WorldWideScience

Sample records for total fluid output

  1. Association of Total Fluid Intake and Output with Duration of Hospital Stay in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andree H. Koop

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of fluid balance with outcomes in patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods. This was a retrospective study of patients hospitalized between May 2008 and June 2016 with AP and a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Data collected included various types of fluid intake and output at 24 and 48 hours after admission. The primary outcome was length of stay (LOS. Analysis was performed using single-variable and multivariable negative binomial regression models. Results. Of 1256 patients hospitalized for AP during the study period, only 71 patients (5.6% had a clinical order for strict recording of intake and output. Increased urine output was associated with a decreased LOS at 24 and 48 hours in univariable analysis. An increasingly positive fluid balance (total intake minus urine output at 24 hours was associated with a longer LOS in multivariable analysis. Conclusions. Few patients hospitalized for AP had a documented order for strict monitoring of fluid intake and output, despite the importance of monitoring fluid balance in these patients. Our study suggests an association between urine output and fluid balance with LOS in AP.

  2. External Suction and Fluid Output in Chest Drains After Lobectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lijkendijk, Marike; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Licht, Peter B

    2018-01-01

    influences the amount of fluid. METHODS: We randomly assigned (1:1) 106 patients who underwent lobectomy to either low (-5 cm H2O) or high (-20 cm H2O) external suction using an electronic chest drainage system. Only one chest drain was allowed, and we used strict algorithms for chest drain removal, which...... was delegated to staff nurses: air leakage less than 20 mL/min for 6 hours regardless of fluid output, provided it was serous. The primary end point was fluid output after 24 and 48 hours. RESULTS: Mean fluid output was significantly higher with high suction after both 24 (338 ± 265 mL versus 523 ± 215 m...

  3. Fluid Overload and Cumulative Thoracostomy Output Are Associated With Surgical Site Infection After Pediatric Cardiothoracic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochet, Anthony A; Nyhan, Aoibhinn; Spaeder, Michael C; Cartron, Alexander M; Song, Xiaoyan; Klugman, Darren; Brown, Anna T

    2017-08-01

    To determine the impact of cumulative, postoperative thoracostomy output, amount of bolus IV fluids and peak fluid overload on the incidence and odds of developing a deep surgical site infection following pediatric cardiothoracic surgery. A single-center, nested, retrospective, matched case-control study. A 26-bed cardiac ICU in a 303-bed tertiary care pediatric hospital. Cases with deep surgical site infection following cardiothoracic surgery were identified retrospectively from January 2010 through December 2013 and individually matched to controls at a ratio of 1:2 by age, gender, Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, Society of Thoracic Surgeons-European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery category, primary cardiac diagnosis, and procedure. None. Twelve cases with deep surgical site infection were identified and matched to 24 controls without detectable differences in perioperative clinical characteristics. Deep surgical site infection cases had larger thoracostomy output and bolus IV fluid volumes at 6, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively compared with controls. For every 1 mL/kg of thoracostomy output, the odds of developing a deep surgical site infection increase by 13%. By receiver operative characteristic curve analysis, a cutoff of 49 mL/kg of thoracostomy output at 48 hours best discriminates the development of deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 83%, specificity 83%). Peak fluid overload was greater in cases than matched controls (12.5% vs 6%; p operative characteristic curve analysis, a threshold value of 10% peak fluid overload was observed to identify deep surgical site infection (sensitivity 67%, specificity 79%). Conditional logistic regression of peak fluid overload greater than 10% on the development of deep surgical site infection yielded an odds ratio of 9.4 (95% CI, 2-46.2). Increased postoperative peak fluid overload and cumulative thoracostomy output were associated with deep surgical site infection after pediatric

  4. The use of cardiac output monitoring to guide the administration of intravenous fluid during hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaimani, K; Mohamed, F; Cecil, T; Moran, B J; Bell, J

    2013-12-01

    The optimal strategy for intravenous (IV) fluid management during administration of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is unclear. In this prospective study we describe the use of a LiDCOrapid™ (LiDCO, Cambridge, UK) cardiac output monitor to guide IV fluid management during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) with HIPEC. The aim of this study was to determine whether cardiac output monitoring will allow close maintenance of physiological parameters during the HIPEC phase. Twenty-five patients who underwent CRS combined with HIPEC were included in the study. Intra-operative IV fluid boluses were titrated using parameters measured by the LiDCOrapid™ monitor. Stroke volume variation was maintained below 10% with fluid boluses and mean arterial pressure was maintained within 20% of the baseline figure with vasopressors. There was no significant change in heart rate and cardiac output. The systemic vascular resistance dropped from an average of 966 dyn.s/cm-5 to 797 dyn s/cm(5) at 60 min during the HIPEC phase (P = 0.62) despite an increase in the dose of phenylepherine. The average total volume of fluid given was 748 ml in the first 30 min and 630 ml in the second 30 min with an average urine output of 307 and 445 ml, respectively. The change in lactate levels was not statistically or clinically significant. LiDCOrapid™ is an effective noninvasive tool for guiding fluid management in this population. It allows the anaesthesiologist to maintain tight control of essential physiological parameters during a phase of the procedure in which there is a risk of renal injury. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Total output operation chart optimization of cascade reservoirs and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhiqiang; Ji, Changming; Sun, Ping; Wang, Liping; Zhang, Yanke

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new double nested model for cascade reservoirs operation optimization. • We use two methods to extract the output distribution ratio. • The adopted two methods perform better than the widely used methods at present. • Stepwise regression method performs better than mean value method on the whole. - Abstract: With the rapid development of cascade hydropower stations in recent decades, the cascade system composed of multiple reservoirs needs unified operation and management. However, the output distribution problem has not yet been solved reasonably when the total output of cascade system obtained, which makes the full utilization of hydropower resources in cascade reservoirs very difficult. Discriminant criterion method is a traditional and common method to solve the output distribution problem at present, but some shortcomings cannot be ignored in the practical application. In response to the above concern, this paper proposes a new total output operation chart optimization model and a new optimal output distribution model, the two models constitute to a double nested model with the goal of maximizing power generation. This paper takes the cascade reservoirs of Li Xianjiang River in China as an instance to obtain the optimal total output operation chart by the proposed double nested model and the 43 years historical runoff data, progressive searching method and progressive optimality algorithm are used in solving the model. In order to take the obtained total output operation chart into practical operation, mean value method and stepwise regression method are adopted to extract the output distribution ratios on the basis of the optimal simulation intermediate data. By comparing with discriminant criterion method and conventional method, the combined utilization of total output operation chart and output distribution ratios presents better performance in terms of power generation and assurance rate, which proves it is an effective

  6. Caffeine-containing beverages, total fluid consumption, and premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, A M; Bonnlander, H

    1990-09-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate whether daily consumption of caffeine-containing beverages is related to the prevalence and severity of premenstrual syndrome apart from any effects of daily total fluid consumption. A secondary objective was to determine whether daily total fluid consumption itself is related to premenstrual syndrome. The study is based on 841 responses to a questionnaire probing menstrual and premenstrual health, and daily fluid consumption, which was mailed to female university students in Oregon. Analysis of the data revealed that consumption of caffeine-containing beverages was strongly related to the prevalence of premenstrual syndrome. Among women with more severe symptoms, the relation between consumption of caffeine-containing beverages and premenstrual syndrome was dose-dependent, with prevalence odds ratios equal to 1.3 for consumers of one cup of a caffeine-containing beverage per day and increasing steadily to 7.0 for consumers of eight to 10 cups per day. The effects were apparent among both caffeine-containing tea/coffee consumers and caffeine-containing soda consumers. The observed effects were only slightly reduced when daily total fluid consumption was controlled. Daily total fluid consumption also was related to the prevalence of premenstrual symptoms although the effects were large only for consumers of 13-19 cups of fluid per day (the largest amount studied).

  7. Chronic resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement improves hepatocellular function and cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether prolonged (chronic) resuscitation has any beneficial effects on cardiac output and hepatocellular function after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement. Acute fluid resuscitation after trauma-hemorrhage restores but does not maintain the depressed hepatocellular function and cardiac output. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a 5-cm laparotomy (i.e., trauma was induced) and were bled to and maintained at a mean arterial pressure of 40 mmHg until 40% of maximal bleed-out volume was returned in the form of Ringer's lactate (RL). The animals were acutely resuscitated with RL using 4 times the volume of maximum bleed-out over 60 minutes, followed by chronic resuscitation of 0, 5, or 10 mL/kg/hr RL for 20 hours. Hepatocellular function was determined by an in vivo indocyanine green clearance technique. Hepatic microvascular blood flow was assessed by laser Doppler flowmetry. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by bioassay. Chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL, but not with 0 or 10 mL/kg/hr RL, restored cardiac output, hepatocellular function, and hepatic microvascular blood flow at 20 hours after hemorrhage. The regimen above also reduced plasma IL-6 levels. Because chronic resuscitation with 5 mL/kg/hr RL after trauma-hemorrhage and acute fluid replacement restored hepatocellular function and hepatic microvascular blood flow and decreased plasma levels of IL-6, we propose that chronic fluid resuscitation in addition to acute fluid replacement should be routinely used in experimental studies of trauma-hemorrhage.

  8. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  9. Total phosphorus recovery in flowback fluids after gelled hydrocarbon fracturing fluid treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fyten, G.; Houle, P.; Taylor, R.S. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Stemler, P.S. [Petro-Canada Oil and Gas Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Lemieux, A. [Omnicon Consultants Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids are used in unconventional gas reservoirs such as tight gas, shale gas, and coalbed methane. These fracturing fluids address phase trapping concerns by using oil-based fracturing fluid technology for use in reservoirs that are water sensitive. This paper addressed the problem of refinery tower fouling caused by volatile phosphorous components found in phosphate ester oil gellants. In order to address costly unplanned refinery shutdowns, a maximum 0.5 ppm volatile phosphorus in crude specification has been proposed. However, this specification is based on average concentrations of phosphorus added to the oil to gel it. The specification also falsely assumes that the oil is phosphorus free to begin with. The authors noted that refinery tower fouling is actually the result of total phosphorus throughput rather than peak concentrations at any one point. This paper focused on the total phosphorus recovery in addition to peak concentrations. It also examined what percentage of the total recovered phosphorus is in fact volatile, since this is the material that plugs the trays. The total per cent recovery of phosphorus originally added as phosphorus based gellant was examined along with the total percent recovery of volatile phosphorus as a function of total phosphorus. The phosphorus concentrations in both new and reused fracturing fluids before addition of gellants was also examined along with the potential explanations for phosphorus concentrations higher than those originally added. It was shown that the first 50 per cent of a hydraulic fracturing fluid flowback can result in recovery of greater than or less than the amount of phosphorus added to that portion of the fracturing fluid. The initial high concentrations of total and volatile phosphorus are greater than the phosphorus concentrations inherent in the system. Therefore, as flowback continues, there would be a rapid decline in the concentration of phosphorus

  10. Cardiac output-based fluid optimization for kidney transplant recipients: a proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbella, Davide; Toppin, Patrick Jason; Ghanekar, Anand; Ayach, Nour; Schiff, Jeffery; Van Rensburg, Adrian; McCluskey, Stuart A

    2018-04-10

    Intravenous fluid management for deceased donor kidney transplantation is an important, modifiable risk factor for delayed graft function (DGF). The primary objective of this study was to determine if goal-directed fluid therapy using esophageal Doppler monitoring (EDM) to optimize stroke volume (SV) would alter the amount of fluid given. This randomized, proof-of-concept trial enrolled 50 deceased donor renal transplant recipients. Data collected included patient characteristics, fluid administration, hemodynamics, and complications. The EDM was used to optimize SV in the EDM group. In the control group, fluid management followed the current standard of practice. The groups were compared for the primary outcome of total intraoperative fluid administered. There was no difference in the mean (standard deviation) volume of intraoperative fluid administered to the 24 control and 26 EDM patients [2,307 (750) mL vs 2,675 (842) mL, respectively; mean difference, 368 mL; 95% confidence interval (CI), - 87 to + 823; P = 0.11]. The incidence of complications in the control and EDM groups was similar (15/24 vs 17/26, respectively; P = 0.99), as was the incidence of delayed graft failure (8/24 vs 11/26, respectively; P = 0.36). Goal-directed fluid therapy did not alter the volume of fluid administered or the incidence of complications. This proof-of-concept trial provides needed data for conducting a larger trial to determine the influence of fluid therapy on the incidence in DGF in deceased donor kidney transplantation. www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02512731). Registered 31 July 2015.

  11. An updated h-index measures both the primary and total scientific output of a researcher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Octavian; Almasan, Alex; Zubarev, Roman; Friedman, Mark; Nicolson, Garth L; Sumazin, Pavel; Leabu, Mircea; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S; Avram, Dorina; Kunej, Tanja; Calin, George A; Godwin, Andrew K; Adami, Hans-Olov; Zaphiropoulos, Peter G; Richardson, Des R; Schmitt-Ulms, Gerold; Westerblad, Håkan; Keniry, Megan; Grau, Georges E R; Carbonetto, Salvatore; Stan, Radu V; Popa-Wagner, Aurel; Takhar, Kasumov; Baron, Beverly W; Galardy, Paul J; Yang, Feng; Data, Dipak; Fadare, Oluwole; Yeo, Kt Jerry; Gabreanu, Georgiana R; Andrei, Stefan; Soare, Georgiana R; Nelson, Mark A; Liehn, Elisa A

    2015-01-01

    The growing interest in scientometry stems from ethical concerns related to the proper evaluation of scientific contributions of an author working in a hard science. In the absence of a consensus, institutions may use arbitrary methods for evaluating scientists for employment and promotion. There are several indices in use that attempt to establish the most appropriate and suggestive position of any scientist in the field he/she works in. A scientist's Hirsch-index (h-index) quantifies their total effective published output, but h-index summarizes the total value of their published work without regard to their contribution to each publication. Consequently, articles where the author was a primary contributor carry the same weight as articles where the author played a minor role. Thus, we propose an updated h-index named Hirsch(p,t)-index that informs about both total scientific output and output where the author played a primary role. Our measure, h(p,t) = h(p),h(t), is composed of the h-index h(t) and the h-index calculated for articles where the author was a key contributor; i.e. first/shared first or senior or corresponding author. Thus, a h(p,t) = 5,10 would mean that the author has 5 articles as first, shared first, senior or corresponding author with at least 5 citations each, and 10 total articles with at least 10 citations each. This index can be applied in biomedical disciplines and in all areas where the first and last position on an article are the most important. Although other indexes, such as r- and w-indexes, were proposed for measuring the authors output based on the position of researchers within the published articles, our simpler strategy uses the already established algorithms for h-index calculation and may be more practical to implement.

  12. Reference values for total blood volume and cardiac output in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Division of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1994-09-01

    Much research has been devoted to measurement of total blood volume (TBV) and cardiac output (CO) in humans but not enough effort has been devoted to collection and reduction of results for the purpose of deriving typical or {open_quotes}reference{close_quotes} values. Identification of normal values for TBV and CO is needed not only for clinical evaluations but also for the development of biokinetic models for ultra-short-lived radionuclides used in nuclear medicine (Leggett and Williams 1989). The purpose of this report is to offer reference values for TBV and CO, along with estimates of the associated uncertainties that arise from intra- and inter-subject variation, errors in measurement techniques, and other sources. Reference values are derived for basal supine CO and TBV in reference adult humans, and differences associated with age, sex, body size, body position, exercise, and other circumstances are discussed.

  13. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  14. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on "pure change" condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change.

  15. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We assume exponentially distributed flow

  16. A fluid system with coupled input and output, and its application to bottlenecks in ad hoc networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.; Roijers, F.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: This paper studies a fluid queue with coupled input and output. Flows arrive according to a Poisson process, and when n flows are present, each of them transmits traffic into the queue at a rate c/(n+1), where the remaining c/(n+1) is used to serve the queue. We

  17. The Assessment of Biofuel Utilization Policy on the Total Output and CO2 Emissions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthathip Suanmali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector is the largest energy-consuming sector in Thailand. Its primary energy supply is heavily depended on imported oil. Since 2005, world crude oil price has been rising and had reached a record of 147 $/barrel. Therefore the policy on promotion of biofuel utilization was initiated in 2005 by the Ministry of Energy; however, the economy-wide impacts have been rarely assessed. This paper presents the energy Input-Output Analysis (IO of the economy-wide impacts on the promotion policy, in particular, the change in Greenhouse Gas (GHG emissions. In order to measure the total GHG emission from different economic sectors, the contribution of emissions has to be considered. In this paper, the focus is placed on CO2 emissions. To calculate the amount of CO2 emissions, the emission amount of various final consumptions in the economy evaluated by the IO must be applied. The direct CO2 emissions in final energy consumptions in Thailand are evaluated by using conversion factors from Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors, Annexes updated in June 2007. The CO2 emissions in various economic sectors will be calculated and compared with the figures in 2015 when the policy is fully implemented.

  18. Analyzing the impacts of final demand changes on total output using input-output approach: The case of Japanese ICT sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the impacts of final demand changes on total output of Japanese Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) sectors in future time. This study employs one of analysis tool in Input-Output (IO) analysis, demand-pull IO quantity model, in achieving the purpose. There are three final demand changes used in this study, namely (1) export, (2) import, and (3) outside households consumption changes. This study focuses on ''pure change'' condition, the condition that final demand changes only appear in analyzed sectors. The results show that export and outside households consumption modifications give positive impact while opposite impact could be seen in import change

  19. Total (fumarolic?+?diffuse soil) CO2 output from Furnas volcano

    OpenAIRE

    Pedone, M.; Viveiros, F.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Gagliano, A. L.; Francofonte, V.; Ferreira, T.

    2015-01-01

    Furnas volcano, in S?o Miguel island (Azores), being the surface expression of rising hydrothermal steam, is the site of intense carbon dioxide (CO2) release by diffuse degassing and fumaroles. While the diffusive CO2 output has long (since the early 1990s) been characterized by soil CO2 surveys, no information is presently available on the fumarolic CO2 output. Here, we performed (in August 2014) a study in which soil CO2 degassing survey was combined for the first time with the measurement ...

  20. No effect of fibrin sealant on drain output or functional recovery following simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christian; Holm, Bente; Troelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may lead to anemia, blood transfusions, and increased total costs. Also, bleeding into the periarticular tissue may cause swelling and a reduction in quadriceps strength, thus impairing early functional recovery. In this random...... in TKA showed no benefit in reducing drain output or in facilitating early functional recovery when used with a tourniquet, tranexamic acid, and a femoral bone plug....

  1. Perubahan Struktur Ekonomi, Dekomposisi Sumber Pertumbuhan Output, dan Pertumbuhan Total Factor Productivity (TFP: Analisis Lanjutan Tabel Input-Output Provinsi Kalimantan Selatan, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fajri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth is the target of economic development in each area. Economic development should be prioritized in sectors that can be a major driver of the economy so that the economy can grow faster. Economic growth can be seen from the aggregate demand side, namely consumption, investment, government spending, exports and imports, and the aggregate supply side namely labor growth, capital growth and the growth of TFP (Total Factor Productivity. This study uses South Kalimantan’s Input-Output Tables of 2000, 2005 and 2010. The results showed that although the structure of the value-added of the mining sector remains the main economic pillar, but this sector has low linkages with other sectors. The prime mover and driving economic growth sector are manufacturing sector i.e chemical industry, food, beverages and tobacco industry, rubber and plastics industry, paper, printing and publishing industry and industry of metal, machinery, transport equipment and other manufacturing industries. Based Multiplier Product Matrix, manufacturing industry suggest a leading role in the economy so that it can be said that the province of South Kalimantan are heading toward a change in the economic structure. Decomposition of sources of growth based on the Chenery’s model (1960 showed that the main source of economic growth in South Kalimantan is exports by 67 percent in the period 2000-2005 and 73.72 percent in the period 2005-2010, especially the export of coal. Decomposition of productivity growth made by Namura and Kuroda’s model (2004 and suggests that TFP growth and capital have a strong linear relationship and significant Output growth, while labor productivity have no significant correlation with Output growth. Finally, the wealth of the abundant natural resources, industry-oriented economic growth and sustainable development in South Kalimantan Province is agriculture-based industries and mining-based industries with the main strategy is to

  2. Evaluation of the total magnetospheric energy output parameter, U/sub T/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwickl, R.D.; Bargatze, L.F.; Baker, D.N.; Clauer, C.R.; McPherron, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Over the last few years the relationship between U/sub T/, the magnetospheric energy consumption or output rate, and epsilon, a commonly used solar wind-magnetosphere energy input function, has been explored in some detail. Very high correlations between U/sub T/ and epsilon are found during periods of strong activity, and by using linear prediction filtering techniques a ''delta-function'' impulse response was found for filter elements representing essentially zero delay. In light of these remarkable results, the derivation of U/sub T/ for these intervals is re-examined. We find that U/sub T/ is dominated in each event interval by the term containing tau/sub R/, the ring current decay time, and that when tau/sub R/ is defined as a function of epsilon the ''delta-function'' impulse response is present. If a constant tau/sub R/ is assumed, the delta-function part of the filter disappears completely. Thus, this delta-function, which has been taken as being indicative of the directly driven component is an artifact of the earlier analysis, and it is due to the dependence of U/sub T/ on epsilon. Our results imply that until U/sub T/ can be derived independently from epsilon, these two quantities cannot be compared in a meaningful way, and that results obtained in previous studies are not valid

  3. Does debt predict growth? An empirical analysis of the relationship between total debt and economic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Vanlaer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the recent global financial crisis has stimulated a vast amount of research on the impact of public debt on economic growth and also increasingly on the role of private credit, the total levels of indebtedness of an economy have largely been ignored. This paper studies the impact of the total level of and increases in debt-to-GDP on economic growth for 26 developed countries in the short, medium and longer term. We analyse whether we can predict the future level of growth, simply by looking at the total level of debt, or increases in that debt level. We find that there is a negative correlation between high levels of debt and short term economic growth, but that this effect tapers in the medium and long term. Similarly, we find that rapid debt accumulation is negatively related to economic growth over the short term, the impact is less pronounced over the medium term and is non-existent over the long term.

  4. Estimate of total CO2 output from desertified sandy land in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhenghu; Lanzhou University; Xiao Honglang; Dong Zhibao; He Xingdong; Wang Gang

    2001-01-01

    Soil is an important factor in regional and global carbon budgets because it serves as a reservoir of large amount of organic carbon. In our study, using remote sensing data of different periods we analyzed the development and reversion of desertification in China, calculated the variations of organic carbon contents of the desertified lands in China. The results showed that the total storage of organic carbon in 0-50cm soil layer of the desertified lands is 855Mt. In recent 40yr, the total CO 2 amount released by land desertification processes to the atmosphere was 150Mt, while the CO 2 amount sequestered by desertification reversing processes corresponded to 59MtC. Hence, the net CO 2 amount released from desertified lands of China corresponded to 91MtC, about 68.42% of the 133MtC of annual CO 2 release in the global temperate and frigid zones. Simultaneously, it indicated that CO 2 amount sequestered by desertification reversing processes in desertified land had greater potential than the other soils. (Author)

  5. Blood volume, blood pressure and total body sodium: internal signalling and output control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie, P

    2009-01-01

    Total body sodium and arterial blood pressure (ABP) are mutually dependent variables regulated by complex control systems. This review addresses the role of ABP in the normal control of sodium excretion (NaEx), and the physiological control of renin secretion. NaEx is a pivotal determinant of ABP......, and under experimental conditions, ABP is a powerful, independent controller of NaEx. Blood volume is a function of dietary salt intake; however, ABP is not, at least not in steady states. A transient increase in ABP after a step-up in sodium intake could provide a causal relationship between ABP...... and the regulation of NaEx via a hypothetical integrative control system. However, recent data show that subtle sodium loading (simulating salty meals) causes robust natriuresis without changes in ABP. Changes in ABP are not necessary for natriuresis. Normal sodium excretion is not regulated by pressure. Plasma...

  6. Development of magneto-rheologial fluid (MRF) based clutch for output torque control of AC motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Q. Hung; Do, H. M. Hieu; Nguyen, V. Quoc; Nguyen, N. Diep; Le, D. Thang

    2018-03-01

    In industry, the AC motor is widely used because of low price, power availability, low cost maintenance. The main disadvantages of AC motors compared to DC motors are difficulty in speed and torque control, requiring expensive controllers with complex control algorithms. This is the basic limitations in the widespread adoption of AC motor systems for industrial automation. One feasible solution for AC motor control is using MRF (magneto-rheological fluid) based clutches (shortly called MR clutches) Although there have been many studies on MR clutches, most of these clutches used traditional configuration with coils wound on the middle cylindrical part and a compotator is used to supply power to the coils. Therefore, this type of MR clutches possesses many disadvantages such as high friction and unstable applied current due to commutator, complex structure which causes difficulty in manufacture, assembly, and maintenance. In addition, the bottleneck problem of magnetic field is also a challenging issue. In this research, we will develop a new type of MR clutches that overcomes the abovementioned disadvantages of traditional MR clutches and more suitable for application in controlling of AC motor. Besides, in this study, speed and torque control system for AC motors using developed MR clutches is designed and experimental validated.

  7. Change in end-tidal carbon dioxide outperforms other surrogates for change in cardiac output during fluid challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, K; Nay, M A; Kamel, T; Lortat-Jacob, B; Ehrmann, S; Rozec, B; Boulain, T

    2017-03-01

    During fluid challenge, volume expansion (VE)-induced increase in cardiac output (Δ VE CO) is seldom measured. In patients with shock undergoing strictly controlled mechanical ventilation and receiving VE, we assessed minimally invasive surrogates for Δ VE CO (by transthoracic echocardiography): fluid-induced increases in end-tidal carbon dioxide (Δ VE E'CO2 ); pulse (Δ VE PP), systolic (Δ VE SBP), and mean systemic blood pressure (Δ VE MBP); and femoral artery Doppler flow (Δ VE FemFlow). In the absence of arrhythmia, fluid-induced decrease in heart rate (Δ VE HR) and in pulse pressure respiratory variation (Δ VE PPV) were also evaluated. Areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC ROC s) reflect the ability to identify a response to VE (Δ VE CO ≥15%). In 86 patients, Δ VE E'CO2 had an AUC ROC =0.82 [interquartile range 0.73-0.90], significantly higher than the AUC ROC for Δ VE PP, Δ VE SBP, Δ VE MBP, and Δ VE FemFlow (AUC ROC =0.61-0.65, all P  1 mm Hg (>0.13 kPa) had good positive (5.0 [2.6-9.8]) and fair negative (0.29 [0.2-0.5]) likelihood ratios. The 16 patients with arrhythmia had similar relationships between Δ VE E'CO2 and Δ VE CO to patients with regular rhythm ( r 2 =0.23 in both subgroups). In 60 patients with no arrhythmia, Δ VE E'CO2 (AUC ROC =0.84 [0.72-0.92]) outperformed Δ VE HR (AUC ROC =0.52 [0.39-0.66], P AUC ROC =0.73 [0.60-0.84], P =0.21). In the 45 patients with no arrhythmia and receiving ventilation with tidal volume AUC ROC =0.86 [0.72-0.95] vs 0.66 [0.49-0.80], P =0.02. Δ VE E'CO2 outperformed Δ VE PP, Δ VE SBP, Δ VE MBP, Δ VE FemFlow, and Δ VE HR and, during protective ventilation, arrhythmia, or both, it also outperformed Δ VE PPV. A value of Δ VE E'CO2 >1 mm Hg (>0.13 kPa) indicated a likely response to VE. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Increased total-Tau levels in cerebrospinal fluid of pediatric hydrocephalus and brain tumor patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bont, Judith M.; Vanderstichele, Hugo; Reddingius, Roel E.; Pieters, Rob; van Gool, Stefdan W.

    Total Tau (t-Tau), hyperphosphorylated Tau (p-Tau((181P))) and beta-amyloid((1-42)) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have shown to be markers of neuronal and axonal degeneration in various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the presence of

  9. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  10. Total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status of synovial fluids in patients with temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etöz, Osman A; Akçay, Hüseyin; Neşelioğlu, Salim; Erel, Özcan; Alkan, Alper

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) of synovial fluids (SFs) of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain patients with pain and dysfunction. Forty-two patients with TMJ pain were included in this study. TAC and TOS values of SFs were measured with a novel colorimetric method. Independent t test and correlations were used to analyze the data. TAC of SFs in patients with TMJ pain and limited mouth opening (LMO; n = 21) were significantly lower (P = 0.03) than patients without LMO (n = 21). TOS of SF was negatively correlated with duration of the disease. There was no correlation between TAC, TOS, and VAS scores of the patients as well as age and maximum mouth opening values. Antioxidant response to oxidative changes (TAC and TOS) in SF decreased as the stage of dysfunction increased. Local administration of antioxidant agents might be considered in management of TMJ pain and dysfunction to prevent possible increased oxidative stress.

  11. Simulation of a pulsatile total artificial heart: Development of a partitioned Fluid Structure Interaction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Simon J.; Kaufmann, Tim A. S.; Büsen, Martin R.; Laumen, Marco; Linde, Torsten; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Due to a shortage in donor organs artificial hearts can be a bridge to transplantation or even serve as a destination therapy for patients with terminal heart insufficiency. A pusher plate driven pulsatile membrane pump, the Total Artificial Heart (TAH) ReinHeart, is currently under development at the Institute of Applied Medical Engineering of RWTH Aachen University.This paper presents the methodology of a fully coupled three-dimensional time-dependent Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI) simulation of the TAH using a commercial partitioned block-Gauss-Seidel coupling package. Partitioned coupling of the incompressible fluid with the slender flexible membrane as well as a high fluid/structure density ratio of about unity led inherently to a deterioration of the stability (‘artificial added mass instability’). The objective was to conduct a stable simulation with high accuracy of the pumping process. In order to achieve stability, a combined resistance and pressure outlet boundary condition as well as the interface artificial compressibility method was applied. An analysis of the contact algorithm and turbulence condition is presented. Independence tests are performed for the structural and the fluid mesh, the time step size and the number of pulse cycles. Because of the large deformation of the fluid domain, a variable mesh stiffness depending on certain mesh properties was specified for the fluid elements. Adaptive remeshing was avoided. Different approaches for the mesh stiffness function are compared with respect to convergence, preservation of mesh topology and mesh quality. The resulting mesh aspect ratios, mesh expansion factors and mesh orthogonalities are evaluated in detail. The membrane motion and flow distribution of the coupled simulations are compared with a top-view recording and stereo Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements, respectively, of the actual pump.

  12. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heide, Huub J L; van der Kraan, Peter M; Rijnberg, Willard J; Buma, Pieter; Schreurs, B Willem

    2010-12-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference in cytokine levels between one and six hours postoperatively. Samples from the drainage system in 30 consecutive patients undergoing primary total hip replacement were collected at one and six hours after closure of the wound. Levels of several cytokines were measured in the drainage fluids. A significant elevation of almost all cytokines was observed between the sample after one hour and six hours postoperatively. We found a strong correlation between the different pro-inflammatory cytokines. The IL-6 to IL-10 ratio were also raised, showing a pro-inflammatory predominance. Levels were much higher than those previously shown in serum.

  13. R5FORCE: a program to compute fluid induced forces using hydrodynamic output from the RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the computer code R5FORCE, a postprocessor to the RELAP5/MOD1 thermal-hydraulics code. R5FORCE computes piping hydraulic force/time histories that can be input into various structural analysis computer codes. R5FORCE solves the momentum conservation equation using the pressure and wall shear force terms rather than the pressure and fluid acceleration terms; eliminating potential instabilities associated with computing the time derivative in the fluid acceleration term. The updates to REALP5 required to generate the input data to R5FORCE are also discussed

  14. Testing Procedures for High Output Fluid Viscous Dampers Used in Building and Bridge Structures to Dissipate Seismic Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Taylor

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's economic climate demands that conversion of military technology for commerical applications be a part of an aerospace and defense company's strategic planning. Toward this goal, a successful defense conversion has occurred recently with the application of high capacity fluid damping devices from the defense community for use as seismic energy dissipation elements in commercial buildings, bridges, and related structures. These products have been used by the military for many years for attenuation of weapons grade shock, typically applied to shipboard equipment or land based strategic weapons. Commercial energy dissipation devices historically have involved heavy yielding sections or hysteretic joints.

  15. Measurement of total antioxidant capacity in gingival crevicular fluid and serum in dogs with periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Nemec, Alenka; Erzen, Damjan; Skaleric, Uros

    2004-11-01

    To determine whether gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and serum total antioxidant capacities (TACs) correlate with the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. 41 Toy and Miniature Poodles. After assessment of the degree of severity of naturally occurring periodontitis, GCF samples from both maxillary fourth premolars and a blood sample were collected from each dog. The condition of the periodontium of the entire dentition and at each site of GCF collection was recorded. Clinical parameters assessed included plaque index, gingival index, and probing depth. Radiographic analysis of alveolar bone level was also performed. Total antioxidant capacity was measured in GCF and serum samples by use of a commercial kit. Dogs with gingivitis and minimal periodontitis had significantly higher TAC in GCF than dogs with advanced periodontitis. Bivariate regression analysis revealed significant negative correlations between TAC in GCF and clinical parameters and age. The TAC in serum was significantly negatively correlated with the degree of gingival inflammation but was not significantly correlated with age. TAC in GCF is related to the degree of severity of periodontal disease in dogs. This is likely the result of release of reactive oxygen species by activated phagocytes and fibroblasts in the inflamed periodontal tissues. The results of our study suggest that the local delivery of antioxidants may be a useful adjunctive treatment for periodontitis in dogs.

  16. Comparison of refractometry and biuret assay for measurement of total protein concentration in canine abdominal and pleural fluid specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Alexandra; Funk, Deborah; Neiger, Reto

    2016-04-01

    To compare total protein (TP) concentrations in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay. Diagnostic test evaluation. Data regarding 92 pleural and 148 abdominal fluid specimens from dogs with various diseases. TP concentrations in fluid specimens as measured by refractometry and biuret assay were recorded. Strength of association between sets of measurements was assessed by Spearman rank correlations and Bland-Altman plots. Optimal concentration cutoff for diagnostic discrimination between exudate and nonexudate was identified by construction of receiver operating characteristic curves. Median TP concentration in pleural fluid specimens was 2.7 g/dL (range, 0.3 to 4.8 g/dL) for refractometry and 2.9 g/dL (range, 0.7 to 5.8 g/dL) for biuret assay. Median TP concentration in abdominal fluid specimens was 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.1 to 6.0 g/dL) for refractometry and 3.5 g/dL (range, 0.6 to 5.7 g/dL) for biuret assay. Correlation was significant between refractometric and biuret results for pleural (ρ = 0.921) and abdominal (ρ = 0.908) fluid. Bland-Altman plots revealed bias of -0.18 g/dL for pleural fluid and -0.03 g/dL for abdominal fluid for refractometry versus biuret assay. With a TP concentration of ≥ 3 g/dL used to distinguish exudate from nonexudate, sensitivity of refractometry was 77% for pleural fluid and 80% for abdominal fluid. Specificity was 100% and 94%, respectively. Refractometry yielded acceptable results for measurement of TP concentration in canine pleural and abdominal fluid specimens, providing a more rapid and convenient method than biuret assay.

  17. Methods of increasing net work output of organic Rankine cycles for low-grade waste heat recovery with a detailed analysis using a zeotropic working fluid mixture and scroll expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodland, Brandon Jay

    performance to cost ratio of this machine lends significant credence to the economic viability of small-scale, low-temperature ORCs. The experimental campaign covered two heat source temperatures, the full range of pump and expander speeds, a full range of heat source and heat sink fluid flow rates, and various charge levels for the three working fluids. This resulted in 366 steady-state measurements. The steady state measurements are used to develop a detailed ORC model. The model is based on multi-fluid performance maps for the pump and expander and a robust moving-boundary heat exchanger model. It is validated against the measured data and predicts the net power output of the tested ORC with a mean absolute percent error of 7.16%. Comparisons made with the detailed model confirm the predictions of the design-stage model. Using a conservative estimate of the condenser fan power, 19.1% improvement of the ZRC over the baseline ORC is indicated for a source temperature of 80 °C. For a 100 °C source temperature, 13.8% improvement is indicated. A key feature of the detailed ORC model is that it calculates the charge inventory of the working fluid in each heat exchanger and line set. Total system charge can also be specified as a model input. The model can represent the total charge well for R134a at low measured charge levels. As the measured charge level increases, the model becomes less accurate. Reasons for the deviation of the model at higher charge are investigated. It is expected that a charge tuning scheme could be employed to improve the accuracy of model-predicted charge.

  18. Multivessel supercritical fluid extraction of food items in Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, M L; King, J W; Johnson, J H; Serino, A A; Butler, R J

    1995-01-01

    An off-line, large capacity, multivessel supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) was designed and constructed for extraction of large samples. The extractor can simultaneously process 1-6 samples (15-25 g) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), which is relatively nontoxic and nonflammable, as the solvent extraction medium. Lipid recoveries for the SFE system were comparable to those obtained by blending or Soxhlet extraction procedures. Extractions at 10,000 psi, 80 degrees C, expanded gaseous CO2 flow rates of 4-5 L/min (35 degrees C), and 1-3 h extraction times gave reproducible lipid recoveries for pork sausage (relative standard deviation [RSD], 1.32%), corn chips (RSD, 0.46%), cheddar cheese (RSD, 1.14%), and peanut butter (RSD, 0.44%). In addition, this SFE system gave reproducible recoveries (> 93%) for butter fortified with cis-chlordane and malathion at the 100 ppm and 0.1 ppm levels. Six portions each of cheddar cheese, saltine crackers, sandwich cookies, and ground hamburger also were simultaneously extracted with SC-CO2 and analyzed for incurred pesticide residues. Results obtained with this SFE system were reproducible and comparable with results from organic-solvent extraction procedures currently used in the Total Diet Study; therefore, use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents can be eliminated.

  19. Comparing between predicted output temperature of flat-plate solar collector and experimental results: computational fluid dynamics and artificial neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Nadi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The significant of solar energy as a renewable energy source, clean and without damage to the environment, for the production of electricity and heat is of great importance. Furthermore, due to the oil crisis as well as reducing the cost of home heating by 70%, solar energy in the past two decades has been a favorite of many researchers. Solar collectors are devices for collecting solar radiant energy through which this energy is converted into heat and then heat is transferred to a fluid (usually air or water. Therefore, a key component in performance improvement of solar heating system is a solar collector optimization under different testing conditions. However, estimation of output parameters under different testing conditions is costly, time consuming and mostly impossible. As a result, smart use of neural networks as well as CFD (computational fluid dynamics to predict the properties with which desired output would have been acquired is valuable. To the best of our knowledge, there are no any studies that compare experimental results with CFD and ANN. Materials and Methods A corrugated galvanized iron sheet of 2 m length, 1 m wide and 0.5 mm in thickness was used as an absorber plate for absorbing the incident solar radiation (Fig. 1 and 2. Corrugations in absorber were caused turbulent air and improved heat transfer coefficient. Computational fluid dynamics K-ε turbulence model was used for simulation. The following assumptions are made in the analysis. (1 Air is a continuous medium and incompressible. (2 The flow is steady and possesses have turbulent flow characteristics, due to the high velocity of flow. (3 The thermal-physical properties of the absorber sheet and the absorber tube are constant with respect to the operating temperature. (4 The bottom side of the absorber tube and the absorber plate are assumed to be adiabatic. Artificial neural network In this research a one-hidden-layer feed-forward network based on the

  20. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M. van der; Koning, T.J. de; Lefeber, D.J.; Fleer, A.; Prinsen, B.H.; Sain-van der Velden, M.G. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was

  2. Comparison of cardiac output optimization with an automated closed-loop goal-directed fluid therapy versus non standardized manual fluid administration during elective abdominal surgery: first prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilot, Marc; Bellon, Amandine; Gueugnon, Marine; Laplace, Marie-Christine; Baffeleuf, Bruno; Hacquard, Pauline; Barthomeuf, Felicie; Parent, Camille; Tran, Thomas; Soubirou, Jean-Luc; Robinson, Philip; Bouvet, Lionel; Vassal, Olivia; Lehot, Jean-Jacques; Piriou, Vincent

    2018-01-27

    An intraoperative automated closed-loop system for goal-directed fluid therapy has been successfully tested in silico, in vivo and in a clinical case-control matching. This trial compared intraoperative cardiac output (CO) in patients managed with this closed-loop system versus usual practice in an academic medical center. The closed-loop system was connected to a CO monitoring system and delivered automated colloid fluid boluses. Moderate to high-risk abdominal surgical patients were randomized either to the closed-loop or the manual group. Intraoperative final CO was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints were intraoperative overall mean cardiac index (CI), increase from initial to final CI, intraoperative fluid volume and postoperative outcomes. From January 2014 to November 2015, 46 patients were randomized. There was a lower initial CI (2.06 vs. 2.51 l min -1 m -2 , p = 0.042) in the closed-loop compared to the control group. No difference in final CO and in overall mean intraoperative CI was observed between groups. A significant relative increase from initial to final CI values was observed in the closed-loop but not the control group (+ 28.6%, p = 0.006 vs. + 1.2%, p = 0.843). No difference was found for intraoperative fluid management and postoperative outcomes between groups. There was no significant impact on the primary study endpoint, but this was found in a context of unexpected lower initial CI in the closed-loop group.Trial registry number ID-RCB/EudraCT: 2013-A00770-45. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01950845, date of registration: 17 September 2013.

  3. Elevated levels of numerous cytokines in drainage fluid after primary total hip arthroplasty.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, H.J. van der; Kraan, P.M. van der; Rijnberg, W.J.; Buma, P.; Schreurs, B.W.

    2010-01-01

    As cytokines are involved in wound healing and other inflammatory processes, it could be valuable to measure their levels at the operative site. This study was conducted to investigate whether different cytokines are measurable in drainage fluid and, when measurable, whether we can find a difference

  4. Improving total-building seismic performance using linear fluid viscous dampers

    OpenAIRE

    Del Gobbo, GM; Blakeborough, A; Williams, MS

    2018-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that Eurocode-compliant structures can experience structural and nonstructural damage during earthquakes. Retrofitting buildings with fluid viscous dampers (FVDs) can improve interstorey drifts and floor accelerations, two structural parameters that characterize seismic demand. Previous research focusing on FVD applications for improving seismic performance has focused on structural performance. Structural parameters such as interstorey drifts and floor accelera...

  5. Contribution of Water from Food and Fluids to Total Water Intake: Analysis of a French and UK Population Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guelinckx, Isabelle; Tavoularis, Gabriel; König, Jürgen; Morin, Clémentine; Gharbi, Hakam; Gandy, Joan

    2016-10-14

    Little has been published on the contribution of food moisture (FM) to total water intake (TWI); therefore, the European Food Safety Authority assumed FM to contribute 20%-30% to TWI. The aim of the present analysis was to estimate and compare TWI, the percentage of water from FM and from fluids in population samples of France and UK. Data from 2 national nutrition surveys (Enquête Comportements et Consommations Alimentaires en France (CCAF) 2013 and the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) 2008/2009-2011/2012) were analyzed for TWI and the contribution of water from FM and fluids. Children and adults TWI were significantly lower in France than in the UK. The contribution of water from foods was lower in the UK than in France (27% vs. 36%). As TWI increased, the proportion of water from fluids increased, suggesting that low drinkers did not compensate by increasing intake of water-rich foods. In addition, 80%-90% of the variance in TWI was explained by differences in water intake from fluids. More data on the contribution of FM to TWI is needed to develop more robust dietary recommendations on TWI and guidance on fluid intake for the general public.

  6. Determination of As concentration in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Panzarino, Onofrio; Fontanella, Maria Chiara; Beone, Gian Maria; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are often used as sentinel organisms to study As bioavailability in polluted soils. Arsenic in earthworms is mainly sequestrated in the coelomic fluids whose As content can therefore be used to asses As bioavalability. In this work, a method for determining As concentration in coelomic fluid extracts using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is presented. For this purpose coelomic fluid extracts from earthworms living in three polluted soils and one non-polluted (control) soil have been collected and analysed. A very simple sample preparation was implemented, consisting of a dilution of the extracts with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a 1:8 ratio and dropwise deposition of the sample on the reflector. A detection limit of 0.2 μg/l and quantification limit of 0.6 μg/l was obtained in the diluted samples, corresponding to 2 μg/l and 6 μg/l in the coelomic fluid extracts, respectively. This allowed to quantify As concentration in coelomic fluids extracted from earthworms living in soils polluted with As at concentrations higher than 20 mg/kg (considered as a pollution threshold for agricultural soils). The TXRF method has been validated by comparison with As concentrations in standards and by analysing the same samples by ICP-MS, after acid digestion of the sample. The low limit of detection, the proven reliability of the method and the little sample preparation make TXRF a suitable, cost-efficient and "green" technique for the analysis of As in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts for bioavailability studies.

  7. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  8. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Héctor Jorge; Valentinuzzi, María Cecilia; Grenón, Miram; Abraham, José

    2008-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  9. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Valentinuzzi, Maria Cecilia; Grenon, Miram; Abraham, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis

  10. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of oral fluids of women affected by osteoporosis and osteopenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Hector Jorge [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)], E-mail: jsan@famaf.unc.edu.ar; Valentinuzzi, Maria Cecilia [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Grenon, Miram [Facultad de Odontologia, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina); Abraham, Jose [Facultad de Matematica Astronomia y Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2008-12-15

    Osteoporosis is a disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, leading to bone fragility and an increased susceptibility to fractures; the early stage of decreased bone density is called osteopenia. More than 200 million people are affected and about 50% of post-menopausic women are expected to develop the disease. Osteoporosis, osteopenia and periodontal disease have in common several risk factors, being hyperthyroidism and smoking habits the most important ones. There is scarce information in the literature about the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis and/or osteopenia. Some works suggest that osteoporotic women are susceptible to a higher loss of periodontal insertion, alveolar bones, and teeth. Thirty adult post-menopausic women were studied; some of them were healthy (control group) and the rest of them were undergoing some stage of osteoporosis or osteopenia. All the subjects were healthy, non-smokers, not having dental implants, and with communitarian periodontal index higher than 1(CPI > 1). Samples of saliva and gingival crevice fluid were extracted with calibrated micro-capillaries and deposited on Si reflectors. Known amounts of Ga were added to the samples in order to act as internal standard for quantification by the total reflection x-ray fluorescence technique. Experimental concentrations of several elements (P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Fe, NI, Cu, and Zn) were determined. The concentration of some elements in saliva showed different behavior as compared to gingival crevice fluid. Some critical elements of bone composition, such as Ca and Zn, present very distinguishable behavior. Improvements in the statistics are required for a better assessment of a routine method and to establish some correlation with periodontal disease. TXRF seems to be a promising method to evaluate the evolution of osteoporosis.

  11. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Numerical Investigations of Mixed Convection of Incompressible Viscous Fluid in LNG Storage with a Various Locations of Input and Output Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sklyarenko Kristina A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the results of mathematical simulation of mixed convection in the low-temperature storage of liquefied natural gas with a regenerative cooling. The regimes of mixed convection in a closed area with the different arrangement of the input and output sections of the masses are investigated. Two-dimensional nonstationary problem in the model of the Navier-Stokes in dimensionless variables “vorticity - stream function - temperature” was examined. Are obtained distributions of the hydrodynamic parameters and temperatures, characteristic basic laws governing the processes being investigated. Detailed circulating currents and carried out analysis of the mechanism of vortices formation and the temperature distribution in the solution for mixed convection mode with low Reynolds and Grashof numbers (Gr = 106, 100 output mass sections and input stream velocity on the structure of liquid flow and temperature in the low temperature LNG storage tanks.

  13. Reduced biliary sterol output with no change in total faecal excretion in mice expressing a human apolipoprotein A-I variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Cinzia; Caligari, Silvia; Gilio, Donatella; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Montagnani, Marco; Locatelli, Marcello; Diani, Erika; Giavarini, Flavio; Caruso, Donatella; Roda, Enrico; Roda, Aldo; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2012-10-01

    Apolipoprotein (apo)A-I(M) (ilano), is a molecular variant of apoA-I(wild-type), associated with dramatically low HDL-cholesterol levels, but no increased risk for cardiovascular disease. In view of the present uncertainties on the role of apoA-I in liver cholesterol removal by way of bile acids and neutral sterols, and of the greater capacity of apoA-I(M) (ilano) to remove arterial cholesterol, biliary sterol metabolism was evaluated in transgenic mice expressing apoA-I(M) (ilano). ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice were fed a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet, and compared with human apoA-I(wild-type) mice. Plasma lipid levels, hepatic bile flow and composition, hepatic and intestinal cholesterol and bile acid content, and faecal sterol content were measured. Moreover, the expression of hepatic ABCA1, SR-B1 and that of hepatic and intestinal genes involved in bile acid metabolism were evaluated. The dietary treatment led to a strong elevation in HDL-cholesterol levels in A-I(M) (ilano) mice, associated with an increased expression of hepatic ABCA1. ApoA-I(M) (ilano) mice showed lower cholesterol output from the liver compared with apoA-I(wild-type) mice, in the absence of liver sterol accumulation. Faecal excretion of neutral sterols and bile acids was similar in the two mouse lines. In spite of a different response to the dietary challenge, with an increased ABCA1 expression and a lower hepatic cholesterol output in apoA-I(M) (ilano) mice, the net sterol excretion is comparable in the two transgenic lines. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Evaluation of white cell count and differential in synovial fluid for diagnosing infections after total hip or knee arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Qu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The accuracy of synovial fluid (SF white cell count (WCC and polymorphonuclear (PMN cell evaluation for predicting prosthetic joint infection (PJI at the total hip arthroplasty (THA or total knee arthroplasty (TKA site is unknown. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to summarize the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN for diagnosing PJI. METHODS: The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and OVID databases were searched for studies that had evaluated the diagnostic validity of SF-WCC and SF-PMN between January 1990 and May 2013. Meta-analysis methods were used to pool sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odd ratios (DORs, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC, positive likelihood ratios (PLR, negative likelihood ratios (NLR, and post-test probability. We also conducted heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses. RESULTS: Fifteen articles (15 SF-WCC and 14 SF-PMN that included a total of 2787 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered for analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for PJI detection was 0.88 (95% confidence intervals [CI], 0.81-0.93 and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.90 (95% CI, 0.84-0.93 and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.83-0.92 for SF-PMN, respectively. The AUC was 0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.95 for SF-PMN. PLR and NLR were 13.3 and 0.13 for SF-WCC, and 7.6 and 0.12 for SF-PMN, respectively. There was no evidence of publication bias. Low-clinical-scenario (pre-test probability, 20% post-test probabilities were 3% for both negative SF-WCC and SF-PMN results. The subgroup analyses indicated that the sensitivity/specificity of THA were 0.73/0.96 for SF-WCC and 0.85/0.83 for SF-PMN, whereas those of TKA were 0.90/0.91 for SF-WCC and 0.90/0.88 for SF-PMN. We also found that collection of SF-WCC preoperatively had a higher sensitivity than that obtained intraoperatively (0.91 vs. 0.77. CONCLUSIONS: SF-WCC and SF-PMN have an adequate and clinically acceptable

  15. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the quantification of free and total sialic acid in human cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ham, Maria; de Koning, Tom J; Lefeber, Dirk; Fleer, André; Prinsen, Berthil H C M T; de Sain-van der Velden, Monique G M

    2010-05-01

    Analysis of sialic acid (SA) metabolites in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is important for clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) method for free sialic acid (FSA) and total sialic acid (TSA) in human CSF was validated. The method utilized a simple sample-preparation procedure of protein precipitation for FSA and acid hydrolysis for TSA. Negative electrospray ionisation was used to monitor the transitions m/z 308.2-->87.0 (SA) and m/z 311.2--> 90.0 ((13)C(3)-SA). Conjugated sialic acid (CSA) was calculated by subtracting FSA from TSA. We established reference intervals for FSA, TSA and CSA in CSF in 217 control subjects. The method has been applied to patients' samples with known differences in SA metabolites like meningitis (n=6), brain tumour (n=2), leukaemia (n=5), and Salla disease (n=1). Limit of detection (LOD) was 0.54 microM for FSA and 0.45 mM for TSA. Intra- and inter-assay variation for FSA (21.8 microM) were 4.8% (n=10) and 10.4% (n=40) respectively. Intra- and inter-assay variation for TSA (35.6 microM) were 9.7% (n=10) and 12.8% (n=40) respectively. Tested patients showed values of TSA above established reference value. The validated method allows sensitive and specific measurement of SA metabolites in CSF and can be applied for clinical diagnoses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical cases of joint disease in horse. Total glycosaminoglycans sulphate and keratansulphate in synovial fluid as markers of degenerative cartilage processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, F.M.; Pezzoli, G.; Borghetti, P.; Benazzi, C.

    1997-01-01

    Total glycosaminoglycans sulphate (GAGs) and keratan sulphate (KS) were measured in synovial fluid (SF) obtained from 28 horses with different joint diseases (degenerative joint disease (DJD), osteochondrosis (OCD), positivity to Flex Test (FT)) and 15 horses without any clinical sign of lameness. All groups of animals with joint disease showed levels of total GAGs significantly higher (P0.001) than normal. On the contrary, only DJD affected joints showed a significantly (P0.01) higher level of KS [it

  17. Innovative direct energy conversion systems from fusion output thermal power to the electrical one with the use of electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.; Osuga, K.

    2003-07-01

    It is shown that with the use of the fusion output and/or environmental thermal energy, innovative open systems for permanent auto-working (PA) direct energy converting (DEC) from the thermal to the electrical (TE) and further to the chemical potential (TEC) energies, abbreviated as PA-TEC-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world. It is analytically shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is analytically proved that the energy conservation law is exactly satisfied in a simple form where the net absorbed thermal power is directly transferred to the electrical power and to the chemical power in the PA-TEC-DEC systems. It is analytically and experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption side and the production one of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side and the lower one of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change mechanisms of the heat pumping by the Peltier effect and of the TE-DEC by the Seebeck effect. The proposed systems gives us freedom of no using the fossil fuel, such as coals, oils, and natural gases that yield serious greenhouse effect all over the earth, and the plant of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., no more environmental pollutions. The PA-TEC-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power and the hydrogen gas resources, compact transportable hydrogen gas producers, the refrigerators, the air conditions, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. (author)

  18. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y: NHANES 2005–2008123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. Objective: We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2–18 y. Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005–2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Results: Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake. PMID:23676421

  19. Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Carley A; Wright, Jacqueline D; Liu, Kiang; Nowson, Caryl A; Loria, Catherine M

    2013-07-01

    Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk. We examined the association between dietary sodium, total fluid, and SSB consumption in a nationally representative sample of US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y. We analyzed cross-sectional data from NHANES 2005-2008. Dietary sodium, fluid, and SSB intakes were assessed with a 24-h dietary recall. Multiple regression analysis was used to assess associations between sodium, fluid, and SSBs adjusted for age, sex, race-ethnic group, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES), and energy intake. Of 6400 participants, 51.3% (n = 3230) were males, and the average (±SEM) age was 10.1 ± 0.1 y. The average sodium intake was 3056 ± 48 mg/d (equivalent to 7.8 ± 0.1 g salt/d). Dietary sodium intake was positively associated with fluid consumption (r = 0.42, P sodium is positively associated with fluid consumption and predicted SSB consumption in consumers of SSBs. The high dietary sodium intake of US children and adolescents may contribute to a greater consumption of SSBs, identifying a possible link between dietary sodium intake and excess energy intake.

  20. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostachowicz, B.; Lankosz, M.; Tomik, B.; Adamek, D.; Wobrauschek, P.; Streli, C.; Kregsamer, P.

    2006-01-01

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group

  1. Analysis of some chosen elements of cerebrospinal fluid and serum in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostachowicz, B. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Lankosz, M. [Department of Radiometric Analyses, Faculty of Physic and Applied Computer Science, AGH, University of Science and Technology, Cracow (Poland); Tomik, B. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Adamek, D. [Institute of Neurology, Collegium Medicum, Jagiellonian University, Cracow (Poland); Wobrauschek, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria); Streli, C. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: streli@ati.ac.at; Kregsamer, P. [Atominstitut, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna (Austria)

    2006-11-15

    Trace elements play an important role in the human central nervous system. Significant variations of the concentration of trace elements in body fluids may occur in neurodegenerative diseases. In the present work an investigation of the elemental composition of the serum, and the cerebrospinal fluid in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients and a control group was performed. For the analysis of the body fluids Total reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry was used. The samples were taken during routine diagnostic procedures. Na, Mg, Cl, K, Ca, Cu, Zn, and Br were determined in both fluids. In order to validate the results of analysis a serum standard reference material was measured. A t-test was applied to check if the mean concentrations of the elements are different for ALS and the control group. For the serum samples higher values for Br were found in the ALS group, for the cerebrospinal fluid lower values of Na, Mg and Zn as well as higher Ca values were found in the ALS group compared to the control group.

  2. Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients’ Drainage Fluids and Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (G and vancomycin (V concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

  3. Aortic and Hepatic Contrast Enhancement During Hepatic-Arterial and Portal Venous Phase Computed Tomography Scanning: Multivariate Linear Regression Analysis Using Age, Sex, Total Body Weight, Height, and Cardiac Output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takanori; Nakaura, Takeshi; Funama, Yoshinori; Higaki, Toru; Kiguchi, Masao; Imada, Naoyuki; Sato, Tomoyasu; Awai, Kazuo

    We evaluated the effect of the age, sex, total body weight (TBW), height (HT) and cardiac output (CO) of patients on aortic and hepatic contrast enhancement during hepatic-arterial phase (HAP) and portal venous phase (PVP) computed tomography (CT) scanning. This prospective study received institutional review board approval; prior informed consent to participate was obtained from all 168 patients. All were examined using our routine protocol; the contrast material was 600 mg/kg iodine. Cardiac output was measured with a portable electrical velocimeter within 5 minutes of starting the CT scan. We calculated contrast enhancement (per gram of iodine: [INCREMENT]HU/gI) of the abdominal aorta during the HAP and of the liver parenchyma during the PVP. We performed univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis between all patient characteristics and the [INCREMENT]HU/gI of aortic- and liver parenchymal enhancement. Univariate linear regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant correlations between the [INCREMENT]HU/gI and the age, sex, TBW, HT, and CO (all P linear regression analysis showed that only the TBW and CO were of independent predictive value (P linear regression analysis only the TBW and CO were significantly correlated with aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement; the age, sex, and HT were not. The CO was the only independent factor affecting aortic and liver parenchymal enhancement at hepatic CT when the protocol was adjusted for the TBW.

  4. Evaluation of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determination of deuterium abundance in body fluids: application to measurement of total-body water in human infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Pearson, G.A.; Serfass, R.E.; Roth, C.W.; Finley, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used to quantitate abundance of 2H in body water of human infants. This method provides precise measurement of total-body water without the extensive sample preparation requirements of previously described methods for determination of 2H content in body fluids. 2H2O (1 g/kg body weight) was administered to infants and saliva and urine were collected for up to 5 h. An internal standard was added directly to the fluid specimen and 2H enrichment in water was measured by NMR spectroscopy. Working range of deuterium abundance was 0.04-0.32 atom %. Coefficients of variation for saliva samples at 0.20 atom % 2H was 1.97%. 2H content in urine and saliva water reached a plateau by 4 h after administration, and amounts in the two fluids were virtually identical. Mean total-body water determination for six infants was 58.3 +/- 5.8% of body weight (range 53-66%)

  5. Total iodine quantification in fluids and tissues from iodine- or iodide-supplemented rats by ion chromatography following microwave-assisted digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Guadalupe; Muñoz-Torres, Carolina; Orozco-Esquivel, Teresa; Anguiano, Brenda; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-03-01

    Iodine is a crucial component of thyroid hormones, and several reports have shown that iodine per se is implicated in the physiopathology of other organs. Innovative ion chromatography detection following a four-step temperature ramp microwave digestion in 25-50 mM nitric acid was developed to measure total iodine in biological fluids and tissue samples from female Sprague-Dawley rats supplemented with 0.05% molecular iodine (I2) or 0.05% potassium iodide (I(-)) in drinking water. The reported method allows the measurement of total iodine with a limit of quantification of 13.7 μg L(-1), recoveries of 96.3-100.3%, and intra- and inter-assay variations, of 3.5% and 7.4% respectively. Analysis of biological fluids showed that after 48 hours, iodine-supplemented animals exhibited significantly higher levels of total iodine in both serum and urine compared with those supplemented with iodide. The half-life of iodine in serum and urine measured over the first 48 h showed similar patterns for both the I2 (7.89 and 7.76 hours) and I(-) (8.27 and 8.90 hours) supplements. Differential uptake patterns were observed in tissues after 6 days of supplements, with I(-) preferentially retained by thyroid, lactating mammary gland, and milk, and a slightly but significantly higher capture of I2 in pituitary, ovary, and virgin mammary gland. We developed a rapid, selective, and accurate digestion method to process fluid and tissue samples that permits reproducible measurements of total iodine by ion chromatography; iodine or iodide supplement show a similar serum and urine half-life, but organ-specific uptake depends on the chemical form of the iodine supplement.

  6. False recognition correlates with amyloid-beta (1-42) but not with total tau in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia and mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Helmut; Haldenwanger, Andreas; Eling, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Severe memory impairment forms the core symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is present early in the disease course. Recent studies show that AD patients not only suffer from forgetfulness, but also differ in their response bias, when having to decide whether information has been perceived recently, or whether it is only familiar or semantically related to perceived information. Changes in total tau-protein and amyloid-beta (Abeta) (1-42) concentration in cerebrospinal fluid are also features of AD, and they predict conversion from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. In this study we correlated recognition scores with total tau and Abeta (1-42) concentrations in patients with suggested dementia. We studied 40 patients and 21 healthy controls, using an incidental recognition memory task and a neuropsychological test battery. False recognition scores correlated with delayed recall and with Abeta(1-42), and Abeta (1-42) tended to correlate with delayed recall. Total tau, however, did not correlate with memory scores or with neuropsychological performance in general. We suggest that Abeta (1-42) may indicate a reduction in the specificity of the neuronal response in the limbic cortex, due to agglomeration of plaques. This process might be more specific for AD than the increase of tau, and therefore it is stronger correlated with recognition errors.

  7. A validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the quantification of total platinum content in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, urine and peritoneal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Lieselotte; Thijssen, Elsy; Noben, Jean-Paul; Adriaensens, Peter; Carleer, Robert; Speeten, Kurt Van der

    2018-04-15

    Oxaliplatin is a platinum (Pt) 1 containing antineoplastic agent that is applied in current clinical practice for the treatment of colon and appendiceal neoplasms. A fully validated, highly sensitive, high throughput inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method is provided to quantify the total Pt content in plasma, plasma ultrafiltrate, urine and peritoneal fluid. In this ICP-MS approach, the only step of sample preparation is a 1000-fold dilution in 0.5% nitric acid, allowing the analysis of 17 samples per hour. Detection of Pt was achieved over a linear range of 0.01-100 ng/mL. The limit of quantification was 18.0 ng/mL Pt in plasma, 8.0 ng/mL in ultrafiltrate and 6.1 ng/mL in urine and peritoneal fluid. The ICP-MS method was further validated for inter-and intraday precision and accuracy (≤15%), recovery, robustness and stability. Short-term storage of the biofluids, for 14 days, can be performed at -4 °C, -24 °C and -80 °C. As to long-term stability, up to 5 months, storage at -80 °C is encouraged. Furthermore, a timeline assessing the total and unbound Pt fraction in plasma and ultrafiltrate over a period of 45 h is provided. Following an incubation period of 5 h at 37 °C, 19-21% of Pt was recovered in the ultrafiltrate, emphasizing the extensive and rapid binding of oxaliplatin-derived Pt to plasma proteins. The described method can easily be implemented in a routine setting for pharmacokinetic studies in patients treated with oxaliplatin-based hyperthermic intraperitoneal perioperative chemotherapy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Unit 16 - Output

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  9. Input-output supervisor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, R.

    1970-01-01

    The input-output supervisor is the program which monitors the flow of informations between core storage and peripheral equipments of a computer. This work is composed of three parts: 1 - Study of a generalized input-output supervisor. With sample modifications it looks like most of input-output supervisors which are running now on computers. 2 - Application of this theory on a magnetic drum. 3 - Hardware requirement for time-sharing. (author) [fr

  10. Energy performance indicator report: fluid milk plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In Canada, the dairy sector consumes significant amounts of energy and is looking for new ways of saving energy. The aim of this study, performed by the Competitive Analysis Centre Inc., was to find novel energy savings ideas for fluid milk plants. For this purpose, the energy consumption of 17 fluid milk plants, which accounts for over 50% of total Canadian output, was analyzed; first, at the plant level, and then by 8 categories at the sub-plant level in order to develop benchmarks that could be applied at both these levels. The paper provides background information on Canada's fluid milk sector and outlines the methodology used to develop and apply energy efficiency measures in the sector; the study findings are also presented. This report found that the energy consumption of the Canadian fluid milk sector could be lowered by applying the energy saving proposals developed herein.

  11. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  12. WRF Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains WRF model output. There are three months of data: July 2012, July 2013, and January 2013. For each month, several simulations were made: A...

  13. VMS forms Output Tables

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These output tables contain parsed and format validated data from the various VMS forms that are sent from any given vessel, while at sea, from the VMS devices on...

  14. Governmentally amplified output volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funashima, Yoshito

    2016-11-01

    Predominant government behavior is decomposed by frequency into several periodic components: updating cycles of infrastructure, Kuznets cycles, fiscal policy over business cycles, and election cycles. Little is known, however, about the theoretical impact of such cyclical behavior in public finance on output fluctuations. Based on a standard neoclassical growth model, this study intends to examine the frequency at which public investment cycles are relevant to output fluctuations. We find an inverted U-shaped relationship between output volatility and length of cycle in public investment. This implies that periodic behavior in public investment at a certain frequency range can cause aggravated output resonance. Moreover, we present an empirical analysis to test the theoretical implication, using the U.S. data in the period from 1968 to 2015. The empirical results suggest that such resonance phenomena change from low to high frequency.

  15. CMAQ Model Output

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — CMAQ and CMAQ-VBS model output. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: Files too large. It can be accessed through the following means: via EPA's NCC tape...

  16. Total plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Hansen, Hanne B; Ring-Larsen, Helmer

    2015-01-01

    the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, extrapolated to infinity. ClU was determined as urinary excretion relative to the plasma concentration-time area up to voiding. Results. In patients without fluid retention, the difference between ClP and ClU (ClP - ClU = ClΔ) was mean 4.5 m...

  17. Low ascitic fluid total protein levels is not associated to the development of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a cohort of 274 patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Silje; Bendtsen, Flemming; Wiese, Signe Skovgaard

    2018-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a complication to decompensated cirrhosis. Fluoroquinolones may prevent SBP. However, predictive markers for SBP are wanted. Guidelines suggest that patients with ascitic fluid protein below 15 g/l receive fluoroquinolones to prevent SBP...

  18. Oil output's changing fortunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Petroleum Economist, previously the Petroleum Press Service, has been making annual surveys of output levels of petroleum in all the oil-producing countries since its founding in 1934. This article documents trends and changes in the major oil-producing countries output from 1934 until the present. This analysis is linked with the political and historical events accompanying these changes, notably the growth of Middle Eastern oil production, the North Sea finds and most recently, Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. (UK)

  19. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  20. Review of a fluid resuscitation protocol: "fluid creep" is not due to nursing error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraklas, Iris; Cochran, Amalia; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Recent reviews of burn resuscitation have included the suggestion that "fluid creep" may be influenced by practitioner error. Our center uses a nursing-driven resuscitation protocol that permits titration of fluid based on hourly urine output, including the addition of colloid when patients fail to respond appropriately. The purpose of this study was to examine protocol compliance. We reviewed 140 patients (26 children) with burns of ≥20% TBSA who received protocol-directed resuscitation from 2005 to 2010. We compared each patient's actual hourly fluid infusion with that predicted by the protocol. Sixty-seven patients (48%) completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone, whereas 73 patients required colloid supplementation. Groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, or time from injury to admission. Patients requiring colloid had larger median total burns (33.0 vs 23.5% TBSA) and full-thickness burns (15.5 vs 4.5% TBSA) and more inhalation injuries (60.3 vs 28.4%; P patients had median predicted requirements of 5.4 ml/kg/%TBSA. Crystalloid-only patients required fluid volumes close to Parkland predictions (4.7 ml/kg/%TBSA), whereas patients who received colloid required more fluid than the predicted volume (7.5 ml/kg/%TBSA). However, the hourly difference between the predicted and received fluids was a median of only 1.0% (interquartile range: -6.1 to 11.1%) and did not differ between groups. Pediatric patients had greater calculated differences than adults. Crystalloid patients exhibited higher urine outputs than colloid patients until colloid was started, suggesting that early over-resuscitation did not contribute to fluid creep. Adherence to our protocol for burn shock resuscitation was excellent overall. Fluid creep exhibited by more seriously injured patients was not due to nurses' failure to follow the protocol. This review has illuminated some opportunities for practice improvement, possibly using a computerized decision support system.

  1. Effects of Measurement Error on the Output Gap in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Kamada; Kazuto Masuda

    2000-01-01

    Potential output is the largest amount of products that can be produced by fully utilizing available labor and capital stock; the output gap is defined as the discrepancy between actual and potential output. If data on production factors contain measurement errors, total factor productivity (TFP) cannot be estimated accurately from the Solow residual(i.e., the portion of output that is not attributable to labor and capital inputs). This may give rise to distortions in the estimation of potent...

  2. Accurate, safe, and rapid method of intraoperative tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy: injection of mixed fluid of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Ehara, Kazuhisa; Ueno, Masaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kaida, Sachiko; Udagawa, Harushi

    2014-04-01

    In totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, determining the resection line with safe proximal margins is often difficult, particularly for tumors located in a relatively upper area. This is because, in contrast to open surgery, identifying lesions by palpating or opening the stomach is essentially impossible. This study introduces a useful method of tumor identification that is accurate, safe, and rapid. On the operation day, after inducing general anesthesia, a mixture of sodium hyaluronate and patent blue is injected into the submucosal layer of the proximal margin. When resecting stomach, all marker spots should be on the resected side. In all cases, the proximal margin is examined histologically by using frozen sections during the operation. From October 2009 to September 2011, a prospective study that evaluated this method was performed. A total of 34 patients who underwent totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy were enrolled in this study. Approximately 5 min was required to complete the procedure. Proximal margins were negative in all cases, and the mean ± standard deviation length of the proximal margin was 23.5 ± 12.8 mm. No side effects, such as allergy, were encountered. As a method of tumor identification for totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy, this procedure appears accurate, safe, and rapid.

  3. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  4. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  5. Quantification of total apolipoprotein E and its specific isoforms in cerebrospinal fluid and blood in Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Rezeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A targeted mass spectrometric assay was developed for identification and quantification of apoE isoforms (apoE2, E3 and E4, and it was utilized for screening of samples from AD patients (n = 39 and patients with other neurodegenerative disorders (n = 38. The assay showed good linearity with LOQ corresponds to total apoE concentration of 0.8 and 40 ng/mL in CSF and plasma/serum, respectively. We identified apoE phenotypes with 100% accuracy in clinical samples. We found strong association between genotypes of the individuals and their apoE levels in blood; ϵ4 allele carriers had significantly lower apoE levels in blood than non-carriers.

  6. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  7. Fluid resuscitation for major burn patients with the TMMU protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gaoxing; Peng, Yizhi; Yuan, Zhiqiang; Cheng, Wenguang; Wu, Jun; Tang, Jin; Huang, Yuesheng; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2009-12-01

    Fluid resuscitation is one of the critical treatments for the major burn patient in the early phases after injury. We evaluated the practice of fluid resuscitation for severely burned patients with the Third Military Medical University (TMMU) protocol, which is most widely used in many regions of China. Patients with major burns (>30% total body surface area (TBSA)) presenting to Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, between January 2005 and October 2007, were included in this study. Fluid resuscitation was initiated by the TMMU protocol. A total of 71 patients were (46 adults and 25 children) included in this study. All patients survived the first 48 h after injury smoothly and none developed abdominal compartment syndrome or other recognised complications associated with fluid resuscitation. The average quantity of fluid infused was 3.3-61.33% more than that calculated based on the TMMU protocol in both adult and paediatric groups. The average urine output during the first 24h after injury was about 1.2 ml per kg body weight per hour in the two groups, but reached 1.2 ml and 1.7 ml during the second 24h in adult and pediatric groups, respectively. This study indicates that the TMMU protocol for fluid resuscitation is a feasible option for burn patients. Individualised resuscitation - guided by the physiological response to fluid administration - is still important as in other protocols.

  8. Improvement of Output Power of ECF Micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Shinichi; Kawamura, Kiyomi; Takemura, Kenjiro; Edamura, Kazuya

    Electro-conjugate fluid (ECF) is a kind of dielectric fluids, which produces jet-flow (ECF jet) when subjected to a high DC voltage. By using the ECF jet, a new type of micromotor with simple structure and lightweight can be realized. Up to now, we developed a disk-plate type ECF micromotor with inner diameter of 9 mm. In this study, we develope novel ECF micromotors with inner diameter of 5 mm in order to improve the output power density. First, we designed and produced the ECF micromotors with 4-layered and 8-layered disk plate rotors. Then, the performances of the motors are measured. The experimental results confirm the motor developed has a higher performance than the previous ones.

  9. Reduction of the concentration and total amount of keratan sulphate in synovial fluid from patients with osteoarthritis during treatment with piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, G J; Bell, M C; Laing, B A; McCappin, S; Blumer, C; Leslie, A

    1992-01-01

    To study the effects of piroxicam on cartilage metabolism in vivo, a three phase (placebo/piroxicam 20 mg/day by mouth/placebo) double blind controlled trial was conducted in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Twenty one patients were recruited, 19 of whom (11 women, eight men, median age 70 years) completed the treatment schedule. The knee joint under study was aspirated to dryness at four week intervals. Treatment with piroxicam was accompanied by a decrease in the pain score, an improvement in the functional index, and an increased range of movement. Reductions in the concentration (mean (SEM) 120 (6) to 110 (8) micrograms/ml) and the total amount (1.22 (0.34) to 0.99 (0.37) mg) of keratan sulphate, but not the effusion volume (9.4 (2.5) to 8.3 (2.6) ml) were observed during treatment with piroxicam. These findings are consistent with decreased proteoglycan catabolism during treatment with piroxicam. Neither depressed synthesis nor enhanced clearance of degraded proteoglycan fragments can be excluded, however. PMID:1632658

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-β 42, Total Tau and Phosphorylated Tau are Low in Patients with Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus: Analogies and Differences with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, Roberto; Cecchetti, Giordano; Bernasconi, Maria Paola; Cardamone, Rosalinda; Barbieri, Alessandra; Pinto, Patrizia; Passerini, Gabriella; Scomazzoni, Francesco; Comi, Giancarlo; Magnani, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Co-existence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a frequent finding, thus a common pathophysiological basis between AD and NPH has been postulated. We measured CSF amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42), total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) concentrations in a sample of 294 patients with different types of dementia and 32 subjects without dementia. We then compared scores on neuropsychological tests of NPH patients with pathological and normal CSF Aβ42 values. Aβ42 levels were significantly lower in NPH than in control patients, with no significant differences between AD and NPH. On the contrary, t-tau and p-tau levels were significantly lower in NPH than in AD, with no differences between NPH and controls. NPH patients with pathological Aβ42 levels did not perform worse than NPH patients with normal Aβ42 levels in any cognitive domains. Our data seem to support the hypothesis of amyloid accumulation in brains of NPH patients. Nevertheless, amyloid does not seem to play a pathogenetic role in the development of cognitive deficits in NPH.

  11. Inverter communications using output signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Patrick L.

    2017-02-07

    Technologies for communicating information from an inverter configured for the conversion of direct current (DC) power generated from an alternative source to alternating current (AC) power are disclosed. The technologies include determining information to be transmitted from the inverter over a power line cable connected to the inverter and controlling the operation of an output converter of the inverter as a function of the information to be transmitted to cause the output converter to generate an output waveform having the information modulated thereon.

  12. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  13. Application of MRIL-WD (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Logging While Drilling) for irreducible water saturation, total reservoir, free-fluid, bound-fluid porosity measurements and its value for the petrophysical analysis of RT/RM data from the Shah Deniz well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirov, Elnur

    2016-04-01

    Sperry-Sun (Sperry Drilling Services) is the leader in MWD/LWD reliability, has developed the industry's first LWD NMR/MRIL-WD (nuclear magnetic resonance) tool. The MRIL-WD (magnetic resonance imaging logging-while-drilling) service directly measures the T1 component of hydrogen in subsurface rock units while drilling to obtain total reservoir porosity and to dissect the observed total porosity into its respective components of free fluid and bound fluid porosity. These T1 data are used to secure accurate total, free-fluid, capillary-bound water, and clay-bound water porosity of the reservoir sections which can be drilled in the several Runs. Over the last decade, results from Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs (NMR) have added significant value to petrophysical analysis and understanding by providing total, free-fluid and bound-fluid porosities, combined with fluid typing capabilities. With MRIL-WD very valuable Real-Time or Recorded Memory data/information is now available during or shortly after the drilling operation (formation properties measurement can be taken right after a drill bit penetration), while trip in and trip out as well. A key point in utilizing MRIL in an LWD environment is motion-tolerant measurements. Recent MRIL-WD logging runs from the Shah Deniz wells located in the Khazarian-Caspian Sea of the Azerbaijan Republic helped to delineate and assess hydrocarbon bearing zones. Acquired results demonstrate how MRIL data can be acquired while-drilling and provide reliable/high quality measurements. Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs at some developments wells have become a cornerstone in formation evaluation and petrophysical understanding. By providing total, free-fluid, and bound-fluid porosities together with fluid typing, MRIL results have significantly added to the assessment of reservoirs. In order to reduce NPT (Non-Productive Time) and save the rig operations time, there is always the desire to obtain logging results as soon as possible

  14. Quantum superchemistry in an output coupler of coherent matter waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, H.; Cheng, J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the quantum superchemistry or Bose-enhanced atom-molecule conversions in a coherent output coupler of matter waves, as a simple generalization of the two-color photoassociation. The stimulated effects of molecular output step and atomic revivals are exhibited by steering the rf output couplings. The quantum noise-induced molecular damping occurs near a total conversion in a levitation trap. This suggests a feasible two-trap scheme to make a stable coherent molecular beam

  15. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  16. Characterizing the effects of cell settling on bioprinter output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, Matthew E; Burg, Timothy C; Burg, Karen J L; Groff, Richard E; Seshadri, Vidya

    2012-01-01

    The time variation in bioprinter output, i.e. the number of cells per printed drop, was studied over the length of a typical printing experiment. This variation impacts the cell population size of bioprinted samples, which should ideally be consistent. The variation in output was specifically studied in the context of cell settling. The bioprinter studied is based on the thermal inkjet HP26A cartridge; however, the results are relevant to other cell delivery systems that draw fluid from a reservoir. A simple mathematical model suggests that the cell concentration in the bottom of the reservoir should increase linearly over time, up to some maximum, and that the cell output should be proportional to this concentration. Two studies were performed in which D1 murine stem cells and similarly sized polystyrene latex beads were printed. The bead output profiles were consistent with the model. The cell output profiles initially followed the increasing trend predicted by the settling model, but after several minutes the cell output peaked and then decreased. The decrease in cell output was found to be associated with the number of use cycles the cartridge had experienced. The differing results for beads and cells suggest that a biological process, such as adhesion, causes the decrease in cell output. Further work will be required to identify the exact process. (communication)

  17. Proteínas totais do liquido cefalorraqueano obtido por punção da cisterna magna: valores normais. Variações ligadas ao sexo Total protein content of normal cisternal cerebrospinal fluid: Variations related to sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Singer Vermes

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available Aplicando o método de Lowry, determinamos as proteínas totais do LCR considerado normal de 98 pessoas: 58 do sexo masculino e 40 do feminino. Todas as amostras de LCR foram obtidas por punção da cisterna magna (LCR-SO. Mediante tratamento estatístico dos valores obtidos, estabelecemos as taxas normais de proteinorraquia cisternal para a população mista: limite superior de 40,36 mg/100 ml, valor médio de 26,78 mg/100 e limite inferior de 13,20 mg/100 ml. Estes valores são superiores àqueles referidos na literatura. Foi verificado que a proteinorraquia total é, em média, significantemente maior nos indivíduos do sexo masculino, que nos de feminino. Consequentemente estabelecemos em separado os níveis normais de proteínas totais do LCR-SO para pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino. As taxas médias de proteínas totais do LCR-SO de pessoas do sexo masculino e feminino são de 28,76 e 23,91 mg/100 ml, respectivamente; os limites normais vão de 16,96 a 47,13 mg/100 ml para o sexo masculino e de 14,76 a 42,76 mg/100 ml para o sexo feminino.The total protein content of CSF collected from the cisterna magna (cisternal fluid of 98 patients (58 males and 40 females with no neurological diseases was determined by the colorimetric method devised by Lowry and co-workers. This method has been previously chosen based mainly on it's sensitivity, accuracy and low fluid consumption. The CSF samples were normal with regard to pressure, color, citology and it's content in glucose, chloride and urea. Complement fixation tests for syphilis and cisticercosis, as well as the globulin tests (Pandy, Nonne — Appelt and Takata-Ara were negative. The average value and the normal range of cisternal fluid total protein was calculated for the mixed population (males and females. The mean protein value was 26.78 mg/100 ml, the lower and upper limits were respectively 13.20 and 40.36 mg/100 ml. These data are higher than those stated in some publications, and

  18. GDP Growth, Potential Output, and Output Gaps in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrima A Faal

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of Mexico's economic growth since the 1960s and compares various decompositions of historical growth into its trend and cyclical components. The role of the implied output gaps in the inflationary process is then assessed. Looking ahead, the paper presents medium-term paths for GDP based on alternative assumptions for productivity growth rates. The results indicate that the most important factor underlying the slowdown in output growth was a decline in trend to...

  19. Evaluation of cysticercus-specific IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibody responses in cerebrospinal fluid samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandra Akemi Suzuki

    Full Text Available In the present study, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA standardized with vesicular fluid of Taenia solium cysticerci was used to screen for IgG (total and subclasses and IgE antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis showing intrathecal production of specific IgG antibodies and patients with other neurological disorders. The following results were obtained: IgG-ELISA: 100% sensitivity (median of the ELISA absorbances (MEA=1.17 and 100% specificity; IgG1-ELISA: 72.7% sensitivity (MEA=0.49 and 100% specificity; IgG2-ELISA: 81.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.46 and 100% specificity; IgG3-ELISA: 63.6% sensitivity (MEA=0.12 and 100% specificity; IgG4-ELISA: 90.9% sensitivity (MEA=0.85 and 100% specificity; IgE-ELISA 93.8% sensitivity (MEA=0.60 and 100% specificity. There were no significant differences between the sensitivities and specificities in the detection of IgG-ELISA and IgE-ELISA, although in CSF samples from patients with neurocysticercosis the MEA of the IgG-ELISA was significantly higher than that of the IgE-ELISA. The sensitivity and MEA values of the IgG4-ELISA were higher than the corresponding values for the other IgG subclasses. Future studies should address the contribution of IgG4 and IgE antibodies to the physiopathology of neurocysticercosis.

  20. Period meter output in response to terminated ramps of reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummins, J D [Dynamics Group, Control and Instrumentation Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1962-07-15

    The time behaviour of the period meter output has been determined for a range of total reactivity injections and reactivity rates. Some results which are directly applicable to graphite gas cooled reactors are given. (author)

  1. Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området.......Hvad får vi egentlig ud af internationale komparative undersøgelser som PISA, PIRLS og TIMSS? Hvordan påvirker de dansk uddannelsespolitik? Asterisk har talt med tre forskere med ekspertise på området....

  2. Turbulent Output-Based Anisotropic Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Carlson, Jan-Renee

    2010-01-01

    Controlling discretization error is a remaining challenge for computational fluid dynamics simulation. Grid adaptation is applied to reduce estimated discretization error in drag or pressure integral output functions. To enable application to high O(10(exp 7)) Reynolds number turbulent flows, a hybrid approach is utilized that freezes the near-wall boundary layer grids and adapts the grid away from the no slip boundaries. The hybrid approach is not applicable to problems with under resolved initial boundary layer grids, but is a powerful technique for problems with important off-body anisotropic features. Supersonic nozzle plume, turbulent flat plate, and shock-boundary layer interaction examples are presented with comparisons to experimental measurements of pressure and velocity. Adapted grids are produced that resolve off-body features in locations that are not known a priori.

  3. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  4. Fluid Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  5. Redesign lifts prep output 288%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamric, J

    1987-02-01

    This paper outlines the application of engineering creativity and how it brought output at an Ohio coal preparation plant up from 12,500 tpd to nearly four times that figure, 48,610 tpd. By streamlining the conveyor systems, removing surplus belt length and repositioning subplants the whole operation was able to run far more efficiently with a greater output. Various other alterations including the raw material supply and management and operating practices were also undertaken to provide a test for the achievements possible with such reorganization. The new developments have been in the following fields: fine coal cleaning, heavy media cyclones, feeders, bins, filter presses, dewatering equipment and settling tanks. Output is now limited only by the reduced demand by the Gavin power station nearby.

  6. Output factors and scatter ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, P N; Summers, R E; Samulski, T V; Baird, L C [Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA); Ahuja, A S; Dubuque, G L; Hendee, W R; Chhabra, A S

    1979-07-01

    Reference is made to a previous publication on output factors and scatter ratios for radiotherapy units in which it was suggested that the output factor should be included in the definitions of scatter-air ratio and tissue-maximum ratio. In the present correspondence from other authors and from the authors of the previous publication, the original definitions and the proposed changes are discussed. Radiation scatter from source and collimator degradation of beam energy and calculation of dose in tissue are considered in relation to the objective of accurate dosimetry.

  7. AP-IO: asynchronous pipeline I/O for hiding periodic output cost in CFD simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoguang, Ren; Xinhai, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO) optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%.

  8. AP-IO: Asynchronous Pipeline I/O for Hiding Periodic Output Cost in CFD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiaoguang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation often needs to periodically output intermediate results to files in the form of snapshots for visualization or restart, which seriously impacts the performance. In this paper, we present asynchronous pipeline I/O (AP-IO optimization scheme for the periodically snapshot output on the basis of asynchronous I/O and CFD application characteristics. In AP-IO, dedicated background I/O processes or threads are in charge of handling the file write in pipeline mode, therefore the write overhead can be hidden with more calculation than classic asynchronous I/O. We design the framework of AP-IO and implement it in OpenFOAM, providing CFD users with a user-friendly interface. Experimental results on the Tianhe-2 supercomputer demonstrate that AP-IO can achieve a good optimization effect for the periodical snapshot output in CFD application, and the effect is especially better for massively parallel CFD simulations, which can reduce the total execution time up to about 40%.

  9. Early pleural fluid dynamics following video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy has limited clinical value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbek, Bo Laksáfoss; Petersen, René Horsleben; Kehlet, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of predicting the pleural fluid output in patients after video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy of the lung. Detailed measurements of continuous fluid output were obtained prospectively using an electronic thoracic drainage device (Thopaz...... and 48 hours. Assessment of initial fluid production may predict high 24-hour fluid output (≥500 mL) but seems to lack clinical value in drain removal criteria....

  10. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  11. World Input-Output Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cerina

    Full Text Available Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries.

  12. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  13. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  14. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. NASA Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sanford (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The Ames Fluid Mechanics Laboratory research program is presented in a series of research briefs. Nineteen projects covering aeronautical fluid mechanics and related areas are discussed and augmented with the publication and presentation output of the Branch for the period 1990-1993.

  16. Biodegradability of unused lubricating brake fluids in fresh and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradability of four unused lubricating brake fluids (Total brake fluid, Allied brake fluid, Oando brake fluid and Ate brake fluid) was carried out in fresh and marine water obtained from Isiokpo stream and Bonny river of the Niger Delta, South South Nigeria. Biodegradability, of the brake fluids were obtained after a 56 ...

  17. Buffer fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Dedusanko, G Ya; Dinaburg, L S; Markov, Yu M; Rasizade, Ya N; Rozov, V N; Sherstnev, N M

    1979-08-30

    A drilling fluid is suggested for separating the drilling and plugging fluids which contains as the base increased solution of polyacrylamide and additive. In order to increase the viscoelastic properties of the liquid with simultaneous decrease in the periods of its fabrication, the solution contains as an additive dry bentonite clay. In cases of the use of a buffer fluid under conditions of negative temperatures, it is necessary to add to it table salt or ethylene glycol.

  18. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output......This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC....... The net power outputs of all the feasible working fluids were ranked including their uncertainties. The method could propagate and quantify the input property uncertainty of the fluidproperty parameters to the ORC model, giving an additional dimension to the fluid selection process. In the given analysis...

  19. Cooled solar PV panels for output energy efficiency optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhijun; Herfatmanesh, Mohammad R.; Liu, Yiming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of cooling on solar PV performance have been experimentally investigated. • As a solar panel is cooled down, the electric output can have significant increase. • A cooled solar PV system has been proposed for resident application. • Life cycle assessment suggests the cost payback time of cooled PV can be reduced. - Abstract: As working temperature plays a critical role in influencing solar PV’s electrical output and efficacy, it is necessary to examine possible way for maintaining the appropriate temperature for solar panels. This research is aiming to investigate practical effects of solar PV surface temperature on output performance, in particular efficiency. Experimental works were carried out under different radiation condition for exploring the variation of the output voltage, current, output power and efficiency. After that, the cooling test was conducted to find how much efficiency improvement can be achieved with the cooling condition. As test results show the efficiency of solar PV can have an increasing rate of 47% with the cooled condition, a cooling system is proposed for possible system setup of residential solar PV application. The system performance and life cycle assessment suggest that the annual PV electric output efficiencies can increase up to 35%, and the annual total system energy efficiency including electric output and hot water energy output can increase up to 107%. The cost payback time can be reduced to 12.1 years, compared to 15 years of the baseline of a similar system without cooling sub-system.

  20. UFO - The Universal FEYNRULES Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrande, Céline; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Grellscheid, David; Mattelaer, Olivier; Reiter, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    We present a new model format for automatized matrix-element generators, the so-called Universal FEYNRULES Output (UFO). The format is universal in the sense that it features compatibility with more than one single generator and is designed to be flexible, modular and agnostic of any assumption such as the number of particles or the color and Lorentz structures appearing in the interaction vertices. Unlike other model formats where text files need to be parsed, the information on the model is encoded into a PYTHON module that can easily be linked to other computer codes. We then describe an interface for the MATHEMATICA package FEYNRULES that allows for an automatic output of models in the UFO format.

  1. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  2. Aggregate Supply and Potential Output

    OpenAIRE

    Razin, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    The New-Keynesian aggregate supply derives from micro-foundations an inflation-dynamics model very much like the tradition in the monetary literature. Inflation is primarily affected by: (i) economic slack; (ii) expectations; (iii) supply shocks; and (iv) inflation persistence. This paper extends the New Keynesian aggregate supply relationship to include also fluctuations in potential output, as an additional determinant of the relationship. Implications for monetary rules and to the estimati...

  3. Schroedinger fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.K.

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of nuclear internal flow and collective inertia, the difference of this flow from that of a classical fluid, and the approach of this flow to rigid flow in independent-particle model rotation are elucidated by reviewing the theory of Schroedinger fluid and its implications for collective vibration and rotation. (author)

  4. Performance Analysis and Working Fluid Selection of a Supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle for Low Grade Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yourong Li

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The performance analysis of a supercritical organic Rankine cycle system driven by exhaust heat using 18 organic working fluids is presented. Several parameters, such as the net power output, exergy efficiency, expander size parameter (SP, and heat exchanger requirement of evaporator and the condenser, were used to evaluate the performance of this recovery cycle and screen the working fluids. The results reveal that in most cases, raising the expander inlet temperature is helpful to improve the net power output and the exergy efficiency. However, the effect of the expander inlet pressure on those parameters is related to the expander inlet temperature and working fluid used. Either lower expander inlet temperature and pressure, or higher expander inlet temperature and pressure, generally makes the net power output more. Lower expander inlet temperature results in larger total heat transfer requirement and expander size. According to the screening criteria of both the higher output and the lower investment, the following working fluids for the supercritical ORC system are recommended: R152a and R143a.

  5. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  6. Judicial Influence on Policy Outputs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2015-01-01

    to override unwanted jurisprudence. In this debate, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) has become famous for its central and occasionally controversial role in European integration. This article examines to what extent and under which conditions judicial decisions influence European Union (EU......) social policy outputs. A taxonomy of judicial influence is constructed, and expectations of institutional and political conditions on judicial influence are presented. The analysis draws on an extensive novel data set and examines judicial influence on EU social policies over time, that is, between 1958...

  7. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernard, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a focused, readable account of the principal physical and mathematical ideas at the heart of fluid dynamics. Graduate students in engineering, applied math, and physics who are taking their first graduate course in fluids will find this book invaluable in providing the background in physics and mathematics necessary to pursue advanced study. The book includes a detailed derivation of the Navier-Stokes and energy equations, followed by many examples of their use in studying the dynamics of fluid flows. Modern tensor analysis is used to simplify the mathematical derivations, thus allowing a clearer view of the physics. Peter Bernard also covers the motivation behind many fundamental concepts such as Bernoulli's equation and the stream function. Many exercises are designed with a view toward using MATLAB or its equivalent to simplify and extend the analysis of fluid motion including developing flow simulations based on techniques described in the book.

  8. Working fluid selection for organic Rankine cycles - Impact of uncertainty of fluid properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frutiger, Jerome; Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a generic methodology to select working fluids for ORC (Organic Rankine Cycles)taking into account property uncertainties of the working fluids. A Monte Carlo procedure is described as a tool to propagate the influence of the input uncertainty of the fluid parameters on the ORC...... modeloutput, and provides the 95%-confidence interval of the net power output with respect to the fluid property uncertainties. The methodology has been applied to a molecular design problem for an ORCusing a low-temperature heat source and consisted of the following four parts: 1) formulation...... of processmodels and constraints 2) selection of property models, i.e. Penge Robinson equation of state 3)screening of 1965 possible working fluid candidates including identification of optimal process parametersbased on Monte Carlo sampling 4) propagating uncertainty of fluid parameters to the ORC netpower output...

  9. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  10. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  11. Brillouin spectroscopy as a new method of screening for increased CSF total protein during bacterial meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Zachary; Meng, Zhaokai; Traverso, Andrew J; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a disease of pronounced clinical significance, especially in the developing world. Immediate treatment with antibiotics is essential, and no single test can provide a conclusive diagnosis. It is well established that elevated total protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with bacterial meningitis. Brillouin spectroscopy is a widely used optical technique for noninvasive determination of the elastic moduli of materials. We found that elevated protein levels in CSF alter the fluid elasticity sufficiently to be measurable by Brillouin spectroscopy, with model healthy and diseased fluids distinguishable to marked significance (P = 0.014), which increases with sample concentration by dialysis. Typical raw output of a 2-stage VIPA Brillouin spectrometer: inelastically scattered Brillouin peaks (arrows) and elastically scattered incident radiation (center cross). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks

    CERN Document Server

    Saliji, Albulena

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the work that I have been doing during these past eight weeks as a Summer Student at CERN. The task which was assigned to me had to do with the integration of TMVA Output into Jupyter notebooks. In order to integrate the TMVA Output into the Jupyter notebook, first, improvement of the TMVA Output in the terminal was required. Once the output was improved, it needed to be transformed into HTML output and at the end it would be possible to integrate that output into the Jupyter notebook.

  13. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  14. Conversion of a reactor to partial power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljunin, W.G.; Kusnezow, I.A.; Murogow, W.M.; Schmelew, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    The method, among other things, involves an increase in the rate of secondary fissile material production in a fast breeder reactor if the flow of the working fluid through a turbine is reduced as a function of a given amount of reduction of the electric load. This objective will be served by a circuit and circuit variants, respectively, which include a high temperature cooling circuit with, for instance, a sodium cooled HTR, a low temperature cooling circuit with, for instance, a fast or thermal breeder reactor, a working fluid circuit with the turbine, and a heat consumption circuit. In the scheme suggested for operation in the partial power production mode it is envisaged that, as the electric load of the plant decreases the flow of the working fluid upstream of the turbine is kept constant by means of a control system in the working fluid circuit. Additional control systems are used to reduce the amount of heat transmitted by the breeder reactor to the working fluid. The excess amount of heat is distributed to the load connected. This again reduces the temperatures at the inlet and the outlet of the breeder reactor, thus raising its thermal power output. However, the flow through the breeder reactor remains constant all the time. (DG/RF) [de

  15. Floating Gate CMOS Dosimeter With Frequency Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Moreno, E.; Isern, E.; Roca, M.; Picos, R.; Font, J.; Cesari, J.; Pineda, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a gamma radiation dosimeter based on a floating gate sensor. The sensor is coupled with a signal processing circuitry, which furnishes a square wave output signal, the frequency of which depends on the total dose. Like any other floating gate dosimeter, it exhibits zero bias operation and reprogramming capabilities. The dosimeter has been designed in a standard 0.6 m CMOS technology. The whole dosimeter occupies a silicon area of 450 m250 m. The initial sensitivity to a radiation dose is Hz/rad, and to temperature and supply voltage is kHz/°C and 0.067 kHz/mV, respectively. The lowest detectable dose is less than 1 rad.

  16. Goal-Directed Fluid Resuscitation Protocol Based on Arterial Waveform Analysis of Major Burn Patients in a Mass Burn Casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Hao-Yu; Chou, Chang-Yi; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Dai, Niann-Tzyy

    2018-02-01

    Adequate fluid titration during the initial resuscitation period of major burn patients is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of a goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol that used hourly urine output plus the arterial waveform analysis FloTrac (Edwards LifeSciences, Irvine, Calif) system for major burns to avoid fluid overload. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 43 major burn patients at the Tri-Service General Hospital after the Formosa Fun Coast Dust Explosion on June 27, 2015. Because of the limited capacity of intensive care units (ICUs), 23 intubated patients were transferred from the burn wards or emergency department to the ICU within 24 hours. Fluid administration was adjusted to achieve a urine output of 30 to 50 mL/h, cardiac index greater than 2.5 L/min/m, and stroke volume variation (SVV) less than 12%. The hourly crystalloid fluid infusion rate was titrated based on SVV and hourly urine output. Of the 23 critically burned patients admitted to the ICU, 13 patients who followed the goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol within 12 hours postburn were included in the analysis. The mean age (years) was 21.8, and the mean total body surface area (TBSA) burned (%) was 68.0. The mean Revised Baux score was 106.8. All patients sustained inhalation injury. The fluid volumes administered to patients in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/% total body surface area) were 3.62 ± 1.23 and 2.89 ± 0.79, respectively. The urine outputs in the first 24 hours and the second 24 hours (mL/kg/h) were 1.13 ± 0.66 and 1.53 ± 0.87, respectively. All patients achieved the established goals within 32 hours postburn. In-hospital mortality rate was 0%. The SVV-based goal-directed fluid resuscitation protocol leads to less unnecessary fluid administration during the early resuscitation phase. Clinicians can efficaciously manage the dynamic body fluid changes in major burn patients under the guidance of the protocol.

  17. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  18. Probabilistic Output Analysis by Program Manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of a probabilistic output analysis is to derive a probability distribution of possible output values for a program from a probability distribution of its input. We present a method for performing static output analysis, based on program transformation techniques. It generates a probability...

  19. Scientific Output of Croatian Universities: Comparison with Neighbouring Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Podobnik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We compared the Croatian research output with the neighboring countries and the Croatian universities with the largest Slovenian, Hungarian, and Serbian universities. As far as papers listed by Social Science Citation Index are concerned, since 2000 the University of Zagreb exhibits best results in social sciences compared to the competing universities, that is not the case in “hard” sciences. For the last 12 years, only the University of Ljubljana has shown better results in total research output than the University of Zagreb. The difference in research output between the University of Zagreb and the rest of the Croatian universities has been constantly decreasing. As a case study we compare research output at Faculty of Civil Engeenering on different Croatian universities. By analyzing European countries, we show a functional dependence between the gross domestic product (GDP and the research output. From this fit we conclude that the Croatian science exhibits research output as expected for the given level of GDP.

  20. Model output: fact or artefact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Lieke

    2015-04-01

    As a third-year PhD-student, I relatively recently entered the wonderful world of scientific Hydrology. A science that has many pillars that directly impact society, for example with the prediction of hydrological extremes (both floods and drought), climate change, applications in agriculture, nature conservation, drinking water supply, etcetera. Despite its demonstrable societal relevance, hydrology is often seen as a science between two stools. Like Klemeš (1986) stated: "By their academic background, hydrologists are foresters, geographers, electrical engineers, geologists, system analysts, physicists, mathematicians, botanists, and most often civil engineers." Sometimes it seems that the engineering genes are still present in current hydrological sciences, and this results in pragmatic rather than scientific approaches for some of the current problems and challenges we have in hydrology. Here, I refer to the uncertainty in hydrological modelling that is often neglected. For over thirty years, uncertainty in hydrological models has been extensively discussed and studied. But it is not difficult to find peer-reviewed articles in which it is implicitly assumed that model simulations represent the truth rather than a conceptualization of reality. For instance in trend studies, where data is extrapolated 100 years ahead. Of course one can use different forcing datasets to estimate the uncertainty of the input data, but how to prevent that the output is not a model artefact, caused by the model structure? Or how about impact studies, e.g. of a dam impacting river flow. Measurements are often available for the period after dam construction, so models are used to simulate river flow before dam construction. Both are compared in order to qualify the effect of the dam. But on what basis can we tell that the model tells us the truth? Model validation is common nowadays, but validation only (comparing observations with model output) is not sufficient to assume that a

  1. Canada's helium output rising fast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-12-01

    About 12 months from now, International Helium Limited will be almost ready to start up Canada's second helium extraction plant at Mankota, in Saskatchewan's Wood Mountain area about 100 miles southwest of Moose Jaw. Another 80 miles north is Saskatchewan's (and Canada's) first helium plant, operated by Canadian Helium and sitting on a gas deposit at Wilhelm, 9 miles north of Swift Current. It contains almost 2% helium, some COD2U, and the rest nitrogen. One year in production was apparently enough to convince Canadian Helium that the export market (it sells most of its helium in W. Europe) can take a lot more than it's getting. Construction began this summer on an addition to the Swift Current plant that will raise its capacity from 12 to 36MMcf per yr when it goes on stream next spring. Six months later, International Helium's 40 MMcf per yr plant to be located about 4 miles from its 2 Wood Mountain wells will double Canada's helium output again.

  2. (YIP 2011) Unsteady Output-based Adaptive Simulation of Separated and Transitional Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-19

    Investigator Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Marco Ceze Ph.D. student/postdoctoral associate Aerospace Eng. U. Michigan Steven Kast Ph.D. student Aerospace...13] S. M. Kast , M. A. Ceze, and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-adaptive solution strategies for unsteady aerodynamics on deformable domains. Seventh...International Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics ICCFD7-3802, 2012. [14] S. M. Kast and K. J. Fidkowski. Output-based mesh adaptation for high order

  3. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This text offers the most comprehensive approach available to fluid mechanics. The author takes great care to insure a physical understanding of concepts grounded in applied mathematics. The presentation of theory is followed by engineering applications, helping students develop problem-solving skills from the perspective of a professional engineer. Extensive use of detailed examples reinforces the understanding of theoretical concepts

  4. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  5. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  6. The 'icon' of output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bligh, L.N.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Output efficiency (OE) is a well-validated parameter used in the assessment of hydronephrosis. Current analysis on Microdelta appears to produce few low OE values and occasional inability to produce a result. We sought an OE program which gave a reliable response over the full range of values. The aims of this study were to determine: (1) whether OE results are comparable between two computer systems; (2) a normal range for OE on an ICON; (3) inter-observer reproducibility; and (4) the correlation between the two programs and the residual cortical activity ratio (RCA), an index which assesses tracer washout from the 20 min cortical activity/peak cortical activity. Accordingly, two blinded medical radiation scientists reviewed 41 kidneys (26 native, 15 transplant) and calculated OE for each kidney on the ICON and Microdelta computers The OE on the Microdelta and the ICON had good correspondence (r = 0.6%, SEE = 6.2). The extrapolated normal range for ICON OE was 69-92% (mean 80.9%). The inter-observer reproducibility on the ICON was excellent with a CV of 8.7%. ICON OE and RCA had a strong correlation (r = - 0.77, SEE = 0.09), compared with a weaker correlation for the Microdelta (r = 0.47, SEE = 0.13). Processing on the ICON was almost half that of the Microdelta at 4 min compared with 7 min. We conclude that OE generated by these computer programs has good correlation, an established normal range, excellent interobserver reproducibility, but differing correlation with RCA. The response of the ICON program to low ranges of OE is being investigated further

  7. Fluid dynamics of dilatant fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Hiizu; Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

    2012-01-01

    of the state variable, we demonstrate that the model can describe basic features of the dilatant fluid such as the stress-shear rate curve that represents discontinuous severe shear thickening, hysteresis upon changing shear rate, and instantaneous hardening upon external impact. An analysis of the model...

  8. Eating marshmallows reduces ileostomy output: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarebrough, E; Guest, G; Stupart, D

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotally, many ostomates believe that eating marshmallows can reduce ileostomy effluent. There is a plausible mechanism for this, as the gelatine contained in marshmallows may thicken small bowel fluid, but there is currently no evidence that this is effective. This was a randomized crossover trial. Adult patients with well-established ileostomies were included. Ileostomy output was measured for 1 week during which three marshmallows were consumed three times daily, and for one control week where marshmallows were not eaten. There was a 2-day washout period. Patients were randomly allocated to whether the control or intervention week occurred first. In addition, a questionnaire was administered regarding patient's subjective experience of their ileostomy function. Thirty-one participants were recruited; 28 completed the study. There was a median reduction in ileostomy output volume of 75 ml per day during the study period (P = 0.0054, 95% confidence interval 23.4-678.3) compared with the control week. Twenty of 28 subjects (71%) experienced a reduction in their ileostomy output, two had no change and six reported an increase. During the study period, participants reported fewer ileostomy bag changes (median five per day vs six in the control period, P = 0.0255). Twenty of 28 (71%) reported that the ileostomy effluent was thicker during the study week (P = 0.023). Overall 19 (68%) participants stated they would use marshmallows in the future if they wanted to reduce or thicken their ileostomy output. Eating marshmallows leads to a small but statistically significant reduction in ileostomy output. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ruban, Anatoly I

    This is the first book in a four-part series designed to give a comprehensive and coherent description of Fluid Dynamics, starting with chapters on classical theory suitable for an introductory undergraduate lecture course, and then progressing through more advanced material up to the level of modern research in the field. The present Part 1 consists of four chapters. Chapter 1 begins with a discussion of Continuum Hypothesis, which is followed by an introduction to macroscopic functions, the velocity vector, pressure, density, and enthalpy. We then analyse the forces acting inside a fluid, and deduce the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible and compressible fluids in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates. In Chapter 2 we study the properties of a number of flows that are presented by the so-called exact solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations, including the Couette flow between two parallel plates, Hagen-Poiseuille flow through a pipe, and Karman flow above an infinite rotating disk. Chapter 3 is d...

  10. The causal link between energy and output growth: Evidence from Markov switching Granger causality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir Kocaaslan, Ozge

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we empirically investigate the causal link between energy consumption and economic growth employing a Markov switching Granger causality analysis. We carry out our investigation using annual U.S. real GDP, total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption data which cover the period between 1968 and 2010. We find that there are significant changes in the causal relation between energy consumption and economic growth over the sample period under investigation. Our results show that total final energy consumption and total primary energy consumption have significant predictive content for real economic activity in the U.S. economy. Furthermore, the causality running from energy consumption to output growth seems to be strongly apparent particularly during the periods of economic downturn and energy crisis. We also document that output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. Furthermore, the power of output growth in predicting total energy consumption is found to diminish after the mid of 1980s. - Highlights: • Total energy consumption has predictive content for real economic activity. • The causality from energy to output growth is apparent in the periods of recession. • The causality from energy to output growth is strong in the periods of energy crisis. • Output growth has predictive power in explaining total energy consumption. • The power of output growth in explaining energy diminishes after the mid of 1980s

  11. Energy and output dynamics in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Biru Paksha; Uddin, Gazi Salah

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between energy consumption and output is still ambiguous in the existing literature. The economy of Bangladesh, having spectacular output growth and rising energy demand as well as energy efficiency in recent decades, can be an ideal case for examining energy-output dynamics. We find that while fluctuations in energy consumption do not affect output fluctuations, movements in output inversely affect movements in energy use. The results of Granger causality tests in this respect are consistent with those of innovative accounting that includes variance decompositions and impulse responses. Autoregressive distributed lag models also suggest a role of output in Bangladesh's energy use. Hence, the findings of this study have policy implications for other developing nations where measures for energy conservation and efficiency can be relevant in policymaking.

  12. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  13. Modelling Transcapillary Transport of Fluid and Proteins in Hemodialysis Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Pietribiasi

    Full Text Available The kinetics of protein transport to and from the vascular compartment play a major role in the determination of fluid balance and plasma refilling during hemodialysis (HD sessions. In this study we propose a whole-body mathematical model describing water and protein shifts across the capillary membrane during HD and compare its output to clinical data while evaluating the impact of choosing specific values for selected parameters.The model follows a two-compartment structure (vascular and interstitial space and is based on balance equations of protein mass and water volume in each compartment. The capillary membrane was described according to the three-pore theory. Two transport parameters, the fractional contribution of large pores (αLP and the total hydraulic conductivity (LpS of the capillary membrane, were estimated from patient data. Changes in the intensity and direction of individual fluid and solute flows through each part of the transport system were analyzed in relation to the choice of different values of small pores radius and fractional conductivity, lymphatic sensitivity to hydraulic pressure, and steady-state interstitial-to-plasma protein concentration ratio.The estimated values of LpS and αLP were respectively 10.0 ± 8.4 mL/min/mmHg (mean ± standard deviation and 0.062 ± 0.041. The model was able to predict with good accuracy the profiles of plasma volume and serum total protein concentration in most of the patients (average root-mean-square deviation < 2% of the measured value.The applied model provides a mechanistic interpretation of fluid transport processes induced by ultrafiltration during HD, using a minimum of tuned parameters and assumptions. The simulated values of individual flows through each kind of pore and lymphatic absorption rate yielded by the model may suggest answers to unsolved questions on the relative impact of these not-measurable quantities on total vascular refilling and fluid balance.

  14. Fluid balance concepts in medicine: Principles and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roumelioti, Maria-Eleni; Glew, Robert H; Khitan, Zeid J; Rondon-Berrios, Helbert; Argyropoulos, Christos P; Malhotra, Deepak; Raj, Dominic S; Agaba, Emmanuel I; Rohrscheib, Mark; Murata, Glen H; Shapiro, Joseph I; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H

    2018-01-01

    The regulation of body fluid balance is a key concern in health and disease and comprises three concepts. The first concept pertains to the relationship between total body water (TBW) and total effective solute and is expressed in terms of the tonicity of the body fluids. Disturbances in tonicity are the main factor responsible for changes in cell volume, which can critically affect brain cell function and survival. Solutes distributed almost exclusively in the extracellular compartment (mainly sodium salts) and in the intracellular compartment (mainly potassium salts) contribute to tonicity, while solutes distributed in TBW have no effect on tonicity. The second body fluid balance concept relates to the regulation and measurement of abnormalities of sodium salt balance and extracellular volume. Estimation of extracellular volume is more complex and error prone than measurement of TBW. A key function of extracellular volume, which is defined as the effective arterial blood volume (EABV), is to ensure adequate perfusion of cells and organs. Other factors, including cardiac output, total and regional capacity of both arteries and veins, Starling forces in the capillaries, and gravity also affect the EABV. Collectively, these factors interact closely with extracellular volume and some of them undergo substantial changes in certain acute and chronic severe illnesses. Their changes result not only in extracellular volume expansion, but in the need for a larger extracellular volume compared with that of healthy individuals. Assessing extracellular volume in severe illness is challenging because the estimates of this volume by commonly used methods are prone to large errors in many illnesses. In addition, the optimal extracellular volume may vary from illness to illness, is only partially based on volume measurements by traditional methods, and has not been determined for each illness. Further research is needed to determine optimal extracellular volume levels in several

  15. Output Control Using Feedforward And Cascade Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1990-01-01

    Report presents theoretical study of open-loop control elements in single-input, single-output linear system. Focus on output-control (servomechanism) problem, in which objective is to find control scheme that causes output to track certain command inputs and to reject certain disturbance inputs in steady state. Report closes with brief discussion of characteristics and relative merits of feedforward, cascade, and feedback controllers and combinations thereof.

  16. Post-Exercise Rehydration Strategies: Rate of Fluid Intake and Beverage Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Mayol Soto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of a high (H and a low (L rate of fluid consumption with plain water (W or a sports drink (SD on post-exercise fluid balance, and to evaluate whether the known differences between beverages depend on the fluid ingestion rate. Active male subjects (n=16 performed four trials in random order. The participants arrived to the trials euhydrated and were dehydrated to 2% of body weight (BW by cycling intermittently in a controlled climate room (30-35úC. After 30 min of rest, they ingested either W or SD in a volume equivalent to 150% of BW loss, in 45 min (high rate, R or 165 min (low rate, L. At the time point coinciding with the end of H, urine samples were collected every 30 min for four hours. BW loss was similar for all trials and resulted in a total fluid consumption of 2.48 + 0.4 l. Overall, urine output in W exceeded significantly that of SD in both rates of fluid consumption (p=0.001, but there were no differences between L and R (p=0.378. Subjects finished in negative fluid balance in all trials. It is concluded that SD resulted in better but incomplete restoration of fluid balance than W, independent of the rate of fluid consumption. Although overall fluid balance was the same with both ingestion rates (L and H, L was more comfortable to the subjects.

  17. Fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschivoiu, I.; Prud'homme, M.; Robillard, L.; Vasseur, P.

    2003-01-01

    This book constitutes at the same time theoretical and practical base relating to the phenomena associated with fluid mechanics. The concept of continuum is at the base of the approach developed in this work. The general advance proceeds of simple balances of forces as into hydrostatic to more complex situations or inertias, the internal stresses and the constraints of Reynolds are taken into account. This advance is not only theoretical but contains many applications in the form of solved problems, each chapter ending in a series of suggested problems. The major part of the applications relates to the incompressible flows

  18. A theoretical study of the energy output of two magnetohydrodynamic generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergnes, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The outputs of two alternating-current generators consisting of rectangular conduits which contain an electroconducting viscous fluid and are subjected to a uniform magnetic induction field are compared. This study supposes that the electric circuit is closed by a resistance R [fr

  19. Effect of Hemorrhage on Cardiac Output, PVP, Alodosterone and Diuresis during Immersion in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanonok, K.; Greenleaf, John E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Wade, C. E.; Keil, L. C.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a reduction in blood volume would attenuate or eliminate immersion-induced increases in cardiac output (Q (sup dot) sub co)) and urine excretion, and to investigate accompanying vasoactive and fluid-electrolyte hormonal responses.

  20. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  1. Principles of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book is an introduction on fluid mechanics incorporating computer applications. Topics covered are as follows: brief history; what is a fluid; two classes of fluids: liquids and gases; the continuum model of a fluid; methods of analyzing fluid flows; important characteristics of fluids; fundamentals and equations of motion; fluid statics; dimensional analysis and the similarity principle; laminar internal flows; ideal flow; external laminar and channel flows; turbulent flow; compressible flow; fluid flow measurements

  2. DIST/AVC Out-Put Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    The first stage of development of a management information system for DIST/AVC (Division of Instructional Technology/Audio-Visual Center) is the definition of out-put units. Some constraints on the definition of output units are: 1) they should reflect goals of the organization, 2) they should reflect organizational structure and procedures, and…

  3. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  4. Early-Transition Output Decline Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crt Kostevc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the issue of aggregate output decline that took place in the early transition period. We propose an alternative explanation of output decline that is applicable to Central- and Eastern-European countries. In the first part of the paper we develop a simple dynamic general equilibrium model that builds on work by Gomulka and Lane (2001. In particular, we consider price liberalization, interpreted as elimination of distortionary taxation, as a trigger of the output decline. We show that price liberalization in interaction with heterogeneous adjustment costs and non-employment benefits lead to aggregate output decline and surge in wage inequality. While these patterns are consistent with actual dynamics in CEE countries, this model cannot generate output decline in all sectors. Instead sectors that were initially taxed even exhibit output growth. Thus, in the second part we consider an alternative general equilibrium model with only one production sector and two types of labor and distortion in a form of wage compression during the socialist era. The trigger for labor mobility and consequently output decline is wage liberalization. Assuming heterogeneity of workers in terms of adjustment costs and non-employment benefits can explain output decline in all industries.

  5. Assessing the psychological factors predicting workers' output ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated job security, communication skills, interpersonal relationship and emotional intelligence as correlates of workers' output among local government employees in Oyo State. The research adopted descriptive design of an expose facto type. The research instruments used includes Workers' output scale, ...

  6. Disappearing fluid?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graney, K.; Chu, J.; Lin, P.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 78-year old male in end stage renal failure (ESRF) with a background of NIDDM retinopathy, nephropathy, and undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) presented with anorexia, clinically unwell, decreased mobility and right scrotal swelling. There was no difficulty during CAPD exchange except there was a positive fluid balance Peritoneal dialysates remained clear A CAPD peritoneal study was requested. 100Mbq 99mTc Sulphur Colloid was injected into a standard dialysate bag containing dialysate. Anterior dynamic images were acquired over the abdomen pelvis while the dialysate was infused Static images with anatomical markers were performed 20 mins post infusion, before and after patient ambulation and then after drainage. The study demonstrated communication between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac. Patient underwent right inguinal herniaplasty with a marlex mesh. A repeat CAPD flow study was performed as follow up and no abnormal connection between the peritoneal cavity and the right scrotal sac was demonstrated post operatively. This case study shows that CAPD flow studies can be undertaken as a simple, minimally invasive method to evaluate abnormal peritoneal fluid flow dynamics in patients undergoing CAPD, and have an impact on dialysis management. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. Auxillary Fluid Flowmeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    RezaNejad Gatabi, Javad; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid; Ebrahimi Darkhaneh, Hadi

    2010-01-01

    The Auxiliary Fluid Flow meter is proposed to measure the fluid flow of any kind in both pipes and open channels. In this kind of flow measurement, the flow of an auxiliary fluid is measured Instead of direct measurement of the main fluid flow. The auxiliary fluid is injected into the main fluid ...

  8. Residual urine output and postoperative mortality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Feng; Wu, Vin-Cent; Ko, Wen-Je; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Chen, Yung-Ming; Li, Wen-Yi; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Chao, Anne; Huang, Tao-Min; Chang, Fan-Chi; Chen, Shih-I; Shiao, Chih-Chung; Wang, Wei-Jie; Tsai, Hung-Bin; Tsai, Pi-Ru; Hu, Fu-Chang; Wu, Kwan-Dun

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between residual urine output and postoperative survival in maintenance hemodialysis patients is unknown. To explore the relationship between amount of urine before surgery and postoperative mortality and differences between postoperative nonanuria and anuria in maintenance hemodialysis patients. A total of 109 maintenance hemodialysis patients underwent major operations. Anuria was defined as urine output <30 mL in the 8 hours before the first session of postoperative dialysis. Propensity scores for postoperative anuria were developed. Postoperative residual urine output was 159.2 mL/8 h (SD, 115.1) in 33 patients; 76 patients were anuric. Preoperative residual urine output and adequate perioperative blood transfusion were positively related to postoperative urine output. Propensity-adjusted 30-day mortality was associated with postoperative anuria (odds ratio [OR], 4.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-17.96; P = .03), prior stroke (OR, 4.46; 95% CI, 1.43-13.89; P = .01) and higher disease severity (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21; P = .049) at the first postoperative dialysis. OR of 30-day mortality was 5.38 for nonanuria to anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .03) and 5.13 for preoperative anuria vs nonanuria to nonanuria (P = .01). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, 30-day mortality differed significantly among patients for nonanuria to nonanuria, anuria, and nonanuria to anuria (log rank, P = .045). Patients with preoperative nonanuria and postoperative anuria had higher mortality than did patients with no anuria before and after surgery and patients with anuria before surgery. Postoperative residual urine output is an important surrogate marker for disease severity.

  9. The multi-factor energy input–output model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, Zeus; Domingos, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    Energy input–output analysis (EIO analysis) is a noteworthy tool for the analysis of the role of energy in the economy. However, it has relied on models that provide a limited description of energy flows in the economic system and do not allow an adequate analysis of energy efficiency. This paper introduces a novel energy input–output model, the multi-factor energy input–output model (MF-EIO model), which is obtained from a partitioning of a hybrid-unit input–output system of the economy. This model improves on current models by describing the energy flows according to the processes of energy conversion and the levels of energy use in the economy. It characterizes the vector of total energy output as a function of seven factors: two energy efficiency indicators; two characteristics of end-use energy consumption; and three economic features of the rest of the economy. Moreover, it is consistent with the standard model for EIO analysis, i.e., the hybrid-unit model. This paper also introduces an approximate version of the MF-EIO model, which is equivalent to the former under equal energy prices for industries and final consumers, but requires less data processing. The latter is composed by two linked models: a model of the energy sector in physical units, and a model of the rest of the economy in monetary units. In conclusion, the proposed modelling framework improves EIO analysis and extends EIO applications to the accounting for energy efficiency of the economy. - Highlights: • A novel energy input–output model is introduced. • It allows a more adequate analysis of energy flows than current models. • It describes energy flows according to processes of energy conversion and use. • It can be used for other environmental applications (material use and emissions). • An approximate version of the model is introduced, simpler and less data intensive.

  10. Maximization of energy in the output of a linear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudley, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A time-limited signal which, when passed through a linear system, maximizes the total output energy is considered. Previous work has shown that the solution is given by the eigenfunction associated with the maximum eigenvalue in a Hilbert-Schmidt integral equation. Analytical results are available for the case where the transfer function is a low-pass filter. This work is extended by obtaining a numerical solution to the integral equation which allows results for reasonably general transfer functions

  11. Distortions in the output signals of conventional spectrum analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njau, E.C.

    1988-08-01

    We show that the output signals of conventional spectrum analysers contain distortions which basically originate from the signal processing performed inside the analysers' frequency convertors. Total elimination of these distortions through normal filtering techniques is difficult owing to the closeness of some of their frequencies to the corresponding frequencies of the required signals. Simple design adjustments that can minimize these distortions are suggested. (author). 7 refs, 2 figs

  12. Gyroelastic fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-20

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch.

  13. Gyroelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbel, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    A study is made of a scale model in three dimensions of a guiding center plasma within the purview of gyroelastic (also known as finite gyroradius-near theta pinch) magnetohydrodynamics. The (nonlinear) system sustains a particular symmetry called isorrhopy which permits the decoupling of fluid modes from drift modes. Isorrhopic equilibria are analyzed within the framework of geometrical optics resulting in (local) dispersion relations and ray constants. A general scheme is developed to evolve an arbitrary linear perturbation of a screwpinch equilibrium as an invertible integral transform (over the complete set of generalized eigenfunctions defined naturally by the equilibrium). Details of the structure of the function space and the associated spectra are elucidated. Features of the (global) dispersion relation owing to the presence of gyroelastic stabilization are revealed. An energy principle is developed to study the stability of the tubular screwpinch

  14. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-03-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA.cm-2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW.cm-2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics.

  15. High Output Piezo/Triboelectric Hybrid Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Woo-Suk; Kang, Min-Gyu; Moon, Hi Gyu; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoon, Seok-Jin; Wang, Zhong-Lin; Kim, Sang-Woo; Kang, Chong-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Recently, piezoelectric and triboelectric energy harvesting devices have been developed to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. Especially, it is well known that triboelectric nanogenerators have a simple structure and a high output voltage. However, whereas nanostructures improve the output of triboelectric generators, its fabrication process is still complicated and unfavorable in term of the large scale and long-time durability of the device. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid generator which does not use nanostructure but generates much higher output power by a small mechanical force and integrates piezoelectric generator into triboelectric generator, derived from the simultaneous use of piezoelectric and triboelectric mechanisms in one press-and-release cycle. This hybrid generator combines high piezoelectric output current and triboelectric output voltage, which produces peak output voltage of ~370 V, current density of ~12 μA·cm−2, and average power density of ~4.44 mW·cm−2. The output power successfully lit up 600 LED bulbs by the application of a 0.2 N mechanical force and it charged a 10 μF capacitor to 10 V in 25 s. Beyond energy harvesting, this work will provide new opportunities for developing a small, built-in power source in self-powered electronics such as mobile electronics. PMID:25791299

  16. Watching Nanoparticles Form: An In Situ (Small-/Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering/Total Scattering) Study of the Growth of Yttria-Stabilised Zirconia in Supercritical Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrsted, Christoffer; Pauw, Brian; Jensen, Kirsten Marie Ørnsbjerg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding nanoparticle formation reactions requires multitechnique in situ characterisation, since no single characterisation technique provides adequate information. Here, the first combined small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)/wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS)/total-scattering study of nano...... of nanoparticle formation is presented. We report on the formation and growth of yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) under the extreme conditions of supercritical methanol for particles with Y2O3 equivalent molar fractions of 0, 4, 8, 12 and 25%....

  17. Transit time dispersion in pulmonary and systemic circulation: effects of cardiac output and solute diffusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael; Krejcie, Tom C; Avram, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    We present an in vivo method for analyzing the distribution kinetics of physiological markers into their respective distribution volumes utilizing information provided by the relative dispersion of transit times. Arterial concentration-time curves of markers of the vascular space [indocyanine green (ICG)], extracellular fluid (inulin), and total body water (antipyrine) measured in awake dogs under control conditions and during phenylephrine or isoproterenol infusion were analyzed by a recirculatory model to estimate the relative dispersions of transit times across the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The transit time dispersion in the systemic circulation was used to calculate the whole body distribution clearance, and an interpretation is given in terms of a lumped organ model of blood-tissue exchange. As predicted by theory, this relative dispersion increased linearly with cardiac output, with a slope that was inversely related to solute diffusivity. The relative dispersion of the flow-limited indicator antipyrine exceeded that of ICG (as a measure of intravascular mixing) only slightly and was consistent with a diffusional equilibration time in the extravascular space of approximately 10 min, except during phenylephrine infusion, which led to an anomalously high relative dispersion. A change in cardiac output did not alter the heterogeneity of capillary transit times of ICG. The results support the view that the relative dispersions of transit times in the systemic and pulmonary circulation estimated from solute disposition data in vivo are useful measures of whole body distribution kinetics of indicators and endogenous substances. This is the first model that explains the effect of flow and capillary permeability on whole body distribution of solutes without assuming well-mixed compartments.

  18. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (n-CPAP) does not change cardiac output in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Barbara; Fritz, Michael; Mann, Christian; Simma, Burkhard

    2008-02-01

    Our objective was to study how invasive mechanical ventilation impairs cardiac output (CO) in children and adults. Although the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is widely practiced in neonatal intensive care, its hemodynamic consequences have not yet been investigated. A prospective study to assess the hemodynamic effects was conducted in 21 preterm infants CPAP (n-CPAP). Gestational age was 28.0 +/- 1.9 weeks (mean +/- standard deviation); birthweight, 1000 +/- 238 g; age at study entry, 200 +/- 155 hours; total maintenance fluid, 154 +/- 42 mL/kg/day; and n-CPAP level, 4.4 +/- 0.9 cm H(2)O. None of the infants received inotropic support, and n-CPAP did not cause any significant difference in the parameters measured: stroke volume, 3.1 +/- 1.0 mL (with n-CPAP) versus 3.1 +/- 1.0 mL (without n-CPAP); cardiac output, 487 +/- 156 mL/minute versus 500 +/- 176 mL/minute; left ventricular diastolic diameter, 1.22 +/- 0.15 cm versus 1.24 +/- 0.14 cm; fractional shortening, 0.30 +/- 0.05% versus 0.29 +/- 0.04%; and aortic velocity-time integral, 8.64 +/- 1.80 cm versus 8.70 +/- 1.65 cm. The n-CPAP level did not influence CO; n-CPAP (up to 7 cm H (2)O) has no echocardiographically detectable hemodynamic effect in preterm infants. Our data imply there is no need to withhold n-CPAP support to prevent circulatory compromise in these infants.

  19. Farm-Level Determinants of output Commercialization:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MARC-AB

    Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research. አኀፅሮተ- ... haricot bean output commercialization among smallholder farmers in moisture-stress areas of ..... the American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting, Orlando, Florida, July.

  20. Endogenous Money, Output and Prices in India

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Rituparna

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes to quantify the macroeconometric relationships among the variables broad money, lending by banks, price, and output in India using simultaneous equations system keeping in view the issue of endogeneity.

  1. Scintillation camera with improved output means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, K.; Wiesen, E.J.; Woronowicz, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    In a scintillation camera system, the output pulse signals from an array of photomultiplier tubes are coupled to the inputs of individual preamplifiers. The preamplifier output signals are coupled to circuitry for computing the x and y coordinates of the scintillations. A cathode ray oscilloscope is used to form an image corresponding with the pattern in which radiation is emitted by a body. Means for improving the uniformity and resolution of the scintillations are provided. The means comprise biasing means coupled to the outputs of selected preamplifiers so that output signals below a predetermined amplitude are not suppressed and signals falling within increasing ranges of amplitudes are increasingly suppressed. In effect, the biasing means make the preamplifiers non-linear for selected signal levels

  2. Input-output rearrangement of isolated converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Kovacevic, Milovan; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new way of rearranging the input and output of isolated converters. The new arrangement posses several advantages, as increased voltage range, higher power handling capabilities, reduced voltage stress and improved efficiency, for applications where galvanic isolation...

  3. Multiple Input - Multiple Output (MIMO) SAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort will research and implement advanced Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques which have the potential to improve...

  4. Cross Voltage Control with Inner Hysteresis Current Control for Multi-output Boost Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nami, Alireza; Zare, Firuz; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    Multi-output boost (MOB) converter is a novel DC-DC converter unlike the regular boost converter, has the ability to share its total output voltage and to have different series output voltage from a given duty cycle for low and high power applications. In this paper, discrete voltage control...... with inner hysteresis current control loop has been proposed to keep the simplicity of the control law for the double-output MOB converter, which can be implemented by a combination of analogue and logical ICs or simple microcontroller to constrain the output voltages of MOB converter at their reference...... voltages against variation in load or input voltage. The salient features of the proposed control strategy are simplicity of implementation and ease to extend to multiple outputs in the MOB converter. Simulation and experimental results are presented to show the validity of control strategy....

  5. Global sensitivity analysis for fuzzy inputs based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Lu, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Yicheng

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the component of fuzzy output entropy, a decomposition method of fuzzy output entropy is first presented. After the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, the total fuzzy output entropy can be expressed as the sum of the component fuzzy entropy contributed by fuzzy inputs. Based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, a new global sensitivity analysis model is established for measuring the effects of uncertainties of fuzzy inputs on the output. The global sensitivity analysis model can not only tell the importance of fuzzy inputs but also simultaneously reflect the structural composition of the response function to a certain degree. Several examples illustrate the validity of the proposed global sensitivity analysis, which is a significant reference in engineering design and optimization of structural systems.

  6. Fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion mask the left ventricular preload decrease induced by pleural effusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wemmelund, Kristian Borup; Ringgård, Viktor Kromann; Vistisen, Simon Tilma

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pleural effusion (PLE) may lead to low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output. Low blood pressure and reduced cardiac output are often treated with fluid loading and vasopressors. This study aimed to determine the impact of fluid loading and norepinephrine infusion on physiologic d...... global haemodynamic parameters. Inferior vena cava distensibility remained unchanged. The haemodynamic significance of PLE may be underestimated during fluid or norepinephrine administration, potentially masking the presence of PLE....

  7. Multi-Objective Optimization of Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plants Using Pure and Mixed Working Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper G. Andreasen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For zeotropic mixtures, the temperature varies during phase change, which is opposed to the isothermal phase change of pure fluids. The use of such mixtures as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle power plants enables a minimization of the mean temperature difference of the heat exchangers, which is beneficial for cycle performance. On the other hand, larger heat transfer surface areas are typically required for evaporation and condensation when zeotropic mixtures are used as working fluids. In order to assess the feasibility of using zeotropic mixtures, it is, therefore, important to consider the additional costs of the heat exchangers. In this study, we aim at evaluating the economic feasibility of zeotropic mixtures compared to pure fluids. We carry out a multi-objective optimization of the net power output and the component costs for organic Rankine cycle power plants using low-temperature heat at 90 ∘ C to produce electrical power at around 500 kW. The primary outcomes of the study are Pareto fronts, illustrating the power/cost relations for R32, R134a and R32/R134a (0.65/0.35 mole . The results indicate that R32/R134a is the best of these fluids, with 3.4 % higher net power than R32 at the same total cost of 1200 k$.

  8. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    individual in its totality, with all its needs. For this reason it is necessary to focus on output of public and private transports which must be totally and globally accessible. Metropolitan and suburban transports need to have modern buses, and it has been calculated that it is possible to provide a total replacement of the fleet in a period from five to ten years. Total Quality must become the goal of every Local Government. FIABA suggests that a Total Quality Manager be always present in the institutional environment, as a guarantor of quality perceived by people living in their city for tourism, work, and leisure. It is essential to establish a favorable environment for all, to ensure the comfort of 100% of the population to give some definite and reliable answers.FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the

  9. Experimental Research on Fluid Coupling Flexible Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangli Zeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the field of micromechanics, piezoelectric actuator has attracted great attention for its high-frequency response, high displacement resolution, and high output force. However, its prospect of practical application has been largely limited by the displacement of micrometer. A fluid coupling flexible actuator was proposed, which utilizes resonance to enlarge the output displacement. The actuator uses a piezoelectric oscillator as an excitation source, fluid as the transmission medium and a flexible diaphragm for the displacement output. On the condition that the fluid is inviscid and incompressible, mathematical formulation of the membrane vibration theory has been analyzed. Then, the prototype is made. The displacement is amplified 21 times to 1.106 mm when driving frequency is 127 Hz. The flexible diaphragm appears the largest displacement output when driving frequency is close to one of the system’s natural frequency. Then, the points with zero amplitude form a circle on the surface of flexible diaphragm and the movement direction of the flexible diaphragm is opposite on different sides of the circle. In fact, rather than vibrates at the first resonance frequency, the membrane in the essay is vibrating at a certain higher-order resonance frequency. The experimental results are mainly consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Appropriate fluid regimens to prevent bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammela, O K

    1995-01-01

    Pulmonary oedema is an important problem in premature neonates with surfactant deficiency because of fluid accumulation in the lung interstitium and reduced urine output. Some retrospective reports suggest that excessive early hydration might increase the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Only three prospective studies evaluating low or conventional fluid administration regimens to very low birth weight infants have been published. According to their results no significant differences in the incidence of BPD have been shown. However, fluid restriction seems to improve the outcome of the infants because of decreased incidence of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis, pulmonary air leaks and decreased mortality. The appropriate amount of sodium in the intravenous fluids during the first days of life needs further evaluation. In tiny infants with birth weights from 500 to 800g intensive monitoring of fluid balance is essential to control the extremely high fluid losses due to evaporation. Undernutrition is a risk factor of BPD and therefore it is important to start parenteral nutrition early. The benefit of the use of colloids as volume expanders is controversial. According to some retrospective reports there might be an association with increased use of colloidal fluids during the first days of life and the development of BPD. Early excessive fluid administration might constitute a potential risk for low birth weight infants with hyaline membrane disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Evaluation of scientific output in Dentistry in Spanish Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Flor-Martínez, M; Galindo-Moreno, P; Sánchez-Fernández, E; Abadal, E; Cobo, M-J; Herrera-Viedma, E

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the scientific output of Spanish universities that offer a bachelor's degree in dentistry through the use of various bibliometric indicators. A total of 21 universities offered a bachelor's degree in dentistry in academic year 2016-2017. The search for papers published by authors associated with these institutions was carried out using the selection of journals listed in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) and the Web of Knowledge database for the period 1986-2017. On the basis of these data, we determined the output, the h-, g- and hg-indexes, the most productive authors, international collaborations, and the most relevant journals. Public universities obtained better results than private universities. The University of Valencia was ranked first, followed by the Complutense University of Madrid and the University of Granada. The most productive author was José Vicente Bagán, but the author with the highest h-index was Mariano Sanz and Manuel Toledado. The universities with the greatest output and highest citation rates had more international collaborations. The most developed fields in Spanish universities were Oral surgery, Oral medicine and Dental materials. The universities had different models of production. At universities such as Barcelona or Valencia, the production was focused on very few departments and authors. At the other extreme, the University of Granada had various sources of research and authors, which meant that its output and citation rate could increase more. University faculties must provide suitable academic and research training, and therefore must be assessed using objective criteria and bibliometric tools. Although the number of university schools and faculties that teach dentistry has increased, and particularly the number of private universities, there is no correlation between their quality and output and the number of places offered on their courses.

  12. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  13. Fluid Status in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients: The European Body Composition Monitoring (EuroBCM) Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Wim; Williams, John D.; Covic, Adrian C.; Fan, Stanley; Claes, Kathleen; Lichodziejewska-Niemierko, Monika; Verger, Christian; Steiger, Jurg; Schoder, Volker; Wabel, Peter; Gauly, Adelheid; Himmele, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    Background Euvolemia is an important adequacy parameter in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, accurate tools to evaluate volume status in clinical practice and data on volume status in PD patients as compared to healthy population, and the associated factors, have not been available so far. Methods We used a bio-impedance spectroscopy device, the Body Composition Monitor (BCM) to assess volume status in a cross-sectional cohort of prevalent PD patients in different European countries. The results were compared to an age and gender matched healthy population. Results Only 40% out of 639 patients from 28 centres in 6 countries were normovolemic. Severe fluid overload was present in 25.2%. There was a wide scatter in the relation between blood pressure and volume status. In a multivariate analysis in the subgroup of patients from countries with unrestricted availability of all PD modalities and fluid types, older age, male gender, lower serum albumin, lower BMI, diabetes, higher systolic blood pressure, and use of at least one exchange per day with the highest hypertonic glucose were associated with higher relative tissue hydration. Neither urinary output nor ultrafiltration, PD fluid type or PD modality were retained in the model (total R2 of the model = 0.57). Conclusions The EuroBCM study demonstrates some interesting issues regarding volume status in PD. As in HD patients, hypervolemia is a frequent condition in PD patients and blood pressure can be a misleading clinical tool to evaluate volume status. To monitor fluid balance, not only fluid output but also dietary input should be considered. Close monitoring of volume status, a correct dialysis prescription adapted to the needs of the patient and dietary measures seem to be warranted to avoid hypervolemia. PMID:21390320

  14. Output characteristics of Stirling thermoacoustic engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Daming; Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Xiao Yong; Zhao Liang

    2008-01-01

    A thermoacoustic engine (TE), which converts thermal energy into acoustic power by the thermoacoustic effect, shows several advantages due to the absence of moving parts, such as high reliability and long lifetime associated with reduced manufacturing costs. Power output and efficiency are important criteria of the performance of a TE. In order to increase the acoustic power output and thermal efficiency of a Stirling TE, the acoustic power distribution in the engine is studied with the variable load method. It is found that the thermal efficiency is independent of the output locations along the engine under the same acoustic power output. Furthermore, when the pressure ratio is kept constant at one location along the TE, it is beneficial to increasing the thermal efficiency by exporting more acoustic power. With nitrogen of 2.5 MPa as working gas and the pressure ratio at the compliance of 1.20 in the experiments, the acoustic power is measured at the compliance and the resonator simultaneously. The maximum power output, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency reach 390.0 W, 11.2% and 16.0%, which are increased by 51.4%, 24.4% and 19.4%, respectively, compared to those with a single R-C load with 750 ml reservoir at the compliance. This research will be instructive for increasing the efficiency and making full use of the acoustic energy of a TE

  15. Estimation of international output-energy relation. Effects of alternative output measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper analyzes the output-energy relationship with alternative measures of output and energy. Our analysis rejects the hypothesis of non-diminishing returns to energy consumption when GDP at purchasing power parities is used as the output measure unlike the case with GNP at market exchange rates. This finding also holds when energy input includes the usage of both commercial and traditional fuels. 13 refs

  16. From Static Output Feedback to Structured Robust Static Output Feedback: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sadabadi , Mahdieh ,; Peaucelle , Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the vast literature on static output feedback design for linear time-invariant systems including classical results and recent developments. In particular, we focus on static output feedback synthesis with performance specifications, structured static output feedback, and robustness. The paper provides a comprehensive review on existing design approaches including iterative linear matrix inequalities heuristics, linear matrix inequalities with rank constraints, methods with ...

  17. Self lubricating fluid bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapich, D.D.

    1980-01-01

    The invention concerns self lubricating fluid bearings, which are used in a shaft sealed system extending two regions. These regions contain fluids, which have to be isolated. A first seal is fluid tight for the first region between the carter shaft and the shaft. The second seal is fluid tight between the carter and the shaft, it communicates with the second region. The first fluid region is the environment surrounding the shaft carter. The second fluid region is a part of a nuclear reactor which contains the cooling fluid. The shaft is conceived to drive a reactor circulating and cooling fluid [fr

  18. Modern fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2018-01-01

    Modern Fluid Dynamics, Second Edition provides up-to-date coverage of intermediate and advanced fluids topics. The text emphasizes fundamentals and applications, supported by worked examples and case studies. Scale analysis, non-Newtonian fluid flow, surface coating, convection heat transfer, lubrication, fluid-particle dynamics, microfluidics, entropy generation, and fluid-structure interactions are among the topics covered. Part A presents fluids principles, and prepares readers for the applications of fluid dynamics covered in Part B, which includes computer simulations and project writing. A review of the engineering math needed for fluid dynamics is included in an appendix.

  19. Tracing Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Adams; Greg Nash

    2004-03-01

    Geothermal water must be injected back into the reservoir after it has been used for power production. Injection is critical in maximizing the power production and lifetime of the reservoir. To use injectate effectively the direction and velocity of the injected water must be known or inferred. This information can be obtained by using chemical tracers to track the subsurface flow paths of the injected fluid. Tracers are chemical compounds that are added to the water as it is injected back into the reservoir. The hot production water is monitored for the presence of this tracer using the most sensitive analytic methods that are economically feasible. The amount and concentration pattern of the tracer revealed by this monitoring can be used to evaluate how effective the injection strategy is. However, the tracers must have properties that suite the environment that they will be used in. This requires careful consideration and testing of the tracer properties. In previous and parallel investigations we have developed tracers that are suitable from tracing liquid water. In this investigation, we developed tracers that can be used for steam and mixed water/steam environments. This work will improve the efficiency of injection management in geothermal fields, lowering the cost of energy production and increasing the power output of these systems.

  20. Problems in Modelling Charge Output Accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomczyk Krzysztof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.

  1. Reliability and Energy Output of Bifacial Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Aken, B.B.; Jansen, M.J.; Dekker, N.J.J. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Although flash tests under standard test conditions yields lower power due to transmittance of the back sheet, bifacial modules are expected to outperform their monofacial equivalents in terms of yearly energy output in the field. We compare flash tests for bifacial modules with and without a light scattering panel directly behind the modules: 3% more power output is obtained. We also report on the damp-heat reliability of modules with transparent back sheet. Finally we will present the results of an outdoor study comparing modules with transparent back sheet and modules with state-of-the-art AR coating on the front glass.

  2. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong......This paper studies the effects of taxation on output volatility in OECD countries to shed light on the sources of observed heterogeneity over time and across countries. To this end, we derive tax effects on macro aggregates in a stochastic neoclassical model. As a result, taxes are shown to affect...... positive effects....

  3. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  4. Influence of the cerebrospinal fluid laboratory parameters in the ELISA test for neurocysticercosis using a total cysticerci antigen Influência dos parâmetros laboratoriais do líquido cefalorraquidiano no teste ELISA para neurocisticercose utilizando antígeno total de cisticerco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Casanova

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate if the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters may influence the cysticercosis immunoreactivity response in the CSF. CSF samples of 109 patients were analyzed and classified in three groups, according to the neurological manifestations and the reactivity in antibody-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (Ab-ELISA testing in CSF for neurocysticercosis (NC: group A, 18 patients with neurological disorders compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC; group B, 50 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and reactive Ab-ELISA for NC; group C, 41 patients with neurological disorders non-compatible with NC and non-reactive Ab-ELISA in CSF for NC. The CSF analysis in group A was compatible with NC. The group B in comparison to the groups A and C presents higher frequency and intensity of hypercytosis, presence of red blood cells in CSF, protein concentration and immunological reactive test for other etiological agents (pAvaliar se os parâmetros do líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR podem influenciar na reatividade da resposta imune específica do LCR na neurocisticercose (NC. Amostras de LCR de 109 pacientes foram analisadas e classificadas em três grupos, de acordo com as manifestações neurológicas e reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. Grupo A, 18 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo B, 50 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e reatividade do teste Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR; grupo C, 41 pacientes com enfermidades neurológicas não compatíveis com NC e na ausência de reatividade do teste de Ab-ELISA para NC no LCR. A análise do LCR do grupo A foi compatível com NC. O grupo B apresentou maior freqüência e intensidade da pleocitose, da presença de hemácias no LCR, hiperproteinorraquia, reatividade imune para outros agentes etiológicos em comparação aos grupos A e C (p<0.05. Os dados indicam

  5. Output formatting in Apple-Soft Basic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navale, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Personal computers are being used extensively in various fields. BASIC is a very popular and widely used language in personal computers. Apple computer is one of the popular machines used for scientific and engineering applications. Presenting output from computers in a neat and easy to read form is very important. Languages like FORTRAN have utility command 'FORMAT' which takes care of the formatting of the output in user-defined form. In some versions of BASIC a PRINT USING facility is available but it is not as powerful as the FORTRAN statement 'FORMAT'. Applesoft basic does not have even this PRINT USING command. Programmers have to write their own program segments to handle output formatting in Applesoft BASIC. Generally, such user written programs are of limited use as they cannot be used easily with other programs. A general purpose and easily transportable subroutine in Applesoft BASIC is presented here for handling output formatting in user-defined structure. The subroutine is nearly as powerful as the FORMAT statement in FORTRAN. It can also be used in other versions of BASIC with very little modifications. 3 tables, 4 refs. (author)

  6. On output regulation for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij; Sannuti, Peddapullaiah

    For both continuous- and discrete-time systems, we revisit the output regulation problem for linear systems. We generalize the problem formulation in order • to expand the class of reference or disturbance signals, • to utilize the derivative or feedforward information of reference signals whenever

  7. Fast Output-sensitive Matrix Multiplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Riko; Stöckel, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We consider the problem of multiplying two $U \\times U$ matrices $A$ and $C$ of elements from a field $\\F$. We present a new randomized algorithm that can use the known fast square matrix multiplication algorithms to perform fewer arithmetic operations than the current state of the art for output...

  8. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  9. Multiple output timing and trigger generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheat, Robert M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dale, Gregory E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    In support of the development of a multiple stage pulse modulator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, we have developed a first generation, multiple output timing and trigger generator. Exploiting Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Micro Controller Units (MCU's), the timing and trigger generator provides 32 independent outputs with a timing resolution of about 500 ns. The timing and trigger generator system is comprised of two MCU boards and a single PC. One of the MCU boards performs the functions of the timing and signal generation (the timing controller) while the second MCU board accepts commands from the PC and provides the timing instructions to the timing controller. The PC provides the user interface for adjusting the on and off timing for each of the output signals. This system provides 32 output or timing signals which can be pre-programmed to be in an on or off state for each of 64 time steps. The width or duration of each of the 64 time steps is programmable from 2 {micro}s to 2.5 ms with a minimum time resolution of 500 ns. The repetition rate of the programmed pulse train is only limited by the time duration of the programmed event. This paper describes the design and function of the timing and trigger generator system and software including test results and measurements.

  10. What shapes output of policy reform?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kirsten

    This thesis deals with the factors shaping forest policy output during the stages implementation and bases its main message on empirical findings from the forestry sector in Ghana. Policy and institutional factors are important underlying causes for deforestation, especially in the tropics. Fores...

  11. Monetary policy and regional output in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rockenbach da Silva Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analysis of whether the effects of the Brazilian monetary policy on regional outputs are symmetric. The strategy developed combines the techniques of principal component analysis (PCA to decompose the variables that measure regional economic activity into common and region-specific components and vector autoregressions (VAR to observe the behavior of these variables in response to monetary policy shocks. The common component responds to monetary policy as expected. Additionally, the idiosyncratic components of the regions showed no impact of monetary policy. The main finding of this paper is that the monetary policy responses on regional output are symmetrical when the regional output decomposition is performed, and the responses are asymmetrical when this decomposition is not performed. Therefore, performing the regional output decomposition corroborates the economic intuition that monetary policy has no impact on region-specific issues. Once monetary policy affects the common component of the regional economic activity and does not impact its idiosyncratic components, it can be considered symmetrical.

  12. Comparison of cardiac output measurement techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espersen, K; Jensen, E W; Rosenborg, D

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneously measured cardiac output obtained by thermodilution (TD), transcutaneous suprasternal ultrasonic Doppler (DOP), CO2-rebreathing (CR) and the direct Fick method (FI) were compared in eleven healthy subjects in a supine position (SU), a sitting position (SI), and during sitting exercise...

  13. Fluid mechanics in fluids at rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2012-07-01

    Using readily available experimental thermophoretic particle-velocity data it is shown, contrary to current teachings, that for the case of compressible flows independent dye- and particle-tracer velocity measurements of the local fluid velocity at a point in a flowing fluid do not generally result in the same fluid velocity measure. Rather, tracer-velocity equality holds only for incompressible flows. For compressible fluids, each type of tracer is shown to monitor a fundamentally different fluid velocity, with (i) a dye (or any other such molecular-tagging scheme) measuring the fluid's mass velocity v appearing in the continuity equation and (ii) a small, physicochemically and thermally inert, macroscopic (i.e., non-Brownian), solid particle measuring the fluid's volume velocity v(v). The term "compressibility" as used here includes not only pressure effects on density, but also temperature effects thereon. (For example, owing to a liquid's generally nonzero isobaric coefficient of thermal expansion, nonisothermal liquid flows are to be regarded as compressible despite the general perception of liquids as being incompressible.) Recognition of the fact that two independent fluid velocities, mass- and volume-based, are formally required to model continuum fluid behavior impacts on the foundations of contemporary (monovelocity) fluid mechanics. Included therein are the Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations, which are now seen to apply only to incompressible fluids (a fact well-known, empirically, to experimental gas kineticists). The findings of a difference in tracer velocities heralds the introduction into fluid mechanics of a general bipartite theory of fluid mechanics, bivelocity hydrodynamics [Brenner, Int. J. Eng. Sci. 54, 67 (2012)], differing from conventional hydrodynamics in situations entailing compressible flows and reducing to conventional hydrodynamics when the flow is incompressible, while being applicable to both liquids and gases.

  14. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  15. Reduced abrasion drilling fluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    A reduced abrasion drilling fluid system and method of drilling a borehole by circulating the reduced abrasion drilling fluid through the borehole is disclosed. The reduced abrasion drilling fluid comprises a drilling fluid, a first additive and a weighting agent, wherein the weighting agent has a

  16. Process fluid cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farquhar, N.G.; Schwab, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system of heat exchangers is disclosed for cooling process fluids. The system is particularly applicable to cooling steam generator blowdown fluid in a nuclear plant prior to chemical purification of the fluid in which it minimizes the potential of boiling of the plant cooling water which cools the blowdown fluid

  17. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Y. S. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Shin Ansan University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, K. Y. [Dept. of lectrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  18. Analysis of losses within SMES system for compensating output fluctuation of wind power farm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S. I.; Kim, J. H.; Le, T. D.; Lee, D. H.; Kim, H. M.; Yoon, Y. S.; Yoon, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    Output fluctuation which is generated in wind power farm can hinder stability of total power system. The electric energy storage (EES) reduces unstable output, and superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) of various EESs has the proper performance for output compensation of wind power farm since it charges and discharges large scale power quickly with high efficiency. However, because of the change of current within SMES, the electromagnetic losses occur in the process of output compensation. In this paper, the thermal effect of the losses that occur in SMES system while compensating in wind power farm is analyzed. The output analysis of wind power farm is processed by numerical analysis, and the losses of SMES system is analyzed by 3D finite element analysis (FEA) simulation tool.

  19. Fluid therapy in small ruminants and camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredyth; Navarre, Christine

    2014-07-01

    Body water, electrolytes, and acid-base balance are important considerations in the evaluation and treatment of small ruminants and camelids with any disease process, with restoration of these a priority as adjunctive therapy. The goals of fluid therapy should be to maintain cardiac output and tissue perfusion, and to correct acid-base and electrolyte abnormalities. Hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, and acidosis are the most life-threatening abnormalities, and require most immediate correction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cochlear Outer-Hair-Cell Power Generation and Viscous Fluid Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles R.; Puria, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of otoacoustic emissions and outer hair cell (OHC) motility, the fundamental question of whether the cochlea produces mechanical power remains controversial. In the present work, direct calculations are performed on power loss due to fluid viscosity and power generated by the OHCs. A three-dimensional box model of the mouse cochlea is used with a feed-forward/feed-backward approximation representing the organ of Corti cytoarchitecture. The model is fit to in vivo basilar membrane motion with one free parameter for the OHCs. The calculations predict that the total power output from the three rows of OHCs can be over three orders of magnitude greater than the acoustic input power at 10 dB sound pressure level (SPL). While previous work shows that the power gain, or the negative damping, diminishes with intensity, we show explicitly based on our model that OHC power output increases and saturates with SPL. The total OHC power output is about 2 pW at 80 dB SPL, with a maximum of about 10 fW per OHC.

  1. Fluid overload in the ICU: evaluation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claure-Del Granado, Rolando; Mehta, Ravindra L

    2016-08-02

    Fluid overload is frequently found in acute kidney injury patients in critical care units. Recent studies have shown the relationship of fluid overload with adverse outcomes; hence, manage and optimization of fluid balance becomes a central component of the management of critically ill patients. In critically ill patients, in order to restore cardiac output, systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion an adequate fluid resuscitation is essential. Achieving an appropriate level of volume management requires knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology, evaluation of volume status, and selection of appropriate solution for volume repletion, and maintenance and modulation of the tissue perfusion. Numerous recent studies have established a correlation between fluid overload and mortality in critically ill patients. Fluid overload recognition and assessment requires an accurate documentation of intakes and outputs; yet, there is a wide difference in how it is evaluated, reviewed and utilized. Accurate volume status evaluation is essential for appropriate therapy since errors of volume evaluation can result in either in lack of essential treatment or unnecessary fluid administration, and both scenarios are associated with increased mortality. There are several methods to evaluate fluid status; however, most of the tests currently used are fairly inaccurate. Diuretics, especially loop diuretics, remain a valid therapeutic alternative. Fluid overload refractory to medical therapy requires the application of extracorporeal therapies. In critically ill patients, fluid overload is related to increased mortality and also lead to several complications like pulmonary edema, cardiac failure, delayed wound healing, tissue breakdown, and impaired bowel function. Therefore, the evaluation of volume status is crucial in the early management of critically ill patients. Diuretics are frequently used as an initial therapy; however, due to their limited effectiveness the use of continuous

  2. Output power distributions of terminals in a 3G mobile communication network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Törnevik, Christer; Larsson, Lars-Eric; Lovén, Jan

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the distribution of the output power of mobile phones and other terminals connected to a 3G network in Sweden. It is well known that 3G terminals can operate with very low output power, particularly for voice calls. Measurements of terminal output power were conducted in the Swedish TeliaSonera 3G network in November 2008 by recording network statistics. In the analysis, discrimination was made between rural, suburban, urban, and dedicated indoor networks. In addition, information about terminal output power was possible to collect separately for voice and data traffic. Information from six different Radio Network Controllers (RNCs) was collected during at least 1 week. In total, more than 800000 h of voice calls were collected and in addition to that a substantial amount of data traffic. The average terminal output power for 3G voice calls was below 1 mW for any environment including rural, urban, and dedicated indoor networks. This is <1% of the maximum available output power. For data applications the average output power was about 6-8 dB higher than for voice calls. For rural areas the output power was about 2 dB higher, on average, than in urban areas. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Empirical analysis of knowledge bases to support structured output in the Arden syntax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenders, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    Structured output has been suggested for the Arden Syntax to facilitate interoperability. Tabulate the components of WRITE statements in a corpus of medical logic modules (MLMs)in order to validate requiring structured output. WRITE statements were tabulated in 258 MLMs from 2 organizations. In a total of 351 WRITE statements, email destinations (226) predominated, and 39 orders and 40 coded output elements also were tabulated. Free-text strings predominated as the message data. Arden WRITE statements contain considerable potentially structured data now included as free text. A future, normative structured WRITE statement must address a variety of data types and destinations.

  4. Cardiac output measurement instruments controlled by microprocessors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, M.; Barritault, L.; Boeri, C.; Fauchet, M.; Gambini, D.; Vernejoul, P. de

    The nuclear medicine and biophysics laboratory of the Necker-Enfants malades University Hospital Centre has built a microprocessor controlled Cardiac flowmetre. The principle of the cardiac output measurement from a radiocardiogram is well established. After injection of a radioactive indicator upstream from the heart cavities the dilution curve is obtained by the use of a gamma-ray precordial detector. This curve normally displays two peaks due to passage of the indicator into the right and left sides of the heart respectively. The output is then obtained from the stewart Hamilton principle once recirculation is eliminated. The graphic method used for the calculation however is long and tedious. The decreasing fraction of the dilution curve is projected in logarithmic space in order to eliminate recirculation by determining the mean straight line from which the decreasing exponential is obtained. The principle of the use of microprocessors is explained (electronics, logics) [fr

  5. Unregulated heat output of a storage heater

    OpenAIRE

    Lysak, Oleg Віталійович

    2017-01-01

    In the article the factors determining the heat transfer between the outer surfaces of a storage heater and the ambient air. This heat exchange is unregulated, and its definition is a precondition for assessing heat output range of this type of units. It was made the analysis of the literature on choosing insulating materials for each of the external surfaces of storage heaters: in foreign literature, there are recommendations on the use of various types of insulation depending on the type of...

  6. Computing multiple-output regression quantile regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2012), s. 840-853 ISSN 0167-9473 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : halfspace depth * multiple-output regression * parametric linear programming * quantile regression Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/siman-0376413.pdf

  7. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  8. Carnot efficiency at divergent power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2017-05-01

    The widely debated feasibility of thermodynamic machines achieving Carnot efficiency at finite power has been convincingly dismissed. Yet, the common wisdom that efficiency can only be optimal in the limit of infinitely slow processes overlooks the dual scenario of infinitely fast processes. We corroborate that efficient engines at divergent power output are not theoretically impossible, framing our claims within the theory of Stochastic Thermodynamics. We inspect the case of an electronic quantum dot coupled to three particle reservoirs to illustrate the physical rationale.

  9. Galois connection for multiple-output operations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2018), č. článku 17. ISSN 0002-5240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : clones and coclones * Galois connection * multiple-output operations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00012-018-0499-7

  10. Burst firing enhances neural output correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ka eChan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurons communicate and transmit information predominantly through spikes. Given that experimentally observed neural spike trains in a variety of brain areas can be highly correlated, it is important to investigate how neurons process correlated inputs. Most previous work in this area studied the problem of correlation transfer analytically by making significant simplifications on neural dynamics. Temporal correlation between inputs that arises from synaptic filtering, for instance, is often ignored when assuming that an input spike can at most generate one output spike. Through numerical simulations of a pair of leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF neurons receiving correlated inputs, we demonstrate that neurons in the presence of synaptic filtering by slow synapses exhibit strong output correlations. We then show that burst firing plays a central role in enhancing output correlations, which can explain the above-mentioned observation because synaptic filtering induces bursting. The observed changes of correlations are mostly on a long time scale. Our results suggest that other features affecting the prevalence of neural burst firing in biological neurons, e.g., adaptive spiking mechanisms, may play an important role in modulating the overall level of correlations in neural networks.

  11. Multi-model MPC with output feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Perez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a new formulation is presented for the model predictive control (MPC of a process system that is represented by a finite set of models, each one corresponding to a different operating point. The general case is considered of systems with stable and integrating outputs in closed-loop with output feedback. For this purpose, the controller is based on a non-minimal order model where the state is built with the measured outputs and the manipulated inputs of the control system. Therefore, the state can be considered as perfectly known and, consequently, there is no need to include a state observer in the control loop. This property of the proposed modeling approach is convenient to extend previous stability results of the closed loop system with robust MPC controllers based on state feedback. The controller proposed here is based on the solution of two optimization problems that are solved sequentially at the same time step. The method is illustrated with a simulated example of the process industry. The rigorous simulation of the control of an adiabatic flash of a multi-component hydrocarbon mixture illustrates the application of the robust controller. The dynamic simulation of this process is performed using EMSO - Environment Model Simulation and Optimization. Finally, a comparison with a linear MPC using a single model is presented.

  12. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  13. FOREWORD Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This section of the Special Issue carries selected articles from the Fluid Mechanics and Fluid. Power Conference held during 12–14 December 2013 at the National Institute of Technology,. Hamirpur (HP). The section includes three review articles and nine original research articles. These were selected on the basis of their ...

  14. Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyck, P. van; Venstermans, C.; Gielen, J.; Parizel, P.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Vanhoenacker, F.M. [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); AZ St-Maarten, Department of Radiology, Duffel/Mechelen (Belgium); Vogel, J. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Orthopedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Kroon, H.M.; Bloem, J.L. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Schepper, A.M.A. de [University Hospital Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors. Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels. Extension (single, multiple and proportion of the lesion occupied by fluid-fluid levels) and signal characteristics on magnetic resonance imaging of fluid-fluid levels were determined. In all patients, pathologic correlation was available. Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), ''brown tumor'' (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases). Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%). Multiple fluid-fluid levels occupying at least one half of the total volume of the lesion were found in the majority of patients. Diagnoses included cavernous hemangioma (12 cases), synovial sarcoma (3 cases), angiosarcoma (1 case), aneurysmal bone cyst of soft tissue (1 case), myxofibrosarcoma (1 case) and high-grade sarcoma ''not otherwise specified'' (2 cases). In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively. Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can

  15. On the efficiency of a fluid-fluid centrifugal separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apazidis, N.

    1984-05-01

    Efficiency of a separation process of two immiscible incompressible fluids of different densities occuring under the influence of a combined centrifugal and gravitational force field is investigated. The analysis is based on the set of equations for a rotating two-phase flow of a mixture as presented by Greenspan (1983). The geometry of the separation process is considered and the total flow of the separated phases evaluated. (author)

  16. Minimizing the Fluid Used to Induce Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The less fluid injected to induce fracturing means less fluid needing to be produced before gas is produced. One method is to inject as fast as possible until the desired fracture length is obtained. Presented is an alternative injection strategy derived by applying optimal system control theory to the macroscopic mass balance. The picture is that the fracture is constant in aperture, fluid is injected at a controlled rate at the near end, and the fracture unzips at the far end until the desired length is obtained. The velocity of the fluid is governed by Darcy's law with larger permeability for flow along the fracture length. Fracture growth is monitored through micro-seismicity. Since the fluid is assumed to be incompressible, the rate at which fluid is injected is balanced by rate of fracture growth and rate of loss to bounding rock. Minimizing injected fluid loss to the bounding rock is the same as minimizing total injected fluid How to change the injection rate so as to minimize the total injected fluid is a problem in optimal control. For a given total length, the variation of the injected rate is determined by variations in overall time needed to obtain the desired fracture length, the length at any time, and the rate at which the fracture is growing at that time. Optimal control theory leads to a boundary condition and an ordinary differential equation in time whose solution is an injection protocol that minimizes the fluid used under the stated assumptions. That method is to monitor the rate at which the square of the fracture length is growing and adjust the injection rate proportionately.

  17. Lectures on fluid mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shinbrot, Marvin

    2012-01-01

    Readable and user-friendly, this high-level introduction explores the derivation of the equations of fluid motion from statistical mechanics, classical theory, and a portion of the modern mathematical theory of viscous, incompressible fluids. 1973 edition.

  18. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  19. Electric fluid pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Names Culture - CSF; Spinal fluid culture; CSF culture Images Pneumococci organism References Karcher DS, McPherson RA. Cerebrospinal, synovial, serous body fluids, and alternative specimens. In: McPherson RA, Pincus ...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid leak (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... brain and spinal cord by acting like a liquid cushion. The fluid allows the organs to be buoyant protecting them from blows or other trauma. Inside the skull the cerebrospinal fluid is contained by the dura which covers ...

  2. Decreases in renal functional reserve and proximal tubular fluid output in conscious oophorectomized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Camilla Birch; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2003-01-01

    Age-dependent glomerulosclerosis with reduced GFR develops earlier among men than among women. Therefore, whether female sex hormones could prevent the age-dependent decrease in GFR was investigated. The kidney function in oophorectomized rats treated with placebo (OOX group), estrogen (OOX+E(2...... effects were prevented with administration of estrogen. Sham-operated rats demonstrated values for renal functional reserve and fractional lithium excretion that were between those observed for the OOX group and the groups treated with sex hormones....

  3. Mechanisms Regulating the Cardiac Output Response to Cyanide Infusion, a Model of Hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chang-seng; Huckabee, William E.

    1973-01-01

    When tissue metabolic changes like those of hypoxia were induced by intra-aortic infusion of cyanide in dogs, cardiac output began to increase after 3 to 5 min, reached a peak (220% of the control value) at 15 min, and returned to control in 40 min. This pattern of cardiac output rise was not altered by vagotomy with or without atropine pretreatment. However, this cardiac output response could be differentiated into three phases by pretreating the animals with agents that block specific activities of the sympatho-adrenal system. First, ganglionic blockade produced by mecamylamine or sympathetic nerve blockade by bretylium abolished the middle phase of the cardiac output seen in the untreated animal, but early and late phases still could be discerned. Second, beta-adrenergic receptor blockade produced by propranolol shortened the total duration of the cardiac output rise by abolishing the late phase. Third, when given together, propranolol and mecamylamine (or bretylium) prevented most of the cardiac output rise that follows the early phase. When cyanide was given to splenectomized dogs, the duration of the cardiac output response was not shortened, but the response became biphasic, resembling that seen after chemical sympathectomy. A similar biphasic response of the cardiac output also resulted from splenic denervation; sham operation or nephrectomy had no effect on the monophasic pattern of the normal response. Splenic venous blood obtained from cyanide-treated dogs, when infused intraportally, caused an increase in cardiac output in recipient dogs; similar infusion of arterial blood had no effects. These results suggest that the cardiac output response to cyanide infusion consists of three components: an early phase, related neither to the autonomic nervous system nor to circulating catecholamines; a middle phase, caused by a nonadrenergic humoral substance released from the spleen by sympathetic stimulation; and a late phase, dependent upon adrenergic receptors

  4. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS...

  5. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myeong, Hyeon Guk

    1999-06-01

    This book deals with computational fluid dynamics with basic and history of numerical fluid dynamics, introduction of finite volume method using one-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of two-dimensional heat conduction equation, solution of Navier-Stokes equation, fluid with heat transport, turbulent flow and turbulent model, Navier-Stokes solution by generalized coordinate system such as coordinate conversion, conversion of basic equation, program and example of calculation, application of abnormal problem and high speed solution of numerical fluid dynamics.

  6. Influence of Special Weather on Output of PV System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-01-01

    The output of PV system is affected by different environmental factors, therefore, it is important to study the output of PV system under different environmental conditions. Through collecting data on the spot, collecting the output of photovoltaic panels under special weather conditions, and comparing the collected data, the output characteristics of the photovoltaic panels under different weather conditions are obtained. The influence of weather factors such as temperature, humidity and irradiance on the output of photovoltaic panels was investigated.

  7. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  8. Fluid Statics and Archimedes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    librium of a vertical slice fluid (Figure Id) of height H and again using the fact .... same fluid having the same shape and same volume as the body. This fluid volume .... example, can be caused by the heating of air near the ground by the sun ...

  9. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-01-01

    ®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding

  10. On output measurements via radiation pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeman, S.; Healey, A.J.; Forsberg, F.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown, by simple physical argument, that measurements of intensity with a radiation pressure balance should not agree with those based on calorimetric techniques. The conclusion is ultimately a consequence of the circumstance that radiation pressure measurements relate to wave momentum, while...... calorimetric methods relate to wave energy. Measurements with some typical ultrasound fields are performed with a novel type of hydrophone, and these allow an estimate to be made of the magnitude of the discrepancy to be expected between the two types of output measurement in a typical case....

  11. On directional multiple-output quantile regression

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paindaveine, D.; Šiman, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 2 (2011), s. 193-212 ISSN 0047-259X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06047 Grant - others:Commision EC(BE) Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multivariate quantile * quantile regression * multiple-output regression * halfspace depth * portfolio optimization * value-at risk Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/SI/siman-0364128.pdf

  12. Uncertainties in predicting solar panel power output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anspaugh, B.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of calculating solar panel power output at launch and during a space mission is considered. The major sources of uncertainty and error in predicting the post launch electrical performance of the panel are considered. A general discussion of error analysis is given. Examples of uncertainty calculations are included. A general method of calculating the effect on the panel of various degrading environments is presented, with references supplied for specific methods. A technique for sizing a solar panel for a required mission power profile is developed.

  13. Output-Sensitive Pattern Extraction in Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Roberto; Menconi, Giulia; Pisanti, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Genomic Analysis, Plagiarism Detection, Data Mining, Intrusion Detection, Spam Fighting and Time Series Analysis are just some examples of applications where extraction of recurring patterns in sequences of objects is one of the main computational challenges. Several notions of patterns exist...... or extend them causes a loss of significant information (where the number of occurrences changes). Output-sensitive algorithms have been proposed to enumerate and list these patterns, taking polynomial time O(nc) per pattern for constant c > 1, which is impractical for massive sequences of very large length...

  14. Utilization of INIS output in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanik, Z.; Blazek, J.

    1978-01-01

    Information on INIS output materials - INIS magnetic tape, INIS Atomindex, full texts of non-conventional literature on microfiches. Complex is provided of INIS-SDI service by the Nuclear Information Centre for CSSR. The Unified Software System (USS) of the UVTEI-UTZ (the Central Technical Base of the Central Office for Scientific, Technical and Economic Information) is used for the automated processing of INIS magnetic tapes. A survey of INIS-SDI services in the years 1974 to 1978 is given. The further development of the system consists in the use of the terminal network, with direct access to the IAEA computer in Vienna. (author)

  15. Proceedings of industrial applications of fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, S.A.; Morrow, T.B.; Marshall, L.R.; Dalton, C.

    1990-01-01

    The is the fourth Forum on Industrial Applications of Fluid Mechanics sponsored by the Fluid Mechanics Committee of the ASME Fluids Engineering Division. The Forum objective is to promote the discussion and interchange of current information on developing and state-of-the-art applications of fluid mechanics technology. The program is organized as a technical forum to encourage the presentation of new ideas, especially those which may be so innovative that a conservative review process might delay their dissemination to the fluids engineering community. Four sessions and a total of 17 papers are scheduled for this program. Three of the four sessions were devoted to contributed papers, while the fourth is a panel discussion with three invited presentations. All papers were reviewed editorially to assure that they are related to the forum theme The papers were not evaluated technically, and therefore carry no endorsement from the Fluid Mechanics Committee or the Fluids Engineering Division with regard to peer evaluation. The forum presentations will focus on specific applications of fluid mechanics technology. Lively discussion of the papers is encouraged at the forum. The Fluid Mechanics Committee plans to sponsor a forum with an industrial applications theme each year at the ASME Winter Annual Meeting. In 1991, the scope of the forum will be enlarged to include the topic of textile applications of fluid mechanics, and another panel session featuring speakers with industrial experience in different areas of fluid mechanics applications. In future years, it is anticipated that the forum will solicit papers from other areas where fluid mechanics technology is applied

  16. Output-based allocation as a form of protection for internationally competitive industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haites, Erik

    2003-12-01

    Policies adopted by Annex B Parties to reduce their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are likely to increase costs for industries vulnerable to international competition in domestic or export markets. Domestic emissions trading, by enabling the aggregate emissions target to be met at least cost, helps to reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. An output-based allocation of allowances reduces the output decline due to imposition of the emissions trading program relative to a lump-sum (historic) allocation and so helps reduce the adverse impacts on these industries. The effectiveness of an output-based allocation in maintaining production must be assessed empirically because it depends on the characteristics of all of the firms covered by the trading program as well as other factors. Modeling results for a possible emissions trading program for Alberta confirm the expected impacts of an output-based allocation and indicate that the effectiveness varies across industries. While encouraging greater production, an output-based allocation lowers profits relative to a lump-sum allocation and leads to a different distribution of costs. Other policy options for reducing the output decline in industries vulnerable to international competition include lump-sum allocations or auctioned allowances combined with assistance programs for emission reduction actions or a requirement to meet 'world best' emission performance standard. These policy options should be compared with an output-based allocation in terms of effectiveness, total cost and other impacts, before a policy is adopted

  17. World crude output overcomes Persian Gulf disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Several OPEC producers made good on their promises to replace 2.7 MMbpd of oil exports that vanished from the world market after Iraq took over Kuwait. Even more incredibly, they accomplished this while a breathtaking 1.2- MMbopd reduction in Soviet output took place during the course of 1991. After Abu Dhabi, Indonesia, Iran, Libya, Nigeria, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela turned the taps wide open, their combined output rose 2.95 MMbopd. Put together with a 282,000-bopd increase by Norway and contributions from smaller producers, this enabled world oil production to remain within 400,000 bopd of its 1990 level. The 60.5-MMbopd average was off by just 0.7%. This paper reports that improvement took place in five of eight regions. Largest increases were in Western Europe and Africa. Greatest reductions occurred in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Fifteen nations produced 1 MMbopd or more last year, compared with 17 during 1990

  18. Guaranteeing high output of a mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetser, M G

    1983-05-01

    Operation of the Im. Kalinina coal mine in the Central Donbass is evluated. Seventeen coal seams, on the average 0.87 m thick, are prone to methane and coal dust explosions and to rock bursts. Some of the seams are also prone to spontaneous combustion. Rock layers in the roofs are prone to rock falls. Mining depth ranges from 740 to 850 m. Another working level is being constructed at a depth of 960 m. The steep coal seams are mined by means of the ANShch shield systems and the KGU system (with the 'Poisk' cutter loader). Strata control methods used in the mine are evaluated. Design of timber cribbings used for strata control in inclined workings is shown in a scheme. Construction of coal chutes and strata control in coal chutes are also described. Operation of KGU-1 powered supports which have been used in the mine for 10 years is evaluated. Improved strata control permitted daily coal output from a working face to be increased from 135 t in 1979 to 169 t in 1982. Yearly coal output increased from 605,000 t to 760,000 t. Labor productivity increased from 21.1 t/month to 25.9 t/month per miner. (In Russian)

  19. Fluid and particle mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Michell, S J

    2013-01-01

    Fluid and Particle Mechanics provides information pertinent to hydraulics or fluid mechanics. This book discusses the properties and behavior of liquids and gases in motion and at rest. Organized into nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the science of fluid mechanics that is subdivided accordingly into two main branches, namely, fluid statics and fluid dynamics. This text then examines the flowmeter devices used for the measurement of flow of liquids and gases. Other chapters consider the principle of resistance in open channel flow, which is based on improper application of th

  20. Fluid inclusion geothermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C.G.

    1977-01-01

    Fluid inclusions trapped within crystals either during growth or at a later time provide many clues to the histories of rocks and ores. Estimates of fluid-inclusion homogenization temperature and density can be obtained using a petrographic microscope with thin sections, and they can be refined using heating and freezing stages. Fluid inclusion studies, used in conjunction with paragenetic studies, can provide direct data on the time and space variations of parameters such as temperature, pressure, density, and composition of fluids in geologic environments. Changes in these parameters directly affect the fugacity, composition, and pH of fluids, thus directly influencing localization of ore metals. ?? 1977 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart.

  1. Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Bhattacharya

    of renewable energy (e.g., via wind, hydrokinetic generators), creating low-cost healthcare ... multiphase flow, turbulence, bio-fluid dynamics, atmospheric flows, microfluidic flows, and ... study the challenging problem of entry of solids in water.

  2. A Monte Carlo Study on Multiple Output Stochastic Frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Géraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected output quantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochastic ray production frontier (SR) which transforms the output quantities into their Euclidean distance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates......In the estimation of multiple output technologies in a primal approach, the main question is how to handle the multiple outputs. Often an output distance function is used, where the classical approach is to exploit its homogeneity property by selecting one output quantity as the dependent variable...... of both specifications for the case of a Translog output distance function with respect to different common statistical problems as well as problems arising as a consequence of zero values in the output quantities. Although, our results partly show clear reactions to statistical misspecifications...

  3. Annual Prediction Output of an RADTIRC-PV Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Freier

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of solar photovoltaic (PV installations has been increasing worldwide but the high capital cost of installation continues to be the main challenge, particularly in many developing countries. The solar concentrator, a device that focuses the sunlight onto a small area, has the potential to minimize the use of expensive PV material while maintaining the system’s performance, ultimately bringing down its overall cost. This study aims to predict the annual electrical output of a specific concentrator design called the rotationally asymmetrical dielectric totally internally reflecting concentrator (RADTIRC. The aforementioned design is assumed to be installed in Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. First, a short review of concentrators is provided. Next, a description of the RADTIRC and the previous research that revolved around it are provided. Afterwards, the key parameters that are needed to determine the annual electrical output of the RADTIRC are explained before presenting the results of the simulations. It was found that the yearly energy yield was increased by a factor of 2.29 when the RADTIRC-PV module was used when compared with the non-concentrating PV module.

  4. Competitive Strategy and Total Quality Management Culture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the elements of competitive strategy, total quality management culture and productivity improvement and their relationship in producing better outputs of goods and services and individual and organizational performance. Production remains fundamental to the sustenance of human existence.

  5. Parametric investigation of working fluids for organic Rankine cycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J. Steven; Brignoli, Riccardo; Quine, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates working fluids for organic Rankine cycle (ORC) applications with a goal of identifying “ideal” working fluids for five renewable/alternative energy sources. It employs a methodology for screening and comparing with good engineering accuracy the thermodynamic performance potential of ORC operating with working fluids that are not well characterized experimentally or by high-accuracy equations of state. A wide range of “theoretical” working fluids are investigated with the goals to identify potential alternative working fluids and to guide future research and development efforts of working fluids. The “theoretical” working fluids investigated are described in terms of critical state properties, acentric factor, and ideal gas specific heat capacity at constant pressure and are obtained by parametrically varying each of these parameters. The performances of these “theoretical” working fluids are compared to the performances of several “real” working fluids. The study suggests a working fluid's critical temperature and its critical ideal gas molar heat capacity have the largest impact on the cycle efficiency and volumetric work output, with “ideal” working fluids for high efficiency possessing critical temperatures on the order of 100%–150% of the source temperature and possessing intermediate values of critical ideal gas molar heat capacity. - Highlights: • “Ideal” working fluids are investigated for organic Rankine cycles (ORC). • The thermodynamic space of “ideal” working fluids is parametrically investigated. • Five low- and high-temperature ORC applications are investigated. • 1620 “ideal” and several “real” working fluids per application are investigated.

  6. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2016-12-10

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step-size restriction as the method itself. A general recipe for first-order SSP dense output formulae for SSP methods is given, and second-order dense output formulae for several optimal SSP methods are developed. It is shown that SSP dense output formulae of order three and higher do not exist, and that in any method possessing a second-order SSP dense output, the coefficient matrix A has a zero row.

  7. Maintenance fluid therapy and fluid creep impose more significant fluid, sodium, and chloride burdens than resuscitation fluids in critically ill patients: a retrospective study in a tertiary mixed ICU population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Regenmortel, Niels; Verbrugghe, Walter; Roelant, Ella; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Jorens, Philippe G

    2018-04-01

    Research on intravenous fluid therapy and its side effects, volume, sodium, and chloride overload, has focused almost exclusively on the resuscitation setting. We aimed to quantify all fluid sources in the ICU and assess fluid creep, the hidden and unintentional volume administered as a vehicle for medication or electrolytes. We precisely recorded the volume, sodium, and chloride burdens imposed by every fluid source administered to 14,654 patients during the cumulative 103,098 days they resided in our 45-bed tertiary ICU and simulated the impact of important strategic fluid choices on patients' chloride burdens. In septic patients, we assessed the impact of the different fluid sources on cumulative fluid balance, an established marker of morbidity. Maintenance and replacement fluids accounted for 24.7% of the mean daily total fluid volume, thereby far exceeding resuscitation fluids (6.5%) and were the most important sources of sodium and chloride. Fluid creep represented a striking 32.6% of the mean daily total fluid volume [median 645 mL (IQR 308-1039 mL)]. Chloride levels can be more effectively reduced by adopting a hypotonic maintenance strategy [a daily difference in chloride burden of 30.8 mmol (95% CI 30.5-31.1)] than a balanced resuscitation strategy [daily difference 3.0 mmol (95% CI 2.9-3.1)]. In septic patients, non-resuscitation fluids had a larger absolute impact on cumulative fluid balance than did resuscitation fluids. Inadvertent daily volume, sodium, and chloride loading should be avoided when prescribing maintenance fluids in view of the vast amounts of fluid creep. This is especially important when adopting an isotonic maintenance strategy.

  8. FEL system with homogeneous average output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph

    2018-01-16

    A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.

  9. Proportional chamber with data analog output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.E.; Prokof'ev, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    A proportional multiwier chamber is described. The chamber makes it possible to determine angles at wich a pion strikes a polarized target. A delay line, made of 60-core flat cable is used for removing signals from the chamber. From the delay line, signals are amplified and successively injected into shapers and a time-to-amplitude converter. An amplitude of the time-to amplitude converter output signal unambiguously determines the coordinate of a point at which a particle strikes the chamber plane. There are also given circuits of amplifiers, which consist of a preamplifier with gain 30 and a main amplifier with adjustable gain. Data on testing the chamber with the 450 MeV pion beam is demonstrated. The chamber features an efficiency of about 98 per cent under load of 2x10 5 s -1

  10. Optimizing microwave photodetection: input-output theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöndorf, M.; Govia, L. C. G.; Vavilov, M. G.; McDermott, R.; Wilhelm, F. K.

    2018-04-01

    High fidelity microwave photon counting is an important tool for various areas from background radiation analysis in astronomy to the implementation of circuit quantum electrodynamic architectures for the realization of a scalable quantum information processor. In this work we describe a microwave photon counter coupled to a semi-infinite transmission line. We employ input-output theory to examine a continuously driven transmission line as well as traveling photon wave packets. Using analytic and numerical methods, we calculate the conditions on the system parameters necessary to optimize measurement and achieve high detection efficiency. With this we can derive a general matching condition depending on the different system rates, under which the measurement process is optimal.

  11. Application of computer voice input/output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.; Shirk, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advent of microprocessors and other large-scale integration (LSI) circuits is making voice input and output for computers and instruments practical; specialized LSI chips for speech processing are appearing on the market. Voice can be used to input data or to issue instrument commands; this allows the operator to engage in other tasks, move about, and to use standard data entry systems. Voice synthesizers can generate audible, easily understood instructions. Using voice characteristics, a control system can verify speaker identity for security purposes. Two simple voice-controlled systems have been designed at Los Alamos for nuclear safeguards applicaations. Each can easily be expanded as time allows. The first system is for instrument control that accepts voice commands and issues audible operator prompts. The second system is for access control. The speaker's voice is used to verify his identity and to actuate external devices

  12. Advanced Output Coupling for High Power Gyrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Read, Michael [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Ives, Robert Lawrence [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Marsden, David [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Collins, George [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States); Temkin, Richard [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Guss, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lohr, John [General Atomics, La Jolla, CA (United States); Neilson, Jeffrey [Lexam Research, Redwood City, CA (United States); Bui, Thuc [Calabazas Creek Research, Inc., San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The Phase II program developed an internal RF coupler that transforms the whispering gallery RF mode produced in gyrotron cavities to an HE11 waveguide mode propagating in corrugated waveguide. This power is extracted from the vacuum using a broadband, chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, Brewster angle window capable of transmitting more than 1.5 MW CW of RF power over a broad range of frequencies. This coupling system eliminates the Mirror Optical Units now required to externally couple Gaussian output power into corrugated waveguide, significantly reducing system cost and increasing efficiency. The program simulated the performance using a broad range of advanced computer codes to optimize the design. Both a direct coupler and Brewster angle window were built and tested at low and high power. Test results confirmed the performance of both devices and demonstrated they are capable of achieving the required performance for scientific, defense, industrial, and medical applications.

  13. Formula for Calculating Maintenance Fluid Volumes in Low Birth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    2007-08-14

    Aug 14, 2007 ... different fluid prescriptions, so urine output should not ..... easier (than Tables) to commit to memory. Because ... recall/remember. ... Question 1: What will be the maintenance ... Answer: Using the formula 20(R+A-W) ml kg-1.

  14. Report on research and development achievements in fiscal 1980 in Sunshine Project. Development of a total flow electric power plant(Two-phase rotation inflator); 1980 nendo total flow hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Niso kaiten bochoki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    Out of the development of a total flow power plant in the Sunshine Project, this paper describes a two-phase rotatry inflator. It reports the achievements in fiscal 1980. It is intended to utilize effectively the energy of gas-liquid two-phase fluid (containing a great amount of hot water) often seen in geothermal resources in Japan. Therefore, development is considered on a two-phase rotary inflator as a total flow power generation technology to inflate the gas-liquid fluid as it is without performing separation thereof, and convert it to an external work to draw out output. The inflator is a volume type rotary engine, which has the highest efficiency theoretically, but has not been put into practical use worldwide. Based on the result obtained in the previous fiscal year, development is made on a most suitable seal to be applied to circumferential seal of an external rotor, apex seal, and intake port seal. A rotary inflation performance testing machine is fabricated to study inflation of the gas-liquid two-phase fluid. Setting the engine efficiency of 60% or higher as the target, detailed design, fabrication and assembly shall be completed on two-phase rotation inflators of volume type and self-rotation type of 300 kW class. (NEDO)

  15. Industrial output restriction and the Kyoto protocol. An input-output approach with application to Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lixon, Benoit; Thomassin, Paul J.; Hamaide, Bertrand

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the economic impacts of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by decreasing industrial output in Canada to a level that will meet the target set out in the Kyoto Protocol. The study uses an ecological-economic Input-Output model combining economic components valued in monetary terms with ecologic components - GHG emissions - expressed in physical terms. Economic and greenhouse gas emissions data for Canada are computed in the same sectoral disaggregation. Three policy scenarios are considered: the first one uses the direct emission coefficients to allocate the reduction in industrial output, while the other two use the direct plus indirect emission coefficients. In the first two scenarios, the reduction in industrial sector output is allocated uniformly across sectors while it is allocated to the 12 largest emitting industries in the last one. The estimated impacts indicate that the results vary with the different allocation methods. The third policy scenario, allocation to the 12 largest emitting sectors, is the most cost effective of the three as the impacts of the Kyoto Protocol reduces Gross Domestic Product by 3.1% compared to 24% and 8.1% in the first two scenarios. Computed economic costs should be considered as upper-bounds because the model assumes immediate adjustment to the Kyoto Protocol and because flexibility mechanisms are not incorporated. The resulting upper-bound impact of the third scenario may seem to contradict those who claim that the Kyoto Protocol would place an unbearable burden on the Canadian economy. (author)

  16. The computer code SEURBNUK/EURDYN (release 1). Input and output specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.L.; Broadhouse, B.J.; Yerkess, A.

    1986-05-01

    SEURBNUK-2 is a two-dimensional, axisymmetric, Eulerian, finite difference containment code developed initially by AWRE Aldermaston, AEE Winfrith and JRC-Ispra, and more recently by AEEW, JRC and EIR Wuerenlingen. The numerical procedure adopted in SEURBNUK to solve the hydrodynamic equations is based on the semi-implicit ICE method which itself is an extension of the MAC algorithm. SEURBNUK has a finite difference thin shell treatment for vessels and internal structures of arbitrary shape and includes the effects of the compressibility of the fluid. Fluid flow through porous media and porous structures can also be accommodated. SEURBNUK/EURDYN is an extension of SEURBNUK-2 in which the finite difference thin shell treatment is replaced by a finite element calculation for both thin or thick structures. This has been achieved by coupling the finite element code EURDYN with SEURBNUK-2, allowing the use of conical shell elements and axisymmetric triangular elements. Within the code, the equations of motion for the structures are solved quite separately from those for the fluid, and the timestep for the fluid can be an integer multiple of that for the structures. The interaction of the structures with the fluid is then considered as a modification to the coefficients in the pressure equations, the modifications naturally depending on the behaviour of the structures within the fluid cell. The code is limited to dealing with a single fluid, the coolant, and the bubble and the cover gas are treated as cavities of uniform pressure calculated via appropriate pressure-volume-energy relationships. This manual describes the input data specifications needed for the execution of SEURBNUK/EURDYN calculations. After explaining the output facilities information is included to aid users to avoid some common pit-falls. (author)

  17. Dense Output for Strong Stability Preserving Runge–Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Loczi, Lajos; Jangabylova, Aliya; Kusmanov, Adil

    2016-01-01

    We investigate dense output formulae (also known as continuous extensions) for strong stability preserving (SSP) Runge–Kutta methods. We require that the dense output formula also possess the SSP property, ideally under the same step

  18. Fullerol ionic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Nikhil; Dallas, Panagiotis; Rodriguez, Robert; Bourlinos, Athanasios B.; Georgakilas, Vasilios; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2010-09-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like).

  19. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  20. Fiber optic fluid detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, S. Michael

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  1. Extra cogeneration step seen boosting output 20%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, P.

    1984-10-08

    Cogenerators can now buy a prototype 6.5 MW, pre-packaged cogeneration system that incorporates an added step to its cycle to reduce fuel use by 21%. Larger, custom-designed systems will be on the market in 1985. Fayette Manufacturing Co. will offer the Kalina Cycle system at a discount price of $8.2 million (1200/kW) until the systems are competitive with conventional units. The system varies from conventional cogeneration systems by adding a distillation step, which permits the use of two fluids for the turbine steam and operates at a higher thermodynamic efficiency, with boiling occuring at high temperature and low pressure. Although theoretically correct, DOE will withhold judgment on the system's efficiency until the first installation is operating.

  2. MCNP output data analysis with ROOT (MODAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasco, C.

    2010-12-01

    MCNP Output Data Analysis with ROOT (MODAR) is a tool based on CERN's ROOT software. MODAR has been designed to handle time-energy data issued by MCNP simulations of neutron inspection devices using the associated particle technique. MODAR exploits ROOT's Graphical User Interface and functionalities to visualize and process MCNP simulation results in a fast and user-friendly way. MODAR allows to take into account the detection system time resolution (which is not possible with MCNP) as well as detectors energy response function and counting statistics in a straightforward way. New version program summaryProgram title: MODAR Catalogue identifier: AEGA_v1_1 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGA_v1_1.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 150 927 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 981 633 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Most Unix workstations and PCs Operating system: Most Unix systems, Linux and windows, provided the ROOT package has been installed. Examples where tested under Suse Linux and Windows XP. RAM: Depends on the size of the MCNP output file. The example presented in the article, which involves three two dimensional 139×740 bins histograms, allocates about 60 MB. These data are running under ROOT and include consumption by ROOT itself. Classification: 17.6 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEGA_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 1161 External routines: ROOT version 5.24.00 ( http://root.cern.ch/drupal/) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The output of a MCNP simulation is an ascii file. The data processing is usually performed by copying and pasting the relevant parts of the ascii

  3. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  4. Disposing of fluid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Toxic liquid waste, eg liquid radioactive waste, is disposed of by locating a sub-surface stratum which, before removal of any fluid, has a fluid pressure in the pores thereof which is less than the hydrostatic pressure which is normal for a stratum at that depth in the chosen area, and then feeding the toxic liquid into the stratum at a rate such that the fluid pressure in the stratum never exceeds the said normal hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  5. A new converter for improving efficiency of multi-actuators fluid power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Yong; Shang, JianZhong; Yang, JunHong; Wang Zhuo [National University of Defense Technology, Changsha (China)

    2016-05-15

    This paper is concerned with the application of energy efficient fluid power in mobile robots system and proposes a new fluid power converter system which is analogous to a boost converter in power electronics. The fluid power converter system is based on the principle of pulse-width modulation. The fluid power converter has an effect akin to an electrical switched inductance transformer, wherein the output pressure or flow rate can be stepped up or down. Using an inductive reactance device (an inertia mass-block), the output flow and pressure can be varied to meet the load by a means that does not rely on dissipation of power (the resistance control). The simulation model based on the mathematics models of the components is built to analyse the performance of the fluid power converter. It is clearly shown that the fluid power converter has higher energy efficiency than conventional resistance control manners.

  6. Fluid dynamics transactions

    CERN Document Server

    Fiszdon, W

    1965-01-01

    Fluid Dynamics Transactions, Volume 2 compiles 46 papers on fluid dynamics, a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow. The topics discussed in this book include developments in interference theory for aeronautical applications; diffusion from sources in a turbulent boundary layer; unsteady motion of a finite wing span in a compressible medium; and wall pressure covariance and comparison with experiment. The certain classes of non-stationary axially symmetric flows in magneto-gas-dynamics; description of the phenomenon of secondary flows in curved channels by means of co

  7. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  8. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  9. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, Bhimsen K

    1998-01-01

    "Although there are many texts and monographs on fluid dynamics, I do not know of any which is as comprehensive as the present book. It surveys nearly the entire field of classical fluid dynamics in an advanced, compact, and clear manner, and discusses the various conceptual and analytical models of fluid flow." - Foundations of Physics on the first edition. Theoretical Fluid Dynamics functions equally well as a graduate-level text and a professional reference. Steering a middle course between the empiricism of engineering and the abstractions of pure mathematics, the author focuses

  10. Defining the Benefits, Outputs, and Knowledge Elements of Program Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Rochelle; Perrin, Burt; McGuire, Martha; Long, Bud; Lee, Linda

    2002-01-01

    The Canadian Evaluation Society explored the benefits that can be attributed to program evaluation, the outputs necessary to achieve those benefits, and the knowledge and skills needed to produce outputs. Findings, which articulate benefits, outputs, and skills, can be used by evaluation organizations to support advocacy and professional…

  11. A multi-centre analysis of radiotherapy beam output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Bolt

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Machine beam output measurements were largely within ±2% of 1.00 cGy/MU. Clear trends in measured output over time were seen, with some machines having large drifts which would result in additional burden to maintain within acceptable tolerances. This work may act as a baseline for future comparison of beam output measurements.

  12. Effect of liraglutide treatment on jejunostomy output in patients with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvistendahl, Mark; Brandt, Christopher Filtenborg; Tribler, Siri

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An impaired hormonal "ileo-colonic brake" may contribute to rapid gastric emptying, gastric hypersecretion, high ostomy losses, and the need for parenteral support in end-jejunostomy short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with intestinal failure (IF). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1...... ± SD) and with small bowel lengths of 110 ± 66 cm. The 72-hour metabolic balance studies were performed before and at the end of treatment. Food intake was unrestricted. Oral fluid intake and parenteral support volume were kept constant. The primary end point was change in the ostomy wet weight output....... RESULTS: Liraglutide reduced ostomy wet weight output by 474 ± 563 g/d from 3249 ± 1352 to 2775 ± 1187 g/d (P =049, Student t test). Intestinal wet weight absorption tended to increase by 464 ± 557 g/d (P = .05), as did urine production by 765 ± 759 g/d (P =02). Intestinal energy absorption improved...

  13. Sebum output as a factor contributing to the size of facial pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, M; Han, M; Kim, D; Chung, K

    2006-11-01

    Many endogenous and exogenous factors are known to cause enlarged pilosebaceous pores. Such factors include sex, genetic predisposition, ageing, chronic ultraviolet light exposure, comedogenic xenobiotics, acne and seborrhoea. This study was an attempt to determine the factors related to enlarged pores. To assess the relationship of sebum output, age, sex, hormonal factors and severity of acne with pore size. A prospective, randomized, controlled study was designed. A total of 60 volunteers, 30 males and 30 females, were recruited for this study. Magnified images of pores were taken using a dermoscopic video camera and measured using an image analysis program. The sebum output level was measured with a Sebumeter. Using multiple linear regression analysis, increased pore size was significantly associated with increased sebum output level, sex and age. Among the variables, sebum output level correlated most with the pore size followed by male sex. In comparing male and female participants, males had higher correlation between the sebum output level and the pore size (male: r = 0.47, female: r = 0.38). Thus, additional factors seem to influence pore size in females. Pore size was significantly increased during the ovulation phase (P = 0.008), but severity of acne was not significantly associated with the pore size. Enlarged pore sizes are associated with increased sebum output level, age and male sex. In female patients, additional hormonal factors, such as those of the menstrual cycle, affect the pore size.

  14. Florida's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, volume of industrial roundwood output from Florida's forests totaled 445 million cubic feet, 13 percent less than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined to 146 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 214 million cubic feet;...

  15. Georgia's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan McClure; John L. Wells

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Georgia's forests totaled 1.17 billion cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 4 percent to 433 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic feet...

  16. Arkansas's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Arkansas's forests totaled 749 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 354 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 390 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 235 million cubic feet; and...

  17. North Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Michael C. Mann

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from North Carolina's forests totaled 784 million cubic feet, 1 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers declined 3 percent to 306 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 400 million cubic...

  18. Mississippi's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Mississippi's forests totaled 1.03 billion cubic feet, 11 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers decreased 1 percent to 385 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 543 million cubic...

  19. The South's timber industry -- an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; James W. Bentley; Michael Howell

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from the South's forests totaled 8.7 billion cubic feet, 6 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 1 percent to 3.2 billion cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 3.9 billion cubic...

  20. Louisiana's timber industry - an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from Louisiana's forests totaled 866 million cubic feet, 20 percent more than in 2002. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 17 percent to 321 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 343 million cubic...

  1. South Carolina's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony G. Johnson; Nathan Smith

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, industrial roundwood output from South Carolina's forests totaled 645 million cubic feet, 13 percent more than in 2003. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers increased 10 percent to 186 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used primarily for fuel and fiber products. Pulpwood was the leading roundwood product at 318 million...

  2. Commissioning of output factors for uniform scanning proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Yuanshui; Ramirez, Eric; Mascia, Anthony; Ding Xiaoning; Okoth, Benny; Zeidan, Omar; Hsi Wen; Harris, Ben; Schreuder, Andries N.; Keole, Sameer

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Current commercial treatment planning systems are not able to accurately predict output factors and calculate monitor units for proton fields. Patient-specific field output factors are thus determined by either measurements or empirical modeling based on commissioning data. The objective of this study is to commission output factors for uniform scanning beams utilized at the ProCure proton therapy centers. Methods: Using water phantoms and a plane parallel ionization chamber, the authors first measured output factors with a fixed 10 cm diameter aperture as a function of proton range and modulation width for clinically available proton beams with ranges between 4 and 31.5 cm and modulation widths between 2 and 15 cm. The authors then measured the output factor as a function of collimated field size at various calibration depths for proton beams of various ranges and modulation widths. The authors further examined the dependence of the output factor on the scanning area (i.e., uncollimated proton field), snout position, and phantom material. An empirical model was developed to calculate the output factor for patient-specific fields and the model-predicted output factors were compared to measurements. Results: The output factor increased with proton range and field size, and decreased with modulation width. The scanning area and snout position have a small but non-negligible effect on the output factors. The predicted output factors based on the empirical modeling agreed within 2% of measurements for all prostate treatment fields and within 3% for 98.5% of all treatment fields. Conclusions: Comprehensive measurements at a large subset of available beam conditions are needed to commission output factors for proton therapy beams. The empirical modeling agrees well with the measured output factor data. This investigation indicates that it is possible to accurately predict output factors and thus eliminate or reduce time-consuming patient-specific output

  3. Hybrid optoelectronic device with multiple bistable outputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Jin Yiye; Gelh, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.are, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulma.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulma.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Optoelectronic circuits which exhibit optical and electrical bistability with hysteresis behavior are proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The systems are based on semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), bipolar junction transistors (BJT), PIN photodiodes (PD) and laser diodes externally modulated with integrated electro-absorption modulators (LD-EAM). The device operates based on two independent phenomena leading to both electrical bistability and optical bistability. The electrical bistability is due to the series connection of two p-i-n structures (SOA, BJT, PD or LD) in reverse bias. The optical bistability is consequence of the quantum confined Stark effect (QCSE) in the multi-quantum well (MQW) structure in the intrinsic region of the device. This effect produces the optical modulation of the transmitted light through the SOA (or reflected from the PD). Finally, because the optical transmission of the SOA (in reverse bias) and the reflected light from the PD are so small, a LD-EAM modulated by the voltage across these devices are employed to obtain a higher output optical power. Experiments show that the maximum switching frequency is in MHz range and the rise/fall times lower than 1 us. The temporal response is mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the devices and the parasitic inductances of the connecting wires. The effects of these components can be reduced in current integration technologies.

  4. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  5. Monitoring the consistency of the dynalyser output via digital display unit and calculated practical peak voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Hazlinda Ismail; Muhammad Jamal Mohd Isa; Abdul Aziz Mohd Ramli; Shahrul Azlan Azizan

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to ensure the adequacy and accuracy of the Dynalyser Digital Display unit for measuring the true kVp from the invasive kVp meter unit during calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. An invasive high voltage divider (dynalyser) coupled to the x-ray system measures the true kilo voltage supplied to the x-ray tube. The kVp output measured was displayed via its digital display unit while its waveform was acquired using a calibrated oscilloscope. The waveform was used to calculate the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) using the International Standard method adapted from IEC 61676 and treated as the true kVp value. The kVp output was measured at 9 points ranging between 40 kV-120 kV with interval steps of 10 kV and monitored every day. The test result was evaluated for variation of output, intrinsic error and limit of variation in compliance with the IEC standard. Results showed that kVp output measured by the display unit everyday is consistent with variations of not more than ±0.45 kV, intrinsic error of not more than ±0.009 kV and limits of variation of less than 1% which comply with the IEC standard requirement. The kVp output via digital display unit has a total uncertainty of not more than 2.8 kV (k=2) while the PPV output via oscilloscope has total uncertainty of not more than 0.75 kV (k=2). As a conclusion, the dynalyser digital display unit complies with standard requirement and can be used to measure the true kVp output during the calibration of non-invasive kVp meters. (author)

  6. EVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS THERMODILUTION METHOD FOR CARDIAC OUTPUT MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Parežnik

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Continuous monitoring of haemodynamic variables is often necessary for detection of rapid changes in critically ill patients. In our patients recently introduced continuous thermodilution technique (CTD for cardiac output measurement was compared to bolus thermodilution technique (BTD which is a »golden standard« method for cardiac output (CO measurement in intensive care medicine.Methods. Ten critically ill patients were included in a retrospective observational study. Using CTD method cardiac output was measured continuously. BTD measurements using the same equipment were performed intermittently. The data obtained by BTD were compared to those obtained by CTD just before the BTD (CTD-before and 2–3 minutes after the BTD (CTD-after. The CO values were divided into three groups: all CO values, CO > 4.5 L/min, CO < 4.5 L/min. The bias (mean difference between values obtained by two methods, standard deviation, 95% confidence limits and relative error were calculated and the linear regression analysis was performed. t-test for pared data was used to compare the biases for CTD-before and CTD-after for an individual group. The p value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results. A total of 60 data triplets were obtained. CTD-before ranged from 1.9 L/min to 12.6 L/min, CTD-after from 2.0 to 13.2 L/min and BTD from 1.9 to 12.0 L/min. For all CO values the bias for CTD-before was 0.13 ± 0.52 L/min (95% confidence limits 1.17–0.91 L/min, relative error was 3.52 ± 15.20%, linear regression equation was CTD-before = 0.96 × BTD + 0.01 and Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.95. The values for CTD-after were 0.08 ± 0.46 L/min (1.0–0.84 L/min, 2.22 ± 9.05%, CTD-after = 0.98 × BTD + 0.01 and 0.98 respectively. For all CO values there was no statistically significant difference between biases for CTD-before and CTD-after (p = 0,51. There was no statistically significant difference between biases for CTD

  7. Micro Total Analysis Systems: Microfluidic aspects, integration concept and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Albert; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.

    1997-01-01

    In this contribution three aspects of miniaturized total analysis systems (µTAS) are described and discussed in detail. First, an overview of microfabricated components for fluid handling is given. A description of the importance of sampling- and fluid-handling techniques is followed by details of

  8. Use of transesophageal Doppler ultrasonography in ventilated pediatric patients: derivation of cardiac output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibby, S M; Hatherill, M; Murdoch, I A

    2000-06-01

    To ascertain if cardiac output (CO) could be derived from blood flow velocity measured in the descending aorta of ventilated children by transesophageal Doppler ultrasonography (TED) without the need for direct aortic cross sectional area measurement, and to evaluate the ability of TED to follow changes in CO when compared with femoral artery thermodilution. Prospective, comparison study. A 16-bed pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital. A total of 100 ventilated infants and children aged 4 days to 18 yrs (median age, 27 months). Diagnoses included postcardiac surgery (n = 58), sepsis/multiple organ failure (n = 32), respiratory disease (n = 5), and other (n = 5). A total of 55 patients were receiving inotropes or vasodilators. When patients were hemodynamically stable, a TED probe was placed into the distal esophagus to obtain optimal signal, and minute distance (MD) was recorded. Five consecutive MD measurements were made concurrently with five femoral artery thermodilution measurements, and the concurrent measurements were averaged. CO was then manipulated by fluid administration or inotrope adjustment, and the readings were repeated. Femoral artery thermodilution CO ranged from 0.32 to 9.19 L/min, (median, 2.46 L/min), and encompassed a wide range of high and low flow states. Theoretical consideration revealed the optimal TED estimate for CO to be (MD x patient height2 x 10(-7)). Linear regression analysis yielded a power function model such that: estimated CO = 1.158 x (MD x height2 x 10(-7))(0.785), r2 = 0.879, standard error of the estimate = 0.266. Inclusion of a correction factor for potential changes in aortic cross-sectional area with hypo- and hypertension did not appreciably improve the predictive value of the model. MD was able to follow percentage changes in CO, giving a mean bias of 0.87% (95% confidence interval -0.85% to 2.59%), and limits of agreement of +/- 16.82%. The median coefficient of variation for MD was 3.3%. TED provides

  9. A practical approach to the management of high-output stoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountford, Christopher G; Manas, Derek M; Thompson, Nicholas P

    2014-01-01

    The development of a high-output stoma (HOS) is associated with water, electrolyte and nutritional complications. Prompt, careful assessment and management is required to avoid rapid clinical deterioration in this patient population. A multidisciplinary approach to management ensures the best possible outcome and quality of life for patients who experience HOS. This article outlines the important considerations in the identification and pathophysiology of HOS. A systematic approach to the management of the condition is outlined, considering fluid and electrolyte requirements, nutrient deficiencies and manipulation of gastrointestinal absorption, motility and secretions using medical and surgical therapies. PMID:28839771

  10. Understanding the heterogeneity in volume overload and fluid distribution in decompensated heart failure is key to optimal volume management: role for blood volume quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L; Mullan, Brian P

    2014-06-01

    This study sought to quantitate total blood volume (TBV) in patients hospitalized for decompensated chronic heart failure (DCHF) and to determine the extent of volume overload, and the magnitude and distribution of blood volume and body water changes following diuretic therapy. The accurate assessment and management of volume overload in patients with DCHF remains problematic. TBV was measured by a radiolabeled-albumin dilution technique with intravascular volume, pre-to-post-diuretic therapy, evaluated at hospital admission and at discharge. Change in body weight in relation to quantitated TBV was used to determine interstitial volume contribution to total fluid loss. Twenty-six patients were prospectively evaluated. Two patients had normal TBV at admission. Twenty-four patients were hypervolemic with TBV (7.4 ± 1.6 liters) increased by +39 ± 22% (range, +9.5% to +107%) above the expected normal volume. With diuresis, TBV decreased marginally (+30 ± 16%). Body weight declined by 6.9 ± 5.2 kg, and fluid intake/fluid output was a net negative 8.4 ± 5.2 liters. Interstitial compartment fluid loss was calculated at 6.2 ± 4.0 liters, accounting for 85 ± 15% of the total fluid reduction. TBV analysis demonstrated a wide range in the extent of intravascular overload. Dismissal measurements revealed marginally reduced intravascular volume post-diuretic therapy despite large reductions in body weight. Mobilization of interstitial fluid to the intravascular compartment with diuresis accounted for this disparity. Intravascular volume, however, remained increased at dismissal. The extent, composition, and distribution of volume overload are highly variable in DCHF, and this variability needs to be taken into account in the approach to individualized therapy. TBV quantitation, particularly serial measurements, can facilitate informed volume management with respect to a goal of treating to euvolemia. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published

  11. Compressible generalized Newtonian fluids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, Josef; Rajagopal, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 6 (2010), s. 1097-1110 ISSN 0044-2275 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : power law fluid * uniform temperature * compressible fluid Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.290, year: 2010

  12. Pleural fluid smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... into the space around the lungs, called the pleural space. As fluid drains into a collection bottle, you may cough a bit. This is because your lung re-expands to fill the space where fluid had been. This sensation lasts for a few hours after the test.

  13. Peritoneal fluid culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...

  14. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  15. Fluid control valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid control valve is described in which it is not necessary to insert a hand or a tool into the housing to remove the valve seat. Such a valve is particularly suitable for the control of radioactive fluids since maintenance by remote control is possible. (UK)

  16. Time Independent Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collyer, A. A.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses theories underlying Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids by explaining flow curves exhibited by plastic, shear-thining, and shear-thickening fluids and Bingham plastic materials. Indicates that the exact mechanism governing shear-thickening behaviors is a problem of further study. (CC)

  17. Translator for Optimizing Fluid-Handling Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Mark; Perry, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    A software interface has been devised to facilitate optimization of the shapes of valves, elbows, fittings, and other components used to handle fluids under extreme conditions. This software interface translates data files generated by PLOT3D (a NASA grid-based plotting-and- data-display program) and by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software into a format in which the files can be read by Sculptor, which is a shape-deformation- and-optimization program. Sculptor enables the user to interactively, smoothly, and arbitrarily deform the surfaces and volumes in two- and three-dimensional CFD models. Sculptor also includes design-optimization algorithms that can be used in conjunction with the arbitrary-shape-deformation components to perform automatic shape optimization. In the optimization process, the output of the CFD software is used as feedback while the optimizer strives to satisfy design criteria that could include, for example, improved values of pressure loss, velocity, flow quality, mass flow, etc.

  18. Relativistic thermodynamics of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-05-01

    The relativistic covariant definition of a statistical equilibrium, applied to a perfect gas, involves a 'temperature four-vector', whose direction is the mean velocity of the fluid, and whose length is the reciprocal temperature. The hypothesis of this 'temperature four-vector' being a relevant variable for the description of the dissipative motions of a simple fluid is discussed. The kinematics is defined by using a vector field and measuring the number of molecules. Such a dissipative fluid is subject to motions involving null entropy generation; the 'temperature four-vector' is then a Killing vector; the equations of motion can be completely integrated. Perfect fluids can be studied by this way and the classical results of Lichnerowicz are obtained. In weakly dissipative motions two viscosity coefficient appear together with the heat conductibility coefficient. Two other coefficients perharps measurable on real fluids. Phase transitions and shock waves are described with using the model [fr

  19. Performance analysis of organic Rankine cycles using different working fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Qidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade heat from renewable or waste energy sources can be effectively recovered to generate power by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC in which the working fluid has an important impact on its performance. The thermodynamic processes of ORCs using different types of organic fluids were analyzed in this paper. The relationships between the ORC’s performance parameters (including evaporation pressure, condensing pressure, outlet temperature of hot fluid, net power, thermal efficiency, exergy efficiency, total cycle irreversible loss, and total heat-recovery efficiency and the critical temperatures of organic fluids were established based on the property of the hot fluid through the evaporator in a specific working condition, and then were verified at varied evaporation temperatures and inlet temperatures of the hot fluid. Here we find that the performance parameters vary monotonically with the critical temperatures of organic fluids. The values of the performance parameters of the ORC using wet fluids are distributed more dispersedly with the critical temperatures, compared with those of using dry/isentropic fluids. The inlet temperature of the hot fluid affects the relative distribution of the exergy efficiency, whereas the evaporation temperature only has an impact on the performance parameters using wet fluid.

  20. El análisis input-output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Parada, Javier

    1964-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has been the permanent aim of the economic policy of every country. This requires a detailed knowledge of the relationships between the various economic activities, so that available resources can be applied to those activities that will lead to the greatest increase in the total national production, and also to the largest increment in labour vacancies, and exports. This optimum exploitation of available economic resources has been attempted width the introduction of the so called economic development plans. An important instrument in economic planning is the input output analysis. This article gives the basic hypotheses and the theoretical fundamentals underlying this type of analysis. From the latest input output table of Spanish economic activity, a secondary table has been prepared covering the aspects that affect construction most closely, so that the construction industry can also be subjected to this type of analysis. The predetermined variables have been taken to be the state provisions for future subsidies to the housing and road construction industries.Cuando en 1758 el Dr. F. Quesnay, médico de Luis XV, formula su famoso «Tableau Economique», las ideas sobre la interdependencia general de los sectores económicos calaron profundamente en el espíritu de los economistas de la época. La escuela fisiócrata, entonces en boga, consideraba el «dejar obrar» a las leyes naturales como la mejor forma de gobierno. Quesnay intuyó el movimiento natural circulatorio de los bienes económicos, y como fruto de sus investigaciones surgió el celebérrimo «Tableau Economique», que fue aclamado por sus contemporáneos como uno de los más grandes descubrimientos de la Historia.

  1. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Moosavi

    Full Text Available The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  2. A Markovian model of evolving world input-output network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosavi, Vahid; Isacchini, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains. We assessed different aspects of this evolving system via different known properties of the Markov chains such as mixing time, Kemeny constant, steady state probabilities and perturbation analysis of the transition matrices. First, we showed how the time series of mixing times and Kemeny constants could be used as an aggregate index of globalization. Next, we focused on the steady state probabilities as a measure of structural power of the economies that are comparable to GDP shares of economies as the traditional index of economies welfare. Further, we introduced two measures of systemic risk, called systemic influence and systemic fragility, where the former is the ratio of number of influenced nodes to the total number of nodes, caused by a shock in the activity of a node, and the latter is based on the number of times a specific economic node is affected by a shock in the activity of any of the other nodes. Finally, focusing on Kemeny constant as a global indicator of monetary flow across the network, we showed that there is a paradoxical effect of a change in activity levels of economic nodes on the overall flow of the world economic network. While the economic slowdown of the majority of nodes with high structural power results to a slower average monetary flow over the network, there are some nodes, where their slowdowns improve the overall quality of the network in terms of connectivity and the average flow of the money.

  3. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stillerman, Joshua; Fredian, Thomas; Manduchi, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud

  4. Assessment of paediatric hydronephrosis using output efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saundres, C.A.B.; Choong, K.K.L.; Gruenewald, S.M.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Diuretic renography is an important tool in the evaluation of paediatric hydronephrosis. Recently a newly developed parameter, output efficiency (OE) has allowed normalisation of washout according to renal function. We retrospectively reviewed the diagnostic accuracy of OE in 56 children (70 hydronephrotic kidneys). There were 16 females and 41 males (mean age 1.4 years, range 3 weeks-12 years). Diuretic renography ( 99m Tc-MAG3) was performed using i.v. volume expansion (15 mL/kg), frusemide diuresis (1mg/kg) and urethral catheterisation if VUR was present. Final diagnosis was made using surgery (n = 15) or clinical outcome (n = 42). Clinical follow up exceeded one year and included repeat MAG3 scan (n = 20), resolving hydronephrosis on ultrasound (n = 15) or percutaneous antegrade pyelogram (n = 1). Initial scans were classified as obstructed (n 13), indeterminate (n = 13) or non obstructed (n = 30) based on standard qualitative and quantitative criteria. Using a normal range of >84%, OE correctly predicted 12/13 (92%) obstructed kidneys and 44/44 non-obstructed kidneys (100%). In the indeterminate group, three kidneys developed obstruction at follow -up and 10 became non obstructed. Initial OE predicted outcome in two and four kidneys respectively. Overall, OE sensitivity and specificity were 88% and 89%. In the subgroup of patients (n = 19) with reduced differential function (<40%) the sensitivity of OE was 100% and specificity was 75%. This compares to 83% and 66% for Tl/2 in this subgroup. Therefore OE is a useful marker of renal outflow tract obstruction and maybe superior to other parameters such as Tl/2 particularly when renal function is reduced

  5. Input/output plugin architecture for MDSplus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stillerman, Joshua, E-mail: jas@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Fredian, Thomas, E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele, E-mail: gabriele.manduchi@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    The first version of MDSplus was released in 1991 for VAX/VMS. Since that time the underlying file formats have remained constant. The software however has evolved, it was ported to unix, linux, Windows, and Macintosh. In 1997 a TCP based protocol, mdsip, was added to provide network access to MDSplus data. In 2011 a mechanism was added to allow protocol plugins to permit the use of other transport mechanisms such as ssh to access data users. This paper describes a similar design which permits the insertion of plugins to handle the reading and writing of MDSplus data at the data storage level. Tree paths become URIs which specify the protocol, host, and protocol specific information. The protocol is provided by a dynamically activated shared library that can provide any consistent subset of the data store access API, treeshr. The existing low level network protocol called mdsip, is activated by defining tree paths like “host::/directory”. Using the new plugin mechanism this is re-implemented as an instance of the general plugin that replaces the low level treeshr input/output routines. It is specified by using a path like “mdsip://host/directory”. This architecture will make it possible to adapt the MDSplus data organization and analysis tools to other underlying data storage. The first new application of this, after the existing network protocol is implemented, will be a plugin based on a key value store. Key value stores, can provide inexpensive scalable, redundant data storage. An example of this might be an Amazon G3 plugin which would let you specify a tree path such as “AG3://container” to access MDSplus data stored in the cloud.

  6. The impacts of fracking on the environment: A total environmental study paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2017-02-15

    Fracking has become a hot topic in the media and public discourse not only because of its economic benefit but also its environmental impacts. Recently, scientists have investigated the environmental impacts of fracking, and most studies focus on its air and ground water pollution. A systematic research structure and an overall evaluation of fracking's impacts on the environment are needed, because fracking does not only influence ground water but most environmental elements including but not limited to air, water, soil, rock, vegetation, wildlife, human, and many other ecosystem components. From the standpoint of the total environment, this communication assesses the overall impacts of fracking on the environment and then designs a total environmental study paradigm that effectively examines the complicated relationship among the total environment. Fracking dramatically changes the anthroposphere, which in turn significantly impacts the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere through the significant input or output of water, air, liquid or solid waste disposals, and the complex chemical components in fracking fluids. The proposed total environment study paradigm of fracking can be applied to other significant human activities that have dramatic impacts on the environment, such as mountain top coal mining or oil sands for environmental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Calorimetric determination of electron beam output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novotny, J; Kovar, Z; Jandejsek, L [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Radiologicke Dozimetrie

    1979-07-01

    Two types of portable graphite calorimeter are described having modified replaceable absorbers allowing measurements of energy flux density in betatron electron beams in a range of 4 to 50 MeV. In a range of 4 to 20 MeV the total measurement error was about 1%. The results are discussed of the standardization of Siemens and Ostron medical betatrons using the said calorimeters.

  8. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  9. Fluid mechanics. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truckenbrodt, E.

    1980-01-01

    The second volume contains the chapter 4 to 6. Whereas chapter 1 deals with the introduction into the mechanics of fluids and chapter 2 with the fundamental laws of fluid and thermal fluid dynamics, in chapter 3 elementary flow phenomena in fluids with constant density are treated. Chapter 4 directly continues chapter 3 and describes elementary flow phenomena in fluids with varying density. Fluid statics again is treated as a special case. If compared with the first edition the treatment of unsteady laminar flow and of pipe flow for a fluid with varying density were subject to a substantial extension. In chapter 5 rotation-free and rotating potential flows are presented together. By this means it is achieved to explain the behaviour of the multidimensional fictionless flow in closed form. A subchapter describes some related problems of potential theory like the flow along a free streamline and seepage flow through a porous medium. The boundary layer flows in chapter 6 are concerned with the flow and temperature boundary layer in laminar and turbulent flows at a fired wall. In it differential and integral methods are applied of subchapter reports on boundary layer flows without a fixed boundary, occurring e.g. in an open jet and in a wake flow. The problems of intermittence and of the Coanda effect are briefly mentioned. (orig./MH)

  10. Fluid sampling tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  11. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  12. Radiological evaluation of painful total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehranzadeh, J.; Schneider, R.; Freiberger, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Ninety-four cases of clinically failed, cemented, total hip prostheses requiring surgery were reviewed to determine the accuracy of preoperative plain radiography, culture of aspirated fluid, arthrography, and bone scanning. When radiopaque cement had been used to embed the prosthesis, plain radiography was highly accurate in detecting a loose femoral component, less so in detecting a loose acetabular component. Culture of aspirated fluid was accurate in diagnosing infection. A positive arthrogram identified loosening with good accuracy; however, a negative arthrogram did not reliably exclude loosening. 99 mTc bone scans frequently differentiated loosening from loosening with infection. The suggested sequence of diagnostic tests is plain radiography followed by bone scanning. If the bone scan shows diffuse augmented uptake, culture of aspirated fluid followed by arthrography is indicated

  13. CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, William; Giorgi, Filippo; Lake, Irene

    2017-04-01

    The Science Advisory Team for the Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) has developed a baseline framework of specified regions, resolutions and simulation periods intended to provide a foundation for ongoing regional CORDEX activities: the CORDEX Coordinated Output for Regional Evaluation, or CORDEX-CORE. CORDEX-CORE was conceived in part to be responsive to IPCC needs for coordinated simulations that could provide regional climate downscaling (RCD) that yields fine-scale climate information beyond that resolved by GCMs. For each CORDEX region, a matrix of GCM-RCD experiments is designed based on the need to cover as much as possible different dimensions of the uncertainty space (e.g., different emissions and land-use scenarios, GCMs, RCD models and techniques). An appropriate set of driving GCMs can allow a program of simulations that efficiently addresses key scientific issues within CORDEX, while facilitating comparison and transfer of results and lessons learned across different regions. The CORDEX-CORE program seeks to provide, as much as possible, homogeneity across domains, so it is envisioned that a standard set of regional climate models (RCMs) and empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) methods will downscale a standard set of GCMs over all or at least most CORDEX domains for a minimum set of scenarios (high and low end). The focus is on historical climate simulations for the 20th century and projections for 21st century, implying that data would be needed minimally for the period 1950-2100 (but ideally 1900-2100). This foundational ensemble can be regionally enriched with further contributions (additional GCM-RCD pairs) by individual groups over their selected domains of interest. The RCM model resolution for these core experiments will be in the range of 10-20 km, a resolution that has been shown to provide substantial added value for a variety of climate variables and that represents a significant forward step compared in the CORDEX

  14. Thermodynamics of Fluid Polyamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Anisimov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid polyamorphism is the existence of different condensed amorphous states in a single-component fluid. It is either found or predicted, usually at extreme conditions, for a broad group of very different substances, including helium, carbon, silicon, phosphorous, sulfur, tellurium, cerium, hydrogen, and tin tetraiodide. This phenomenon is also hypothesized for metastable and deeply supercooled water, presumably located a few degrees below the experimental limit of homogeneous ice formation. We present a generic phenomenological approach to describe polyamorphism in a single-component fluid, which is completely independent of the molecular origin of the phenomenon. We show that fluid polyamorphism may occur either in the presence or in the absence of fluid phase separation depending on the symmetry of the order parameter. In the latter case, it is associated with a second-order transition, such as in liquid helium or liquid sulfur. To specify the phenomenology, we consider a fluid with thermodynamic equilibrium between two distinct interconvertible states or molecular structures. A fundamental signature of this concept is the identification of the equilibrium fraction of molecules involved in each of these alternative states. However, the existence of the alternative structures may result in polyamorphic fluid phase separation only if mixing of these structures is not ideal. The two-state thermodynamics unifies all the debated scenarios of fluid polyamorphism in different areas of condensed-matter physics, with or without phase separation, and even goes beyond the phenomenon of polyamorphism by generically describing the anomalous properties of fluids exhibiting interconversion of alternative molecular states.

  15. A wash fluid for drilling into a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyakov, V M; Badzhurak, R F; Koptelova, Ye K; Rogovoy, V K; Sapozhnikov, N G

    1979-01-18

    A wash fluid is proposed, used in drilling wells in water and a content of 3-5% by weight starch products. To speed up destruction of the starch products, to the fluid are added amylolytic enzymes in the amount of 0.01-0.1 percent by weight of the starch products' weight. To lower the use of starch products, up to 3% clay can be added to the fluid. The wash fluid is prepared directly at the work site. Dry powder of modified starch is mixed with cold water until a colloidal solution is obtained. Such a wash fluid preserves the required structural-mechanical properties for 3-5 days, which ensures prompt drilling into the waterbearing layer and installation of the filter. Then, during the work process, 5-6 hours before the moment required for lowering the viscosity, to the wash fluid is added the amylolytic enzyme; under its influence, the starch molecules split up, and the viscosity drops sharply. Using this wash fluid enables a reduction in well construction times from the beginning of drilling to the end of development of the water-bearing layer, and a rise in outputs and well service lives by reducing sedimentation of the water-bearing formation and elimination of down times during work required while waiting for destruction of the starch wash fluid under natural conditions.

  16. Modeling of Dynamic Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    Switching valves experience opposing fluid forces due to movement of the moving member itself, as the surrounding fluid volume must move to accommodate the movement. This movement-induced fluid force may be divided into three main components; the added mass term, the viscous term and the socalled...... history term. For general valve geometries there are no simple solution to either of these terms. During development and design of such switching valves, it is therefore, common practice to use simple models to describe the opposing fluid forces, neglecting all but the viscous term which is determined...... based on shearing areas and venting channels. For fast acting valves the opposing fluid force may retard the valve performance significantly, if appropriate measures are not taken during the valve design. Unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are available to simulate the total fluid...

  17. Fluid Dynamics for Physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, T. E.

    1995-08-01

    This textbook provides an accessible and comprehensive account of fluid dynamics that emphasizes fundamental physical principles and stresses connections with other branches of physics. Beginning with a basic introduction, the book goes on to cover many topics not typically treated in texts, such as compressible flow and shock waves, sound attenuation and bulk viscosity, solitary waves and ship waves, thermal convection, instabilities, turbulence, and the behavior of anisotropic, non-Newtonian and quantum fluids. Undergraduate or graduate students in physics or engineering who are taking courses in fluid dynamics will find this book invaluable.

  18. Thermal Fluid Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Byeong Ju

    1984-01-01

    This book is made up of 5 chapters. They are fluid mechanics, fluid machines, Industrial thermodynamics, steam boiler and steam turbine. It introduces hydrostatics, basic theory of fluid movement and law of momentum. It also deals with centrifugal pump, axial flow pump, general hydraulic turbine, and all phenomena happening in the pump. It covers the law of thermodynamics, perfect gas, properties of steam, and flow of gas and steam and water tube boiler. Lastly it explains basic format, theory, loss and performance as well as principle part of steam turbine.

  19. Alternative to Ritt's pseudodivision for finding the input-output equations of multi-output models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkat, Nicolette; Anderson, Chris; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2012-09-01

    Differential algebra approaches to structural identifiability analysis of a dynamic system model in many instances heavily depend upon Ritt's pseudodivision at an early step in analysis. The pseudodivision algorithm is used to find the characteristic set, of which a subset, the input-output equations, is used for identifiability analysis. A simpler algorithm is proposed for this step, using Gröbner Bases, along with a proof of the method that includes a reduced upper bound on derivative requirements. Efficacy of the new algorithm is illustrated with several biosystem model examples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Output controllability of nonlinear systems with bounded control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael; D'Attellis, Carlos

    1990-01-01

    The control problem treated in this paper is the output controllability of a nonlinear system in the form: x = f(x) + g(x)u(t); y = h(x), using bounded controls. The approach to the problem consists of a modification in the system using dynamic feedback in such a way that the input/output behaviour of the closed loop matches the input/output behaviour of a completely output-controllable system with bounded controls. Sufficient conditions are also put forward on the system so that a compact set in the output space may be reached in finite time using uniformally bounded controls, and a result on output regulation in finite time with asymptotic state stabilization is obtained. (Author)

  1. Simulation of Distributed PV Power Output in Oahu Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power generation in Oahu has grown rapidly since 2008. For applications such as determining the value of energy storage, it is important to have PV power output timeseries. Since these timeseries of not typically measured, here we produce simulated distributed PV power output for Oahu. Simulated power output is based on (a) satellite-derived solar irradiance, (b) PV permit data by neighborhood, and (c) population data by census block. Permit and population data was used to model locations of distributed PV, and irradiance data was then used to simulate power output. PV power output simulations are presented by sub-neighborhood polygons, neighborhoods, and for the whole island of Oahu. Summary plots of annual PV energy and a sample week timeseries of power output are shown, and a the files containing the entire timeseries are described.

  2. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  3. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  4. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  5. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  6. The Association Between Urine Output, Creatinine Elevation, and Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engoren, Milo; Maile, Michael D; Heung, Michael; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Vahabzadeh, Christie; Haft, Jonathan W; Kheterpal, Sachin

    2017-04-01

    Acute kidney injury can be defined by a fall in urine output, and urine output criteria may be more sensitive in identifying acute kidney injury than traditional serum creatinine criteria. However, as pointed out in the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcome guidelines, the association of urine output with subsequent creatinine elevations and death is poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to determine what degrees of reduced urine output are associated with subsequent creatinine elevation and death. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients (age ≥18 years) cared for in a cardiovascular intensive care unit after undergoing cardiac operations in a tertiary care university medical center. All adult patients who underwent cardiac operations and were not receiving dialysis preoperatively were studied. The development of acute kidney injury was defined as an increase in creatinine of more than 0.3 mg/dL or by more than 50% above baseline by postoperative day 3. Acute kidney injury developed in 1,061 of 4,195 patients (25%). Urine output had moderate discrimination in predicting subsequent acute kidney injury (C statistic = .637 ± .054). Lower urine output and longer duration of low urine output were associated with greater odds of developing acute kidney injury and death. We found that there is similar accuracy in using urine output corrected for actual, ideal, or adjusted weight to discriminate future acute kidney injury by creatinine elevation and recommend using actual weight for its simplicity. We also found that low urine output is associated with subsequent acute kidney injury and that the association is greater for lower urine output and for low urine output of longer durations. Low urine output (creatinine elevation, is independently associated with mortality. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Output, renewable energy consumption and trade in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Aïssa, Mohamed Safouane; Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2014-01-01

    We use panel cointegration techniques to examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in a sample of 11 African countries covering the period 1980–2008. The results from panel error correction model reveal that there is evidence of a bidirectional causality between output and exports and between output and imports in both the short and long-run. However, in the short-run, there is no evidence of causality between output and renewable energy consumption and between trade (exports or imports) and renewable energy consumption. Also, in the long-run, there is no causality running from output or trade to renewable energy. In the long-run, our estimations show that renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant and positive impact on output. Our energy policy recommendations are that national authorities should design appropriate fiscal incentives to encourage the use of renewable energies, create more regional economic integration for renewable energy technologies, and encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output. - Highlights: • We examine the relationship between renewable energy consumption, trade and output in African countries. • There is a bidirectional causality between output and trade in both the short and long-run. • In the short-run, there is no causality between renewable energy consumption and trade or output. • In the long-run, renewable energy consumption and trade have a statistically significant positive impact on output. • African authorities should encourage trade openness because of its positive impact on technology transfer and on output

  8. The Economic Impact of Tourism. An Input-Output Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Camelia SURUGIU

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an Input-Output Analysis for Romania, an important source of information for the investigation of the inter-relations existing among different industries. The Input-Output Analysis is used to determine the role and importance of different economic value added, incomes and employment and it analyses the existing connection in an economy. This paper is focused on tourism and the input-output analysis is finished for the Hotels and Restaurants Sector.

  9. Method and apparatus for current-output peak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2017-01-24

    A method and apparatus for a current-output peak detector. A current-output peak detector circuit is disclosed and works in two phases. The peak detector circuit includes switches to switch the peak detector circuit from the first phase to the second phase upon detection of the peak voltage of an input voltage signal. The peak detector generates a current output with a high degree of accuracy in the second phase.

  10. Role of Interventional Radiology in the Management of Chylothorax: A Review of the Current Management of High Output Chylothorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Stuart, E-mail: lyonsey@optusnet.com.au; Mott, Nigel, E-mail: nigelmott76@hotmail.com; Koukounaras, Jim; Shoobridge, Jen [Alfred Hospital, Department of Radiology (Australia); Hudson, Patricio Vargas [Clinica Alemana, Department of Radiology (Chile)

    2013-06-15

    Chylothorax is an uncommon type of pleural effusion whose etiology may be classified as traumatic or nontraumatic. Low-output chylothoraces usually respond well to conservative management, whereas high-output chylothoraces are more likely to require surgical or interventional treatment. Conservative management focuses on alleviation of symptoms, replacement of fluid and nutrient losses, and reduction of chyle output to facilitate spontaneous healing. Surgical management can be technically difficult due to the high incidence of variant anatomy and the high-risk patient population. Percutaneous treatments have rapidly developed and evolved during the past 14 years to represent a minimally invasive treatment compared with the more invasive nature of surgery. Percutaneous therapies provide a range of treatment options despite difficult or variant anatomy, with a reported high success rate coupled with low morbidity and mortality. This article is a review of etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of chylothorax, with a focus on interventional management techniques.

  11. Windshield washer fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests Chest x-ray CT (computerized tomography, or advanced imaging) scan EKG (electrocardiogram, or heart tracing) Fluids ... Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  12. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-01-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic

  13. Phoresis in fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a unified theory of phoretic phenomena in single-component fluids. Simple formulas are given for the phoretic velocities of small inert force-free non-Brownian particles migrating through otherwise quiescent single-component gases and liquids and animated by a gradient in the fluid's temperature (thermophoresis), pressure (barophoresis), density (pycnophoresis), or any combination thereof. The ansatz builds upon a recent paper [Phys. Rev. E 84, 046309 (2011)] concerned with slip of the fluid's mass velocity at solid surfaces--that is, with phenomena arising from violations of the classical no-slip fluid-mechanical boundary condition. Experimental and other data are cited in support of the phoretic model developed herein.

  14. Peritoneal Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get Tested? To help diagnose the cause of peritonitis, an inflammation of the membrane lining the abdomen, ... fever and your healthcare practitioner suspects you have peritonitis or ascites Sample Required? A peritoneal fluid sample ...

  15. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis for multivariate output using Polynomial Chaos Expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Cabrejo, Oscar; Valocchi, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Many mathematical and computational models used in engineering produce multivariate output that shows some degree of correlation. However, conventional approaches to Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) assume that the output variable is scalar. These approaches are applied on each output variable leading to a large number of sensitivity indices that shows a high degree of redundancy making the interpretation of the results difficult. Two approaches have been proposed for GSA in the case of multivariate output: output decomposition approach [9] and covariance decomposition approach [14] but they are computationally intensive for most practical problems. In this paper, Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE) is used for an efficient GSA with multivariate output. The results indicate that PCE allows efficient estimation of the covariance matrix and GSA on the coefficients in the approach defined by Campbell et al. [9], and the development of analytical expressions for the multivariate sensitivity indices defined by Gamboa et al. [14]. - Highlights: • PCE increases computational efficiency in 2 approaches of GSA of multivariate output. • Efficient estimation of covariance matrix of output from coefficients of PCE. • Efficient GSA on coefficients of orthogonal decomposition of the output using PCE. • Analytical expressions of multivariate sensitivity indices from coefficients of PCE

  17. Inflation, inflation uncertainty and output growth in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhar, Ramprasad; Mallik, Girijasankar

    2010-12-01

    Employing a multivariate EGARCH-M model, this study investigates the effects of inflation uncertainty and growth uncertainty on inflation and output growth in the United States. Our results show that inflation uncertainty has a positive and significant effect on the level of inflation and a negative and significant effect on the output growth. However, output uncertainty has no significant effect on output growth or inflation. The oil price also has a positive and significant effect on inflation. These findings are robust and have been corroborated by use of an impulse response function. These results have important implications for inflation-targeting monetary policy, and the aim of stabilization policy in general.

  18. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  19. Fluid flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rion, Jacky.

    1982-01-01

    Fluid flow control system featuring a series of grids placed perpendicular to the fluid flow direction, characterized by the fact that it is formed of a stack of identical and continuous grids, each of which consists of identical meshes forming a flat lattice. The said meshes are offset from one grid to the next. This system applies in particular to flow control of the coolant flowing at the foot of an assembly of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor [fr

  20. Amniotic fluid inflammatory cytokines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna; Grove, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy.......The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy....

  1. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  3. Supercritical fluid chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigdergauz, M. S.; Lobachev, A. L.; Lobacheva, I. V.; Platonov, I. A.

    1992-03-01

    The characteristic features of supercritical fluid chromatography (SCFC) are examined and there is a brief historical note concerning the development of the method. Information concerning the use of supercritical fluid chromatography in the analysis of objects of different nature is presented in the form of a table. The roles of the mobile and stationary phases in the separation process and the characteristic features of the apparatus and of the use of the method in physicochemical research are discussed. The bibliography includes 364 references.

  4. Long-term energy output estimation for photovoltaic energy systems using synthetic solar irradiation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, A.N.

    2003-01-01

    A general methodology is presented to estimate the monthly average daily energy output from photovoltaic energy systems. Energy output is estimated from synthetically generated solar radiation data. The synthetic solar radiation data are generated based on the cumulative frequency distribution of the daily clearness index, given as a function of the monthly clearness index. Two sets of synthetic solar irradiation data are generated: 3- and 4-day months. In the 3-day month, each month is represented by 3 days and in the 4-day month, by 4 days. The 3- and 4-day solar irradiation data are synthetically generated for each month and the corresponding energy outputs are calculated. A total of 8-year long measured hourly solar irradiation data, from five different locations in the world, is used to validate the new model. The monthly energy output values calculated from the synthetic solar irradiation data are compared to those calculated from the measured hour-by-hour data. It is shown that when the measured solar radiation data do not exist for a particular location or reduced data set is advantageous, the energy output from photovoltaic converters could be correctly calculated

  5. A new method for measuring aerosol nebulizers output using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatnash, A.A.; Connolly, C.K.; Chandler, S.T.

    1998-01-01

    Reproducibility and comparability of bronchial challenge tests depends critically on accurate assessment of nebulizers output. Evaporation during nebulization means that simple weighing is inaccurate, overestimating the delivered dose of active ingredient. We wanted to quantify this effect in the context of intermittent nebulization, using a dosimeter as used in bronchial provocation tests. Output of three types of nebulizers, from the MEFAR dosimeter, was measured by radioactive tracer, using a standard solution of technetium-99m-pertechnetate (1.5 kBq x mL -1 ) in 4 mL of normal saline. The aerosol was impacted by suction onto a micro filter, and the radioactivity measured. Nebulizers were weighed before and after nebulization. Ratio of nebulized volume calculated from the radioactivity on the filter, to the total volume loss by weight, was expressed as nebulized ratio. The effect on output of two concentrations of methacholine, two tracers of different weights, and change in temperature, were assessed. Nebulized ratio varied between 44.1-71.6%. Results were more consistent within the same type of nebulizer than between different makes. Neither changes in molar concentration nor molecular weight affected nebulizer output or nebulized ratio. Mean nebulized ratio was 58.5%, showing that calibration by weighing, overestimates the delivered dose by a factor of approximately two. Measuring radioactivity eluted from a micro filter, onto which nebulized output had been impacted proved to be a satisfactory method of calibration. (au)

  6. Modeling uncertainties in workforce disruptions from influenza pandemics using dynamic input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haimar, Amine; Santos, Joost R

    2014-03-01

    Influenza pandemic is a serious disaster that can pose significant disruptions to the workforce and associated economic sectors. This article examines the impact of influenza pandemic on workforce availability within an interdependent set of economic sectors. We introduce a simulation model based on the dynamic input-output model to capture the propagation of pandemic consequences through the National Capital Region (NCR). The analysis conducted in this article is based on the 2009 H1N1 pandemic data. Two metrics were used to assess the impacts of the influenza pandemic on the economic sectors: (i) inoperability, which measures the percentage gap between the as-planned output and the actual output of a sector, and (ii) economic loss, which quantifies the associated monetary value of the degraded output. The inoperability and economic loss metrics generate two different rankings of the critical economic sectors. Results show that most of the critical sectors in terms of inoperability are sectors that are related to hospitals and health-care providers. On the other hand, most of the sectors that are critically ranked in terms of economic loss are sectors with significant total production outputs in the NCR such as federal government agencies. Therefore, policy recommendations relating to potential mitigation and recovery strategies should take into account the balance between the inoperability and economic loss metrics. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Electronically Tunable Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Equal Output Amplitudes during Frequency Tuning Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Den Satipar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new configuration of voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator is proposed. The proposed oscillator employs two voltage differencing current conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. In this design, the use of multiple/dual output terminal active building block is not required. The tuning of frequency of oscillation (FO can be done electronically by adjusting the bias current of active device without affecting condition of oscillation (CO. The electronic tuning can be done by controlling the bias current using a digital circuit. The amplitude of two sinusoidal outputs is equal when the frequency of oscillation is tuned. This makes the sinusoidal output voltages meet good total harmonic distortions (THD. Moreover, the proposed circuit can provide the sinusoidal output current with high impedance which is connected to external load or to another circuit without the use of buffer device. To confirm that the oscillator can generate the quadrature sinusoidal output signal, the experimental results using VDCC constructed from commercially available ICs are also included. The experimental results agree well with theoretical anticipation.

  8. Fullerol ionic fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    We report for the first time an ionic fluid based on hydroxylated fullerenes (fullerols). The ionic fluid was synthesized by neutralizing the fully protonated fullerol with an amine terminated polyethylene/polypropylene oxide oligomer (Jeffamine®). The ionic fluid was compared to a control synthesized by mixing the partially protonated form (sodium form) of the fullerols with the same oligomeric amine in the same ratio as in the ionic fluids (20 wt% fullerol). In the fullerol fluid the ionic bonding significantly perturbs the thermal transitions and melting/crystallization behavior of the amine. In contrast, both the normalized heat of fusion and crystallization of the amine in the control are similar to those of the neat amine consistent with a physical mixture of the fullerols/amine with minimal interactions. In addition to differences in thermal behavior, the fullerol ionic fluid exhibits a complex viscoelastic behavior intermediate between the neat Jeffamine® (liquid-like) and the control (solid-like). © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Thermostating highly confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B D; Searles, Debra J

    2010-06-28

    In this work we show how different use of thermostating devices and modeling of walls influence the mechanical and dynamical properties of confined nanofluids. We consider a two dimensional fluid undergoing Couette flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. Because the system is highly inhomogeneous, the density shows strong fluctuations across the channel. We compare the dynamics produced by applying a thermostating device directly to the fluid with that obtained when the wall is thermostated, considering also the effects of using rigid walls. This comparison involves an analysis of the chaoticity of the fluid and evaluation of mechanical properties across the channel. We look at two thermostating devices with either rigid or vibrating atomic walls and compare them with a system only thermostated by conduction through vibrating atomic walls. Sensitive changes are observed in the xy component of the pressure tensor, streaming velocity, and density across the pore and the Lyapunov localization of the fluid. We also find that the fluid slip can be significantly reduced by rigid walls. Our results suggest caution in interpreting the results of systems in which fluid atoms are thermostated and/or wall atoms are constrained to be rigid, such as, for example, water inside carbon nanotubes.

  10. XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (KKMP2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers that have been presented at XXII Fluid Mechanics Conference (XXII FMC) held in Słok near Bełchatów in Poland during llth-14th September of 2016. The Conference is organized by Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Polish Academy of Sciences - Committee of Mechanics and Foun-dation for Development of Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Let us recall some historical facts: Fluid Mechanics Conferences have been taking place every two years since 1974, which makes a total of forty-two years. The goal of this conference is to provide a forum for exposure and exchange of ideas, methods and results in fluid mechanics. We have already met in Bełchatów 10 years ago (XVII KKMP). It was a successful meeting. Since then the National Conference on Fluid Mechanics has changed title and has started to be named Fluid Mechanics Conference in the hopes that it will attract more participants from other countries. English became the Conference's first language and we started to invite world leading scientists - working in the field of fluid mechanics. At the 2006 conference we hosted for the first time prof. Keith Moffatt from the Cambridge University. In this year prof. Moffatt once again promised us to arrive to Bełchatów. The whole fluid mechanics community celebrates 9 2 anniversary of his birthday. So let us also wish happy anniversary to prof. Moffatt. In the mean time we had to pay last respects to our collages. Prof. Prosnak who is regarded as a founder of the Notational Conference on Fluid Mechanics and is well known through his books. Prof. Puzyrewski who was present at all conferences so far. He was providing via his discussions a special value to these conferences, and our colleague prof. Konrad Bajer who was intended to be the organizer and host of the present conference. Short memories to them will be given during the opening ceremony. Conference topics include, but are not limited

  11. Spinning fluids in general relativity: a variational formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, H.P. de; Salim, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present a variational formulation for spinning fluids in General Relativity. In our model each volume element of the fluid has rigid microstructure. We deduce a symmetrical energy-moment tensor where there is an explicit contribution of kinetic spin energy to the total energy. (author)

  12. Survival of B. longum Bb-46 in simulated gastrointestinal fluids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Thantsha, MS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available complexes formed in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Bacteria were exposed sequentially to simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2) for 2 h and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, pH 6.8) for 6 or 24 h. Total encapsulated bacteria were determined by suspending...

  13. Cardiac output and regional blood flow following trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, A.B.; Loegering, D.J.; Saba, T.M.; Kaplan, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    The changes in cardiac output (2), regional blood blow (2r) and regional vascular resistance, and arterial pressure were studied in rats subjected to moderate (LD0) or severe (LD50) traumatic shock. 2 and 2r were determined using microspheres at 15, 60 and 180 min posttrauma. Arterial pressure decreased in both groups at 15 min and recovered by 3 h after sublethal (LD0) trauma, while arterial pressure did not return to control levels after LD50 trauma. 2 decreased in both groups at 15 min and returned to control only in the LD0 trauma group by 3 h. Cerebral, coronary, and hepatic arterial flows and resistances were maintained in both groups. Renal, intestinal, and splenic flows decreased and resistances were maintained in both groups. Renal, intestinal, and splenic flows decreased and resistances increased in both groups by 15 min and returned to control levels by 3 h only in the LD0 trauma group. Total hepatic and hepatic portal flows decreased at 60 min and returned to control levels at 3 h after LD0 trauma, while there was significant depression in these parameters 3 h after LD50 trauma. Therefore, sublethal and severe trauma resulted in early redistribution of flow favoring the coronary, cerebral, and hepatic arterial beds. However, renal, intestinal, splenic, and portal flows remained depressed only in severely traumatized rats, suggesting that continued hypofusion is a factor in the multiple organ failure and death following severe traumatic injury

  14. High efficiency inductive output tubes with intense annular electron beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appanam Karakkad, J.; Matthew, D.; Ray, R.; Beaudoin, B. L.; Narayan, A.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Ting, A.; Antonsen, T. M.

    2017-10-01

    For mobile ionospheric heaters, it is necessary to develop highly efficient RF sources capable of delivering radiation in the frequency range from 3 to 10 MHz with an average power at a megawatt level. A promising source, which is capable of offering these parameters, is a grid-less version of the inductive output tube (IOT), also known as a klystrode. In this paper, studies analyzing the efficiency of grid-less IOTs are described. The basic trade-offs needed to reach high efficiency are investigated. In particular, the trade-off between the peak current and the duration of the current micro-pulse is analyzed. A particle in the cell code is used to self-consistently calculate the distribution in axial and transverse momentum and in total electron energy from the cathode to the collector. The efficiency of IOTs with collectors of various configurations is examined. It is shown that the efficiency of IOTs can be in the 90% range even without using depressed collectors.

  15. Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

  16. Epilepsy Research in Iran: a Scientometric Analysis of Publications Output During 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasolabadi, Masoud; Rasouli-Ghahfarkhi, Seyedeh Moloud; Ardalan, Marlin; Kalhor, Marya Maryam; Seidi, Jamal; Gharib, Alireza

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the epilepsy research output of Iran in national and global contexts, as reflected in its publication output indexed in Scopus citation database during 2000-2014. This study was based on the publications of epilepsy research from Iranian authors retrieved Feb. 2015 from Scopus Citation database [www.scopus.com]. The string used to retrieve the data was developed using "epilepsy OR epilepsies" keywords in title, abstract and keywords and Iran in affiliation field was our main string. Cumulative publication output of Iran in epilepsy research consisted of 702 papers from 2000 to 2014, with an average number of 46.53 papers per year. The total publication output of Iran in epilepsy research increased from 2 papers in 2000 to 88 papers in 2014. Hence, with 702 paper, Iran ranked 25(th) among the top 25 countries with a global share of 0.82 %. Iranian publication average citation per paper increased from 0 in 2000 to 7.88 in 2014. Overall, the received citations were 3184 citations during those years. Iran is collaborating with 36 countries with no more than 244 of its papers (35% of its total papers). It is necessary to prepare conditions for epilepsy researchers to collaborate more with international scientific societies in order to produce more and high quality papers.

  17. Computer program for computing the properties of seventeen fluids. [cryogenic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J. A.; Friend, D. G.; Arp, V. D.; Mccarty, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The present study describes modifications and additions to the MIPROPS computer program for calculating the thermophysical properties of 17 fluids. These changes include adding new fluids, new properties, and a new interface to the program. The new program allows the user to select the input and output parameters and the units to be displayed for each parameter. Fluids added to the MIPROPS program are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, deuterium, helium, normal hydrogen, and xenon. The most recent modifications to the MIPROPS program are the addition of viscosity and thermal conductivity correlations for parahydrogen and the addition of the fluids normal hydrogen and xenon. The recently added interface considerably increases the program's utility.

  18. Using artificial intelligence to control fluid flow computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsey, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation is an essential tool for the prediction of fluid flow. Many powerful simulation programs exist today. However, using these programs to reliably analyze fluid flow and other physical situations requires considerable human effort and expertise to set up a simulation, determine whether the output makes sense, and repeatedly run the simulation with different inputs until a satisfactory result is achieved. Automating this process is not only of considerable practical importance but will also significantly advance basic artificial intelligence (AI) research in reasoning about the physical world.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.210 - Work input and output sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work input and output sensors. 1065... Ambient Conditions § 1065.210 Work input and output sensors. (a) Application. Use instruments as specified... sensors, transducers, and meters that meet the specifications in Table 1 of § 1065.205. Note that your...

  20. Distributed control design for nonlinear output agreement in convergent systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitenberg, Erik; De Persis, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    This work studies the problem of output agreement in homogeneous networks of nonlinear dynamical systems under time-varying disturbances using controllers placed at the nodes of the networks. For the class of contractive systems, necessary and sufficient conditions for output agreement are derived,

  1. High output stomas: ensuring safe discharge from hospital to home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa

    High-output stomas are a challenge for the patient and all health professionals involved. This article discusses safe discharge home for this patient group, encouraging collaborative working practices between acute care trust and the community services. The authors also discuss the management of a high-output stoma and preparation and education of the patient before discharge home.

  2. Against Journal Articles for Measuring Value in University Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbali, C.

    2010-01-01

    The following lines of arguments against the metrics of journal articles is developed: (1) Textual output should no longer be main valued output; (2) Digitalization enables other ways of advancing knowledge; (3) Measures by journal article favours the disciplines of Natural Science and Engineering (NSE) and moulds other disciplines of Social…

  3. Input-Output Economics : Theory and Applications - Featuring Asian Economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2009-01-01

    Thijs ten Raa, author of the acclaimed text The Economics of Input–Output Analysis, now takes the reader to the forefront of the field. This volume collects and unifies his and his co-authors' research papers on national accounting, Input–Output coefficients, economic theory, dynamic models,

  4. effect of light curing unit characteristics on light intensity output

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-09

    Sep 9, 2013 ... in Nairobi and their effect on light intensity output, depth of cure (DOC) and ... result in gradual reduction in the energy output of ..... of LED lights are compared with QTH lights could ... influence on the SMH of dark shades.

  5. Using deflation in the pole assignment problem with output feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miminis, George

    1989-01-01

    A direct algorithm is suggested for the computation of a linear output feedback for a multi input, multi output system such that the resultant closed-loop matrix has eigenvalues that include a specified set of eigenvalues. The algorithm uses deflation based on unitary similarity transformations. Thus researchers hope the algorithm is numerically stable; however, this has not been proven as yet.

  6. Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Output Enhancement in the Transfer-Field Machine Using Rotor Circuit Induced Currents. ... The output of a plain transfer-field machine would be much less than that of a conventional machine of comparable size and dimensions. The use of ... The same effects have their parallel for the asynchronous mode of operation.

  7. Duplicating MC-15 Output with Python and MCNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McSpaden, Alexander Thomas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-23

    Two Python scripts have been written that process the output files of MCNP6 into a format that mimics the list-mode output of Los Alamos National Laboratory’s MC-15 and NPOD neutron detection systems. This report details the methods implemented in these scripts and instructions on their use.

  8. Figure output program for JFT-2M experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yukitoshi; Mori, Masahiro; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Takada, Susumu.

    1991-11-01

    The software for the figure output of JFT-2M experimental data is reported. Since the configuration of a figure is determined by some easy input parameters, then any format of each experimental output is configured freely by this software. (author)

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Modified Output and Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Alison; Adams, Rebecca; Stafford, Catherine; Winke, Paula

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between learners' production of modified output and their working memory (WM) capacity. The task-based interactions of 42 college-level, native English-speaking learners of Spanish as a foreign language were examined. A relationship was found between learners' WM test scores and their tendency to modify output.…

  10. INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS : THE NEXT 25 YEARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lenzen, Manfred; Los, Bart; Guan, Dabo; Lahr, Michael L.; Sancho, Ferran; Suh, Sangwon; Yang, Cuihong; Sancho, S.

    2013-01-01

    This year marks the 25th anniversary of the International Input-Output Association and the 25th volume of Economic Systems Research. To celebrate this anniversary, a group of eight experts provide their views on the future of input-output. Looking forward, they foresee progress in terms of data

  11. Viscous Flow with Large Fluid-Fluid Interface Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole; Saasen, Arild

    1998-01-01

    The arbitrary Lagrange-Euler (ALE) kinematic description has been implemented in a 3D transient finite element program to simulate multiple fluid flows with fluid-fluid interface or surface displacements. The description of fluid interfaces includes variable interfacial tension, and the formulation...... is useful in the simulation of low and intermediate Reynolds number viscous flow. The displacement of two immiscible Newtonian fluids in a vertical (concentric and eccentric) annulus and a (vertical and inclined)tube is simulated....

  12. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  13. Are output measurements always necessary after CT tube replacement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Stauduhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: TX regulations and the ACR require that CT radiation output be measured within 30 days of major service. The most common major service is tube replacement. We hypothesized that historical QC data could be used instead to determine if output measurements are necessary, reducing the need for costly output measurements.Methods: We reviewed 66 records of tube replacements to determine with what frequency output falls outside specifications. We also conducted an experiment to verify that clinically significant output changes could be identified by comparing image noise in historical QC data with the same data after tube replacement. We used 30 days of historical QC data to establish a baseline noise level and 95% confidence interval (CI for individual noise measurements. To simulate output changes, we acquired phantom images with our QC protocol while manually changing output (mA. We acquired 10 images using the baseline output and 10 images at each different “output”. We evaluated individual images and subsets of images at each “output” to determine if the system was within the manufacturer’s specifications.Results: None of the 66 tube replacements resulted in an output change that exceeded specifications. Analysis of 30 days of historic QC data for our experimental system indicated a mean noise of 5.4 HU with 95% CI of 5.1 ‒ 5.7 HU. When using the mean noise of 10 images acquired at each of the varying outputs, we were able to identify, with 100% accuracy, images acquired at outputs outside manufacturer’s specifications.Conclusion: The results of our review of historical tube replacement data indicated the likelihood of output falling outside manufacturer’s specifications is low. Considering this, it is likely that by using QC data from programs required by regulation and the ACR physicists can reliably verify radiation output stability remotely instead of making physical measurements.--------------------Cite this article

  14. Geographic trends of scientific output and citation practices in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igoumenou, Artemis; Ebmeier, Klaus; Roberts, Nia; Fazel, Seena

    2014-12-06

    by whether productivity was assessed by total research records published, overall citations these received, or citations per paper. The choice of measures of scientific output could be important in determining how research output translates into decisions about resource allocation.

  15. A two stage data envelopment analysis model with undesirable output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff Adli Aminuddin, Adam; Izzati Jaini, Nur; Mat Kasim, Maznah; Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd

    2017-09-01

    The dependent relationship among the decision making units (DMU) is usually assumed to be non-existent in the development of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model. The dependency can be represented by the multi-stage DEA model, where the outputs from the precedent stage will be the inputs for the latter stage. The multi-stage DEA model evaluate both the efficiency score for each stages and the overall efficiency of the whole process. The existing multi stage DEA models do not focus on the integration with the undesirable output, in which the higher input will generate lower output unlike the normal desirable output. This research attempts to address the inclusion of such undesirable output and investigate the theoretical implication and potential application towards the development of multi-stage DEA model.

  16. Disaggregate energy consumption and industrial output in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of disaggregate energy consumption on industrial output in the United States. Most of the related research utilizes aggregate data which may not indicate the relative strength or explanatory power of various energy inputs on output. We use monthly data and employ the generalized variance decomposition approach to assess the relative impacts of energy and employment on real output. Our results suggest that unexpected shocks to coal, natural gas and fossil fuel energy sources have the highest impacts on the variation of output, while several renewable sources exhibit considerable explanatory power as well. However, none of the energy sources explain more of the forecast error variance of industrial output than employment

  17. Output gap uncertainty and real-time monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Grigoli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Output gap estimates are subject to a wide range of uncertainty owing principally to the difficulty in distinguishing between cycle and trend in real time. We show that country desks tend to overestimate economic slack, especially during recessions, and that uncertainty in initial output gap estimates persists several years. Only a small share of output gap revisions is predictable based on output dynamics, data quality, and policy frameworks. We also show that for a group of Latin American inflation targeters the prescriptions from monetary policy rules are subject to large changes due to revised output gap estimates. These explain a sizable proportion of the deviation of inflation from target, suggesting this information is not accounted for in real-time policy decisions.

  18. CO2 emissions, energy usage, and output in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2009-01-01

    This study extends the recent work of Ang (2007) [Ang, J.B., 2007. CO 2 emissions, energy consumption, and output in France. Energy Policy 35, 4772-4778] in examining the causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, and output within a panel vector error correction model for six Central American countries over the period 1971-2004. In long-run equilibrium energy consumption has a positive and statistically significant impact on emissions while real output exhibits the inverted U-shape pattern associated with the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. The short-run dynamics indicate unidirectional causality from energy consumption and real output, respectively, to emissions along with bidirectional causality between energy consumption and real output. In the long-run there appears to be bidirectional causality between energy consumption and emissions.

  19. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  20. Inverted emulsion drilling fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana, I; Astanei, E; Mireanu, G; Orosz, M; Popescu, F; Vasile, I

    1979-07-28

    The subject of the invention is the method of obtaining inverted drilling fluid which is required during stripping of a productive bed and ending of a well where difficulties develop during drilling of the argillaceous rock. Example: in a reservoir with capacity 30 m/sup 3/, 10 m/sup 3/ of diesel fuel are added. A total of 1000 kg of emulsifier are added to the diesel fuel consisting of: 85 mass% of a mixture of sodium and potassium salts of fatty acids, residues of fatty acids or naphthene acids with high molecular weight taken in proportion of 10:90; 5 mass% of a mixture of polymers with hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties obtained by mixing 75 mass% of polyethylene oxide with molecular weight 10,000 and 25 mass% of propylene oxide with molecular weight 15,000, and 10 mass% of salt on alkaline earth metal (preferably calcium chloride). The mixture is mixed into complete dissolving. Then 1200 kg of filtering accelerator are added obtained from concentrated sulfuric acid serving for sulfur oxidation, asphalt substance with softening temperature 85-104/sup 0/C and fatty acids C/sub 10/-C/sub 20/ taken in a proportion of 23.70 and 7 mass% The mixture obtained in this manner is neutralized by adding calcium hydroxide and equal quantities of alumina and activated bentonite clay in a concentration of 1-10 mass%, more preferably 5 mass% in relation to the initial mixture. The obtained mass is mixed until complete dispersion, after which 200 kg of organophilic clay are added obtained from bentonite of the type montmorillonite of sodium by processing with derivate obtained from amine of the type of the quaternary base of ammonium salt, and agent of hydrophobization of the type of fatty alcohols, fatty acids, nonion surfactants of the block-polymer type. After complete dispersion of the organophilic clay, 100 kg of stabilizer of emulsion of the surfactant type was added with molecular weight of 250010,000, more preferably 5000, in concentration of 0.1-5.0 mass%, more

  1. Boiler using combustible fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, H.; Meier, J.G.

    1974-07-03

    A fluid fuel boiler is described comprising a combustion chamber, a cover on the combustion chamber having an opening for introducing a combustion-supporting gaseous fluid through said openings, means to impart rotation to the gaseous fluid about an axis of the combustion chamber, a burner for introducing a fluid fuel into the chamber mixed with the gaseous fluid for combustion thereof, the cover having a generally frustro-conical configuration diverging from the opening toward the interior of the chamber at an angle of between 15/sup 0/ and 55/sup 0/; means defining said combustion chamber having means defining a plurality of axial hot gas flow paths from a downstream portion of the combustion chamber to flow hot gases into an upstream portion of the combustion chamber, and means for diverting some of the hot gas flow along paths in a direction circumferentially of the combustion chamber, with the latter paths being immersed in the water flow path thereby to improve heat transfer and terminating in a gas outlet, the combustion chamber comprising at least one modular element, joined axially to the frustro-conical cover and coaxial therewith. The modular element comprises an inner ring and means of defining the circumferential, radial, and spiral flow paths of the hot gases.

  2. Amniotic fluid embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiranpreet Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE is one of the catastrophic complications of pregnancy in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters into the maternal pulmonary circulation, causing cardiovascular collapse. Etiology largely remains unknown, but may occur in healthy women during labour, during cesarean section, after abnormal vaginal delivery, or during the second trimester of pregnancy. It may also occur up to 48 hours post-delivery. It can also occur during abortion, after abdominal trauma, and during amnio-infusion. The pathophysiology of AFE is not completely understood. Possible historical cause is that any breach of the barrier between maternal blood and amniotic fluid forces the entry of amniotic fluid into the systemic circulation and results in a physical obstruction of the pulmonary circulation. The presenting signs and symptoms of AFE involve many organ systems. Clinical signs and symptoms are acute dyspnea, cough, hypotension, cyanosis, fetal bradycardia, encephalopathy, acute pulmonary hypertension, coagulopathy etc. Besides basic investigations lung scan, serum tryptase levels, serum levels of C3 and C4 complements, zinc coproporphyrin, serum sialyl Tn etc are helpful in establishing the diagnosis. Treatment is mainly supportive, but exchange transfusion, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and uterine artery embolization have been tried from time to time. The maternal prognosis after amniotic fluid embolism is very poor though infant survival rate is around 70%.

  3. Input/Output linearizing control of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez C, V.

    1994-01-01

    The feedback linearization technique is an approach to nonlinear control design. The basic idea is to transform, by means of algebraic methods, the dynamics of a nonlinear control system into a full or partial linear system. As a result of this linearization process, the well known basic linear control techniques can be used to obtain some desired dynamic characteristics. When full linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-state linearization, whereas when partial linearization is achieved, the method is referred to as input-output linearization. We will deal with the latter. By means of input-output linearization, the dynamics of a nonlinear system can be decomposed into an external part (input-output), and an internal part (unobservable). Since the external part consists of a linear relationship among the output of the plant and the auxiliary control input mentioned above, it is easy to design such an auxiliary control input so that we get the output to behave in a predetermined way. Since the internal dynamics of the system is known, we can check its dynamics behavior on order of to ensure that the internal states are bounded. The linearization method described here can be applied to systems with one-input/one-output, as well as to systems with multiple-inputs/multiple-outputs. Typical control problems such as stabilization and reference path tracking can be solved using this technique. In this work, the input/output linearization theory is presented, as well as the problem of getting the output variable to track some desired trayectories. Further, the design of an input/output control system applied to the nonlinear model of a research nuclear reactor is included, along with the results obtained by computer simulation. (Author)

  4. TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN HIGH EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan SERİN, Alper AYTEKİN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The approach of Total Quality Management (TQM has been even more common and most recently its use in high education has been discussed. Likewise the enterprises producing various products, universities have also inputs, processes, and outputs. Due to conditions of competition, universities have to improve the qualities of these inputs, processes, and outputs, according to satisfaction, demands, and expectations of internal and external customers. If the TQM has been implemented in the universities with a manner that aims for customer satisfaction (students, lecturers, public and private establishments, and families, supports constant development, ensures participatory approach, and encourages working in groups, it will provide universities with effectiveness, efficiency, dynamics, and economics. In this study, common problems of universities, definitions of quality and TQM in high education, customer concept at universities, and factors affecting the quality of education have been explained. Besides, in order TQM approach to be successfully implemented in the universities, various suggestions have been presented.

  5. High-output stoma after small-bowel resections for Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Stephen K K; Baker, Melanie; Nightingale, Jeremy M D

    2005-12-01

    A 56-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of Crohn's disease and multiple bowel resections resulting in a loop jejunostomy was referred to our Nutritional Unit from a neighboring district general hospital for further management. She was first seen in October 2001, and initial assessment indicated that she was malnourished with fluid depletion, evidenced by the high volume of stomal fluid produced. There had been no sudden change in her medication, her Crohn's disease was quiescent and there was no evidence of any intra-abdominal sepsis. Despite a high calorific intake through her diet, she continued to lose weight. Serum urea and electrolytes; magnesium; C-reactive protein; full blood count; urinary spot sodium; anthropometric measurements. High-output stoma with malabsorption as a consequence of repeated small-bowel surgery. The patient was treated with oral hypotonic fluid restriction (0.5 l/day), 2 l of oral glucose-saline solution per day, high-dose oral antimotility agents (loperamide and codeine phosphate), a proton-pump inhibitor (omeprazole) and oral magnesium replacement. A year later, the patient's loop jejunostomy was closed and an end ileostomy fashioned, bringing an additional 35 cm of small bowel into continuity; macronutrient absorption improved but her problem of dehydration was only slightly reduced. She was stabilized on a twice-weekly subcutaneous magnesium and saline infusion and daily oral 1alpha-hydroxycholecalciferol.

  6. Biochemical Analysis of Synovial Fluid, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Vitreous Humor at Early Postmortem Intervals in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doha Yahia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical analysis of body fluids after death is a helpful tool in veterinary forensic medicine. Synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and vitreous humor are easily accessible and well preserved from contamination. Five donkeys (Equus africanus asinus aged 1 - 2 years old were subjected to the study. Samples (Synovial fluid, CSF and vitreous humor were collected before death (antimortem and then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 hours postmortem. Samples were analyzed for glucose, chloride, sodium, magnesium, potassium, enzymes and total protein. Synovial fluid analysis showed that glucose concentration started to decrease at 6 hours postmortem, while magnesium level increased with time. Other parameters were more stable. CSF analysis showed several changes related to time after death as the decrease in glucose and sodium levels, and the increased levels of potassium, magnesium, calcium and total protein. Vitreous analysis revealed a reduction in glucose level and increased potassium and magnesium concentrations. The present study concluded that biochemical analysis of synovial fluid, vitreous humor and CSF can help in determination of time since death in donkeys. This study recommend using CSF for determination of early post-mortem intervals.

  7. Selection and optimization of pure and mixed working fluids for low grade heat utilization using organic Rankine cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, Ulrik; Knudsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic methodology for organic Rankine cycle optimization, where the working fluid is included as an optimization parameter, in order to maximize the net power output of the cycle. The method is applied on two optimization cases with hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120°C and 90°C. P...

  8. Tourism and Economic Development in Romania: Input-Output Analysis Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIUS SURUGIU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism provides a lot of opportunities for sustainable economic development. At local level, by its triggering effect it could represent a factor of economic recovery, by putting to good use the local material and human potential. By its position of predominantly final-branch, tourism exercises to a large impact on national economy by the vector of final demand, for which the possible and/or desirable variant for the future is an economic-social demand that must be satisfied by variants of total output. Using the input-output model (IO model a comparison was made of the matrix of direct technical coefficients (aij and the one of the total requirement coefficients (bij with the assistance of which the direct and propagated effects were determined for this activity by the indicators defining the dimensions of national economy.

  9. MESAFace, a graphical interface to analyze the MESA output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannotti, M.; Wise, M.; Mohammed, A.

    2013-04-01

    MESA (Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics) has become very popular among astrophysicists as a powerful and reliable code to simulate stellar evolution. Analyzing the output data thoroughly may, however, present some challenges and be rather time-consuming. Here we describe MESAFace, a graphical and dynamical interface which provides an intuitive, efficient and quick way to analyze the MESA output. Catalogue identifier: AEOQ_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEOQ_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 19165 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6300592 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica. Computer: Any computer capable of running Mathematica. Operating system: Any capable of running Mathematica. Tested on Linux, Mac, Windows XP, Windows 7. RAM: Recommended 2 Gigabytes or more. Supplementary material: Additional test data files are available. Classification: 1.7, 14. Nature of problem: Find a way to quickly and thoroughly analyze the output of a MESA run, including all the profiles, and have an efficient method to produce graphical representations of the data. Solution method: We created two scripts (to be run consecutively). The first one downloads all the data from a MESA run and organizes the profiles in order of age. All the files are saved as tables or arrays of tables which can then be accessed very quickly by Mathematica. The second script uses the Manipulate function to create a graphical interface which allows the user to choose what to plot from a set of menus and buttons. The information shown is updated in real time. The user can access very quickly all the data from the run under examination and visualize it with plots and tables. Unusual features: Moving the

  10. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  11. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  12. Fluid structure coupling algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Gong, E.Y.; Landram, C.S.; Quinones, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    A fluid-structure-interaction algorithm has been developed and incorporated into the two-dimensional code PELE-IC. This code combines an Eulerian incompressible fluid algorithm with a Lagrangian finite element shell algorithm and incorporates the treatment of complex free surfaces. The fluid structure and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The code has been used to calculate loads and structural response from air blowdown and the oscillatory condensation of steam bubbles in water suppression pools typical of boiling water reactors. The techniques developed have been extended to three dimensions and implemented in the computer code PELE-3D

  13. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  14. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  15. Output Information Based Fault-Tolerant Iterative Learning Control for Dual-Rate Sampling Process with Disturbances and Output Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfeng Tao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For a class of single-input single-output (SISO dual-rate sampling processes with disturbances and output delay, this paper presents a robust fault-tolerant iterative learning control algorithm based on output information. Firstly, the dual-rate sampling process with output delay is transformed into discrete system in state-space model form with slow sampling rate without time delay by using lifting technology; then output information based fault-tolerant iterative learning control scheme is designed and the control process is turned into an equivalent two-dimensional (2D repetitive process. Moreover, based on the repetitive process stability theory, the sufficient conditions for the stability of system and the design method of robust controller are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs technique. Finally, the flow control simulations of two flow tanks in series demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Clusters in simple fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sator, N.

    2003-01-01

    This article concerns the correspondence between thermodynamics and the morphology of simple fluids in terms of clusters. Definitions of clusters providing a geometric interpretation of the liquid-gas phase transition are reviewed with an eye to establishing their physical relevance. The author emphasizes their main features and basic hypotheses, and shows how these definitions lead to a recent approach based on self-bound clusters. Although theoretical, this tutorial review is also addressed to readers interested in experimental aspects of clustering in simple fluids

  17. Mechanics of fluid flow

    CERN Document Server

    Basniev, Kaplan S; Chilingar, George V 0

    2012-01-01

    The mechanics of fluid flow is a fundamental engineering discipline explaining both natural phenomena and human-induced processes, and a thorough understanding of it is central to the operations of the oil and gas industry.  This book, written by some of the world's best-known and respected petroleum engineers, covers the concepts, theories, and applications of the mechanics of fluid flow for the veteran engineer working in the field and the student, alike.  It is a must-have for any engineer working in the oil and gas industry.

  18. Supercritical fluid analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R.D.; Kalinoski, H.T.; Wright, B.W.; Udseth, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are providing the basis for new and improved methods across a range of analytical technologies. New methods are being developed to allow the detection and measurement of compounds that are incompatible with conventional analytical methodologies. Characterization of process and effluent streams for synfuel plants requires instruments capable of detecting and measuring high-molecular-weight compounds, polar compounds, or other materials that are generally difficult to analyze. The purpose of this program is to develop and apply new supercritical fluid techniques for extraction, separation, and analysis. These new technologies will be applied to previously intractable synfuel process materials and to complex mixtures resulting from their interaction with environmental and biological systems

  19. Thin disk laser with unstable resonator and reduced output coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavili, Anwar; Shayganmanesh, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, feasibility of using unstable resonator with reduced output coupling in a thin disk laser is studied theoretically. Unstable resonator is modeled by wave-optics using Collins integral and iterative method. An Yb:YAG crystal with 250 micron thickness is considered as a quasi-three level active medium and modeled by solving rate equations of energy levels populations. The amplification of laser beam in the active medium is calculated based on the Beer-Lambert law and Rigrod method. Using generalized beam parameters method, laser beam parameters like, width, divergence, M2 factor, output power as well as near and far-field beam profiles are calculated for unstable resonator. It is demonstrated that for thin disk laser (with single disk) in spite of the low thickness of the disk which leads to low gain factor, it is possible to use unstable resonator (with reduced output coupling) and achieve good output power with appropriate beam quality. Also, the behavior of output power and beam quality versus equivalent Fresnel number is investigated and optimized value of output coupling for maximum output power is achieved.

  20. Experimental characterization of variable output refractive beamshapers using freeform elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Jason A.; Smilie, Paul J.; Dutterer, Brian S.; Davies, Matthew A.; Suleski, Thomas J.

    2014-09-01

    We present experimental results from variable output refractive beam shapers based on freeform optical surfaces. Two freeform elements in close proximity comprise a beam shaper that maps a circular Gaussian input to a circular `flat-top' output. Different lateral relative shifts between the elements result in a varying output diameter while maintaining the uniform irradiance distribution. We fabricated the beam shaping elements in PMMA using multi-axis milling on a Moore Nanotech 350FG diamond machining center and tested with a 632.8 nm Gaussian input. Initial optical testing confirmed both the predicted beam shaping and variable functionality, but with poor output uniformity. The effects of surface finish on optical performance were investigated using LightTrans VirtualLabTM to perform physical optics simulations of the milled freeform surfaces. These simulations provided an optimization path for determining machining parameters to improve the output uniformity of the beam shaping elements. A second variable beam shaper based on a super-Gaussian output was designed and fabricated using the newly determined machining parameters. Experimental test results from the second beam shaper showed outputs with significantly higher quality, but also suggest additional areas of study for further improvements in uniformity.

  1. INFLUENCE OF FISCAL POLICY DYNAMICS ON OUTPUT MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Antoniu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of fiscal policy, more specific rise in fiscal pressure, increase which can be obtained either through enforcing one or more taxes, or by augmenting at least a tax, has a powerful impact on output management – visible, in the first place, in the realm of output size. But, not only output size will vary, after an increase in fiscal pressure, at least because output management is dealing with more than issue of producing a certain quantity of products, material or not, goods and/or services. Products are made for selling, but selling is impossible but through price and with a price; price is an essential economic variable, both in microeconomic and macroeconomic spheres. Thus, on one side rise in fiscal pressure determines, at least in short term, and, of course, if producers pay, or even support, a tax, be it newly enforced or (newly augmented, a rise of prices for sold products, and, on the other side, this results in a variation in output size, e.g. a reduced output volume, but, though, not in a linear trend. The dynamics, in this case of economic mechanism whose yield is a reduced volume of goods and/or services, in not linear, because essential are, too, the characteristics of products, from which effects of demand price elasticity and offer price elasticity influence significantly, in this framework, output management.

  2. Fast metabolite identification with Input Output Kernel Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouard, Céline; Shen, Huibin; Dührkop, Kai; d'Alché-Buc, Florence; Böcker, Sebastian; Rousu, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: An important problematic of metabolomics is to identify metabolites using tandem mass spectrometry data. Machine learning methods have been proposed recently to solve this problem by predicting molecular fingerprint vectors and matching these fingerprints against existing molecular structure databases. In this work we propose to address the metabolite identification problem using a structured output prediction approach. This type of approach is not limited to vector output space and can handle structured output space such as the molecule space. Results: We use the Input Output Kernel Regression method to learn the mapping between tandem mass spectra and molecular structures. The principle of this method is to encode the similarities in the input (spectra) space and the similarities in the output (molecule) space using two kernel functions. This method approximates the spectra-molecule mapping in two phases. The first phase corresponds to a regression problem from the input space to the feature space associated to the output kernel. The second phase is a preimage problem, consisting in mapping back the predicted output feature vectors to the molecule space. We show that our approach achieves state-of-the-art accuracy in metabolite identification. Moreover, our method has the advantage of decreasing the running times for the training step and the test step by several orders of magnitude over the preceding methods. Availability and implementation: Contact: celine.brouard@aalto.fi Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307628

  3. Two-dimensional modeling of x-ray output from switched foil implosions on Procyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, R. L.; Nakafuji, G.; Greene, A. E.; McLenithan, K. D.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.

    1996-09-01

    A series of two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic calculations are presented of a Z-pinch implosion using a plasma flow switch. Results from a recent experiment using the high explosive driven generator Procyon, which delivered 16.5 MA to a plasma flow switch and switched about 15 MA into a static load, are used to study the implosion of a 29 mg load foil [J. H. Goforth et al., ``Review of the Procyon Explosive Pulsed Power System,'' in Ninth IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, June 1993, Albuquerque, edited by K. R. Prestwich and W. L. Baker (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1993), p. 36]. The interaction of the switch with the load plasma and the effects of background plasma on the total radiation output is examined. Models which assume ideal switching are also included. Also included are the effects of perturbations in the load plasma which may be associated with initial vaporization of the load foil. If the background plasma density in the switch region and in the load region does not affect the dynamics, the pinch is predicted to produce a total radiation output of about 4 MJ. Including perturbations of the load plasma associated with switching and assuming a background plasma density after switching in excess of 10-7 g/cm3 results in a total output from the pinch of about 0.6 MJ.

  4. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  5. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  6. An extended dual input dual output three level Z source inverter with improved switch loss reduction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel inverter (MLI is a proven technology used for industrial applications due to low output total harmonic distortion (THD, high power handling capability and low active device rating. Dual output inverter is a recent trend associated with inverter topologies for specialized applications. This paper deals with three phase three level dual input dual output inverter topology with minimum active device count. Reduction in switch count leads to reduction in losses and improves reliability. Both the input sources share power equally as neutral point current ripple is maintained low. For further reduction in switching losses at higher switching frequencies, the concept of “no switching zone” or discontinuous pulse width modulation (DPWM has been put forth recently. This paper proposes modification in the placement of “no switching zone” in order to optimize switching losses and output THD (output filtering requirements for low power factor load. This study also proposes novel graphical approach to analyze the loss reduction along with its effect on output THD. The sinusoidal PWM (SPWM is used which gives satisfactory switching loss reduction without complex calculations. Moreover, the proposed topology is generalized to provide dual output at higher voltage levels. It is seen that the components reduction phenomenon becomes more pronounced as number of levels goes on increasing. The proposed converter is simulated in MATLAB software environment and results are obtained.

  7. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  8. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  9. Design of output feedback controller for a unified chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenlin; Chen Xiuqin; Shen Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the synchronization of a unified chaotic system is investigated by the use of output feedback controllers; a two-input single-output feedback controller and single-input single-output feedback controller are presented to synchronize the unified chaotic system when the states are not all measurable. Compared with the existing results, the controllers designed in this paper have some advantages such as small feedback gain, simple structure and less conservation. Finally, numerical simulations results are provided to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed method

  10. Transiently chaotic neural networks with piecewise linear output functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-S. [Department of Mathematics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Shih, C.-W. [Department of Applied Mathematics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta-Hsueh Road, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: cwshih@math.nctu.edu.tw

    2009-01-30

    Admitting both transient chaotic phase and convergent phase, the transiently chaotic neural network (TCNN) provides superior performance than the classical networks in solving combinatorial optimization problems. We derive concrete parameter conditions for these two essential dynamic phases of the TCNN with piecewise linear output function. The confirmation for chaotic dynamics of the system results from a successful application of the Marotto theorem which was recently clarified. Numerical simulation on applying the TCNN with piecewise linear output function is carried out to find the optimal solution of a travelling salesman problem. It is demonstrated that the performance is even better than the previous TCNN model with logistic output function.

  11. Device for frequency modulation of a laser output spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.

    1984-07-17

    A device is provided for fast frequency modulating the output spectrum of multimode lasers and single frequency lasers that are not actively stabilized. A piezoelectric transducer attached to a laser cavity mirror is driven in an unconventional manner to excite resonance vibration of the tranducer to rapidly, cyclicly change the laser cavity length. The result is a cyclic sweeping of the output wavelength sufficient to fill the gaps in the laser output frequency spectrum. When a laser is used to excite atoms or molecules, complete absorption line coverage is made possible.

  12. SiC MOSFETs based split output half bridge inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Helong; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    output. The double pulse test shows the devices' current during commutation process and the reduced switching losses of SiC MOSFETs compared to that of the traditional half bridge. The efficiency comparison is presented with experimental results of half bridge power inverter with split output...... and traditional half bridge inverter, from switching frequency 10 kHz to 100 kHz. The experimental results comparison shows that the half bridge with split output has an efficiency improvement of more than 0.5% at 100 kHz switching frequency....

  13. A Monte Carlo study on multiple output stochastic frontiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Geraldine; Henningsen, Arne; Jensen, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    , dividing all other output quantities by the selected outputquantity, and using these ratios as regressors (OD). Another approach is the stochasticray production frontier (SR), which transforms the output quantities into their Euclideandistance as the dependent variable and their polar coordinates...... of the approaches is clearly superior. However, considerable differences are found between the estimates at single replications. Taking average efficiencies from both approaches gives clearly better efficiency estimates than taking just the OD or the SR. In the case of zero values in the output quantities, the SR...

  14. Effect of surface fouling on the output of PV panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zele

    2018-04-01

    Surface fouling on the photovoltaic system caused by the output of a certain impact, therefore, it is very important to explore the effect of fouling on its contribution. Through the use of photovoltaic panels to collect Baoding area under different weather output data, and the collected data for comparative analysis, obtained under different environments on the impact of its contribution. It is concluded that the output of the photovoltaic cells will decrease, and the power drop rate will stabilize after three or four days. The effect of fouling on the fog haze and low temperature is more obvious.

  15. Analysis of Input and Output Ripples of PWM AC Choppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekik Argo Dahono

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of input and output ripples of PWM AC choppers. Expressions of input and output current and voltage ripples of single-phase PWM AC choppers are first derived. The derived expressions are then extended to three-phase PWM AC choppers. As input current and output voltage ripples specification alone cannot be used to determine the unique values of inductance and capacitance of the LC filters, an additional criterion based on the minimum reactive power is proposed. Experimental results are included in this paper to show the validity of the proposed analysis method.

  16. Computer simulation for the effect of target angle in diagnostic x-ray tube output and half-value layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayami, Akimune; Fuchihata, Hajime; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Mori, Yoshinobu; Ozeki, Syuji.

    1980-01-01

    The change of target angle of X-ray tube plays an important role in changing both the output and the quality of X-rays. A computer simulation was made to estimate the effect of target angle on the output and the quality (half-value layer: HVL) in the central ray using Storm's semiempirical formula. The data here presented are the values of output and HVL for the target angles of 10, 15, 20 and 30 degrees and for the total filtrations of 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm Al eq., at an increment of 10 kV steps of applied voltage between 50 and 150 kV. The output values and HVL's as a function of target angle, applied voltage and total filtration are shown for a full-wave rectified diagnostic X-ray generator. As a result, changes ranging from 17 to 76% in the output and 5 to 66% in the HVL were noted by varying the target angle from 10 to 30 degrees. Therefore, the target angle of X-ray tube should be clearly stated whenever the output and the quality (HVL) of X-ray generator are discussed. (author)

  17. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  18. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  19. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  20. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  1. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  2. Incompressible ionized fluid mixtures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubíček, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 7 (2006), s. 493-509 ISSN 0935-1175 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chemically reacting fluids * Navier-Stokes * Nernst-Planck * Possion equation s * heat equation s Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.954, year: 2006

  3. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-01-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  4. Relativistic viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sakatani, Yuho

    2011-08-01

    A detailed study is carried out for the relativistic theory of viscoelasticity which was recently constructed on the basis of Onsager's linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics. After rederiving the theory using a local argument with the entropy current, we show that this theory universally reduces to the standard relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics in the long time limit. Since effects of elasticity are taken into account, the dynamics at short time scales is modified from that given by the Navier-Stokes equations, so that acausal problems intrinsic to relativistic Navier-Stokes fluids are significantly remedied. We in particular show that the wave equations for the propagation of disturbance around a hydrostatic equilibrium in Minkowski space-time become symmetric hyperbolic for some range of parameters, so that the model is free of acausality problems. This observation suggests that the relativistic viscoelastic model with such parameters can be regarded as a causal completion of relativistic Navier-Stokes fluid mechanics. By adjusting parameters to various values, this theory can treat a wide variety of materials including elastic materials, Maxwell materials, Kelvin-Voigt materials, and (a nonlinearly generalized version of) simplified Israel-Stewart fluids, and thus we expect the theory to be the most universal description of single-component relativistic continuum materials. We also show that the presence of strains and the corresponding change in temperature are naturally unified through the Tolman law in a generally covariant description of continuum mechanics.

  5. Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R. N.; Bailey, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Cryogenic Fluid Management Facility is a reusable test bed which is designed to be carried within the Shuttle cargo bay to investigate the systems and technologies associated with the efficient management of cryogens in space. Cryogenic fluid management consists of the systems and technologies for: (1) liquid storage and supply, including capillary acquisition/expulsion systems which provide single-phase liquid to the user system, (2) both passive and active thermal control systems, and (3) fluid transfer/resupply systems, including transfer lines and receiver tanks. The facility contains a storage and supply tank, a transfer line and a receiver tank, configured to provide low-g verification of fluid and thermal models of cryogenic storage and transfer processes. The facility will provide design data and criteria for future subcritical cryogenic storage and transfer system applications, such as Space Station life support, attitude control, power and fuel depot supply, resupply tankers, external tank (ET) propellant scavenging, and ground-based and space-based orbit transfer vehicles (OTV).

  6. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  7. Removal of unwanted fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subudhi, Sudhakar; Sreenivas, K. R.; Arakeri, Jaywant H.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the removal of unwanted fluid through the source-sink pair. The source consists of fluid issuing out of a nozzle in the form of a jet and the sink is a pipe that is kept some distance from the source pipe. Of concern is the percentage of source fluid sucked through the sink. The experiments have been carried in a large glass water tank. The source nozzle diameter is 6 mm and the sink pipe diameter is either 10 or 20 mm. The horizontal and vertical separations and angles between these source and sink pipes are adjustable. The flow was visualized using KMnO4 dye, planer laser induced fluorescence and particle streak photographs. To obtain the effectiveness (that is percentage of source fluid entering the sink pipe), titration method is used. The velocity profiles with and without the sink were obtained using particle image velocimetry. The sink flow rate to obtain a certain effectiveness increase dramatically with lateral separation. The sink diameter and the angle between source and the sink axes don't influence effectiveness as much as the lateral separation.

  8. Continuous feedback fluid queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; van Foreest, N.D.; Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate a fluid buffer which is modulated by a stochastic background process, while the momentary behavior of the background process depends on the current buffer level in a continuous way. Loosely speaking the feedback is such that the background process behaves `as a Markov process' with

  9. STUDY OF 200 CASES OF PLEURAL FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna R

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND We have studied 200 patients of pleural fluid presenting to our tertiary care centre. Presence of cases of pleural fluid is a common presentation both in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases. We analysed the patients having both exudates and transudates and studied the results. MATERIALS AND METHODS We selected patients above 20 years of age and classified the patients with pleural fluid as having transudates and exudates. We studied the causes of transudates and exudates. A total of 200 patients are studied in this prospective study. Diagnosis of pleural exudates is made on the basis of Light’s criteria, chest x-ray, pleural fluid analysis, CT scan in selected patients, sputum examination, bronchoscopy and bronchial washings. Moribund and non-cooperative patients and HIV positives were excluded from the study. RESULTS Among the 200 patients, 91% have exudates. 9% have transudates by Light’s criteria. Tuberculosis is the commonest cause of effusions (64.83% followed by malignancy (13.73% and sympneumonic or parapneumonic effusions (9.89%. Pleural effusions occurred predominantly in males. Prevalence of diabetes Mellitus among cases of tuberculous pleural effusions is 13.56%. Tuberculous effusions are predominantly right-sided. CONCLUSION Predominant cases of pleural fluid are exudates. Commonest cause of pleural effusion is Tuberculosis followed by malignancy both pulmonary and extrapulmonary and sym. and parapneumonic effusions. Prevalence of Diabetes among Tuberculous pleural effusion cases is more or less same as in general population. Cough, expectoration fever, chest pain and breathlessness are the common symptoms occurring in three fourths of the patients of tuberculous pleural effusion. Most of the cases of Tuberculous effusion are above 30 years of age. In the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion, Pleural fluid ADA is very important. Pleural fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, bronchoscopy, bronchial washings and sputum

  10. Fluid supplementation for neonatal unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Nai Ming; Ahmad Kamar, Azanna; Choo, Yao Mun; Kong, Juin Yee; Ngim, Chin Fang

    2017-08-01

    two major comparisons: IV fluid supplementation versus no fluid supplementation (six studies) and IV fluid supplementation versus oral fluid supplementation (one study). A total of 494 term, healthy newborn infants with unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia were evaluated. All studies were at high risk of bias for blinding of care personnel, five studies had unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors, and most studies had unclear risk of bias in allocation concealment. There was low- to moderate-quality evidence for all major outcomes.In the comparison between IV fluid supplementation and no supplementation, no infant in either group developed bilirubin encephalopathy in the one study that reported this outcome. Serum bilirubin was lower at four hours postintervention for infants who received IV fluid supplementation (MD -34.00 μmol/L (-1.99 mg/dL), 95% CI -52.29 (3.06) to -15.71 (0.92); participants = 67, study = 1) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level for indirectness and one level for suspected publication bias). Beyond eight hours postintervention, serum bilirubin was similar between the two groups. Duration of phototherapy was significantly shorter for fluid-supplemented infants, but the estimate was affected by heterogeneity which was not clearly explained (MD -10.70 hours, 95% CI -15.55 to -5.85; participants = 218; studies = 3; I² = 67%). Fluid-supplemented infants were less likely to require exchange transfusion (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.71; RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.02; participants = 462; studies = 6; I² = 72%) (low quality of evidence, downgraded one level due to inconsistency, and another level due to suspected publication bias), and the estimate was similarly affected by unexplained heterogeneity. The frequencies of breastfeeding were similar between the fluid-supplemented and non-supplemented infants in days one to three based on one study (estimate on day three: MD 0.90 feeds, 95% CI -0.40 to 2.20; participants = 60) (moderate

  11. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  12. Stability of fault submitted to fluid injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantut, N.; Passelegue, F. X.; Mitchell, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Elevated pore pressure can lead to slip reactivation on pre-existing fractures and faults when the coulomb failure point is reached. From a static point of view, the reactivation of fault submitted to a background stress (τ0) is a function of the peak strength of the fault, i.e. the quasi-static effective friction coefficient (µeff). However, this theory is valid only when the entire fault is affected by fluid pressure, which is not the case in nature, and during human induced-seismicity. In this study, we present new results about the influence of the injection rate on the stability of faults. Experiments were conducted on a saw-cut sample of westerly granite. The experimental fault was 8 cm length. Injections were conducted through a 2 mm diameter hole reaching the fault surface. Experiments were conducted at four different order magnitudes fluid pressure injection rates (from 1 MPa/minute to 1 GPa/minute), in a fault system submitted to 50 and 100 MPa confining pressure. Our results show that the peak fluid pressure leading to slip depends on injection rate. The faster the injection rate, the larger the peak fluid pressure leading to instability. Wave velocity surveys across the fault highlighted that decreasing the injection-rate leads to an increase of size of the fluid pressure perturbation. Our result demonstrate that the stability of the fault is not only a function of the fluid pressure requires to reach the failure criterion, but is mainly a function of the ratio between the length of the fault affected by fluid pressure and the total fault length. In addition, we show that the slip rate increases with the background effective stress and with the intensity of the fluid pressure pertubation, i.e. with the excess shear stress acting on the part of the fault pertubated by fluid injection. Our results suggest that crustal fault can be reactivated by local high fluid overpressures. These results could explain the "large" magnitude human-induced earthquakes

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  14. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  15. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  16. Output-based allocations and revenue recycling. Implications for the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, James A.; Nieuwkoop, Renger van

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is more comprehensive in its coverage of emissions than schemes introduced or proposed to date in any other country in that it includes agricultural greenhouse gases, which account for half of New Zealand's total emissions. But, motivated by concerns for the international competitiveness of emissions-intensive, trade-exposed industrial and agricultural activities, current legislation provides for substantial ongoing free allocations to such activities, linked to their output. Here we use a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impacts of output-based allocation, given the possibility of recycling net revenues to reduce prior distorting taxes. Unlike previous modelling studies of alternative NZ ETS designs, we allow for a more realistic modelling both of capital and labour supply. We find that, as suggested by theoretical results, interactions between the ETS and existing taxes are important. Given any level of output-based allocation, the negative macroeconomic impacts can be reduced by recycling net revenues as efficiently as possible. Less obviously, we find that there may be an optimal non-zero level of output-based allocation. This optimal level increases as the carbon price and/or factor supply elasticities increase, but decreases if revenues are recycled with greater efficiency. (author)

  17. Effect of Body Mass Index on Postoperative Transfusions and 24-Hour Chest-Tube Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Heather R.; Ramaiah, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    An increasing obese population in the United States focuses attention on the effect of obesity on surgical outcomes. Our objective was to see if obesity, determined by body mass index (BMI), contributed to bleeding in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery as measured by intraoperative and postoperative packed red blood cell transfusion frequency and amount and 24-hour chest-tube output. A retrospective chart review examined 150 subjects undergoing single-surgeon off-pump or on-pump CABG surgery between September 2006 and April 2009. BMI groups included normal-weight (BMI trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The percentage of subjects receiving transfusions in the combined intraoperative or 72-hour postoperative period showed a decreasing linear trend based on BMI group (p = 0.054). The transfusion amount during the 72-hour postoperative period varied significantly between BMI groups (p = 0.021), and the test for a linear decrease across groups was significant (p = 0.020). Twenty-four hour chest-tube output showed variation across all three BMI categories (p = 0.018) with chest-tube output decreasing with increasing obesity in a linear fashion (p = 0.006). Transfusion rate and amount indicate total blood loss is decreased in the obese, and chest-tube output findings give a direct measurable indicator of blood loss from the surgical site indicating increasing BMI is linearly correlated with decreasing postoperative bleeding. PMID:22654469

  18. Output-based allocations and revenue recycling. Implications for the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennox, James A. [Landcare Research NZ, Lincoln (New Zealand); Nieuwkoop, Renger van [Center for Energy Policy and Economy, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-12-15

    The New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS) is more comprehensive in its coverage of emissions than schemes introduced or proposed to date in any other country in that it includes agricultural greenhouse gases, which account for half of New Zealand's total emissions. But, motivated by concerns for the international competitiveness of emissions-intensive, trade-exposed industrial and agricultural activities, current legislation provides for substantial ongoing free allocations to such activities, linked to their output. Here we use a computable general equilibrium model to analyse the impacts of output-based allocation, given the possibility of recycling net revenues to reduce prior distorting taxes. Unlike previous modelling studies of alternative NZ ETS designs, we allow for a more realistic modelling both of capital and labour supply. We find that, as suggested by theoretical results, interactions between the ETS and existing taxes are important. Given any level of output-based allocation, the negative macroeconomic impacts can be reduced by recycling net revenues as efficiently as possible. Less obviously, we find that there may be an optimal non-zero level of output-based allocation. This optimal level increases as the carbon price and/or factor supply elasticities increase, but decreases if revenues are recycled with greater efficiency. (author)

  19. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American...

  20. NACP Site: Terrestrial Biosphere Model Output Data in Original Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the original model output data submissions from the 24 terrestrial biosphere models (TBM) that participated in the North American Carbon...

  1. Value-Chain Networks and Entrepreneurial Output in Multinational Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitratos, Pavlos; Andersson, Ulf; Liouka, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    on their entrepreneurial output. Entrepreneurial output can generate superior performance and positive externalities to the subsidiary. Based on a large-scale study of 268 multinational subsidiaries in the UK, we find that value-chain networks have a higher positive impact than multinational corporation (MNC) networks...... and non value-chain networks; because they may provide the subsidiary knowledge with market opportunities that it lacks and that the other types of networks cannot effectively provide. However, value-chain networks have a negative effect on entrepreneurial output of a subsidiary operating...... in an environment of high uncertainty; because they can constrain the exploration and creation of new knowledge that cannot be provided by any of the networks. Contrary to our expectations, the combined effect of value-chain and non-value chain networks has a negative influence on entrepreneurial output; and...

  2. Factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batterink, M.H.; Wubben, E.F.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The present study assessed the factors related to innovative output in the Dutch agrifood industry, a scale-intensive, supplierdominated industry. We concentrated on explanatory variables related to cooperation, information sources, innovation objectives, obstacles to innovation, and innovation

  3. Weak Disposability in Nonparametric Production Analysis with Undesirable Outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuosmanen, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Environmental Economics and Natural Resources Group at Wageningen University in The Netherlands Weak disposability of outputs means that firms can abate harmful emissions by decreasing the activity level. Modeling weak disposability in nonparametric production analysis has caused some confusion.

  4. Indirect Monetary Policy Reforms and Output Growth in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BRRE). The efforts in repositioning these banks through the current banking reforms (recapitalization and consolidation) the paper notes are a right step in the right direction. Keywords: Indirect monetary policy, Granger – causality, output growth

  5. Science policy through stimulating scholarly output. Reanalyzing the Australian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van den Besselaar, P.; Heyman, U.; Sandström, U.

    2016-07-01

    There is a long standing debate about perverse effects of performance indicators. A main target is science policy using stimulation of output as instrument. The criticism is to a large extent based on a study of the Australian science policy in the early 1990s. Linda Butler studied the effects and argued that the effect was an growth of output, but also a decrease of average quality of the output. These results have been cited many times. In this paper we reanalyze this case and show that the analysis of Butler was wrong: the new Australian science policy did not only increase the output of the system, but also the quality went up. We discuss the implications. (Author)

  6. Robust output synchronization of heterogeneous nonlinear agents in uncertain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Wan, Fuhua; Tu, Mengchuan; Shen, Guojiang

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the global robust output synchronization problem for a class of nonlinear multi-agent systems. In the considered setup, the controlled agents are heterogeneous and with both dynamic and parametric uncertainties, the controllers are incapable of exchanging their internal states with the neighbors, and the communication network among agents is defined by an uncertain simple digraph. The problem is pursued via nonlinear output regulation theory and internal model based design. For each agent, the input-driven filter and the internal model compose the controller, and the decentralized dynamic output feedback control law is derived by using backstepping method and the modified dynamic high-gain technique. The theoretical result is applied to output synchronization problem for uncertain network of Lorenz-type agents. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bibliometric Analysis of Publication Output Patterns of Faculty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is set out to analyse publication research output patterns of the faculty members of Agriculture and Veterinary Complex of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... Faculty of Agriculture (FOA), National Agricultural Extension and Research ...

  8. Output-based allocation and investment in clean technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Storroesten, Halvor Briseid

    2011-07-01

    Allocation of emission allowances may affect firms' incentives to invest in clean technologies. In this paper we show that so-called output-based allocation tends to stimulate such investments as long as individual firms do not assume the regulator to tighten the allocation rule as a consequence of their investments. The explanation is that output-based allocation creates an implicit subsidy to the firms' output, which increases production, leads to a higher price of allowances, and thus increases the incentives to invest in clean technologies. On the other hand, if the firms expect the regulator to tighten the allocation rule after observing their clean technology investment, the firms' incentives to invest are moderated. If strong, this last effect may outweigh the enhanced investment incentives induced by increased output and higher allowance price. (Author)

  9. Input-output interactions and optimal monetary policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrella, Ivan; Santoro, Emiliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the implications of factor demand linkages for monetary policy design in a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model. Part of the output of each sector serves as a production input in both sectors, in accordance with a realistic input–output structure. Strategic...... complementarities induced by factor demand linkages significantly alter the transmission of shocks and amplify the loss of social welfare under optimal monetary policy, compared to what is observed in standard two-sector models. The distinction between value added and gross output that naturally arises...... in this context is of key importance to explore the welfare properties of the model economy. A flexible inflation targeting regime is close to optimal only if the central bank balances inflation and value added variability. Otherwise, targeting gross output variability entails a substantial increase in the loss...

  10. Aqueous Extract of Flueggea leucopyrus Increases Urine Output in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FLAE) on the urinary output of rats. Method: Three different doses of FLAE (500, 1000 and 1500 mgkg-1), furosemide (13 mg kg-1 as diuretic reference) and distilled water (as control) were orally administered to healthy adult hydrated rats.

  11. User manual for two simple postscript output FORTRAN plotting routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. X.

    1991-01-01

    Graphics is one of the important tools in engineering analysis and design. However, plotting routines that generate output on high quality laser printers normally come in graphics packages, which tend to be expensive and system dependent. These factors become important for small computer systems or desktop computers, especially when only some form of a simple plotting routine is sufficient. With the Postscript language becoming popular, there are more and more Postscript laser printers now available. Simple, versatile, low cost plotting routines that can generate output on high quality laser printers are needed and standard FORTRAN language plotting routines using output in Postscript language seems logical. The purpose here is to explain two simple FORTRAN plotting routines that generate output in Postscript language.

  12. Public Investment and Output Performance: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aregbeyen Omo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the direct/indirect long-run relationships and dynamic interactions between public investment (PI and output performance in Nigeria using annual data spanning 1970-2010. A macro-econometric model derived from Keynes’ income-expenditure framework was employed. The model was disaggregated into demand and supply sides to trace the direct and indirect effects of PI on aggregate output. The direct supply side effect was assessed using the magnitude of PI multiplier coefficient, while the indirect effect of PI on the demand side was evaluated with marginal propensity to consume, accelerator coefficient and import multiplier. The results showed relatively less strong direct effect of PI on aggregate output, while the indirect effects were stronger with the import multiplier being the most pronounced. This is attributed to declining capital expenditure, poor implementation and low quality of PI projects due to widespread corruption. By and large, we concluded that PI exerted considerable influence on aggregate output.

  13. Linearised model for PV panel power output variation with changes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PALLAVI BHARADWAJ

    2017-10-26

    Oct 26, 2017 ... change in system input, namely: irradiance and temperature, with its output, namely: array current and power. ... of a solar cell as shown in figure 1, with appropriate scaling according to ... measurement-based methods [8–13].

  14. New Sufficient LMI Conditions for Static Output Stabilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adegas, Fabiano Daher

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new linear matrix inequality conditions to the static output feedback stabilization problem. Although the conditions are only sufficient, numerical experiments show excellent success rates in finding a stabilizing controller....

  15. Three-dimensional self-consistent radiation transport model for the fluid simulation of plasma display panel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.C.; Yang, S.S.; Lee, J.K.

    2003-01-01

    In plasma display panels (PDPs), the resonance radiation trapping is one of the important processes. In order to incorporate this effect in a PDP cell, a three-dimensional radiation transport model is self-consistently coupled with a fluid simulation. This model is compared with the conventional trapping factor method in gas mixtures of neon and xenon. It shows the differences in the time evolutions of spatial profile and the total number of resonant excited states, especially in the afterglow. The generation rates of UV light are also compared for the two methods. The visible photon flux reaching the output window from the phosphor layers as well as the total UV photon flux arriving at the phosphor layer from the plasma region are calculated for resonant and nonresonant excited species. From these calculations, the time-averaged spatial profiles of the UV flux on the phosphor layers and the visible photon flux through the output window are obtained. Finally, the diagram of the energy efficiency and the contribution of each UV light are shown

  16. Environmental pollution from working fluids of ORC processes; Umweltbelastung durch Arbeitsstoffe fuer organische Rankine-Prozesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.

    2006-07-01

    The contribution quantifies the negative environmental effects of the potential loss of working fluids and/or refrigerants and the positive environmental effect of power generation without working fluids. The TEWI (Total Equivalent Warming Impact)concept which is common in refrigeration and air conditioning was modified for ORc systems and was used for assessing the environmental effects of potential working fluids. (orig.)

  17. Variant of a volume-of-fluid method for surface tension-dominant two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-27

    Dec 27, 2013 ... face tension-dominant two-phase flows are explained. ... for one particular fluid inside a cell as its material volume divided by the total ... the reconstructed interface and the velocity field, and the final part ..... Welch S W J and Wilson J 2000 A volume of fluid based method for fluid flows with phase change. J.

  18. Principles of fluid management and stewardship in septic shock: it is time to consider the four D's and the four phases of fluid therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbrain, Manu L N G; Van Regenmortel, Niels; Saugel, Bernd; De Tavernier, Brecht; Van Gaal, Pieter-Jan; Joannes-Boyau, Olivier; Teboul, Jean-Louis; Rice, Todd W; Mythen, Monty; Monnet, Xavier

    2018-05-22

    In patients with septic shock, the administration of fluids during initial hemodynamic resuscitation remains a major therapeutic challenge. We are faced with many open questions regarding the type, dose and timing of intravenous fluid administration. There are only four major indications for intravenous fluid administration: aside from resuscitation, intravenous fluids have many other uses including maintenance and replacement of total body water and electrolytes, as carriers for medications and for parenteral nutrition. In this paradigm-shifting review, we discuss different fluid management strategies including early adequate goal-directed fluid management, late conservative fluid management and late goal-directed fluid removal. In addition, we expand on the concept of the "four D's" of fluid therapy, namely drug, dosing, duration and de-escalation. During the treatment of patients with septic shock, four phases of fluid therapy should be considered in order to provide answers to four basic questions. These four phases are the resuscitation phase, the optimization phase, the stabilization phase and the evacuation phase. The four questions are "When to start intravenous fluids?", "When to stop intravenous fluids?", "When to start de-resuscitation or active fluid removal?" and finally "When to stop de-resuscitation?" In analogy to the way we handle antibiotics in critically ill patients, it is time for fluid stewardship.

  19. Nine Criteria for a Measure of Scientific Output

    OpenAIRE

    Kreiman, Gabriel; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research produces new knowledge, technologies, and clinical treatments that can lead to enormous returns. Often, the path from basic research to new paradigms and direct impact on society takes time. Precise quantification of scientific output in the short-term is not an easy task but is critical for evaluating scientists, laboratories, departments, and institutions. While there have been attempts to quantifying scientific output, we argue that current methods are not ideal and suf...

  20. Output Feedback M-MRAC Backstepping With Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje Sriniva

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a certainty equivalence output feedback backstepping adaptive control design method for the systems of any relative degree with unmatched uncertainties without over-parametrization. It uses a fast prediction model to estimate the unknown parameters, which is independent of the control design. It is shown that the system's input and output tracking errors can be systematically decreased by the proper choice of the design parameters. The approach is applied to aerospace control problems and tested in numerical simulations.

  1. Money and Output: A Test of Reverse Causation.

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Wilbur John, II

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain the correlation between money and output at various leads and lags with a model in which money is largely neutral and endogenously responds to output. Money is endogenous because both monetary policy and deposit creation are endogenous. Parameters are selected according to the simulated moments estimation technique. While the estimated model succeeds along some dimensions in matching properties of postwar U.S. data, its failure to match key patterns of lead-lag ...

  2. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  3. Nine Criteria for a Measure of Scientific Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiman, Gabriel; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research produces new knowledge, technologies, and clinical treatments that can lead to enormous returns. Often, the path from basic research to new paradigms and direct impact on society takes time. Precise quantification of scientific output in the short-term is not an easy task but is critical for evaluating scientists, laboratories, departments, and institutions. While there have been attempts to quantifying scientific output, we argue that current methods are not ideal and suffer from solvable difficulties. Here we propose criteria that a metric should have to be considered a good index of scientific output. Specifically, we argue that such an index should be quantitative, based on robust data, rapidly updated and retrospective, presented with confidence intervals, normalized by number of contributors, career stage and discipline, impractical to manipulate, and focused on quality over quantity. Such an index should be validated through empirical testing. The purpose of quantitatively evaluating scientific output is not to replace careful, rigorous review by experts but rather to complement those efforts. Because it has the potential to greatly influence the efficiency of scientific research, we have a duty to reflect upon and implement novel and rigorous ways of evaluating scientific output. The criteria proposed here provide initial steps toward the systematic development and validation of a metric to evaluate scientific output. PMID:22102840

  4. Primary Total Knee Replacement: Is Suction a Portal of Infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Amirfeyz, Rouin; Ng, Michael; Bannister, Gordon C; Blom, Ashley W

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Pulsed lavage during a total knee replacement usually leaves a pool of fluid on the surgical drapes. It is common practice to suck away this fluid using the same suction device used intra-operatively. This could be a cause of direct wound contamination. We hypothesised that bacteria contaminate fluid that collects around the foot in total knee replacement surgery and that suction equipment could be a portal of contamination. We also hypothesised that bacterial count in the fluid is lower if chlorhexidine, rather than saline, is used in the pulsed lavage. PATIENTS AND METHODS Forty patients undergoing primary total knee replacement were divided into two groups. The first group had pulsed lavage with normal saline and the second with 0.05% chlorhexidine. RESULTS At the end of the operation, 20 ml of fluid, pooled on the surgical drapes was aspirated and cultured for bacterial growth. None of the fluid samples showed bacterial growth. CONCLUSIONS Suction device used peri-operatively during knee replacement is unlikely to be a cause of wound contamination. Pulsed lavage with normal saline is as effective as lavage with chlorhexidine. PMID:19335972

  5. Spinning Up Interest: Classroom Demonstrations of Rotating Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurnou, J.

    2005-12-01

    The complex relationship between rotation and its effect on fluid motions presents some of the most difficult and vexing concepts for both undergraduate and graduate level students to learn. We have found that student comprehension is greatly increased by the presentation of in-class fluid mechanics experiments. A relatively inexpensive experimental set-up consists of the following components: a record player, a wireless camera placed in the rotating frame, a tank of fluid, and food coloring. At my poster, I will use this set-up to carry out demonstrations that illustrate the Taylor-Proudman theorem, flow within the Ekman layer, columnar convection, and flow around high and low pressure centers. By sending the output of the wireless camera through an LCD projection system, such demonstrations can be carried out even for classes in large lecture halls.

  6. An experimental study on the normal stress of magnetorheological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jile; Tian, Yu; Ren, Dongxue; Meng, Yonggang

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the normal stress on the shear rate and magnetic field strength in the shear flow of magnetorheological (MR) fluids has been studied experimentally. An obvious normal stress could be observed when the applied magnetic field was higher than a critical value. The normal stress increases considerably with increase of the shear rate and magnetic field, and decreases suddenly and significantly upon the onset of shear thickening in MR fluids. The ratio of shear stress to normal stress, an analogue of the friction coefficient, increases with increase of the shear rate, but decreases with increase of the applied magnetic field. Along with the shear stress, the normal stress in MR fluids could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the MR effect, and the evolution of the particle structure in shear flow, and may have important implications for preparing high performance magnetostrictive elastomers with high force output along the magnetic field direction

  7. Effects of fluid instabilities on laser fusion pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mead, W.C.; Lindl, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    A direct two-dimensional simulation method for fluid flow and plasma physics was used. The computer code LASNEX models the plasma phenomena of laser light absorption by inverse bremsstrahlung and plasma instabilities; energy transport and partition, using flux-limited diffusion and separate ion, electron, and radiation temperatures; and, optionally, effects of multigroup photon and particle transport and magnetic field physics. The fluid dynamics itself is Lagrangian, with an equation of state used to determine pressure, energy, and opacity as a function of density and temperature. Thermonuclear burn of compressed matter is included to permit evaluation of output to input energy ratios. The code tests with anomalies are described. Current understanding of fluid instability in the presence of ablation is discussed. (U.S.)

  8. Editorial Special Issue on Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power (FMFP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana contains selected papers from two conferences related to fluid mechanics held in India recently, Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Power conference at NIT, Hamirpur, and an International Union of Theoretical ... A simple, well thought out, flow visualization experiment or a computation can sometimes ...

  9. System overview of the fully implantable destination therapy--ReinHeart-total artificial heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Benedikt; Spiliopoulos, Sotirios; Finocchiaro, Thomas; Graef, Felix; Kuipers, Kristin; Laumen, Marco; Guersoy, Dilek; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Koerfer, Reiner; Tenderich, Gero

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the lack of suitable allografts, the demand for long-term mechanical circulatory support in patients with biventricular end-stage heart failure is rising. Currently available Total Artificial Heart (TAH) systems consist of pump units with only limited durability, percutaneous tubes and bulky external equipment that limit the quality of life. Therefore we are focusing on the development of a fully implantable, highly durable destination therapy total artificial heart. The ReinHeart-TAH system consists of a passively filling pump unit driven by a low-wear linear drive between two artificial ventricles, an implantable control unit and a compliance chamber. The TAH is powered by a transcutaneous energy transmission system. The flow distribution inside the ventricles was analysed by fluid structure interaction simulation and particle image velocimetry measurements. Along with durability tests, the hydrodynamic performance and flow balance capability were evaluated in a mock circulation loop. Animal trials are ongoing. Based on fluid structure interaction simulation and particle image velocimetry, blood stagnation areas have been significantly reduced. In the mock circulation loop the ReinHeart-TAH generated a cardiac output of 5 l/min at an operating frequency of 120 bpm and an aortic pressure of 120/80 mmHg. The highly effective preload sensitivity of the passively filling ventricles allowed the sensorless integration of the Frank Starling mechanism. The ReinHeart-TAH effectively replaced the native heart's function in animals for up to 2 days. In vitro and in vivo testing showed a safe and effective function of the ReinHeart-TAH system. This has the potential to become an alternative to transplantation. However, before a first-in-man implant, chronic animal trials still have to be completed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  11. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  12. Levels of lipocalin-2 in crevicular fluid and tear fluid in chronic periodontitis and obesity subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, Avani Raju; Nagpal, Kanika; Karvekar, Shruti; Patnaik, Kaushik

    2016-11-01

    Lipocalin-2, a 25 kDa secretory glycoprotein, was first found in the neutrophilic granules of humans and in mouse kidney cells. It has been shown to have an important role in inflammation. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of lipocalin-2 in gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid in patients with obesity and chronic periodontitis. A total of 40 subjects in the age group 25-40 years were divided into four groups based on probing depth, gingival index, clinical attachment level, body mass index, and radiographic evidence of bone loss. The groups were: nonobese healthy group; obese healthy group; nonobese chronic periodontitis group; obese chronic periodontitis group Gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid samples were collected on the subsequent day. There was an increase in lipocalin-2 levels from group 1 to group 4 (with the nonobese healthy group showing the least levels and obese chronic periodontitis group showing the highest levels) in both gingival crevicular fluid and tear fluid. Lipocalin-2 may be an important inflammatory marker that may help link obesity and chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Thermodynamical stability for a perfect fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xiongjun; Jing, Jiliang [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); He, Xiaokai [Hunan Normal University, Department of Physics, Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications, Changsha, Hunan (China); Hunan First Normal University, School of Mathematics and Computational Science, Changsha (China)

    2017-12-15

    According to the maximum entropy principle, it has been proved that the gravitational field equations could be derived by the extrema of the total entropy for a perfect fluid, which implies that thermodynamic relations contain information as regards gravity. In this manuscript, we obtain a criterion for the thermodynamical stability of an adiabatic, self-gravitating perfect fluid system by the second variation of the total entropy. We show, for Einstein's gravity with spherical symmetry spacetime, that the criterion is consistent with that for the dynamical stability derived by Chandrasekhar and Wald. We also find that the criterion could be applied to cases without spherical symmetry, or under general perturbations. The result further establishes the connection between thermodynamics and gravity. (orig.)

  14. Extended daily dialysis in acute kidney injury patients: metabolic and fluid control and risk factors for death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ponce

    Full Text Available Intermittent hemodialysis (IHD and continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT are used as Acute Kidney Injury (AKI therapy and have certain advantages and disadvantages. Extended daily dialysis (EDD has emerged as an alternative to CRRT in the management of hemodynamically unstable AKI patients, mainly in developed countries.We hypothesized that EDD is a safe option for AKI treatment and aimed to describe metabolic and fluid control of AKI patients undergoing EDD and identify complications and risk factors associated with death.This is an observational and retrospective study describing introduction of EDD at our institution. A total of 231 hemodynamically unstable AKI patients (noradrenalin dose between 0.3 and 1.0 ucg/kg/min were assigned to 1367 EDD session. EDD consisted of 6-8 h of HD 6 days a week, with blood flow of 200 ml/min, dialysate flows of 300 ml/min.Mean age was 60.6±15.8 years, 97.4% of patients were in the intensive care unit, and sepsis was the main etiology of AKI (76.2. BUN and creatinine levels stabilized after four sessions at around 38 and 2.4 mg/dl, respectively. Fluid balance decreased progressively and stabilized around zero after five sessions. Weekly delivered Kt/V was 5.94±0.7. Hypotension and filter clotting occurred in 47.5 and 12.4% of treatment session, respectively. Regarding AKI outcome, 22.5% of patients presented renal function recovery, 5.6% of patients remained on dialysis after 30 days, and 71.9% of patients died. Age and focus abdominal sepsis were identified as risk factors for death. Urine output and negative fluid balance were identified as protective factors.EDD is effective for AKI patients, allowing adequate metabolic and fluid control. Age, focus abdominal sepsis, and lower urine output as well as positive fluid balance after two EDD sessions were associated significantly with death.

  15. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  16. Compressible Fluid Suspension Performance Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoogterp, Francis

    2003-01-01

    ... compressible fluid suspension system that was designed and installed on the vehicle by DTI. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate the possible performance benefits of the compressible fluid suspension system...

  17. On Hall current fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.C.; Ebel, D.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper some new results concerning magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with the Hall current (HC) term in the Ohm's law are presented. For the cylindrical pinch of a compressible HC fluid, it is found that for large time and long wave length the solution to the governing equations exhibits the behavior of solitons as in the case of an ideal MHD model. In some special cases, the HC model appears to be better posed. An open question is whether a simple toroidal equilibrium of an HC fluid with resistivity and viscosity exists. The answer to this question is affirmative if the prescribed velocity on the boundary has a small norm. Furthermore, the equilibrium is also linearly and nonlinearly stable

  18. COUPLED CHEMOTAXIS FLUID MODEL

    KAUST Repository

    LORZ, ALEXANDER

    2010-06-01

    We consider a model system for the collective behavior of oxygen-driven swimming bacteria in an aquatic fluid. In certain parameter regimes, such suspensions of bacteria feature large-scale convection patterns as a result of the hydrodynamic interaction between bacteria. The presented model consist of a parabolicparabolic chemotaxis system for the oxygen concentration and the bacteria density coupled to an incompressible Stokes equation for the fluid driven by a gravitational force of the heavier bacteria. We show local existence of weak solutions in a bounded domain in d, d = 2, 3 with no-flux boundary condition and in 2 in the case of inhomogeneous Dirichlet conditions for the oxygen. © 2010 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  19. Fluid dynamics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rieutord, Michel

    2015-01-01

    This book is dedicated to readers who want to learn fluid dynamics from the beginning. It assumes a basic level of mathematics knowledge that would correspond to that of most second-year undergraduate physics students and examines fluid dynamics from a physicist’s perspective. As such, the examples used primarily come from our environment on Earth and, where possible, from astrophysics. The text is arranged in a progressive and educational format, aimed at leading readers from the simplest basics to more complex matters like turbulence and magnetohydrodynamics. Exercises at the end of each chapter help readers to test their understanding of the subject (solutions are provided at the end of the book), and a special chapter is devoted to introducing selected aspects of mathematics that beginners may not be familiar with, so as to make the book self-contained.

  20. Electrorheologic fluids; Fluidos electroreologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejon G, Leonardo; Lopez G, Francisco; Montoya T, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Manero B, Octavio [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, UNAM.(Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The present article has as an objective to offer a review of the research work made in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) on the study of the electrorheologic fluids whose flow properties can abruptly change in the presence of an electric field when this is induced by a direct current. The electrorheologic fluids have their main application in the manufacture of self-controlling damping systems. [Spanish] El presente articulo tiene por objetivo ofrecer una resena de los trabajos de investigacion realizados en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) sobre el estudio de los fluidos electroreologicos cuyas propiedades de flujo pueden cambiar abruptamente en presencia de un campo electrico cuando este es inducido por una corriente directa. Los fluidos electroreologicos tienen su principal aplicacion en la fabricacion de sistemas de amortiguamiento autocontrolables.