo, providing an insight into the role these receptors play in the brain

  8. GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, M; Nakano, Y; Kitaoka, S [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Coll. of Agriculture

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U-/sup 14/C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also.

  9. Sleep-promoting effects of a GABA/5-HTP mixture: Behavioral changes and neuromodulation in an invertebrate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ki-Bae; Park, Yooheon; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-04-01

    This study was to investigate the sleep promoting effects of combined γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), by examining neuronal processes governing mRNA level alterations, as well as assessing neuromodulator concentrations, in a fruit fly model. Behavioral assays were applied to investigate subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep of two amino acids and GABA/5-HTP mixture with caffeine treated flies. Also, real-time PCR and HPLC analysis were applied to analyze the signaling pathway. Subjective nighttime activity and sleep patterns of individual flies significantly decreased with 1% GABA treatment in conjunction with 0.1% 5-HTP treatment (pGABA/5-HTP mixture resulted in significant differences between groups related to sleep patterns (40%, plevels of the GABAB receptor (GABAB-R1) and serotonin receptor (5-HT1A), compared to the control group. In addition, GABA/5-HTP mixture significantly increased GABA levels 1h and 12h following treatment (2.1 fold and 1.2 fold higher than the control, respectively) and also increased 5-HTP levels (0 h: 1.01 μg/protein, 12h: 3.45 μg/protein). In this regard, we successfully demonstrated that using a GABA/5-HTP mixture modulates subjective nighttime activity, sleep episodes, and total duration of subjective nighttime sleep to a greater extent than single administration of each amino acid, and that this modulation occurs via GABAergic and serotonergic signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Chi-Ming A.; Stanford, Arielle D.; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C.; Lisanby, Sarah H.; Schroeder, Charles E.; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance ...

  11. Probing GABA Receptor Function in Schizophrenia with Iomazenil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Kyungheup; Gil, Roberto; Seibyl, John; Sewell, Richard Andrew; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2010-01-01

    Several lines of evidence from post-mortem, brain imaging, and genetic studies in schizophrenia patients suggest that Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) deficits may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Pharmacological induction of a transient GABA-deficit state has been shown to enhance vulnerability of healthy subjects to the psychotomimetic effects of various drugs. Exacerbating or creating a GABA deficit was hypothesized to induce or unmask psychosis in schizophrenia patients,...

  12. l-Proline, GABA Synthesis and Gamma Oscillations in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, David W; Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Lewis, David A

    2016-12-01

    Altered inhibition from parvalbumin-containing GABA neurons is thought to contribute to impaired gamma frequency oscillations and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Crabtree and colleagues report that proline dehydrogenase deficits produce excessive cytosolic levels of the GABA-mimetic l-proline which impairs GABA synthesis and gamma oscillations in a manner that mimics schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Occipital GABA correlates with cognitive failures in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Dong, Mia Yuan; Rees, Geraint; Near, Jamie; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-02-15

    The brain has limited capacity, and so selective attention enhances relevant incoming information while suppressing irrelevant information. This process is not always successful, and the frequency of such cognitive failures varies to a large extent between individuals. Here we hypothesised that individual differences in cognitive failures might be reflected in inhibitory processing in the sensory cortex. To test this hypothesis, we measured GABA in human visual cortex using MR spectroscopy and found a negative correlation between occipital GABA (GABA+/Cr ratio) and cognitive failures as measured by an established cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ). For a second site in parietal cortex, no correlation between CFQ score and GABA+/Cr ratio was found, thus establishing the regional specificity of the link between occipital GABA and cognitive failures. We further found that grey matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule (SPL) correlated with cognitive failures independently from the impact of occipital GABA and together, occipital GABA and SPL grey matter volume statistically explained around 50% of the individual variability in daily cognitive failures. We speculate that the amount of GABA in sensory areas may reflect the potential capacity to selectively suppress irrelevant information already at the sensory level, or alternatively that GABA influences the specificity of neural representations in visual cortex thus improving the effectiveness of successful attentional modulation. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) signalling in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Gilliham, Matthew; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    The role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a signal in animals has been documented for over 60 years. In contrast, evidence that GABA is a signal in plants has only emerged in the last 15 years, and it was not until last year that a mechanism by which this could occur was identified-a plant 'GABA receptor' that inhibits anion passage through the aluminium-activated malate transporter family of proteins (ALMTs). ALMTs are multigenic, expressed in different organs and present on different membranes. We propose GABA regulation of ALMT activity could function as a signal that modulates plant growth, development, and stress response. In this review, we compare and contrast the plant 'GABA receptor' with mammalian GABA A receptors in terms of their molecular identity, predicted topology, mode of action, and signalling roles. We also explore the implications of the discovery that GABA modulates anion flux in plants, its role in signal transduction for the regulation of plant physiology, and predict the possibility that there are other GABA interaction sites in the N termini of ALMT proteins through in silico evolutionary coupling analysis; we also explore the potential interactions between GABA and other signalling molecules.

  15. Co-localization of glycine and gaba immunoreactivity in interneurons in Macaca monkey cerebellar cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, J; Hendrickson, A; Robinson, F R

    2006-09-15

    Previous work demonstrates that the cerebellum uses glycine as a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter [Ottersen OP, Davanger S, Storm-Mathisen J (1987) Glycine-like immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of rat and Senegalese baboon, Papio papio: a comparison with the distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity and with [3H]glycine and [3H]GABA uptake. Exp Brain Res 66(1):211-221; Ottersen OP, Storm-Mathisen J, Somogyi P (1988) Colocalization of glycine-like and GABA-like immunoreactivities in Golgi cell terminals in the rat cerebellum: a postembedding light and electron microscopic study. Brain Res 450(1-2):342-353; Dieudonne S (1995) Glycinergic synaptic currents in Golgi cells of the rat cerebellum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:1441-1445; Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057; Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498; Zeilhofer HU, Studler B, Arabadzisz D, Schweizer C, Ahmadi S, Layh B, Bosl MR, Fritschy JM (2005) Glycinergic neurons expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein in bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice. J Comp Neurol 482(2):123-141]. In the rat cerebellum glycine is not released by itself but is released together with GABA by Lugaro cells onto Golgi cells [Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2001) IPSC kinetics at identified GABAergic and mixed GABAergic and glycinergic synapses onto cerebellar Golgi cells. J Neurosci 21(16):6045-6057] and by Golgi cells onto unipolar brush and granule cells [Dugue GP, Dumoulin A, Triller A, Dieudonne S (2005) Target-dependent use of coreleased inhibitory transmitters at central synapses. J Neurosci 25(28):6490-6498]. Here we report, from immunolabeling evidence in Macaca cerebellum, that interneurons in the granular cell layer are glycine+ at a density

  16. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitani, Shiro; Kondo, Shigeaki

    2013-01-01

    Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67), both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11-E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development.

  17. Immunoreactivity for GABA, GAD65, GAD67 and Bestrophin-1 in the meninges and the choroid plexus: implications for non-neuronal sources for GABA in the developing mouse brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Tochitani

    Full Text Available Neural progenitors in the developing neocortex, neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, have a bipolar shape with a basal process contacting the basal membrane of the meninge and an apical plasma membrane facing the lateral ventricle, which the cerebrospinal fluid is filled with. Recent studies revealed that the meninges and the cerebrospinal fluid have certain roles to regulate brain development. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a neurotransmitter which appears first during development and works as a diffusible factor to regulate the properties of neural progenitors. In this study, we examined whether GABA can be released from the meninges and the choroid plexus in the developing mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 and 67 (GAD65 and GAD67, both of which are GABA-synthesizing enzymes, are expressed in the meninges. The epithelial cells in the choroid plexus express GAD65. GABA immunoreactivity could be observed beneath the basal membrane of the meninge and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus. Expression analyses on Bestrophin-1, which is known as a GABA-permeable channel in differentiated glial cells, suggested that the cells in the meninges and the epithelial cells in the choroid plexus have the channels able to permeate non-synaptic GABA into the extracellular space. Further studies showed that GAD65/67-expressing meningeal cells appear in a manner with rostral to caudal and lateral to dorsal gradient to cover the entire neocortex by E14.5 during development, while the cells in the choroid plexus in the lateral ventricle start to express GAD65 on E11-E12, the time when the choroid plexus starts to develop in the developing brain. These results totally suggest that the meninges and the choroid plexus can work as non-neuronal sources for ambient GABA which can modulate the properties of neural progenitors during neocortical development.

  18. GABA regulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis via different GABA-A receptor alpha-subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jens D; Bundzikova, Jana; Larsen, Marianne Hald

    2008-01-01

    dependent on the composition of the GABA-A receptor subunits through which they act. We show here that positive modulators of alpha(1)-subtype containing GABA-A receptors with zolpidem (10 mg/kg) increase HPA activity in terms of increase in plasma corticosterone and induction of Fos in the PVN, whereas...... after positive modulation of GABA-A receptors composed of alpha(1)-subunit(s) affects a selective afferent system than the PVN, which is distinct from another afferent system(s) activated by non alpha(1)-containing GABA-A receptors....

  19. Phenotypic and chemotypic characterization of GABA-shunt mutants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Dereje Worku

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four carbon non protein amino acid, and the pathway that involves its production and degradation is called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt is a short enzymatic pathway that involves three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), GABA transaminase (GABA-T) and succinic semi aldehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH). GABA shunt is conserved almost in all organisms studied so far. The pathway starts in the cytosol and finishes in mitochondria in higher organisms like plant...

  20. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P < 0.05). Egg production (9.4%), albumen weight (2.1%) and shell weight (5.8%) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in yolk weight, and total cholesterol (1.9%) and triglyceride (4.9%) in the yolk were lowered (P < 0.05). Fermented buckwheat as a feed additive has the potential to produce l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Localisation of 3H-GABA in the rat olfactory bulb: An in vivo and in vitro autoradiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.; Priestley, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to further clarify the localisation of GABAergic elements in the olfactory bulb we have performed, in vivo and in vitro, autoradiographic studies with 3 H-GABA (#betta#-amino butyric acid) and 3 H-DABA (L-2,4 diamino butyric acid). The results have shown a strong labelling with 3 H-GABA of the glial cells in all the layers of the olfactory bulb. A high concentration of grains was observed in the periglomerular region. The labelling in the external plexiform layer was uniformly distributed in the neuropile with the strongest activity at the level of the dendritic processes of the granule cells, leaving the mitral cell dendrites and cell bodies almost free of grains. 3 H-DABA showed a very similar pattern to 3 H-GABA. When olfactory bulb slices were preincubated with #betta#-alanine the labelling of the glial elements almost disappeared especially at the level of the olfactory nerve layer. The labelling pattern of the other layers of the bulb remained mostly unchanged. This supports the view that a population of periglomerular and granule cells are GABAergic and that #betta#-alanine competes with GABA uptake sites only in glial cells. (orig.)

  2. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    OpenAIRE

    TIANSAWANG,Kasarin; LUANGPITUKSA,Pairoj; VARANYANOND,Warunee; HANSAWASDI,Chanida

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation) followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber con...

  3. Retinal uptake and release of (/sup 3/H)DABA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, B; Ehinger, B [Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    1978-03-01

    The uptake of (/sup 3/H)DABA was studied in rat, guinea-pig and cat retinas in vivo and in rabbit retinas both in vivo and in vitro by autoradiography. (/sup 3/H)DABA was preferentially accumulated by a type of amacrine cell but after brief incubation or shortly after intravitreal injections there was not only a neuronal uptake but also a glial one. In guinea-pigs the glial labelling in vivo was significant also after 4 hr. The glial uptake (rabbits) was found to be saturable and temperature dependent as expected for an active uptake mechanism. The Ksub(m) of DABA uptake was 2.11 x 10/sup -5/ m and Vsub(max) 2.38 x 10/sup -5/ mol/mg/min. GABA competitively inhibited the DABA uptake. The uptake was not statistically significantly influenced by OMEGA-amino acids such as glycine, ..beta..-alanine, ..cap alpha..-alanine or epsilon-aminocaproic acid. The effect of different stimuli on the spontaneous efflux of radioactivity from (/sup 3/H)DABA preloaded rabbit retinas was studied with (/sup 3/H)DABA localized to neurons. Light flashes evoked a small but not statistically significant increased release whereas 40mM-K/sup +/ evoked an immediate and large increase. Unlabelled DABA, GABA and ..beta..-alanine (10/sup -5/M) increased the spontaneous efflux of (/sup 3/H)DABA but not glycine. It is concluded that there is in the retina of rats, guinea-pigs, cats, and rabbits, a glial high affinity uptake mechanism in addition to the neuronal uptake. DABA seems to be transported by the same mechanism as GABA in both systems. The DABA seems to be better retained in neurons than in glia in rats, cats and rabbits, which allows it to be used as a neuronal marker.

  4. 4D-SPECT/CT in orthopaedics: a new method of combined quantitative volumetric 3D analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake and component position measurements in patients after total knee arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, Helmut; Falkowski, Anna L.; Forrer, Flavio [Kantonsspital Baselland, Institute for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bruderholz (Switzerland); Henckel, Johann [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Hirschmann, Michael T. [Kantonsspital Baselland, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology, Bruderholz (Switzerland)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the intra- and inter-observer reliability of combined quantitative 3D-volumetric single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT analysis including size, intensity and localisation of tracer uptake regions and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) position. Tc-99m-HDP-SPECT/CT of 100 knees after TKA were prospectively analysed. The anatomical areas represented by a previously validated localisation scheme were 3D-volumetrically analysed. The maximum intensity was recorded for each anatomical area. Ratios between the respective value and the mid-shaft of the femur as the reference were calculated. Femoral and tibial TKA position (varus-valgus, flexion-extension, internal rotation- external rotation) were determined on 3D-CT. Two consultant radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians interpreted the SPECT/CTs twice with a 2-week interval. The inter- and intra-observer reliability was determined (ICCs). Kappa values were calculated for the area with the highest tracer uptake between the observers. The measurements of tracer uptake intensity showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reliabilities for all regions (tibia, femur and patella). Only the tibial shaft area showed ICCs <0.89. The kappa values were almost perfect (0.856, p < 0.001; 95 % CI 0.778, 0.922). For measurements of the TKA position, there was strong agreement within and between the readings of the two observers; the ICCs for the orientation of TKA components for inter- and intra-observer reliability were nearly perfect (ICCs >0.84). This combined 3D-volumetric standardised method of analysing the location, size and the intensity of SPECT/CT tracer uptake regions (''hotspots'') and the determination of the TKA position was highly reliable and represents a novel promising approach to biomechanics. (orig.)

  5. Effect of sepsis on calcium uptake and content in skeletal muscle and regulation in vitro by calcium of total and myofibrillar protein breakdown in control and septic muscle: Results from a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.W.; Hasselgren, P.O.; Hiyama, D.T.; James, J.H.; Li, S.; Rigel, D.F.; Fischer, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Because high calcium concentration in vitro stimulates muscle proteolysis, calcium has been implicated in the pathogenesis of increased muscle breakdown in different catabolic conditions. Protein breakdown in skeletal muscle is increased during sepsis, but the effect of sepsis on muscle calcium uptake and content is not known. In this study the influence of sepsis, induced in rats by cecal ligation and puncture, on muscle calcium uptake and content was studied. Sixteen hours after cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation, calcium content of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscles was determined with an atomic absorption spectrometer. Calcium uptake was measured in intact SOL muscles incubated in the presence of calcium 45 (45Ca) for between 1 and 120 minutes. Total and myofibrillar protein breakdown was determined in SOL muscles, incubated in the presence of different calcium concentrations (0; 2.5; 5.0 mmol/L), and measured as release into the incubation medium of tyrosine and 3-methylhistidine (3-MH), respectively. Calcium content was increased by 51% (p less than 0.001) during sepsis in SOL and by 10% (p less than 0.05) in EDL muscle. There was no difference in 45Ca uptake between control and septic muscles during the early phase (1 to 5 minutes) of incubation. During more extended incubation (30 to 120 minutes), muscles from septic rats took up significantly more 45Ca than control muscles (p less than 0.05). Tyrosine release by incubated SOL muscles from control and septic rats was increased when calcium was added to the incubation medium, and at a calcium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L, the increase in tyrosine release was greater in septic than in control muscle. Addition of calcium to the incubation medium did not affect 3-MH release in control or septic muscle

  6. Release of [3H]GABA formed from [3H]glutamate in rat hippocampal slices: comparison with endogenous and exogenous labeled GABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szerb, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    To compare the storage and release of endogenous GABA, of [ 3 H]GABA formed endogenously from glutamate, and of exogenous [ 14 C]GABA, hippocampal slices were incubated with 5 microCi/ml [3,4- 3 H]1-glutamate and 0.5 microCi/ml [U- 14 C]GABA and then were superfused in the presence or absence of Ca + with either 50 mM K + or 50 microM veratridine. Exogenous [ 14 C]GABA content of the slices declined spontaneously while endogenous GABA and endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA stayed constant over a 48 min period. In the presence of Ca + 50 mM K + and in the presence or absence of Ca2 + veratridine released exogenous [ 14 C]GABA more rapidly than endogenous or endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA, the release of the latter two occurring always in parallel. The initial specific activity of released exogenous [ 14 C]GABA was three times, while that of endogenously formed [ 3 H]GABA was only 50% higher than that in the slices. The observation that endogenous GABA and [ 3 H]GABA formed endogenously from glutamate are stored and released in parallel but differently from exogenous labelled GABA, suggests that exogenous [ 3 H] glutamate can enter a glutamate pool that normally serves as precursor of GABA

  7. GABA transaminases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Arabidopsis thaliana complement function in cytosol and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Juxiang; Barbosa, Jose M; Singh, Narendra; Locy, Robert D

    2013-07-01

    GABA transaminase (GABA-T) catalyses the conversion of GABA to succinate semialdehyde (SSA) in the GABA shunt pathway. The GABA-T from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScGABA-TKG) is an α-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme encoded by the UGA1 gene, while higher plant GABA-T is a pyruvate/glyoxylate-dependent enzyme encoded by POP2 in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtGABA-T). The GABA-T from A. thaliana is localized in mitochondria and mediated by an 18-amino acid N-terminal mitochondrial targeting peptide predicated by both web-based utilities TargetP 1.1 and PSORT. Yeast UGA1 appears to lack a mitochondrial targeting peptide and is localized in the cytosol. To verify this bioinformatic analysis and examine the significance of ScGABA-TKG and AtGABA-T compartmentation and substrate specificity on physiological function, expression vectors were constructed to modify both ScGABA-TKG and AtGABA-T, so that they express in yeast mitochondria and cytosol. Physiological function was evaluated by complementing yeast ScGABA-TKG deletion mutant Δuga1 with AtGABA-T or ScGABA-TKG targeted to the cytosol or mitochondria for the phenotypes of GABA growth defect, thermosensitivity and heat-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study demonstrates that AtGABA-T is functionally interchangeable with ScGABA-TKG for GABA growth, thermotolerance and limiting production of ROS, regardless of location in mitochondria or cytosol of yeast cells, but AtGABA-T is about half as efficient in doing so as ScGABA-TKG. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that pyruvate/glyoxylate-limited production of NADPH mediates the effect of the GABA shunt in moderating heat stress in Saccharomyces. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Brain microdialysis of GABA and glutamate : What does it signify?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, W; Westerink, B.H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Microdialysis has become a frequently used method to study extracellular levels of GABA and glutamate in the central nervous system. However, the fact that the major part of GABA and glutamate as measured by microdialysis does not fulfill the classical criteria for exocytotic release questions the

  9. Effect of Songyu Anshen Fang on expression of hypothalamic GABA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Chinese compound, Songyu Anshen Fang (SYF) on levels of GABA and GABA(B) receptor proteins in insomniac rats induced by para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Methods: All rats were randomly separated into either a control group, insomnia group, or a SYF group (at a dose of ...

  10. GABA predicts inhibition of frequency-specific oscillations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Laura M; Edden, Richard A E; Kontson, Kimberly; Zhu, He; Barker, Peter B; Hong, L Elliot

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to show a relationship between in-vivo brain gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) levels and auditory inhibitory electrophysiological measures in schizophrenia. Results revealed a strong association between GABA levels and gating of the theta-alpha and beta activities in schizophrenia.

  11. Pharmacological approaches to the study of CHOLINO- and GABA-receptor states in nerve cells after irradiation with low intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'eva, T.V.; Dvoretskij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The peculiarities of functioning specific cholino- and GABA-receptors (ChR and GABA-R) by modeling the effect of synaptic neuromediators, correspondingly acetocholine (ACh) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), in low concentrations on the K + active transport in the rats cerebral cortex after single-time or chronical total irradiation with the dose of 0.25 Gy are studied. As a result of the study of both the acetocholine (10 -10 and 10 -6 mole/l) and gamma-aminobutyric avid (10 -9 and 10 -5 mole/l) effects on the K + active transport in the rats cerebral cortex slices in presence of any selective antagonists of the choline- and GABA-receptors, it is shown, that after the whole body irradiation with 25 c Gy (1.75 m Gy/min) the metabotropic muscarinic ChR and GABA B - receptors were involved into the processes of neurotransmitter modulation, whereas under ionotropic nicotinic choline- and GAB A - receptors. The observed changes are supposed to be of adaptive character. The post irradiation structural and functional disturbances may be considered as one of the causes of essential distortions in the processes of interneuronal metabolic communication in the central nerve system [ru

  12. Hippocampal low-frequency stimulation inhibits afterdischarge and increases GABA (A) receptor expression in amygdala-kindled pharmacoresistant epileptic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guofeng; Wang, Likun; Hong, Zhen; Ren, Siying; Zhou, Feng

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the effects of hippocampal low-frequency stimulation (Hip-LFS) on amygdala afterdischarge and GABA (A) receptor expression in pharmacoresistant epileptic (PRE) rats. A total of 110 healthy adult male Wistar rats were used to generate a model of epilepsy by chronic stimulation of the amygdala. Sixteen PRE rats were selected from 70 amygdala-kindled rats by testing their response to Phenytoin and Phenobarbital, and they were randomly assigned to a pharmacoresistant stimulation group (PRS group, 8 rats) or a pharmacoresistant control group (PRC group, 8 rats). A stimulation electrode was implanted into the hippocampus of all of the rats. Hip-LFS was administered twice per day in the PRS group for two weeks. Simultaneously, amygdala stimulus-induced seizures and afterdischarge were recorded. After the hippocampal stimulation was terminated, the brain tissues were obtained to determine the GABA (A) receptors by a method of immumohistochemistry and a real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stages and duration of the amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures were decreased in the PRS group. The afterdischarge threshold was increased and the duration as well as the afterdischarge frequency was decreased. Simultaneously, the GABA (A) expression was significantly increased in the PRS group. Hip-LFS may inhibit amygdala stimulus-induced epileptic seizures and up-regulate GABA (A) receptor expression in PRE rats. The antiepileptic effects of hippocampal stimulation may be partly achieved by increasing the GABA (A) receptor.

  13. Fiat lux! Phylogeny and bioinformatics shed light on GABA functions in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Hugues

    2013-06-01

    The non-protein amino acid γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in plants in response to a wide variety of environmental cues. Recent data point toward an involvement of GABA in tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity and respiration, especially in stressed roots. To gain further insights into potential GABA functions in plants, phylogenetic and bioinformatic approaches were undertaken. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the GABA transaminase (GABA-T) protein family revealed the monophyletic nature of plant GABA-Ts. However, this analysis also pointed to the common origin of several plant aminotransferases families, which were found more similar to plant GABA-Ts than yeast and human GABA-Ts. A computational analysis of AtGABA-T co-expressed genes was performed in roots and in stress conditions. This second approach uncovered a strong connection between GABA metabolism and glyoxylate cycle during stress. Both in silico analyses open new perspectives and hypotheses for GABA metabolic functions in plants.

  14. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  15. Study of GABA in healthy volunteers: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng eLi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies show that GABA exerts anti-diabetic effects in rodent models of type 1 diabetes. Because little is known about its absorption and effects in humans, we investigated the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GABA in healthy volunteers. Twelve subjects were subjected to an open-labeled, three-period trial involving sequential oral administration of placebo, 2g GABA once, and 2g GABA three times/day for seven days, with a 7-day washout between each period. GABA was rapidly absorbed (Tmax: 0.5~1 h with the half-life (t1/2 of 5 h. No accumulation was observed after repeated oral GABA administration for 7 days. Remarkably, GABA significantly increased circulating insulin levels in the subjects under either fasting (1.6-fold, single dose; 2.0-fold, repeated dose; p<0.01 or fed conditions (1.4-fold, single dose; 1.6-fold, repeated dose; p<0.01. GABA also increased glucagon levels only under fasting conditions (1.3-fold, single dose, p<0.05; 1.5-fold, repeated dose, p<0.01. However, there were no significant differences in the insulin-to-glucagon ratio and no significant change in glucose levels in these healthy subjects during the study period. Importantly, GABA significantly decreased glycated albumin levels in the repeated dosing period. Subjects with repeated dosing showed an elevated incidence of minor adverse events in comparison to placebo or the single dosing period, most notably transitional discomforts such as dizziness and sore throat. However, there were no serious adverse events observed throughout the study. Our data show that GABA is rapidly absorbed and tolerated in human beings; its endocrine effects, exemplified by increasing islet hormonal secretion, suggest potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes.

  16. Total and bioavailable arsenic concentration in arid soils and its uptake by native plants from the pre-Andean zones in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, O; Tapia, Y; Pastene, R; Montes, S; Núñez, N; Vélez, D; Montoro, R

    2011-06-01

    Arsenic is the most important contaminant of the environment in northern Chile. Soil samples and plant organs from three native plant species, Pluchea absinthioides, Atriplex atacamensis and Lupinus microcarpus, were collected from arid zones in order to determine the total and bioavailable arsenic concentrations in soils and to assess the bioconcentration factor (BCF) and transport index (Ti) of arsenic in the plants. Total arsenic concentrations in soils (pH 8.3-8.5) where A. atacamensis and P. absinthioides were collected, reached levels considered to be contaminated (54.3 ± 15.4 and 52.9 ± 9.9 mg kg⁻¹, respectively), and these values were approximately ten times higher than in soils (pH 7.6) where L. microcarpus was collected. Bioavailable arsenic ranged from 0.18 to 0.42% of total arsenic concentration. In the three plant species, arsenic concentration in leaves were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher than in roots. L. microcarpus showed the highest arsenic concentration in its leaves (9.7 ± 1.6 mg kg⁻¹) and higher values of BCF (1.8) and Ti (6.1), indicating that this species has a greater capacity to accumulate and translocate the metalloid to the leaf than do the other species.

  17. Interaction of GABA-mimetics with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6) in hyperosmotic treated caco-2, LLC-PK1 and rat renal SKPT cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rune Nørgaard; Lagunas, Candela; Plum, Jakob Munk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if basic GABA-mimetics interact with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6), and to find a suitable cell based model that is robust towards extracellular changes in osmolality during uptake studies. Taurine uptake was measured in human Caco-2 cells....... Uptake of the GABA-mimetics gaboxadol and vigabatrin was investigated in SKPT cells, and quantified by liquid scintillation or HPLC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. The uptake rate of [(3)H]-taurine was Na(+) and Cl(-) and concentration dependent with taurine with an apparent Vmax of 6.3±1.6pmolcm(-2)min(-1......) and a Km of 24.9±15.0μM. β-alanine, nipecotic acid, gaboxadol, GABA, vigabatrin, δ-ALA and guvacine inhibited the taurine uptake rate in a concentration dependent manner. The order of affinity for TauT was β-alanine>GABA>nipecotic acid>guvacine>δ-ALA>vigabatrin>gaboxadol with IC50-values of 0.04, 1.07, 2...

  18. Measurement of release of endogenous GABA and catabolites of [3H]GABA from synaptosomal preparations using ion-exchange chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grove, J.; Gardner, C.R.; Richards, M.H.

    1982-01-01

    Picomole quantities of endogenous GABA in acidified superfusates of synaptosomal preparations have been measured using micro-bore ion-exchange chromatography and post-column formation of the fluorescent iso-indole derivative. Using this technique superfusates have been analyzed directly, without further manipulations, to investigate the release of endogenous GABA. Spontaneous release of GABA was 2-5 pmol/200 microliters superfusate increasing to 20 pmol/200 microliters with potassium stimulation. When gamma-vinyl GABA (RMI 71754), an inhibitor of GABA-T was injected into rats (750 mg/kg) and synaptosomes prepared the potassium-evoked release of GABA was increased 3-fold compared to controls. Chromatographic separations and measurement of release of endogenous and radiolabeled GABA allowed the real specific activity of released GABA to be calculated. Only when 500 microM amino-oxyacetic acid was added during isolation of synaptosomes was the specific activity of released GABA the same as the initial specific activity

  19. Perisylvian GABA levels in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atagün, Murat İlhan; Şıkoğlu, Elif Muazzez; Soykan, Çağlar; Serdar Süleyman, Can; Ulusoy-Kaymak, Semra; Çayköylü, Ali; Algın, Oktay; Phillips, Mary Louise; Öngür, Dost; Moore, Constance Mary

    2017-01-10

    The aim of this study is to measure GABA levels of perisylvian cortices in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients, using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS). Patients with schizophrenia (n=25), bipolar I disorder (BD-I; n=28) and bipolar II disorder (BD-II; n=20) were compared with healthy controls (n=30). 1 H-MRS data was acquired using a Siemens 3T whole body scanner to quantify right and left perisylvian structures' (including superior temporal lobes) GABA levels. Right perisylvian GABA values differed significantly between groups [χ 2 =9.62, df: 3, p=0.022]. GABA levels were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group compared with the healthy control group (p=0.002). Furthermore, Chlorpromazine equivalent doses of antipsychotics correlated with right hemisphere GABA levels (r 2 =0.68, p=0.006, n=33). GABA levels are elevated in the right hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia in comparison to bipolar disorder and healthy controls. The balance between excitatory and inhibitory controls over the cortical circuits may have direct relationship with GABAergic functions in auditory cortices. In addition, GABA levels may be altered by brain regions of interest, psychotropic medications, and clinical stage in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. GABA(B), not GABA(A) receptors play a role in cortical postictal refractoriness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mareš, Pavel; Kubová, Hana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 88, Jan 2015 (2015), s. 99-102 ISSN 0028-3908 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11015; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/10/0971; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : cortical seizures * postictal refractoriness * GABA receptors * pharmacology Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.936, year: 2015

  1. GABA-mediated positive autofeedback loop controls horizontal cell kinetics in tiger salamander retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, M.; Werblin, F.

    1992-01-01

    Horizontal cells (HCs) appear to release, and also to be sensitive to, GABA. The external GABA concentration is increased with depolarization of the HC membrane via an electrogenic GABA transporter. This extracellular GABA opens a GABAA-gated Cl- channel in the HC membrane. Since the equilibrium

  2. How and why does tomato accumulate a large amount of GABA in the fruit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko eTakayama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA has received much attention as a health-promoting functional compound, and several GABA-enriched foods have been commercialized. In higher plants, GABA is primarily metabolized via a short pathway called the GABA shunt. The GABA shunt bypasses two steps (the oxidation of α-ketoglutarate to succinate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle via reactions catalysed by three enzymes: glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, GABA transaminase (GABA-T and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH. The GABA shunt plays a major role in primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism and is an integral part of the TCA cycle under stress and non-stress conditions. Tomato is one of the major crops that accumulate a relatively high level of GABA in its fruits. The GABA levels in tomato fruits dramatically change during fruit development; the GABA levels increase from flowering to the mature green stage and then rapidly decrease during the ripening stage. Although GABA constitutes up to 50% of the free amino acids at the mature green stage, the molecular mechanism of GABA accumulation and the physiological function of GABA during tomato fruit development remain unclear. In this review, we summarize recent studies of GABA accumulation in tomato fruits and discuss the potential biological roles of GABA in tomato fruit development.

  3. An Electrostatic Funnel in the GABA-Binding Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy S Carpenter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA-R is a major inhibitory neuroreceptor that is activated by the binding of GABA. The structure of the GABAA-R is well characterized, and many of the binding site residues have been identified. However, most of these residues are obscured behind the C-loop that acts as a cover to the binding site. Thus, the mechanism by which the GABA molecule recognizes the binding site, and the pathway it takes to enter the binding site are both unclear. Through the completion and detailed analysis of 100 short, unbiased, independent molecular dynamics simulations, we have investigated this phenomenon of GABA entering the binding site. In each system, GABA was placed quasi-randomly near the binding site of a GABAA-R homology model, and atomistic simulations were carried out to observe the behavior of the GABA molecules. GABA fully entered the binding site in 19 of the 100 simulations. The pathway taken by these molecules was consistent and non-random; the GABA molecules approach the binding site from below, before passing up behind the C-loop and into the binding site. This binding pathway is driven by long-range electrostatic interactions, whereby the electrostatic field acts as a 'funnel' that sweeps the GABA molecules towards the binding site, at which point more specific atomic interactions take over. These findings define a nuanced mechanism whereby the GABAA-R uses the general zwitterionic features of the GABA molecule to identify a potential ligand some 2 nm away from the binding site.

  4. Measurement of total Zn and Zn isotope ratios by quadrupole ICP-MS for evaluation of Zn uptake in gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, R.E.; Todd, A.S.; Brinkman, S.; Lamothe, P.J.; Smith, K.S.; Ranville, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the potential use of stable zinc isotopes in toxicity studies measuring zinc uptake by the gills of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The use of stable isotopes in such studies has several advantages over the use of radioisotopes, including cost, ease of handling, elimination of permit requirements, and waste disposal. A pilot study using brown trout was performed to evaluate sample preparation methods and the ability of a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) system to successfully measure changes in the 67Zn/66Zn ratios for planned exposure levels and duration. After completion of the pilot study, a full-scale zinc exposure study using rainbow trout was performed. The results of these studies indicate that there are several factors that affect the precision of the measured 67Zn/66Zn ratios in the sample digests, including variations in sample size, endogenous zinc levels, and zinc uptake rates by individual fish. However, since these factors were incorporated in the calculation of the total zinc accumulated by the gills during the exposures, the data obtained were adequate for their intended use in calculating zinc binding and evaluating the influences of differences in water quality parameters.

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Accumulation in Giant Embryo Rice Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guo-Chao; Xie, Mi-Xue; Wang, Ying-Cun; Li, Jian-Yue

    2017-06-21

    To uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds, we analyzed the expression levels of GABA metabolism genes and contents of GABA and GABA metabolic intermediates in developing grains and germinated brown rice of giant embryo rice 'Shangshida No. 5' and normal embryo rice 'Chao2-10' respectively. In developing grains, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were accompanied with upregulation of gene transcripts and intermediate contents in the polyamine pathway and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts, as compared with those in 'Chao2-10'. In germinated brown rice, the higher GABA contents in 'Shangshida No. 5' were parallel with upregulation of OsGAD and polyamine pathway gene transcripts and Glu and polyamine pathway intermediate contents and downregulation of GABA catabolic gene transcripts. These results are the first to indicate that polyamine pathway and GABA catabolic genes play a crucial role in GABA accumulation in giant embryo rice seeds.

  6. Saturable binding of 35S-t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate to the sites linked to the GABA receptor and the interaction with gabaergic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, D.T.; Threlkeld, P.G.; Bymaster, F.P.; Squires, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    35 -S-t-Butylbicyclophosphorothionate ( 35 S-TBPS) binds in a concentration-saturable manner to specific sites on membranes from rat cerebral cortex. Using a filtration assay at 25 0 C, in 250 mM NaCl, specific binding of 35 S-TBPS constitutes about 84 to 94 percent of total binding, depending on radioligand concentrations. 35 S-TBPS binding is optimal in the presence of NaCl or NaBr and substantially less in the presence of NaI or NaF. It is sensitive to the treatment with 0.05 percent Triton X-100 but not to repeated freezing and thawing, procedures which increase 3 H-GABA binding. Pharmacological studies show that 35 S-TBPS binding is strongly inhibited by GABA-A receptor agonists (e.g., GABA and muscimol) and by the noncompetitive antagonist, picrotoxin, but not the competitive antagonist, bicuculline. Compounds which enhance binding of radioactive GABA and benzodiazepines, such as the pyrazolopyridines, cartazolate and trazolate, and a diaryl-triazine, LY81067, are also potent inhibitors of 35 S-TBPS binding, with LY81067 being the most effective. The effects of GABA, picrotoxin and LY81067 on the saturable binding of 35 S-TBPS in cortical membranes are compared. The present bindings are consistent with the interpretation that 35 S-TBPS binds, at or near the picrotoxin-sensitive anion recognition sites of the GABA/benzodiazepine/picrotoxin receptor complex

  7. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye.

  8. GABA Metabolism and Transport: Effects on Synaptic Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian C. Roth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition is an important regulator of excitability in neuronal networks. In addition, inhibitory synaptic signals contribute crucially to the organization of spatiotemporal patterns of network activity, especially during coherent oscillations. In order to maintain stable network states, the release of GABA by interneurons must be plastic in timing and amount. This homeostatic regulation is achieved by several pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms and is triggered by various activity-dependent local signals such as excitatory input or ambient levels of neurotransmitters. Here, we review findings on the availability of GABA for release at presynaptic terminals of interneurons. Presynaptic GABA content seems to be an important determinant of inhibitory efficacy and can be differentially regulated by changing synthesis, transport, and degradation of GABA or related molecules. We will discuss the functional impact of such regulations on neuronal network patterns and, finally, point towards pharmacological approaches targeting these processes.

  9. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinaemaeki, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine on the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye. (author)

  10. Time dependent effects of haloperidol on glutamine and GABA homeostasis and astrocyte activity in the rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopaske, Glenn T.; Bolo, Nicolas R.; Basu, Alo C.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Coyle, Joseph T.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Schizophrenia is a severe, persistent, and fairly common mental illness. Haloperidol is widely used and is effective against the symptoms of psychosis seen in schizophrenia. Chronic oral haloperidol administration decreased the number of astrocytes in the parietal cortex of macaque monkeys (Konopaske et al. Biol Psych, 2008). Since astrocytes play a key role in glutamate metabolism, chronic haloperidol administration was hypothesized to modulate astrocyte metabolic function and glutamate homeostasis. Objectives This study investigated the effects of chronic haloperidol administration on astrocyte metabolic activity and glutamate, glutamine, and GABA homeostasis. Methods We used ex vivo 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy along with high performance liquid chromatography after [1-13C]glucose and [1,2-13C]acetate administration to analyze forebrain tissue from rats administered oral haloperidol for 1 or 6 months. Results Administration of haloperidol for 1 month produced no changes in 13C labeling of glutamate, glutamine, or GABA, or in their total levels. However, a 6 month haloperidol administration increased 13C labeling of glutamine by [1,2-13C]acetate. Moreover, total GABA levels were also increased. Haloperidol administration also increased the acetate/glucose utilization ratio for glutamine in the 6 month cohort. Conclusions Chronic haloperidol administration in rats appears to increase forebrain GABA production along with astrocyte metabolic activity. Studies exploring these processes in subjects with schizophrenia should take into account the potential confounding effects of antipsychotic medication treatment. PMID:23660600

  11. Prefrontal Cortical GABA Modulation of Spatial Reference and Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Meagan L.; Floresco, Stan B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. Methods: We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates ...

  12. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Ming A. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case–control pilot study (N = 24 compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7 had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9. However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16 significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  13. GABA and glycine as neurotransmitters: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowery, N G; Smart, T G

    2006-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) emerged as a potentially important brain chemical just over 50 years ago, but its significance as a neurotransmitter was not fully realized until over 16 years later. We now know that at least 40% of inhibitory synaptic processing in the mammalian brain uses GABA. Establishing its role as a transmitter was a lengthy process and it seems hard to believe with our current knowledge that there was ever any dispute about its role in the mammalian brain. The detailed information that we now have about the receptors for GABA together with the wealth of agents which facilitate or reduce GABA receptor mechanisms make the prospects for further research very exciting. The emergence of glycine as a transmitter seems relatively painless by comparison to GABA. Perhaps this is appropriate for the simplest of transmitter structures! Its discovery within the spinal cord and brainstem approximately 40 years ago was followed only 2 years later by the proposal that it be conferred with 'neurotransmitter' status. It was another 16 years before the receptor was biochemically isolated. Now it is readily accepted as a vital spinal and supraspinal inhibitory transmitter and we know many details regarding its molecular structure and trafficking around neurones. The pharmacology of these receptors has lagged behind that of GABA. There is not the rich variety of allosteric modulators that we have come to readily associate with GABA receptors and which has provided us with a virtual treasure trove of important drugs used in anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy, anaesthesia, and spasticity, all stemming from the actions of the simple neutral amino acid GABA. Nevertheless, the realization that glycine receptors are involved in motor reflexes and nociceptive pathways together with the more recent advent of drugs that exhibit some subtype selectivity make the goal of designing selective therapeutic ligands for the glycine receptor that much closer.

  14. GABA level, gamma oscillation, and working memory performance in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Ming A; Stanford, Arielle D; Mao, Xiangling; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Shungu, Dikoma C; Lisanby, Sarah H; Schroeder, Charles E; Kegeles, Lawrence S

    2014-01-01

    A relationship between working memory impairment, disordered neuronal oscillations, and abnormal prefrontal GABA function has been hypothesized in schizophrenia; however, in vivo GABA measurements and gamma band neural synchrony have not yet been compared in schizophrenia. This case-control pilot study (N = 24) compared baseline and working memory task-induced neuronal oscillations acquired with high-density electroencephalograms (EEGs) to GABA levels measured in vivo with magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Working memory performance, baseline GABA level in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and measures of gamma oscillations from EEGs at baseline and during a working memory task were obtained. A major limitation of this study is a relatively small sample size for several analyses due to the integration of diverse methodologies and participant compliance. Working memory performance was significantly lower for patients than for controls. During the working memory task, patients (n = 7) had significantly lower amplitudes in gamma oscillations than controls (n = 9). However, both at rest and across working memory stages, there were significant correlations between gamma oscillation amplitude and left DLPFC GABA level. Peak gamma frequency during the encoding stage of the working memory task (n = 16) significantly correlated with GABA level and working memory performance. Despite gamma band amplitude deficits in patients across working memory stages, both baseline and working memory-induced gamma oscillations showed strong dependence on baseline GABA levels in patients and controls. These findings suggest a critical role for GABA function in gamma band oscillations, even under conditions of system and cognitive impairments as seen in schizophrenia.

  15. In Vivo Measurements of Glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Rowland, Laura M.; Kontson, Kimberly; West, Jeffrey; Edden, Richard A.; Zhu, He; Wijtenburg, S. Andrea; Holcomb, Henry H.; Barker, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG levels in younger and older subjects with schizophrenia. Forty-one subjects, 21 with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls, partic...

  16. GABA and glutamate levels correlate with MTR and clinical disability: Insights from multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantes, Julia C; Proulx, Sébastien; Zhong, Jidan; Holmes, Scott A; Narayanan, Sridar; Brown, Robert A; Hoge, Richard D; Koski, Lisa

    2017-08-15

    Converging areas of research have implicated glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as key players in neuronal signalling and other central functions. Further research is needed, however, to identify microstructural and behavioral links to regional variability in levels of these neurometabolites, particularly in the presence of demyelinating disease. Thus, we sought to investigate the extent to which regional glutamate and GABA levels are related to a neuroimaging marker of microstructural damage and to motor and cognitive performance. Twenty-one healthy volunteers and 47 people with multiple sclerosis (all right-handed) participated in this study. Motor and cognitive abilities were assessed with standard tests used in the study of multiple sclerosis. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy data were acquired from sensorimotor and parietal regions of the brains' left cerebral hemisphere using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Our analysis protocol for the spectroscopy data was designed to account for confounding factors that could contaminate the measurement of neurometabolite levels due to disease, such as the macromolecule signal, partial volume effects, and relaxation effects. Glutamate levels in both regions of interest were lower in people with multiple sclerosis. In the sensorimotor (though not the parietal) region, GABA concentration was higher in the multiple sclerosis group compared to controls. Lower magnetization transfer ratio within grey and white matter regions from which spectroscopy data were acquired was linked to neurometabolite levels. When adjusting for age, normalized brain volume, MTR, total N-acetylaspartate level, and glutamate level, significant relationships were found between lower sensorimotor GABA level and worse performance on several tests, including one of upper limb motor function. This work highlights important methodological considerations relevant to analysis of spectroscopy data, particularly in the afflicted human brain. These findings

  17. GABA-independent GABAA Receptor Openings Maintain Tonic Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka I.; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Herd, Murray B.; Kersanté, Flavie; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Rusakov, Dmitri A.; Linthorst, Astrid C.E.; Semyanov, Alexey; Belelli, Delia; Pavlov, Ivan; Walker, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of GABAA receptors (GABAARs) produces two forms of inhibition: ‘phasic’ inhibition generated by the rapid, transient activation of synaptic GABAARs by presynaptic GABA release, and tonic inhibition generated by the persistent activation of peri- or extrasynaptic GABAARs which can detect extracellular GABA. Such tonic GABAAR-mediated currents are particularly evident in dentate granule cells in which they play a major role in regulating cell excitability. Here we show that in rat dentate granule cells in ex-vivo hippocampal slices, tonic currents are predominantly generated by GABA-independent GABAA receptor openings. This tonic GABAAR conductance is resistant to the competitive GABAAR antagonist SR95531, which at high concentrations acts as a partial agonist, but can be blocked by an open channel blocker picrotoxin. When slices are perfused with 200 nM GABA, a concentration that is comparable to cerebrospinal fluid concentrations but is twice that measured by us in the hippocampus in vivo using zero-net-flux microdialysis, negligible GABA is detected by dentate granule cells. Spontaneously opening GABAARs, therefore, maintain dentate granule cell tonic currents in the face of low extracellular GABA concentrations. PMID:23447601

  18. In vivo measurements of glutamate, GABA, and NAAG in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Laura M; Kontson, Kimberly; West, Jeffrey; Edden, Richard A; Zhu, He; Wijtenburg, S Andrea; Holcomb, Henry H; Barker, Peter B

    2013-09-01

    The major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively, are implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG), a neuropeptide that modulates the Glu system, may also be altered in schizophrenia. This study investigated GABA, Glu + glutamine (Glx), and NAAG levels in younger and older subjects with schizophrenia. Forty-one subjects, 21 with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls, participated in this study. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) was used to measure GABA, Glx, and NAAG levels in the anterior cingulate (AC) and centrum semiovale (CSO) regions. NAAG in the CSO was higher in younger schizophrenia subjects compared with younger control subjects. The opposite pattern was observed in the older groups. Glx was reduced in the schizophrenia group irrespective of age group and brain region. There was a trend for reduced AC GABA in older schizophrenia subjects compared with older control subjects. Poor attention performance was correlated to lower AC GABA levels in both groups. Higher levels of CSO NAAG were associated with greater negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. These results provide support for altered glutamatergic and GABAergic function associated with illness course and cognitive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The study also highlights the importance of studies that combine MRS measurements of NAAG, GABA, and Glu for a more comprehensive neurochemical characterization of schizophrenia.

  19. Alterations of cortical GABA neurons and network oscillations in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Hashimoto, Takanori; Lewis, David A

    2010-08-01

    The hypothesis that alterations of cortical inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are a central element in the pathology of schizophrenia has emerged from a series of postmortem studies. How such abnormalities may contribute to the clinical features of schizophrenia has been substantially informed by a convergence with basic neuroscience studies revealing complex details of GABA neuron function in the healthy brain. Importantly, activity of the parvalbumin-containing class of GABA neurons has been linked to the production of cortical network oscillations. Furthermore, growing knowledge supports the concept that gamma band oscillations (30-80 Hz) are an essential mechanism for cortical information transmission and processing. Herein we review recent studies further indicating that inhibition from parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons is necessary to produce gamma oscillations in cortical circuits; provide an update on postmortem studies documenting that deficits in the expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase67, which accounts for most GABA synthesis in the cortex, are widely observed in schizophrenia; and describe studies using novel, noninvasive approaches directly assessing potential relations between alterations in GABA, oscillations, and cognitive function in schizophrenia.

  20. Co-release of glutamate and GABA from single vesicles in GABAergic neurons exogenously expressing VGLUT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eZimmermann

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The identity of the vesicle neurotransmitter transporter expressed by a neuron largely corresponds with the primary neurotransmitter that cell releases. However, the vesicular glutamate transporter subtype 3 (VGLUT3 is mainly expressed in non-glutamatergic neurons, including cholinergic, serotonergic, or GABAergic neurons. Though a functional role for glutamate release from these non-glutamatergic neurons has been demonstrated, the interplay between VGLUT3 and the neuron’s characteristic neurotransmitter transporter, particularly in the case of GABAergic neurons, at the synaptic and vesicular level is less clear. In this study, we explore how exogenous expression of VGLUT3 in striatal GABAergic neurons affects the packaging and release of glutamate and GABA in synaptic vesicles. We found that VGLUT3 expression in isolated, autaptic GABAergic neurons leads to action potential evoked release of glutamate. Under these conditions, glutamate and GABA could be packaged together in single vesicles release either spontaneously or asynchronously. However, the presence of glutamate in GABAergic vesicles did not affect uptake of GABA itself, suggesting a lack of synergy in vesicle filling for these transmitters. Finally, we found postsynaptic detection of glutamate released from GABAergic terminals difficult when bona fide glutamatergic synapses were present, suggesting that co-released glutamate cannot induce postsynaptic glutamate receptor clustering.

  1. The role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation mechanism of catfish (Clarias sp. through Ca2+, PKC and GABA neurotransmitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pungky Slamet Wisnu Kusuma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laser puncture exposure at reproduction acupoint is proven to increase cellular activity like Ca2+ in the skin tissues. The aim of the study is to determine the role of laserpuncture exposure on gonad maturation by evaluating Ca2+ stimulation and PKC activity in skin tissue and the release of GABA from GABAergic neurons of the brain tissue of catfish (Clarias sp.. A total of 36 females and 36 males of 8–9-month old of F1 catfish broodstock Sangkuriang (female and Paiton (male. This study used Completely Randomized Design (CDR experimental method. Expression analysis was conducted using immunohistochemical staining with a streptavidinbiotin method with calcineurin kit, PKC kit, and GABA kit. The results showed that laserpuncture can stimulate calcineurin and PKC expression in skin tissue, and GABA expression in the brain tissue on the condition pre-spawn, spawn, and post-spawn (P < .05. It can be concluded that laserpuncture stimulates gonad maturation through Ca2+, PKC, and GABA neurotransmitter.

  2. The Glutamine Transporters and Their Role in the Glutamate/GABA-Glutamine Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leke, Renata; Schousboe, Arne

    2016-01-01

    in this neural communication, i.e., the transporters responsible for glutamine efflux from astrocytes and influx into the neurons, such as the members of the SNAT, LAT, y(+)LAT, and ASC families of transporters. The SNAT family consists of the transporter isoforms SNAT3 and SNAT5 that are related to efflux from......Glutamine is a key amino acid in the CNS, playing an important role in the glutamate/GABA-glutamine cycle (GGC). In the GGC, glutamine is transferred from astrocytes to neurons, where it will replenish the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitter pools. Different transporters participate...... the astrocytic compartment, and SNAT1 and SNAT2 that are associated with glutamine uptake into the neuronal compartment. The isoforms SNAT7 and SNAT8 do not have their role completely understood, but they likely also participate in the GGC. The isoforms LAT2 and y(+)LAT2 facilitate the exchange of neutral amino...

  3. Different in vitro and in vivo profiles of substituted 3-aminopropylphosphinate and 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinate GABA(B) receptor agonists as inhibitors of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, A; Antonsson, M; Aurell-Holmberg, A; Blackshaw, L A; Brändén, L; Elebring, T; Jensen, J; Kärrberg, L; Mattsson, J P; Nilsson, K; Oja, S S; Saransaari, P; von Unge, S

    2012-03-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux is predominantly caused by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation (TLOSR) and GABA(B) receptor stimulation inhibits TLOSR. Lesogaberan produces fewer CNS side effects than baclofen, which has been attributed to its affinity for the GABA transporter (GAT), the action of which limits stimulation of central GABA(B) receptors. To understand the structure-activity relationship for analogues of lesogaberan (3-aminopropylphosphinic acids), and corresponding 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids, we have compared representatives of these classes in different in vitro and in vivo models. The compounds were characterized in terms of GABA(B) agonism in vitro. Binding to GATs and cellular uptake was done using rat brain membranes and slices respectively. TLOSR was measured in dogs, and CNS side effects were evaluated as hypothermia in mice and rats. 3-Aminopropylphosphinic acids inhibited TLOSR with a superior therapeutic index compared to 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids. This difference was most likely due to differential GAT-mediated uptake into brain cells of the former but not latter. In agreement, 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids were much more potent in producing hypothermia in rats even when administered i.c.v. An enhanced therapeutic window for 3-aminopropylphosphinic acids compared with 3-aminopropyl(methyl)phosphinic acids with respect to inhibition of TLOSR was observed and is probably mechanistically linked to neural cell uptake of the former but not latter group of compounds. These findings offer a platform for discovery of new GABA(B) receptor agonists for the treatment of reflux disease and other conditions where selective peripheral GABA(B) receptor agonism may afford therapeutic effects. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Brain GABA Detection in vivo with the J-editing 1H MRS Technique: A Comprehensive Methodological Evaluation of Sensitivity Enhancement, Macromolecule Contamination and Test-Retest Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shungu, Dikoma C.; Mao, Xiangling; Gonzales, Robyn; Soones, Tacara N.; Dyke, Jonathan P.; van der Veen, Jan Willem; Kegeles, Lawrence S.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in brain γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been implicated in various neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders. However, in vivo GABA detection by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) presents significant challenges arising from low brain concentration, overlap by much stronger resonances, and contamination by mobile macromolecule (MM) signals. This study addresses these impediments to reliable brain GABA detection with the J-editing difference technique on a 3T MR system in healthy human subjects by (a) assessing the sensitivity gains attainable with an 8-channel phased-array head coil, (b) determining the magnitude and anatomic variation of the contamination of GABA by MM, and (c) estimating the test-retest reliability of measuring GABA with this method. Sensitivity gains and test-retest reliability were examined in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), while MM levels were compared across three cortical regions: the DLPFC, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and the occipital cortex (OCC). A 3-fold higher GABA detection sensitivity was attained with the 8-channel head coil compared to the standard single-channel head coil in DLPFC. Despite significant anatomic variation in GABA+MM and MM across the three brain regions (p GABA+MM was relatively stable across the three voxels, ranging from 41% to 49%, a non-significant regional variation (p = 0.58). The test-retest reliability of GABA measurement, expressed either as ratios to voxel tissue water (W) or total creatine, was found to be very high for both the single-channel coil and the 8-channel phased-array coil. For the 8-channel coil, for example, Pearson’s correlation coefficient of test vs. retest for GABA/W was 0.98 (R2 = 0.96, p = 0.0007), the percent coefficient of variation (CV) was 1.25%, and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.98. Similar reliability was also found for the co-edited resonance of combined glutamate and glutamine (Glx) for both coils. PMID

  5. Production of gaba (γ – Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Radhika; Bajpai, Vivek K.; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is a four carbon non-protein amino acid that is widely distributed in plants, animals and microorganisms. As a metabolic product of plants and microorganisms produced by the decarboxylation of glutamic acid, GABA functions as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain that directly affects the personality and the stress management. A wide range of traditional foods produced by microbial fermentation contain GABA, in which GABA is safe and eco-friendly, and also has the possibility of providing new health-benefited products enriched with GABA. Synthesis of GABA is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase, therefore, the optimal fermentation condition is mainly based on the biochemical properties of the enzyme. Major GABA producing microorganisms are lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which make food spoilage pathogens unable to grow and act as probiotics in the gastrointestinal tract. The major factors affecting the production of GABA by microbial fermentation are temperature, pH, fermentation time and different media additives, therefore, these factors are summarized to provide the most up-dated information for effective GABA synthesis. There has been a huge accumulation of knowledge on GABA application for human health accompanying with a demand on natural GABA supply. Only the GABA production by microorganisms can fulfill the demand with GABA-enriched health beneficial foods. PMID:24031948

  6. Actions of insecticides on the insect GABA receptor complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, I.; Hawkins, C.A.; Taylor, A.M.; Beadle, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    The actions of insecticides on the insect gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor were investigated using [35S]t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate [( 35S]TBPS) binding and voltage-clamp techniques. Specific binding of [35S]TBPS to a membrane homogenate derived from the brain of Locusta migratoria locusts is characterised by a Kd value of 79.3 ± 2.9 nM and a Bmax value of 1770 ± 40 fmol/mg protein. [35S]TBPS binding is inhibited by mM concentrations of barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In contrast dieldrin, ivermectin, lindane, picrotoxin and TBPS are inhibitors of [35S]TBPS binding at the nanomolar range. Bicuculline, baclofen and pyrethroid insecticides have no effect on [35S]TBPS binding. These results are similar to those obtained in electrophysiological studies of the current elicited by GABA in both Locusta and Periplaneta americana central neurones. Noise analysis of the effects of lindane, TBPS, dieldrin and picrotoxin on the cockroach GABA responses reveals that these compounds decrease the variance of the GABA-induced current but have no effect on its mean open time. All these compounds, with the exception of dieldrin, significantly decrease the conductance of GABA-evoked single current

  7. GABA transporter-1 deficiency confers schizophrenia-like behavioral phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Yu

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. The hyper-dopamine and hypo-NMDA receptor hypotheses have been the most enduring ideas. Recently, emerging evidence implicates alterations of the major inhibitory system, GABAergic neurotransmission in the schizophrenic patients. However, the pathophysiological role of GABAergic system in schizophrenia still remains dubious. In this study, we took advantage of GABA transporter 1 (GAT1 knockout (KO mouse, a unique animal model with elevated ambient GABA, to study the schizophrenia-related behavioral abnormalities. We found that GAT1 KO mice displayed multiple behavioral abnormalities related to schizophrenic positive, negative and cognitive symptoms. Moreover, GAT1 deficiency did not change the striatal dopamine levels, but significantly enhanced the tonic GABA currents in prefrontal cortex. The GABA(A receptor antagonist picrotoxin could effectively ameliorate several behavioral defects of GAT1 KO mice. These results identified a novel function of GAT1, and indicated that the elevated ambient GABA contributed critically to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, several commonly used antipsychotic drugs were effective in treating the locomotor hyperactivity in GAT1 KO mice, suggesting the utility of GAT1 KO mice as an alternative animal model for studying schizophrenia pathogenesis and developing new antipsychotic drugs.

  8. (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine as autoradiographic markers for GABA neurotransmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agardh, E.; Ehinger, B. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Ophthalmology)

    1982-01-01

    Retinas from rabbit, goldfish and guinea-pig were exposed to (/sup 3/H) GABA, (/sup 3/H)-muscimol, (/sup 3/H)-nipecotic acid and (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine either by intravitreal injection in vivo or by incubations in a balanced salt solution and the distribution of radioactivity was then studied with autoradiography. All substances labelled a similar set of presumed amacrine cells. Incubating at 0/sup 0/C, in 10/sup -5/ M ouabain, or in 10/sup -3/ M GABA inhibited the labelling by (/sup 3/H)-muscimol whereas bicuculline (10/sup -4/ M), and glycine (10/sup -3/ M) were less efficient blockers. The result is interpreted as a neuronal uptake of (/sup 3/H)-muscimol rather than as a GABA receptor binding. All the substances except (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine also labelled glia to such a degree that neuronal labelling was often disguised in rabbits and goldfish. Glial labelling by muscimol was less pronounced in guinea-pig. (/sup 3/H)-isoguvacine (tested only in rabbits) gave a strong labelling of cells with the distribution of GABA neurons and only little glial labelling.

  9. Brain GABA levels across psychiatric disorders: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of (1) H-MRS studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Draisma, Luc W R; Wijnen, Jannie P; Boks, Marco P; Koevoets, Martijn G J C; Joëls, Marian; Klomp, Dennis W; Kahn, René S; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-09-01

    The inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system is involved in the etiology of most psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is therefore not surprising that proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) is increasingly used to investigate in vivo brain GABA levels. However, integration of the evidence for altered in vivo GABA levels across psychiatric disorders is lacking. We therefore systematically searched the clinical (1) H-MRS literature and performed a meta-analysis. A total of 40 studies (N = 1,591) in seven different psychiatric disorders were included in the meta-analysis: MDD (N = 437), schizophrenia (N = 517), ASD (N = 150), bipolar disorder (N = 129), panic disorder (N = 81), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (N = 104), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (N = 173). Brain GABA levels were lower in ASD (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.74, P = 0.001) and in depressed MDD patients (SMD = -0.52, P = 0.005), but not in remitted MDD patients (SMD = -0.24, P = 0.310) compared with controls. In schizophrenia this finding did not reach statistical significance (SMD = -0.23, P = 0.089). No significant differences in GABA levels were found in bipolar disorder, panic disorder, PTSD, and ADHD compared with controls. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provided evidence for lower brain GABA levels in ASD and in depressed (but not remitted) MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Findings in schizophrenia were more equivocal. Even though future (1) H-MRS studies could greatly benefit from a longitudinal design and consensus on the preferred analytical approach, it is apparent that (1) H-MRS studies have great potential in advancing our understanding of the role of the GABA system in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3337-3352, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  10. Putrescine catabolism via DAO contributes to proline and GABA accumulation in roots of lupine seedlings growing under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Legocka

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The levels of polyamines (PAs, proline (Pro, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO; EC 1.4.3.6 were studied in the roots of 2-day-old lupine (Lupinus luteus L. ‘Juno’ seedlings treated with 200 mM NaCl for 24 h. The effect of adding 1 mM aminoguanidine (AG, an inhibitor of DAO activity, was also analyzed. It was found that in roots of lupine seedlings growing under salt stress, a negative correlation between Pro accumulation and putrescine (Put content takes place. Pro level increased in roots by about 160% and, at the same time, Put content decreased by about 60%, as a result of ca. twofold increase of DAO activity. The AG added to the seedlings almost totally inhibited the activity of DAO, increased Put accumulation to control level, decreased Pro content by about 25%, and reduced GABA level by about 22%. Addition of 50 mM GABA to the lupine seedlings growing in the presence of AG and NaCl restored Pro content in roots to its level in NaCl-treated plants. In this research, the clear correlation between Put degradation and GABA and Pro accumulation was shown for the first time in the roots of seedlings growing under salt stress. This could be considered as a short-term response of a plant to high salt concentration. Our findings indicate that during intensive Pro accumulation in roots induced by salt stress, the pool of this amino acid is indirectly supported by GABA production as a result of Put degradation.

  11. Is GABA neurotransmission enhanced in auditory thalamus relative to inferior colliculus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Rui; Kalappa, Bopanna I.; Brozoski, Thomas J.; Ling, Lynne L.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Sensory thalamic structures show high levels of non-desensitizing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and a reduction in the redundancy of coded information. The present study compared the inhibitory potency of GABA acting at GABAARs between the inferior colliculus (IC) and the medial geniculate body (MGB) using quantitative in vivo, in vitro, and ex vivo experimental approaches. In vivo single unit studies compared the ability of half maximal inhibitory concentrations of GABA to inhibit sound-evoked temporal responses, and found that GABA was two to three times (P GABA levels and suggested a trend towards higher GABA concentrations in MGB than in IC. Collectively, these studies suggest that, per unit GABA, high affinity extrasynaptic and synaptic GABAARs confer a significant inhibitory GABAAR advantage to MGB neurons relative to IC neurons. This increased GABA sensitivity likely underpins the vital filtering role of auditory thalamus. PMID:24155003

  12. GABA-B receptor activation and conflict behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketelaars, C.E.J.; Bollen, E.L.; Rigter, H.; Bruinvels, J.

    1988-01-01

    Baclofen and oxazepam enhance extinction of conflict behavior in the Geller-Seifter test while baclofen and diazepam release punished behavior in Vogel's conflict test. In order to investigate the possibility that the effect of the selective GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen is mediated indirectly via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex, the effect of pretreatment of rats with baclofen on [ 3 H]-diazepam binding to washed and unwashed cortical and cerebellar membranes of rats has been studied. Baclofen pretreatment increase Bmax in washed cerebellar membranes when bicuculline was present in the incubation mixture. No effect was seen in cortical membranes. The present results render it unlikely that the effect of baclofen on extinction of conflict behavior and punished drinking is mediated via the GABA-A/benzodiazepine receptor complex. 50 references, 1 figure, 4 tables

  13. In vivo imaging of GABA{sub A} receptors using sequential whole-volume iodine-123 iomazenil single-photon emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busatto, G.F. [Dept. of Psychological Medicine, Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Pilowsky, L.S. [Dept. of Psychological Medicine, Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Costa, D.C. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, University Coll. and Middlesex School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Ell, P.J. [Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, University Coll. and Middlesex School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Lingford-Hughes, A. [Dept. of Psychological Medicine, Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom); Kerwin, R.W. [Dept. of Psychological Medicine, Inst. of Psychiatry, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-01-01

    Using a brain-dedicated triple-headed single-photon emission tomography (SPET) system, a sequential whole-volume imaging protocol has been devised to evaluate the regional distribution of iodine-123 iomazenil binding to GABA{sub A} receptors in the entire brain. The protocol was piloted in eight normal volunteers (seven males and one female; mean age, 24.8{+-}3.9 years). The patterns obtained were largely compatible with the known distribution of GABA{sub A} receptors in the brain as reported in autoradiographic studies, with cerebral cortical regions, particularly the occipital and frontal cortices, displaying the highest {sup 123}I-iomazenil uptake. Measures of time to peak uptake and tracer washout rates presented with the same pattern of regional variation, with later times to peak and slower washout rates in cortical regions compared to other brain areas. Semiquantitative analysis of the data using white matter/ventricle regions as reference demonstrated a plateau of specific {sup 123}I-iomazenil binding in neocortical and cerebellar regions from 60-75 min onwards. These data demonstrate the feasibility of sequential, dynamic whole-volume {sup 123}I-iomazenil SPET imaging. The protocol may be particularly useful in the investigation of neuropsychiatric conditions which are likely to involve more than one focus of GABA abnormalities, such as anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. (orig.)

  14. Systematic Analysis of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Metabolism and Function in the Social Amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuantai; Janetopoulos, Chris

    2013-01-01

    While GABA has been suggested to regulate spore encapsulation in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, the metabolic profile and other potential functions of GABA during development remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the homeostasis of GABA metabolism by disrupting genes related to GABA metabolism and signaling. Extracellular levels of GABA are tightly regulated during early development, and GABA is generated by the glutamate decarboxylase, GadB, during growth and in early development. However, overexpression of the prespore-specific homologue, GadA, in the presence of GadB reduces production of extracellular GABA. Perturbation of extracellular GABA levels delays the process of aggregation. Cytosolic GABA is degraded by the GABA transaminase, GabT, in the mitochondria. Disruption of a putative vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT) homologue DdvGAT reduces secreted GABA. We identified the GABAB receptor-like family member GrlB as the major GABA receptor during early development, and either disruption or overexpression of GrlB delays aggregation. This delay is likely the result of an abolished pre-starvation response and late expression of several “early” developmental genes. Distinct genes are employed for GABA generation during sporulation. During sporulation, GadA alone is required for generating GABA and DdvGAT is likely responsible for GABA secretion. GrlE but not GrlB is the GABA receptor during late development. PMID:23548898

  15. Effects of x-irradiation induced loss of cerebellar granule cells on the synaptosomal levels and the high affinity uptake of amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, B.H.; Rea, M.A.; Simon, J.R.; McBride, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Crude synaptosomal (P 2 ) preparations were obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the granule cell population had been selectively reduced by X-irradiation treatment and from the cerebella of control animals. In the P 2 fraction form control cerebella, the level of glutamate was greater than any other of the 5 amino acids measured and was 2-fold higher than taurine. The content of taurine, GABA, glycine, and alanine were not changed by the X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate and L-[ 3 H]aspartate was reduced approx 20% by X-irradiation treatment, whereas the uptake of 1.0 micrometers-[ 3 H]GABA and [ 3 H]taurine was unchanged. In a second study, the uptake of L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was measured using P 2 fractions obtained from the cerebella of rats in which the population of granule, stellate and basket cells had been reduced by X-irradiation treatment. The uptake of 1.0 micrometers-L-[ 3 H]glutamate, L-[ 3 H]aspartate and [ 3 H]GABA was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced to 57.68 and 59% respectively, of control values. The data are discussed in terms of glutamate being the excitatory neurotransmitter released from granule cells and GABA being the inhibitory neurotransmitter released from basket cells. (author)

  16. Pharmacological Identification of a Guanidine-Containing β-Alanine Analogue with Low Micromolar Potency and Selectivity for the Betaine/GABA Transporter 1 (BGT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Khawaja, Anas Mohammad Ali; Petersen, Jette Gellert; Damgaard, Maria

    2014-01-01

    of the amino group in β-alanine or GABA, a series of compounds was generated, and their pharmacological activity assessed at human GAT subtypes. Using a cell-based [(3)H]GABA uptake assay, several selective inhibitors at human BGT1 were identified. The guanidine-containing compound 9 (2-amino-1......,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylic acid hydrochloride) displayed more than 250 times greater potency than the parent compound β-alanine at BGT1 and is thus the most potent inhibitor reported to date for this subtype (IC50 value of 2.5 µM). In addition, compound 9 displayed about 400, 16 and 40 times lower inhibitory...

  17. Ventral tegmental area GABA neurons and opiate motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Perez, Hector; Mabey, Jennifer K.; Shin, Samuel I.; Steffensen, Scott C.; van der Kooy, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Rational Past research has demonstrated that when an animal changes from a previously drug-naive to an opiate-dependent and withdrawn state, morphine’s motivational effects are switched from a tegmental pedunculopontine nucleus (TPP)-dependent to a dopamine-dependent pathway. Interestingly, a corresponding change is observed in ventral tegmental area (VTA) GABAA receptors, which change from mediating hyperpolarization of VTA GABA neurons to mediating depolarization. Objectives The present study investigated whether pharmacological manipulation of VTA GABAA receptor activity could directly influence the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation. Results Using an unbiased place conditioning procedure, we demonstrated that in Wistar rats, intra-VTA administration of furosemide, a Cl− cotransporter inhibitor, was able to promote a switch in the mechanisms underlying morphine’s motivational properties, one which is normally observed only after chronic opiate exposure. This behavioral switch was prevented by intra-VTA administration of acetazolamide, an inhibitor of the bicarbonate ion-producing carbonic anhydrase enzyme. Electrophysiological recordings of mouse VTA showed that furosemide reduced the sensitivity of VTA GABA neurons to inhibition by the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol, instead increasing the firing rate of a significant subset of these GABA neurons. Conclusion Our results suggest that the carbonic anhydrase enzyme may constitute part of a common VTA GABA neuron-based biological pathway responsible for controlling the mechanisms underlying opiate motivation, supporting the hypothesis that VTA GABAA receptor hyperpolarization or depolarization is responsible for selecting TPP- or dopamine-dependent motivational outputs, respectively. PMID:23392354

  18. Glutamate and GABA in lateral hypothalamic mechanisms controlling food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, B G; Urstadt, K R; Charles, J R; Kee, T

    2011-07-25

    By the 1990s a convergence of evidence had accumulated to suggest that neurons within the lateral hypothalamus (LH) play important roles in the stimulation of feeding behavior. However, there was little direct evidence demonstrating that neurotransmitters in the LH could, like electrical stimulation, elicit feeding in satiated animals. The present paper is a brief review in honor of Bartley Hoebel's scientific contributions, emphasizing the evidence from my lab that the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the LH mediate feeding stimulation and feeding inhibition respectively. Specifically, we summarize evidence that LH injection of glutamate, or agonists of its N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors, elicits feeding in satiated rats, that NMDA receptor antagonists block the eating elicited by NMDA and, more importantly, that NMDA blockade suppresses natural feeding and can reduce body weight. Conversely, GABA(A) agonists injected into the LH suppress feeding and can also reduce body weight, while GABA(A) receptor antagonists actually elicit eating when injected into the LH of satiated rats. It is suggested that natural feeding may reflect the moment-to-moment balance in the activity of glutamate and GABA within the LH. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hap1 and GABA: thinking about food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Stephen C; Seeley, Randy J

    2006-06-01

    GABA stimulation of hypothalamic GABAA receptors increases food intake and body weight. Huntingtin-associated protein-1 (Hap1), is highly expressed in the hypothalamus and increases activity at GABAA receptors; mice lacking Hap1 are hypophagic. A recent paper (Sheng et al.,2006) further explores the role of Hap1 in the control of food intake.

  20. Big GABA : Edited MR spectroscopy at 24 research sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikkelsen, Mark; Barker, Peter B; Bhattacharyya, Pallab K; Brix, Maiken K; Buur, Pieter F; Cecil, Kim M; Chan, Kimberly L; Chen, David Y-T; Craven, Alexander R; Cuypers, Koen; Dacko, Michael; Duncan, Niall W; Dydak, Ulrike; Edmondson, David A; Ende, Gabriele; Ersland, Lars; Gao, Fei; Greenhouse, Ian; Harris, Ashley D; He, Naying; Heba, Stefanie; Hoggard, Nigel; Hsu, Tun-Wei; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Kangarlu, Alayar; Lange, Thomas; Lebel, R Marc; Li, Yan-Mei; Lin, Chien-Yuan E; Liou, Jy-Kang; Lirng, Jiing-Feng; Liu, Feng; Ma, Ruoyun; Maes, Celine; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Murray, Scott O; Noah, Sean; Noeske, Ralph; Noseworthy, Michael D; Oeltzschner, Georg; Prisciandaro, James J; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Roberts, Timothy P L; Sack, Markus; Sailasuta, Napapon; Saleh, Muhammad G; Schallmo, Michael-Paul; Simard, Nicholas; Swinnen, Stephan P; Tegenthoff, Martin; Truong, Peter; Wang, Guangbin; Wilkinson, Iain D; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Xu, Hongmin; Yan, Fuhua; Zhang, Chencheng; Zipunnikov, Vadim; Zöllner, Helge J; Edden, Richard A E

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is the only biomedical imaging method that can noninvasively detect endogenous signals from the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the human brain. Its increasing popularity has been aided by improvements in scanner hardware and acquisition

  1. STUDY OF PHENIBUT ANTIEDEMIC ACTION AND NEW GABA DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Scherbakova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have studied phenibut, gammalone, and new GABA derivatives action on the development of experimental cerebral edema. We have detected gammoxyn - the most prospective substance for further study as cere-broprotector. We have established that gammoxyn has a signified protective action in cerebral edema.

  2. Ionotropic GABA Receptors and Distal Retinal ON and OFF Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Popova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the vertebrate retina, visual signals are segregated into parallel ON and OFF pathways, which provide information for light increments and decrements. The segregation is first evident at the level of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in distal retina. The activity of large populations of ON and OFF bipolar cells is reflected in the b- and d-waves of the diffuse electroretinogram (ERG. The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, acting through ionotropic GABA receptors in shaping the ON and OFF responses in distal retina, is a matter of debate. This review summarized current knowledge about the types of the GABAergic neurons and ionotropic GABA receptors in the retina as well as the effects of GABA and specific GABAA and GABAC receptor antagonists on the activity of the ON and OFF bipolar cells in both nonmammalian and mammalian retina. Special emphasis is put on the effects on b- and d-waves of the ERG as a useful tool for assessment of the overall function of distal retinal ON and OFF channels. The role of GABAergic system in establishing the ON-OFF asymmetry concerning the time course and absolute and relative sensitivity of the ERG responses under different conditions of light adaptation in amphibian retina is also discussed.

  3. GABA in Paraventricular Nucleus Regulates Adipose Afferent Reflex in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    Full Text Available Chemical stimulation of white adipose tissue (WAT induces adipose afferent reflex (AAR, and thereby causes a general sympathetic activation. Paraventricular nucleus (PVN is important in control of sympathetic outflow. This study was designed to investigate the role of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in PVN in regulating the AAR.Experiments were carried out in anesthetized rats. Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP were continuously recorded. AAR was evaluated by the RSNA and MAP responses to electrical stimulation of the right epididymal WAT (eWAT afferent nerve. Electrical stimulation of eWAT afferent nerve increase RSNA. Bilateral microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist isoguvacine or the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen attenuated the AAR. The effect of isoguvacine on the AAR was greater than that of baclofen. The GABAA receptor antagonist gabazine enhanced the AAR, while the GABAB receptor antagonist CGP-35348 had no significant effect on the AAR. Bilateral PVN microinjection of vigabatrin, a selective GABA-transaminase inhibitor, to increase endogenous GABA levels in the PVN abolished the AAR. The inhibitory effect of vigabatrin on the AAR was attenuated by the pretreatment with gabazine or CGP-35348. Pretreatment with combined gabazine and CGP-35348 abolished the effects of vigabatrin.Activation of GABAA or GABAB receptors in the PVN inhibits the AAR. Blockade of GABAA receptors in the PVN enhances the AAR. Endogenous GABA in the PVN plays an important role in regulating the AAR.

  4. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Anders V; Schmitt, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a "sniffer" allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition......, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect...

  5. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid production, antioxidant activity in some germinated dietary seeds and the effect of cooking on their GABA content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasarin TIANSAWANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Germinated grains have been known as sources of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA that provide beneficial effects for human health. This study was aimed to investigate GABA production, dietary fiber, antioxidant activity, and the effect of cooking on GABA loss in germinated legumes and sesame. The highest GABA content was found in germinated mung bean, (0.8068 g kg-1, 24 h incubation followed by germinated soybean, germinated black bean and soaked sesame. Beside GABA, dietary fiber content also increased in all grains during germination where the insoluble dietary fiber fractions were always found in higher proportions to soluble dietary fiber fractions. Our results also confirmed that germinated mung bean is a rich source of GABA and dietary fibers. Microwave cooking resulted in the smallest loss of GABA in mung bean and sesame, while steaming led to the least GABA content loss in soybean and black bean. Therefore microwave cooking and steaming are the most recommended cooking processes to preserve GABA in germinated legumes and sesame.

  6. A fluorescence-coupled assay for gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA reveals metabolic stress-induced modulation of GABA content in neuroendocrine cancer.

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    Joseph E Ippolito

    Full Text Available Pathways involved in the synthesis of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA have been implicated in the pathogenesis of high grade neuroendocrine (NE neoplasms as well as neoplasms from a non-NE lineage. Using The Cancer Genome Atlas, overexpression of the GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamate decarboxylase 1 (GAD1, was found to be associated with decreased disease free-survival in prostate adenocarcinoma and decreased overall survival in clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Furthermore, GAD1 was found to be expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer cell lines, but not androgen-responsive cell lines. Using a novel fluorescence-coupled enzymatic microplate assay for GABA mediated through reduction of resazurin in a prostate neuroendocrine carcinoma (PNEC cell line, acid microenvironment-induced stress increased GABA levels while alkaline microenvironment-induced stress decreased GABA through modulation of GAD1 and glutamine synthetase (GLUL activities. Moreover, glutamine but not glucose deprivation decreased GABA through modulation of GLUL. Consistent with evidence in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that GABA synthesis mediated through GAD1 may play a crucial role in surviving stress, GABA may be an important mediator of stress survival in neoplasms. These findings identify GABA synthesis and metabolism as a potentially important pathway for regulating cancer cell stress response as well as a potential target for therapeutic strategies.

  7. GABA not only a neurotransmitter: osmotic regulation by GABAAR signalling

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    Tiziana eCesetti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In neurons the anionic channel γ-aminobutyric (GABA A receptor (GABAAR plays a central role in mediating both the neurotrophic and neurotransmitter role of GABA. Activation of this receptor by GABA also affects the function of non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (CNS, as GABAARs are expressed in mature macroglia and in almost all progenitor types, including neural stem cells. The relevance of GABA signalling in non-neuronal cells has been comparatively less investigated than in neurons. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that these cells are direct targets of GABA regulation. In non-neuronal cells GABAAR activation leads to influx or efflux of chloride (Cl- depending on the electrochemical gradient. Ion transport is indissolubly associated to water fluxes across the plasma membrane and plays a key role in brain physiology. Therefore, GABAAR could affect osmotic tension in the brain by modulating ion gradients. In addition, since water movements also occur through specialized water channels and transporters, GABAAR signalling could affect the movement of water also by regulating the function of the channels and transporters involved, thereby affecting not only the direction of the water fluxes but also their dynamics. This regulation has consequences at the cellular level as it modulates cell volume and activates multiple intracellular signalling mechanisms important for cell proliferation, maturation and survival. It may also have consequences at the systemic level. For example, it may indirectly control neuronal excitability, by regulating the extracellular space and interstitial concentration of Cl-, and contribute to brain water homeostasis. Therefore, GABAergic osmotic regulation should be taken into account during the treatment of pathologies requiring the administration of GABAAR modulators and for the development of therapies for diseases causing water unbalance in the brain.

  8. Prefrontal cortical GABA modulation of spatial reference and working memory.

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    Auger, Meagan L; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-10-31

    Dysfunction in prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA transmission has been proposed to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, yet how this system regulates different cognitive and mnemonic functions remains unclear. We assessed the effects of pharmacological reduction of GABAA signaling in the medial PFC of rats on spatial reference/working memory using different versions of the radial-arm maze task. We used a massed-trials procedure to probe how PFC GABA regulates susceptibility to proactive interference. Male rats were well-trained to retrieve food from the same 4 arms of an 8-arm maze, receiving 5 trials/day (1-2 min intervals). Infusions of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (12.5-50 ng) markedly increased working and reference memory errors and response latencies. Similar treatments also impaired short-term memory on an 8-baited arm task. These effects did not appear to be due to increased susceptibility to proactive interference. In contrast, PFC inactivation via infusion of GABA agonists baclofen/muscimol did not affect reference/working memory. In comparison to the pronounced effects on the 8-arm maze tasks, PFC GABAA antagonism only causes a slight and transient decrease in accuracy on a 2-arm spatial discrimination. These findings demonstrate that prefrontal GABA hypofunction severely disrupts spatial reference and short-term memory and that disinhibition of the PFC can, in some instances, perturb memory processes not normally dependent on the frontal lobes. Moreover, these impairments closely resemble those observed in schizophrenic patients, suggesting that perturbation in PFC GABA signaling may contribute to these types of cognitive deficits associated with the disorder. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. Inactivation of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase by γ-ethynyl- and γ-vinyl GABA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, R.B.; Burke, J.R.; Nanavati, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    γ-Ethynyl- and γ-vinyl GABA (vigabatrin) are anticonvulsant agents that have been shown to be mechanism-based inactivators of γ-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase (GABA-T). The inactivation mechanisms of these compounds have been investigated. Inactivation of GABA-T by [ 3 H]γ-ethynyl GABA led to the incorporation of 1.0 equiv of 3 H into the enzyme which is not released by enzyme denaturation. Inactivation by γ-ethynyl GABA of GABA-T reconstituted with [ 3 H]PLP followed by denaturation resulted in release of 3 H as PLP. Eight different possible adducts are consistent with that result. Experiments have been carried out to differentiate these possibilities. Similar studies have been carried out with γ-vinyl GABA. Inactivation by [ 14 C]γ-vinyl GABA resulted in the incorporation of 1.0 equiv of 14 C per active site. Unlike the case with γ-ethynyl GABA, γ-vinyl GABA inactivation of GABA-T reconstituted with [ 3 H]PLP followed by denaturation resulted in release of 3 H as PMP

  10. Disruption of the GABA shunt affects mitochondrial respiration and virulence in the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bönnighausen, Jakob; Gebhard, Daniel; Kröger, Cathrin; Hadeler, Birgit; Tumforde, Thomas; Lieberei, Reinhard; Bergemann, Jörg; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Bormann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum threatens food and feed production worldwide. It reduces the yield and poisons the remaining kernels with mycotoxins, notably deoxynivalenol (DON). We analyzed the importance of gamma-aminobutanoic acid (GABA) metabolism for the life cycle of this fungal pathogen. GABA metabolism in F. graminearum is partially regulated by the global nitrogen regulator AreA. Genetic disruption of the GABA shunt by deletion of two GABA transaminases renders the pathogen unable to utilize the plant stress metabolites GABA and putrescine. The mutants showed increased sensitivity against oxidative stress, GABA accumulation in the mycelium, downregulation of two key enzymes of the TCA cycle, disturbed potential gradient in the mitochondrial membrane and lower mitochondrial oxygen consumption. In contrast, addition of GABA to the wild type resulted in its rapid turnover and increased mitochondrial steady state oxygen consumption. GABA concentrations are highly upregulated in infected wheat tissues. We conclude that GABA is metabolized by the pathogen during infection increasing its energy production, whereas the mutants accumulate GABA intracellularly resulting in decreased energy production. Consequently, the GABA mutants are strongly reduced in virulence but, because of their DON production, are able to cross the rachis node. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Kordt Christensen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA is the main inhibitory transmitter of the brain. It operates by binding to specific receptors located both inside and outside synapses. The extrasynaptic receptors are activated by spillover from GABAergic synapses and by ambient GABA in the extracellular space. Ambient GABA is essential for adjusting the excitability of neurons. However, due to the lack of suitable methods, little is known about its dynamics. Here we describe a new technique that allows detection of GABA transients and measurement of the steady state GABA concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. We used a Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK cell line that stably expresses GABAA receptors composed of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits. We recorded from such a HEK cell with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The presence of GABA near the HEK cell generated a measurable electric current whose magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a sniffer allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect fast transients and to measure steady concentrations.

  12. Fast detection of extrasynaptic GABA with a whole-cell sniffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Rasmus K; Petersen, Anders V; Schmitt, Nicole; Perrier, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory transmitter of the brain. It operates by binding to specific receptors located both inside and outside synapses. The extrasynaptic receptors are activated by spillover from GABAergic synapses and by ambient GABA in the extracellular space. Ambient GABA is essential for adjusting the excitability of neurons. However, due to the lack of suitable methods, little is known about its dynamics. Here we describe a new technique that allows detection of GABA transients and measurement of the steady state GABA concentration with high spatial and temporal resolution. We used a human embryonic kidney (HEK) cell line that stably expresses GABAA receptors composed of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits. We recorded from such a HEK cell with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The presence of GABA near the HEK cell generated a measurable electric current whose magnitude increased with concentration. A fraction of the current did not inactivate during prolonged exposition to GABA. This technique, which we refer to as a "sniffer" allows the measurement of ambient GABA concentration inside nervous tissue with a resolution of few tens of nanomolars. In addition, the sniffer detects variations in the extrasynaptic GABA concentration with millisecond time resolution. Pilot experiments demonstrate that the sniffer is able to report spillover of GABA induced by synaptic activation in real time. This is the first report on a GABA sensor that combines the ability to detect fast transients and to measure steady concentrations.

  13. The GABA A-Receptor γ2 (GABRG2 Gene in obsessive-compulsive disorder O gene do receptor GABA A- γ2 (GABRG2 no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo

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    Margaret A. Richter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA A system may be implicated in obsessive-compulsive disorder, based on its major role in modulation of anxiety and its function as the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter system in the cortex. In addition, glutamatergic/GABAergic mechanisms appear to play a role in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder, making the GABA A receptor-γ2 (GABργ2 gene a good candidate for susceptibility in this disorder. METHOD: 118 probands meeting DSM-IV criteria for primary obsessive-compulsive disorder and their available parents were recruited for participation in this study and informed consent was obtained. An NciI restriction site polymorphism in the second intron was genotyped and data was analyzed using the Transmission Disequilibrium Test. RESULTS: In total, 61 of the participating families were informative (i.e., with at least one heterozygous parent. No biases were observed in the transmission of either of the two alleles (χ2 = 0.016, 1 d.f., p = 0.898 to the affected probands in the total sample. CONCLUSION/DISCUSSION: While these results do not provide support for a major role for the GABA A receptor-γ2 in obsessive-compulsive disorder, further investigations of this gene in larger samples are warranted.OBJETIVO: O sistema gabaérgico tipo A (GABA A pode estar implicado no transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo devido ao seu grande papel na modulação da ansiedade e da sua função como o principal neurotransmissor inibidor no córtex. Além disso, mecanismos glutamatérgicos/gabaérgicos parecem desempenhar um papel na fisiopatologia do transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo, tornando o gene do receptor GABA A-γ2 (GABRG2 um bom gene candidato para a suscetibilidade genética a este transtorno. MÉTODO: 118 probandos que preencheram os critérios do DSM-IV para transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo primário e seus pais (quando disponíveis foram recrutados para a participação neste estudo

  14. GABA promotes elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation in normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Eriko; Hokazono, Hideki; Hida, Mariko; Sasaki, Takako; Yoshioka, Hidekatsu; Matsuo, Noritaka

    2017-06-01

    The multiple physiological effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as a functional food component have been recently reported. We previously reported that GABA upregulated the expression of type I collagen in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), and that oral administration of GABA significantly increased skin elasticity. However, details of the regulatory mechanism still remain unknown. In this study, we further examined the effects of GABA on elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation in HDFs. Real-time PCR indicated that GABA significantly increased the expression of tropoelastin transcript in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, the expression of fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2, and fibulin-5/DANCE, but not lysyl oxidase and latent transforming factor-β-binding protein 4, were also significantly increased in HDFs. Finally, immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that treatment with GABA dramatically increased the formation of elastic fibers in HDFs. Taken together, our results showed that GABA improves skin elasticity in HDFs by upregulating elastin synthesis and elastin fiber formation.

  15. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

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    Miho eWatanabe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction.

  16. GABA from reactive astrocytes impairs memory in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Seonmi; Yarishkin, Oleg; Hwang, Yu Jin; Chun, Ye Eun; Park, Mijeong; Woo, Dong Ho; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Taekeun; Lee, Jaekwang; Chun, Heejung; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Da Yong; Hong, Jinpyo; Kim, Hye Yun; Oh, Soo-Jin; Park, Seung Ju; Lee, Hyo; Yoon, Bo-Eun; Kim, YoungSoo; Jeong, Yong; Shim, Insop; Bae, Yong Chul; Cho, Jeiwon; Kowall, Neil W; Ryu, Hoon; Hwang, Eunmi; Kim, Daesoo; Lee, C Justin

    2014-08-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), memory impairment is the most prominent feature that afflicts patients and their families. Although reactive astrocytes have been observed around amyloid plaques since the disease was first described, their role in memory impairment has been poorly understood. Here, we show that reactive astrocytes aberrantly and abundantly produce the inhibitory gliotransmitter GABA by monoamine oxidase-B (Maob) and abnormally release GABA through the bestrophin 1 channel. In the dentate gyrus of mouse models of AD, the released GABA reduces spike probability of granule cells by acting on presynaptic GABA receptors. Suppressing GABA production or release from reactive astrocytes fully restores the impaired spike probability, synaptic plasticity, and learning and memory in the mice. In the postmortem brain of individuals with AD, astrocytic GABA and MAOB are significantly upregulated. We propose that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA synthesis or release may serve as an effective therapeutic strategy for treating memory impairment in AD.

  17. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptogenesis and synaptic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Elster, L

    1998-01-01

    The correct establishment and function of synapses depend on a variety of factors, such as guidance of pre- and postsynaptic neurons as well as receptor development and localization. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) has a pronounced effect on these events and elicits differentiation of neurons......; that is, GABA acts as a trophic signal. Accordingly, activating preexisting GABA receptors, a trophic GABA signal enhances the growth rate of neuronal processes, facilitates synapse formation, and promotes synthesis of specific proteins. Transcription and de novo synthesis are initiated by the GABA signal......, but the intracellular link between GABA receptor activation and DNA transcription is largely unknown. GABA also controls the induction and development of functionally and pharmacologically different GABAA receptor subtypes. The induced receptors are likely to be inserted only into the synaptic membrane domain. However...

  18. GABA Neuron Alterations, Cortical Circuit Dysfunction and Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez-Burgos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a brain disorder associated with cognitive deficits that severely affect the patients' capacity for daily functioning. Whereas our understanding of its pathophysiology is limited, postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with deficits of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission. A major role of GABA-mediated transmission may be producing synchronized network oscillations which are currently hypothesized to be essential for normal cognitive function. Therefore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may result from a GABA synapse dysfunction that disturbs neural synchrony. Here, we highlight recent studies further suggesting alterations of GABA transmission and network oscillations in schizophrenia. We also review current models for the mechanisms of GABA-mediated synchronization of neural activity, focusing on parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons, which are altered in schizophrenia and whose function has been strongly linked to the production of neural synchrony. Alterations of GABA signaling that impair gamma oscillations and, as a result, cognitive function suggest paths for novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. GABA neuron alterations, cortical circuit dysfunction and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Burgos, Guillermo; Fish, Kenneth N; Lewis, David A

    2011-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a brain disorder associated with cognitive deficits that severely affect the patients' capacity for daily functioning. Whereas our understanding of its pathophysiology is limited, postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with deficits of GABA-mediated synaptic transmission. A major role of GABA-mediated transmission may be producing synchronized network oscillations which are currently hypothesized to be essential for normal cognitive function. Therefore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia may result from a GABA synapse dysfunction that disturbs neural synchrony. Here, we highlight recent studies further suggesting alterations of GABA transmission and network oscillations in schizophrenia. We also review current models for the mechanisms of GABA-mediated synchronization of neural activity, focusing on parvalbumin-positive GABA neurons, which are altered in schizophrenia and whose function has been strongly linked to the production of neural synchrony. Alterations of GABA signaling that impair gamma oscillations and, as a result, cognitive function suggest paths for novel therapeutic interventions.

  20. GABA signalling modulates plant growth by directly regulating the activity of plant-specific anion transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Sunita A; Tyerman, Stephen D; Xu, Bo; Bose, Jayakumar; Kaur, Satwinder; Conn, Vanessa; Domingos, Patricia; Ullah, Sana; Wege, Stefanie; Shabala, Sergey; Feijó, José A; Ryan, Peter R; Gilliham, Matthew; Gillham, Matthew

    2015-07-29

    The non-protein amino acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) rapidly accumulates in plant tissues in response to biotic and abiotic stress, and regulates plant growth. Until now it was not known whether GABA exerts its effects in plants through the regulation of carbon metabolism or via an unidentified signalling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that anion flux through plant aluminium-activated malate transporter (ALMT) proteins is activated by anions and negatively regulated by GABA. Site-directed mutagenesis of selected amino acids within ALMT proteins abolishes GABA efficacy but does not alter other transport properties. GABA modulation of ALMT activity results in altered root growth and altered root tolerance to alkaline pH, acid pH and aluminium ions. We propose that GABA exerts its multiple physiological effects in plants via ALMT, including the regulation of pollen tube and root growth, and that GABA can finally be considered a legitimate signalling molecule in both the plant and animal kingdoms.

  1. Pharmacology of morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide at opioid, excitatory amino acid, GABA and glycine binding sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.E.; Smith, M.T. (Department of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland (Australia)); Dood, P.R. (Clinical Research Centre, Royal Brisbane Hospital Foundation, Brisbane (Australia))

    1994-07-01

    Morphine in high doses and its major metabolite, morphine-3-glucuronide, cause CNS excitation following intrathecal and intracerebroventricular administration by an unknown mechanism. This study investigated whether morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide interact at major excitatory (glutamate), major inhibitory (GABA or glycine), or opioid binding sites. Homogenate binding assays were performed using specific radioligands. At opioid receptors, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused an equipotent sodium shift, consistent with morphine-3-glucuronide behaving as an agonist. This suggests that morphine-3-glucuronide-mediated excitation is not caused by an interaction at opioid receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine caused a weak inhibition of the binding of [sup 3]H-MK801 (non-competitive antagonist) and [sup 125]I-ifenprodil (polyamine site antagonist), but at unphysiologically high concentrations. This suggests that CNS excitation would not result from an interaction of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine with these sites on the NMDA receptor. Morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine inhibited the binding of [sup 3]H-muscimol (GABA receptor agonist), [sup 3]H-diazepam and [sup 3]H-flunitraxepam (benzodiazepine agonists) binding very weakly, suggesting the excitatory effects of morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine are not elicited through GABA[sub A] receptors. Morphine-3-glucuronide and high-dose morphine did not prevent re-uptake of glutamate into presynaptic nerve terminals. In addition, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine did not inhibit the binding of [sup 3]H-strychnine (glycine receptor antagonist) to synaptic membranes prepared from bovine spinal cord. It is concluded that excitation caused by high-dose morphine and morphine-3-glucuronide is not mediated by an interaction with postsynaptic amino acid receptors. (au) (30 refs.).

  2. Ethanol enhances GABA-induced 36Cl-influx in primary spinal cord cultured neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticku, M.K.; Lowrimore, P.; Lehoullier, P.

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol has a pharmacological profile similar to other centrally acting drugs, which facilitate GABAergic transmission. GABA is known to produce its effects by increasing the conductance to Cl- ions. In this study, we have examined the effect of ethanol on GABA-induced 36Cl-influx in primary spinal cord cultured neurons. GABA produces a concentration-dependent, and saturable effect on 36Cl-influx in these neurons. Ethanol potentiates the effect of GABA on 36Cl-influx in these neurons. GABA (20 microM) increased the 36Cl-influx by 75% over the basal value, and in the presence of 50 mM ethanol, the observed increase was 142%. Eadie-Hoffstee analysis of the saturation curves indicated that ethanol decreases the Km value of GABA (10.6 microM to 4.2 microM), and also increases the Vmax. Besides potentiating the effect of GABA, ethanol also appears to have a direct effect in the absence of added GABA. These results suggest that ethanol enhances GABA-induced 36Cl-influx and indicate a role of GABAergic system in the actions of ethanol. These results also support the behavioral and electrophysiological studies, which have implicated GABA systems in the actions of ethanol. The potential mechanism(s) and the role of direct effect of ethanol is not clear at this time, but is currently being investigated

  3. Synchronization by food access modifies the daily variations in expression and activity of liver GABA transaminase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ita-Pérez, Dalia; Méndez, Isabel; Vázquez-Martínez, Olivia; Villalobos-Leal, Mónica; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Daytime restricted feeding (DRF) is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO). Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T) during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  4. Alleviation in the rat of a GABA-induced reduction in food intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Repa, J J; Harper, A E

    1984-07-01

    Cold exposure and diet dilution which stimulate food intake of normal rats lessened depressions of food intake and growth induced by dietary GABA. During a 3-day adaptation to the cold, rats fed a diet containing 4.5% GABA lost weight; thereafter, food intake and growth rate differed little from those of cold control rats and were usually greater than those of normal rats fed GABA. Hepatic GABA-aminotransferase activity of cold-exposed rats fed the GABA diet increased to about twice that of normal control rats. Rats fed a control diet diluted by half with cellulose ate 50% more of this diet than of the undiluted diet but gained only 20% less weight. Rats ate twice as much of a diluted, 9% GABA diet as of an undiluted, 4.5% GABA diet (thus doubling their GABA intake) and gained three times as much weight. A novel food (condensed milk) barely lessened the adverse responses to GABA. These results show that conditions requiring rats to increase their food intake in order to maintain body weight can also increase their acceptance of a diet high in GABA.

  5. Synchronization by Food Access Modifies the Daily Variations in Expression and Activity of Liver GABA Transaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia De Ita-Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Daytime restricted feeding (DRF is an experimental protocol that influences the circadian timing system and underlies the expression of a biological clock known as the food entrained oscillator (FEO. Liver is the organ that reacts most rapidly to food restriction by adjusting the functional relationship between the molecular circadian clock and the metabolic networks. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a signaling molecule in the liver, and able to modulate the cell cycle and apoptosis. This study was aimed at characterizing the expression and activity of the mostly mitochondrial enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T during DRF/FEO expression. We found that DRF promotes a sustained increase of GABA-T in the liver homogenate and mitochondrial fraction throughout the entire day-night cycle. The higher amount of GABA-T promoted by DRF was not associated to changes in GABA-T mRNA or GABA-T activity. The GABA-T activity in the mitochondrial fraction even tended to decrease during the light period. We concluded that DRF influences the daily variations of GABA-T mRNA levels, stability, and catalytic activity of GABA-T. These data suggest that the liver GABAergic system responds to a metabolic challenge such as DRF and the concomitant appearance of the FEO.

  6. Sodium and potassium ions and accumulation of labelled D-aspartate and GABA in crude synaptosomal fraction from rat cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagaki, G.

    1978-01-01

    The accumulation of labelled D-aspartate into crude synaptosomal fraction (P 2 ) prepared from the rat cerebral cortex proceeded by a 'high affinity' system (Ksub(m) = 15.1 μM). The maximal velocity of D-aspartate uptake was higher than that of the 'high affinity' component of L-aspartate uptake and almost equal to that of L-glutamate under the same incubation conditions. Negligible metabolism of labelled D-aspartate was observed in the P 2 fraction. These findings are in accord with those which have been reported for rat cerebral cortical slices. The following observations were made on D-aspartate uptake into rat cerebral P 2 fraction. The requirement of sodium were almost absolute and obligatory. The affinity of the carrier for the substrate was increased by increasing sodium concentration in the medium, but the maximal velocity was not altered. It is suggested that sodium ion is co-transported mole for mole with the substrate molecule. Omission of potassium from the medium inhibited the uptake competitively. Ouabain was a competitive inhibitor on the uptake. Whereas thallium, rubidium and ammonium were efficient substitutes for potassium in exhibiting Na-K ATPase activity of the P 2 fraction, the uptake was activated only by rubidium in the absence of potassium. These observations were in common with the uptake of L-aspartate as well as of L- and D-glutamate, but not with GABA uptake. The requirement of sodium for the uptake of D-glutamate was indicated to be higher than that in the uptake of the other amino acids. Mutual inhibitions of the uptake among L- and D-isomers of glutamate and aspartate suggested that a common carrier is involved in the transport. Mechanisms of the transport of these amino acids in the crude synaptosomal fraction were discussed. (author)

  7. Glutamate modulation of GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells of the skate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzer, Matthew A; Andersen, Kristen A; Malchow, Robert Paul

    2003-01-01

    Transport of the amino acid GABA into neurons and glia plays a key role in regulating the effects of GABA in the vertebrate retina. We have examined the modulation of GABA-elicited transport currents of retinal horizontal cells by glutamate, the likely neurotransmitter of vertebrate photoreceptors. Enzymatically isolated external horizontal cells of skate were examined using whole-cell voltage-clamp techniques. GABA (1 mm) elicited an inward current that was completely suppressed by the GABA transport inhibitors tiagabine (10 μm) and SKF89976-A (100 μm), but was unaffected by 100 μm picrotoxin. Prior application of 100 μm glutamate significantly reduced the GABA-elicited current. Glutamate depressed the GABA dose-response curve without shifting the curve laterally or altering the voltage dependence of the current. The ionotropic glutamate receptor agonists kainate and AMPA also reduced the GABA-elicited current, and the effects of glutamate and kainate were abolished by the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline. NMDA neither elicited a current nor modified the GABA-induced current, and metabotropic glutamate analogues were also without effect. Inhibition of the GABA-elicited current by glutamate and kainate was reduced when extracellular calcium was removed and when recording pipettes contained high concentrations of the calcium chelator BAPTA. Caffeine (5 mm) and thapsigargin (2 nm), agents known to alter intracellular calcium levels, also reduced the GABA-elicited current, but increases in calcium induced by depolarization alone did not. Our data suggest that glutamate regulates GABA transport in retinal horizontal cells through a calcium-dependent process, and imply a close physical relationship between calcium-permeable glutamate receptors and GABA transporters in these cells. PMID:12562999

  8. Acid stimulation (sour taste elicits GABA and serotonin release from mouse taste cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijen A Huang

    Full Text Available Several transmitter candidates including serotonin (5-HT, ATP, and norepinephrine (NE have been identified in taste buds. Recently, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA as well as the associated synthetic enzymes and receptors have also been identified in taste cells. GABA reduces taste-evoked ATP secretion from Receptor cells and is considered to be an inhibitory transmitter in taste buds. However, to date, the identity of GABAergic taste cells and the specific stimulus for GABA release are not well understood. In the present study, we used genetically-engineered Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells stably co-expressing GABA(B receptors and Gαqo5 proteins to measure GABA release from isolated taste buds. We recorded robust responses from GABA biosensors when they were positioned against taste buds isolated from mouse circumvallate papillae and the buds were depolarized with KCl or a stimulated with an acid (sour taste. In contrast, a mixture of sweet and bitter taste stimuli did not trigger GABA release. KCl- or acid-evoked GABA secretion from taste buds was Ca(2+-dependent; removing Ca(2+ from the bathing medium eliminated GABA secretion. Finally, we isolated individual taste cells to identify the origin of GABA secretion. GABA was released only from Presynaptic (Type III cells and not from Receptor (Type II cells. Previously, we reported that 5-HT released from Presynaptic cells inhibits taste-evoked ATP secretion. Combined with the recent findings that GABA depresses taste-evoked ATP secretion, the present results indicate that GABA and 5-HT are inhibitory transmitters in mouse taste buds and both likely play an important role in modulating taste responses.

  9. Pharmacological analysis of the activation and receptor properties of the tonic GABA(CR current in retinal bipolar cell terminals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M Jones

    Full Text Available GABAergic inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS can occur via rapid, transient postsynaptic currents and via a tonic increase in membrane conductance, mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs respectively. Retinal bipolar cells (BCs exhibit a tonic current mediated by GABA(CRs in their axon terminal, in addition to synaptic GABA(AR and GABA(CR currents, which strongly regulate BC output. The tonic GABA(CR current in BC terminals (BCTs is not dependent on vesicular GABA release, but properties such as the alternative source of GABA and the identity of the GABA(CRs remain unknown. Following a recent report that tonic GABA release from cerebellar glial cells is mediated by Bestrophin 1 anion channels, we have investigated their role in non-vesicular GABA release in the retina. Using patch-clamp recordings from BCTs in goldfish retinal slices, we find that the tonic GABA(CR current is not reduced by the anion channel inhibitors NPPB or flufenamic acid but is reduced by DIDS, which decreases the tonic current without directly affecting GABA(CRs. All three drugs also exhibit non-specific effects including inhibition of GABA transporters. GABA(CR ρ subunits can form homomeric and heteromeric receptors that differ in their properties, but BC GABA(CRs are thought to be ρ1-ρ2 heteromers. To investigate whether GABA(CRs mediating tonic and synaptic currents may differ in their subunit composition, as is the case for GABA(ARs, we have examined the effects of two antagonists that show partial ρ subunit selectivity: picrotoxin and cyclothiazide. Tonic and synaptic GABA(CR currents were differentially affected by both drugs, suggesting that a population of homomeric ρ1 receptors contributes to the tonic current. These results extend our understanding of the multiple forms of GABAergic inhibition that exist in the CNS and contribute to visual signal processing in the retina.

  10. GABA signaling stimulates ?-cell-mediated ?-like cell neogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, Tiziana; Avolio, Fabio; Vieira, Andhira; Ben-Othman, Nouha; Courtney, Monica; Gjernes, Elisabet; Hadzic, Biljana; Druelle, No?mie; Navarro Sanz, Sergi; Silvano, Serena; Mansouri, Ahmed; Collombat, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diabetes is a chronic and progressing disease, the number of patients increasing exponentially, especially in industrialized countries. Regenerating lost insulin-producing cells would represent a promising therapeutic alternative for most diabetic patients. To this end, using the mouse as a model, we reported that GABA, a food supplement, could induce insulin-producing beta-like cell neogenesis offering an attractive and innovative approach for diabetes therapeutics.

  11. The GABA system in schizophrenia: cells, molecules and microcircuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Francine M

    2015-09-01

    This is an overview of several papers that have been published in the Special Issue of Schizophrenia Research entitled The GABA System in Schizophrenia: Cells, Molecules and Microcircuitry. This issue presents a broad range of original reports and scholarly reviews regarding recent progress in studies of neural circuitry in corticolimbic brain regions in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Influence of exogenous gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid contents in roots of melon seedling under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Li, Jing-Rui; Xia, Qing-Ping; Wu, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Hong-Bo

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigated the influence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on GABA metabolism and amino acid content under hypoxia stress by accurately controlling the level of dissolved oxygen in hydroponics, using the roots of melon 'Xiyu 1' seedlings as the test material. The results showed that compared with the control, the growth of roots was inhibited seriously under hypoxia stress. Meanwhile, the hypoxia-treated roots had significantly higher activities of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) as well as the contents of GABA, pyruvic acid, alanine (Ala) and aspartic acid (Asp). But the contents of glutamic acid (Glu) and alpha-keto glutaric acid in roots under hypoxia stress was obviously lower than those of the control. Exogenous treatment with GABA alleviated the inhibition effect of hypoxia stress on root growth, which was accompanied by an increase in the contents of endogenous GABA, Glu, alpha-keto glutaric acid and Asp. Furthermore, under hypoxia stress, the activities of GAD, GDH, GOGAT, GS, ALT, AST as well as the contents of pyruvic acid and Ala significantly decreased in roots treated with GABA. However, adding GABA and viny-gamma-aminobutyric acid (VGB) reduced the alleviation effect of GABA on melon seedlings under hypoxia stress. The results suggested that absorption of GABA by roots could alleviate the injury of hypoxia stress to melon seedlings. This meant that GABA treatment allows the normal physiological metabolism under hypoxia by inhibiting the GAD activity through feedback and maintaining higher Glu content as well as the bal- ance of carbon and nitrogen.

  13. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chen; Sandberg, Kristian; Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby; Rees, Geraint

    2017-09-13

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  14. Human Occipital and Parietal GABA Selectively Influence Visual Perception of Orientation and Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lau Møller; Blicher, Jakob Udby

    2017-01-01

    GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human brain. The level of GABA varies substantially across individuals, and this variability is associated with interindividual differences in visual perception. However, it remains unclear whether the association between GABA level and visual perception reflects a general influence of visual inhibition or whether the GABA levels of different cortical regions selectively influence perception of different visual features. To address this, we studied how the GABA levels of parietal and occipital cortices related to interindividual differences in size, orientation, and brightness perception. We used visual contextual illusion as a perceptual assay since the illusion dissociates perceptual content from stimulus content and the magnitude of the illusion reflects the effect of visual inhibition. Across individuals, we observed selective correlations between the level of GABA and the magnitude of contextual illusion. Specifically, parietal GABA level correlated with size illusion magnitude but not with orientation or brightness illusion magnitude; in contrast, occipital GABA level correlated with orientation illusion magnitude but not with size or brightness illusion magnitude. Our findings reveal a region- and feature-dependent influence of GABA level on human visual perception. Parietal and occipital cortices contain, respectively, topographic maps of size and orientation preference in which neural responses to stimulus sizes and stimulus orientations are modulated by intraregional lateral connections. We propose that these lateral connections may underlie the selective influence of GABA on visual perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT GABA, the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter in human visual system, varies substantially across individuals. This interindividual variability in GABA level is linked to interindividual differences in many aspects of visual perception. However, the widespread influence of GABA raises the

  15. Cloning and characterization of a functional human ¿-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter, human GAT-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Bolette; Meinild, Anne-Kristine; Jensen, Anders A.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma membrane gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporters act to terminate GABA neurotransmission in the mammalian brain. Intriguingly four distinct GABA transporters have been cloned from rat and mouse, whereas only three functional homologs of these transporters have been cloned from human....... The aim of this study therefore was to search for this fourth missing human transporter. Using a bioinformatics approach, we successfully identified and cloned the full-length cDNA of a so far uncharacterized human GABA transporter (GAT). The predicted protein displays high sequence similarity to rat GAT......-2 and mouse GAT3, and in accordance with the nomenclature for rat GABA transporters, we therefore refer to the transporter as human GAT-2. We used electrophysiological and cell-based methods to demonstrate that this protein is a functional transporter of GABA. The transport was saturable...

  16. The GABA shunt in the callus cells derived from soybean cotyledon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masao; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Kitaoka, Shozaburo

    1975-01-01

    In the growing callus cells from soybean cotyledon, the activities of glutamate decarboxylase and GABA transaminase were increased in the early phase of the callus growth on the Miller agar medium. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was also changed in a similar manner. From these and the additional evidences that GABA transaminase was probably localized in the mitochondria, it has been made clear that the GABA shunt (GABA by-pass pathway) is operative and contributes to the respiratory metabolism in growing callus cells. Feeding young callus cells with GABA-U- 14 C for 24 hr actually resulted in finding 53% of the taken up radioactivity in released carbon dioxide. Considerable parts of the taken up radioactivity were found in amino acids and proteins which should have been formed via the GABA shunt also. (auth.)

  17. The dynamics of GABA signaling: Revelations from the circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, H. Elliott; Walton, James C.; Gamble, Karen L.; McNeill, John K.; Hummer, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extracellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors. Both GABA and neuropeptide signaling occur within the SCN, although the functional consequences of the interactions of these signals are not well understood. This review considers the role of GABA in the circadian pacemaker, in the mechanisms responsible for the generation of circadian rhythms, in the ability of non-photic stimuli to reset the phase of the pacemaker, and in the ability of the day-night cycle to entrain the pacemaker. PMID:27894927

  18. MAG2GABA-biocytin synthesized with new intermediates for radiolabelling 99mTc and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, S.H.; Choi, T.H.; Choi, C.W.; Yang, S.D.; Woo, K.S.; Chung, W.S.; Lim, S.M.

    2001-01-01

    188 Re from 188 W- 188 Re generator, is recently introduced in therapeutic nuclear medicine and made it possible to use whenever needed. We synthesized MAG 2 GABA-Biocytin (MGB), labelled with 188 Re for pretargeted radioimmunotherapy and evaluated biological behavior of 188 Re-MGB. N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester of S-benzoyl mercaptoacetyldiglycine (NHS-MAG 2 ) was synthesized first, reacted with aminobutyric acid(GABA) to give MAG 2 GABA and then converted to NHS-MAG 2 GABA and conjugated to biocytin to give the MGB. To label MGB with 188 Re (50mA), ag, 200ml 1M tartrate pH7, 200 l stannous (10mg/mL) and 180MBq perrhenate were mixed and heated for 30min at 100 deg. C. The reactant was purified with C 18 Sep-Pak. HPLC analysis of the 188 Re-MGB performed on reverse phase C 18 column with a gradient. To see the stability, 188 Re-MGB was added to serum at 37 deg. C. Binding capacity of 188 Re-MGB to avidin or streptavidin was determined by size exclusion HPLC system. Biodistribution was studied in ICR normal mice(n=4/group), from 5min to 120min. In Raji cells tumour bearing nude mice(n=3), biotinylated Lym-1(40MEG) injection after 48 h, streptavidin(50MEG) was injected. 24 h later, 188 Re-MGB(0.5MEG) was injected, and biodistribution was observed 2 h later. 188 Re-MGB was obtained with labelling yield 98%. Stability in serum was maintained over 70% until 3 h. Binding capacity of 188 Re-MGB to streptavidin was greater than avidin. In normal mice, 188 Re-MGB was excreted via hepatobiliary pathway,%ID/g of GI tract was 52.1 at 120min. In Raji cells tumour bearing nude mice, liver and colon were higher than those of normal mouse. Tumour uptake at 120min was 0.05%ID/g. 188 Re-MGB was effectively labelled and retained binding activity with streptavidin. 188 Re-MGB may have a role in pretargeted radioimmunotherapy. (author)

  19. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S.; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood–brain barrier (BBB), but the studie...

  20. Alterations in GABA-related transcriptome in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, T; Arion, D; Unger, T; Maldonado-Avilés, JG; Morris, HM; Volk, DW; Mirnics, K; Lewis, DA

    2007-01-01

    In subjects with schizophrenia, impairments in working memory are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This dysfunction appears to be due, at least in part, to abnormalities in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory circuitry. To test the hypothesis that altered GABA-mediated circuitry in the DLPFC of subjects with schizophrenia reflects expression changes of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmis...

  1. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Evert; de Kleijn, Roy; Colzato, Lorenza S; Alkemade, Anneke; Forstmann, Birte U; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  2. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiu, Takeshi; Farzampour, Zoya; Paz, Jeanne T; Wang, Eric Hou Jen; Badgely, Corrine; Olson, Andrew; Micheva, Kristina D; Wang, Gordon; Lemmens, Robin; Tran, Kevin V; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Liang, Xibin; Hamilton, Scott A; O'Rourke, Nancy; Smith, Stephen J; Huguenard, John R; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance functional recovery in mice suggesting that GABA plays an important function in modulating brain repair. While tonic GABA appears to suppress brain repair after stroke, less is known about the role of phasic (synaptic) GABA during the repair phase. We observed an increase in postsynaptic phasic GABA signalling in mice within the peri-infarct cortex specific to layer 5; we found increased numbers of α1 receptor subunit-containing GABAergic synapses detected using array tomography, and an associated increased efficacy of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing phasic GABA signalling using zolpidem, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved GABA-positive allosteric modulator, during the repair phase improved behavioural recovery. These data identify potentiation of phasic GABA signalling as a novel therapeutic strategy, indicate zolpidem's potential to improve recovery, and underscore the necessity to distinguish the role of tonic and phasic GABA signalling in stroke recovery. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  3. Modulatory action of taurine on the release of GABA in cerebellar slices of the guinea pig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namima, M.; Okamoto, K.; Sakai, Y.

    1983-01-01

    For the purpose of demonstrating the action of taurine as a neuromodulator in addition to its suggested neurotransmitter function, the effects of taurine and muscimol on the depolarization-induced Ca-dependent release of (/sup 3/H) gamma-aminobutyric acid ((/sup 3/H)GABA) and L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate in cerebellar slices from guinea pigs were investigated. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA was found to be greatly decreased by a GABA agonist, muscimol, and by taurine, but not by glycine. The release of L-(/sup 3/H)glutamate was little affected by taurine. The release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, was enhanced by bicuculline and strychnine, but not by picrotoxin, and the suppressive action of muscimol on the GABA release was antagonized by bicuculline, picrotoxin, and strychnine, suggesting the possible existence of presynaptic autoreceptors for GABA in the cerebellum. The suppressive action of taurine on the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA, on the other hand, was blocked only by bicuculline. These results suggest that taurine reduced the release of (/sup 3/H)GABA from cerebellar slices by acting on the GABA autoreceptors or, more likely, on other types of receptors that are sensitive to bicuculline. As a possible mechanism for this modulatory action of taurine, the blockade by this amino acid of the influx of Ca/sup 2 +/ into cerebellar tissues was tentatively suggested.

  4. Sodium-independent, bicuculline-sensitive [3H]GABA binding to isolated rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minuk, G.Y.; Bear, C.E.; Sarjeant, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    To determine whether hepatocytes possess specific receptor sites for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a potent amino acid neurotransmitter, [ 3 H]GABA, was added to sodium-free suspensions of Percoll-purified hepatocytes derived from collagenase-perfused rat livers under various experimental conditions and in the presence or absence of specific GABA receptor agonists (muscimol) and antagonists (bicuculline). The effects of GABA, muscimol, and bicuculline on hepatocyte resting membrane potentials were also determined. Specific binding of [ 3 H]GABA to hepatocytes was a consistent finding. GABA-hepatocyte interactions were reversible and temperature dependent. Muscimol and bicuculline inhibited binding in a dose-dependent manner (IC50, 30 nM and 50 microM, respectively), whereas strychnine (1.0-100 microM), a nonspecific central nervous system stimulant, had no appreciable effect. Both GABA and muscimol (100 microM) caused significant hyperpolarization of hepatocyte resting membrane potential (delta PD 5.4 +/- 3.1 and 22.2 +/- 16.2 mV, respectively, means +/- SD, P less than 0.0005). Bicuculline (100 microM) inhibited the effect of muscimol (P less than 0.05). The results of this study suggest that specific GABA receptor sites exist on the surface of isolated rat hepatocytes. The presence of such sites raises the possibility that, in addition to adrenergic and cholinergic innervation, hepatic function may be influenced by GABA-ergic neurotransmitter mechanisms

  5. Influence of GABA and GABA-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 on the development of diabetes in a streptozotocin rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, T M; Patterson, E; Wall, R; O'Sullivan, O; Fitzgerald, G F; Cotter, P D; Dinan, T G; Cryan, J F; Ross, R P; Stanton, C

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if dietary administration of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing Lactobacillus brevis DPC 6108 and pure GABA exert protective effects against the development of diabetes in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic Sprague Dawley rats. In a first experiment, healthy rats were divided in 3 groups (n=10/group) receiving placebo, 2.6 mg/kg body weight (bw) pure GABA or L. brevis DPC 6108 (~10(9)microorganisms). In a second experiment, rats (n=15/group) were randomised to five groups and four of these received an injection of STZ to induce type 1 diabetes. Diabetic and non-diabetic controls received placebo [4% (w/v) yeast extract in dH2O], while the other three diabetic groups received one of the following dietary supplements: 2.6 mg/kg bw GABA (low GABA), 200 mg/kg bw GABA (high GABA) or ~10(9) L. brevis DPC 6108. L. brevis DPC 6108 supplementation was associated with increased serum insulin levels (Pfood intake. Insulin was decreased (P0.05), compared with non-diabetic controls while all other diabetic groups displayed reduced diversity (P<0.05). L. brevis DPC 6108 attenuated hyperglycaemia induced by diabetes but additional studies are needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this reduction.

  6. Cocaine Dysregulates Opioid Gating of GABA Neurotransmission in the Ventral Pallidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scofield, Michael D.; Rice, Kenner C.; Cheng, Kejun; Roques, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is a target of dense nucleus accumbens projections. Many of these projections coexpress GABA and the neuropeptide enkephalin, a δ and μ opioid receptor (MOR) ligand. Of these two, the MOR in the VP is known to be involved in reward-related behaviors, such as hedonic responses to palatable food, alcohol intake, and reinstatement of cocaine seeking. Stimulating MORs in the VP decreases extracellular GABA, indicating that the effects of MORs in the VP on cocaine seeking are via modulating GABA neurotransmission. Here, we use whole-cell patch-clamp on a rat model of withdrawal from cocaine self-administration to test the hypothesis that MORs presynaptically regulate GABA transmission in the VP and that cocaine withdrawal changes the interaction between MORs and GABA. We found that in cocaine-extinguished rats pharmacological activation of MORs no longer presynaptically inhibited GABA release, whereas blocking the MORs disinhibited GABA release. Moreover, MOR-dependent long-term depression of GABA neurotransmission in the VP was lost in cocaine-extinguished rats. Last, GABA neurotransmission was found to be tonically suppressed in cocaine-extinguished rats. These substantial synaptic changes indicated that cocaine was increasing tone on MOR receptors. Accordingly, increasing endogenous tone by blocking the enzymatic degradation of enkephalin inhibited GABA neurotransmission in yoked saline rats but not in cocaine-extinguished rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that following withdrawal from cocaine self-administration enkephalin levels in the VP are elevated and the opioid modulation of GABA neurotransmission is impaired. This may contribute to the difficulties withdrawn addicts experience when trying to resist relapse. PMID:24431463

  7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid esters. 1. Synthesis, brain uptake, and pharmacological studies of aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-aminobutyric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashoua, V.E.; Jacob, J.N.; Ridge, R.; Campbell, A.; Baldessarini, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Labeled and unlabeled aliphatic and steroid esters of gamma-amino[U- 14 C]butyric acid (GABA) were synthesized and tested for their capacity to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and for evidence of central neuropharmacological activity in rodents. The uptake of the labeled 9,12,15-octadecatrienyl (linolenyl), 3-cholesteryl, 1-butyl, and the 9-fluoro-11 beta,17-dihydroxy-16 alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxopregna -1,4-dien-21-yl (dexamethasone) esters of GABA into mouse brain increased 2-, 25-, 74-, and 81-fold over GABA, respectively. The cholesteryl ester of GABA depressed the general motor activity of mice and rats in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the 1-butyl, linolenyl, and dexamethasone esters were inactive by this test. Studies of the rates of hydrolysis, GABA receptor binding capacity, and octanol/water partition coefficients indicated that pharmacological activity of the esters after entry into the central nervous system (CNS) was dependent on their capacity to release GABA by enzymatic hydrolysis and their lipid solubility

  8. Stress-restress evokes sustained iNOS activity and altered GABA levels and NMDA receptors in rat hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvey, Brian H; Oosthuizen, Frasia; Brand, Linda

    2004-01-01

    . The NOS isoform involved, and the role of stress-mediated corticosterone release in NOS activation, was verified with the administration of selective iNOS and nNOS inhibitors, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg/day i.p.) and 7-nitroindazole (12.5 mg/kg/day i.p.), and the steroid synthesis inhibitor, ketoconazole...... (24 mg/kg/day i.p.), administered for 21 days prior to and during the stress procedure. RESULTS: Stress evoked a sustained increase in NOS activity, but reduced NMDA receptor density and total GABA levels. Aminoguanidine or ketoconazole, but not 7-nitroindazole or saline, blocked stress-induced NOS...

  9. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  16. Effects of surface functionalization of hydrophilic NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ on glutamate and GABA transport in brain synaptosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Kociołek, Daria; Banski, Mateusz; Borisova, Tatiana; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Borysov, Arsenii; Dudarenko, Marina; Podhorodecki, Artur

    2017-08-01

    Specific rare earth doped nanocrystals (NCs), a recent class of nanoparticles with fluorescent features, have great bioanalytical potential. Neuroactive properties of NaYF4 nanocrystals doped with Eu3+ were assessed based on the analysis of their effects on glutamate- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport process in nerve terminals isolated from rat brain (synaptosomes). Two types of hydrophilic NCs were examined in this work: (i) coated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) and (ii) with OH groups at the surface. It was found that NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH within the concentration range of 0.5-3.5 and 0.5-1.5 mg/ml, respectively, did not influence Na+-dependent transporter-dependent l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA uptake and the ambient level of the neurotransmitters in the synaptosomes. An increase in NaYF4:Eu3+-PEG and NaYF4:Eu3+-OH concentrations up to 7.5 and 3.5 mg/ml, respectively, led to the (1) attenuation of the initial velocity of uptake of l-[14C]glutamate and [3H]GABA and (2) elevation of ambient neurotransmitters in the suspension of nerve terminals. In the mentioned concentrations, nanocrystals did not influence acidification of synaptic vesicles that was shown with pH-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange, however, decreased the potential of the plasma membrane of synaptosomes. In comparison with other nanoparticles studied with similar methodological approach, NCs start to exhibit their effects on neurotransmitter transport at concentrations several times higher than those shown for carbon dots, detonation nanodiamonds and an iron storage protein ferritin, whose activity can be registered at 0.08, 0.5 and 0.08 mg/ml, respectively. Therefore, NCs can be considered lesser neurotoxic as compared to above nanoparticles.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  18. Inhibitors of glutamate dehydrogenase block sodium-dependent glutamate uptake in rat brain membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan S Whitelaw

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We recently found evidence for anatomic and physical linkages between the astroglial Na+-dependent glutamate transporters (GLT-1/EAAT2 and GLAST/EAAT1 and mitochondria. In these same studies, we found that the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH inhibitor, epigallocatechin-monogallate (EGCG, inhibits both glutamate oxidation and Na+-dependent glutamate uptake in astrocytes. In the present study, we extend this finding by exploring the effects of EGCG on Na+-dependent L-[3H]-glutamate (Glu uptake in crude membranes (P2 prepared from rat brain cortex. In this preparation, uptake is almost exclusively mediated by GLT-1. EGCG inhibited L-[3H]-Glu uptake in cortical membranes with an IC50 value of 230 µM. We also studied the effects of two additional inhibitors of GDH, hexachlorophene (HCP and bithionol (BTH. Both of these compounds also caused concentration-dependent inhibition of glutamate uptake in cortical membranes. Pre-incubating with HCP for up to 15 min had no greater effect than that observed with no pre-incubation, showing that the effects occur rapidly. HCP decreased the Vmax for glutamate uptake without changing the Km, consistent with a non-competitive mechanism of action. EGCG, HCP, and BTH also inhibited Na+-dependent transport of D-[3H]-aspartate (Asp, a non-metabolizable substrate, and [3H]-γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. In contrast to the forebrain, glutamate uptake in crude cerebellar membranes (P2 is likely mediated by GLAST (EAAT1. Therefore, the effects of these compounds were examined in cerebellar membranes. In this region, none of these compounds had any effect on uptake of either L-[3H]-Glu or D-[3H]-Asp, but they all inhibited [3H]-GABA uptake. Together these studies suggest that GDH is preferentially required for glutamate uptake in forebrain as compared to cerebellum, and GDH may be required for GABA uptake as well. They also provide further evidence for a functional linkage between glutamate transport and mitochondria.

  19. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Baumgarten

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15-30 Hz is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex.

  20. Beta Peak Frequencies at Rest Correlate with Endogenous GABA+/Cr Concentrations in Sensorimotor Cortex Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, Thomas J.; Oeltzschner, Georg; Hoogenboom, Nienke; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Schnitzler, Alfons; Lange, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal oscillatory activity in the beta band (15–30 Hz) is a prominent signal within the human sensorimotor cortex. Computational modeling and pharmacological modulation studies suggest an influence of GABAergic interneurons on the generation of beta band oscillations. Accordingly, studies in humans have demonstrated a correlation between GABA concentrations and power of beta band oscillations. It remains unclear, however, if GABA concentrations also influence beta peak frequencies and whether this influence is present in the sensorimotor cortex at rest and without pharmacological modulation. In the present study, we investigated the relation between endogenous GABA concentration (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy) and beta oscillations (measured by magnetoencephalography) at rest in humans. GABA concentrations and beta band oscillations were measured for left and right sensorimotor and occipital cortex areas. A significant positive linear correlation between GABA concentration and beta peak frequency was found for the left sensorimotor cortex, whereas no significant correlations were found for the right sensorimotor and the occipital cortex. The results show a novel connection between endogenous GABA concentration and beta peak frequency at rest. This finding supports previous results that demonstrated a connection between oscillatory beta activity and pharmacologically modulated GABA concentration in the sensorimotor cortex. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that for a predominantly right-handed sample, the correlation between beta band oscillations and endogenous GABA concentrations is evident only in the left sensorimotor cortex. PMID:27258089

  1. Segregation of acetylcholine and GABA in the rat superior cervical ganglia: functional correlation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana eElinos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sympathetic neurons have the capability to segregate their neurotransmitters (NTs and co-transmitters to separate varicosities of single axons; furthermore, in culture, these neurons can even segregate classical transmitters. In vivo sympathetic neurons employ acetylcholine (ACh and other classical NTs such as gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA. Herein, we explore whether these neurons in vivo segregate these classical NTs in the superior cervical ganglia of the rat. We determined the topographical distribution of GABAergic varicosities, somatic GABAA receptor, as well as the regional distribution of the segregation of ACh and GABA. We evaluated possible regional differences in efficacy of ganglionic synaptic transmission, in the sensitivity of GABAA receptor to GABA and to the competitive antagonist picrotoxin (PTX. We found that sympathetic preganglionic neurons in vivo do segregate ACh and GABA. GABAergic varicosities and GABAA receptor expression showed a rostro-caudal gradient along ganglia; in contrast, segregation exhibited a caudo-rostral gradient. These uneven regional distributions in expression of GABA, GABAA receptors, and level segregation correlate with stronger synaptic transmission found in the caudal region. Accordingly, GABAA receptors of rostral region show larger sensitivity to GABA and PTX. These results suggest the presence of different types of GABAA receptors in each region that result in a different regional levels of endogenous GABA inhibition. Finally, we discuss a possible correlation of these different levels of GABA modulation and the function of the target organs innervated by rostral and caudal ganglionic neurons.

  2. Circadian modulation of GABA function in the rat suprachiasmatic nucleus: excitatory effects during the night phase.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jeu, M.T.G.; Pennartz, C.M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Gramicidin-perforated patch-clamp recordings were made from slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of adult rats to characterize the role of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) in the circadian timing system. During the day, activation of GABA(A) receptors hyperpolarized the membrane of SCN

  3. Effect of GABA, a Bacterial Metabolite, on Pseudomonas fluorescens Surface Properties and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc G. J. Feuilloley

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Different bacterial species and, particularly Pseudomonas fluorescens, can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and express GABA-binding proteins. In this study, we investigated the effect of GABA on the virulence and biofilm formation activity of different strains of P. fluorescens. Exposure of a psychotropic strain of P. fluorescens (MF37 to GABA (10−5 M increased its necrotic-like activity on eukaryotic (glial cells, but reduced its apoptotic effect. Conversely, muscimol and bicuculline, the selective agonist and antagonist of eukaryote GABAA receptors, respectively, were ineffective. P. fluorescens MF37 did not produce biosurfactants, and its caseinase, esterase, amylase, hemolytic activity or pyoverdine productions were unchanged. In contrast, the effect of GABA was associated to rearrangements of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS structure, particularly in the lipid A region. The surface hydrophobicity of MF37 was marginally modified, and GABA reduced its biofilm formation activity on PVC, but not on glass, although the initial adhesion was increased. Five other P. fluorescens strains were studied, and only one, MFP05, a strain isolated from human skin, showed structural differences of biofilm maturation after exposure to GABA. These results reveal that GABA can regulate the LPS structure and cytotoxicity of P. fluorescens, but that this property is specific to some strains.

  4. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, E.; Kleijn, R.; Colzato, L.S.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Nieuwenhuis, S.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human cortex. The food supplement version of GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer

  5. Neurotransmitters as food supplements: the effects of GABA on brain and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert eBoonstra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The food supplement version of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA is widely available online. Although many consumers claim that they experience benefits from the use of these products, it is unclear whether these supplements confer benefits beyond a placebo effect. Currently, the mechanism of action behind these products is unknown. It has long been thought that GABA is unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB, but the studies that have assessed this issue are often contradictory and range widely in their employed methods. Accordingly, future research needs to establish the effects of oral GABA administration on GABA levels in the human brain, for example using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. There is some evidence in favor of a calming effect of GABA food supplements, but most of this evidence was reported by researchers with a potential conflict of interest. We suggest that any veridical effects of GABA food supplements on brain and cognition might be exerted through BBB passage or, more indirectly, via an effect on the enteric nervous system. We conclude that the mechanism of action of GABA food supplements is far from clear, and that further work is needed to establish the behavioral effects of GABA.

  6. Molecular basis of the alternative recruitment of GABA(A) versus glycine receptors through gephyrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maric, Hans-Michael; Kasaragod, Vikram Babu; Hausrat, Torben Johann

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid type A and glycine receptors (GABA(A)Rs, GlyRs) are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors and contribute to many synaptic functions, dysfunctions and human diseases. GABA(A)Rs are important drug targets regulated by direct interactions with the scaffolding protein ge...

  7. Restoration of GABA production machinery in Lactobacillus brevis by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Shah, Nagendra P

    2018-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is an efficient cell factory for producing bioactive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by its gad operon-encoded glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system. However, little mechanistic insights have been reported on the effects of carbohydrate, oxygen and early acidification on GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis. In the present study, GABA production from Lb. brevis was enhanced by accessible carbohydrates. Fast growth of this organism was stimulated by maltose and xylose. However, its GABA production was highly suppressed by oxygen exposure, but was fully restored by anaerobiosis that up-regulated the expression of gad operon in Lb. brevis cells. Although the level of cytosolic acidity was suitable for the functioning of GadA and GadB, early acidification of the medium (ipH 5 and ipH 4) restored GABA synthesis strictly in aerated cells of Lb. brevis because the expression of gad operon was not up-regulated in them. We conclude that GABA production machinery in Lb. brevis could be restored by accessible carbohydrates, anaerobiosis and early acidification. This will be of interest for controlling fermentation for synthesis of GABA and manufacturing GABA-rich fermented vegetables. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Insulin reduces neuronal excitability by turning on GABA(A channels that generate tonic current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Jin

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling to the brain is important not only for metabolic homeostasis but also for higher brain functions such as cognition. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid decreases neuronal excitability by activating GABA(A channels that generate phasic and tonic currents. The level of tonic inhibition in neurons varies. In the hippocampus, interneurons and dentate gyrus granule cells normally have significant tonic currents under basal conditions in contrast to the CA1 pyramidal neurons where it is minimal. Here we show in acute rat hippocampal slices that insulin (1 nM "turns on" new extrasynaptic GABA(A channels in CA1 pyramidal neurons resulting in decreased frequency of action potential firing. The channels are activated by more than million times lower GABA concentrations than synaptic channels, generate tonic currents and show outward rectification. The single-channel current amplitude is related to the GABA concentration resulting in a single-channel GABA affinity (EC(50 in intact CA1 neurons of 17 pM with the maximal current amplitude reached with 1 nM GABA. They are inhibited by GABA(A antagonists but have novel pharmacology as the benzodiazepine flumazenil and zolpidem are inverse agonists. The results show that tonic rather than synaptic conductances regulate basal neuronal excitability when significant tonic conductance is expressed and demonstrate an unexpected hormonal control of the inhibitory channel subtypes and excitability of hippocampal neurons. The insulin-induced new channels provide a specific target for rescuing cognition in health and disease.

  9. Effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on synaptogenesis and synaptic function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Elster, L

    1998-01-01

    , but the intracellular link between GABA receptor activation and DNA transcription is largely unknown. GABA also controls the induction and development of functionally and pharmacologically different GABAA receptor subtypes. The induced receptors are likely to be inserted only into the synaptic membrane domain. However...

  10. Study on flavour volatiles of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile components of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) tea produced by two different kinds of technological process separately namely: vacuum and water immersion were studied. It was shown by the sensory evaluation that the color of the soup and the extracted leaves of GABA tea were similar to that of the oolong tea, ...

  11. Development of psychopathology in deployed armed forces in relation to plasma GABA levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Geuze, Elbert; Prinsen, Hubertus C M T; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Joëls, Marian; Kahn, René S; Vermetten, Eric; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-01-01

    The GABA system is pivotal for an adequate response to a stressful environment but has remained largely unexplored in this context. The present study investigated the relationship of prospectively measured plasma GABA levels with psychopathology symptoms in military deployed to Afghanistan at risk

  12. Anterior insula GABA levels correlate with emotional aspects of empathy: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianfeng Wang

    Full Text Available Empathy is a multidimensional construct referring to the capacity to understand and share the emotional and affective states of another person. Cerebral γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-ergic levels are associated with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, the role of the GABA system in different dimensions of empathy has not been investigated.Thirty-two right-handed healthy volunteers took part in this study. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine GABA concentrations in the anterior insula (AI and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and to examine the relationship between the GABA concentrations and the subcomponents of empathy evaluated by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI.Pearson correlation analyses (two-tailed showed that AI GABA was significantly associated with the empathy concern score (r = 0.584, p<0.05 and the personal distress score (r = 0.538, p<0.05 but not significantly associated with other empathy subscales. No significant correlation was found between ACC GABA and empathy subscores.Left AI GABA was positively correlated with the emotional aspects of empathy. These preliminary findings call into question whether AI GABA alterations might predict empathy dysfunction in major psychiatric disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, which have been described as deficits in emotional empathic abilities.

  13. Increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype termed Social Disorganisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Talitha C; Nibbs, Richard; Crewther, David P

    2017-01-01

    Autism and schizophrenia are multi-dimensional spectrum disorders that have substantial phenotypic overlap. This overlap is readily identified in the non-clinical population, and has been conceptualised as Social Disorganisation (SD). This study investigates the balance of excitatory glutamate and inhibitory γ -aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in a non-clinical sample with high and low trait SD, as glutamate and GABA abnormalities are reported across the autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Participants were 18 low (10 females) and 19 high (9 females) SD scorers aged 18 to 40 years who underwent 1 H-MRS for glutamate and GABA+macromolecule (GABA+) concentrations in right and left hemisphere superior temporal (ST) voxels. Reduced GABA+ concentration ( p  = 0.03) and increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio ( p  = 0.003) in the right ST voxel for the high SD group was found, and there was increased GABA+ concentration in the left compared to right ST voxel ( p  = 0.047). Bilateral glutamate concentration was increased for the high SD group ( p  = 0.006); there was no hemisphere by group interaction ( p  = 0.772). Results suggest that a higher expression of the SD phenotype may be associated with increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in the right ST region, which may affect speech prosody processing, and lead behavioural characteristics that are shared within the autistic and schizotypal spectra.

  14. Immunocytochemical indications for neuronal co-localization of GABA and aspartate in cultured neocortex explants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B. M.; Ruijter, J. M.; Buijs, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The application of postembedding immunocytochemistry on serial semithin plastic sections, revealed the presence of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive and aspartate-positive neurons in cultured neocortex explants. GABA-positive neurons were found in all layers of the cultured cortex, whereas

  15. GABA and homovanillic acid in the plasma of Schizophrenic and bipolar I patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrúe, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; González-Torres, Miguel A; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, Maria I; Anguiano, Juan B; Guimón, José

    2010-02-01

    We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The research was undertaken in a geographic area with an ethnically homogeneous population. The HVA plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the schizophrenic patients compared to the bipolar patients. The levels of pGABA was significantly lower in the two groups of patients compared to the control group, while the pHVA/pGABA ratio was significantly greater in the both groups of patients compared to the controls. As the levels of pHVA and pGABA are partially under genetic control it is better to compare their concentrations within an homogeneous population. The values of the ratio pHVA/pGABA are compatible with the idea of an abnormal dopamine-GABA interaction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The pHVA/pGABA ratio may be a good peripheral marker in psychiatric research.

  16. Improvement of Chia Seeds with Antioxidant Activity, GABA, Essential Amino Acids, and Dietary Fiber by Controlled Germination Bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Favela, Mario Armando; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Edith Oliva; Canizalez-Román, Vicente Adrián; Del Rosario León-Sicairos, Claudia; Milán-Carrillo, Jorge; Reyes-Moreno, Cuauhtémoc

    2017-12-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) plant is native from southern Mexico and northern Guatemala. Their seeds are a rich source of bioactive compounds which protect consumers against chronic diseases. Germination improves functionality of the seeds due to the increase in the bioactive compounds and associated antioxidant activity. The purpose of this study was to obtain functional flour from germinated chia seeds under optimized conditions with increased antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, GABA, essential amino acids, and dietary fiber with respect to un-germinated chia seeds. The effect of germination temperature and time (GT = 20-35 °C, Gt = 10-300 h) on protein, lipid, and total phenolic contents (PC, LC, TPC, respectively), and antioxidant activity (AoxA) was analyzed by response surface methodology as optimization tool. Chia seeds were germinated inside plastic trays with absorbent paper moisturized with 50 mL of 100 ppm sodium hypochlorite dissolution. The sprouts were dried (50 °C/8 h) and ground to obtain germinated chia flours (GCF). The prediction models developed for PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA showed high coefficients of determination, demonstrating their adequacy to explain the variations in experimental data. The highest values of PC, LC, TPC, and AoxA were obtained at two different optimal conditions (GT = 21 °C/Gt = 157 h; GT = 33 °C/Gt = 126 h). Optimized germinated chia flours (OGCF) had higher PC, TPC, AoxA, GABA, essential amino acids, calculated protein efficiency ratio (C-PER), and total dietary fiber (TDF) than un-germinated chia seed flour. The OGCF could be utilized as a natural source of proteins, dietary fiber, GABA, and antioxidants in the development of new functional beverages and foods.

  17. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  18. Effect of GABA agonists and GABA-A receptor modulators on cocaine- and food-maintained responding and cocaine discrimination in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Andrew C; Negus, S Stevens; Mello, Nancy K; Caine, S Barak

    2005-11-01

    Recent studies indicate that GABAergic ligands modulate abuse-related effects of cocaine. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a mechanistically diverse group of GABAergic ligands on the discriminative stimulus and reinforcing effects of cocaine in rats. One group of rats was trained to discriminate 5.6 mg/kg cocaine from saline in a two-lever, food-reinforced, drug discrimination procedure. In two other groups, responding was maintained by cocaine (0-3.2 mg/kg/injection) or liquid food (0-100%) under a fixed ratio 5 schedule. Six GABA agonists were tested: the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol, the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen, the GABA transaminase inhibitor gamma-vinyl-GABA (GVG), and three GABA-A receptor modulators (the barbiturate pentobarbital, the high-efficacy benzodiazepine midazolam, and the low-efficacy benzodiazepine enazenil). When tested alone, none of the compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. As acute pretreatments, select doses of midazolam and pentobarbital produced 2.2- to 3.6-fold rightward shifts in the cocaine dose-effect function. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, GVG, and enazenil failed to alter the discriminative stimulus effects of cocaine. In assays of cocaine- and food-maintained responding, midazolam and pentobarbital decreased cocaine self-administration at doses 9.6- and 3.3-fold lower, respectively, than those that decreased food-maintained responding. In contrast, muscimol, baclofen, and GVG decreased cocaine self-administration at doses that also decreased food-maintained responding. Enazenil failed to alter cocaine self-administration. Together with previous studies, these data suggest that among mechanistically diverse GABA agonists, high-efficacy GABA-A modulators may be the most effective for modifying the abuse-related effects of cocaine.

  19. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuauhtemoc Sandoval-Salazar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC. It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats RESULTS: The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats CONCLUSIONS: HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  20. A high-fat diet decreases GABA concentration in the frontal cortex and hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Salazar, Cuauhtemoc; Ramírez-Emiliano, Joel; Trejo-Bahena, Aurora; Oviedo-Solís, Cecilia I; Solís-Ortiz, Martha Silvia

    2016-02-29

    It has been proposed that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the regulation of food intake and body weight by controlling the excitability, plasticity and the synchronization of neuronal activity in the frontal cortex (FC). It has been also proposed that the high-fat diet (HFD) could disturb the metabolism of glutamate and consequently the GABA levels, but the mechanism is not yet clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a HFD on the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rats. The HFD significantly increased weight gain and blood glucose levels, whereas decreased the GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus compared with standard diet-fed rats. HFD decreases GABA levels in the FC and hippocampus of rat, which likely disrupts the GABAergic inhibitory processes, underlying feeding behavior.

  1. Altered cortical GABA neurotransmission in schizophrenia: insights into novel therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ana D; Lewis, David A

    2012-06-01

    Altered markers of cortical GABA neurotransmission are among the most consistently observed abnormalities in postmortem studies of schizophrenia. The altered markers are particularly evident between the chandelier class of GABA neurons and their synaptic targets, the axon initial segment (AIS) of pyramidal neurons. For example, in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia immunoreactivity for the GABA membrane transporter is decreased in presynaptic chandelier neuron axon terminals, whereas immunoreactivity for the GABAA receptor α2 subunit is increased in postsynaptic AIS. Both of these molecular changes appear to be compensatory responses to a presynaptic deficit in GABA synthesis, and thus could represent targets for novel therapeutic strategies intended to augment the brain's own compensatory mechanisms. Recent findings that GABA inputs from neocortical chandelier neurons can be powerfully excitatory provide new ideas about the role of these neurons in the pathophysiology of cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia, and consequently in the design of pharmacological interventions.

  2. Cloning of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) ρ1 cDNA: A GABA receptor subunit highly expressed in the retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutting, G.R.; Lu, Luo; Kasch, L.M.; Montrose-Rafizadeh, C.; Antonarakis, S.E.; Guggino, W.B.; Kazazian, H.H. Jr.; O'Hara, B.F.; Donovan, D.M.; Shimada, Shoichi; Uhl, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    Type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A ) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels that are the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. Molecular cloning has revealed diversity in the subunits that compose this heterooligomeric receptor, but each previously elucidated subunit displays amino acid similarity in conserved structural elements. The authors have used these highly conserved regions to identify additional members of this family by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One PCR product was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a human retina cDNA library. The mature protein predicted from this cDNA sequence is 458 amino acids long and displays between 30 and 38% amino acid similarity to the previously identified GABA A subunits. This gene is expressed primarily in the retina but transcripts are also detected in the brain, lung, and thymus. Injection of Xenopus oocytes with RNA transcribed in vitro produces a GABA-responsive chloride conductance and expression of the cDNA in COS cells yields GABA-displaceable muscimol binding. These features are consistent with our identification of a GABA subunit, GABA ρ 1 , with prominent retinal expression that increases the diversity and tissue specificity of this ligand-gated ion-channel receptor family

  3. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

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    Alejandra Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.

  4. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

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    Forge Andrew

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2, N-Me-Phe(4, Gly(5-ol]-enkephalin but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour.

  5. Opioid modulation of GABA release in the rat inferior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongjaroenbungam, Walaiporn; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn; Cunningham, Joanna; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Dodson, Hilary C; Forge, Andrew; Govitrapong, Piyarat; Casalotti, Stefano O

    2004-01-01

    Background The inferior colliculus, which receives almost all ascending and descending auditory signals, plays a crucial role in the processing of auditory information. While the majority of the recorded activities in the inferior colliculus are attributed to GABAergic and glutamatergic signalling, other neurotransmitter systems are expressed in this brain area including opiate peptides and their receptors which may play a modulatory role in neuronal communication. Results Using a perfusion protocol we demonstrate that morphine can inhibit KCl-induced release of [3H]GABA from rat inferior colliculus slices. DAMGO ([D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin) but not DADLE ([D-Ala2, D-Leu5]-enkephalin or U69593 has the same effect as morphine indicating that μ rather than δ or κ opioid receptors mediate this action. [3H]GABA release was diminished by 16%, and this was not altered by the protein kinase C inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide I. Immunostaining of inferior colliculus cryosections shows extensive staining for glutamic acid decarboxylase, more limited staining for μ opiate receptors and relatively few neurons co-stained for both proteins. Conclusion The results suggest that μ-opioid receptor ligands can modify neurotransmitter release in a sub population of GABAergic neurons of the inferior colliculus. This could have important physiological implications in the processing of hearing information and/or other functions attributed to the inferior colliculus such as audiogenic seizures and aversive behaviour. PMID:15353008

  6. Role of GABA Release From Leptin Receptor-Expressing Neurons in Body Weight Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuanzhong; O'Brien, William G.; Lee, Cheng-Chi; Myers, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that leptin regulates energy balance largely through isoform B leptin receptor-expressing neurons (LepR neurons) in the brain and that leptin activates one subset of LepR neurons (leptin-excited neurons) while inhibiting the other (leptin-inhibited neurons). However, the neurotransmitters released from LepR neurons that mediate leptin action in the brain are not well understood. Previous results demonstrate that leptin mainly acts on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neurons to reduce body weight, and that leptin activates proopiomelanocortin neuron activity by reducing GABA release onto these neurons, suggesting a body weight-promoting role for GABA released from leptin-inhibited neurons. To directly examine the role of GABA release from LepR neurons in body weight regulation, mice with disruption of GABA release specifically from LepR neurons were generated by deletion of vesicular GABA transporter in LepR neurons. Interestingly, these mice developed mild obesity on chow diet and were sensitive to diet-induced obesity, which were associated with higher food intake and lower energy expenditure. Moreover, these mice showed blunted responses in both food intake and body weight to acute leptin administration. These results demonstrate that GABA plays an important role in mediating leptin action. In combination with the previous studies that leptin reduces GABA release onto proopiomelanocortin neurons through leptin-inhibited neurons and that disruption of GABA release from agouti gene-related protein neurons, one subset of LepR-inhibited neurons, leads to a lean phenotype, our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, GABA release from leptin-excited neuron dominates over leptin-inhibited ones. PMID:22334723

  7. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) stimulates pancreatic cancer growth through overexpressing GABAA receptor pi subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Akio; Hosokawa, Masayo; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Ohigashi, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Osamu; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki

    2007-10-15

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) functions primarily as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature central nervous system, and GABA/GABA receptors are also present in nonneural tissues, including cancer, but their precise function in nonneuronal or cancerous cells has thus far been poorly defined. Through the genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells as well as subsequent reverse transcription-PCR and Northern blot analyses, we identified the overexpression of GABA receptor pi subunit (GABRP) in PDAC cells. We also found the expression of this peripheral type GABAA receptor subunit in few adult human organs. Knockdown of endogenous GABRP expression in PDAC cells by small interfering RNA attenuated PDAC cell growth, suggesting its essential role in PDAC cell viability. Notably, the addition of GABA into the cell culture medium promoted the proliferation of GABRP-expressing PDAC cells, but not GABRP-negative cells, and GABAA receptor antagonists inhibited this growth-promoting effect by GABA. The HEK293 cells constitutively expressing exogenous GABRP revealed the growth-promoting effect of GABA treatment. Furthermore, GABA treatment in GABRP-positive cells increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/Erk) cascade. Clinical PDAC tissues contained a higher level of GABA than normal pancreas tissues due to the up-regulation of glutamate decarboxylase 1 expression, suggesting their autocrine/paracrine growth-promoting effect in PDACs. These findings imply that GABA and GABRP could play important roles in PDAC development and progression, and that this pathway can be a promising molecular target for the development of new therapeutic strategies for PDAC.

  8. GABA system in schizophrenia and mood disorders. A mini review on third generation imaging studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eChiapponi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Third-generation neuroimaging research has been enriched by advances in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS measuring the concentration of important neurotrasmitters, such as the inhibitory amino acid GABA. Here, we performed a systematic mini-review on brain MRS studies measuring GABA concentration in patients affected by schizophrenia (SZ, bipolar disorder (BD and major depressive disorder (MDD. We wondered whether multimodal investigations could overcome intrinsic technical limits of MRS giving a broader view of mental disorders pathogenesis.In SZ unimodal studies gave mixed results, as increased, decreased or unaltered GABA levels were reported depending on region, disease phase and treatment. Conversely, multimodal results showed reduced level of glutamate, but not of GABA, in patients, mirrored by in vitro biochemical findings revealing hippocampal reduction in glutamate signalling in SZ, and no deficits in GABA synthesis. Moreover, a mouse model confirmed the unique pathological characteristic of glutamate function in SZ.Unimodal studies in BD revealed, again, inconsistent results, while no multimodal investigations including MRS on GABA exist. In MDD, unimodal studies could not differentiate patients from controls, nor characterize high-risk subjects and remitted patients. However, a multimodal study combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and MRS revealed that cingulate cortex activity is related to glutamate and N-acetylaspartate levels and anhedonia in patients, and to GABA concentration in healthy subjects, improving the distinction between MDD and physiology.Overall, our results show that unimodal studies do not indicate GABA as a biomarker for the psychiatric disorders considered. Conversely, multimodal studies can widen the understanding of the link between psychopathology, genetics, neuroanatomy and functional-biochemical brain activity in mental disorders. Although scarce, multimodal approaches seem promising for moving

  9. Comparative density of CCK- and PV-GABA cells within the cortex and hippocampus

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    Paul David Whissell

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK- and parvalbumin (PV-expressing neurons constitute the two major populations of perisomatic GABAergic neurons in the cortex and the hippocampus. As CCK- and PV-GABA neurons differ in an array of morphological, biochemical and electrophysiological features, it has been proposed that they form distinct inhibitory ensembles which differentially contribute to network oscillations and behaviour. However, the relationship and balance between CCK- and PV-GABA neurons in the inhibitory networks of the brain is currently unclear as the distribution of these cells has never been compared on a large scale. Here, we systemically investigated the distribution of CCK- and PV-GABA cells across a wide number of discrete forebrain regions using an intersectional genetic approach. Our analysis revealed several novel trends in the distribution of these cells. While PV-GABA cells were more abundant overall, CCK-GABA cells outnumbered PV-GABA cells in several subregions of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral temporal cortex. Interestingly, CCK-GABA cells were relatively more abundant in secondary/association areas of the cortex (V2, S2, M2, and AudD/AudV than they were in corresponding primary areas (V1, S1, M1 and Aud1. The reverse trend was observed for PV-GABA cells. Our findings suggest that the balance between CCK- and PV-GABA cells in a given cortical region is related to the type of processing that area performs; inhibitory networks in the secondary cortex tend to favour the inclusion of CCK-GABA cells more than networks in the primary cortex. The intersectional genetic labelling approach employed in the current study expands upon the ability to study molecularly defined subsets of GABAergic neurons. This technique can be applied to the investigation of neuropathologies which involve disruptions to the GABAergic system, including schizophrenia, stress, maternal immune activation and autism.

  10. Medial frontal GABA is lower in older schizophrenia: a MEGA-PRESS with macromolecule suppression study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, L M; Krause, B W; Wijtenburg, S A; McMahon, R P; Chiappelli, J; Nugent, K L; Nisonger, S J; Korenic, S A; Kochunov, P; Hong, L E

    2016-02-01

    Gamma-butyric acid (GABA) dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its cognitive deficits. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to test the hypothesis that older participants with schizophrenia have lower anterior cingulate GABA levels compared with older control participants. One-hundred forty-five participants completed this study. For detection of GABA, spectra were acquired from the medial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex using a macromolecule-suppressed MEGA-PRESS sequence. Patients were evaluated for psychopathology and all participants completed neuropsychological tests of working memory, processing speed and functional capacity. GABA levels were significantly lower in the older participants with schizophrenia (n=31) compared with the older control (n=37) group (P=0.003) but not between the younger control (n=40) and schizophrenia (n=29) groups (P=0.994). Age strongly predicted GABA levels in the schizophrenia group accounting for 42% of the variance, but the effect of age was less in the control group accounting for 5.7% of the variance. GABA levels were specifically related to working memory but not processing speed performance, functional capacity, or positive or negative symptom severity. This is the largest MRS study of GABA in schizophrenia and the first to examine GABA without macromolecule contamination, a potentially significant issue in previous studies. GABA levels more rapidly declined with advancing age in the schizophrenia compared with the control group. Interventions targeted at halting the decline or increasing GABA levels may improve functional outcomes and quality of life as patients with schizophrenia age.

  11. Galanin-Expressing GABA Neurons in the Lateral Hypothalamus Modulate Food Reward and Noncompulsive Locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls-Creekmore, Emily; Yu, Sangho; Francois, Marie; Hoang, John; Huesing, Clara; Bruce-Keller, Annadora; Burk, David; Berthoud, Hans-Rudolf; Morrison, Christopher D; Münzberg, Heike

    2017-06-21

    The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) integrates reward and appetitive behavior and is composed of many overlapping neuronal populations. Recent studies associated LHA GABAergic neurons (LHA GABA ), which densely innervate the ventral tegmental area (VTA), with modulation of food reward and consumption; yet, LHA GABA projections to the VTA exclusively modulated food consumption, not reward. We identified a subpopulation of LHA GABA neurons that coexpress the neuropeptide galanin (LHA Gal ). These LHA Gal neurons also modulate food reward, but lack direct VTA innervation. We hypothesized that LHA Gal neurons may represent a subpopulation of LHA GABA neurons that mediates food reward independent of direct VTA innervation. We used chemogenetic activation of LHA Gal or LHA GABA neurons in mice to compare their role in feeding behavior. We further analyzed locomotor behavior to understand how differential VTA connectivity and transmitter release in these LHA neurons influences this behavior. LHA Gal or LHA GABA neuronal activation both increased operant food-seeking behavior, but only activation of LHA GABA neurons increased overall chow consumption. Additionally, LHA Gal or LHA GABA neuronal activation similarly induced locomotor activity, but with striking differences in modality. Activation of LHA GABA neurons induced compulsive-like locomotor behavior; while LHA Gal neurons induced locomotor activity without compulsivity. Thus, LHA Gal neurons define a subpopulation of LHA GABA neurons without direct VTA innervation that mediate noncompulsive food-seeking behavior. We speculate that the striking difference in compulsive-like locomotor behavior is also based on differential VTA innervation. The downstream neural network responsible for this behavior and a potential role for galanin as neuromodulator remains to be identified. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral hypothalamus (LHA) regulates motivated feeding behavior via GABAergic LHA neurons. The molecular identity of LHA

  12. Effects of GABA microinjection into dorsal raphe nucleus on behavior and activity of lateral habenular neurons in mice.

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    Xiao, Jinyu; Song, Meiying; Li, Fengdan; Liu, Xiaofeng; Anwar, Alinur; Zhao, Hua

    2017-12-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is a key site for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) synthesis and release. DRN dysfunction has been implicated in several stress-related disorders, including depression and anxiety. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been shown to inhibit the activity of DRN 5-HT neurons, and thus the LHb-DRN pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of depression. Although it is known that the LHb also receives the projection from the 5-HT neuron in the DRN, whether 5-HT neurons in the DRN can influence activity of the LHb in vivo and whether this effect is related to the induced behavioral changes have not been investigated. In the current study, we determined how injecting γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into the DRN to inhibit 5-HT neurons affected behavior and the changes in the activity of LHb neurons in mice. We found that GABA injection into the DRN induced depression-like behavior in mice, as indicated by increased immobility time, and decreased climbing time in the forced swimming test and the tail suspension test, decreased time spent in the center and total distance moved in the open field test. Using extracellular single unit recording, we showed that the firing rate of LHb neurons decreased after GABA microinjection into the DRN. Further, c-Fos expression in LHb neurons was inhibited. Together our results indicate that inhibition of DRN 5-HT neurons can cause decreased LHb activity and depression-like behavior in mice, however this depression-like behavior could be independent of the LHb activity. The observed decrease in LHb activity is probably due to the presence of a negative feedback loop between the DRN and the LHb, which may play a role in maintaining emotional homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  14. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  15. The role of GABA in Na, K-pump activity modulation in nerve cells after irradiation and experimental modification of membrane lipid component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'eva, T.V.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the activity of Na, K-pump of nervous cells in case of total exposure of rats-males to X-radiation are studied as well as of experimental modification of membrane lipid component. It is shown that acute lethal (12 Gy, 600 mGy/min), single long-term (0.25 Gy, 1.75 mGy/min) and chronic (0.01 Gy/d, 1.75 mGy/min) exposure results in considerable alterations in Na, K-pump function in cerebral cortex section of rats. Experimental damage of cell membranes with the help of phospholipase or arachidonic acid leads to the same effect. GABA presence decreases the above effect [ru

  16. GABA action in immature neocortical neurons directly depends on the availability of ketone bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheims, Sylvain; Holmgren, Carl D; Chazal, Genevieve; Mulder, Jan; Harkany, Tibor; Zilberter, Tanya; Zilberter, Yuri

    2009-08-01

    In the early postnatal period, energy metabolism in the suckling rodent brain relies to a large extent on metabolic pathways alternate to glucose such as the utilization of ketone bodies (KBs). However, how KBs affect neuronal excitability is not known. Using recordings of single NMDA and GABA-activated channels in neocortical pyramidal cells we studied the effects of KBs on the resting membrane potential (E(m)) and reversal potential of GABA-induced anionic currents (E(GABA)), respectively. We show that during postnatal development (P3-P19) if neocortical brain slices are adequately supplied with KBs, E(m) and E(GABA) are both maintained at negative levels of about -83 and -80 mV, respectively. Conversely, a KB deficiency causes a significant depolarization of both E(m) (>5 mV) and E(GABA) (>15 mV). The KB-mediated shift in E(GABA) is largely determined by the interaction of the NKCC1 cotransporter and Cl(-)/HCO3 transporter(s). Therefore, by inducing a hyperpolarizing shift in E(m) and modulating GABA signaling mode, KBs can efficiently control the excitability of neonatal cortical neurons.

  17. Prevention of GABA reduction during dough fermentation using a baker's yeast dal81 mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Akira; Nakamura, Toshihide

    2016-10-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is consumed by yeasts during fermentation. To prevent GABA reduction in bread dough, a baker's yeast mutant AY77 deficient in GABA assimilation was characterized and utilized for wheat dough fermentation. An amber mutation in the DAL81 gene, which codes for a positive regulator of multiple nitrogen degradation pathways, was found in the AY77 strain. The qPCR analyses of genes involved in nitrogen utilization showed that transcriptional levels of the UGA1 and DUR3 genes encoding GABA transaminase and urea transporter, respectively, are severely decreased in the AY77 cells. The AY77 strain cultivated by fed-batch culture using cane molasses exhibited inferior gas production during dough fermentation compared to that of wild-type strain AY13. However, when fed with molasses containing 0.5% ammonium sulfate, the mutant strain exhibited gas production comparable to that of the AY13 strain. In contrast to the AY13 strain, which completely consumed GABA in dough within 5 h, the AY77 strain consumed no GABA under either culture condition. Dough fermentation with the dal81 mutant strain should be useful for suppression of GABA reduction in breads. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Improvement of Sleep by Oral Intake of GABA and Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maru, Isafumi; Yang, Jinwei; Tatsuzaki, Jin; Kim, Mujo

    2015-01-01

    The effects of two food materials, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) produced by natural fermentation and Apocynum venetum leaf extract (AVLE), on the improvement of sleep were investigated in humans. The electroencephalogram (EEG) test revealed that oral administration of GABA (100 mg) and AVLE (50 mg) had beneficial effects on sleep. GABA shortened sleep latency by 5.3 min and AVLE increased non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep time by 7.6%. Simultaneous intake of GABA and AVLE shortened sleep latency by 4.3 min and increased non-REM sleep time by 5.1%. The result of questionnaires showed that GABA and AVLE enabled subjects to realize the effects on sleep. These results mean that GABA can help people to fall asleep quickly, AVLE induces deep sleep, and they function complementarily with simultaneous intake. Since both GABA and AVLE are materials of foods and have been ingested for a long time, they can be regarded as safe and appropriate for daily intake in order to improve the quality of sleep.

  19. GABA type a receptor trafficking and the architecture of synaptic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz-Guertin, Joshua M; Jacob, Tija C

    2018-03-01

    Ubiquitous expression of GABA type A receptors (GABA A R) in the central nervous system establishes their central role in coordinating most aspects of neural function and development. Dysregulation of GABAergic neurotransmission manifests in a number of human health disorders and conditions that in certain cases can be alleviated by drugs targeting these receptors. Precise changes in the quantity or activity of GABA A Rs localized at the cell surface and at GABAergic postsynaptic sites directly impact the strength of inhibition. The molecular mechanisms constituting receptor trafficking to and from these compartments therefore dictate the efficacy of GABA A R function. Here we review the current understanding of how GABA A Rs traffic through biogenesis, plasma membrane transport, and degradation. Emphasis is placed on discussing novel GABAergic synaptic proteins, receptor and scaffolding post-translational modifications, activity-dependent changes in GABA A R confinement, and neuropeptide and neurosteroid mediated changes. We further highlight modern techniques currently advancing the knowledge of GABA A R trafficking and clinically relevant neurodevelopmental diseases connected to GABAergic dysfunction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 238-270, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.; Tanaka, C.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized by atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.

  1. GABA-A Receptors Mediate Tonic Inhibition and Neurosteroid Sensitivity in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba

    2018-01-01

    Neurosteroids like allopregnanolone (AP) are positive allosteric modulators of synaptic and extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors. AP and related neurosteroids exhibit a greater potency for δ-containing extrasynaptic receptors. The δGABA-A receptors, which are expressed extrasynaptically in the dentate gyrus and other regions, contribute to tonic inhibition, promoting network shunting as well as reducing seizure susceptibility. Levels of endogenous neurosteroids fluctuate with ovarian cycle. Natural and synthetic neurosteroids maximally potentiate tonic inhibition in the hippocampus and provide robust protection against a variety of limbic seizures and status epilepticus. Recently, a consensus neurosteroid pharmacophore model has been proposed at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors based on structure-activity relationship for functional activation of tonic currents and seizure protection. Aside from anticonvulsant actions, neurosteroids have been found to be powerful anxiolytic and anesthetic agents. Neurosteroids and Zn 2+ have preferential affinity for δ-containing receptors. Thus, Zn 2+ can prevent neurosteroid activation of extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptor-mediated tonic inhibition. Recently, we demonstrated that Zn 2+ selectively inhibits extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors and thereby fully prevents AP activation of tonic inhibition and seizure protection. We confirmed that neurosteroids exhibit greater sensitivity at extrasynaptic δGABA-A receptors. Overall, extrasynaptic GABA-A receptors are primary mediators of tonic inhibition in the brain and play a key role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy and other neurological disorders. © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cytosolic Accumulation of L-Proline Disrupts GABA-Ergic Transmission through GAD Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregg W. Crabtree

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH, which degrades L-proline, resides within the schizophrenia-linked 22q11.2 deletion suggesting a role in disease. Supporting this, elevated L-proline levels have been shown to increase risk for psychotic disorders. Despite the strength of data linking PRODH and L-proline to neuropsychiatric diseases, targets of disease-relevant concentrations of L-proline have not been convincingly described. Here, we show that Prodh-deficient mice with elevated CNS L-proline display specific deficits in high-frequency GABA-ergic transmission and gamma-band oscillations. We find that L-proline is a GABA-mimetic and can act at multiple GABA-ergic targets. However, at disease-relevant concentrations, GABA-mimesis is limited to competitive blockade of glutamate decarboxylase leading to reduced GABA production. Significantly, deficits in GABA-ergic transmission are reversed by enhancing net GABA production with the clinically relevant compound vigabatrin. These findings indicate that accumulation of a neuroactive metabolite can lead to molecular and synaptic dysfunction and help to understand mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disease.

  3. New Pharmacotherapy Targeting Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia via Modulation of GABA Neuronal Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Takashi; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in patients with the illness, and has been suggested a major predictor of functional outcomes. Reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons has been associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, in view of the link between the abnormality of GABA neurons and cognitive impairments of the disease. It is assumed that an imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory (E-I) activity induced by low activity of glutamatergic projections and PV-positive GABA interneurons in the prefrontal cortex resulted in sustained neural firing and gamma oscillation, leading to impaired cognitive function. Therefore, it is important to develop novel pharmacotherapy targeting GABA neurons and their activities. Clinical evidence suggests serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor agonist improves cognitive disturbances of schizophrenia, consistent with results from preclinical studies, through mechanism that corrects E-I imbalance via the suppression of GABA neural function. On the other hand, T-817MA, a novel neurotrophic agent, ameliorated loss of PV-positive GABA neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex and reduction of gamma-band activity, as well as cognitive dysfunction in animal model of schizophrenia. In conclusion, a pharmacotherapy to alleviate abnormalities in GABA neurons through 5-HT1A agonists and T-817MA is expected to prevent the onset and/or progression of schizophrenia.

  4. Cytosolic Accumulation of L-Proline Disrupts GABA-Ergic Transmission through GAD Blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Gregg W; Park, Alan J; Gordon, Joshua A; Gogos, Joseph A

    2016-10-04

    Proline dehydrogenase (PRODH), which degrades L-proline, resides within the schizophrenia-linked 22q11.2 deletion suggesting a role in disease. Supporting this, elevated L-proline levels have been shown to increase risk for psychotic disorders. Despite the strength of data linking PRODH and L-proline to neuropsychiatric diseases, targets of disease-relevant concentrations of L-proline have not been convincingly described. Here, we show that Prodh-deficient mice with elevated CNS L-proline display specific deficits in high-frequency GABA-ergic transmission and gamma-band oscillations. We find that L-proline is a GABA-mimetic and can act at multiple GABA-ergic targets. However, at disease-relevant concentrations, GABA-mimesis is limited to competitive blockade of glutamate decarboxylase leading to reduced GABA production. Significantly, deficits in GABA-ergic transmission are reversed by enhancing net GABA production with the clinically relevant compound vigabatrin. These findings indicate that accumulation of a neuroactive metabolite can lead to molecular and synaptic dysfunction and help to understand mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disease. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Harmful impact on presynaptic glutamate and GABA transport by carbon dots synthesized from sulfur-containing carbohydrate precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisova, Tatiana; Dekaliuk, Mariia; Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Pastukhov, Artem; Dudarenko, Marina; Borysov, Arsenii; Vari, Sandor G; Demchenko, Alexander P

    2017-07-01

    Carbon nanoparticles that may be potent air pollutants with adverse effects on human health often contain heteroatoms including sulfur. In order to study in detail their effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, artificially produced carbon dots (CDs) with well-controlled composition that allows fluorescence detection may be of great use. Having been prepared from different types of organic precursors, CDs expose different atoms at their surface suggesting a broad variation of functional groups. Recently, we demonstrated neurotoxic properties of CDs synthesized from the amino acid β-alanine, and it is of importance to analyze whether CDs obtained from different precursors and particularly those exposing sulfur atoms induce similar neurotoxic effects. This study focused on synthesis of CDs from the sulfur-containing precursor thiourea-CDs (TU-CDs) with a size less than 10 nm, their characterization, and neuroactivity assessment. Neuroactive properties of TU-CDs were analyzed based on their effects on the key characteristics of glutamatergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission in isolated rat brain nerve terminals. It was observed that TU-CDs (0.5-1.0 mg/ml) attenuated the initial velocity of Na + -dependent transporter-mediated uptake and accumulation of L-[ 14 C]glutamate and [ 3 H]GABA by nerve terminals in a dose-dependent manner and increased the ambient level of the neurotransmitters. Starting from the concentration of 0.2 mg/ml, TU-CDs evoked a gradual dose-dependent depolarization of the plasma membrane of nerve terminals measured with the cationic potentiometric dye rhodamine 6G. Within the concentration range of 0.1-0.5 mg/ml, TU-CDs caused an "unphysiological" step-like increase in fluorescence intensity of the рН-sensitive fluorescent dye acridine orange accumulated by synaptic vesicles. Therefore, despite different surface properties and fluorescent features of CDs prepared from different starting materials

  6. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) level as an overall survival risk factor in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzozowska, Anna; Burdan, Franciszek; Duma, Dariusz; Solski, Janusz; Mazurkiewicz, Maria

    2017-09-21

    The γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) plays important role in the proliferation and migration of cancer cells. The aim of the study was to evaluate the level of GABA in breast cancer, in relation to clinical and epidemiological data. The study was conducted on 89 patients with breast cancer in stage I-II. GABA level was assessed using spectrofluorometric method in tumour homogenates. Immunoexpression of E-cadherin was evaluated histologically on paraffin fixed specimens. Overall and disease-free survival was assessed for a 15-year interval period. Median overall survival was significantly longer (127.2 months) in patients with a high level of GABA (>89.3 μg/1), compared with a group with a low level of the amino acid (106.4 months). Disease-free survival was insignificantly different - 99 and 109 months, respectively. A significantly longer overall survival (131.2 months) was seen among patients with a high level of GABA and positive E-cadherin immunoexpression, compared with a group characterized by a low level of GABA and lack of E-cadherin immunorectivity (98.1 months). The co-existence of negative immunoexpression of E-cadherin and low GABA concentration resulted in a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR=6.03). GABA has a significant prognostic value in breast cancer. Co-existence of a low level of GABA and loss of E-cadherin immune-expression seems to be a new, independent, and negative prognostic marker of the neoplasm.

  8. Computational modeling reveals dendritic origins of GABA(A-mediated excitation in CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Lewin

    Full Text Available GABA is the key inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult central nervous system, but in some circumstances can lead to a paradoxical excitation that has been causally implicated in diverse pathologies from endocrine stress responses to diseases of excitability including neuropathic pain and temporal lobe epilepsy. We undertook a computational modeling approach to determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-dependent excitation in isolated post-synaptic CA1 hippocampal neurons because it may constitute a trigger for pathological synchronous epileptiform discharge. In particular, the interplay intracellular chloride accumulation via the GABA(A receptor and extracellular potassium accumulation via the K/Cl co-transporter KCC2 in promoting GABA(A-mediated excitation is complex. Experimentally it is difficult to determine the ionic mechanisms of depolarizing current since potassium transients are challenging to isolate pharmacologically and much GABA signaling occurs in small, difficult to measure, dendritic compartments. To address this problem and determine plausible ionic mechanisms of GABA(A-mediated excitation, we built a detailed biophysically realistic model of the CA1 pyramidal neuron that includes processes critical for ion homeostasis. Our results suggest that in dendritic compartments, but not in the somatic compartments, chloride buildup is sufficient to cause dramatic depolarization of the GABA(A reversal potential and dominating bicarbonate currents that provide a substantial current source to drive whole-cell depolarization. The model simulations predict that extracellular K(+ transients can augment GABA(A-mediated excitation, but not cause it. Our model also suggests the potential for GABA(A-mediated excitation to promote network synchrony depending on interneuron synapse location - excitatory positive-feedback can occur when interneurons synapse onto distal dendritic compartments, while interneurons projecting to the perisomatic

  9. Neuroimaging studies of GABA in schizophrenia: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerton, A; Modinos, G; Ferrera, D; McGuire, P

    2017-06-06

    Data from animal models and from postmortem studies suggest that schizophrenia is associated with brain GABAergic dysfunction. The extent to which this is reflected in data from in vivo studies of GABA function in schizophrenia is unclear. The Medline database was searched to identify articles published until 21 October 2016. The search terms included GABA, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), schizophrenia and psychosis. Sixteen GABA 1 H-MRS studies (538 controls, 526 patients) and seven PET/SPECT studies of GABA A /benzodiazepine receptor (GABA A /BZR) availability (118 controls, 113 patients) were identified. Meta-analyses of 1 H-MRS GABA in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), parietal/occipital cortex (POC) and striatum did not show significant group differences (mFC: g=-0.3, 409 patients, 495 controls, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.6 to 0.1; POC: g=-0.3, 139 patients, 111 controls, 95% CI: -0.9 to 0.3; striatum: g=-0.004, 123 patients, 95 controls, 95% CI: -0.7 to 0.7). Heterogeneity across studies was high (I 2 >50%), and this was not explained by subsequent moderator or meta-regression analyses. There were insufficient PET/SPECT receptor availability studies for meta-analyses, but a systematic review did not suggest replicable group differences in regional GABA A /BZR availability. The current literature does not reveal consistent alterations in in vivo GABA neuroimaging measures in schizophrenia, as might be hypothesized from animal models and postmortem data. The analysis highlights the need for further GABA neuroimaging studies with improved methodology and addressing potential sources of heterogeneity.

  10. RESTRAIN OF FEAR: PARTICIPATION OF GABA NEUROTRANSMITTER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina I. Shulgina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In experiences on rats in the conditions of free behavior at development of a conditioned of passive avoidanсe reflex (the first series and a defensive reflex and a conditional inhibition (the second series it is revealed, and elaboration of internal inhibition and Phenibut – a nonspecific agonist of GAMKA and GAMKB receptors cause in experimental animals weakening of freezing arising in a dangerous situation, and a disinhibition of research behavior. Results of experiences in the accounting of data of the literature allow to assume that both factors, and elaboration of internal inhibition, and Phenibut weaken freezing – the phenomenon used in experiments as a biological analog of fear, owing to increase of level of activity of the GABA neurotransmitter system of a brain.

  11. Neuronal and non-neuronal GABA transporters as targets for antiepileptic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Karsten K; White, H Steve; Schousboe, Arne

    2010-01-01

    of transmembrane transport and enzymatic degradation. The development of tiagabine selectively inhibiting the GABA transporter GAT1 constitutes a proof of concept that the GABA transporters are interesting drug targets in the context of antiepileptic drugs. The review provides a detailed analysis of the role......,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]isoxazol-3-ol) has been shown to possess a novel anticonvulsant profile in animal models of epilepsy, involving the ability to inhibit GABA transport mediated by GAT1 and BGT1 at the same time....

  12. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan); Yoshida, Ryo [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ohta, Shinji [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan); Fukusaki, Eiichiro [Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mukai, Yukio, E-mail: y_mukai@nagahama-i-bio.ac.jp [Department of Bioscience, Faculty of Bioscience, Nagahama Institute of Bio-Science and Technology, 1266 Tamura, Nagahama, Shiga 526-0829 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields}We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. {yields} Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. {yields} Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. {yields} Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. {yields} Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The {Delta}uga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for {Delta}uga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan

  13. GABA metabolism pathway genes, UGA1 and GAD1, regulate replicative lifespan in Saccharomycescerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Yuka; Tamura, Takayuki; Yoshida, Ryo; Ohta, Shinji; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Mukai, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: →We demonstrate that two genes in the yeast GABA metabolism pathway affect aging. → Deletion of the UGA1 or GAD1 genes extends replicative lifespan. → Addition of GABA to wild-type cultures has no effect on lifespan. → Intracellular GABA levels do not differ in longevity mutants and wild-type cells. → Levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlate with lifespan. -- Abstract: Many of the genes involved in aging have been identified in organisms ranging from yeast to human. Our previous study showed that deletion of the UGA3 gene-which encodes a zinc-finger transcription factor necessary for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-dependent induction of the UGA1 (GABA aminotransferase), UGA2 (succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase), and UGA4 (GABA permease) genes-extends replicative lifespan in the budding yeast Saccharomycescerevisiae. Here, we found that deletion of UGA1 lengthened the lifespan, as did deletion of UGA3; in contrast, strains with UGA2 or UGA4 deletions exhibited no lifespan extension. The Δuga1 strain cannot deaminate GABA to succinate semialdehyde. Deletion of GAD1, which encodes the glutamate decarboxylase that converts glutamate into GABA, also increased lifespan. Therefore, two genes in the GABA metabolism pathway, UGA1 and GAD1, were identified as aging genes. Unexpectedly, intracellular GABA levels in mutant cells (except for Δuga2 cells) did not differ from those in wild-type cells. Addition of GABA to culture media, which induces transcription of the UGA structural genes, had no effect on replicative lifespan of wild-type cells. Multivariate analysis of 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectra for the whole-cell metabolite levels demonstrated a separation between long-lived and normal-lived strains. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of identified metabolites showed that levels of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates positively correlated with lifespan extension. These results strongly suggest

  14. Delineation of the Role of Astroglial GABA Transporters in Seizure Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Madsen, Karsten K

    2017-01-01

    the synaptic terminals, a transport which may limit the availability of transmitter GABA leading to a higher probability of seizure activity governed by the balance of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Based on this it was hypothesized that selective inhibition of astrocytic GABA transport might...... prevent such seizure activity. A series of GABA analogs of restricted conformation were synthesized and in a number of collaborative investigations between Prof. Steve White at the University of Utah and medicinal chemists and pharmacologists at the School of Pharmacy and the University of Copenhagen...

  15. Effects of anticonvulsants in vivo on high affinity choline uptake in vitro in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Richter, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of several anticonvulsant drugs on sodium-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) in mouse hippocampal synaptosomes was investigated. HACU was measured in vitro after in vivo administration of the drug to mice. HACU was inhibited by drugs which have in common the ability to facilitate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission, pentobarbitone, phenobarbitone, barbitone, diazepam, chloridiazepoxide, and valproic acid. Dose-response relationships were determined for these drugs and the drugs' potencies at inhibiting HACU correlated well with their anticonvulsant potencies. Clonazepam, ethosuximide, carbamazepine, and barbituric acid had no effect on HACU in the doses used while phenytoin and trimethadione stimulated HACU. These results suggest that certain anticonvulsants may elicit a part of their anticonvulsant activity by modulating cholinergic neurones. This effect may be mediated through a GABA mechanism. PMID:3978310

  16. Increased bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Graaf, P.; Schicht, I.M.; de Graeff, J.; te Velde, J.; Kleiverda, K.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1982-04-01

    Bone radiotracer uptake in renal osteodystrophy was investigated in 35 dialysis patients by correlating the results of quantitative bone scintigraphy with those of biochemical and bone morphometric studies. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.001) between the total skeletal activity and the biochemical (iPTH and alkaline phosphatase), and histologic parameters of hyperparathyroidism. These clinical results strongly suggest that increased bone turnover i.e. hyperparathyroidism, rather than osteomalacia is the major cause of increased skeletal uptake in renal osteodystrophy.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  19. Changes in the GABA and polyphenols contents of foxtail millet on germination and their relationship with in vitro antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S

    2018-04-15

    Germination along with ultrasonic assisted extraction induced a significant beneficial effect on the characteristics of polyphenolic components profile, GABA contents and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the foxtail millet flour extracts. The total antioxidant activity (29.0-45.23 mgAAE/g) and reducing power (0.53-0.76 µg/ml) increase during germination were due to quantitative increase in phthalicacid; hex-3yl-ester; hexadecanoicacid methylester etc. whereas, increase in DPPH (48.32-59.62%) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activities (35.44-63.07 mM-Trolox/g) were attributed to increase in hexadecanoic acid methylester; 9,12-Octadecadienoicacid ethylester and synthesis of new compounds like pentadecanoicacid; 14-methyl-methylester etc. The metal chelating abilities (34.92-57.38 mgEDTA/g) and in vitro antioxidant activity increase due to overall increase in phenolics, flavonoids along with GABA contents. Synthesis of additional polyphenolic components viz. astaxanthin, propanoicacid, 1-monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilylether, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoicacid etc. as a result of germinated explored the possible potential utilization of germinated foxtail millet grains in various functional and convenience food formulations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Concentration change of DA, DOPAC, Glu and GABA in brain tissues in schizophrenia developmental model rats induced by MK-801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Tang, Yamei; Pu, Weidan; Zhang, Xianghui; Zhao, Jingping

    2011-08-01

    To explore the related neurobiochemical mechanism by comparing the concentration change of dopamine (DA), dihydroxy-phenyl acetic acid (DOPAC), glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain tissues in schizophrenia (SZ) developmental model rats and chronic medication model rats. A total of 60 neonatal male Spragur-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups at the postnatal day 6: an SZ developmental rat model group (subcutaneous injection with MK-801 at the postnatal day 7-10, 0.1 mg/kg, Bid), a chronic medication model group (intraperitoneal injection at the postnatal day 47-60, 0.2 mg/kg,Qd), and a normal control group (injection with 0.9% normal saline during the corresponding periods). DA, DOPAC, Glu, and GABA of the tissue homogenate from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus were examined with Coularray electrochemic detection by high performance liquid chromatogram technique. The utilization rate of DA and Glu was calculated. Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of DA and DOPAC in the mPFC and the hippocampus in the SZ developmental model group significantly decreased (PGABA concentration and Glu utilization rate in the mPFC also decreased (PGABA system decrease in the mPFC and the DA system function reduces in the hippocampus of SZ developmental rats.

  1. GABA(B) receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adelfinger, L.; Tureček, Rostislav; Ivankova, K.; Jensen, A. A.; Moss, S. J.; Gassmann, M.; Bettler, B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2014), s. 369-379 ISSN 0006-2952 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : GABA-B * G-protein coupled receptor * GPCR Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 5.009, year: 2014

  2. Astrocytic control of biosynthesis and turnover of the neurotransmitters glutamate and GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively. These amino acids are metabolically interrelated and at the same time they are tightly coupled to the intermediary metabolism including energy homeostasis....... Astrocytes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of the neurotransmitter pools of glutamate and GABA since only these cells express pyruvate carboxylase, the enzyme required for de novo synthesis of the two amino acids. Such de novo synthesis is obligatory to compensate for catabolism of glutamate and GABA...... related to oxidative metabolism when the amino acids are used as energy substrates. This, in turn, is influenced by the extent to which the cycling of the amino acids between neurons and astrocytes may occur. This cycling is brought about by the glutamate/GABA - glutamine cycle the operation of which...

  3. Painful tonic heat stimulation induces GABA accumulation in the prefrontal cortex in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Danielsen, Else R; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known on pain-induced neurotransmitter release in the human cerebral cortex. We used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) during tonic painful heat stimulation to test the hypothesis of increases in both glutamate and GABA, two neurotransmitters with a key role...... that GABA is released in the human cerebral cortex during painful stimulation. The results are in line with animal findings on the role of GABA in pain processing and with studies in humans showing analgesic efficacy of GABA-related drugs in clinical pain conditions....... in pain processing. Using a 3T MR scanner, we acquired spectra from the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in 13 healthy right-handed subjects at rest and during painful heat stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of a suprathreshold painful tonic heat pulse, which was delivered to the right...

  4. [Local GABA-ergic modulation of serotonergic neuron activity in the nucleus raphe magnus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniushkin, A N; Merkulova, N A; Orlova, A O; Iniushkina, E M

    2009-07-01

    In voltage-clamp experimental on slices of the rat brainstem the effects of 5-HT and GABA on serotonergic neurons of nucleus raphe magnus were investigated. Local applications of 5-HT induced an increase in IPCSs frequency and amplitude in 45% of serotonergic cells. The effect suppressed by the blocker of fast sodium channels tetradotoxin. Antagonist of GABA receptor gabazine blocked IPSCs in neurons both sensitive and non-sensitive to 5-HT action. Applications of GABA induced a membrane current (I(GABA)), which was completely blocked by gabazine. The data suggest self-control of the activity of serotonergic neurons in nucleus raphe magnus by negative feedback loop via local GABAergic interneurons.

  5. A possible role of the non-GAT1 GABA transporters in transfer of GABA from GABAergic to glutamatergic neurons in mouse cerebellar neuronal cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suñol, C; Babot, Z; Cristòfol, R

    2010-01-01

    Cultures of dissociated cerebellum from 7-day-old mice were used to investigate the mechanism involved in synthesis and cellular redistribution of GABA in these cultures consisting primarily of glutamatergic granule neurons and a smaller population of GABAergic Golgi and stellate neurons......3 transporters. Only a small population of cells were immuno-stained for GAD while many cells exhibited VGlut-1 like immuno-reactivity which, however, never co-localized with GAD positive neurons. This likely reflects the small number of GABAergic neurons compared to the glutamatergic granule......M concentrations (95%). Essentially all neurons showed GABA like immunostaining albeit with differences in intensity. The results indicate that GABA which is synthesized in a small population of GAD-positive neurons is redistributed to essentially all neurons including the glutamatergic granule cells. GAT1...

  6. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex GABA Concentration in Humans Predicts Working Memory Load Processing Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Grandelis, Anthony; Maddock, Richard J

    2016-11-16

    The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach. Twenty-three healthy adults completed a task that measured the unique contribution of major WM components (memory load, maintenance, and distraction resistance) to performance. This was done to address the possibility that components have differing GABA dependencies and the failure to parse WM into components would lead to missing true associations with GABA. The subjects then had their DLPFC GABA content measured by single-voxel proton magnetic spectroscopy. We found that individuals with lower DLPFC GABA showed greater performance degradation with higher load, accounting for 31% of variance, p (corrected) = 0.015. This relationship was component, neurochemical, and brain region specific. DLPFC GABA content did not predict performance sensitivity to other components tested; DLPFC glutamate + glutamine and visual cortical GABA content did not predict load sensitivity. These results confirm the involvement of DLPFC GABA in WM load processing in humans and implicate factors controlling DLPFC GABA content in the neural mechanisms of WM and its impairments. This study demonstrated for the first time that the amount of gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter of the brain, in an individual's prefrontal cortex predicts working memory (WM) task performance. Given that WM is required for many of the most characteristic cognitive and

  7. Development of psychopathology in deployed armed forces in relation to plasma GABA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schür, Remmelt R; Boks, Marco P; Geuze, Elbert; Prinsen, Hubertus C; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Joëls, Marian; Kahn, René S; Vermetten, Eric; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2016-11-01

    The GABA system is pivotal for an adequate response to a stressful environment but has remained largely unexplored in this context. The present study investigated the relationship of prospectively measured plasma GABA levels with psychopathology symptoms in military deployed to Afghanistan at risk for developing psychopathology following trauma exposure during deployment, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). Plasma GABA levels were measured in military personnel (N=731) one month prior to deployment (T0), and one (T1) and six months (T2) after deployment using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Mental health problems and depressive symptoms were measured with the Dutch revised Symptom Checklist (SCL-90) and PTSD symptoms with the Dutch Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD (SRIP). Six months after deployment increases in GABA concentrations were present in individuals who had developed mental health problems (T2: β=0.06, p=1.6×10 -2 , T1: β=4.7×10 -2 , p=0.13), depressive symptoms (T2: β=0.29, p=7.9×10 -3 , T1: β=0.23, p=0.072) and PTSD symptoms at T2 (T2: β=0.12, p=4.3×10 -2 , T1: β=0.11, p=0.13). Plasma GABA levels prior to and one month after deployment poorly predicted a high level of psychopathology symptoms either one or six months after deployment. The number of previous deployments, trauma experienced during deployment, childhood trauma, age and sex were not significantly associated with plasma GABA levels over time. Exclusion of subjects who either started or stopped smoking, alcohol or medication use between the three time points rendered the association of increasing GABA levels with the emergence of psychopathology symptoms more pronounced (mental health problems at T2: β=0.09, p=4.2×10 -3 ; depressive symptoms at T2: β=0.35, p=3.5×10 -3 , PTSD symptoms at T2: β=0.17, p=1.7×10 -2 ). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide

  8. Different populations of parvalbumin- and calbindin-D28k-immunoreactive neurons contain GABA and accumulate 3H-D-aspartate in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antal, M; Polgár, E; Chalmers, J; Minson, J B; Llewellyn-Smith, I; Heizmann, C W; Somogyi, P

    1991-12-01

    The colocalization of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin-D28k (CaBP), GABA immunoreactivities, and the ability to accumulate 3H-D-aspartate selectively were investigated in neurons of laminae I-IV of the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Following injection of 3H-D-aspartate into the basal dorsal horn (laminae IV-VI), perikarya selectively accumulating 3H-D-aspartate were detected in araldite embedded semithin sections by autoradiography, and consecutive semithin sections were treated to reveal PV, CaBP and GABA by postembedding immunocytochemistry. Perikarya accumulating 3H-D-aspartate were found exclusively in laminae I-III, and no labelled somata were found in deeper layers or in the intermediolateral column although the labelled amino acid clearly spread to these regions. More than half of the labelled cells were localized in lamina II. In this layer, 16.4% of 3H-D-aspartate-labelled perikarya were also stained for CaBP. In contrast to CaBP, PV or GABA was never detected in neurons accumulating 3H-D-aspartate. A high proportion of PV-immunoreactive perikarya were also stained for GABA in laminae II and III (70.0% and 61.2% respectively). However, the majority of CaBP-immunoreactive perikarya were GABA-negative. GABA-immunoreactivity was found in less than 2% of the total population of cells stained for CaBP in laminae I-IV. A significant proportion of the GABA-negative but PV-immunoreactive neurons also showed CaBP-immunoreactivity in laminae II and IV. These results show that out of the two calcium-binding proteins, CaBP is a characteristic protein of a small subpopulation of neurons using excitatory amino acids and PV is a characteristic protein of a subpopulation of neurons utilizing GABA as a transmitter. However, both proteins are present in additional subgroups of neurons, and neuronal populations using inhibitory or excitatory amino acid transmitters are heterogeneous with regard to their content of calcium-binding proteins in the dorsal horn of the rat

  9. Is plasma GABA level a biomarker of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) severity? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trousselard, Marion; Lefebvre, Bertrand; Caillet, Lionel; Andruetan, Yann; de Montleau, Franck; Denis, Josiane; Canini, Frédéric

    2016-07-30

    An increased reactivity to the environment is observed in Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). It would be related to impairment of the Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) neurotransmission. The study aimed to evaluate plasma GABA concentration as a candidate for PTSD severity biomarker. This hypothesis was studied in 17 PTSD patients and 17 healthy Controls using classic and emotional Stroop paradigms. Plasma GABA concentrations were assessed before and after both Stroop tests to evaluate GABA basal tone and GABA reactivity (change in GABAp), respectively. During baseline, PTSD had lower plasma GABA concentrations than the Controls. After the Stroop conflicts GABA reactivity was also lower in PTSD than in the Controls. The GABA baseline tone was negatively correlated with the severity of the PTSD symptoms. This relation was only marginally observed for GABA reactivity. The results produced a trend due to the small size of the sample compared to the number of statistical results given. Altogether, the reduced GABA concentration observed in PTSD could be considered as a possible biomarker for PTSD severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cell and receptor type-specific alterations in markers of GABA neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, David A; Hashimoto, Takanori; Morris, Harvey M

    2008-10-01

    Impairments in cognitive control, such as those involved in working memory, are associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in individuals with schizophrenia. This dysfunction appears to result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA-mediated neurotransmission. In this paper, we review recent findings indicating that the altered DLPFC circuitry in subjects with schizophrenia reflects changes in the expression of genes that encode selective presynaptic and postsynaptic components of GABA neurotransmission. Specifically, using a combination of methods, we found that subjects with schizophrenia exhibited expression deficits in GABA-related transcripts encoding presynaptic regulators of GABA neurotransmission, neuropeptide markers of specific subpopulations of GABA neurons, and certain subunits of the GABA(A) receptor. In particular, alterations in the expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin suggested that GABA neurotransmission is impaired in the Martinotti subset of GABA neurons that target the dendrites of pyramidal cells. In contrast, none of the GABA-related transcripts assessed to date were altered in the DLPFC of monkeys chronically exposed to antipsychotic medications, suggesting that the effects observed in the human studies reflect the disease process and not its treatment. In concert with previous findings, these data suggest that working memory dysfunction in schizophrenia may be attributable to altered GABA neurotransmission in specific DLPFC microcircuits.

  11. Investigation of autism and GABA receptor subunit genes in multiple ethnic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, Ann L.; Ma, Deqiong; Whitehead, Patrice L.; Martin, Eden R.; Wright, Harry H.; Abramson, Ruth K.; Hussman, John P.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Gilbert, John R.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2006-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder of complex genetics, characterized by impairment in social interaction and communication, as well as repetitive behavior. Multiple lines of evidence, including alterations in levels of GABA and GABA receptors in autistic patients, indicate that the GABAergic system, which is responsible for synaptic inhibition in the adult brain, may be involved in autism. Previous studies in our lab indicated association of noncoding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SN...

  12. Identification of amino acids involved in histamine potentiation of GABA(A receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eThiel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Histamine is a neurotransmitter involved in a number of physiological and neuronal functions. In mammals, such as humans and rodents, the histaminergic neurons found in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN project widely throughout the central nervous system (CNS. Histamine acts as positive modulator of GABA(A receptors (GABA(ARs and, in high concentrations (10 mM, as negative modulator of the strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which histamine acts on GABA(ARs are unknown. In our study, we aimed to identify amino acids potentially involved in the modulatory effect of histamine on GABA(ARs. We expressed GABA(ARs with 12 different point mutations in Xenopus laevis oocytes and characterized the effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Our data demonstrate that the amino acid residues ß2(N265 and ß2(M286, which are important for modulation by propofol, are not involved in the action of histamine. However, we found that histamine modulation is dependent on the amino acid residues alpha1(R120, ß2(Y157, ß3(D163, ß3(V175 and ß3(Q185. We showed that the amino acid residues ß2(Y157 and ß3(Q185 mediate the positive modulatory effect of histamine on GABA-induced currents, whereas alpha1(R120 and ß2(D163 form a potential histamine interaction site in GABA(ARs.

  13. Allosteric ligands and their binding sites define γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) mediate rapid inhibitory transmission in the brain. GABA(A)Rs are ligand-gated chloride ion channel proteins and exist in about a dozen or more heteropentameric subtypes exhibiting variable age and brain regional localization and thus participation in differing brain functions and diseases. GABA(A)Rs are also subject to modulation by several chemotypes of allosteric ligands that help define structure and function, including subtype definition. The channel blocker picrotoxin identified a noncompetitive channel blocker site in GABA(A)Rs. This ligand site is located in the transmembrane channel pore, whereas the GABA agonist site is in the extracellular domain at subunit interfaces, a site useful for low energy coupled conformational changes of the functional channel domain. Two classes of pharmacologically important allosteric modulatory ligand binding sites reside in the extracellular domain at modified agonist sites at other subunit interfaces: the benzodiazepine site and the high-affinity, relevant to intoxication, ethanol site. The benzodiazepine site is specific for certain GABA(A)R subtypes, mainly synaptic, while the ethanol site is found at a modified benzodiazepine site on different, extrasynaptic, subtypes. In the transmembrane domain are allosteric modulatory ligand sites for diverse chemotypes of general anesthetics: the volatile and intravenous agents, barbiturates, etomidate, propofol, long-chain alcohols, and neurosteroids. The last are endogenous positive allosteric modulators. X-ray crystal structures of prokaryotic and invertebrate pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, and the mammalian GABA(A)R protein, allow homology modeling of GABA(A)R subtypes with the various ligand sites located to suggest the structure and function of these proteins and their pharmacological modulation. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0144 TITLE: Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Dual Modulators of GABA-A and Alpha 7 Nicotinic Receptors for Treating Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0144 5c...ABSTRACT Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a polygenic signaling disorder that may result, in part, from an imbalance in excitatory and inhibitory

  15. Temperature dependence and GABA modulation of [3H]triazolam binding in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, M.E.; Concas, A.; Wamsley, J.K.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1987-01-01

    The hypnotic triazolam (TZ), a triazolobenzodiazepine displays a short physiological half life and has been used for the treatment of insomnia related to anxiety states. The authors major objectives were the direct measurement of the temperature dependence and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) effect of [ 3 H]TZ binding in the rat brain. Saturation studies showed a shift to lower affinity with increasing temperatures (K/sub d/ = 0.27 +/- 08 nM at 0 0 C; K/sub d/ = 1.96 +/- 0.85 nM at 37 0 C) while the B/sub max/ values remained unchanged (1220 +/- 176 fmoles/mg protein at 0 0 C and 1160 +/- 383 fmoles/mg protein at 37 0 C). Saturation studies of [ 3 H]TZ binding in the presence or absence of GABA (100μM) showed a GABA-shift. At 0 0 C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 0.24 +/- 0.03 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.16 +/- 0.04/+GABA) and at 37 0 C the K/sub d/ values were (K/sub d/ = 1.84 +/- 0.44 nM/-GABA; K/sub d/ = 0.95 +/- 0.29 nM/+GABA). In contrast to reported literature, the authors findings show that TZ interacts with benzodiazepine receptors with a temperature dependence and GABA-shift consistent with predicted behavior for benzodiazepine agonists. 20 references, 3 tables

  16. Nonvesicular inhibitory neurotransmission via reversal of the GABA transporter GAT-1

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yuanming; Wang, Wengang; Díez-Sampedro, Ana; Richerson, George B.

    2007-01-01

    GABA transporters play an important but poorly understood role in neuronal inhibition. They can reverse, but this is widely thought to occur only under pathological conditions. Here we use a heterologous expression system to show that the reversal potential of GAT-1 under physiologically relevant conditions is near the normal resting potential of neurons, and that reversal can occur rapidly enough to release GABA during simulated action potentials. We then use paired recordings from cultured ...

  17. Endogenous concentrations, pharmacokinetics, and selected pharmacodynamic effects of a single dose of exogenous GABA in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knych, H K; Steinmetz, S J; McKemie, D S

    2015-04-01

    The anti-anxiety and calming effects following activation of the GABA receptor have been exploited in performance horses by administering products containing GABA. The primary goal of the study reported here was to describe endogenous concentrations of GABA in horses and the pharmacokinetics, selected pharmacodynamic effects, and CSF concentrations following administration of a GABA-containing product. The mean (±SD) endogenous GABA level was 36.4 ± 12.5 ng/mL (n = 147). Sixteen of these horses received a single intravenous and oral dose of GABA (1650 mg). Blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (n = 2) samples were collected at time 0 and at various times for up to 48 h and analyzed using LC-MS. Plasma clearance and volume of distribution was 155.6 and 147.6 L/h and 0.154 and 7.39 L for the central and peripheral compartments, respectively. Terminal elimination half-life was 22.1 (intravenous) and 25.1 (oral) min. Oral bioavailability was 9.81%. Urine GABA concentrations peaked rapidly returning to baseline levels by 3 h. Horses appeared behaviorally unaffected following oral administration, while sedative-like changes following intravenous administration were transient. Heart rate was increased for 1 h postintravenous administration, and gastrointestinal sounds decreased for approximately 30 min following both intravenous and oral administration. Based on a limited number of horses and time points, exogenously administered GABA does not appear to enter the CSF to an appreciable extent. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Contrast adaptation in cat visual cortex is not mediated by GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruyn, E J; Bonds, A B

    1986-09-24

    The possible involvement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in contrast adaptation in single cells in area 17 of the cat was investigated. Iontophoretic application of N-methyl bicuculline increased cell responses, but had no effect on the magnitude of adaptation. These results suggest that contrast adaptation is the result of inhibition through a parallel pathway, but that GABA does not mediate this process.

  19. Prenatal Ontogeny as a Susceptibility Period for Cortical GABA Neuron Disturbances in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, David W.; Lewis, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been linked to disturbances in GABA neurons in the prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, cognitive deficits in schizophrenia appear well before the onset of psychosis and have been reported to be present during early childhood and even during the first year of life. Taken together, these data raise the following question: Does the disease process that produces abnormalities in prefrontal GABA neurons in schizophrenia begin prenatally and disrupt the ontogeny...

  20. New Pharmacotherapy Targeting Cognitive Dysfunction of Schizophrenia via Modulation of GABA Neuronal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Won Je; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder. Cognitive impairment is a core symptom in patients with the illness, and has been suggested a major predictor of functional outcomes. Reduction of parvalbumin (PV)-positive ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons has been associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, in view of the link between the abnormality of GABA neurons and cognitive impairments of the disease. It is assumed that an imbalance of exc...

  1. Neuronal and glial release of (3H)GABA from the rat olfactory bulb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaffe, E.H.; Cuello, A.C.

    1981-12-01

    Neuronal versus glial components of the (3H)gamma-aminobutyric acid ((3H)GABA) release studies were performed with two different microdissected layers of the olfactory bulb of the rat. In some experiments substantia nigra was used as a GABAergic axonal system and the trigeminal ganglia as a peripheral glial model. Spontaneous release of (3H)GABA was always lower in neuronal elements as compared with glial cells. A veratridine-evoked release was observed from the ONL but not from the trigeminal ganglia. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) abolished the veratridine-evoked release from the ONL, which also showed a partial inhibition when high magnesium concentrations were used in a Ca2+-free solution. beta-Alanine was strongly exchanged with (3H)GABA from the ONL of animals with the olfactory nerve lesioned and from animals with no lesion; but only a small heteroexchange was found from the external plexiform layer. The beta-alanine heteroexchange was able to deplete the releasable GABA store from the ONL of lesioned animals. In nonlesioned animals and the external plexiform layer, the veratridine-stimulated release of (3H)GABA was not significantly reduced after the beta-alanine heteroexchange. Stimulation of the (3H)GABA release by high concentrations of potassium elicited a higher release rate from axonal terminals than from dendrites or glia. Neurones and glia showed a similar inhibition of (3H)GABA release when a high magnesium concentration was added to a calcium-free solution. When D-600 was used as a calcium-flux blocker no inhibition of the release was observed in glial cells, whereas an almost complete blockage was found in both neuronal preparations (substantia nigra and EPL). These results provide further evidence for differential release mechanisms of GABA from CNS neurones and glial cells.

  2. Effect of THIP and SL 76002, two clinically experimented GABA-mimetic compounds, on anterior pituitary GABA receptors and prolactin secretion in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apud, J.A.; Masotto, C.; Racagni, G.

    1987-01-01

    In the present study, the ability of three direct GABA agonists, muscimol, THIP and SL 76002 to displace 3 H-GABA binding from anterior pituitary and medio-basal hypothalamus membranes was evaluated. Further, the effect of both THIP and SL 76002 on baseline prolactin levels or after stimulation of hormone release with haloperidol has been also studied. Either muscimol, THIP or SL 76002 have shown to posses 7-, 7- and 3-fold higher affinity, respectively, for the central nervous system than for the anterior pituitary 3 H-GABA binding sites. Moreover, THIP and SL 76002 have demonstrated to be respectively, 25- and 1000- fold less potent than muscimol in inhibiting 3 H- GABA binding at the level of the anterior pituitary and about 25- and 2700-fold less potent at the level of the medio-basal hypothalamus. Under basal conditions, either THIP or SL 76002 were ineffective to reduce prolactin release. However, after stimulation of prolactin secretion through blockade of the dopaminergic neurotransmission with haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg), both THIP (10 mg/kg) and SL 76002 (200 mg/kg) significantly counteracted the neuroleptic-induced prolactin rise with a potency which is in line with their ability to inhibit 3 H-GABA binding in the anterior pituitary. The present results indicate that both compounds inhibit prolactin release under specific experimental situations probably through a GABAergic mechanism. In view of the endocrine effects of these GABA-mimetic compounds, the possibility arises for an application of these type of drugs in clinical neuroendocrinology. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  3. Modulation of GABA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid and food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoshima, H; Tenpaku, Y

    1997-12-01

    To study the effects of 13-L-hydroxylinoleic acid (LOH) and food additives on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, ionotropic GABA receptors were expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting mRNAs prepared from rat whole brain. LOH, which was prepared by reduction of 13-L-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (LOOH), inhibited the response of GABA receptors in the presence of high concentrations of GABA. LOH also inhibited nicotinic acetylcholine, glycine, and kainate receptors, while it had little effect on NMDA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. However, LOH potentiated the response of GABA receptors as well as LOOH in the presence of low concentrations of GABA, possibly increasing the affinity of GABA for the receptors, while linoleic acid did not. Since some modification of the compounds seemed to change their effects on GABA receptors, the responses of GABA receptors elicited by 10 microM GABA were measured in the presence of compounds with various kinds of functional groups or the structural isomers of pentanol. Potentiation of GABA receptors depended strongly on the species of functional groups and also depended on the structure of the isomers. Then effects of various kinds of food additives on GABA receptors were also examined; perfumes such as alcohols or esters potentiated the responses strongly, while hexylamine, nicotinamide, or caffeine inhibited the responses, mainly in a competitive manner, and vanillin inhibited the responses noncompetitively. These results suggest the possibility that production of LOOH and LOH, or intake of much of some food additives, modulates the neural transmission in the brain, especially through ionotropic GABA receptors and changes the frame of the human mind, as alcohol or tobacco does.

  4. Pharmacological characterization of homobaclofen on wild type and mutant GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with the GABA(B)2 receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Madsen, Bo E.; Krogsgaard-Larsen, P

    2001-01-01

    homogenate and in an assay of electrically induced contractions of guinea pig ileum. The results from the two tissues did, however, not correlate very well, and in order to further investigate these discrepancies, we have pharmacologically characterized these enantiomers on recombinant wild type and mutant...... rat GABA(B)1b receptors coexpressed with rat GABA(B)2 receptors. The results from this study correlate nicely with the binding data from rat brain. (R)-Homobaclofen was shown to act like (R)-baclofen albeit with 20-fold less potency, and (S)-homobaclofen was inactive on the receptor. The discrepancies...

  5. Utilization of barley or wheat bran to bioconvert glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wen-Jie; Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Keun-Sung

    2013-09-01

    This study deals with the utilization of agro-industrial wastes created by barley and wheat bran in the production of a value-added product, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The simple and eco-friendly reaction requires no pretreatment or microbial fermentation steps but uses barley or wheat bran as an enzyme source, glutamate as a substrate, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) as a cofactor. The optimal reaction conditions were determined on the basis of the temperatures and times used for the decarboxylation reactions and the initial concentrations of barley or wheat bran, glutamate, and PLP. The optimal reactions produced 9.2 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 92% GABA conversion rate, when barley bran was used and 6.0 mM of GABA from 10 mM glutamate, yielding a 60% GABA conversion rate, when wheat bran was used. The results imply that barley bran is more efficient than wheat bran in the production of GABA. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Inflammatory mediators potentiate high affinity GABA(A) currents in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwan Yeop; Gold, Michael S

    2012-06-19

    Following acute tissue injury action potentials may be initiated in afferent processes terminating in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord that are propagated back out to the periphery, a process referred to as a dorsal root reflex (DRR). The DRR is dependent on the activation of GABA(A) receptors. The prevailing hypothesis is that DRR is due to a depolarizing shift in the chloride equilibrium potential (E(Cl)) following an injury-induced activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-)-cotransporter. Because inflammatory mediators (IM), such as prostaglandin E(2) are also released in the spinal cord following tissue injury, as well as evidence that E(Cl) is already depolarized in primary afferents, an alternative hypothesis is that an IM-induced increase in GABA(A) receptor mediated current (I(GABA)) could underlie the injury-induced increase in DRR. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of IM (prostaglandin E(2) (1 μM), bradykinin (10 μM), and histamine (1 μM)) on I(GABA) in dissociated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with standard whole cell patch clamp techniques. IM potentiated I(GABA) in a subpopulation of medium to large diameter capsaicin insensitive DRG neurons. This effect was dependent on the concentration of GABA, manifest only at low concentrations (emergence of injury-induced DRR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. GABA regulates synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shaoyu; Goh, Eyleen L. K.; Sailor, Kurt A.; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Ming, Guo-Li; Song, Hongjun

    2006-02-01

    Adult neurogenesis, the birth and integration of new neurons from adult neural stem cells, is a striking form of structural plasticity and highlights the regenerative capacity of the adult mammalian brain. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal activity regulates adult neurogenesis and that new neurons contribute to specific brain functions. The mechanism that regulates the integration of newly generated neurons into the pre-existing functional circuitry in the adult brain is unknown. Here we show that newborn granule cells in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus are tonically activated by ambient GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) before being sequentially innervated by GABA- and glutamate-mediated synaptic inputs. GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the adult brain, initially exerts an excitatory action on newborn neurons owing to their high cytoplasmic chloride ion content. Conversion of GABA-induced depolarization (excitation) into hyperpolarization (inhibition) in newborn neurons leads to marked defects in their synapse formation and dendritic development in vivo. Our study identifies an essential role for GABA in the synaptic integration of newly generated neurons in the adult brain, and suggests an unexpected mechanism for activity-dependent regulation of adult neurogenesis, in which newborn neurons may sense neuronal network activity through tonic and phasic GABA activation.

  8. The role of GABA in the hypoxia tolerance of the epaulette shark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, G.; Mulvey, J.; Renshaw, G.M.C.; Dodd, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The epaulette shark responds to hypoxia with brain hypometabolism which is correlated with increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We examined GABA-like immunoreactivity (GABA-IR) and the density and binding characteristics of GABA A receptors in the Epaulette shark brainstem. These studies were conducted to investigate changes in response to hypoxia. Experimental animals were exposed to eight cycles of an extreme hypoxic regimen (5% of normoxia). Animals were anaesthetised with 80mg/L of MS222 and the brain was dissected and processed either for immunohistochemistry or receptor ligand binding. Membranes were prepared at 4 deg C according to a previously reported protocol and the binding characteristics of [ 3 H]flunitrazeparn ([ 3 H]FNZ) were examined using an in vitro centrifugation assay. We report on the effect of hypoxia on specific [ 3 H]FNZ binding characteristics. GABA-IR was detected using a primary antibody dilution of 1:15 000 and the Vector ABC method. We report that an overall increase in the optical density of GABA-IR occurs with significant increases in three out of the four brainstem nuclei examined in experimental animals. The results of these studies are discussed in conjunction with the hypoxia-tolerance .of the epaulette shark. Copyright (1998) Australian Neuroscience Society

  9. Comparison of taurine, GABA, Glu, and Asp as scavengers of malondialdehyde in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yan; Wang, Wei; Yu, Pingfeng; Xi, Zhijiang; Xu, Lijian; Li, Xiaolong; He, Nongyue

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if amino acid neurotransmitters such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), taurine, glutamate (Glu), and aspartate (Asp) can scavenge activated carbonyl toxicants. In vitro, direct reaction between malondialdehyde (MDA) and amino acids was researched using different analytical methods. The results indicated that scavenging activated carbonyl function of taurine and GABA is very strong and that of Glu and Asp is very weak in pathophysiological situations. The results provided perspective into the reaction mechanism of taurine and GABA as targets of activated carbonyl such as MDA in protecting nerve terminals. In vivo, we studied the effect of taurine and GABA as antioxidants by detecting MDA concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities. It was shown that MDA concentration was decreased significantly, and the activities of SOD and GSH-Px were increased significantly in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of acute epileptic state rats, after the administration of taurine and GABA. The results indicated that the peripherally administered taurine and GABA can scavenge free radicals and protect the tissue against activated carbonyl in vivo and in vitro.

  10. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin [Shandong University, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan (China); Edden, Richard A.E. [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kennedy Krieger Institute, FM Kirby Center for Functional Brain Imaging, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Hao [Air Force General Hospital PLA, Beijing (China); Chen, Weibo [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xiaohui [Shandong Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Department of Neurology, Jinan (China)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  11. Reduced GABA levels correlate with cognitive impairment in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Guanmei; Gao, Fei; Gong, Tao; Wang, Guangbin; Zhao, Bin; Edden, Richard A.E.; Li, Hao; Chen, Weibo; Liu, Xiaohui

    2018-01-01

    To investigate if brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) are abnormal compared with healthy controls, and their relationship to cognitive function in RRMS. Twenty-eight RRMS patients and twenty-six healthy controls underwent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 3-T to detect GABA signals from posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and left hippocampus using the 'MEGAPoint Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence' (MEGA-PRESS) technique. All subjects also underwent a cognitive assessment. In RRMS patients, GABA+ were lower in the PCC (p = 0.036) and left hippocampus (p = 0.039) compared with controls, decreased GABA+ in the PCC and left hippocampus were associated with specific cognitive functions (r = -0.452, p = 0.016 and r = 0.451, p = 0.016 respectively); GABA+ in the mPFC were not significantly decreased or related to any cognitive scores (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that abnormalities of the GABAergic system may be present in the pathogenesis of RRMS and suggests a potential link between regional GABA levels and cognitive impairment in patients with RRMS. (orig.)

  12. GABA and glutamate in schizophrenia: A 7 T 1H-MRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anouk Marsman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, GABA/creatine ratios, and glutamate, NAA, creatine and choline concentrations in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices were measured in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at an ultra-high magnetic field strength of 7 T. Significantly lower GABA/Cr ratios were found in patients with schizophrenia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to healthy controls, with GABA/Cr ratios inversely correlated with cognitive functioning in the patients. No significant change in the GABA/Cr ratio was found between patients and controls in the parieto-occipital cortex, nor were levels of glutamate, NAA, creatine, and choline differed in patients and controls in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices. Our findings support a mechanism involving altered GABA levels distinguished from glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, particularly in high functioning patients. A (compensatory role for GABA through altered inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be ongoing in (higher functioning patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Prefrontal cortical GABA transmission modulates discrimination and latent inhibition of conditioned fear: relevance for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantadosi, Patrick T; Floresco, Stan B

    2014-09-01

    Inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transmission within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) regulates numerous functions, and perturbations in GABAergic transmission within this region have been proposed to contribute to some of the cognitive and behavioral abnormalities associated with disorders such as schizophrenia. These abnormalities include deficits in emotional regulation and aberrant attributions of affective salience. Yet, how PFC GABA regulates these types of emotional processes are unclear. To address this issue, we investigated the contribution of PFC GABA transmission to different aspects of Pavlovian emotional learning in rats using translational discriminative fear conditioning and latent inhibition (LI) assays. Reducing prelimbic PFC GABAA transmission via infusions of the antagonist bicuculline before the acquisition or expression of fear conditioning eliminated the ability to discriminate between an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS+) paired with footshock vs a neutral CS-, resembling similar deficits observed in schizophrenic patients. In a separate experiment, blockade of PFC GABAA receptors before CS preexposure (PE) and conditioning did not affect subsequent expression of LI, but did enhance fear in rats that were not preexposed to the CS. In contrast, PFC GABA-blockade before a fear expression test disrupted the recall of learned irrelevance and abolished LI. These data suggest that normal PFC GABA transmission is critical for regulating and mitigating multiple aspects of aversive learning, including discrimination between fear vs safety signals and recall of information about the irrelevance of stimuli. Furthermore, they suggest that similar deficits in emotional regulation observed in schizophrenia may be driven in part by deficient PFC GABA activity.

  14. GABA abnormalities in schizophrenia: a methodological review of in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephan F; Tso, Ivy F

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities of GABAergic interneurons are some of the most consistent findings from post-mortem studies of schizophrenia. However, linking these molecular deficits with in vivo observations in patients - a critical goal in order to evaluate interventions that would target GABAergic deficits - presents a challenge. Explanatory models have been developed based on animal work and the emerging experimental literature in schizophrenia patients. This literature includes: neuroimaging ligands to GABA receptors, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of GABA concentration, transcranial magnetic stimulation of cortical inhibitory circuits and pharmacologic probes of GABA receptors to dynamically challenge the GABA system, usually in combination with neuroimaging studies. Pharmacologic challenges have elicited behavioral changes, and preliminary studies of therapeutic GABAergic interventions have been conducted. This article critically reviews the evidence for GABAergic dysfunction from each of these areas. These methods remain indirect measures of GABAergic function, and a broad array of dysfunction is linked with the putative GABAergic measures, including positive symptoms, cognition, emotion, motor processing and sensory processing, covering diverse brain areas. Measures of receptor binding have not shown replicable group differences in binding, and MRS assays of GABA concentration have yielded equivocal evidence of large-scale alteration in GABA concentration. Overall, the experimental base remains sparse, and much remains to be learned about the role of GABAergic interneurons in healthy brains. Challenges with pharmacologic and functional probes show promise, and may yet enable a better characterization of GABAergic deficits in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  16. Genetic manipulation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt in rice: overexpression of truncated glutamate decarboxylase (GAD2) and knockdown of γ-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) lead to sustained and high levels of GABA accumulation in rice kernels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimajiri, Yasuka; Oonishi, Takayuki; Ozaki, Kae; Kainou, Kumiko; Akama, Kazuhito

    2013-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid commonly present in all organisms. Because cellular levels of GABA in plants are mainly regulated by synthesis (glutamate decarboxylase, GAD) and catabolism (GABA-transaminase, GABA-T), we attempted seed-specific manipulation of the GABA shunt to achieve stable GABA accumulation in rice. A truncated GAD2 sequence, one of five GAD genes, controlled by the glutelin (GluB-1) or rice embryo globulin promoters (REG) and GABA-T-based trigger sequences in RNA interference (RNAi) cassettes controlled by one of these promoters as well, was introduced into rice (cv. Koshihikari) to establish stable transgenic lines under herbicide selection using pyriminobac. T₁ and T₂ generations of rice lines displayed high GABA concentrations (2-100 mg/100 g grain). In analyses of two selected lines from the T₃ generation, there was a strong correlation between GABA level and the expression of truncated GAD2, whereas the inhibitory effect of GABA-T expression was relatively weak. In these two lines both with two T-DNA copies, their starch, amylose, and protein levels were slightly lower than non-transformed cv. Koshihikari. Free amino acid analysis of mature kernels of these lines demonstrated elevated levels of GABA (75-350 mg/100 g polished rice) and also high levels of several amino acids, such as Ala, Ser, and Val. Because these lines of seeds could sustain their GABA content after harvest (up to 6 months), the strategy in this study could lead to the accumulation GABA and for these to be sustained in the edible parts. © 2013 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Autoradiographic analysis of 3H-glutamate, 3H-dopamine, and 3H-GABA accumulation in rabbit retina after kainic acid treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, C.K.; Redburn, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    We have previously reported that exposure of isolated rabbit retina to 10(-3) M kainic acid produces profound morphological changes in specific retinal neurons (Hampton et al, 1981). We noted specific swelling of horizontal cell bodies and neurites, necrosis of cell bodies in the amacrine and ganglion cell layers, and swelling of elements in the inner plexiform layer. We now report a differential sensitivity to kainic acid of specific subclasses of amacrine cells autoradiographically labeled with 3H-glutamate, 3H-GABA, or 3H-dopamine. Three different effects were observed: (1) Labeling of neurons after incubation in 3H-glutamate was uniformly reduced while labeling of glia was much less affected. (2) The accumulation of 3H-dopamine was also decreased by kainic acid in two of the three labeled bands of the inner plexiform layer. The outermost labeled band was insensitive to kainic acid at the highest concentration tested (10(-2) M). These findings provide a basis for the subclassification of dopaminergic amacrine cells into at least two subclasses based on their sensitivity to kainic acid. (3) Kainic acid caused a dramatic increase in the labeling of GABAergic amacrine cell bodies and their terminals. This increased intensity may reflect a compensatory increase in uptake activity in response to kainic acid-induced depletion of endogenous GABA stores. These results confirm the highly toxic nature of kainic acid and demonstrate a high degree of specificity and complexity in its action in the retina

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  12. Effect of NAD on binding and liberation of 14C-GABA in administration of the convulsion producing drug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomenko, A.I.; Stepanenko, S.P.; Parkhomets, P.K.; Donchenko, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    Administration of corazole into animals led to a decrease in content of NAD and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in brain. Under these conditions, binding of 14 C-GABA was increased and its liberation was inhibited in the synaptosomes of the brain cortex. Additional administration of incotinamide, accompanied by considerable increase in content of NAD and GABA, caused a decrease in accumulation of exogenous GABA in the synaptosomes and removed the effects produced by the convulsant agent. Kinetics of 14 C-GABA binding in the presence of NAD demonstrated that the more effective inhibition of the binding occurred in the animals treated with the convulsant drug. NAD appears to affect the GABA-ergic transmission at the postsynaptic level

  13. GABA-mediated synchronization in the human neocortex: elevations in extracellular potassium and presynaptic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvel, J; Papatheodoropoulos, C; Siniscalchi, A; Kurcewicz, I; Pumain, R; Devaux, B; Turak, B; Esposito, V; Villemeure, J G; Avoli, M

    2001-01-01

    Field potential and extracellular [K(+)] ([K(+)](o)) recordings were made in the human neocortex in an in vitro slice preparation to study the synchronous activity that occurs in the presence of 4-aminopyridine (50 microM) and ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists. Under these experimental conditions, negative or negative-positive field potentials accompanied by rises in [K(+)](o) (up to 4.1 mM from a baseline of 3.25 mM) occurred spontaneously at intervals of 3-27 s. Both field potentials and [K(+)](o) elevations were largest at approximately 1000 microm from the pia. Similar events were induced by neocortical electrical stimuli. Application of medium containing low [Ca(2+)]/high [Mg(2+)] (n=3 slices), antagonism of the GABA(A) receptor (n=7) or mu-opioid receptor activation (n=4) abolished these events. Hence, they represented network, GABA-mediated potentials mainly reflecting the activation of type A receptors following GABA release from interneurons. The GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen (10-100 microM, n=11) reduced and abolished the GABA-mediated potentials (ID(50)=18 microM). Baclofen effects were antagonized by the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP 35348 (0.1-1 mM, n=6; ID(50)=0.19 mM). CGP 38345 application to control medium increased the amplitude of the GABA-mediated potentials and the concomitant [K(+)](o) rises without modifying their rate of occurrence. The GABA-mediated potentials were not influenced by the broad-spectrum metabotropic glutamate agonist (+/-)-1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (100 microM, n=10), but decreased in rate with the group I receptor agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (10-100 microM, n=9). Our data indicate that human neocortical networks challenged with 4-aminopyridine generate glutamatergic-independent, GABA-mediated potentials that are modulated by mu-opioid and GABA(B) receptors presumably located on interneuron terminals. These events are associated with [K(+)](o) elevations that may

  14. A legacy of discovery: from monoamines to GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enna, S J

    2011-06-01

    Seldom does a single individual have such a profound effect on the development of a scientific discipline as Erminio Costa had on neuropharmacology. During nearly sixty years of research, Costa and his collaborators helped established many of the basic principles of the pharmacodynamic actions of psychotherapeutics. His contributions range from defining basic neurochemical, physiological and behavioral properties of neurotransmitters and their receptors, to the development of novel theories for drug discovery. Outlined in this report is a portion of his work relating to the involvement of monoamines and GABA in mediating the symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders and as targets for drug therapies. These studies were selected for review because of their influence on my own work and as an illustration of his logical and insightful approach to research and his clever use of techniques and technologies. Given the significance of his work, the legions of scientist who collaborated with him, and those inspired by his reports, his research will continue to have an impact as long as there is a search for new therapeutics to alleviate the pain and suffering associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Editing modifies the GABA(A) receptor subunit alpha3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlson, Johan; Pedersen, Jakob Skou; Haussler, David

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) pre-mRNA editing by the ADAR enzyme family has the potential to increase the variety of the proteome. This editing by adenosine deamination is essential in mammals for a functional brain. To detect novel substrates for A-to-I editing we have used an experimental method...... to find selectively edited sites and combined it with bioinformatic techniques that find stem-loop structures suitable for editing. We present here the first verified editing candidate detected by this screening procedure. We show that Gabra-3, which codes for the alpha3 subunit of the GABA(A) receptor......, is a substrate for editing by both ADAR1 and ADAR2. Editing of the Gabra-3 mRNA recodes an isoleucine to a methionine. The extent of editing is low at birth but increases with age, reaching close to 100% in the adult brain. We therefore propose that editing of the Gabra-3 mRNA is important for normal brain...

  16. Glutamate and GABA as rapid effectors of hypothalamic peptidergic neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eSchöne

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vital hypothalamic neurons regulating hunger, wakefulness, reward-seeking, and body weight are often defined by unique expression of hypothalamus-specific neuropeptides. Gene-ablation studies show that some of these peptides, notably orexin/hypocretin (hcrt/orx, are themselves critical for stable states of consciousness and metabolic health. However, neuron-ablation studies often reveal more severe phenotypes, suggesting key roles for co-expressed transmitters. Indeed, most hypothalamic neurons, including hcrt/orx cells, contain fast transmitters glutamate and GABA, as well as several neuropeptides. What are the roles and relations between different transmitters expressed by the same neuron? Here, we consider signaling codes for releasing different transmitters in relation to transmitter and receptor diversity in behaviorally-defined, widely-projecting peptidergic neurons, such as hcrt/orx cells. We then discuss latest optogenetic studies of endogenous transmitter release from defined sets of axons in situ, which suggest that recently-characterized vital peptidergic neurons (e.g. hcrt/orx, proopiomelanocortin , and agouti-related peptide cells, as well as classical modulatory neurons (e.g. dopamine and acetylcholine cells, all use fast transmitters to control their postsynaptic targets. These optogenetic insights are complemented by recent observations of behavioral deficiencies caused by genetic ablation of fast transmission from specific neuropeptidergic and aminergic neurons. Powerful and fast (millisecond-scale GABAergic and glutamatergic signaling from neurons previously considered to be primarily modulatory raises new questions about the roles of slower co-transmitters they co-express.

  17. GABA production and structure of gadB/gadC genes in Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains from human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, R A; Poluektova, E U; Dyachkova, M S; Klimina, K M; Kovtun, A S; Averina, O V; Orlova, V S; Danilenko, V N

    2016-12-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is an active biogenic substance synthesized in plants, fungi, vertebrate animals and bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the main producers of GABA among bacteria. GABA-producing lactobacilli are isolated from food products such as cheese, yogurt, sourdough, etc. and are the source of bioactive properties assigned to those foods. The ability of human-derived lactobacilli and bifidobacteria to synthesize GABA remains poorly characterized. In this paper, we screened our collection of 135 human-derived Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains for their ability to produce GABA from its precursor monosodium glutamate. Fifty eight strains were able to produce GABA. The most efficient GABA-producers were Bifidobacterium strains (up to 6 g/L). Time profiles of cell growth and GABA production as well as the influence of pyridoxal phosphate on GABA production were studied for L. plantarum 90sk, L. brevis 15f, B. adolescentis 150 and B. angulatum GT102. DNA of these strains was sequenced; the gadB and gadC genes were identified. The presence of these genes was analyzed in 14 metagenomes of healthy individuals. The genes were found in the following genera of bacteria: Bacteroidetes (Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, Alistipes, Odoribacter, Prevotella), Proteobacterium (Esherichia), Firmicutes (Enterococcus), Actinobacteria (Bifidobacterium). These data indicate that gad genes as well as the ability to produce GABA are widely distributed among lactobacilli and bifidobacteria (mainly in L. plantarum, L. brevis, B. adolescentis, B. angulatum, B. dentium) and other gut-derived bacterial species. Perhaps, GABA is involved in the interaction of gut microbiota with the macroorganism and the ability to synthesize GABA may be an important feature in the selection of bacterial strains - psychobiotics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gad1 mRNA as a reliable indicator of altered GABA release from orexigenic neurons in the hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicken, Matthew S; Hughes, Alexander R; Hentges, Shane T

    2015-11-01

    The strength of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic input is a principle determinant of neuronal activity. However, because of differences in the number of GABA afferent inputs and the sites of synapses, it is difficult to directly assay for altered GABA transmission between specific cells. The present study tested the hypothesis that the level of mRNA for the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) can provide a reliable proxy for GABA release. This was tested in a mouse hypothalamic circuit important in the regulation of energy balance. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results show that the expression of Gad1 mRNA (encoding the GAD67 enzyme) was increased in hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons after an overnight fast, consistent with the ability of GABA from these neurons to stimulate food intake. Optogenetic studies confirmed that the observed increase in Gad1 mRNA correlated with an increase in the probability of GABA release from NPY/AgRP neurons onto downstream proopiomelanocortin neurons. Likewise, there was an increase in the readily releasable pool of GABA in NPY/AgRP neurons. Selective inhibition of GAD activity in NPY/AgRP neurons decreased GABA release, indicating that GAD67 activity, which is largely dictated by expression level, is a key determinant of GABA release. Altogether, it appears that Gad expression may be a reliable proxy of altered GABAergic transmission. Examining changes in Gad mRNA as a proxy for GABA release may be particularly helpful when the downstream targets are not known or when limited tools exist for detecting GABA release at a particular synapse. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hypoxia treatment on germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. seeds enhances GABA-related protection against salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Runqiang Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA is a non-protein amino acid with some functional properties for human health. Its content is usually lower in plant seeds. Hypoxia or salt (NaCl stress is an effective way for accumulating GABA during seed germination. However, NaCl stress on GABA accumulation under hypoxia is currently infrequent. The effect of NaCl on GABA accumulation in germinating faba bean (Vicia faba L. under hypoxia was therefore investigated in this study. Faba bean seeds were steeped in citric acid buffer (pH 3.5 containing NaCl with a final O2 concentration of 5.5 mg L-1 and germinated for 5 d. Results showed that 60 mmol L-1 NaCl was the optimum concentration for GABA accumulation in germinating faba beans under hypoxia. Germination for 5 d under hypoxia-NaCl stress was less beneficial for GABA accumulation than only hypoxia (control. Polyamine degradation pathway played a more important role for accumulating GABA in germinating faba bean as an adaptive response to NaCl stress. Removing NaCl significantly increased GABA content, while it decreased glutamate decarboxylase (GAD activity. Simultaneously, polyamine was accumulated, which might be related to the enhancement of physiological activity after recovery. When treated with aminoguanidine (AG for 3 d, GABA content decreased by 29.82%. These results indicated that the tolerance ability of GABA shunt to NaCl stress was weaker than that of polyamine degradation pathway. The NaCl treatment for 3 d under hypoxia could raise the contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA accumulation. The contribution ratio of polyamine degradation pathway for GABA formation was 29.82% when treated for at least 3 d

  20. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Andrew R.; Hentges, Shane T.

    2017-01-01

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA re...

  1. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Kiens, Bente; Saltin, Bengt

    1988-01-01

    uptake was not compensated for by increased uptake of free fatty acids but was accompanied by decreases in plasma insulin and increases in plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine. During work with large muscle masses, arterial lactate increased to approximately 6 mM, and net leg lactate release reverted......To study the role of muscle mass in glucoregulation, six subjects worked with the knee extensors of one leg on a specially constructed cycle ergometer. The knee extensors of one leg worked either alone or in combination with the knee extensors of the other leg and/or with the arms. Substrate usage...... to net lactate uptake. Decreased glucose uptake could not be explained by decreased perfusion. It is concluded that thigh muscle glucose uptake is affected by the size of the total muscle mass engaged in exercise. The decrease in thigh glucose uptake, when arm cranking was added and O2 uptake...

  2. GABA(B) receptor modulation of feedforward inhibition through hippocampal neurogliaform cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher J; Scott, Ricardo; Rusakov, Dmitri A; Capogna, Marco

    2008-07-02

    Feedforward inhibition of neurons is a fundamental component of information flow control in the brain. We studied the roles played by neurogliaform cells (NGFCs) of stratum lacunosum moleculare of the hippocampus in providing feedforward inhibition to CA1 pyramidal cells. We recorded from synaptically coupled pairs of anatomically identified NGFCs and CA1 pyramidal cells and found that, strikingly, a single presynaptic action potential evoked a biphasic unitary IPSC (uIPSC), consisting of two distinct components mediated by GABA(A) and GABA(B) receptors. A GABA(B) receptor-mediated unitary response has not previously been observed in hippocampal excitatory neurons. The decay of the GABA(A) receptor-mediated response was slow (time constant = 50 ms), and was tightly regulated by presynaptic GABA(B) receptors. Surprisingly, the GABA(B) receptor ligands baclofen and (2S)-3-{[(1S)-1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]amino-2-hydroxypropyl}(phenylmethyl)phosphinic acid (CGP55845), while affecting the NGFC-mediated uIPSCs, had no effect on action potential-evoked presynaptic Ca2+ signals monitored in individual axonal boutons of NGFCs with two-photon microscopy. In contrast, baclofen clearly depressed presynaptic Ca2+ transients in non-NGF interneurons. Changes in extracellular Ca2+ concentration that mimicked the effects of baclofen or CGP55845 on uIPSCs significantly altered presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Electrophysiological data suggest that GABA(B) receptors expressed by NGFCs contribute to the dynamic control of the excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal neurons from the temporoammonic path. The NGFC-CA1 pyramidal cell connection therefore provides a unique and subtle mechanism to shape the integration time domain for signals arriving via a major excitatory input to CA1 pyramidal cells.

  3. Technological and safety properties of newly isolated GABA-producing Lactobacillus futsaii strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchart, C; Rattanaporn, O; Haltrich, D; Phukpattaranont, P; Maneerat, S

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the technological and safety properties of Lactobacillus futsaii CS3 and CS5 isolated from Thai fermented shrimp products (Kung-Som) in order to develop a valuable gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing starter culture. Both strains showed a high GABA-producing ability (>8 mg ml(-1) ) in MRS broth containing 20 mg ml(-1) monosodium glutamate (MSG) for 120 h. They also exhibited inhibitory activity against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Cell surface hydrophobicity and proteolytic activity were observed in both strains. Strain CS3 survived better under simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions with only 1·5 log-units cell decrease over 8 h. Both strains showed the ability to deconjugate taurocholate and taurodeoxycholate acid. Neither virulence genes nor biogenic amine production was detected. Strain CS3 exhibited susceptibility to all tested antibiotics with the exception of vancomycin, while strain CS5 showed resistance to vancomycin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol. Based on the results obtained, Lact. futsaii CS3 is very promising as a GABA-producing and potentially probiotic starter culture strain for applications in functional fermented foods. This study focuses on the technological and safety characteristics of Lact. futsaii CS3 and CS5 including their high GABA-producing capacity for the first time. This provides a way of replacing chemical GABA by natural GABA using a GABA-producing starter culture candidate, at the same time offering the consumer new attractive food products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. GABA and glutamate levels in occlusal splint-wearing males with possible bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmadhikari, Shalmali; Romito, Laura M; Dzemidzic, Mario; Dydak, Ulrike; Xu, Jun; Bodkin, Cynthia L; Manchanda, Shalini; Byrd, Kenneth E

    2015-07-01

    The inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety behavioural disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder and is also implicated in the manifestation of tooth-grinding and clenching behaviours generally known as bruxism. In order to test whether the stress-related behaviours of tooth-grinding and clenching share similar underlying mechanisms involving GABA and other metabolites as do anxiety-related behavioural disorders, we performed a Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) study for accurate, in vivo metabolite quantification in anxiety-related brain regions. MRS was performed in the right hippocampus and right thalamus involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis system, together with a motor planning region (dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/pre-supplementary motor area) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Eight occlusal splint-wearing men (OCS) with possible tooth-grinding and clenching behaviours and nine male controls (CON) with no such behaviour were studied. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant Group×Region interaction for GABA+ (p = 0.001) and glutamate (Glu) (p = 0.031). Between-group post hoc ANOVA showed significantly lower levels of GABA+ (p = 0.003) and higher levels of Glu (p = 0.002) in DLPFC of OCS subjects. These GABA+ and Glu group differences remained significant (GABA+, p = 0.049; Glu, p = 0.039) after the inclusion of anxiety as a covariate. Additionally, GABA and Glu levels in the DLPFC of all subjects were negatively related (Pearson's r = -0.75, p = 0.003). These findings indicate that the oral behaviours of tooth-grinding and clenching, generally known as bruxism, may be associated with disturbances in brain GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VTA GABA neurons modulate specific learning behaviours through the control of dopamine and cholinergic systems

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    Meaghan C Creed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mesolimbic reward system is primarily comprised of the ventral tegmental area (VTA and the nucleus accumbens (NAc as well as their afferent and efferent connections. This circuitry is essential for learning about stimuli associated with motivationally-relevant outcomes. Moreover, addictive drugs affect and remodel this system, which may underlie their addictive properties. In addition to DA neurons, the VTA also contains approximately 30% ɣ-aminobutyric acid (GABA neurons. The task of signalling both rewarding and aversive events from the VTA to the NAc has mostly been ascribed to DA neurons and the role of GABA neurons has been largely neglected until recently. GABA neurons provide local inhibition of DA neurons and also long-range inhibition of projection regions, including the NAc. Here we review studies using a combination of in vivo and ex vivo electrophysiology, pharmacogenetic and optogenetic manipulations that have characterized the functional neuroanatomy of inhibitory circuits in the mesolimbic system, and describe how GABA neurons of the VTA regulate reward and aversion-related learning. We also discuss pharmacogenetic manipulation of this system with benzodiazepines (BDZs, a class of addictive drugs, which act directly on GABAA receptors located on GABA neurons of the VTA. The results gathered with each of these approaches suggest that VTA GABA neurons bi-directionally modulate activity of local DA neurons, underlying reward or aversion at the behavioural level. Conversely, long-range GABA projections from the VTA to the NAc selectively target cholinergic interneurons (CINs to pause their firing and temporarily reduce cholinergic tone in the NAc, which modulates associative learning. Further characterization of inhibitory circuit function within and beyond the VTA is needed in order to fully understand the function of the mesolimbic system under normal and pathological conditions.

  6. Glutamate-glutamine and GABA in brain of normal aged and patients with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dandan; Liu, Dan; Yin, Jianzhong; Qian, Tianyi; Shrestha, Susan; Ni, Hongyan

    2017-07-01

    To explore the changes of glutamate-glutamine (Glx) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain in normal old age and cognitive impairment using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Seventeen normal young controls (NYC), 15 normal elderly controls (NEC), 21 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 17 with Alzheimer disease (AD) patients were included in this study. Glx and GABA+ levels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right hippocampus (rHP) were measured by using a MEGA-PRESS sequence. Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were compared between NYC and NEC and between the three elderly groups using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA); the tissue fractions of voxels were used as covariates. The relationships between metabolite ratios and cognitive performance were analysed using Spearman correlation coefficients. For NEC and NYC groups, Glx/Cr and GABA+/Cr ratios were lower in NEC in ACC and rHP. For the three elderly groups, Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in ACC compared to NEC and MCI; Glx/Cr ratio was lower in AD in rHP compared to NEC. There was no significant decrease for GABA+/Cr ratio. Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged, and Glx level decreased predominantly in AD, and it is helpful in the early diagnosis of AD. • Glx and GABA levels may decrease simultaneously in normal aged. • Glx level may decrease predominantly in Alzheimer disease. • The balance in excitatory-inhibitory systems may be broken in AD. • Decreased Glx level may be helpful in early diagnosis of AD.

  7. GABA+ levels in postmenopausal women with mild-to-moderate depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensong; Zhang, Aiying; Zhao, Bin; Gan, Jie; Wang, Guangbin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Bo; Gong, Tao; Liu, Wen; Edden, Richard A.E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: It is increasingly being recognized that alterations of the GABAergic system are implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. This study aimed to explore in vivo gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/mPFC) and posterior-cingulate cortex (PCC) of postmenopausal women with depression using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). Methods: Nineteen postmenopausal women with depression and thirteen healthy controls were enrolled in the study. All subjects underwent 1H-MRS of the ACC/mPFC and PCC using the “MEGA Point Resolved Spectroscopy Sequence” (MEGA-PRESS) technique. The severity of depression was assessed by 17-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Quantification of MRS data was performed using Gannet program. Differences of GABA+ levels from patients and controls were tested using one-way analysis of variance. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the linear associations between GABA+ levels and HAMD scores, as well as estrogen levels. Results: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were detected in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression compared to healthy controls (P = 0.002). No significant correlations were found between 17-HAMD/14-HAMA and GABA+ levels, either in ACC/mPFC (P = 0.486; r = 0.170/P = 0.814; r = −0.058) or PCC (P = 0.887; r = 0.035/ P = 0.987; r = −0.004) in the patients; there is also no significant correlation between GABA+ levels and estrogen levels in patients group (ACC/mPFC: P = 0.629, r = −0.018; PCC: P = 0.861, r = 0.043). Conclusion: Significantly lower GABA+ levels were found in the ACC/mPFC of postmenopausal women with depression, suggesting that the dysfunction of the GABAergic system may also be involved in the pathogenesis of depression in postmenopausal women. PMID:27684829

  8. Comparative mapping of GABA-immunoreactive neurons in the central nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs.

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    Gunaratne, Charuni A; Sakurai, Akira; Katz, Paul S

    2014-03-01

    The relative simplicity of certain invertebrate nervous systems, such as those of gastropod molluscs, allows behaviors to be dissected at the level of small neural circuits composed of individually identifiable neurons. Elucidating the neurotransmitter phenotype of neurons in neural circuits is important for understanding how those neural circuits function. In this study, we examined the distribution of γ-aminobutyric-acid;-immunoreactive (GABA-ir) neurons in four species of sea slugs (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia, Nudibranchia): Tritonia diomedea, Melibe leonina, Dendronotus iris, and Hermissenda crassicornis. We found consistent patterns of GABA immunoreactivity in the pedal and cerebral-pleural ganglia across species. In particular, there were bilateral clusters in the lateral and medial regions of the dorsal surface of the cerebral ganglia as well as a cluster on the ventral surface of the pedal ganglia. There were also individual GABA-ir neurons that were recognizable across species. The invariant presence of these individual neurons and clusters suggests that they are homologous, although there were interspecies differences in the numbers of neurons in the clusters. The GABAergic system was largely restricted to the central nervous system, with the majority of axons confined to ganglionic connectives and commissures, suggesting a central, integrative role for GABA. GABA was a candidate inhibitory neurotransmitter for neurons in central pattern generator (CPG) circuits underlying swimming behaviors in these species, however none of the known swim CPG neurons were GABA-ir. Although the functions of these GABA-ir neurons are not known, it is clear that their presence has been strongly conserved across nudibranchs. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Meroterpenoid Chrodrimanins Are Selective and Potent Blockers of Insect GABA-Gated Chloride Channels.

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    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available Meroterpenoid chrodrimanins, produced from Talaromyces sp. YO-2, are known to paralyze silkworm (Bombyx mori larvae, but their target is unknown. We have investigated the actions of chrodrimanin B on ligand-gated ion channels of silkworm larval neurons using patch-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B had no effect on membrane currents when tested alone at 1 μM. However, it completely blocked the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA-induced current and showed less pronounced actions on acetylcholine- and L-glutamate-induced currents, when delivered at 1 μM for 1 min prior to co-application with transmitter GABA. Thus, chrodrimanins were also tested on a wild-type isoform of the B. mori GABA receptor (GABAR RDL using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology. Chrodrimanin B attenuated the peak current amplitude of the GABA response of RDL with an IC50 of 1.66 nM. The order of the GABAR-blocking potency of chrodrimanins B > D > A was in accordance with their reported insecticidal potency. Chrodrimanin B had no open channel blocking action when tested at 3 nM on the GABA response of RDL. Co-application with 3 nM chrodrimanin B shifted the GABA concentration response curve to a higher concentration and further increase of chrodrimanin B concentration to 10 nM; it reduced maximum current amplitude of the GABA response, pointing to a high-affinity competitive action and a lower affinity non-competitive action. The A282S;T286V double mutation of RDL, which impairs the actions of fipronil, hardly affected the blocking action of chrodrimanin B, indicating a binding site of chrodrimanin B distinct from that of fipronil. Chrodrimanin B showed approximately 1,000-fold lower blocking action on human α1β2γ2 GABAR compared to RDL and thus is a selective blocker of insect GABARs.

  10. GABA regulates the multidirectional tangential migration of GABAergic interneurons in living neonatal mice.

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    Hiroyuki Inada

    Full Text Available Cortical GABAergic interneurons originate from ganglionic eminences and tangentially migrate into the cortical plate at early developmental stages. To elucidate the characteristics of this migration of GABAergic interneurons in living animals, we established an experimental design specialized for in vivo time-lapse imaging of the neocortex of neonate mice with two-photon laser-scanning microscopy. In vesicular GABA/glycine transporter (VGAT-Venus transgenic mice from birth (P0 through P3, we observed multidirectional tangential migration of genetically-defined GABAergic interneurons in the neocortical marginal zone. The properties of this migration, such as the motility rate (distance/hr, the direction moved, and the proportion of migrating neurons to stationary neurons, did not change through P0 to P3, although the density of GABAergic neurons at the marginal zone decreased with age. Thus, the characteristics of the tangential motility of individual GABAergic neurons remained constant in development. Pharmacological block of GABA(A receptors and of the Na⁺-K⁺-Cl⁻ cotransporters, and chelating intracellular Ca²⁺, all significantly reduced the motility rate in vivo. The motility rate and GABA content within the cortex of neonatal VGAT-Venus transgenic mice were significantly greater than those of GAD67-GFP knock-in mice, suggesting that extracellular GABA concentration could facilitate the multidirectional tangential migration. Indeed, diazepam applied to GAD67-GFP mice increased the motility rate substantially. In an in vitro neocortical slice preparation, we confirmed that GABA induced a NKCC sensitive depolarization of GABAergic interneurons in VGAT-Venus mice at P0-P3. Thus, activation of GABA(AR by ambient GABA depolarizes GABAergic interneurons, leading to an acceleration of their multidirectional motility in vivo.

  11. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  12. A Mechanistic Link from GABA to Cortical Architecture and Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasinski, James; Logan, John P; Hinson, Emily L; Manners, Daniel; Divanbeighi Zand, Amir P; Makin, Tamar R; Emir, Uzay E; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-06-05

    Understanding both the organization of the human cortex and its relation to the performance of distinct functions is fundamental in neuroscience. The primary sensory cortices display topographic organization, whereby receptive fields follow a characteristic pattern, from tonotopy to retinotopy to somatotopy [1]. GABAergic signaling is vital to the maintenance of cortical receptive fields [2]; however, it is unclear how this fine-grain inhibition relates to measurable patterns of perception [3, 4]. Based on perceptual changes following perturbation of the GABAergic system, it is conceivable that the resting level of cortical GABAergic tone directly relates to the spatial specificity of activation in response to a given input [5-7]. The specificity of cortical activation can be considered in terms of cortical tuning: greater cortical tuning yields more localized recruitment of cortical territory in response to a given input. We applied a combination of fMRI, MR spectroscopy, and psychophysics to substantiate the link between the cortical neurochemical milieu, the tuning of cortical activity, and variability in perceptual acuity, using human somatosensory cortex as a model. We provide data that explain human perceptual acuity in terms of both the underlying cellular and metabolic processes. Specifically, higher concentrations of sensorimotor GABA are associated with more selective cortical tuning, which in turn is associated with enhanced perception. These results show anatomical and neurochemical specificity and are replicated in an independent cohort. The mechanistic link from neurochemistry to perception provides a vital step in understanding population variability in sensory behavior, informing metabolic therapeutic interventions to restore perceptual abilities clinically. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review of the Updated Pharmacophore for the Alpha 5 GABA(A Benzodiazepine Receptor Model

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    Terry Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated model of the GABA(A benzodiazepine receptor pharmacophore of the α5-BzR/GABA(A subtype has been constructed prompted by the synthesis of subtype selective ligands in light of the recent developments in both ligand synthesis, behavioral studies, and molecular modeling studies of the binding site itself. A number of BzR/GABA(A α5 subtype selective compounds were synthesized, notably α5-subtype selective inverse agonist PWZ-029 (1 which is active in enhancing cognition in both rodents and primates. In addition, a chiral positive allosteric modulator (PAM, SH-053-2′F-R-CH3 (2, has been shown to reverse the deleterious effects in the MAM-model of schizophrenia as well as alleviate constriction in airway smooth muscle. Presented here is an updated model of the pharmacophore for α5β2γ2 Bz/GABA(A receptors, including a rendering of PWZ-029 docked within the α5-binding pocket showing specific interactions of the molecule with the receptor. Differences in the included volume as compared to α1β2γ2, α2β2γ2, and α3β2γ2 will be illustrated for clarity. These new models enhance the ability to understand structural characteristics of ligands which act as agonists, antagonists, or inverse agonists at the Bz BS of GABA(A receptors.

  14. GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex in long-sleep and short-sleep mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    LS mice are more sensitive to benzodiazepine-induced anesthesia; however, the two lines do not differ in their hypothermic response to flurazepam. SS mice are more resistant to 3-mercaptopropionic acid-induced seizures and more sensitive to the anticonvulsant effects of benzodiazepines. The various correlates of GABA and benzodiazepine actions probably are the results of different mechanisms of action and/or differential regional control. Bicuculline competition for 3 H-GABA binding sites is greater in SS cerebellar tissue and 3 H-flunitrazepam binding is greater in the mid-brain region of LS mice. GABA enhancement of 3 H-flunitrazepma binding is greater in SS mice. Ethanol also enhances 3 H-flunitrazepam binding and increases the levels of 3 H-flunitrazepam binding above those observed for GABA. Using correlational techniques on data from LS and SS mice and several inbred mouse strains, it was demonstrated that a positive relationship exists between the degree of receptor coupling within the GABA receptor complex and the degree of resistance to seizures

  15. Increased GABA(A) inhibition of the RVLM after hindlimb unloading in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Julia A.; Heesch, Cheryl M.; Hasser, Eileen M.

    2002-01-01

    Attenuated baroreflex-mediated increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in hindlimb unloaded (HU) rats apparently are due to changes within the central nervous system. We hypothesized that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) is increased after hindlimb unloading. Responses to bilateral microinjection of the GABA(A) antagonist (-)-bicuculline methiodide (BIC) into the RVLM were examined before and during caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM) inhibition in Inactin-anesthetized control and HU rats. Increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and RSNA in response to BIC in the RVLM were significantly enhanced in HU rats. Responses to bilateral CVLM blockade were not different. When remaining GABA(A) inhibition in the RVLM was blocked by BIC during CVLM inhibition, the additional increases in MAP and RSNA were significantly greater in HU rats. These data indicate that GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons is augmented after hindlimb unloading. Effects of input from the CVLM were unaltered. Thus, after cardiovascular deconditioning in rodents, the attenuated increase in sympathetic nerve activity in response to hypotension is associated with greater GABA(A) receptor-mediated inhibition of RVLM neurons originating at least in part from sources other than the CVLM.

  16. Lateral Preoptic Control of the Lateral Habenula through Convergent Glutamate and GABA Transmission

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    David J. Barker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The lateral habenula (LHb is a brain structure that participates in cognitive and emotional processing and has been implicated in several mental disorders. Although one of the largest inputs to the LHb originates in the lateral preoptic area (LPO, little is known about how the LPO participates in the regulation of LHb function. Here, we provide evidence that the LPO exerts bivalent control over the LHb through the convergent transmission of LPO glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA onto single LHb neurons. In vivo, both LPO-glutamatergic and LPO-GABAergic inputs to the LHb are activated by aversive stimuli, and their predictive cues yet produce opposing behaviors when stimulated independently. These results support a model wherein the balanced response of converging LPO-glutamate and LPO-GABA are necessary for a normal response to noxious stimuli, and an imbalance in LPO→LHb glutamate or GABA results in the type of aberrant processing that may underlie mental disorders. : Barker et al. show that distinct populations of lateral preoptic area glutamate and GABA neurons synapse together on single lateral habenula neurons and find that this “convergent neurotransmission” allows preoptic area neurons to exert bivalent control over single lateral habenula neurons and drive opposing motivational states. Keywords: preoptic, habenula, reward, aversion, synapse, glutamate, GABA, stress, calcium imaging, optogenetics, electron microscopy

  17. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration inversely correlates with basal perfusion in human occipital lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Manus J; Rane, Swati; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Pradhan, Subechhya; Waddell, Kevin W; Ally, Brandon A

    2014-03-01

    Commonly used neuroimaging approaches in humans exploit hemodynamic or metabolic indicators of brain function. However, fundamental gaps remain in our ability to relate such hemo-metabolic reactivity to neurotransmission, with recent reports providing paradoxical information regarding the relationship among basal perfusion, functional imaging contrast, and neurotransmission in awake humans. Here, sequential magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA+macromolecules normalized by the complex N-acetyl aspartate-N-acetyl aspartyl glutamic acid: [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG]), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of perfusion, fractional gray-matter volume, and arterial arrival time (AAT) are recorded in human visual cortex from a controlled cohort of young adult male volunteers with neurocognitive battery-confirmed comparable cognitive capacity (3 T; n=16; age=23±3 years). Regression analyses reveal an inverse correlation between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.46; P=0.037), yet no relationship between AAT and [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] (R=-0.12; P=0.33). Perfusion measurements that do not control for AAT variations reveal reduced correlations between [GABA(+)]/[NAA-NAAG] and perfusion (R=-0.13; P=0.32). These findings largely reconcile contradictory reports between perfusion and inhibitory tone, and underscore the physiologic origins of the growing literature relating functional imaging signals, hemodynamics, and neurotransmission.

  18. Effect of dietary protein and GABA on food intake, growth and tissue amino acids in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tews, J K; Rogers, Q R; Morris, J G; Harper, A E

    1984-02-01

    GABA at 5%, but not 3%, of a low protein diet depressed food intake and growth of kittens. Adaptation to high protein prevented these effects. When cats adapted to low or high protein were fed a meal containing GABA, plasma GABA concentration after 2 hr was 8-fold higher in the low than in the high protein group; clearance was almost complete within 6 hr. Concentrations of proline, branched-chain, other large neutral and basic (especially ornithine) amino acids increased more when cats were fed a high rather than a low protein meal; glycine decreased. At 6 hr, concentrations had consistently returned to initial levels only in the low protein group. Feeding the high protein diet ad lib increased tissue concentrations of threonine, proline and the branched-chain amino acids. Hepatic or renal GABA-aminotransferase activity was not altered in kittens fed the high protein diet. Kidney activity was 10-fold that of liver, which may contribute to the better tolerance of GABA by cats than by rats.

  19. Optimization of culture condition for ACEI and GABA production by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Yi-Ting; Lee, Bao-Hong; Liu, Chin-Feng; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) are compounds which can influence hypertension. The goal of this study is to optimize the culture condition for GABA and ACEI production by Lactobacillus plantarum NTU 102 fermented skim milk. In this study, we used 3-factor-3-level Box-Behnken design combining with response surface methodology, where the 3 factors represent the concentration of skim milk, the concentration of monosodium glutamate, and culture temperature. Best conditions for GABA and ACEI production differed. The results indicated that L. plantarum NTU 102 produced the highest combined levels of GABA and ACEI at 37 °C, in milk having 8% to 12% nonfat solids supplemented with 0.6% to 1% MSG. Agitation of the medium during fermentation had no effect on GABA or ACEI production but extended incubation (up to 6 d) increases levels of the bioactive compounds. L. plantarum NTU 102 fermented products may be a potential functional food source for regulating hypertension. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Subchronic toxicity evaluation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshima, Kazuhito; Yamatsu, Atsushi; Yamashita, Yusuke; Watabe, Kazuya; Horie, Noriko; Masuda, Kazuyuki; Kim, Mujo

    2014-06-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid compound contained in vegetables such as tomatoes and also widely distributed in mammals. GABA acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter and promotes parasympathetic activity to provide several beneficial effects, for instance, relaxation, anti-stress, and insomnia. GABA, produced via a fermentation process, has been available as a functional food ingredient. As part of a program to assess its safety, GABA was administered by oral gavage at doses of 500, 1250, and 2500mg/kg body weight to groups of 10 male and 10 female Sprague-Dawley rats for 13weeks. Treatment was not associated with the test substance-related mortality and appeared to be well tolerated. There were no toxicologically and statistically significant changes in urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry parameters, and in necropsy findings. A few statistically significant changes in food consumption and body weights were noted in the male groups while any significant changes were not noted in female groups. There was no effect of treatment on organ weights or on the results of the histopathological examinations. The results of toxicity evaluation support the safety use of GABA and the potential use as a functional food ingredient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex

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    Inka Ristow

    Full Text Available A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC in pedophilic sex offenders (N = 13 and matched controls (N = 13 using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel (p < 0.04. Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = −0.689. In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control. Keywords: Child sexual abuse, Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, GABA, Magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Pedophilic sex offenders

  2. Regional GABA concentration and [3H]-diazepam binding in rat brain following repeated electroconvulsive shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowdler, J.M.; Green, A.R.; Minchin, M.C.W.; Nutt, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    It has been confirmed that 24 hours following a series of electroconvulsive shocks (ECS) given once daily for 10 days (ECS x 10) to rats there is an increase in GABA concentration in the corpus striatum. A similar change was seen after the ECS had been given to rats anaesthetised with halothane, or when 5 ECS were given spread out over 10 days, the rats being anaesthetised during the ECS. A daily convulsion for 10 days elicited by flurothyl exposure resulted in an increased striatal GABA concentration, but also increased the GABA concentration in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and cortex. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was present 24 hours after ECS daily for 5 days or 3 days after ECS daily for 10 days. No change in [ 3 H]-diazepam binding was seen in hippocampus, cortex or corpus striatum 24 hours after the last of 10 once daily ECS. The increase in striatal GABA concentration was therefore seen at all times when enhanced monoaminemediated behaviours have been demonstrated following seizures. (Author)

  3. Hypoxia and GABA shunt activation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Antero; Jouhten, Paula; Sarajärvi, Timo; Haapasalo, Annakaisa; Hiltunen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    We have previously observed that the conversion of mild cognitive impairment to definitive Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with a significant increase in the serum level of 2,4-dihydroxybutyrate (2,4-DHBA). The metabolic generation of 2,4-DHBA is linked to the activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) shunt, an alternative energy production pathway activated during cellular stress, when the function of Krebs cycle is compromised. The GABA shunt can be triggered by local hypoperfusion and subsequent hypoxia in AD brains caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) is a key enzyme in the GABA shunt, converting succinic semialdehyde (SSA) into succinate, a Krebs cycle intermediate. A deficiency of SSADH activity stimulates the conversion of SSA into γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), an alternative route from the GABA shunt. GHB can exert not only acute neuroprotective activities but unfortunately also chronic detrimental effects which may lead to cognitive impairment. Subsequently, GHB can be metabolized to 2,4-DHBA and secreted from the brain. Thus, the activation of the GABA shunt and the generation of GHB and 2,4-DHBA can have an important role in the early phase of AD pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of the GABA system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders

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    Dongliang eJiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS has become a global public health problem. ATS causes severe neurotoxicity, which could lead to addiction and could induce psychotic disorders or cognitive dysfunctions. However, until now, there has been a lack of effective medicines for treating ATS-related problems. Findings from recent studies indicate that in addition to the traditional dopamine-ergic system, the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic system plays an important role in ATS abuse. However the exact mechanisms of the GABA-ergic system in amphetamine-type stimulant use disorders are not fully understood. This review discusses the role of the GABA-ergic system in ATS use disorders, including ATS induced psychotic disorders and cognitive dysfunctions. We conclude that the GABA-ergic system are importantly involved in the development of ATS use disorders through multiple pathways, and that therapies or medicines that target specific members of the GABA-ergic system may be novel effective interventions for the treatment of ATS use disorders.

  5. Hyperalgesic effect induced by barbiturates, midazolam and ethanol: pharmacological evidence for GABA-A receptor involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.K.F. Tatsuo

    1997-02-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of GABA-A receptors in the control of nociception was studied using the tail-flick test in rats. Non-hypnotic doses of the barbiturates phenobarbital (5-50 mg/kg, pentobarbital (17-33 mg/kg, and thiopental (7.5-30 mg/kg, of the benzodiazepine midazolam (10 mg/kg or of ethanol (0.4-1.6 g/kg administered by the systemic route reduced the latency for the tail-flick response, thus inducing a 'hyperalgesic' state in the animals. In contrast, non-convulsant doses of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (0.12-1.0 mg/kg administered systemically induced an increase in the latency for the tail-flick response, therefore characterizing an 'antinociceptive' state. Previous picrotoxin (0.12 mg/kg treatment abolished the hyperalgesic state induced by effective doses of the barbiturates, midazolam or ethanol. Since phenobarbital, midazolam and ethanol reproduced the described hyperalgesic effect of GABA-A-specific agonists (muscimol, THIP, which is specifically antagonized by the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin, our results suggest that GABA-A receptors are tonically involved in the modulation of nociception in the rat central nervous system

  6. Neuroprotection of ebselen against ischemia/reperfusion injury involves GABA shunt enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Choong Hyun; Cho, Jun Hwi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Dae Won; Park, Ok Kyu; Li, Hua; Choi, Soo Young; Hwang, In Koo; Won, Moo-Ho

    2009-10-15

    Seleno-organic compound, ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one), is a substrate with radical-scavenging activity. In this study, we observed the neuroprotective effects of ebselen against ischemic damage and on GABA shunt enzymes such as glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67), GABA transaminse (GABA-T) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) in the hippocampal CA1 region after 5 min of transient forebrain ischemia in gerbils. For this, vehicle (physiological saline) or ebselen was administered 30 min before or after ischemia/reperfusion and sacrificed 4 days after ischemia/reperfusion. The administration of ebselen significantly reduced the neuronal death in the CA1 region induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In addition, treatment with ebselen markedly elevated GAD67, GABA-T and SSADH immunoreactivity and their protein levels compared to that in the vehicle-treated group, respectively. These results suggest that ebselen protects neurons from ischemic damage via control of the expressions of GABA shunt enzymes to enter the TCA cycle.

  7. Assessment of community led total sanitation uptake in rural Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    K. N. Ogendo, Bsc, MPH, Living goods Nairobi, Kenya,Ministry of Health, Environmental Health ... led drive to set up pit latrines in rural kenya with an aim of promoting sustainable ... Development and Sustainable Development goals lay.

  8. Paracrine GABA and insulin regulate pancreatic alpha cell proliferation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Allen L; Xiang, Yun-Yan; Gui, Le; Kaltsidis, Gesthika; Feng, Qingping; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the mechanism of increased proliferation of alpha cells in recent-onset type 1 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells express GAD and produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which inhibits alpha cell secretion of glucagon. We explored the roles of GABA in alpha cell proliferation in conditions corresponding to type 1 diabetes in a mouse model and in vitro. Type 1 diabetes was induced by injecting the mice with streptozotocin (STZ). Some of the STZ-injected mice were treated with GABA (10 mg/kg daily) for 12 days. Isolated pancreatic islets were treated with STZ or STZ together with GABA for 2 days. The effects of GABA treatment on STZ-induced alpha cell proliferation in vivo and in vitro were assessed. The effect of muscimol, a GABA receptor agonist, on αTC1-6 cell proliferation was also examined. STZ injection substantially decreased levels of GAD, GABA and insulin in pancreatic beta cells 12 h after injection; this was followed by an upsurge of phosphorylated mechanistic target of rapamycin (p-mTOR) in the alpha cells at day 1, and a significant increase in alpha cell mass at day 3. Treating STZ-injected mice with GABA largely restored the immunodetectable levels of insulin and GAD in the beta cells and significantly decreased the number of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member A3 (ALDH1a3)-positive cells, alpha cell mass and hyperglucagonaemia. STZ treatment also increased alpha cell proliferation in isolated islets, which was reversed by co-treatment with GABA. Muscimol, together with insulin, significantly lowered the level of cytosolic Ca 2+ and p-mTOR, and decreased the proliferation rate of αTC1-6 cells. GABA signalling critically controls the alpha cell population in pancreatic islets. Low intraislet GABA may contribute to alpha cell hyperplasia in early type 1 diabetes.

  9. GABA concentration in schizophrenia patients and the effects of antipsychotic medication: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayoshi, Shin'Ya; Nakataki, Masahito; Sumitani, Satsuki; Taniguchi, Kyoko; Shibuya-Tayoshi, Sumiko; Numata, Shusuke; Iga, Jun-ichi; Ueno, Shu-ichi; Harada, Masafumi; Ohmori, Tetsuro

    2010-03-01

    Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is thought to play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. High magnetic field proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) provides a reliable measurement of GABA in specific regions of the brain. This study measured GABA concentration in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the left basal ganglia (ltBG) in 38 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 29 healthy control subjects. There was no significant difference in GABA concentration between the schizophrenia patients and the healthy controls in either the ACC (1.36+/-0.45 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.52+/-0.54 mmol/l in control subjects) or the ltBG (1.13+/-0.26 mmol/l in schizophrenia patients and 1.18+/-0.20 mmol/l in control subjects). Among the right handed schizophrenia patients, the GABA concentration in the ltBG was significantly higher in patients taking typical antipsychotics (1.25+/-0.24 mmol/l) than in those taking atypical antipsychotics (1.03+/-0.24 mmol/l, p=0.026). In the ACC, the GABA concentration was negatively correlated with the dose of the antipsychotics (rs=-0.347, p=0.035). In the ltBG, the GABA concentration was positively correlated with the dose of the anticholinergics (rs=0.403, p=0.015). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to have directly measured GABA concentrations in schizophrenia patients using (1)H-MRS. Our results suggest that there are no differences in GABA concentrations in the ACC or the ltBG of schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. Antipsychotic medication may cause changes in GABA concentration, and atypical and typical antipsychotics may have differing effects. It is possible that medication effects conceal inherent differences in GABA concentrations between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Thyroid uptake software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Dolores; Arista, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    The DETEC-PC software was developed as a complement to a measurement system (hardware) able to perform Iodine Thyroid Uptake studies. The software was designed according to the principles of Object oriented programming using C++ language. The software automatically fixes spectrometric measurement parameters and besides patient measurement also performs statistical analysis of a batch of samples. It possesses a PARADOX database with all information of measured patients and a help system with the system options and medical concepts related to the thyroid uptake study

  11. Systematic study of association of four GABAergic genes: glutamic acid decarboxylase 1 gene, glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 gene, GABA(B) receptor 1 gene and GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene, with schizophrenia using a universal DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Qin, Shengying; Shi, Yongyong; Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jing; Bian, Li; Wan, Chunling; Feng, Guoyin; Gu, Niufan; Zhang, Guangqi; He, Guang; He, Lin

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have suggested the dysfunction of the GABAergic system as a risk factor in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. In the present study, case-control association analysis was conducted in four GABAergic genes: two glutamic acid decarboxylase genes (GAD1 and GAD2), a GABA(A) receptor subunit beta2 gene (GABRB2) and a GABA(B) receptor 1 gene (GABBR1). Using a universal DNA microarray procedure we genotyped a total of 20 SNPs on the above four genes in a study involving 292 patients and 286 controls of Chinese descent. Statistically significant differences were observed in the allelic frequencies of the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=12.40, OR=1.65) and the -292A/C polymorphism in the GAD1 gene (P=0.0450, chi(2)=14.64 OR=1.77). In addition, using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), we discovered differences in the U251 nuclear protein binding to oligonucleotides representing the -292 SNP on the GAD1 gene, which suggests that the -292C allele has reduced transcription factor binding efficiency compared with the 292A allele. Using the multifactor-dimensionality reduction method (MDR), we found that the interactions among the rs187269C/T polymorphism in the GABRB2 gene, the -243A/G polymorphism in the GAD2 gene and the 27379C/T and 661C/T polymorphisms in the GAD1 gene revealed a significant association with schizophrenia (Pschizophrenia in the Chinese population.

  12. Knockout of GAD65 has major impact on synaptic GABA synthesized from astrocyte-derived glutamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne Byriel; Eyjolfsson, Elvar M.; Smeland, Olav B.

    2011-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis from glutamate is catalyzed by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) of which two isoforms, GAD65 and GAD67, have been identified. The GAD65 has repeatedly been shown to be important during intensified synaptic activity. To specifically elucidate the significance of G...... glutamine both via direct synthesis and via a pathway involving mitochondrial metabolism. Furthermore, a severe neuronal hypometabolism, involving glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, was observed in cerebral cortex of GAD65 knockout mice.......65 for maintenance of the highly compartmentalized intracellular and intercellular GABA homeostasis, GAD65 knockout and corresponding wild-type mice were injected with [1-(13)C]glucose and the astrocyte-specific substrate [1,2-(13)C]acetate. Synthesis of GABA from glutamine in the GABAergic synapses...

  13. Rapid binge-like eating and body weight gain driven by zona incerta GABA neuron activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobing; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2017-05-26

    The neuronal substrate for binge eating, which can at times lead to obesity, is not clear. We find that optogenetic stimulation of mouse zona incerta (ZI) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons or their axonal projections to paraventricular thalamus (PVT) excitatory neurons immediately (in 2 to 3 seconds) evoked binge-like eating. Minimal intermittent stimulation led to body weight gain; ZI GABA neuron ablation reduced weight. ZI stimulation generated 35% of normal 24-hour food intake in just 10 minutes. The ZI cells were excited by food deprivation and the gut hunger signal ghrelin. In contrast, stimulation of excitatory axons from the parasubthalamic nucleus to PVT or direct stimulation of PVT glutamate neurons reduced food intake. These data suggest an unexpected robust orexigenic potential for the ZI GABA neurons. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Does gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA influence the development of chronic inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges S Louis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a role for spinal p38 MAP kinase (MAPK in the development of chronic inflammation and peripheral arthritis and a role for GABA in the inhibition of p38 MAPK mediated effects. Integrating these data suggests that GABA may play a role in downregulating mechanisms that lead to the production of proinflammatory agents such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and matrix metalloproteinase 3 – agents implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Genetic studies have also associated RA with members of the p38 MAPK pathway. Hypothesis We propose a hypothesis for an inefficient GABA signaling system that results in unchecked proinflammatory cytokine production via the p38 MAPK pathway. This model also supports the need for increasing research in the integration of immunology and neuroscience.

  15. [Ion-dependency of the GABA-potentiating effects of benzodiazepine tranquilizers and harmane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramets, I I; Komissarov, I V

    1984-06-01

    Experiments on an isolated spinal cord of 8-15-day-old rats have shown that one of the possible mechanisms of the GABA-potentiating action of the benzodiazepine tranquilizer, chlorodiazepoxide, may be a decrease in the intraneuronal concentration of Ca2+. This is evidenced by the enhancement of the GABA-potentiating action of chlorodiazepoxide under Ca2+ deficiency in the medium and in the presence of the blockers of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ ionic channels--Mn2+ and Co2+, and by the reduction of the effect in question under Ca2+ excess in the medium and in the presence of the K+ channels blockers--tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine. The GABA-potentiating action of harmane is likely to be related to the blockade of the voltage-dependent K+ channels and elevation of the intracellular concentration of Ca2+.

  16. The benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmingsen, R.; Braestrup, C.; Nielsen, M.; Barry, D.I.

    1982-01-01

    The benzodiazepine/GABA (gammaaminobutyric acid) receptor complex was investigated during severe ethanol intoxication and withdrawal in the rat. The intragastric intubation technique was used to establish physical ethanol dependence in the animals. Cerebral cortex from male Wistar rats was studied 1) after 31/2 days of severe ethanol intoxication, 2) during the ethanol withdrawal reaction and 3) in a control group. The effect of GABA-ergic activation by muscimol and THIP (4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazole(5,4-c)pyridin-3-01) on 3 H-diazepam binding was unchanged during ethanol intoxication and withdrawal, as was the affinity constant (Ksub(D)) and the maximal number of binding sites (Bsub(max)) for 3 H-flunitrazepam. In conclusion, the benzodiazepine/GABA receptor complex is unlikely to play any causual part in physical ethanol dependence. (author)

  17. Uptake and depuration of gold nanoparticles in Daphnia magna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjolding, Lars Michael; Kern, Kristina; Hjorth, Rune

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a series of short-term studies (total duration 48 h) of uptake and depuration of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in neonate Daphnia magna. Gold nanoparticles (Au NP) were used to study the influence of size, stabilizing agent and feeding on uptake and depuration kinetics...

  18. Localization of calcium-binding proteins and GABA transporter (GAT-1) messenger RNA in the human subthalamic nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augood, S.J.; Waldvogel, H.J.; Muenkle, M.C.; Faull, R.L.M.; Emson, P.C.

    1999-01-01

    -positive neurons revealed them all to be in the range of 300 μm 2 . The unique patterns of calcium-binding protein gene expression were similarly reflected at the protein level; an abundance of parvalbumin- and calretinin-immunopositive neurons were observed whereas only occasional intensely-labelled calbindin-immunopositive fibres were seen, no calbindin-immunopositive cells were detected. Single and double labelling studies show that parvalbumin-immunopositive neurons were mainly localized in the dorsal region of the nucleus, and calretinin-immunopositive neurons were mainly localized in the ventral region although there was overlap with double-labelled neurons located in the middle and dorsal regions.The significance of these findings, in particular the expression of GAT-1, a high-affinity GABA uptake protein, for basal ganglia signalling is discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Focal Uncaging of GABA Reveals a Temporally Defined Role for GABAergic Inhibition during Appetitive Associative Olfactory Conditioning in Honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raccuglia, Davide; Mueller, Uli

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the animal kingdom, the inhibitory neurotransmitter ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key modulator of physiological processes including learning. With respect to associative learning, the exact time in which GABA interferes with the molecular events of learning has not yet been clearly defined. To address this issue, we used two…

  20. Paradoxical effects of GABA-A modulators may explain sex steroid induced negative mood symptoms in some persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäckström, T.; Haage, D.; Löfgren, M.; Johansson, I. M.; Strömberg, J.; Nyberg, S.; Andréen, L.; Ossewaarde, L.; van Wingen, G. A.; Turkmen, S.; Bengtsson, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Some women have negative mood symptoms, caused by progestagens in hormonal contraceptives or sequential hormone therapy or by progesterone in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which may be attributed to metabolites acting on the GABA-A receptor. The GABA system is the major inhibitory system

  1. Field trial of GABA-fortified rice plants and oral administration of milled rice in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowaka, Emi; Shimajiri, Yasuka; Kawakami, Kouhei; Tongu, Miki; Akama, Kazuhito

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension is one of the most critical risk factors accompanying cardiovascular diseases. γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a non-protein amino acid that functions as a major neurotransmitter in mammals and also as a blood-pressure lowering agent. We previously produced GABA-fortified rice lines of a popular Japonica rice cultivar 'Koshihikari' by genetic manipulation of GABA shunt-related genes. In the study reported here, we grew these same novel rice lines in a field trial and administered the milled rice orally to rats. The yield parameters of the transgenic rice plants were almost unchanged compared to those of untransformed cv. 'Koshihikari' plants, while the rice grains of the transgenic plants contained a high GABA content (3.5 g GABA/kg brown rice; 0.75-0.85 GABA g/kg milled rice) in a greenhouse trial. Oral administration of a diet containing 2.5% GABA-fortified rice, with a daily intake for 8 weeks, had an approximately 20 mmHg anti-hypertensive effect in spontaneous hypertensive rats but not in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. These results suggest that GABA-fortified rice may be applicable as a staple food to control or prevent hypertension.

  2. GABA and Gap Junctions in the Development of Synchronized Activity in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meeri Eeva-Liisa Mäkinen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively. We characterized the dynamics of the network-wide synchrony in hPSC-derived neural networks with high spatial resolution (calcium imaging and temporal resolution microelectrode array (MEA. We found that the emergence of synchrony correlates with a decrease in very strong GABA excitation. However, the synchronous network was found to consist of a heterogeneous mixture of synchronously active cells with variable responses to GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Furthermore, we show how single-cell distributions give rise to the network effect of GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Finally, based on our observations, we suggest that the earliest form of synchronous neuronal activity depends on gap junctions and a decrease in GABA induced depolarization but not on GABAA mediated signaling.

  3. Purification of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) from fermentation of defatted rice bran extract by using ion exchange resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan Nha, Vi; Phung, Le Thi Kim; Dat, Lai Quoc

    2017-09-01

    Rice bran is one of the significant byproducts of rice processing with 10 %w/w of constitution of whole rice grain. It is rich in nutrient compounds, including glutamic acid. Thus, it could be utilized for the fermentation with Lactobateria for synthesis of GABA, a valuable bioactive for antihypertensive effects. However, the concentration and purity of GABA in fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract is low for production of GABA drug. This research focused on the purification of GABA from the fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract by using cation exchange resin. The results indicate that, the adsorption isotherm of GABA by Purelite C100 showed the good agreement with Freundlich model, with high adsorption capacity. The effects of pH and concentration of NaCl in eluent on the elution were also investigated. The obtained results show that, at the operating conditions of elution as follows: pH 6.5, 0.8 M of NaCl in eluent, 0.43 of bed volume; concentration of GABA in accumulative eluent, the purity and recovery yield of GABA were 743.8 ppm, 44.0% and 84.2%, respectively. Results imply that, it is feasible to apply cation exchange resin for purification of GABA from fermentation broth of defatted rice bran extract.

  4. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) release in the ciliated protozoon Paramecium occurs by neuronal-like exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoino, P; Milanese, M; Candiani, S; Diaspro, A; Fato, M; Usai, C; Bonanno, G

    2010-04-01

    Paramecium primaurelia expresses a significant amount of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA). Paramecia possess both glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)-like and vesicular GABA transporter (vGAT)-like proteins, indicating the ability to synthesize GABA from glutamate and to transport GABA into vesicles. Using antibodies raised against mammalian GAD and vGAT, bands with an apparent molecular weight of about 67 kDa and 57 kDa were detected. The presence of these bands indicated a similarity between the proteins in Paramecium and in mammals. VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP, putative proteins of the release machinery that form the so-called SNARE complex, are present in Paramecium. Most VAMP, syntaxin and SNAP fluorescence is localized in spots that vary in size and density and are primarily distributed near the plasma membrane. Antibodies raised against mammal VAMP-3, sintaxin-1 or SNAP-25 revealed protein immunoblot bands having molecular weights consistent with those observed in mammals. Moreover, P. primaurelia spontaneously releases GABA into the environment, and this neurotransmitter release significantly increases after membrane depolarization. The depolarization-induced GABA release was strongly reduced not only in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+) but also by pre-incubation with bafilomycin A1 or with botulinum toxin C1 serotype. It can be concluded that GABA occurs in Paramecium, where it is probably stored in vesicles capable of fusion with the cell membrane; accordingly, GABA can be released from Paramecium by stimulus-induced, neuronal-like exocytotic mechanisms.

  5. The Memory-Impairing Effects of Septal GABA Receptor Activation Involve GABAergic Septo-Hippocampal Projection Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs-Kraft, Desiree L.; Wheeler, Marina G.; Parent, Marise B.

    2007-01-01

    Septal infusions of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA)[subscript A] agonist muscimol impair memory, and the effect likely involves the hippocampus. GABA[subscript A] receptors are present on the perikarya of cholinergic and GABAergic septo-hippocampal (SH) projections. The current experiments determined whether GABAergic SH projections are…

  6. GABA and Topiramate Inhibit the Formation of Human Macrophage-Derived Foam Cells by Modulating Cholesterol-Metabolism-Associated Molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter, acts on GABA receptors to play an important role in the modulation of macrophage functions. The present study examined the effects of GABA and a GABA receptor agonist on modulating cholesterol-metabolism-associated molecules in human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDMs. Methods: ORO stain, HPLC, qRT-PCR, Western blot and EMSA were carried out using HMDMs exposed to ox-LDL with or without GABAergic agents as the experimental model. Results: GABA and topiramate reduced the percentage of cholesterol ester in lipid-laden HMDMs by down-regulating SR-A, CD36 and LOX-1 expression and up-regulating ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI expression in lipid-laden HMDMs. The production of TNF-a was decreased in GABA-and topiramate-treated lipid-laden HMDMs, and levels of interleukin (IL-6 did not change. The activation of two signaling pathways, p38MAPK and NF-γB, was repressed by GABA and topiramate in lipid-laden HMDMs. Conclusion: GABA and topiramate inhibit the formation of human macrophage-derived foam cells and may be a possibility for macrophage targeted therapy of atherosclerotic lesions.

  7. Impact of oral supplementation of Glutamate and GABA on memory performance and neurochemical profile in hippocampus of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Saiqa; Ahmad, Saara; Madiha, Syeda; Khaliq, Saima; Shahzad, Sidrah; Batool, Zehra; Haider, Saida

    2017-05-01

    Glutamate (GLU) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) are essential amino acids (AA) for brain function serving as excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter respectively. Their tablets are available in market for improving gut function and muscle performance. Despite of having a major role during memory formation and processing, effects of these tablets on brain functioning like learning and memory have not been investigated. Therefore, present study is aimed to investigate the effects of orally supplemented GLU and GABA on learning and memory performance and further to monitor related effects of these orally supplemented GLU and GABA on brain levels of these AA. Three groups of rats were supplemented orally with drinking water (control group) or suspension of tablets of GABA and Glutamate, respectively for four weeks. Cognitive performance was determined using behavioral tests (Novel object recognition test, Morris water maze, Passive avoidance test) measuring recognition, spatial reference and aversive memory. Levels of GLU, GABA and acetylcholine (ACh) were estimated in rat hippocampus. Results showed that chronic oral administration of GLU and GABA tablets has a significant impact on brain function and can alter GLU and GABA content in rat hippocampus. Compared to GABA, GLU supplementation specifically enhances memory performance via increasing ACh. Thus, GLU can be suggested as a useful supplement for improving learning and memory performance and neurochemical status of brain and in future could be effective in the treatment of neurological disorders affecting learning and memory performance.

  8. GABA and Gap Junctions in the Development of Synchronized Activity in Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Meeri Eeva-Liisa; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna

    2018-01-01

    The electrical activity of the brain arises from single neurons communicating with each other. However, how single neurons interact during early development to give rise to neural network activity remains poorly understood. We studied the emergence of synchronous neural activity in human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived neural networks simultaneously on a single-neuron level and network level. The contribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and gap junctions to the development of synchronous activity in hPSC-derived neural networks was studied with GABA agonist and antagonist and by blocking gap junctional communication, respectively. We characterized the dynamics of the network-wide synchrony in hPSC-derived neural networks with high spatial resolution (calcium imaging) and temporal resolution microelectrode array (MEA). We found that the emergence of synchrony correlates with a decrease in very strong GABA excitation. However, the synchronous network was found to consist of a heterogeneous mixture of synchronously active cells with variable responses to GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Furthermore, we show how single-cell distributions give rise to the network effect of GABA, GABA agonists and gap junction blockers. Finally, based on our observations, we suggest that the earliest form of synchronous neuronal activity depends on gap junctions and a decrease in GABA induced depolarization but not on GABAA mediated signaling. PMID:29559893

  9. GABA concentration is reduced in visual cortex in schizophrenia and correlates with orientation-specific surround suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jong H; Maddock, Richard J; Rokem, Ariel; Silver, Michael A; Minzenberg, Michael J; Ragland, J Daniel; Carter, Cameron S

    2010-03-10

    The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia remain essentially unknown. The GABA hypothesis proposes that reduced neuronal GABA concentration and neurotransmission results in cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. However, few in vivo studies have directly examined this hypothesis. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at high field to measure visual cortical GABA levels in 13 subjects with schizophrenia and 13 demographically matched healthy control subjects. We found that the schizophrenia group had an approximately 10% reduction in GABA concentration. We further tested the GABA hypothesis by examining the relationship between visual cortical GABA levels and orientation-specific surround suppression (OSSS), a behavioral measure of visual inhibition thought to be dependent on GABAergic synaptic transmission. Previous work has shown that subjects with schizophrenia exhibit reduced OSSS of contrast discrimination (Yoon et al., 2009). For subjects with both MRS and OSSS data (n = 16), we found a highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.76) between these variables. GABA concentration was not correlated with overall contrast discrimination performance for stimuli without a surround (r = -0.10). These results suggest that a neocortical GABA deficit in subjects with schizophrenia leads to impaired cortical inhibition and that GABAergic synaptic transmission in visual cortex plays a critical role in OSSS.

  10. Positive allosteric modulation of GABA-A receptors reduces capsaicin-induced primary and secondary hypersensitivity in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rikke Rie; Erichsen, Helle K; Brown, David T

    2012-01-01

    GABA-A receptor positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) mediate robust analgesia in animal models of pathological pain, in part via enhancing injury-induced loss of GABA-A-α2 and -α3 receptor function within the spinal cord. As yet, a lack of clinically suitable tool compounds has prevented this co...

  11. Decreased Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) and Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Anthony J; Pietsch, Stefanie C

    2013-01-01

    There is support for the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the etiology of mood disorders. Recent research has shown that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) modulates GABAergic inhibition and seizure susceptibility. This study was designed to determine and correlate plasma levels of HGF and GABA as well as symptom severity in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Plasma from 15 individuals with OCD (9 males, 6 females;, mean age 38.7 years) and 17 neurotypical controls (10 males, 7 females; mean age 35.2 years) was assessed for HGF, GABA, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) concentration using enzyme-linked immunosorbest assays ELISAs. Symptom severity was assessed in these OCD individuals and compared with HGF and GABA concentrations. In this preliminary study, individuals with OCD had significantly decreased HGF levels, decreased plasma levels of GABA and decreased uPA. We found that both uPA and uPAR levels correlate with HGF. Both low uPA and low uPAR levels correlate with high symptom severity in individuals with OCD. Low GABA levels in OCD individuals also correlate with high symptom severity. These results demonstrate a preliminary association between HGF, GABA, uPA levels, and OCD and suggest that plasma GABA and uPA levels are related to symptom severity in individuals with OCD.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  14. Radioactive uptake by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, O

    1986-01-01

    The fundamentals of radionuclide uptake by plants, both by leaves and roots are presented. Iodine, cesium, strontium and ruthenium are considered and a table of the measured concentrations in several agricultural plants shortly after the Chernobyl accident is presented. Another table gives the Cs and Sr transfer factors soil plants for some plants. By using them estimates of future burden can be obtained.

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... of a typical probe counter used for thyroid uptake exams. The patient sits with the camera directed at the neck for five minutes, and then the leg for ...

  17. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  18. Investigation of Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptors genes and migraine susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciccodicola Alfredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent attacks of severe headache, affecting around 12% of Caucasian populations. It is well known that migraine has a strong genetic component, although the number and type of genes involved is still unclear. Prior linkage studies have reported mapping of a migraine gene to chromosome Xq 24–28, a region containing a cluster of genes for GABA A receptors (GABRE, GABRA3, GABRQ, which are potential candidate genes for migraine. The GABA neurotransmitter has been implicated in migraine pathophysiology previously; however its exact role has not yet been established, although GABA receptors agonists have been the target of therapeutic developments. The aim of the present research is to investigate the role of the potential candidate genes reported on chromosome Xq 24–28 region in migraine susceptibility. In this study, we have focused on the subunit GABA A receptors type ε (GABRE and type θ (GABRQ genes and their involvement in migraine. Methods We have performed an association analysis in a large population of case-controls (275 unrelated Caucasian migraineurs versus 275 controls examining a set of 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the coding region (exons 3, 5 and 9 of the GABRE gene and also the I478F coding variant of the GABRQ gene. Results Our study did not show any association between the examined SNPs in our test population (P > 0.05. Conclusion Although these particular GABA receptor genes did not show positive association, further studies are necessary to consider the role of other GABA receptor genes in migraine susceptibility.

  19. Estradiol and luteinizing hormone regulate recognition memory following subchronic phencyclidine: Evidence for hippocampal GABA action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Alexander J; Schaler, Ari W; Fried, Jenny; Paine, Tracie A; Thornton, Janice E

    2018-05-01

    The cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia are poorly understood and difficult to treat. Estrogens may mitigate these symptoms via unknown mechanisms. To examine these mechanisms, we tested whether increasing estradiol (E) or decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) could mitigate short-term episodic memory loss in a phencyclidine (PCP) model of schizophrenia. We then assessed whether changes in cortical or hippocampal GABA may underlie these effects. Female rats were ovariectomized and injected subchronically with PCP. To modulate E and LH, animals received estradiol capsules or Antide injections. Short-term episodic memory was assessed using the novel object recognition task (NORT). Brain expression of GAD67 was analyzed via western blot, and parvalbumin-containing cells were counted using immunohistochemistry. Some rats received hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist, GABA A antagonist, or GAD inhibitor before behavioral testing. We found that PCP reduced hippocampal GAD67 and abolished recognition memory. Antide restored hippocampal GAD67 and rescued recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. Estradiol prevented PCP's amnesic effect in NORT but failed to restore hippocampal GAD67. PCP did not cause significant differences in number of parvalbumin-expressing cells or cortical expression of GAD67. Hippocampal infusions of a GABA A agonist restored recognition memory in PCP-treated rats. Blocking hippocampal GAD or GABA A receptors in ovx animals reproduced recognition memory loss similar to PCP and inhibited estradiol's protection of recognition memory in PCP-treated animals. In summary, decreasing LH or increasing E can lessen short-term episodic memory loss, as measured by novel object recognition, in a PCP model of schizophrenia. Alterations in hippocampal GABA may contribute to both PCP's effects on recognition memory and the hormones' ability to prevent or reverse them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Contribution of ventral tegmental GABA receptors to cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, E N; Hemby, S E

    2008-03-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that compounds affecting GABAergic transmission may provide useful pharmacological tools for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Using a rat model of self-administration, the present study examined the effects of GABA agonists and antagonists injected directly into the ventral tegmental area (VTA) on cocaine intake in rats trained to self-administer cocaine (0, 125, 250 and 500 microg/infusion) under an FR5 schedule of reinforcement. Separate groups of rats received bilateral intra-VTA injections of the GABA-A antagonist picrotoxin (34 ng/side, n = 7; 68 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-A agonist muscimol (14 ng/side, n = 8), GABA-B agonist baclofen (56 ng/side, n = 7; 100 ng/side, n = 6), picrotoxin (68 ng/side) co-injected with the GABA-B antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen (100 ng/side, n = 7; 2 microg/side, n = 8) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF, n = 6) to assess the effects of the various compounds on the cocaine self-administration dose-response curve. Both picrotoxin and baclofen reduced responding maintained by cocaine, whereas muscimol had no effect on responding. In contrast, neither picrotoxin (n = 6) nor baclofen (n = 8) affected responding maintained by food. Interestingly, 2-hydroxysaclofen effectively blocked the suppression of responding produced by picrotoxin, suggesting that both picrotoxin and baclofen exert their effects via activation of GABA-B receptors. Additionally, these effects appear to be specific to cocaine reinforcement, supporting current investigation of baclofen as a treatment for cocaine addiction.

  1. Valerian inhibits rat hepatocarcinogenesis by activating GABA(A receptor-mediated signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kakehashi

    Full Text Available Valerian is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep due to interaction of several active components with the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor (GABA(AR system. Recently, activation of GABA signaling in stem cells has been reported to suppress cell cycle progression in vivo. Furthermore, possible inhibitory effects of GABA(AR agonists on hepatocarcinogenesis have been reported. The present study was performed to investigate modulating effects of Valerian on hepatocarcinogenesis using a medium-term rat liver bioassay. Male F344 rats were treated with one of the most powerful Valerian species (Valeriana sitchensis at doses of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm in their drinking water after initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis with diethylnitrosamine (DEN. Formation of glutathione S-transferase placental form positive (GST-P(+ foci was significantly inhibited by Valerian at all applied doses compared with DEN initiation control rats. Generation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in the rat liver was significantly suppressed by all doses of Valerian, likely due to suppression of Nrf2, CYP7A1 and induction of catalase expression. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited, while apoptosis was induced in areas of GST-P(+ foci of Valerian groups associated with suppression of c-myc, Mafb, cyclin D1 and induction of p21(Waf1/Cip1, p53 and Bax mRNA expression. Interestingly, expression of the GABA(AR alpha 1 subunit was observed in GST-P(+ foci of DEN control rats, with significant elevation associated with Valerian treatment. These results indicate that Valerian exhibits inhibitory effects on rat hepatocarcinogenesis by inhibiting oxidative DNA damage, suppressing cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis in GST-P(+ foci by activating GABA(AR-mediated signaling.

  2. Decreased auditory GABA+ concentrations in presbycusis demonstrated by edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Wang, Guangbin; Ma, Wen; Ren, Fuxin; Li, Muwei; Dong, Yuling; Liu, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Bai, Xue; Zhao, Bin; Edden, Richard A E

    2015-02-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central auditory system. Altered GABAergic neurotransmission has been found in both the inferior colliculus and the auditory cortex in animal models of presbycusis. Edited magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), using the MEGA-PRESS sequence, is the most widely used technique for detecting GABA in the human brain. However, to date there has been a paucity of studies exploring changes to the GABA concentrations in the auditory region of patients with presbycusis. In this study, sixteen patients with presbycusis (5 males/11 females, mean age 63.1 ± 2.6 years) and twenty healthy controls (6 males/14 females, mean age 62.5 ± 2.3 years) underwent audiological and MRS examinations. Pure tone audiometry from 0.125 to 8 kHz and tympanometry were used to assess the hearing abilities of all subjects. The pure tone average (PTA; the average of hearing thresholds at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz) was calculated. The MEGA-PRESS sequence was used to measure GABA+ concentrations in 4 × 3 × 3 cm(3) volumes centered on the left and right Heschl's gyri. GABA+ concentrations were significantly lower in the presbycusis group compared to the control group (left auditory regions: p = 0.002, right auditory regions: p = 0.008). Significant negative correlations were observed between PTA and GABA+ concentrations in the presbycusis group (r = -0.57, p = 0.02), while a similar trend was found in the control group (r = -0.40, p = 0.08). These results are consistent with a hypothesis of dysfunctional GABAergic neurotransmission in the central auditory system in presbycusis and suggest a potential treatment target for presbycusis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. GABA and glutamate in schizophrenia: a 7 T ¹H-MRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Anouk; Mandl, René C W; Klomp, Dennis W J; Bohlken, Marc M; Boer, Vincent O; Andreychenko, Anna; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Luijten, Peter R; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by loss of brain volume, which may represent an ongoing pathophysiological process. This loss of brain volume may be explained by reduced neuropil rather than neuronal loss, suggesting abnormal synaptic plasticity and cortical microcircuitry. A possible mechanism is hypofunction of the NMDA-type of glutamate receptor, which reduces the excitation of inhibitory GABAergic interneurons, resulting in a disinhibition of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons. Disinhibition of pyramidal cells may result in excessive stimulation by glutamate, which in turn could cause neuronal damage or death through excitotoxicity. In this study, GABA/creatine ratios, and glutamate, NAA, creatine and choline concentrations in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices were measured in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 23 healthy controls using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at an ultra-high magnetic field strength of 7 T. Significantly lower GABA/Cr ratios were found in patients with schizophrenia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to healthy controls, with GABA/Cr ratios inversely correlated with cognitive functioning in the patients. No significant change in the GABA/Cr ratio was found between patients and controls in the parieto-occipital cortex, nor were levels of glutamate, NAA, creatine, and choline differed in patients and controls in the prefrontal and parieto-occipital cortices. Our findings support a mechanism involving altered GABA levels distinguished from glutamate levels in the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia, particularly in high functioning patients. A (compensatory) role for GABA through altered inhibitory neurotransmission in the prefrontal cortex may be ongoing in (higher functioning) patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Conserved regional patterns of GABA-related transcript expression in the neocortex of subjects with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takanori; Bazmi, H Holly; Mirnics, Karoly; Wu, Qiang; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2008-04-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia exhibit disturbances in a number of cognitive, affective, sensory, and motor functions that depend on the circuitry of different cortical areas. The cognitive deficits associated with dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex result, at least in part, from abnormalities in GABA neurotransmission, as reflected in a specific pattern of altered expression of GABA-related genes. Consequently, the authors sought to determine whether this pattern of altered gene expression is restricted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex or could also contribute to the dysfunction of other cortical areas in subjects with schizophrenia. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the levels of eight GABA-related transcripts in four cortical areas (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and primary motor and primary visual cortices) of subjects (N=12) with schizophrenia and matched normal comparison subjects. Expression levels of seven transcripts were lower in subjects with schizophrenia, with the magnitude of reduction for each transcript comparable across the four areas. The largest reductions were detected for mRNA encoding somatostatin and parvalbumin, followed by moderate decreases in mRNA expression for the 67-kilodalton isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the GABA membrane transporter GAT-1, and the alpha 1 and delta subunits of GABA(A) receptors. In contrast, the expression of calretinin mRNA did not differ between the subject groups in any of the four areas. Because the areas examined represent the major functional domains (e.g., association, limbic, motor, and sensory) of the cerebral cortex, our findings suggest that a conserved set of molecular alterations affecting GABA neurotransmission contribute to the pathophysiology of different clinical features of schizophrenia.

  5. β-Hydroxybutyrate is the preferred substrate for GABA and glutamate synthesis while glucose is indispensable during depolarization in cultured GABAergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Trine M; Obel, Linea F; Risa, Øystein; Sonnewald, Ursula

    2011-08-01

    The ketogenic diet has multiple beneficial effects not only in treatment of epilepsy, but also in that of glucose transporter 1 deficiency, cancer, Parkinson's disease, obesity and pain. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanism behind this metabolic therapy. Patients on a ketogenic diet reach high plasma levels of ketone bodies, which are used by the brain as energy substrates. The interaction between glucose and ketone bodies is complex and there is still controversy as to what extent it affects the homeostasis of the neurotransmitters glutamate, aspartate and GABA. The present study was conducted to study this metabolic interaction in cultured GABAergic neurons exposed to different combinations of (13)C-labeled and unlabeled glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate. Depolarization was induced and the incorporation of (13)C into glutamate, GABA and aspartate was analyzed. The presence of β-hydroxybutyrate together with glucose did not affect the total GABA content but did, however, decrease the aspartate content to a lower value than when either glucose or β-hydroxybutyrate was employed alone. When combinations of the two substrates were used (13)C-atoms from β-hydroxybutyrate were found in all three amino acids to a greater extent than (13)C-atoms from glucose, but only the (13)C contribution from [1,6-(13)C]glucose increased upon depolarization. In conclusion, β-hydroxybutyrate was preferred over glucose as substrate for amino acid synthesis but the total content of aspartate decreased when both substrates were present. Furthermore only the use of glucose increased upon depolarization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Demonstration of extensive GABA synthesis in the small population of GAD positive neurons in cerebellar cultures by the use of pharmacological tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnewald, Ursula; Kortner, Trond M; Qu, Hong

    2006-01-01

    by labeling from [U-(13)C]glutamine added on day 7. Altogether the findings show continuous GABA synthesis and degradation throughout the culture period in the cerebellar neurons. At 10 microM AOAA, GABA synthesis from [U-(13)C]glutamine was not affected, indicating that transaminases are not involved in GABA...... that GABA synthesis is taking place via GAD in a subpopulation of the cerebellar neurons, throughout the culture period....

  7. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  8. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  9. A Steered Molecular Dynamics Study of Binding and Translocation Processes in the GABA Transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovstrup, Soren; David, Laurent; Taboureau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The entire substrate translocation pathway in the human GABA transporter (GAT-1) was explored for the endogenous substrate GABA and the anti-convulsive drug tiagabine. Following a steered molecular dynamics (SMD) approach, in which a harmonic restraining potential is applied to the ligand...... to the open-to-in conformation. The simulations are validated by literature data and provide a substrate pathway fingerprint in terms of which, how, and in which sequence specific residues are interacted with. They reveal the essential functional roles of specific residues, e.g. the role of charged residues...

  10. GABA and primary motor cortex inhibition in young and older adults: a multimodal reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Ronan A; Cirillo, John; Byblow, Winston D

    2017-07-01

    The effects of healthy aging on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) within primary motor cortex (M1) remain poorly understood. Studies have reported contrasting results, potentially due to limitations with the common assessment technique. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of healthy aging on M1 GABA concentration and neurotransmission using a multimodal approach. Fifteen young and sixteen older adults participated in this study. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to measure M1 GABA concentration. Single-pulse and threshold-tracking paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocols were used to examine cortical silent period duration, short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI and LICI), and late cortical disinhibition (LCD). The reliability of TMS measures was examined with intraclass correlation coefficient analyses. SICI at 1 ms was reduced in older adults (15.13 ± 2.59%) compared with young (25.66 ± 1.44%; P = 0.002). However, there was no age-related effect for cortical silent period duration, SICI at 3 ms, LICI, or LCD (all P > 0.66). The intersession reliability of threshold-tracking measures was good to excellent for both young (range 0.75-0.96) and older adults (range 0.88-0.93). Our findings indicate that extrasynaptic inhibition may be reduced with advancing age, whereas GABA concentration and synaptic inhibition are maintained. Furthermore, MRS and threshold-tracking TMS provide valid and reliable assessment of M1 GABA concentration and neurotransmission, respectively, in young and older adults. NEW & NOTEWORTHY γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) in primary motor cortex was assessed in young and older adults using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and threshold-tracking paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Older adults exhibited reduced extrasynaptic inhibition (short-interval intracortical inhibition at 1 ms) compared with young, whereas GABA concentration and synaptic inhibition were

  11. Effects of NaCl Replacement with Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the Quality Characteristics and Sensorial Properties of Model Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Ji-Yeon; Cho, Hyung-Yong; Min, Sang-Gi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of γ-aminobutylic acid (GABA) on the quality and sensorial properties of both the GABA/NaCl complex and model meat products. GABA/NaCl complex was prepared by spray-drying, and the surface dimensions, morphology, rheology, and saltiness were characterized. For model meat products, pork patties were prepared by replacing NaCl with GABA. For characteristics of the complex, increasing GABA concentration increased the surface dimensions of the complex. However, GABA did not affect the rheological properties of solutions containing the complex. The addition of 2% GABA exhibited significantly higher saltiness than the control (no GABA treatment). In the case of pork patties, sensory testing indicated that the addition of GABA decreased the saltiness intensity. Both the intensity of juiciness and tenderness of patties containing GABA also scored lower than the control, based on the NaCl reduction. These results were consistent with the quality characteristics (cooking loss and texture profile analysis). Nevertheless, overall acceptability of the pork patties showed that up to 1.5%, patties containing GABA did not significantly differ from the control. Consequently, the results indicated that GABA has a potential application in meat products, but also manifested a deterioration of quality by the NaCl reduction, which warrants further exploration. PMID:26761294

  12. Downregulation of GABA[Subscript A] Receptor Protein Subunits a6, ß2, d, e, ?2, ?, and ?2 in Superior Frontal Cortex of Subjects with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, S. Hossein; Reutiman, Teri J.; Folsom, Timothy D.; Rustan, Oyvind G.; Rooney, Robert J.; Thuras, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured protein and mRNA levels for nine gamma-aminobutyric acid A (GABA[subscript A]) receptor subunits in three brain regions (cerebellum, superior frontal cortex, and parietal cortex) in subjects with autism versus matched controls. We observed changes in mRNA for a number of GABA[subscript A] and GABA[subscript B] subunits and overall…

  13. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  14. Ocean uptake of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Tsung-Hung; Takahashi, Taro

    1993-01-01

    Factors controlling the capacity of the ocean for taking up anthropogenic C0 2 include carbon chemistry, distribution of alkalinity, pCO 2 and total concentration of dissolved C0 2 , sea-air pCO 2 difference, gas exchange rate across the sea-air interface, biological carbon pump, ocean water circulation and mixing, and dissolution of carbonate in deep sea sediments. A general review of these processes is given and models of ocean-atmosphere system based on our understanding of these regulating processes axe used to estimate the magnitude of C0 2 uptake by the ocean. We conclude that the ocean can absorb up to 35% of the fossil fuel emission. Direct measurements show that 55% Of C0 2 from fossil fuel burning remains in the atmosphere. The remaining 10% is not accounted for by atmospheric increases and ocean uptake. In addition, it is estimated that an amount equivalent to 30% of recent annual fossil fuel emissions is released into the atmosphere as a result of deforestation and farming. To balance global carbon budget, a sizable carbon sink besides the ocean is needed. Storage of carbon in terrestrial biosphere as a result of C0 2 fertilization is a potential candidate for such missing carbon sinks

  15. Reversed synaptic effects of hypocretin and NPY mediated by excitatory GABA-dependent synaptic activity in developing MCH neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Xu, Youfen; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2013-03-01

    In mature neurons, GABA is the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter. In contrast, in developing neurons, GABA exerts excitatory actions, and in some neurons GABA-mediated excitatory synaptic activity is more prevalent than glutamate-mediated excitation. Hypothalamic neuropeptides that modulate cognitive arousal and energy homeostasis, hypocretin/orexin and neuropeptide Y (NPY), evoked reversed effects on synaptic actions that were dependent on presynaptic GABA release onto melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons. MCH neurons were identified by selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression in transgenic mice. In adults, hypocretin increased GABA release leading to reduced excitation. In contrast, in the developing brain as studied here with analysis of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, paired-pulse ratios, and evoked potentials, hypocretin acted presynaptically to enhance the excitatory actions of GABA. The ability of hypocretin to enhance GABA release increases inhibition in adult neurons but paradoxically enhances excitation in developing MCH neurons. In contrast, NPY attenuation of GABA release reduced inhibition in mature neurons but enhanced inhibition during development by attenuating GABA excitation. Both hypocretin and NPY also evoked direct actions on developing MCH neurons. Hypocretin excited MCH cells by activating a sodium-calcium exchanger and by reducing potassium currents; NPY reduced activity by increasing an inwardly rectifying potassium current. These data for the first time show that both hypocretin and NPY receptors are functional presynaptically during early postnatal hypothalamic development and that both neuropeptides modulate GABA actions during development with a valence of enhanced excitation or inhibition opposite to that of the adult state, potentially allowing neuropeptide modulation of use-dependent synapse stabilization.

  16. The changes in drug binding activity of GABA receptor and animal neural-behavior after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Hui; Zhen Rong; Zhao Naikun; Xue Hong; Wang Zihui

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation on gamma-aminobutyric-acid receptor (GABA-R) as well as behavioral changes after brain 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: The mice were irradiated with gamma rays (20 Gy; 10 Gy and 5 Gy) . The drug binding activity of GABA receptor in brain receptor was measured by fluorescence anisotropy (FA) and equilibrium dissociation constants. The behavioral changes were observed by the locomotor activity test, elevated plus-maze test and hole-board test at 1, 10, 24 and 48 hr after irradiation. Results: 1. The drug binding activity of the GABA receptor was decreased and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K d ) was significantly increased compared with the negative control group 2 hr after irradiation, and a spike value appeared at 24 hr. It showed that the irradiation might damage or decrease the binding activity and the bio-activity of GABA receptor. 2. The animal experiment confirmed that the irradiated animal model showed neural-behavioral changes of anxiety or depression. 3. The decreased binding activity of GABA receptor and changes in behavior of irradiated animal were dependent on radiation intensity. 4. The changes of behavior was similar to the blocked GABA receptor group. It suggests the relationship of radiation and GABA receptor. Conclusion: These results suggest that GABA receptor may be involved in radiation injury. The functional changes of GABA receptor may be an induction factor of behavioral disorder. The article also discussed the effect of anxiety and results obtained from the point of view of GABA receptor system involvement in the changes observed after irradiation. (authors)

  17. Modelling zwitterions in solution: 3-fluoro-γ-aminobutyric acid (3F-GABA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Bjornsson, Ragnar; Bühl, Michael; Thiel, Walter; van Mourik, Tanja

    2012-01-02

    The conformations and relative stabilities of folded and extended 3-fluoro-γ-aminobutyric acid (3F-GABA) conformers were studied using explicit solvation models. Geometry optimisations in the gas phase with one or two explicit water molecules favour folded and neutral structures containing intramolecular NH···O-C hydrogen bonds. With three or five explicit water molecules zwitterionic minima are obtained, with folded structures being preferred over extended conformers. The stability of folded versus extended zwitterionic conformers increases on going from a PCM continuum solvation model to the microsolvated complexes, though extended structures become less disfavoured with the inclusion of more water molecules. Full explicit solvation was studied with a hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) scheme and molecular dynamics simulations, including more than 6000 TIP3P water molecules. According to free energies obtained from thermodynamic integration at the PM3/MM level and corrected for B3LYP/MM total energies, the fully extended conformer is more stable than folded ones by about -4.5 kJ mol(-1). B3LYP-computed (3)J(F,H) NMR spin-spin coupling constants, averaged over PM3/MM-MD trajectories, agree best with experiment for this fully extended form, in accordance with the original NMR analysis. The seeming discrepancy between static PCM calculations and experiment noted previously is now resolved. That the inexpensive semiempirical PM3 method performs so well for this archetypical zwitterion is encouraging for further QM/MM studies of biomolecular systems. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Effect of GABA on oxidative stress in the skeletal muscles and plasma free amino acids in mice fed high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z X; Xia, S F; Qiao, Y; Shi, Y H; Le, G W

    2015-06-01

    Increased levels of plasma free amino acids (pFAAs) can disturb the blood glucose levels in patients with obesity, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome (MS) and are associated with enhanced protein oxidation. Oxidation of proteins, especially in the muscles, can promote protein degradation and elevate the levels of pFAAs. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), a food additive, can reduce high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperglycaemia; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of GABA on protein oxidation and pFAAs changes. One hundred male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups that were fed with control diet, HFD and HFD supplied with 0.2%, 0.12% and 0.06% GABA in drinking water for 20 weeks respectively. HFD feeding led to muscular oxidative stress, protein oxidation, pFAA disorders, hyperglycaemia and augmented plasma GABA levels. Treatment with GABA restored normally fasting blood glucose level and dose-dependently inhibited body weight gains, muscular oxidation and protein degradation. While medium and low doses of GABA mitigated HFD-induced pFAA disorders, the high dose of GABA deteriorated the pFAA disorders. Medium dose of GABA increased the levels of GABA, but high dose of GABA reduced the levels of plasma GABA and increased the activity of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Therefore, treatment with GABA mitigated HFD-induced hyperglycaemia probably by repairing HFD-induced muscular oxidative stress and pFAA disorders in mice. Our data also suggest that an optimal dose of GABA is crucial for the prevention of excess GABA-related decrease in the levels of pFAA and GABA as well as obesity. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Determination of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) in Rambutan Fruit cv. Rongrian by HPLC-ELSD and Separation of GABA from Rambutan Fruit Using Dowex 50W-X8 Column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeploy, Maneerat; Deewatthanawong, Rujira

    2016-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD) was validated for the determination of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rambutan fruit without any sample pretreatment or derivatization. In the concentration range of 0.05-1.0 mg/mL GABA, the ELSD response was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) >0.999. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation were found to be 0.7 and 2.0 µg/mL, respectively. The method enabled the complete separation of GABA in the aqueous extract of rambutan flesh from the impurity peaks at 45.7 min. The recoveries of sample added GABA were obtained in the range of 92.0-99.3%. Intraday and interday relative standard deviations were rambutan flesh, 0.71 ± 0.23 mg of GABA was found in 1 g fresh weight. The recovery of GABA after passing through the Dowex 50W-X8 column was 96.65%. The analytical methodology could be potentially applied to the detection and quantification of GABA in other fruits and complex matrices when a sufficient quantity is available. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of γ-Aminobutyric Acid (GABA Producing Bacteria on Rumen Fermentation, Biogenic Amine Production and Anti-oxidation Using Corn Meal as Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bum Seung Ku

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects and significance of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA producing bacteria (GPB on in vitro rumen fermentation and reduction of biogenic amines (histamine, methylamine, ethylamine, and tyramine using corn meal as a substrate were determined. Ruminal samples collected from ruminally fistulated Holstein cows served as inoculum and corn was used as substrate at 2% dry matter (DM. Different inclusion rates of GPB and GABA were evaluated. After incubation, addition of GPB had no significant effect on in vitro fermentation pH and total gas production, but significantly increased the ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N concentration and reduced the total biogenic amines production (p<0.05. Furthermore, antioxidation activity was improved as indicated by the significantly higher concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px among treated samples when compared to the control (p<0.05. Additionally, 0.2% GPB was established as the optimum inclusion level. Taken together, these results suggest the potential of utilizing GPB as feed additives to improve growth performance in ruminants by reducing biogenic amines and increasing anti-oxidation.

  1. Effects of GABA ligands injected into the nucleus accumbens shell on fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in food-deprived rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Paula Fraga; Ganzer, Laís; Borges, Aline Caon; Kochenborger, Larissa; Januário, Ana Cláudia; Faria, Moacir Serralvo; Marino-Neto, José; Paschoalini, Marta Aparecida

    2012-03-01

    In an attempt to establish a relationship between food intake and fear/anxiety-related behaviours, the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral injections of GABAA (Muscimol, MUS, doses 25 and 50ng/side) and GABAB (Baclofen, BAC, doses 32 and 64ng/side) receptor agonists in the nucleus accumbens shell (AcbSh) on the level of fear/anxiety-like and feeding behaviours in 24h food-deprived rats. The antagonists of GABAA (Bicuculline, BIC, doses 75 and 150ng/side) and GABAB (Saclofen, SAC, doses 1.5 and 3μg/side) were also tested. The results indicated that the total number of risk assessment behaviour decreased after the injection of both doses of GABAA agonist (MUS) into the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats exposed to elevated plus maze. Similar results were obtained after treatment with both doses of GABAB (BAC) agonist in the AcbSh. These data indicated that the activation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors within the AcbSh caused anxiolysis in 24h food-deprived rats. In addition, feeding behaviour (food intake, feeding latency and feeding duration) remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA agonists. In contrast, both food intake and feeding duration decreased after injections of both doses of BIC (GABAA antagonist), while the feeding latency remained unchanged after treatment with both GABA antagonists in the AcbSh of 24h food-deprived rats. The treatment with SAC (GABAB antagonist) did not affect feeding behaviour. Collectively, these data suggest that emotional changes evoked by pharmacological manipulation of the GABA neurotransmission in the AcbSh are not linked with changes in food intake. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Perceptual and cognitive effects of antipsychotics in first-episode schizophrenia: the potential impact of GABA concentration in the visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Oguz; Kiss, Imre; Benedek, György; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2013-12-02

    Schizophrenia is characterized by anomalous perceptual experiences (e.g., sensory irritation, inundation, and flooding) and specific alterations in visual perception. We aimed to investigate the effects of short-term antipsychotic medication on these perceptual alterations. We assessed 28 drug-naïve first episode patients with schizophrenia and 20 matched healthy controls at baseline and follow-up 8 weeks later. Contrast sensitivity was measured with steady- and pulsed-pedestal tests. Participants also received a motion coherence task, the Structured Interview for Assessing Perceptual Anomalies (SIAPA), and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS). Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels in the occipital cortex (GABA/total creatine [Cr] ratio). Results revealed that, comparing baseline and follow-up values, patients with schizophrenia exhibited a marked sensitivity reduction on the steady-pedestal test at low spatial frequency. Anomalous perceptual experiences were also significantly ameliorated. Antipsychotic medications had no effect on motion perception. RBANS scores showed mild improvements. At baseline, but not at follow-up, patients with schizophrenia outperformed controls on the steady-pedestal test at low spatial frequency. The dysfunction of motion perception (higher coherence threshold in patients relative to controls) was similar at both assessments. There were reduced GABA levels in schizophrenia at both assessments, which were not related to perceptual functions. These results suggest that antipsychotics dominantly affect visual contrast sensitivity and anomalous perceptual experiences. The prominent dampening effect on low spatial frequency in the steady-pedestal test might indicate the normalization of putatively overactive magnocellular retino-geniculo-cortical pathways. © 2013.

  3. Pedophilic sex offenders are characterised by reduced GABA concentration in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristow, Inka; Li, Meng; Colic, Lejla; Marr, Vanessa; Födisch, Carina; von Düring, Felicia; Schiltz, Kolja; Drumkova, Krasimira; Witzel, Joachim; Walter, Henrik; Beier, Klaus; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Ponseti, Jorge; Schiffer, Boris; Walter, Martin

    2018-01-01

    A pedophilic disorder is characterised by abnormal sexual urges towards prepubescent children. Child abusive behavior is frequently a result of lack of behavioral inhibition and current treatment options entail, next to suppressing unchangeable sexual orientation, measures to increase cognitive and attentional control. We tested, if in brain regions subserving attentional control of behavior and perception of salient stimuli, such inhibition deficit can be observed also on the level of inhibitory neurotransmitters. We measured GABA concentration in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and in a control region, the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) in pedophilic sex offenders ( N  = 13) and matched controls ( N  = 13) using a 7 Tesla STEAM magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In dACC but not in the control region pedophilic sex offenders showed reduced GABA/Cr concentrations compared to healthy controls. The reduction was robust after controlling for potential influence of age and gray matter proportion within the MRS voxel ( p  < 0.04). Importantly, reduced GABA/Cr in patients was correlated with lower self-control measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (p = 0.028, r = -0.689). In a region related to cognitive control and salience mapping, pedophilic sex offenders showed reduction of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which may be seen as a neuronal correlate of inhibition and behavioral control.

  4. GABA-Mediated Presynaptic Inhibition Is Required for Precision of Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Patrick K.; Dulka, Brooke N.; Ortiz, Samantha; Riccio, David C.; Jasnow, Aaron M.

    2014-01-01

    Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of contextual memories, little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of memory precision. Here, we demonstrate a rapid time-dependent decline in memory precision in GABA [subscript B(1a)] receptor knockout mice. First, we…

  5. GABA(A) receptors mediate orexin-A induced stimulation of food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokare, Dadasaheb M; Patole, Angad M; Carta, Anna; Chopde, Chandrabhan T; Subhedar, Nishikant K

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of orexins in sleep/wake cycle and feeding behavior is well established, underlying mechanisms have not been fully understood. An attempt has been made to investigate the role of GABA(A) receptors and their benzodiazepine site on the orexin-A induced response to feeding. Different groups of rats were food deprived overnight and next day injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with vehicle (artificial CSF; 5 microl/rat) or orexin-A (20-50 nM/rat) and the animals were given free access to food. Cumulative food intake was measured during light phase of light/dark cycle at 1-, 2-, 4- and 6-h post-injection time points. Orexin-A (30-50 nM/rat, icv) stimulated food intake at all the time points (P GABA(A) receptor agonists muscimol (25 ng/rat, icv) and diazepam (0.5 mg/kg, ip) at subeffective doses significantly potentiated the hyperphagic effect of orexin-A (30 nM/rat, icv). However, the effect was negated by the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (1 mg/kg, ip). Interestingly, benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil (5 ng/rat, icv), augmented the orexin-A (30 nM/rat, icv) induced hyperphagia; the effect may be attributed to the intrinsic activity of the agent. The results suggest that the hyperphagic effect of orexin-A, at least in part, is mediated by enhanced GABA(A) receptor activity.

  6. A Unified Model of the GABA(A) Receptor Comprising Agonist and Benzodiazepine Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsbak, Kristine Grønning; Bergmann, Rikke; Sørensen, Pernille Louise

    2013-01-01

    We present a full-length a1b2c2 GABA receptor model optimized for agonists and benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric modulators. We propose binding hypotheses for the agonists GABA, muscimol and THIP and for the allosteric modulator diazepam (DZP). The receptor model is primarily based on the glutamate......-gated chloride channel (GluCl) from C. elegans and includes additional structural information from the prokaryotic ligand-gated ion channel ELIC in a few regions. Available mutational data of the binding sites are well explained by the model and the proposed ligand binding poses. We suggest a GABA binding mode...... of the agonists in the orthosteric site. The carbonyl group of DZP is predicted to interact with two threonines a1T206 and c2T142, similar to the acidic moiety of GABA. The chlorine atom of DZP is placed near the important a1H101 and the N-methyl group near a1Y159, a1T206, and a1Y209. We present a binding mode...

  7. Self-enhancement of GABA in rice bran using various stress treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Eun Jung; Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) may be synthesized in plant tissues when the organism is under stressful conditions. Rice bran byproduct obtained from the milling of brown rice was treated under anaerobic storage with nitrogen at different temperatures (20-60 °C) and moisture contents (10-50%) up to 12h. For the GABA synthesis, the storage at 30% moisture content and 40 °C appeared optimal. Utilisation of an electrolyzed oxidizing water (EOW, pH 3.3) for moisture adjustment and addition of glutamic acid increased the GABA content in rice bran. The maximum GABA content in rice bran (523 mg/100g) could be achieved by the anaerobic storage at 30% EOW for 5h at 40 °C after an addition of glutamic acid (5mM). This amount was approximately 17 times higher than that in the control (30 mg/100g). The use of EOW also prevented bacterial growth by decreasing the colony counts almost by half. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Genome Sequence of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118, a GABA-Producing Strain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Letícia C; Saraiva, Tessália D L; Soares, Siomar C

    2014-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis NCDO 2118 is a nondairy lactic acid bacterium, a xylose fermenter, and a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producer isolated from frozen peas. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of L. lactis NCDO 2118, a strain with probiotic potential activity....

  9. GAD65 is essential for synthesis of GABA destined for tonic inhibition regulating epileptiform activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walls, Anne B; Nilsen, Linn Hege; Eyjolfsson, Elvar M

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: GABA is synthesized from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which exists in two isoforms, that is, GAD65 and GAD67. In line with GAD65 being located in the GABAergic synapse, several studies have demonstrated that this isoform is important during sustained synaptic transmission...

  10. Long-Term GABA Administration Induces Alpha Cell-Mediated Beta-like Cell Neogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Othman, Nouha; Vieira, Andhira; Courtney, Monica

    2017-01-01

    , these neo-generated β-like cells are functional and can repeatedly reverse chemically induced diabetes in vivo. Similarly, the treatment of transplanted human islets with GABA results in a loss of α cells and a concomitant increase in β-like cell counts, suggestive of α-to-β-like cell conversion processes...

  11. Gaba mediated long-term depression (LTD) in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Della Torre, G; Zampolini, M; Pettorossi, V E

    1995-01-01

    As previously demonstrated, high frequency stimulation (HFS) of the primary vestibular afferents always induces a clear, long lasting depression of the polysynaptic (N2) component of the field potentials recorded in the dorsal portion of the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN). The induction of the HFS effect was mediated by the activation of glutamate NMDA receptors, since it was blocked by AP5. The mechanisms at the basis of such a depression were studied. Our results demonstrate that Gaba, acting on both GabaA and GabaB receptors, is involved in mediating this phenomenon. In fact, HFS applied during Bicuculline and Saclofen perfusion, was no longer able to induce an N2 depression, but provoked a slight potentiation. However, the N2 depression clearly emerged after drug wash-out. Furthermore, Bicuculline and Saclofen fully abolished the N2 depression and highlighted the potentiation, when administered after HFS. The possibility that the N2 depression is the result of a homosynaptic LTD can be excluded on the basis of our results. On the contrary, our findings suggest that the depression is due to an enhancement of the Gaba inhibitory effect due to an HFS dependent increase in gabaergic interneuron activity, which resets vestibular neuron excitability at a lower level.

  12. Differential Compartmentalization and Distinct Functions of GABA(B) Receptor Variants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vigot, B.; Barbieri, S.; Bräuner-Osborne, H.; Tureček, Rostislav; Shigemoto, R.; Zhang, Y.P.; Luján, R.; Jacobson, L.H.; Biermann, B.; Fritschy, J.M.; Vacher, C.M.; Müller, M.; Sansing, G.; Guetg, N.; Cryan, J.F.; Kaupmann, K.; Gassmann, M.; Oertner, T.G.; Bettler, B.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 589-601 ISSN 0896-6273 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA309/03/1158 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : GABA(B) Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 13.894, year: 2006

  13. Flavylium salts as in vitro precursors of potent ligands to brain GABA-A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kueny-Stotz, Marie; Chassaing, Stefan; Brouillard, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of a series of derivatized flavylium cations was undertaken and the affinity to the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABA-A receptor evaluated. The observed high affinity for some derivatives (sub-muM range) was explained by an in vitro transformation of the flavylium cations into...

  14. Clozapine and GABA transmission in schizophrenia disease models: establishing principles to guide treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, William T; O'Shea, Sean D

    2015-06-01

    Schizophrenia disease models are necessary to elucidate underlying changes and to establish new therapeutic strategies towards a stage where drug efficacy in schizophrenia (against all classes of symptoms) can be predicted. Here we summarise the evidence for a GABA dysfunction in schizophrenia and review the functional neuroanatomy of five pathways implicated in schizophrenia, namely the mesocortical, mesolimbic, ventral striopallidal, dorsal striopallidal and perforant pathways including the role of local GABA transmission and we describe the effect of clozapine on local neurotransmitter release. This review also evaluates psychotropic drug-induced, neurodevelopmental and environmental disease models including their compatibility with brain microdialysis. The validity of disease models including face, construct, etiological and predictive validity and how these models constitute theories about this illness is also addressed. A disease model based on the effect of the abrupt withdrawal of clozapine on GABA release is also described. The review concludes that while no single animal model is entirely successful in reproducing schizophreniform symptomatology, a disease model based on an ability to prevent and/or reverse the abrupt clozapine discontinuation-induced changes in GABA release in brain regions implicated in schizophrenia may be useful for hypothesis testing and for in vivo screening of novel ligands not limited to a single pharmacological class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Interplay between DISC1 and GABA signaling regulates neurogenesis in mice and risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju Young; Liu, Cindy Y; Zhang, Fengyu; Duan, Xin; Wen, Zhexing; Song, Juan; Feighery, Emer; Lu, Bai; Rujescu, Dan; St Clair, David; Christian, Kimberly; Callicott, Joseph H; Weinberger, Daniel R; Song, Hongjun; Ming, Guo-li

    2012-03-02

    How extrinsic stimuli and intrinsic factors interact to regulate continuous neurogenesis in the postnatal mammalian brain is unknown. Here we show that regulation of dendritic development of newborn neurons by Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) during adult hippocampal neurogenesis requires neurotransmitter GABA-induced, NKCC1-dependent depolarization through a convergence onto the AKT-mTOR pathway. In contrast, DISC1 fails to modulate early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis when conversion of GABA-induced depolarization to hyperpolarization is accelerated. Extending the period of GABA-induced depolarization or maternal deprivation stress restores DISC1-dependent dendritic regulation through mTOR pathway during early-postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, DISC1 and NKCC1 interact epistatically to affect risk for schizophrenia in two independent case control studies. Our study uncovers an interplay between intrinsic DISC1 and extrinsic GABA signaling, two schizophrenia susceptibility pathways, in controlling neurogenesis and suggests critical roles of developmental tempo and experience in manifesting the impact of susceptibility genes on neuronal development and risk for mental disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in a shared autistic and schizotypal trait phenotype termed Social Disorganisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha C. Ford

    2017-01-01

    Results suggest that a higher expression of the SD phenotype may be associated with increased glutamate/GABA+ ratio in the right ST region, which may affect speech prosody processing, and lead behavioural characteristics that are shared within the autistic and schizotypal spectra.

  17. Quasi-morphine abstinence behaviour GABA-ergic mechanisms and their localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. van der Laan

    1981-01-01

    textabstractDi-n-propylacetate (DPA), generally known to be an anti-epileptic drug, induces a behavioural syndrome in rats resembling morphine abstinence behaviour, which is called, therefore, quasi-morphine abstinence beh~viour. An increase in GABA-ergic activity is probably responsible for this

  18. Contributions of GABA to alcohol responsivity during adolescence: Insights from preclinical and clinical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveri, Marisa M.

    2015-01-01

    There is a considerable body of literature demonstrating that adolescence is a unique age period, which includes rapid and dramatic maturation of behavioral, cognitive, hormonal and neurobiological systems. Most notably, adolescence is also a period of unique responsiveness to alcohol effects, with both hyposensitivity and hypersensitivity observed to the various effects of alcohol. Multiple neurotransmitter systems are undergoing fine-tuning during this critical period of brain development, including those that contribute to the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. The role of developmental maturation of the γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) system, however, has received less attention in contributing to age-specific alcohol sensitivities. This review integrates GABA findings from human magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies as they may translate to understanding adolescent-specific responsiveness to alcohol effects. Better understanding of the vulnerability of the GABA system both during adolescent development, and in psychiatric conditions that include alcohol dependence, could point to a putative mechanism, boosting brain GABA, that may have increased effectiveness for treating alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24631274

  19. GABA content and Antioxidant activity of Thai waxy corn seeds germinated by hypoxia method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisamai Polthum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germinated seeds have a greater amount of the naturally-occurring -aminobutyric acid (GABA which has many health benefits. Further, colored seeds have higher antioxidant activity. Thai waxy corn is widely consumed after cooking, due to its palatable glutinous texture. However, it is not commonly germinated before use. In this study, two varieties of Thai waxy corn, KKU-KND (purple seed and KKU-SLE (white seed, were germinated and converted to corn flour with the aim of investigating the effect of germination on GABA content and antioxidant activity. Further, the microstructure of starch granules was also examined. KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were grown and harvested in 2012. The seeds were soaked in distilled water for 6 hrs to attain a moisture content of 31-32%wb and then germinated by employing two methods, i in an open plastic box, and ii in a closed plastic box with a headspace of 3 cm for devoid oxygen (hypoxia method; the germination period varied between 12-48 hrs at 35±2°C in both cases. The germinated samples were then dried at 50°C to a moisture content of 10±2%wb. The results showed that non-germinated KKU-KND and KKU-SLE contained 2.68±0.77 and 1.58±0.05 mgGABA/ 100gdb, respectively, whereas the samples germinated by the hypoxia method contained significantly higher GABA which increased with germination time (p<0.05. The highest GABA contents found in KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were 37.20±3.27 and 54.47±2.08 mg/100gdb, respectively after 48 hrs of germination under the hypoxia method. In addition, the germinated KKU-KND gave ABTS and DPPH values of 388.32±0.53 and 140.29±0.57 mgTrolox/100gdb, whereas the germinated KKU-SLE gave ABTS and DPPH values of 183.69±1.75 and 38.43±1.64 mgTrolox/100gdb, respectively. The pictures of starch granules obtained by means of SEM displayed differences in the shape and size of the non-germinated and germinated granules in both verities. In conclusion, the hypoxia method is able to induce higher GABA

  20. Relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid and total antioxidants in peripheral blood with insomnia after stroke: study protocol for a prospective non-randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Fang Li; Tong Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have been shown to regulate sleep. The nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants may relate to insomnia in stroke patients. In this prospective single-center non-randomized controlled clinical trial performed in the China Rehabilitation Research Center, we analyzed the relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke. Patients during rehabilitation of stroke were recruited and assigned to the insomnia group or non-insomnia group. Simultaneously, persons without stroke or insomnia served as normal controls. Each group contained 25 cases. The primary outcome was nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants in peripheral blood. The secondary outcomes were Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (Chinese version), and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale. The relationship of nocturnal concentrations of melatonin, GABA and total antioxidants with insomnia after stroke was analyzed and showed that they were lower in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. The severity of stroke was higher in the insomnia group than in the non-insomnia group. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the nocturnal concentrations of melatonin and GABA were associated with insomnia after stroke. This trial was regis-tered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT03202121.

  1. Effects of a whole body gamma irradiation on GABA repartition in infant rats cerebellum and hippocampal formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menetrier, F.; Vernois, Y.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    'Full-Text:' Thirteen-day-old rats were exposed to a single dose of 4 or 0,5 Gy of gamma at a dose rate of 0,25 Gy/min and were killed about 5h after. Fixation was achieved in situ using glutaraldehyde. For GABA immunocytochemistry transversal sections were incubated with antiserum against GABA, then with PAP and revealed with diaminobenzidine. Proliferative layers are still observed in the infant rat cerebellum (external granular layer) and hippocampal formation (subgranular layer of the dentate gyrus). When irradiation occurs a high percent of these two layers cells are pycnotic. In the normal cerebellum, no immunostaining is observed in external granular layer cell bodies. The only labelled structures are few cytoplasmic expansions coming from subjacent layers. When irradiated, a strong GABA staining appears around pycnotic cells as a network with labelled meshes. GABA staining and pycnotic cells were more especially important when the irradiation increases. Further studies are needed to specify the nature of labelled meshes. In the normal hippocampal formation, subgranular cells are not GABA stained. Staining occurs in cells which are not granule cells. They are scattered throughout cell layers of the dentate gyrus with predominance in the hilus. After irradiation, GABA repartition is not modified. After a 4 Gy whole body gamma irradiation, the inhibitory GABA system is not injured. Other amino-acid neurotransmitters such as Glutamate could be modified. (author)

  2. Enhanced excitatory input to MCH neurons during developmental period of high food intake is mediated by GABA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N.

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the local axons of GABA neurons of the cortex and hippocampus, lateral hypothalamic neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and GABA send long axons throughout the brain and play key roles in energy homeostasis and mental status. In adults, MCH neurons maintain a hyperpolarized membrane potential and most of the synaptic input is inhibitory. In contrast, we found that developing MCH neurons received substantially more excitatory synaptic input. Based on gramicidicin-perforated patch recordings in hypothalamic slices from MCH-GFP transgenic mice, we found that GABA was the primary excitatory synaptic transmitter in embryonic and neonatal ages up to postnatal day 10. Surprisingly, glutamate assumed only a minor excitatory role, if any. GABA plays a complex role in developing MCH neurons, with its actions conditionally dependent on a number of factors. GABA depolarization could lead to an increase in spikes either independently or in summation with other depolarizing stimuli, or alternately, depending on the relative timing of other depolarizing events, could lead to shunting inhibition. The developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing occurred later in the dendrites than in the cell body. Early GABA depolarization was based on a Cl− dependent inward current. An interesting secondary depolarization in mature neurons that followed an initial hyperpolarization was based on a bicarbonate mechanism. Thus during the early developmental period when food consumption is high, MCH neurons are more depolarized than in the adult, and an increased level of excitatory synaptic input to these orexigenic cells is mediated by GABA. PMID:19955372

  3. Enhanced excitatory input to melanin concentrating hormone neurons during developmental period of high food intake is mediated by GABA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; van den Pol, Anthony N

    2009-12-02

    In contrast to the local axons of GABA neurons of the cortex and hippocampus, lateral hypothalamic neurons containing melanin concentrating hormone (MCH) and GABA send long axons throughout the brain and play key roles in energy homeostasis and mental status. In adults, MCH neurons maintain a hyperpolarized membrane potential and most of the synaptic input is inhibitory. In contrast, we found that developing MCH neurons received substantially more excitatory synaptic input. Based on gramicidin-perforated patch recordings in hypothalamic slices from MCH-green fluorescent protein transgenic mice, we found that GABA was the primary excitatory synaptic transmitter in embryonic and neonatal ages up to postnatal day 10. Surprisingly, glutamate assumed only a minor excitatory role, if any. GABA plays a complex role in developing MCH neurons, with its actions conditionally dependent on a number of factors. GABA depolarization could lead to an increase in spikes either independently or in summation with other depolarizing stimuli, or alternately, depending on the relative timing of other depolarizing events, could lead to shunting inhibition. The developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing occurred later in the dendrites than in the cell body. Early GABA depolarization was based on a Cl(-)-dependent inward current. An interesting secondary depolarization in mature neurons that followed an initial hyperpolarization was based on a bicarbonate mechanism. Thus during the early developmental period when food consumption is high, MCH neurons are more depolarized than in the adult, and an increased level of excitatory synaptic input to these orexigenic cells is mediated by GABA.

  4. GABA concentration in superior temporal sulcus predicts gamma power and perception in the sound-induced flash illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balz, Johanna; Keil, Julian; Roa Romero, Yadira; Mekle, Ralf; Schubert, Florian; Aydin, Semiha; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Senkowski, Daniel

    2016-01-15

    In everyday life we are confronted with inputs of multisensory stimuli that need to be integrated across our senses. Individuals vary considerably in how they integrate multisensory information, yet the neurochemical foundations underlying this variability are not well understood. Neural oscillations, especially in the gamma band (>30Hz) play an important role in multisensory processing. Furthermore, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurotransmission contributes to the generation of gamma band oscillations (GBO), which can be sustained by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors. Hence, differences in the GABA and glutamate systems might contribute to individual differences in multisensory processing. In this combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy and electroencephalography study, we examined the relationships between GABA and glutamate concentrations in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), source localized GBO, and illusion rate in the sound-induced flash illusion (SIFI). In 39 human volunteers we found robust relationships between GABA concentration, GBO power, and the SIFI perception rate (r-values=0.44 to 0.53). The correlation between GBO power and SIFI perception rate was about twofold higher when the modulating influence of the GABA level was included in the analysis as compared to when it was excluded. No significant effects were obtained for glutamate concentration. Our study suggests that the GABA level shapes individual differences in audiovisual perception through its modulating influence on GBO. GABA neurotransmission could be a promising target for treatment interventions of multisensory processing deficits in clinical populations, such as schizophrenia or autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunocytochemical and stereological analysis of GABA(B) receptor subunit expression in the rat vestibular nucleus following unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rong; Ashton, John; Horii, Arata; Darlington, Cynthia L; Smith, Paul F

    2005-03-10

    The process of behavioral recovery that occurs following damage to one vestibular labyrinth, vestibular compensation, has been attributed in part to a down-regulation of GABA(B) receptors in the vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) ipsilateral to the lesion, which could potentially reduce commissural inhibition from the contralateral VNC. In this study, we tested the possibility that this occurs through a decrease in the expression of either the GABA(B1) or GABA(B2) subunits of the GABA(B) receptor. We used Western blotting to quantify the expression of these subunits in the VNC at 10 h and 50 h following unilateral vestibular deafferentation (UVD) or sham surgery in rats. We then used immunocytochemistry and stereological counting methods to estimate the number of neurons expressing these subunits in the MVN at 10 h and 2 weeks following UVD or sham surgery. Compared to sham controls, we found no significant changes in either the expression of the two GABA(B) receptor subunits in the VNC or in the number of MVN neurons expressing these GABA(B) receptor subunits post-UVD. These results suggest that GABA(B) receptor expression does not change substantially in the VNC during the process of vestibular compensation.

  6. Neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors alters behavioral and physiological phenotypes in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Ali-Akbar; Amani, Mohammad

    2017-04-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays an inhibitory role in the mature brain, and has a complex and bidirectional effect in different parts of the immature brain which affects proliferation, migration and differentiation of neurons during development. There is also increasing evidence suggesting that activation or blockade of the GABA-A receptors during early life can induce brain and behavioral abnormalities in adulthood. We investigated whether neonatal blockade of the GABA-A receptors by bicuculline can alter anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, body weight, food intake, corticosterone and testosterone levels in adult mice (postnatal days 80-95). To this end, neonatal mice were treated with either DMSO or bicuculline (70, 150 and 300μg/kg) during postnatal days 7, 9 and 11. When grown to adulthood, mice were exposed to behavioral tests to measure anxiety- (elevated plus-maze and light-dark box) and depression-like behaviors (tail suspension test and forced swim test). Stress-induced serum corticosterone and testosterone levels, body weight and food intake were also evaluated. Neonatal bicuculline exposure at dose of 300μg/kg decreased anxiety-like behavior, stress-induced corticosterone levels and increased testosterone levels, body weight and food intake, without significantly influencing depression-like behavior in adult male mice. However, no significant changes in these parameters were observed in adult females. These findings suggest that neonatal blockade of GABA-A receptors affects anxiety-like behavior, physiological and hormonal parameters in a sex-dependent manner in mice. Taken together, these data corroborate the concept that GABA-A receptors during early life have an important role in programming neurobehavioral phenotypes in adulthood. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acupuncture suppresses intravenous methamphetamine self-administration through GABA receptor's mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yi Jeong; Kim, Nam Jun; Zhao, Rong Jie; Kim, Da Hye; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Hee Young; Gwak, Young S; Jang, Eun Young; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; Lee, Sang Nam; Lim, Sung Chul; Lee, Bong Hyo

    2018-01-01

    Methamphetamine is one of the widely abused drugs. In spite of a number of studies, there is still little successful therapy to suppress the methamphetamine abuse. Acupuncture has shown to attenuate the reinforcing effects of psychostimulant. Based on, the present study investigated if acupuncture could suppress intravenous methamphetamine self-administration behavior. In addition, a possible neuronal mechanism was investigated. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 270-300g were trained to intake food pellet. After catheter implantation, animal was trained to self-administer methamphetamine (0.05mg/kg) intravenously using fixed ratio 1 schedule in daily 2h session during 3 weeks. After training, rats who established baseline (infusion variation less than 20% of the mean for 3 consecutive days) received acupuncture treatment on the next day. Acupuncture was performed at each acupoint manually. In the second experiment, the selective antagonists of GABA A or GABA B receptor were given before acupuncture to investigate the possible neuronal involvement of GABA receptor pathway in the acupuncture effects. C-Fos expression was examined in the nucleus accumbens to support behavioral data. Acupuncture at HT7, but not at control acupoint LI5, reduced the self-administration behavior significantly. Also, the effects of acupuncture were blocked by the GABA receptor antagonists. C-Fos expression was shown to be parallel with the behavioral data. Results of this study have shown that acupuncture at HT7 suppressed methamphetamine self-administration through GABA receptor system, suggesting that acupuncture at HT7 can be a useful therapy for the treatment of methamphetamine abuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypocretin/orexin antagonism enhances sleep-related adenosine and GABA neurotransmission in rat basal forebrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-DeRose, Jacqueline; Schwartz, Michael D; Nguyen, Alexander T; Warrier, Deepti R; Gulati, Srishti; Mathew, Thomas K; Neylan, Thomas C; Kilduff, Thomas S

    2016-03-01

    Hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) neurons provide excitatory input to wake-promoting brain regions including the basal forebrain (BF). The dual HCRT receptor antagonist almorexant (ALM) decreases waking and increases sleep. We hypothesized that HCRT antagonists induce sleep, in part, through disfacilitation of BF neurons; consequently, ALM should have reduced efficacy in BF-lesioned (BFx) animals. To test this hypothesis, rats were given bilateral IgG-192-saporin injections, which predominantly targets cholinergic BF neurons. BFx and intact rats were then given oral ALM, the benzodiazepine agonist zolpidem (ZOL) or vehicle (VEH) at lights-out. ALM was less effective than ZOL at inducing sleep in BFx rats compared to controls. BF adenosine (ADO), γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA), and glutamate levels were then determined via microdialysis from intact, freely behaving rats following oral ALM, ZOL or VEH. ALM increased BF ADO and GABA levels during waking and mixed vigilance states, and preserved sleep-associated increases in GABA under low and high sleep pressure conditions. ALM infusion into the BF also enhanced cortical ADO release, demonstrating that HCRT input is critical for ADO signaling in the BF. In contrast, oral ZOL and BF-infused ZOL had no effect on ADO levels in either BF or cortex. ALM increased BF ADO (an endogenous sleep-promoting substance) and GABA (which is increased during normal sleep), and required an intact BF for maximal efficacy, whereas ZOL blocked sleep-associated BF GABA release, and required no functional contribution from the BF to induce sleep. ALM thus induces sleep by facilitating the neural mechanisms underlying the normal transition to sleep.

  9. ASTROCYTIC CONTROL OF BIOSYNTHESIS AND TURNOVER OF THE NEUROTRANSMITTERS GLUTAMATE AND GABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne eSchousboe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively. These amino acids are metabolically interrelated and at the same time they are tightly coupled to the intermediary metabolism including energy homeostasis. Astrocytes play a pivotal role in the maintenance of the neurotransmitter pools of glutamate and GABA since only these cells express pyruvate carboxylase (PC, the enzyme required for de novo synthesis of the two amino acids. Such de novo synthesis is obligatory to compensate for catabolism of glutamate and GABA related to oxidative metabolism when the amino acids are used as energy substrates. This, in turn, is influenced by the extent to which the cycling of the amino acids between neurons and astrocytes may occur. This cycling is brought about by the glutamate/GABA – glutamine cycle the operation of which involves the enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS and glutaminase (PAG together with the plasma membrane transporters for glutamate, GABA and glutamine. The distribution of these proteins between neurons and astrocytes determines the efficacy of the cycle and it is of particular importance that GS is exclusively expressed in astrocytes. It should be kept in mind that the operation of the cycle is associated with movement of ammonia nitrogen between the two cell types and different mechanisms which can mediate this have been proposed.This review is intended to delineate the above mentioned processes and to discuss quantitatively their relative importance in the homeostatic mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of optimal conditions for the respective neurotransmission processes to operate.

  10. Role of GABA Deficit in Sensitivity to the Psychotomimetic Effects of Amphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kyung-Heup; Sewell, Andrew; Elander, Jacqueline; Pittman, Brian; Ranganathan, Mohini; Gunduz-Bruce, Handan; Krystal, John; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2015-11-01

    Some schizophrenia patients are more sensitive to amphetamine (AMPH)-induced exacerbations in psychosis-an effect that correlates with higher striatal dopamine release. This enhanced vulnerability may be related to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) deficits observed in schizophrenia. We hypothesized that a pharmacologically induced GABA deficit would create vulnerability to the psychotomimetic effects to the 'subthreshold' dose of AMPH in healthy subjects, which by itself would not induce clinically significant increase in positive symptoms. To test this hypothesis, a GABA deficit was induced by intravenous infusion of iomazenil (IOM; 3.7 μg/kg), an antagonist and partial inverse agonist of benzodiazepine receptor. A subthreshold dose of AMPH (0.1 mg/kg) was administered by intravenous infusion. Healthy subjects received placebo IOM followed by placebo AMPH, active IOM followed by placebo AMPH, placebo IOM followed by active AMPH, and active IOM followed by active AMPH in a randomized, double-blind crossover design over 4 test days. Twelve healthy subjects who had a subclinical response to active AMPH alone were included in the analysis. Psychotomimetic effects (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)), perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)), and subjective effects (visual analog scale) were captured before and after the administration of drugs. IOM significantly augmented AMPH-induced peak changes in PANSS positive symptom subscale and both subjective and objective CADSS scores. There were no pharmacokinetic interactions. In conclusion, GABA deficits increased vulnerability to amphetamine-induced psychosis-relevant effects in healthy subjects, suggesting that pre-existing GABA deficits may explain why a subgroup of schizophrenia patients are vulnerable to AMPH.

  11. Altered cortical expression of GABA-related genes in schizophrenia: illness progression vs developmental disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoftman, Gil D; Volk, David W; Bazmi, H Holly; Li, Siyu; Sampson, Allan R; Lewis, David A

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder with altered expression of GABA-related genes in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, whether these gene expression abnormalities reflect disturbances in postnatal developmental processes before clinical onset or arise as a consequence of clinical illness remains unclear. Expression levels for 7 GABA-related transcripts (vesicular GABA transporter [vGAT], GABA membrane transporter [GAT1], GABAA receptor subunit α1 [GABRA1] [novel in human and monkey cohorts], glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 [GAD67], parvalbumin, calretinin, and somatostatin [previously reported in human cohort, but not in monkey cohort]) were quantified in the PFC from 42 matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects and from 49 rhesus monkeys ranging in age from 1 week postnatal to adulthood. Levels of vGAT and GABRA1, but not of GAT1, messenger RNAs (mRNAs) were lower in the PFC of the schizophrenia subjects. As previously reported, levels of GAD67, parvalbumin, and somatostatin, but not of calretinin, mRNAs were also lower in these subjects. Neither illness duration nor age accounted for the levels of the transcripts with altered expression in schizophrenia. In monkey PFC, developmental changes in expression levels of many of these transcripts were in the opposite direction of the changes observed in schizophrenia. For example, mRNA levels for vGAT, GABRA1, GAD67, and parvalbumin all increased with age. Together with published reports, these findings support the interpretation that the altered expression of GABA-related transcripts in schizophrenia reflects a blunting of normal postnatal development changes, but they cannot exclude a decline during the early stages of clinical illness. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Nicotinic receptors and functional regulation of GABA cell microcircuitry in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Francine M

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the hippocampus in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have provided evidence for a defect of GABAergic interneurons. Significant decreases in the expression of GAD67, a marker for GABA cell function, have been found repeatedly in several different brain regions that include the hippocampus. In this region, nicotinic receptors are thought to play an important role in modulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons by influences of excitatory cholinergic afferents on their activity. In bipolar disorder, this influence appears to be particularly prominent in the stratum oriens of sectors CA3/2 and CA1, two sites where these cells constitute the exclusive neuronal cell type. In sector CA3/2, this layer receives a robust excitatory projection from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and this is thought to play a central role in regulating GABA cells at this locus. Using laser microdissection, recent studies have focused selectively on these two layers and their associated GABA cells using microarray technology. The results have provided support for the idea that nicotinic cholinergic receptors play a particularly important role in regulating the activity of GABA neurons at these loci by regulating the progression of cell cycle and the repair of damaged DNA. In bipolar disorder, there is a prominent reduction in the expression of mRNAs for several different nicotinic subunit isoforms. These decreases could reflect a diminished influence of this receptor system on these GABA cells, particularly in sector CA3/2 where a preponderance of abnormalities have been observed in postmortem studies. In patients with bipolar disorder, excitatory nicotinic cholinergic fibers from the medial septum may converge with glutamatergic fibers from the BLA on GABAergic interneurons in the stratum oriens of CA3/2 and result in disturbances of their genomic and functional integrity, ones that may induce disruptions of the integration of

  13. 5-tert-Butyl-2-(4'-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropynylphenyl)-1,3-dithiane oxides: potential new GABA{sub A} receptor radioligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xuehe; Jung, Yong-Woon; Snyder, Scott E.; Blair, Joseph; Sherman, Philip S.; Desmond, Timothy; Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Kilbourn, Michael R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)], E-mail: mkilbour@umich.edu

    2008-07-15

    As potential new ligands targeting the binding site of {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ionophore, trans-5-tert-butyl-2-(4'-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1-dioxo-1, 3-dithiane (1) and cis/trans-5-tert-butyl-2-(4'-fluoropropynylphenyl)-2-methyl-1,1,3, 3-tetroxo-1,3-dithiane (2) were selected for radiolabeling and initial evaluation as in vivo imaging agents for positron emission tomography (PET). Both compounds exhibited identical high in vitro binding affinities (K{sub i}=6.5 nM). Appropriate tosylate-substituted ethynyl precursors were prepared by multistep syntheses involving stepwise sulfur oxidation and chromatographic isolation of desired trans isomers. Radiolabeling was accomplished in one step using nucleophilic [{sup 18}F]fluorination. In vivo biodistribution studies with trans-[{sup 18}F]1 and trans-[{sup 18}F]2 showed significant initial uptake into mouse brain and gradual washout, with heterogeneous regional brain distributions and higher retention in the cerebral cortex and cerebellum and lower retention in the striatum and pons-medulla. These regional distributions of the new radioligands correlated with in vitro and ex vivo measures of standard radioligands binding to the ionophore- and benzodiazepine-binding sites of GABA{sub A} receptor in rodent brain. A comparison of these results with previously prepared radiotracers for other neurochemical targets, including successes and failures as in vivo radioligands, suggests that higher-affinity compounds with increased retention in target brain tissues will likely be needed before a successful radiopharmaceutical for human PET imaging can be identified.

  14. Dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer in dual phenotype GABA/glutamate-coexpressing striatal medium spiny neurons: regulation of BDNF, GAD67 and VGLUT1/2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L Perreault

    Full Text Available In basal ganglia a significant subset of GABAergic medium spiny neurons (MSNs coexpress D1 and D2 receptors (D1R and D2R along with the neuropeptides dynorphin (DYN and enkephalin (ENK. These coexpressing neurons have been recently shown to have a region-specific distribution throughout the mesolimbic and basal ganglia circuits. While the functional relevance of these MSNs remains relatively unexplored, they have been shown to exhibit the unique property of expressing the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, a novel receptor complex with distinct pharmacology and cell signaling properties. Here we showed that MSNs coexpressing the D1R and D2R also exhibited a dual GABA/glutamate phenotype. Activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in these neurons resulted in the simultaneous, but differential regulation of proteins involved in GABA and glutamate production or vesicular uptake in the nucleus accumbens (NAc, ventral tegmental area (VTA, caudate putamen and substantia nigra (SN. Additionally, activation of the D1R-D2R heteromer in NAc shell, but not NAc core, differentially altered protein expression in VTA and SN, regions rich in dopamine cell bodies. The identification of a MSN with dual inhibitory and excitatory intrinsic functions provides new insights into the neuroanatomy of the basal ganglia and demonstrates a novel source of glutamate in this circuit. Furthermore, the demonstration of a dopamine receptor complex with the potential to differentially regulate the expression of proteins directly involved in GABAergic inhibitory or glutamatergic excitatory activation in VTA and SN may potentially provide new insights into the regulation of dopamine neuron activity. This could have broad implications in understanding how dysregulation of neurotransmission within basal ganglia contributes to dopamine neuronal dysfunction.

  15. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca2+-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca2+ increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca2+-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca2+-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes. PMID:24799560

  16. Acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory and inhibits synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whissell, Paul D; Eng, Dave; Lecker, Irene; Martin, Loren J; Wang, Dian-Shi; Orser, Beverley A

    2013-01-01

    Extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors that contain the δ subunit (δGABA(A) receptors) are expressed in several brain regions including the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus. Drugs that increase δGABA(A) receptor activity have been proposed as treatments for a variety of disorders including insomnia, epilepsy and chronic pain. Also, long-term pretreatment with the δGABA(A) receptor-preferring agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-3-ol (THIP) enhances discrimination memory and increases neurogenesis in the DG. Despite the potential therapeutic benefits of such treatments, the effects of acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity on memory behaviors remain unknown. Here, we studied the effects of THIP (4 mg/kg, i.p.) on memory performance in wild-type (WT) and δGABA(A) receptor null mutant (Gabrd(-/-)) mice. Additionally, the effects of THIP on long-term potentiation (LTP), a molecular correlate of memory, were studied within the DG and CA1 subfields of the hippocampus using electrophysiological recordings of field potentials in hippocampal slices. The results showed that THIP impaired performance in the Morris water maze, contextual fear conditioning and object recognition tasks in WT mice but not Gabrd(-/-) mice. Furthermore, THIP inhibited LTP in hippocampal slices from WT but not Gabrd(-/-) mice, an effect that was blocked by GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline. Thus, acutely increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity impairs memory behaviors and inhibits synaptic plasticity. These results have important implications for the development of therapies aimed at increasing δGABA(A) receptor activity.

  17. Evaluation of commercial soy sauce koji strains of Aspergillus oryzae for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ab Kadir, Safuan; Wan-Mohtar, Wan Abd Al Qadr Imad; Mohammad, Rosfarizan; Abdul Halim Lim, Sarina; Sabo Mohammed, Abdulkarim; Saari, Nazamid

    2016-10-01

    In this study, four selected commercial strains of Aspergillus oryzae were collected from soy sauce koji. These A. oryzae strains designated as NSK, NSZ, NSJ and NST shared similar morphological characteristics with the reference strain (A. oryzae FRR 1675) which confirmed them as A. oryzae species. They were further evaluated for their ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by cultivating the spore suspension in a broth medium containing 0.4 % (w/v) of glutamic acid as a substrate for GABA production. The results showed that these strains were capable of producing GABA; however, the concentrations differed significantly (P sauce production.

  18. Verification of γ-Amino-Butyric Acid (GABA) Signaling System Components in Periodontal Ligament Cells In Vivo and In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Anna; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Wilbert, Steven; Van Dyke, Thomas; Jäger, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    CNS key neurotransmitter γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) and its signaling components are likewise detectable in non-neuronal tissues displaying inter alia immunomodulatory functions. This study aimed at identifying potential glutamate decarboxylase (GAD)65 and GABA receptor expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vivo and in vitro, with particular regard to inflammation and mechanical loading. Gene expression was analyzed in human PDL cells at rest or in response to IL-1ß (5 ng/ml) or TNFα (5 ng/ml) challenge via qRT-PCR. Western blot determined constitutive receptor expression, and confocal laser scanning fluorescence microscopy visualized expression changes induced by inflammation. ELISA quantified GAD65 release. Immunocytochemistry was performed for GABA component detection in vitro on mechanically loaded PDL cells, and in vivo on rat upper jaw biopsies with mechanically induced root resorptions. Statistical significance was set at p GABA B1 , GABA B2 , GABA A1 , and GABA A3 were ubiquitously expressed both on gene and protein level. GABA A2 and GAD65 were undetectable in resting cells, but induced by inflammation. GABA B1 exhibited the highest basal gene expression (6.97 % ± 0.16). IL-1ß markedly increased GABA B2 on a transcriptional (57.28-fold ± 12.40) and protein level seen via fluorescence microscopy. TNFα-stimulated PDL cells released GAD65 (3.68 pg/ml ± 0.17 after 24 h, 5.77 pg/ml ± 0.65 after 48 h). Immunocytochemistry revealed GAD65 expression in mechanically loaded PDL cells. In vivo, GABA components were varyingly expressed in an inflammatory periodontal environment. PDL cells differentially express GABA signaling components and secrete GAD65. Inflammation and mechanical loading regulate these neurotransmitter molecules, which are also detectable in vivo and are potentially involved in periodontal pathophysiology.

  19. Triton X-100 inhibits agonist-induced currents and suppresses benzodiazepine modulation of GABA(A) receptors in Xenopus oocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Rikke; Ebert, Bjarke; Klaerke, Dan

    2009-01-01

    Changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties have been proposed to underlie the modulation of voltage-gated Na(+) and L-type Ca(2+) channels and GABA(A) receptors by amphiphiles. The amphiphile Triton X-100 increases the elasticity of lipid bilayers at micromolar concentrations, assessed from its...... by flunitrazepam at alpha(1)beta(3)gamma(2S) receptors. All effects were independent of the presence of a gamma(2S) subunit in the GABA(A) receptor complex. The present study suggests that Triton X-100 may stabilize open and desensitized states of the GABA(A) receptor through changes in lipid bilayer elasticity....

  20. Exosomes: Mechanisms of Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J. McKelvey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exosomes are 30–100 nm microvesicles which contain complex cellular signals of RNA, protein and lipids. Because of this, exosomes are implicated as having limitless therapeutic potential for the treatment of cancer, pregnancy complications, infections, and autoimmune diseases. To date we know a considerable amount about exosome biogenesis and secretion, but there is a paucity of data regarding the uptake of exosomes by immune and non-immune cell types (e.g., cancer cells and the internal signalling pathways by which these exosomes elicit a cellular response. Answering these questions is of paramount importance.