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Sample records for total extractable material

  1. Total flavonoids content in the raw material and aqueous extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ana Josane Dantas; Ferreira, Magda Rhayanny Assunção; Randau, Karina Perrelli; de Souza, Tatiane Pereira; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC) in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl₃ were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g); solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v); as well as the reaction time and AlCl₃ concentration (2 to 9%, w/v). The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl₃ concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives), showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision), coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl₃ concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  2. Total Flavonoids Content in the Raw Material and Aqueous Extractives from Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Caesalpiniaceae

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    Ana Josane Dantas Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the spectrophotometric methodology for determining the total flavonoid content (TFC in herbal drug and derived products from Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Several analytical parameters from this method grounded on the complex formed between flavonoids and AlCl3 were evaluated such as herbal amount (0.25 to 1.25 g; solvent composition (ethanol 40 to 80%, v/v; as well as the reaction time and AlCl3 concentration (2 to 9%, w/v. The method was adjusted to aqueous extractives and its performance studied through precision, linearity and preliminary robustness. The results showed an important dependence of the method response from reaction time, AlCl3 concentration, sample amount, and solvent mixture. After choosing the optimized condition, the method was applied for the matrixes (herbal material and extractives, showing precision lower than 5% (for both parameters repeatability and intermediate precision, coefficient of determination higher than 0.99, and no important influence could be observed for slight variations from wavelength or AlCl3 concentration. Thus, it could be concluded that the evaluated analytical procedure was suitable to quantify the total flavonoid content in raw material and aqueous extractives from leaves of B. monandra.

  3. Total phytosterol content in drug materials and extracts from roots of Acanthospermum hispidum by UV-VIS spectrophotometry

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    Larissa B. D. C. Araújo

    Full Text Available Acanthospermum hispidum DC., Asteraceae, is widely used in folk medicine in Brazil to treat respiratory diseases; this biological property has been attributed to its phytosterol content. This study evaluated the spectrophotometric assay method to quantify the total phytosterol content in raw materials and extracts from roots of A. hispidum. The procedure was based on the quantification at 625 nm after the Liebermann-Burchard reaction. The method was evaluated for linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision, accuracy and robustness. The date indicated that the procedure is a valid analytical tool for materials and herbal derivatives from A. hispidum.

  4. Determination of total ribonucleotide pool in plant materials by high-pH anion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography following extraction with potassium hydroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondet, Christophe; Morel, Sylvain; Alcaraz, Gérard

    2005-06-10

    A new, improved method that only requires a potassium hydroxide extraction procedure is presented for the analysis of a full nucleotide pool in plant materials. Quantification was performed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) with UV detection after a potassium hydroxide extraction, and allowed the quantification of 13 linear ribonucleotides in a single run. The method has been validated by comparison of six extraction methods and also by measurement of the intracellular nucleotide levels of three plant species (cell cultures and leaves). The evolution of the nucleotide pool of Nicotiana tabacum cell culture during growth has also been measured, and showed an increase in the pool until the fifth day, where the growth rate reaches a maximum, after which a decrease was observed.

  5. Extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube by alcohol extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y. B.; Ru, X.; Yu, M.; Wang, S. W.; Lu, L.; Qiao, A. N.; Guo, A. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Jujube is a ripe fruit of Rhamnaceae. Its main active component is flavonoids, so the extraction and determination of total flavonoids in jujube will help to develop and utilize the medicinal value of jujube. In this study, the total flavonoids were extracted from jujube by alcohol extraction method. Through single factor investigation and orthogonal test, it was found that the total flavonoids content in jujube was the highest under the condition of 70°C, material ratio of 1:40, and extraction of 30 min by 70% ethanol. The content of total flavonoids in the extract of jujube was 1.57% at the wavelength of 510 nm by UV and rutin as the standard. The method was evaluated by methodological study, and it was determined that this method could be used as the detection of total flavonoids in jujube extraction.

  6. Optimization of Total Flavonoids Extraction from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. by Response Surface Methodology

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    Liu, X. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM was applied to predict optimum conditions for extraction of flavonoid from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. A central composite design (CCD was used to monitor the effect of extraction temperature, extraction time, and water-to-material ratio on yield of total flavonoids. The optimal extraction conditions were obtained as water-to-material ratio of 55 ml g−1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and extraction time of 70 minutes. Under these conditions, the average total flavonoids yield, according to the mass of raw material, was 9.0 ± 0.6 %, which corresponds to the predicted value of 8.9 %. Thus, the extraction method was applied successfully to extract total flavonoids from C. tinctoria.

  7. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize extraction of total triterpene acids from loquat leaf and evaluate their in vitro antioxidant activities. Methods: The independent variables were ethanol concentration, extraction time, and solvent ratio, while the dependent variable was content of total triterpene acids. Composite design and response ...

  8. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H.; Mehta, Vivek A.; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C.

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation. PMID:26523281

  9. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement

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    Martin H. Pham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti, and cobalt-chrome (CoCr. These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  10. Material Science in Cervical Total Disc Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Martin H; Mehta, Vivek A; Tuchman, Alexander; Hsieh, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Current cervical total disc replacement (TDR) designs incorporate a variety of different biomaterials including polyethylene, stainless steel, titanium (Ti), and cobalt-chrome (CoCr). These materials are most important in their utilization as bearing surfaces which allow for articular motion at the disc space. Long-term biological effects of implanted materials include wear debris, host inflammatory immune reactions, and osteolysis resulting in implant failure. We review here the most common materials used in cervical TDR prosthetic devices, examine their bearing surfaces, describe the construction of the seven current cervical TDR devices that are approved for use in the United States, and discuss known adverse biological effects associated with long-term implantation of these materials. It is important to appreciate and understand the variety of biomaterials available in the design and construction of these prosthetics and the considerations which guide their implementation.

  11. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

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    Ling-Li Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions were determined as follows: ultrasonic power 500 W, extraction time 20 min, material solvent ratio 1 : 20, and ethanol concentration 30%. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction yield of total flavonoids was 1.13%. FRAP value of total flavonoids extracted from corn silk was 467.59 μmol/L. Conclusion. The total flavonoids of corn silk could be developed as food natural antioxidant reagents.

  12. Total lipid profile with aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Studies were undertaken to investigate the effects of the aqueous fruit extract of Solanum macrocarpum Linn. on the total lipid profile: total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) on hypercholesterolaemic rats. Total serum cholesterol ...

  13. Microwave-assisted extraction and antihyperlipidemic effect of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of total flavonoids from corn silk and the hypolipidemia in animal models were studied. Influence of solvent concentration, microwave power, extraction time and dose of solvent were investigated and then, the orthogonal experiments were performed. Animal models of ...

  14. Total Phenol amd Flavonoid contents of Crude Extract and Fractions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenolic compounds are numerous in plants and are essential part of human diet. Picralima nitida has been extensively used in African folk medicine especially in West Africa. The present study evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of the extract and fractions of Picralima nitida. The methanol extracts of P.

  15. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENT OF MORINDA CITRIFOLIA FRUIT EXTRACTS FROM VARIOUS EXTRACTION PROCESSES

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    PRAVEEN K. RAMAMOORTHY

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Soxhlet, Ultrasonic extract of Morinda citrifolia L. fruit and four extracts from high pressure extraction at 10 MPa using ethanol, ethyl acetate as solvent and dried by vacuum oven and spray dryer were analyzed for their antioxidant activity by peroxide value method and diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The five extracts along with the reference samples, butylated hydroxyl toluene and tannic acid were further analyzed to determine their total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteau method and total flavonoid content by Dowd method. The M. citrifolia extract by high pressure extraction with ethyl acetate as solvent and spray dried was found to exhibit highest antioxidant activity and total flavonoid content. High total phenolic content was determined in the high pressure extract using ethyl acetate as solvent and vacuum dried. It was interesting to note that ultrasonic extract exhibited significant antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content. High pressure extracted M. citrifolia in ethanol was found to express lesser values comparatively. The significant difference in activity among the high pressure extracts was found to be due to the polarity of the solvents used for extraction as M. citrifolia fruit contains relatively larger quantity of non-polar antioxidant compounds. It was also found that the drying methods had significant impact on the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of the extracts.

  16. New extraction chromatographic material for rhenium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucanikova, M.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Kucera, J.; Czech Technical University, Prague; Sebesta, F.

    2008-01-01

    Three types of the extraction chromatographic materials, composed from Aliquat R 336 deposited in the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) beads and prepared by different procedures, were compared for extraction of rhenium. The best properties were exhibited when the solid extractant was prepared by impregnation of the ready-made PAN beads. Solid extractant prepared by direct coagulation of the beads from the suspension of Aliquat R 336 in solution of PAN in nitric acid differs only by lower capacity in dynamic conditions. Material prepared from the PAN solution in dimethylsulfoxide was the worst because Aliquat R 336 was washed out from the beads during coagulation of the polymer and the extraction capacity was low. As it is shown, the first two solid extractants are fully comparable with the commercial TEVA Resin. (author)

  17. Extraction of total RNA in the developing chicken forebrain

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    Sayed Rasoul Zaker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gene expression of Gama-Aminobutyric acid (GABA A receptor subunits may change during development. Procedures in molecular biology are required to understand the gene expression profile GABA A R in chicken. The outcome of the results depends on good-quality high-molecular-weight RNA. Several procedures can be used to isolate RNA from the brain of chicken; however, most of them are time-consuming and require disruption of cells or freeze and thaw in the presence of RNase inhibitors. The aim of this experiment was isolation of RNA from chicken embryonic brain tissues using appropriate RNA extraction kit. Materials and Methods: Fertilized eggs from Ross breed (Gallus gallus were incubated at 38°C and 60% relative humidity in a forced-draft incubator and were turned every 3 h. After 3, 7, 14 and 20 days of incubation, eggs were cooled on ice to induce deep anesthesia. Then whole brains were dissected out. As brains could not be excised in a reproducible way from earlier embryos (embryonic days 4 and 6, whole heads were collected. Chicken embryos between day 7 to 20 and 1 day after birth were decapitated, and their brains removed. Samples were immediately inserted into lysis buffer and stored at −70°C. Total RNA was isolated and a contaminating genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA was digested. RNA quality was checked using gel electrophoresis. Results: We obtained 52 mg/ml to 745 mg/ml with A260/280 1.7-2.2. Only high-quality RNA, with no signs of degradation, was used for further experiments. Conclusion: In conclusion, protocol was found to be suitable for the isolation of total RNA from embryonic chicken cells.

  18. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, total flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of cinchona ledgeriana leaves ethanol extract

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    Sundowo, Andini; Artanti, Nina; Hanafi, M.; Minarti, Primahana, Gian

    2017-11-01

    C ledgeriana is a medicinal plant that contains alkaloids, especially on the barks for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. The main alkaloids in this plant are cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and quinidine. Besides for antiamalarial this plant is also commonly used to treat whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. Compare to other medicinal plants, nowadays only very few studies were conducted in Cinchona species. Our current study aims to determine the content of phytochemical, total phenol and total flavonoids from C. ledgeriana leaves 70% ethanol extract. The extraction was performed by maceration method using 70% ethanol solvent and then fractionated into hexane, ethylacetate and butanol. Phytochemical screening was performed to determine the content of alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extract were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and alumunium chloride colorimetric methods using gallic acid and quercetin as standards. The antioxidant activity was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. The results of phytochemical screening showed that the 70% ethanol extract of C. ledgeriana leaves contained alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and saponins. The total phenol and total flavonoids analysis showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest total phenol (40.23%) and total flavonoids (65.34%).

  19. Comparative evaluation of total RNA extraction methods in Theobroma cacao using shoot apical meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D V; Branco, S M J; Holanda, I S A; Royaert, S; Motamayor, J C; Marelli, J P; Corrêa, R X

    2016-03-04

    Theobroma cacao is a species of great economic importance with its beans used for chocolate production. The tree has been a target of various molecular studies. It contains many polyphenols, which complicate the extraction of nucleic acids with the extraction protocols requiring a large amount of plant material. These issues, therefore, necessitate the optimization of the protocols. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different methods for extraction of total RNA from shoot apical meristems of T. cacao 'CCN 51' and to assess the influence of storage conditions for the meristems on the extraction. The study also aimed to identify the most efficient protocol for RNA extraction using a small amount of plant material. Four different protocols were evaluated for RNA extraction using one shoot apical meristem per sample. Among these protocols, one that was more efficient was then tested to extract RNA using four different numbers of shoot apical meristems, subjected to three different storage conditions. The best protocol was tested for cDNA amplification using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; the cDNA quality was determined to be satisfactory for molecular analyses. The study revealed that with the best RNA extraction protocol, one shoot apical meristem was sufficient for extraction of high-quality total RNA. The results obtained might enable advances in genetic analyses and molecular studies using reduced amount of plant material.

  20. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    USTHB, Organic Functional Analysis Laboratory, 16111 Bab Ezzouar, Algiers, ... Keywords: Ahmeur Bouamer, extraction, grape seeds, total polyphenols, ... These compounds are known as good natural antioxidant agents arising from natural ... surface between solid and liquid phases; this is mainly due to the dispersion of ...

  1. Total scattering of disordered crystalline functional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamoto, Shin-Ichi; Kodama, Katsuaki; Iikubo, Satoshi; Taguchi, Tomitsugu

    2009-01-01

    There are disorders in some modern functional materials. As an example, the crystalline phase of an optical recording material has low thermal conductivity but high electrical conductivity, simultaneously. This contradiction is a challenge to material scientists in designing good functional materials, which should have at least two types of crystallographic sites. One site limits thermal conductivity while the other site carries electrons or holes with high mobility. This problem exists with not only optical recording materials but also thermoelectric materials. The periodic boundary condition gets lost in the disordered parts. This therefore, makes atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis with a wide range of real space suitable for investigating the form and size of crystalline parts as well as disordered parts in the material. Pulsed neutron powder diffraction is one of the best tools for use in this new type of emerging research, together with synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and electron diffraction.

  2. Extraction products of solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-04

    A method is described for the manufacture of liquid products from pressure extracts of solid carbon-containing material by destructive hydrogenation, characterized in that the pressure extracts are hydrogenated in admixture with products of high-molecular weight formed during a previous destructive hydrogenation of another part of the same or other pressure extract and which has been collected as liquid without extensive cooling of the hot products of the reaction, which came from the reaction chamber where the previous destructive hydrogenation took place.

  3. Extraction of protoactinium from silicaceous raw material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, E.

    1946-07-01

    This report was written by E. Broda and P.K. Wright at the Cavendish Laboratory (Cambridge) in March 1946 and is about the Extraction of protoactinium from a silicaceous raw material. In this report the isolation of Pa on Er carrier is described and it includes the experiment description and the discussion of the results. (nowak)

  4. Total Scattering Analysis of Disordered Nanosheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Peter C.

    Two dimensional materials are of increasing interest as building blocks for functional coatings, catalysts, and electrochemical devices. While increasingly sophisticated processing routes have been designed to obtain high-quality exfoliated nanosheets and controlled, self-assembled mesostructures, structural characterization of these materials remains challenging. This work presents a novel method of analyzing pair distribution function (PDF) data for disordered nanosheet ensembles, where supercell stacking models are used to infer atom correlations over as much as 50 A. Hierarchical models are used to reduce the parameter space of the refined model and help eliminate strongly correlated parameters. Three data sets for restacked nanosheet assemblies with stacking disorder are analyzed using these methods: simulated data for graphene-like layers, experimental data for 1 nm thick perovskite layers, and experimental data for highly defective delta-MnO2 layers. In each case, the sensitivity of the PDF to the real-space distribution of layer positions is demonstrated by exploring the fit residual as a function of stacking vectors. The refined models demonstrate that nanosheets tend towards local interlayer ordering, which is hypothesized to be driven by the electrostatic potential of the layer surfaces. Correctly accounting for interlayer atom correlations permits more accurate refinement of local structural details including local structure perturbations and defect site occupancies. In the delta-MnO2 nanosheet material, the new modeling approach identified 14% Mn vacancies while application of 3D periodic crystalline models to the < 7 A PDF region suggests a 25% vacancy concentration. In contrast, the perovskite nanosheet material is demonstrated to exhibit almost negligible structural relaxation in contrast with the bulk crystalline material from which it is derived.

  5. Extracting solid carbonaceous materials with solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1936-02-08

    Solvent extraction of solid carbonaceous materials is performed in the presence of powdered catalysts together with alkaline substances. Oxides of nickel or iron or nickel nitrate have been used together with caustic soda or potash solutions or milk of lime. Solvents used include benzenes, middle oils, tars, tetrahydronaphthalene. The extraction is performed at 200 to 500/sup 0/C under pressures of 20 to 200 atm. Finely ground peat was dried and mixed with milk of lime and nickel nitrate and an equal quantity of middle oil. The mixture was heated for 3 h at 380/sup 0/C at 90 atm. 88.5% of the peat was extracted. In a similar treatment brown coal was impregnated with solutions of caustic soda and ferric chloride.

  6. Antioxidant Activities of Total Pigment Extract from Blackberries

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    Jiechao Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Total pigment has been extracted from blackberries and its antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals and nitrite in different in vitro systems have been investigated. The total pigment extract from blackberries (TPEB exhibited strong antioxidant activity against lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system and scavenging capacities towards superoxide anion radicals, generated by a pyrogallol autoxidation system or by an illuminating riboflavin system, hydroxyl radicals generated by Fenton reaction, and nitrite. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were correlated with the concentrations of the TPEB. In the test concentration range, the maximum inhibition percentage against linoleic acid peroxidation was 98.32 % after one week’s incubation, and the maximum scavenging percentages for the free radicals and nitrite inhibition in the above reactive systems reached 90.48, 96.48, 93.58 and 98.94 %, respectively. The TPEB is a natural, edible colorant with excellent antioxidant activities and health benefits and it seems to be applicable in both healthy food and medicine.

  7. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic, and total flavonoid of extracts from stems of Jasminum nervosum Lour

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    Wei, Xiangyong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Guangxi traditional Chinese Medical University Universidad de Medicina Tradicional China de Guangxi This study evaluated the antioxidant activities of the extracts of Jasminum nervosum Lour. stems along with the effects of different extract solvents on total phenolics (TP, total flavonoids (TF, and antioxidant potential. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the following methods: DPPH, ABTS+ both free radicals scavenging assays, and reducing assays. TP and TF were detected by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. In former methods, the highest amount of TP content was ethy lacetate extract (EAE, expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The greatest TF content was in the n-butanol extract (BE, expressed as lutin equivalents. No significant difference was observed in the TP/TF content between these two extracts. The antioxidant activity and TP/TF content of three extracts seemed to follow the same trend. This implied that there is a good correlation between antioxidant activities and TP/TF content. But in HPLC methods, EAE contained the highest content of lutin and gallic acid, which decreased in the same order of EAE > BE > PE, the rank order of TP/TF content of EAE and BE were different according to antioxidant ability. The overall results showed that the EAE and BE were richer in phenolics and flavonoids than petroleum ether extract (PE, and may represent a good source of antioxidants.Este estudio evaluó las actividades antioxidantes de extractos de tallos de Jasminum nervosum Lour., y el efecto de diferentes disolventes de extracción en los fenoles totales (TP y flavonoides totales (TF, y su potencial antioxidante. La actividad antioxidante de los extractos fue evaluada usando los siguientes métodos: DPPH, ABTS+ y ensayos reductores. TP y TF fueron detectados por métodos espectroscópicos y por HPLC. Con el primer método, el contenido más alto de TP se obtuvo en el extracto con acetato de etilo (EAE, expresado como

  8. Fire severity effects on ash extractable Total Phosphorous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Úbeda, Xavier; Martin, Deborah

    2010-05-01

    Phosphorous (P) is a crucial element to plant nutrition and limits vegetal production. The amounts of P in soil are lower and great part of this nutrient is absorbed or precipitated. It is well known that fire has important implications on P cycle, that can be lost throughout volatilization, evacuated with the smoke, but also more available to transport after organic matter mineralization imposed by the fire. The release of P depends on ash pH and their chemical and physical characteristics. Fire temperatures impose different severities, according to the specie affected and contact time. Fire severity is often evaluated by ash colour and this is a low-cost and excellent methodology to assess the fire effects on ecosystems. The aim of this work is study the ash properties physical and chemical properties on ash extractable Total Phosphorous (TP), collected in three wildfires, occured in Portugal, (named, (1) Quinta do Conde, (2) Quinta da Areia and (3) Casal do Sapo) composed mainly by Quercus suber and Pinus pinaster trees. The ash colour was assessed using the Munsell color chart. From all three plots we analyzed a total of 102 ash samples and we identified 5 different ash colours, ordered in an increasing order of severity, Very Dark Brown, Black, Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey. In order to observe significant differences between extractable TP and ash colours, we applied an ANOVA One Way test, and considered the differences significant at a p<0.05. The results showed that significant differences in the extractable TP among the different ash colours. Hence, to identify specific differences between each ash colour, we applied a post-hoc Fisher LSD test, significant at a p<0.05. The results obtained showed significant differences between the extractable TP from Very dark Brown and Black ash, produced at lower severities, in relation to Dark Grey, Very Dark Grey and Light Grey ash, generated at higher severities. The means of the first group were higher

  9. Phosphogypsum analysis: total content and extractable element concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gennari, Roseli F.; Medina, Nilberto H.; Garcia, Isabella; Silveira, Marcilei A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum stand for the chemical origin gypsum generated in fertilizers production, in which phosphate rock is attacked by sulfuric acid resulting in phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) and phosphate fertilizers. Phosphogypsum is not a commercial product and it is stocked in large open areas or accumulated in lakes inducing to a major environmental problem due to the presence of toxic and radioactive elements. The increasing world agricultural demand is the real responsible for the severity of this environmental problem. Nevertheless, there are some possibilities for the application of this reject material, such as civil construction, waste water treatment, and in cultivated lands, etc. In the agriculture the phosphogypsum is commonly used as a nutrient source due to its large amounts of phosphorus, calcium and sulfur. However, there are still some environmental questions related to the use of this by-product since phosphogypsum is classified as TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material), which is a solid waste containing heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive elements from the rock matrix. In this work, Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to study phosphogypsum samples. Several acid solutions for samples digestion were evaluated in order to be feasible the chemical analysis. BCR sequential extractions were also performed. The results showed analyte concentrations are highly dependent on the acid solution used. The BCR guidelines could not be applied as used for soil, since the phosphogypsum solubility is different. So, it would be necessary to use different mass aliquots in the extractions, to be feasible an environmental evaluation. (author)

  10. Optimization of extraction conditions of total phenolics, antioxidant activities, and anthocyanin of oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha M; Banat, Fawzi; Rababah, Anfal; Ereifej, Khalil; Yang, Wade

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the total phenolic extracts and antioxidant activity and anthocyanins of varieties of the investigated plants. These plants include oregano, thyme, terebinth, and pomegranate. The optimum extraction conditions including temperature and solvent of the extraction process itself were investigated. Total phenolic and anthocyanin extracts were examined according to Folin-Ciocalteu assay and Rabino and Mancinelli method, respectively. The effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on extracts of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins were studied. Plant samples were evaluated for their antioxidant chemical activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl assay, to determine their potential as a source of natural antioxidant. Results showed that all tested plants exhibited appreciable amounts of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract (60 °C) of sour pomegranate peel contained the highest phenolic extract (4952.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Terebinth green seed had the lowest phenolic extract (599.4 mg/100 g of dry weight). Anthocyanins ranged between 3.5 (terebinth red seed) and 0.2 mg/100 g of dry material (thyme). Significant effect of different extracting solvents and temperatures on total phenolics and anthocyanin extracts were found. The methanol and 60 °C of extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting phenolic compounds. The distilled water and 60 °C extraction conditions found to be the best for extracting anthocyanin.

  11. Optimization on Extraction Engineering of the Anti - inflammatory Bioactive Materials from Ainsliaea Fragrans Champ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ainsliaea fragrans Champ.(A.fragrans is a traditional Chinese herbal, phenolic compounds was the major anti - inflammatory bioactive constituents. To improve the bioavailability and enhanced the curative effect of A.fragrans, the anti - inflammatory effect of phenolic acids and the “non-active” group of control vectors constitute a new biomedical material, which is of great significance to the treatment of diseases inflammation. Hence, in this thesis, regarding the total phenolic acid transfer rate as the indicator, L9(34 orthogonal design was used to optimize the extraction process of total Phenolic acid from A.fragrans by reflux extraction method on solvent dosage, extraction times and extraction time.The optimal extraction technology was as follows: 15 times of water volume, reflux extraction 3 times, extraction time 60 min. The result of pharmacological activity indicated anti-inflammatory effect: 95% ethanol extraction > water extraction > 30% ethanol extraction > 60% ethanol extraction.

  12. Robust microwave-assisted extraction protocol for determination of total mercury and methylmercury in fish tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, L. Hinojosa; Rahman, G.M. Mizanur [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Kingston, H.M. Skip [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States)], E-mail: kingston@duq.edu

    2009-01-12

    A rapid and efficient closed vessel microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method based on acidic leaching was developed and optimized for the extraction of total mercury (Hg), inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}) and methylmercury (CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +}) from fish tissues. The quantitative extraction of total Hg and mercury species from biological samples was achieved by using 5 mol L{sup -1} HCl and 0.25 mol L{sup -1} NaCl during 10 min at 60 deg. C. Total Hg content was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mercury species were measured by liquid chromatography hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS). The method was validated using biological certified reference materials ERM-CE464, DOLT-3, and NIST SRM-1946. The analytical results were in good agreement with the certified reference values of total Hg and CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} at a 95% confidence level. Further, accuracy validation using speciated isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (SIDMS, as described in the EPA Method 6800) was carried out. SIDMS was also applied to study and correct for unwanted species transformation reactions during and/or after sample preparation steps. For the studied reference materials, no statistically significant transformation between mercury species was observed during the extraction and determination procedures. The proposed method was successfully applied to fish tissues with good agreement between SIDMS results and external calibration (EC) results. Interspecies transformations in fish tissues were slightly higher than certified reference materials due to differences in matrix composition. Depending on the type of fish tissue, up to 10.24% of Hg{sup 2+} was methylated and up to 1.75% of CH{sub 3}Hg{sup +} was demethylated to Hg{sup 2+}.

  13. JUICE EXTRACTION FOR TOTAL SOLUBLE SOLIDS CONTENT DETERMINATION IN MELON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Lima e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The total soluble solids content (TSSC shows high positive correlation with sugars content, and therefore is generally accepted as an important quality trait of fruits. In melon, this evaluation is usually done by grinding a slice of the fruit's pulp in a household food processor, straining the ground material and then proceeding the TSSC determination in the resulting juice. This evaluation is labor-intensive and takes a long time to complete. An alternative process was delineated for obtaining the juice: the pulp of the fruit slice would be transversally cut one or more times, and longitudinally pressed by hand to obtain the juice. The objective of this work was to compare processes for obtaining juice to evaluate TSSC in melons. Fifty, 15, and 15 fruits of the Galia, Yellow, and Cantaloupe type melons were evaluated, respectively. Each fruit was considered as a block, and was longitudinally split into six fractions with similar sizes, which corresponded to the plots. The following treatments were evaluated: fraction without cuts, fractions with one, three, five, or seven transversal cuts, and the fraction treated by the conventional process. It was concluded that the procedure by which the melon slices of Galia, Yellow and Cantaloupe types are pressed for obtaining the juice to evaluate TSSC can overestimate this content. This would probably be due to the fact that the most internal section of the mesocarp presents greater TSSC than the portions closer to the epicarp.

  14. A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Linlin; Wang, Yanji; Wu, Zhaoliang; Liu, Wei; Li, Rui; Wang, Yanyan

    2016-10-02

    A novel technology coupling extraction and foam fractionation was developed for separating the total saponins from Achyranthes bidentata. In the developed technology, the powder of A. bidentata was loaded in a nylon filter cloth pocket with bore diameter of 180 µm. The pocket was fixed in the bulk liquid phase for continuously releasing saponins. Under the optimal conditions, the concentration and the extraction rate of the total saponins in the foamate by the developed technology were 73.5% and 416.2% higher than those by the traditional technology, respectively. The foamates obtained by the traditional technology and the developed technology were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their ingredients, and the results appeared that the developed technology exhibited a better performance for separating saponins than the traditional technology. The study is expected to develop a novel technology for cost effectively separating plant-derived materials with surface activity.

  15. Response Surface Optimized Extraction of Total Triterpene Acids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research May 2014; 13 (5): 787-792 ... surface method were used to optimize the extraction process, while antioxidant activity was evaluated in vitro using α ... Response surface methodology is increasingly.

  16. Validation of an HPLC method for quantification of total quercetin in Calendula officinalis extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz Muñoz, John Alexander; Morgan Machado, Jorge Enrique; Trujillo González, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: calendula officinalis extracts are used as natural raw material in a wide range of pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations; however, there are no official methods for quality control of these extracts. Objective: to validate an HPLC-based analytical method for quantification total quercetin in glycolic and hydroalcoholic extracts of Calendula officinalis. Methods: to quantify total quercetin content in the matrices, it was necessary to hydrolyze flavonoid glycosides under optimal conditions. The chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 SiliaChrom 4.6x150 mm 5 µm column, adapted to a SiliaChrom 5 um C-18 4.6x10 mm precolumn, with UV detection at 370 nm. The gradient elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of methanol (MeOH) and phosphoric acid (H 3 PO 4 ) (0.08 % w/v). The quantification was performed through the external standard method and comparison with quercetin reference standard. Results: the studied method selectivity against extract components and degradation products under acid/basic hydrolysis, oxidation and light exposure conditions showed no signals that interfere with the quercetin quantification. It was statistically proved that the method is linear from 1.0 to 5.0 mg/mL. Intermediate precision expressed as a variation coefficient was 1.8 and 1.74 % and the recovery percentage was 102.15 and 101.32 %, for glycolic and hydroalcoholic extracts, respectively. Conclusions: the suggested methodology meets the quality parameters required for quantifying total quercetin, which makes it a useful tool for quality control of C. officinalis extracts. (author)

  17. Development of total medical material distribution management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uto, Y; Kumamoto, I

    1994-07-01

    Since September 1992, attempts have been made at Kagoshima University Hospital to develop the Medical Material Distribution Management System which helps to realize optimal hospital management as a subsystem of the Total Hospital Information System of Kagoshima University (THINK). As this system has been established, it has become possible for us to have an accurate grasp of the flow and stock of medical materials at our hospital. Furthermore, since September 1993, the Medical Material Distribution Management System has been improved and the Total Medical Material Distribution Management System has been smoothly introduced into the site of clinical practice. This system enables automatic demands for fees for treatment with specific instruments and materials covered by health insurance. It was difficult to predict the effect of this system, because no similar system had been developed in Japan. However, more satisfactory results than expected have been obtained since its introduction.

  18. [Studies on preparative technology and quantitative determination for extracts of total saponin in roof of Panax japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-min; Lu, Ke-ming; Yuan, Ding; Zhang, Chang-cheng

    2008-11-01

    To explore the optimum extraction and purification condition of the total saponins in the root of Panax japonicus (RPJ), and establish its quality control methods. Designed L16 (4(5)) orthogonal test with the extraction rate of total saponins as index, to determine the rational extraction process, and the techniques of water-saturated n-butanol extraction and acetone precipitation were applied to purify the alcohol extract of RPJ. Total saponins were detected by spectrophotometry and its triterpenoidal sapogenin oleanolic acid detected by HPLC. The optimum conditions of total saponins from RPJ was as follows: the material was pulverized, dipped in 60% ethanol aqueous solution as extract solvent at 10 times of volume, and refluxed 3 times for 3 h each time. Extractant of water-saturated n-butanol with extraction times of 3 and precipitant of acetone with precipitation amount of 4-5 times were included in the purification process, which would obtain the quality products. The content of total saponins could reach to 83.48%, and oleanolic acid to 38.30%. The optimized preparative technology is stable, convenient and practical. The extract rate of RPJ was high and steady with this technology, which provided new evidence for industrializing production of the plant and developing new drug.

  19. rich extract on total polyphenols and antioxidant activity obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. Ghouila

    ABSTRACT: Conventional and non-conventional extraction methods were applied in the first time for the ... The heating of the matrix internally and externally without thermal gradient gives numerous advantages to microwave ... Once in laboratory, the clusters were washed with distilled and de-ionized water, then dried and ...

  20. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.; Geldard, J.

    1986-06-01

    This report describes the development of simple nuclear material (uranium and plutonium) inventory relations for mixer-settler solvent extraction contactors used in reprocessing spent nuclear fuels. The relations are developed for light water reactor fuels where the organic phase is 30% tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) by volume. For reprocessing plants using mixer-settler contactors as much as 50% of the nuclear material within the contactors is contained in A type (aqueous to organic extraction) contactors. Another very significant portion of the contactor inventory is in the partitioning contactors. The stripping contactors contain a substantial uranium inventory but contain a very small plutonium inventory (about 5 to 10% of the total contactor inventory). The simplified inventory relations developed in this work for mixer-settler contactors reproduce the PUBG databases within about a 5% standard deviation. They can be formulated to explicitly show the dependence of the inventory on nuclear material concentrations in the aqueous feed streams. The dependence of the inventory on contactor volumes, phase volume ratios, and acid and TBP concentrations are implicitly contained in parameters that can be calculated for a particular reprocessing plant from nominal flow sheet data. The terms in the inventory relations that represent the larger portion of the inventory in A type and partitioning contactors can be extended to pulsed columns virtually without change

  1. Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Isoflavonoids from Plant Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blicharski Tomasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to describe and compare selected traditional and modern extraction methods employed in the isolation of isoflavonoids from plants. Conventional methods such as maceration, percolation, or Soxhlet extraction are still frequently used in phytochemical analysis. Despite their flexibility, traditional extraction techniques have significant drawbacks, including the need for a significant investment of time, energy, and starting material, and a requirement for large amounts of potentially toxic solvents. Moreover, these techniques are difficult to automate, produce considerable amount of waste and pose a risk of degradation of thermolabile compounds. Modern extraction methods, such as: ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, and negative pressure cavitation extraction, can be regarded as remedies for the aforementioned problems. This manuscript discusses the use of the most relevant extraction techniques in the process of isolation of isoflavonoids, secondary metabolites that have been found to have a plethora of biological and pharmacological activities.

  2. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids Contents and Hypnotic Effect in Mice of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Seed Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Moh Moh San

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. have been traditionally used for treatment of various complications including insomnia and anxiety. They are popularly used as sedative and hypnotic drugs in China, Korea, Myanmar, Vietnam, and other Asian countries. However, no scientific proof on hypnotic activity of Z. mauritiana seeds (ZMS was reported. In this study, the hypnotic activity of 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS was observed on the loss of righting reflex in mice using pentobarbital-induced sleep mice method. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extract were also determined. The results showed that the 50% ethanolic extract from ZMS contained total phenolics  mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g extract and total flavonoids  mg quercetin equivalent (QE/g extract. Oral administration of the extract at the dose of 200 mg/kg significantly increased the sleeping time in mice intraperitoneally administered with sodium pentobarbital (50 mg/kg body weight. These results supported the traditional use of ZMS for the treatment of insomnia. The seeds of Z. mauritiana should be further developed as an alternative sedative and/or hypnotic product.

  3. Microwave-assisted extraction and antihyperlipidemic effect of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... prevent or treat AS. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Corn silk was collected in the suburbs of Jilin city in 2010 and identified with Sweet sticky No. 1 by Wang Guang- shu from Jilin. University. Anhydrous ethanol, methanol, aluminum chloride, concentrated hydrochloric acid, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity and Total Phenol Compounds of Punica granatum Hydro-Alcoholic Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Ahmadi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Punica granatum is a non-productive form of a plant and is used for the treatment of diseases in traditional medicine. In this study, we evaluate the antibacterial activity and the total phenol compounds of Punica granatum. Materials & Methods: Disk and well diffusion methods and MIC were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of hydro-alcoholic extract on S. aureus and E. coli compared to standard commercial antibiotic disks. Measurement of phenol compounds were performed by Seevers and Daly colorimetric methods (Folin-ciocalteu indicator. Results: 35 and 29 mm inhibition zones in S. aureus and 22 and 17 mm inhibition zones in E. coli were shown by disk and well diffusion method, respectively. Also, 7.8 mg/ml concentration of extract showed the MIC points for two bacteria. Phenol compound of extract was 233.15±5.1 mg/g of extraction. Conclusion: Antibacterial effect of Punica granatum compared to antibiotics indicates the strong activity against examined bacteria. Extensive antibacterial study of Punica granatum is suggested.

  5. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contractors II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.

    1987-11-01

    The effectiveness of near-real-time nuclear materials accounting in reprocessing facilities can be limited by inventory variations in the separations contactors. Investigations are described in three areas: (i) Improvements in the model that the authors have described previously for the steady state inventory estimation in mixer-settler contactors, (ii) extension for the model for steady state inventory estimation to transient inventory estimation for non-steady state conditions, and (iii) the development of a computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) for simulating the concentration profiles and nuclear material inventories in pulsed column contactors. Improvements in the steady state model that are described in this report are the simplification of the methods for evaluating model parameters and development of methods for reducing the equation which estimates the total inventory of the set of contactors directly. The pulsed column computer model CUSEP (Clemson University Solvent Extraction Program) was developed. Concentration profiles and inventories calculated from CUSEP are compared with measured data from pilot scale contactors containing uranium. Excellent agreement between measured and simulated data for both the concentration profile and inventories is obtained, demonstrating that the program correctly predicts the concentration dispersion caused by pulsing and the dispersed phase holdup within the contactor. Further research to investigate (i) correction of the MUF (Material Unaccounted For) and CUMUF (Cumulative Material Unaccounted For) tests for mixer-settler contactor inventory using the simplified model developed in this work, (ii) development of a simple inventory estimation model for pulsed column contactors similar to that developed for mixer-settler contactors using CUSEP to provide necessary database, and (iii) sources of bias appearing in the MUF and CUMUF tests using computer simulation techniques are planned. Refs

  6. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The total alkaloid extract from Prosopis juliflora DC. leaves was obtained using acid/base modified extraction method. The in vitro anti-tumor potential of the extract was evaluated using MTT (3-(4,5- dimethythiazol-2yl)2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) based cytotoxicity monitoring after 24, 48 and 72 h exposure of the ...

  7. Effect of extraction solvent on total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity of Limnophila aromatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Diem Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Limnophila aromatica is commonly used as a spice and a medicinal herb in Southeast Asia. In this study, water and various concentrations (50%, 75%, and 100% of methanol, ethanol, and acetone in water were used as solvent in the extraction of L. aromatica. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content of the freeze-dried L. aromatica extracts were investigated using various in vitro assays. The extract obtained by 100% ethanol showed the highest total antioxidant activity, reducing power and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity. The same extract also exhibited the highest phenolic content (40.5 mg gallic acid equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica and the highest flavonoid content (31.11 mg quercetin equivalent/g of defatted L. aromatica. The highest extraction yield was obtained by using 50% aqueous acetone. These results indicate that L. aromatica can be used in dietary applications with a potential to reduce oxidative stress.

  8. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Corn Silk and Their Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Ling-Li; Wen, Guan; Yuan, Min-Yong; Gao, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Object. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from corn silk and their antioxidant activities were studied. Methods. Response surface methodology was adopted to optimize the extraction conditions and antioxidant activities of the extracted total flavonoids were detected through ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Results. Through a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology (RSM) adopting yield as response, the optimal conditions we...

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of total extracts of the leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. (Anamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ania Ochoa Pacheco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of 13 total extracts was evaluated, 10 soft extracts (B and 3 blended extracts (E prepared from dry and fresh leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. Various solvents were used for their preparation: hydroalcoholic solution at 30%, 80% and isopropyl alcohol. The antimicrobial effect of the extracts was tested by means of the method of Kirby-Bauer, using four bacterial strains from the ATCC collection (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and a leveduriform fungus (Candida albicans. The following quality control parameters were determined for most active extracts: physical, physical-chemical and chemical parameters. The results were: nine extracts showed antibacterial activity, being the most concentrated (B8 and E3, the ones with the highest activity in the presence of the bacteria tested; the effect of blended extracts (E1, E2 and E3 was greater in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Blended extracts are considered more potent and active than soft extracts. No antifungal activity was obtained for both types of extracts. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined for both extracts, with the following results: MIC-soft extracts (>100 mg/mL, blended extracts (>50 mg/mL; MBC-soft extracts (≥400 mg/mL, blended extracts (≥200 mg/mL based on fresh leaves.

  10. Method of extraction under pressure of fossil material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenmark, G L

    1942-02-24

    A method is described of extraction under pressure of fossil material, such as coal, brown coal (lignite), peat, oil shale. It is characterized by carrying out the process of extraction by utilization of fractions of shale oils and/or peat tar with a boiling point above 170/sup 0/C and under such as pressure that the medium of extraction is in a liquid state.

  11. Extraction of secondary metabolites from plant material: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starmans, D.A.J.; Nijhuis, H.H.

    1996-01-01

    This review article intends to give an overview of the developments in the extraction technology of secondary metabolites from plant material. There are three types of conventional extraction techniques. In order of increasing technological difficulty, these involve the use of solvents, steam or

  12. Recent Developments in Solid-Phase Extraction for Near and Attenuated Total Reflection Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian W. Huck

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A review with more than 100 references on the principles and recent developments in the solid-phase extraction (SPE prior and for in situ near and attenuated total reflection (ATR infrared spectroscopic analysis is presented. New materials, chromatographic modalities, experimental setups and configurations are described. Their advantages for fast sample preparation for distinct classes of compounds containing different functional groups in order to enhance selectivity and sensitivity are discussed and compared. This is the first review highlighting both the fundamentals of SPE, near and ATR spectroscopy with a view to real sample applicability and routine analysis. Most of real sample analyses examples are found in environmental research, followed by food- and bioanalysis. In this contribution a comprehensive overview of the most potent SPE-NIR and SPE-ATR approaches is summarized and provided.

  13. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants.

  14. Dynamic materials accounting for solvent-extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, D.D.; Ostenak, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for estimating nuclear materials inventories in solvent-extraction contactors are being developed. These methods employ chemical models and available process measurements. Comparisons of model calculations and experimental data for mixer-settlers and pulsed columns indicate that this approach should be adequate for effective near-real-time materials accounting in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants

  15. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work was to study the optimal conditions for anthocyanin extraction from natural plant materials in order to develop a pH test kit. The plant materials used were butterfly pea flower (BPF), roselle red flower (RRF) and dragon fruit peel (DFP). The solvents used in this study were distilled water, 1% HCl/95% ...

  16. Total focusing method (TFM) robustness to material deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painchaud-April, Guillaume; Badeau, Nicolas; Lepage, Benoit

    2018-04-01

    The total focusing method (TFM) is becoming an accepted nondestructive evaluation method for industrial inspection. What was a topic of discussion in the applied research community just a few years ago is now being deployed in critical industrial applications, such as inspecting welds in pipelines. However, the method's sensitivity to unexpected parametric changes (material and geometric) has not been rigorously assessed. In this article, we investigate the robustness of TFM in relation to unavoidable deviations from modeled nominal inspection component characteristics, such as sound velocities and uncertainties about the parts' internal and external diameters. We also review TFM's impact on the standard inspection modes often encountered in industrial inspections, and we present a theoretical model supported by empirical observations to illustrate the discussion.

  17. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Phenolic Compounds from Inula helenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE of phenolic compounds from Inula helenium was studied. Effects of ethanol concentration, ultrasonic time, solid-liquid ratio, and number of extractions were investigated. An orthogonal array was constructed to optimize UAE process. The optimized extraction conditions were as follows: ethanol concentration, 30%; solid-liquid ratio, 1 : 20; number of extractions, 2 times; extraction time, 30 min. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of total phenolic compounds and chlorogenic acid was 6.13±0.58 and 1.32±0.17 mg/g, respectively. The results showed that high amounts of phenolic compounds can be extracted from I. helenium by ultrasound-assisted extraction technology.

  18. Free radical scavenging and total antioxidant capacity of root extracts of Anchomanes difformis Engl. (Araceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar B; Ibrahim, Mohammed A; Musa, Aliyu M; Musa, Aisha O; Kiplimo, Joyce J; Oyewale, Adebayo O

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidants activities from plants sources have attracted a wide range of interest across the world in recent times. This is due to growing concern for safe and alternative sources of antioxidants. The free radical scavenging activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), reducing power assay, total antioxidant capacity of the phosphomolybdenum method and the total phenolics content using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were carried out on the acetone, n-butanol and methanol root extracts of Anchomanes difformis. The results of the total phenolics content expressed in mg/100 g of gallic acid equivalent (GAE) showed that the n-butanol extract has significantly (p extracts. All the extracts displayed strong concentration dependent radical scavenging activity. It was also observed that the n-butanol extract showed higher activity of 70.87% and 78.59% at low concentrations of 31.25 microg/mL and 62.5 microg/mL, respectively, than methanol and acetone extracts. The results also showed that the n-butanol extract has strongest reducing ability which is comparable to that of gallic acid at all the concentrations tested. Phytochemical screening on the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. The results suggest that n-butanol extract of the plant is very rich in antioxidant compounds worthy of further investigations.

  19. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by ...

  20. Statistical mixture design selective extraction of compounds with antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content from Trichilia catigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonni, Audrey Alesandra Stinghen Garcia; Longhini, Renata; Lopes, Gisely Cristiny; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Scarminio, Ieda Spacino

    2012-03-16

    Statistical design mixtures of water, methanol, acetone and ethanol were used to extract material from Trichilia catigua (Meliaceae) barks to study the effects of different solvents and their mixtures on its yield, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity. The experimental results and their response surface models showed that quaternary mixtures with approximately equal proportions of all four solvents provided the highest yields, total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities of the crude extracts followed by ternary design mixtures. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis of the HPLC-DAD spectra of the chromatographic peaks of 1:1:1:1 water-methanol-acetone-ethanol mixture extracts indicate the presence of cinchonains, gallic acid derivatives, natural polyphenols, flavanoids, catechins, and epicatechins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  2. Beneficiation and extraction of nonterrestrial materials, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosto, William N.

    A review of options for processing extraterrestrial materials was dominated by industrial materials scientist who tried to identify which processes utilizing space materials could be implemented in the near term. The most practical process seem to us to be the extraction of lunar oxygen and the extraction of metals and ceramics from the residues of the reduction process. The growth of space activity will be accompanied by increased demand for liquid oxygen for each round trip to the Moon. The oxygen and the intermediary product water will be needed for the life support at the base. The reduced metals and ceramics may be considered byproducts or may develop into primary products. Some of the same processes would be directly applicable to recovery of products from asteroids. We also discussed other processes for directly utilizing asteroid metals. Some of the topics covered include beneficiation and oxygen extraction methods, metallurgy, and extraterrestrial cement.

  3. A study of extraction process and in vitro antioxidant activity of total phenols from Rhizoma Imperatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xian-rong; Wang, Jian-hua; Jiang, Bo; Shang, Jin; Zhao, Chang-qiong

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae and its antioxidant activity, and provided a basis for its rational development. The extraction method of Rhizoma Imperatae was determined using orthogonal design test and by total phenol content, its hydroxyl radical scavenging ability was measured by Fenton reaction, and potassium ferricyanide reduction method was used to determine its reducing power. The results showed that the optimum extraction process of Rhizoma Imperatae was a 50-fold volume of water, 30 °C, three times of extraction with 2 h each. Its IC50 for scavenging of hydroxyl radicals was 0.0948 mg/mL, while IC50 of ascorbic acid was 0.1096 mg/mL; in the ferricyanide considerable reduction method, the extract exhibited reducing power comparable to that of the ascorbic acid. The study concluded that Rhizoma Imperatae extract contains relatively large amount of polyphenols, and has a good anti-oxidation ability.

  4. Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil, Total Phenolics, Total Flavonoids and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avni Hajdari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerial parts of Satureja montana L. (Lamiaceae were collected from seven growing wild populations (four populations in Kosovo, two in Albania and one in Montenegro in 2013 with the aim of assessing the natural variation in the chemical composition of the essential oils, total flavonoids, total phenolics and the antioxidant activity of their methanolic extracts. Essential oils were obtained by steam distillation and analysed using GC-FID and GC-MS, whereas total flavonoids, total phenolics and antioxidant activities were determined using spectrophotometric methods. Sixty-one volatile constituents were identified. The main constituents were myrcene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene, linalool, thymol, carvacrol and viridiflorol. Total phenolics ranged from 68.1 to 102.6 mg/g dry mass, the total flavonoid content ranged from 38.3 to 67.0 mg/g dm, and the antioxidant activity according to the DPPH assay ranged from 253.3 to 342.9 mg TE/g dm and according to the FRAP assay ranged from 8.9 to 11.4 mg TE/g dm. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analyses were used to assess the geographical variations in the essential oil composition. Statistical analysis revealed that the analysed populations are grouped into four main clusters that appear to reflect the environmental impact on the chemical composition, which is influenced by differences in habitat composition, altitude and microclimatic conditions.

  5. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  6. Determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extract of Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FENG Huiqin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim To develop a method for determination of total triterpenoid acids in different part and extracts of Ganoderma lucidum. Method The samples of Ganoderma lucidum were extracted with ethanol and successively extracted with CHCl3 and 5% NaHCO3,the NaHCO3 layer was acidified to pH 3 with 2 mol/L HCl,the resulting precipitates were dissolved in CHCl3 and evaporated in vacuo then weighed. The total triterpenoid acids were obtained. Result The total triterpenoid acids of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody,spore and mycelium were (8.58±0.25 mg/g,(3.48±0.03 mg/g and (1.75 ±0.09 mg/g respectively. The total triterpenoid acids of pileus and stipe were (12.62±0.22 mg/g and (7.66±0.08 mg/g. The range of total triterpenoid acid content among 10 batches of Ganoderma lucidum fruitbody purchased from the market was between 4.34 to 16.39 mg/g. The highest content fro/8/8/88/ m Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body with alcohol - water extracting was (208.70±5.54 mg/g and the lowest content with alkaline solution extracting was (123.07±4.99 mg/g. The composition of total triterpenoid acid from fruitbody,spores and extract of fruitbody analyzed by HPLC were almost the same. This method is reliable for determination of total triterpenoid acid in the fruiting body and its extracts,spore and mycelium from Ganoderma lucidum,which provides an indicator for the quality of Ganoderma lucidum product.

  7. Evaluation of total phenols, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity of the leaves crude extracts of locally grown pigeon pea traditionally used in Sultanate of Oman for the treatment of jaundice and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Hamood Al-Saeedi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the total phenols, total flavonoids and evaluate the antioxidant activity of crude extracts from the leaves of pigeon pea native to Sultanate of Oman by a popular method. Methods: The powdered leaves samples from pigeon pea were used for extraction by maceration method with methanol solvent. The methanol free crude extract by maceration method was suspended in water and successively extracted with different polarities of solvents. The obtained crude extracts with different polarities were used for the determination of total phenols and flavonoids contents by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and aluminum chloride methods. The antioxidant activity of six crude extracts from pigeon pea was determined by α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl method. Results: The different polarities leaves crude extracts showed a significant amount of total phenols content ranging from 97.80 to 256.00 mg of GAE/g of crude extract. The same leaves crude extracts also showed good amount of total flavonoids content ranging from 1.38 to 8.51 mg QE/g plant material. The six crude extracts from the leaves displayed significant α, α- diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity with highest value in chloroform extract followed by methanol, butanol, ethyl acetate, hexane and water crude extracts (98.13%, 89.26%, 88.82%, 86.41%, 79.95% and 69.44%, respectively. Conclusions: Leaves crude extracts from pigeon pea have high contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In this regards, it could be used as a medicine for the treatment of different diseases.

  8. Extraction of Gold from Dump Material by Agitation | Stoyanov ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result of poor extraction of gold from slimes a new approach-mechanical agitation of dump material was explored. Several tests have been done. In the agitation test work the following parameters have been investigated: impeller speed; cyanide concentration; CaO concentration; liquid-solid ratio; lead nitrate dosage ...

  9. Surfactant mediated extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruits juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Kori, Shivpoojan; Parmar, Ankush

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to enhance the extraction of total phenolic contents (TPC) and antioxidants from fruit juices by the application of surfactants formulations instead of conventional solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetone). A variety of fruit infusions: apple red delicious (apple (rd)) (Malus domestica), Mcintosh apple (apple (i)) (Malus pumila), sweet lemon (Citrus limetta) and mango (Magnifera indica) were studied. Effect of water, organic solvents and five different aqueous surfactant formulations viz. SDS, Brij-35, Brij-58, Triton X-100 and Span-40 were explored for the extraction of TPC and determining the antioxidant activity (AA). The TPC and AA (%) were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu (FCA) and DPPH assay, respectively. The effect of surfactant type, concentration and common organic solvents on the extraction of TPC and AA (%) was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometric technique. Among all the extracting systems employed, Brij-58 showed the highest extraction efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solid-Liquid Extraction Kinetics of Total Phenolic Compounds (TPC from Red Dates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Lin Chua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Red dates are one of the most famous herbal plants in making traditional Chinese medicine. They contain large amount of bioactive compounds. The objectives of this research were to optimise the crude extract yield and total phenolic compounds (TPC yield from red dates using response surface methodology (RSM and model the extraction kinetics of TPC yield from red dates. Date fruits were dried in an oven under temperatures 50°C, 60°C, 70°C and 80°C until a constant weight was obtained. The optimum drying temperature was 60°C as it gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield. Besides that, single factor experiments were used to determine the optimum range of four extraction parameters which were: liquid-solid ratio (10-30 ml/g; ultrasonic power (70-90%; extraction temperature (50-70°C; and extraction time (40-60min. The optimum range of the four parameters were further optimised using the Box-Behken Design (BBD of RSM. The extraction conditions that gave the highest crude extract yield and TPC yield were chosen. The optimum value for liquid-solid ratio, ultrasonic power, extraction temperature and extraction time were 30ml/g, 70%, 60°C and 60 min respectively. The two equations generated from RSM were reliable and can be used to predict the crude extract yield and TPC yield. The higher the extraction temperature, liquid-solid ratio, and extraction time and lower ultrasonic power, the higher the crude extract and TPC yield. Finally, the results of TPC yield versus time based on the optimum extraction parameters from RSM optimisation were fitted into three extraction kinetic models (Peleg’s model, Page’s model and Ponomaryov’s model. It was found that the most suitable kinetic model to represent the extraction process of TPC from red dates was Page’s model due to its coefficient of determination (R2 was the closest to unity, 0.9663 while its root mean square error (RMSE was the closest to zero, 0.001534.

  11. Comparative study of the total phenol content and antioxidant activity of some medicinal herbal extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hajimehdipoor

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines can be used as the potential sources of anti-oxidative compounds to help the treatment of diseases associated to oxidative stress. In this paper, the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP activity of four Lamiaceae herbal extracts, which traditionally applied in oxidative stress related diseases, has been evaluated and total phenolics contents of these extracts determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The aqueous methanol extracts were prepared by percolation method and investigated for antioxidant properties and total phenolics content evaluation. All the extracts showed antioxidant effect from 123.6±4.6 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Scutellaria tornefortii to 551.5±16.0 mmol of FeSO4.7H2Oequivalent/100 g dried extract in Satureja sahendica. Interestingly, although Satureja sahendica exhibited the most antioxidant activity, the highest content of polyphenolics belonged to Stachys byzantina. Taking together, antioxidant activity of the mentioned medicinal plants is not necessarily associated with polyphenolic compounds and might be partially due to the presence of other polar constituents like terpenoid-glycosides in aqueous extracts that traditionally used as decoction.

  12. Total phenolic content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Blepharis edulis extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohaddese Mahboubi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Blepharis edulis is traditionally used as an antiseptic, purgative, aphrodisiac and anti-inflammatory agent. The extractsof plant aerial parts were screened for total phenolic content (TPC gallic acid equivalents (GAE, total flavonoid compound(TFC quercetin equivalents (QE, antioxidant capacity and its antimicrobial activity by micro broth dilution assay. The 50%-inhibition values of BHT and 70% (v/v aqueous ethanol, 70% (v/v aqueous methanol, methanol, and water extracts of B.edulis according to the DPPH method were found to be 19.6, 71.2, 73.7, 81.4, and 218.4 g/ml, respectively. TPC ranged from38.9 to 102.7 mg GAE/g dry extracts. The antimicrobial activity showed that yeast and fungi were sensitive and resistantmicroorganisms to the extracts. The 70%-methanol extract showed more drastic antimicrobial activity than the others. Theantimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract is the same as of the methanolic extract; water extract had the weakest antimicrobialactivity.

  13. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTION METHODS REPRESENTING AVAILABLE AND TOTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn IN SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Ivezić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Various extraction methods are used to predict plant uptake of trace metals. Most commonly it is total concentration that is used for risk assessment and evaluation of trace metal availability. However, recent studies showed that total concentration is a poor indicator of availability while concentrations in soil solution show good correlation with plant uptake. Present study was conducted on magricultural soils with low levels of trace metals where 45 soil samples were collected from different soil types. The main objective was to compare four different extraction methods and examine how total and reactive (EDTA trace metal concentrations correlate ,with soil solution concentration (in this study determined by water extraction. The samples were analyzed by four extraction methods: strong acid extraction (ultra-pure HNO3 extraction and aqua regia, weak acid extraction by EDTA and the most available fraction, fraction in soil solution, were represented by water extraction (weakest extractant. Five elements were investigated (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. Water extraction significantly correlated with EDTA extraction for Cu, Fe and Mn, while total extraction (HNO3 extraction and aqua regia correlated significantly with water extraction only for Cu. No correlation between water extraction and total extraction confirmed poor role of total concentration as an indicator of availability. EDTA extraction can be used to represent reactive pool of trace metals in soil but it should be also taken with caution when using it to describe available fraction.

  14. A CTAB Procedure Of Total Genomic DNA Extraction For Medicinal Mushrooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Muhammad Hussaini Mohd Mustafa; Muhammad Hanif Azhari Noor; Rosnani Abdul Rashid; Hasan Hamdani Hasan Mutaat; Meswan Meskom; Mat Rasol Awang

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom is defined as mushrooms used in medicine or medical research. Isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. The most important and prerequisite towards reliable molecular biology work is the total genomic DNA of a sample must be in good quality. Five freshly samples of medicinal mushroom were used in this work known as Auriculariapolytricha, Lentinus edode, Pleurotus sayorcaju, Sczhizopyllum commune and Ganodermalucidum. 5 mg of each sample were used to extraction the DNA, prepared in 3 replications and repeated twice. PCR based technique by using ISSR markers were used in checking the amplification ability of the total genomic extraction. A standard Doyle and Doyle protocol for genomic DNA extraction was modified in optimizing the total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom.The modification parameters were percentage of CTAB, incubation period and temperature. The results reveal that each sample required a certain combinations of time and period of incubation. Besides, percentage of CTAB in the buffer was found significant in giving a high yielding of extracted total genomic DNA. The extracted total genomic DNA from the medicinal mushroom yielded from 39.7 ng/ μl to 919.1 ng/ μl. The different yield among the samples found to be corresponded to polysaccharide content in the medicinal mushrooms. The objective of this works is to optimize total genomic DNA extraction of medicinal mushrooms towards a high quality intact genomic DNA for molecular activities. (author)

  15. Alternative materials to improve total hip replacement tribology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santavirta, Seppo; Böhler, Max; Harris, William H; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Lappalainen, Reijo; Muratoglu, Orhun; Rieker, Claude; Salzer, Martin

    2003-08-01

    An improvement in tribology of bearing surfaces is an effective means of increasing the longevity of total hip replacement (THR). Currently, 3 approaches are available to achieve this aim: first, use of highly cross-linked UHMWPE; second, aluminum oxide ceramic bearings, and third, metal-on-metal bearings. Cross-linking reduces the wear resistance of UHMWPE markedly without impairment of other significant properties of the material. Simulator studies and some clinical long-term (10-22 years) follow-up surveys suggest an almost immeasurable wear of the highly cross-linked UHMWPE-based acetabular components during an expected clinical life span. Bioinert alumina ceramic (aluminum oxide) was introduced 3 decades ago for THR-bearing surfaces to improve performance and longevity. Alumina ceramic is entirely biostable and bioinert and has good mechanical properties. For correctly positioned alumina-on-alumina bearings, the annual linear wear rate has been reported to be 3.9 microm. Alumina heads have been successfully used in combination with polyethylene sockets, but as regards wear, the best results have been obtained with alumina-on-alumina bearings. In ceramic THR bearings, precise manufacture and contact surface geometry, including optimal clearance, are most important. For the currently available products, the component fracture risk is almost nonexistent (less than 1 per 1000). Metal-on-metal bearings were used in the early stage of THR surgery, although not all old designs were successful. More recent analyses of the early series have shown the advantages of metal-on-metal to be better and have led to a renaissance of this articulation. Initially, stainless steel was used because it was easy to manufacture and polish. Current metal-on-metal bearings are based on cobalt-chromium-molybdenum alloys with varying carbon contents. Such bearings are self-polishing. Linear wear rates remain at the level of a few microm a year. An improvement in technology has increased

  16. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  17. Antioxidant, Cytotoxic, and Antiproliferative Activities and Total Polyphenol Contents of the Extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum Bark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna J. Sajkowska-Kozielewicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Geissospermum species are medically important plants due to their health-promoting effects. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant ability and antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of infusions, tinctures, and ethanolic extracts of Geissospermum reticulatum barks in relation to the contents of total phenolics and flavonoids. Seven samples of barks were collected in various regions of Peruvian Amazonia. We found that the amount of total phenolics in the studied products varied from 212.40 ± 0.69 to 1253.92 ± 11.20 mg GAE/kg. In our study there is a correlation (R2=0.7947 between the results of antioxidants assays: FRAP and ORAC for tinctures, infusions, and ethanolic extracts of G. reticulatum barks. We have also observed antiproliferative activities of the ethanolic extracts on normal T-cells. These extracts have caused death on malignant cell lines (THP-1 and HL-60 and this data correlates well with their antioxidant capacity measured by ORAC method. Interestingly, the highest concentration of the ethanolic extract was not toxic in the zebrafish embryo developmental assay. Our results indicate that G. reticulatum is rich in antioxidants and have cytotoxic and antiproliferative properties. The data suggests potential immunosuppressive role of the extracts. This is the first study presenting the results of chemical and biological analysis of multiple preparations from G. reticulatum.

  18. Investigating of the antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris against some gram positive and negative bacteria and candida spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Hakemi Vala

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the recent years, due to the wide spread of resistant bacteria on one side and several different reports about the side effects of chemical drugs on the other side, vast researches on the medicinal plants have been started. In this study, antimicrobial effect of total extract of Tribulus terrestris L. and its fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative (Terresoxazine was studied for the first time in Iran.Materials and methods: Total aqueous extract of aerial parts of the plant was prepared and in order to separate the components of aqueous extract, liquid/liquid extraction with Petroleum ether was used. Formation of three layers was the result of this extraction. Layers included water fraction, Petroleum ether fraction and a third layer which was formed at the interface of water and petroleum ether. LC/MS system proved the existence of Benzixazine derivative in the water fraction and the thirds fraction. Antimicrobial effects of total extract, water fraction and the third fraction (which were the layers formed after the extraction process were examined against 10 Gram positive and negative and candida spp by cup plate method and Disk diffusion method. Also, the MIC and MBC were determined by micro dilution method.Results: Of 8 evaluated bacteria and 2 Candida spp, the total extract showed antibacterial effect only against E.coli, P.aeruginosa and B.subtilis. Size of the zone of inhibitation increased with increasing the concentration of the extract. Fraction containing Benzoxazine derivative had no effect against tested microbes. MIC and MBC determination showed that B.subtilis had the least sensitivity to the total extract, comparing to other microorganisms. Besides, comparing the zone of inhibitation of Penicillin 200 mg/ml and the zone of inhibitation of the total aqueous extract shows that the solution of total extract in water with 1000 mg/ml concentration and the solution of total extract in DMSO10% with 750 mg/ml density

  19. Development of Solvent Extraction Approach to Recycle Enriched Molybdenum Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Brown, M. Alex [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Sen, Sujat [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Bowers, Delbert L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Wardle, Kent [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Copple, Jacqueline M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Pupek, Krzysztof Z. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Dzwiniel, Trevor L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Krumdick, Gregory K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Energy Systems Division; Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2016-06-01

    Argonne National Laboratory, in cooperation with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and NorthStar Medical Technologies, LLC, is developing a recycling process for a solution containing valuable Mo-100 or Mo-98 enriched material. Previously, Argonne had developed a recycle process using a precipitation technique. However, this process is labor intensive and can lead to production of large volumes of highly corrosive waste. This report discusses an alternative process to recover enriched Mo in the form of ammonium heptamolybdate by using solvent extraction. Small-scale experiments determined the optimal conditions for effective extraction of high Mo concentrations. Methods were developed for removal of ammonium chloride from the molybdenum product of the solvent extraction process. In large-scale experiments, very good purification from potassium and other elements was observed with very high recovery yields (~98%).

  20. Multivessel supercritical fluid extraction of food items in Total Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, M L; King, J W; Johnson, J H; Serino, A A; Butler, R J

    1995-01-01

    An off-line, large capacity, multivessel supercritical fluid extractor (SFE) was designed and constructed for extraction of large samples. The extractor can simultaneously process 1-6 samples (15-25 g) by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2), which is relatively nontoxic and nonflammable, as the solvent extraction medium. Lipid recoveries for the SFE system were comparable to those obtained by blending or Soxhlet extraction procedures. Extractions at 10,000 psi, 80 degrees C, expanded gaseous CO2 flow rates of 4-5 L/min (35 degrees C), and 1-3 h extraction times gave reproducible lipid recoveries for pork sausage (relative standard deviation [RSD], 1.32%), corn chips (RSD, 0.46%), cheddar cheese (RSD, 1.14%), and peanut butter (RSD, 0.44%). In addition, this SFE system gave reproducible recoveries (> 93%) for butter fortified with cis-chlordane and malathion at the 100 ppm and 0.1 ppm levels. Six portions each of cheddar cheese, saltine crackers, sandwich cookies, and ground hamburger also were simultaneously extracted with SC-CO2 and analyzed for incurred pesticide residues. Results obtained with this SFE system were reproducible and comparable with results from organic-solvent extraction procedures currently used in the Total Diet Study; therefore, use and disposal of large quantities of organic solvents can be eliminated.

  1. A single-step method for rapid extraction of total lipids from green microalgae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Axelsson

    Full Text Available Microalgae produce a wide range of lipid compounds of potential commercial interest. Total lipid extraction performed by conventional extraction methods, relying on the chloroform-methanol solvent system are too laborious and time consuming for screening large numbers of samples. In this study, three previous extraction methods devised by Folch et al. (1957, Bligh and Dyer (1959 and Selstam and Öquist (1985 were compared and a faster single-step procedure was developed for extraction of total lipids from green microalgae. In the single-step procedure, 8 ml of a 2∶1 chloroform-methanol (v/v mixture was added to fresh or frozen microalgal paste or pulverized dry algal biomass contained in a glass centrifuge tube. The biomass was manually suspended by vigorously shaking the tube for a few seconds and 2 ml of a 0.73% NaCl water solution was added. Phase separation was facilitated by 2 min of centrifugation at 350 g and the lower phase was recovered for analysis. An uncharacterized microalgal polyculture and the green microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus, Selenastrum minutum, and Chlorella protothecoides were subjected to the different extraction methods and various techniques of biomass homogenization. The less labour intensive single-step procedure presented here allowed simultaneous recovery of total lipid extracts from multiple samples of green microalgae with quantitative yields and fatty acid profiles comparable to those of the previous methods. While the single-step procedure is highly correlated in lipid extractability (r² = 0.985 to the previous method of Folch et al. (1957, it allowed at least five times higher sample throughput.

  2. Anti-tumor potential of total alkaloid extract of Prosopis juliflora DC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-15

    Aug 15, 2011 ... Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the world. (Madhusudan and .... formula and from that the percentage of cytotoxicity and IC50 values ... complete media were treated as positive and negative controls, .... Cytotoxic effect of total alkaloid extract of P. juliflora leaves against cancer (black bars).

  3. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of water solutions of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Kopjar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Water solutions of extracts were investigated for total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant activity. Susceptibility to degradation of water solutions of plant extracts, under light and in the dark, during storage at room temperature was investigated in order to determine their stability prior to their application for fortification of food products. Large dispersion of total phenol (TP content in the investigated model solutions of selected extracts (olive leaves, green tea, red grape, red wine, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, resveratrol, ranging from 11.10 mg GAE/100 mL to 92.19 mg GAE/100 mL was observed. Consequently, large dispersion of total flavonoids (TF content (8.89 mg to 61.75 mg CTE/100 mL was also observed. Since phenols have been mostly responsible for antioxidant activity of extracts, in most cases, antioxidant activity followed the TP content. That was proven by estimation of correlation coefficient between the total phenol content and antioxidant activity. Correlation coefficients between investigated parameters ranged from 0.5749 to 0.9604. During storage of 5 weeks at room temperature loss of phenols and flavonoids occurred. Antioxidant activity decreased with the decrease of TP and TF content. Degradations of phenols and flavonoids were more pronounced in samples stored at light.

  4. Use of solvent mixtures for total lipid extraction of Chlorella vulgaris and gas chromatography FAME analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi-Kheibari, Narges; Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Hosseini, Majid

    2017-09-01

    Lipid extraction is the bottleneck step for algae-based biodiesel production. Herein, 12 solvent mixture systems (mixtures of three non-polar and two polar organic solvents) were examined to evaluate their effects on the total lipid yield from Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris). Moreover, the extraction yields of three solvent systems with maximum extraction efficiency of esterifiable lipids were determined by acidic transesterification and GC-FID analysis. Three solvent systems, which resulted in a higher extraction yield, were further subjected to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. The total lipid extraction yields (based on dry biomass) were (38.57 ± 1.51), (25.33 ± 0.58), and (25.17 ± 1.14) %, for chloroform-methanol (1:2) (C1M2), hexane-methanol (1:2) (H1M2), and chloroform-methanol (2:1) (C2M1), respectively. The extraction efficiency of C1M2 was approximately 1.5 times higher than H1M2 and C2M1, whereas the FAME profile of extracted lipids by H1M2 and C1M2 were almost identical. Moreover, the esterifiable lipid extraction yields of (18.14 ± 2.60), (16.66 ± 0.35), and (13.22 ± 0.31) % (based on dry biomass) were obtained for C1M2, H1M2, and C2M1 solvent mixture systems, respectively. The biodiesel fuel properties produced from C. vulgaris were empirically predicted and compared to that of the EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 standard specifications.

  5. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Total Extract of Onopordon leptolepis L. in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einollah Valizadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Medicinal plants are valuable natural resources that have been considered nowadays in developed countries as raw materials for converting into safe drugs for human. Antioxidants are compounds that effectively prevent oxygen free radical reactions and reduce damage or cell death, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Material and Methods : After extraction of floral and vegetative parts of Onopordon leptolepis plant, antioxidant potential was determined by two testes: 1. 1diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. Results : The hydro-alcohol extract (methanol 70% of floral and vegetative parts of O. leptolepis plant was found as the most active in scavenging DPPH radicals and in FRAP. The antioxidant potential of hydro-alcohol (H.A70% extracts of the floral part of O.leptolepis showed weak effect than the extract of vegetative of O.leptolepis plant. Conclusion : Results showed that the hydro-alcohol extract (methanol 70% of vegetative part can be considered for medicinal and food industries due to the high antioxidant properties.

  6. Two cases of laparoscopic total colectomy with natural orifice specimen extraction and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Ersin; Aktas, Aydin; Kayaalp, Cuneyt; Gonultas, Fatih; Sumer, Fatih

    2017-09-01

    We present two cases of natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) after laparoscopic total colectomy and ileorectal anastomosis (TC-IRA), and we also review all of the previously reported cases. Our aim was to focus on patient selection for NOSE after TC-IRA. The PubMed and Google Scholar databases were scanned. Demographic features, surgical indications, and techniques were analyzed. Basic calculations were used for statistical analysis. A total of 13 cases were detected in addition to our 2 cases. All of the specimens were removed through the natural orifices successfully. No case required a diverting ileostomy. No patients were converted to open surgery or to conventional laparoscopy. Complications were reported in three patients. Transanal extractions were performed in 12 cases (10 colonic inertia, 2 polyposis), and transvaginal extractions were performed in 3 cases (2 malignancy, 1 colonic inertia). Both transanal and transvaginal specimen extractions after laparoscopic TC-IRA can be preferred. However, transanal extraction seems to be feasible in cases of TC for benign disease with a limited mesenteric-omental resection. If the indication is a malignancy requiring a mesenteric-omental resection, a transvaginal route should be preferred for a voluminous specimen.

  7. Studies on total polyphenols and reducing power of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cioroi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Certain phytochemicals in species are attracting increased attention because of a wide range of biological activities especially the possible cancer preventive properties. Polyphenols, the naturalantioxidants are present in plant extracts and they play a key role in antioxidative defence mechanisms in biological systems and they act as free radicals scavenging agents. Polyphenols might thereforeinhibit development of coronary heart disease and cancers. Basil, oregano and sage are highly fragrant plants whose leaves are used as a seasoning herb for many different types of foods. Aqueous extractswere prepared from basil (Ocimum basilicum L., oregano (Origanum vulgare L. and sage (Salvia officinalis L.. To check the phenols presence, the UV-VIS spectrum was made. The amount of polyphenolic compounds from selected Lamiaceae species was determined by spectrophotometry method using the Folin - Ciocalteau reagent and gallic acid as standard. The range of polyphenols total was between 516,352 mg/100g dried species and 859,617 mg/100g dried species.Reducing power has been established by measuring the redox potential of aqueous extracts. Antioxidant activity was directly correlated with the total amount of polyphenols in the species extracts.The free reducing sugars in aqueous extracts from species were analyzed and correlated to the total content of polyphenols.

  8. A simple and efficient total genomic DNA extraction method for individual zooplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazhan, Hanafiah; Waiho, Khor; Shahreza, Md Sheriff

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches are widely applied in species identification and taxonomic studies of minute zooplankton. One of the most focused zooplankton nowadays is from Subclass Copepoda. Accurate species identification of all life stages of the generally small sized copepods through molecular analysis is important, especially in taxonomic and systematic assessment of harpacticoid copepod populations and to understand their dynamics within the marine community. However, total genomic DNA (TGDNA) extraction from individual harpacticoid copepods can be problematic due to their small size and epibenthic behavior. In this research, six TGDNA extraction methods done on individual harpacticoid copepods were compared. The first new simple, feasible, efficient and consistent TGDNA extraction method was designed and compared with the commercial kit and modified available TGDNA extraction methods. The newly described TGDNA extraction method, "Incubation in PCR buffer" method, yielded good and consistent results based on the high success rate of PCR amplification (82%) compared to other methods. Coupled with its relatively consistent and economical method the "Incubation in PCR buffer" method is highly recommended in the TGDNA extraction of other minute zooplankton species.

  9. Evaluation of five methods for total DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: DNA extraction is a routine step in many insect molecular studies. A variety of methods have been used to isolate DNA molecules from insects, and many commercial kits are available. Extraction methods need to be evaluated for their efficiency, cost, and side effects such as DNA degradation during extraction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From individual western corn rootworm beetles, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, DNA extractions by the SDS method, CTAB method, DNAzol reagent, Puregene solutions and DNeasy column were compared in terms of DNA quantity and quality, cost of materials, and time consumed. Although all five methods resulted in acceptable DNA concentrations and absorbance ratios, the SDS and CTAB methods resulted in higher DNA yield (ng DNA vs. mg tissue at much lower cost and less degradation as revealed on agarose gels. The DNeasy kit was most time-efficient but was the costliest among the methods tested. The effects of ethanol volume, temperature and incubation time on precipitation of DNA were also investigated. The DNA samples obtained by the five methods were tested in PCR for six microsatellites located in various positions of the beetle's genome, and all samples showed successful amplifications. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These evaluations provide a guide for choosing methods of DNA extraction from western corn rootworm beetles based on expected DNA yield and quality, extraction time, cost, and waste control. The extraction conditions for this mid-size insect were optimized. The DNA extracted by the five methods was suitable for further molecular applications such as PCR and sequencing by synthesis.

  10. Phytochemicals Screening, Total Phenol Estimation, Antioxidant Activity of Blainvillea Acmella Leaf and Stem Successive Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Sharma, G.N.; Shrivastava, B.; Jadhav, H.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present work was to investigate antioxidant potential of different extracts of Blainvillea acmella leaf and stem. The successive extraction of individual plant part was carried out using solvents of different polarity viz. n-hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. Preliminary phyto chemical screening of all the extracts was done. The present total phenolic contents were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method and expressed as μg/ mg of gallic acid equivalent. The antioxidant potential and reducing power of all the prepared extracts were measured against DPPH, as compared to standard ascorbic acid, and BHA respectively. The result data indicate that the phenolic contents were higher in methanolic extracts of leaf (73.67 ± 0.38 mg/ g) followed by ethyl acetate (29.08 ± 0.38 mg/ g), aqueous (21.50 ± 0.28 mg/ g), and n-Hexane (9.29 ± 0.38 mg/ g); gallic acid equivalent. The similar pattern in stem part was also observed for example methanolic extracts (41.90 ± 0.45 mg/ g), ethyl acetate (21.92 ± 0.28 mg/ g), aqueous (15.13 ± 0.18 mg/ g), and n-Hexane (3.69 ± 0.28 mg/ g). The antioxidant capacity of methanolic extract of both the part for example leaf and stem was found to be maximum, as IC50 values were 226.49 ± 0.16, 402.05 ± 1.10 respectively. The reducing power was also highest in methanol extract of both parts. The result data conclude that the higher antioxidant as well as reducing power may be due to present phenolic contents. (author)

  11. Blended polymer materials extractable with supercritical carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Mei

    Supercritical carbon dioxide is drawing more and more attention because of its unique solvent properties along with being environmentally friendly. Historically most of the commercial interests of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction are in the food industry, pharmaceutical industry, environmental preservation and polymer processing. Recently attention has shifted from the extraction of relatively simple molecules to more complex systems with a much broader range of physical and chemical transformations. However the available data show that a lot of commercially valuable substances are not soluble in supercritical carbon dioxide due to their polar structures. This fact really limits the application of SCF extraction technology to much broader industrial applications. Therefore, the study of a polymer's solubility in a given supercritical fluid and its thermodynamic behavior becomes one of the most important research topics. The major objective of this dissertation is to develop a convenient and economic way to enhance the polymer's solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide. Further objective is to innovate a new process of making metal casting parts with blended polymer materials developed in this study. The key technique developed in this study to change a polymer's solubility in SCF CO2 is to thermally blend a commercially available and CO2 non-soluble polymer material with a low molecular weight CO2 soluble organic chemical that acts as a co-solute. The mixture yields a plastic material that can be completely solubilized in SCF CO2 over a range of temperatures and pressures. It also exhibits a variety of physical properties (strength, hardness, viscosity, etc.) depending on variations in the mixture ratio. The three organic chemicals investigated as CO2 soluble materials are diphenyl carbonate, naphthalene, and benzophenone. Two commercial polymers, polyethylene glycol and polystyrene, have been investigated as CO2 non-soluble materials. The chemical

  12. Quantification of total and water extractable essential elements in medicinal plants used for stomach problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, S.R.; Kazi, T.G.; Shar, G.Q.; Mangrio, A.M; Shaikh, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    The role of elements particularly trace elements in health and disease is well known. Present study has been undertaken in our laboratories to quantify the commonly occurring elements in three medicinal plans. Peganum harmala Linn, Phyllanthus emblica Linn, Tamarix dioca used for stomach problems using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Wet digestion method has been used to extract the acid extractable metals. Samples were boiled in water to obtain water extractable metals. The validation of the method was checked with the NBS-1570 (Spinach) as Standard Reference Material. Levels of essential elements were found high as compared to concentration of toxic elements. The considerable amounts of essential such as calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc and iron were found in all these plant samples. (author)

  13. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  14. Research report of fiscal 1997. Study on total energy and material control (feasibility study on circulating society); 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho. Total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa (junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa) chosa hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In order to construct real sustainable global environment and human society in the 21st century called the century of environment, not only the innovation of manufacturing processes technically supporting such the construction but also the conception including the innovation of the whole society from a wide viewpoint are essential. As a total energy and material control system (TEMCOS) concept, the view of an energy-saving circulating society is attempted which minimizes a total energy and material flow in Japan, and the role and issue of manufacturing industry, in particular, material industry are extracted. As one of the targets of such a concept, the conception of an eco-town is also described. Paying attention on some important material industries including a mass material flow and consuming a large amount of energy such as metal, plastics and automobile industries, the study result on a material flow for every industry is arranged, and some effective issues contributing to minimize a material flow and control energy consumption and CO2 emission are extracted. 80 refs., 67 figs., 30 tabs.

  15. Extraction and quantitation of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate from mammalian liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crick, D.C.; Carroll, K.K.

    1987-01-01

    A procedure is described for the determination of total cholesterol, dolichol and dolichyl phosphate (Dol-P) in mammalian liver. It is based on extraction of these compounds into diethyl ether after alkaline saponification of the tissue. Extractability is affected by the length of saponification and concentration of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the saponification mixture. After extraction, total cholesterol and dolichol are quantitated directly by reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) on C18. Dol-P requires further purification before quantitation by HPLC, this is accomplished by chromatography on silicic acid. These methods gave recoveries of over 90% for cholesterol and dolichol and about 60% for Dol-P, using [4- 14 C]cholesterol, a polyprenol containing 15 isoprene units, and [1- 14 C]Dol-P as recovery standards. Concentrations of total cholesterol, dolichol and Dol-P in livers from one month-old-CBA mice were found to be 5.7 +/- 0.7 mg/g, 66.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/g and 3.7 +/- 0.3 micrograms/g, respectively

  16. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material. Extraction and purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isherwood, F A; Barrett, F C

    1967-09-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol-water-aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether-formic acid-2-methylpropan-2-ol-water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5'-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract simulating that

  17. Modeling of fissile material diversion in solvent extraction cascades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, A.; Carlson, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    Changes were calculated for measurable parameters of a solvent extraction section of a reprocessing plant resulting from postulated fissile material diversion actions. The computer program SEPHIS was modified to calculate the time-dependent concentrations of uranium and plutonium in each stage of a cascade. The calculation of the inventories of uranium and plutonium in each contactor was also included. The concentration and inventory histories were computed for a group of four sequential columns during start-up and for postulated diversion conditions within this group of columns. Monitoring of column exit streams or of integrated column inventories for fissile materials could provide qualitative indications of attempted diversions. However, the time delays and resulting changes are complex and do not correlate quantitatively with the magnitude of the initiating event

  18. Fluorescent Functionalized Mesoporous Silica for Radioactive Material Extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Juan; Zhu, Kake; Shang, Jianying; Wang, Donghai; Nie, Zimin; Guo, Ruisong; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Mesoporous silica with covalently bound salicylic acid molecules incorporated in the structure was synthesized with a one-pot, co-condensation reaction at room temperature. The as-synthesized material has a large surface area, uniform particle size, and an ordered pore structure as determined by characterization with transmission electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, and infrared spectra, etc. Using the strong fluorescence and metal coordination capability of salicylic acid, functionalized mesoporous silica (FMS) was developed to track and extract radionuclide contaminants, such as uranyl (U(VI)) ions encountered in subsurface environments. Adsorption measurements showed a strong affinity of the FMS toward U(VI) with a Kd value of 105 mL/g, which is four orders of magnitude higher than the adsorption of U(VI) onto most of the sediments in natural environments. The new materials have a potential for synergistic environmental monitoring and remediation of the radionuclide U(VI) from contaminated subsurface environments.

  19. Functionalization of mesoporous materials for lanthanide and actinide extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Justyna; Giret, Simon; Juère, Estelle; Larivière, Dominic; Kleitz, Freddy

    2016-10-14

    Among the energy sources currently available that could address our insatiable appetite for energy and minimize our CO2 emission, solar, wind, and nuclear energy currently occupy an increasing portion of our energy portfolio. The energy associated with these sources can however only be harnessed after mineral resources containing valuable constituents such as actinides (Ac) and rare earth elements (REEs) are extracted, purified and transformed into components necessary for the conversion of energy into electricity. Unfortunately, the environmental impacts resulting from their manufacture including the generation of undesirable and, sometimes, radioactive wastes and the non-renewable nature of the mineral resources, to name a few, have emerged as challenges that should be addressed by the scientific community. In this perspective, the recent development of functionalized solid materials dedicated to selective elemental separation/pre-concentration could provide answers to several of the above-mentioned challenges. This review focuses on recent advances in the field of mesoporous solid-phase (SP) sorbents designed for REEs and Ac liquid-solid extraction. Particular attention will be devoted to silica and carbon sorbents functionalized with commonly known ligands, such as phosphorus or amide-containing functionalities. The extraction performances of these new systems are discussed in terms of sorption capacity and selectivity. In order to support potential industrial applications of the silica and carbon-based sorbents, their main drawbacks and advantages are highlighted and discussed.

  20. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Redmile-Gordon, M.A.; Armenise, E.; White, R.P.; Hirsch, P.R.; Goulding, K.W.T.

    2013-01-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colori...

  1. Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity, Total Flavonoids, Tannins and Phenolic Compounds in Psychotria Leaf Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anelise Samara Nazari Formagio

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Psychotria carthagenensis, P. leiocarpa, P. capillacea and P. deflexa (Rubiaceae extracts were investigated, and the concentrations of total phenolics, flavonoids, condensed tannins and flavonols were determined. The chemical compositions of the extracts were investigated using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC/PAD method. We used 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH, β-Carotene bleaching and 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cations to determine antioxidant activity. The ability to scavenge radical was measured in these experiments by the discoloration of the solution. Concentrations of constituents were measured spectrophotometrically. P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, in the DPPH test, β-carotene bleaching and ABTS system. The highest phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin and flavonol concentration was found in P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea extracts. HPLC-PDA analysis of P. carthagenensis and P. capillacea revealed hydroxycinnamic acid (p-coumaric acid. This is the first report on the antioxidant properties and constituent analysis of these Psychotria extracts.

  2. Anti-pseudomonas activity of essential oil, total extract, and proanthocyanidins of Pinus eldarica Medw. bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoud; Zolfaghari, Behzad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali; Abtahi, Seyed Reza

    2016-01-01

    Pinus eldarica Medw. (Iranian pine) is native to Transcaucasian region and has been vastly planted in Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan. Various parts of this plant have been widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases including infectious conditions (e.g. infectious wounds). In this study we aimed to investigate the antibacterial activity of P. eldarica bark extract, essential oil and proanthocyanidins on three important bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial analysis was performed using standard disk diffusion method with different concentrations of essential oil, bark total hydroalcoholic extract, and bark proanthocyanidins (0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/ml). After incubation at 37°C for 24 h, the antibacterial activity was assessed by measuring the zone of growth inhibition surrounding the disks. The results indicated that the essential oil, total hydroalcoholic extract, and proanthocyanidins of the bark of the P. eldarica were effective against the gram negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, and significantly inhibited its growth in disk diffusion method (Pessential oil had the most potent inhibitory effect. However, none of the bark preparations could significantly inhibit the growth of S. aureus or E. coli. Our findings showed that P. eldarica bark components have significant anti-pseudomonas activity having potentials for new sources of antibacterial agents or antibacterial herbal preparations.

  3. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy.

  4. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic content and phytotoxic activity of corn (Zea mays) extracts against some indicator species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Hiwa M

    2018-03-01

    Allelopathic effects of corn (Zea mays) extracts was studied, against seed germination and seedling growth of Phalaris minor, Helianthus annuus, Triticumaestivum, Sorghum halepense, Z. mays. Bioassay results showed that aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, markedly affected seed germination, and other parameters compared with related controls. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of various phytochemicals such as tannins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and alkaloids in both roots and shoot aqueous extracts. However, saponins were only present in the shoot aqueous extract, while in shoot ethanol extracts, only terpenoids and alkaloids were detected. Additionally, total polyphenolic (TPC) content in aqueous extracts of corn root and shoot, plus ethanol extracts of corn shoot were determined using an Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Results revealed TPC content of the corn shoot aqueous extract showed the highest yield, compared to other extracts. These findings suggest that phytochemicals present in Z. mays extracts may contribute to allelopathy effect.

  5. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  6. Microwave-assisted extraction and a new determination method for total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yao; Chen, Yu; Hu, Bohan; Wu, Hui; Lai, Furao; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-12-01

    An efficient microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) technique was applied to isolate total steroid saponins from Dioscorea zingiberensis C.H. Wright (DZW). The optimal extracting conditions were established as 75% ethanol as solvent, ratio of solid/liquid 1:20 (g/ml), temperature 75 °C, irradiation power 600 W and three extraction cycles of 6 min each. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of DZW processed by four different extractions provided visual evidence of the disruption effect on DZW. Diosgenin was quantified by HPLC and examined further by LC-ESI/MS after acid hydrolysis. Total steroid saponins were calculated using diosgenin from total steroid saponins. The MAE procedure was optimized, validated and compared with other conventional extraction processes. This report provides a convenient technology for the extraction and quantification of total saponins of DZW combining MAE with HPLC and LC-ESI/MS for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  8. The Use of TOC Reconciliation as a Means of Establishing the Degree to Which Chromatographic Screening of Plastic Material Extracts for Organic Extractables Is Complete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Couch, Thomas R; Robinson, Sarah J; Volz, Trent J; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-01-01

    Extracts of plastic packaging, manufacturing, and delivery systems (or their materials of construction) are analyzed by chromatographic methods to establish the system's extractables profile. The testing strategy consists of multiple orthogonal chromatographic methods, for example, gas and liquid chromatography with multiple detection strategies. Although this orthogonal testing strategy is comprehensive, it is not necessarily complete and members of the extractables profile can elude detection and/or accurate identification/quantification. Because the chromatographic methods rarely indicate that some extractables have been missed, another means of assessing the completeness of the profiling activity must be established. If the extracts are aqueous and contain no organic additives (e.g., pH buffers), then they can be analyzed for their total organic carbon content (TOC). Additionally, the TOC of an extract can be calculated based on the extractables revealed by the screening analyses. The measured and calculated TOC can be reconciled to establish the completeness and accuracy of the extractables profile. If the reconciliation is poor, then the profile is either incomplete or inaccurate and additional testing is needed to establish the complete and accurate profile. Ten test materials and components of systems were extracted and their extracts characterized for organic extractables using typical screening procedures. Measured and calculated TOC was reconciled to establish the completeness of the revealed extractables profile. When the TOC reconciliation was incomplete, the profiling was augmented with additional analytical testing to reveal the missing members of the organic extractables profile. This process is illustrated via two case studies involving aqueous extracts of sterile filters. Plastic materials and systems used to manufacture, contain, store, and deliver pharmaceutical products are extracted and the extracts analyzed to establish the materials' (or

  9. A Novel Pectin Material: Extraction, Characterization and Gelling Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustin Rascón-Chu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel pectin was acid extracted from chickpea husk (CHP. CHP presented a 67% (w/w of galacturonic acid, an intrinsic viscosity of 374 mL/g and a viscosimetric molecular weight of 110 kDa. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum of CHP indicated a degree of esterification of about 10%. The CHP-calcium system formed ionic gels with a storage (G’ modulus of 40 Pa and gel set time (G’ > G’’ of 3 min at 1% (w/v, and a G’ of 131 Pa and gel set time of 1 min at 2% (w/v. The G’ of CHP gels was not greatly affected by temperature. The results attained suggest that chickpea husk can be a potential source of a gelling pectin material.

  10. Sensitive radioimmunoassay of total thyroxine (T4) in horses using a simple extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangyuenyong, Siriwan; Nambo, Yasuo; Nagaoka, Kentaro; Tanaka, Tomomi; Watanabe, Gen

    2017-07-28

    Most thyroid hormone determinations in animals are based on immunoassays adapted from those used to test human samples, which may not reflect the actual values of thyroid hormone in horses because of the presence of binding proteins. The aims of the present study were i) to establish a novel radioimmunoassay (RIA) using a more simple and convenient method to separate binding proteins for the measurement of total thyroxine (T4) in horses and ii) to validate the assay by comparing total T4 concentrations in yearling horses raised in different climates. Blood samples were collected from trained yearlings in Hokkaido (temperate climate) and Miyazaki (subtropical climate) in Japan and from adult horses in estrus and diestrus. T4 was extracted from both serum and plasma using modified acid ethanol cryo-precipitation and sodium acetate ethanol methods. Circulating total T4 concentrations were determined by RIA. T4 concentration by sodium acetate ethanol was appropriately detectable rather than sodium salicylate method and was the same as for acid ethanol method. Furthermore, this sodium acetate ethanol method required fewer extraction steps than the other methods. Circulating T4 concentrations in yearlings were 225.98 ± 20.89 ng/ml, which was higher than the previous reference values. With respect to climate, T4 levels in Hokkaido yearlings tended to be higher than those in Miyazaki yearlings throughout the study period. These results indicated that this RIA protocol using a modified sodium acetate ethanol separation technique might be an appropriate tool for specific measurement of total T4 in horses.

  11. The Effects of Vitex agnus castus Total Extract on Spermatogenesis of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ramezani

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Vitex agnus castus (Verbenaceae is a phytoestrogeic herb native to the Middle East and southern Europe. It has clinical usage in so many countries. In this research, the effects of Vitex agnus castus extract was investigated on spermatogenesis of male Balb/C mice. Materials & Methods: This is an experimental study in which adult male mice were chosen and divided into 3 groups: control, vehicle, and experimental. Animals were daily injected (i.p. with 65, 165 265, 365, and 465 mg/kg of seed extract for ten consecutive days. Then the animals were weighed and eventually killed by cervical dislocation 2 weeks after the last injection. The caudal part of the right epididymis was used for sperm counting. After macroscopic investigation (weight, diameter and volume of testes tissues were fixed in Buin's fixative. Tissues were cut at 5 µm, stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H& E.Ccollected data was analyzed by the SPSS software by using one-way ANOVA. Results: No significant differences in body weight, volume, weight and diameter of testes was seen. Light microscopic studies showed a significant reduction in germinal epithelium in doses of 265 and 365 mg/kg and increased of interstitial tissue area in doses of 265, 365, and 465 mg/kg of extract. There was no significant difference in epithelium thickness and of the diameter of the epididymis. Germinal cells contained pyknotic nuclei and several holes that were found scattered in the tubules. Testis also showed a general disarrangement in various germinal elements of seminiferous tubules. Result of sperms count indicated a significant decreasing of spermatozoa in animals which received 265 and 365 mg/kg of extract. Conclusion: Vitex agnus castus contains essential oils, iridoid glycosides, flavonoids diterpenes, and essential fatty acids. The results suggest that its contraceptive effects is related to its flavonoids and essential fatty acids but further studies is

  12. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO. Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4.C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  13. Are extracted materials truly representative of original samples? Impact of C18 extraction on CDOM optical and chemical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  14. Are Extracted Materials Truly Representative of Original Samples? Impact of C18 Extraction on CDOM Optical and Chemical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Andrea A; Del Vecchio, Rossana; Zhang, Yi; Subramaniam, Ajit; Blough, Neil V

    2016-01-01

    Some properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) can be easily measured directly on whole waters, while others require sample concentration and removal of natural salts. To increase CDOM content and eliminate salts, solid phase extraction (SPE) is often employed. Biases following extraction and elution are inevitable, thus raising the question of how truly representative the extracted material is of the original. In this context, we investigated the wavelength dependence of extraction efficiency for C18 cartridges with respect to CDOM optical properties using samples obtained from the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean (EAO). Further, we compared the optical changes of C18 extracts and the corresponding whole water following chemical reduction with sodium borohydride (NaBH4). C18 cartridges preferentially extracted long-wavelength absorbing/emitting material for samples impacted by riverine input. Extraction efficiency overall decreased with offshore distance away from riverine input. Spectral slopes of C18-OM samples were also almost always lower than those of their corresponding CDOM samples supporting the preferential extraction of higher molecular weight absorbing material. The wavelength dependence of the optical properties (absorption, fluorescence emission, and quantum yield) of the original water samples and their corresponding extracted material were very similar. C18 extracts and corresponding water samples further exhibited comparable optical changes following NaBH4 reduction, thus suggesting a similarity in nature (structure) of the optically active extracted material, independent of geographical locale. Altogether, these data suggested a strong similarity between C18 extracts and corresponding whole waters, thus indicating that extracts are representative of the CDOM content of original waters.

  15. Total phenols and antioxidant activities of leaf and stem extracts from coriander, mint and parsley grown in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Juhaimi, F.; Ghafoorr, K.

    2011-01-01

    Leaves and stems of three different herbs from two different families were used to extract phenolic compounds and the bioactivity of the extracts was evaluated by using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH scavenging ability or their antioxidant activities. Extract from leaves of mint, which belongs to Lamiaceae family contained 1.24 mgGAE/100 mL of total phenolic compounds and 34.21% antioxidant activity which were significantly higher than those in extracts from coriander and parsley, both of which belong to Apiaceae family. Extracts of leaves from these herbs showed more quantity of total phenols and higher antioxidant activities than extracts from stem parts, however both leaves and stems of these three herbs grown in Saudi Arabia contained good quantities of total phenols (>1.02 mgGAE/100 mL) and showed more than 18.3% free radical scavenging activity. (author)

  16. Total Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB), Antioxidant Activity, and Acceptance of Synbiotic Yoghurt with Binahong Leaf Extract (Anredera cordifolia (Ten.) Steenis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, R. P.; Nissa, C.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Alternative treatment for metabolic syndrome can be done by providing a diet consist of functional foods or beverages. Synbiotic yoghurt containing binahong leaf extract which high in antioxidant, total LAB and fiber can be selected to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. The effect of binahong leaf extract in synbiotic yoghurt against total LAB, antioxidant activity, and acceptance were analyzed. The experiment was done with complete randomized design with addition of binahong leaf extract 0% (control); 0.12%; 0.25%; 0.5% in synbiotic yoghurt. Analysis of total LAB using Total Plate Count test, antioxidant activity using DPPH, and acceptance were analyzed by hedonic test. The addition of binahong leaf extract in various doses in synbiotic yoghurt decreased total LAB without significant effect (p=0,145). There was no effect of addition binahong leaf extract on antioxidant activity (p=0,297). The addition of binahong leaf extract had an effect on color, but not on aroma, texture and taste. The best result was yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,12% binahong leaf extract. Conclusion of the research was the addition of binahong leaf extract to synbiotic yogurt did not significantly affect total LAB, antioxidant activity, aroma, texture and taste; but had a significant effect on color.

  17. Structure analysis of liquids and disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction and total scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuya, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    Neutron diffraction·total scattering at pulsed neutron source is a powerful method to analyze the complex structure of disordered materials: liquids, glasses, amorphous materials and disordered crystals. The basic idea of the structure of disordered materials, the fundamental diffraction theory for disordered materials, and structure analysis of disordered materials using pulsed neutron diffraction·total scattering technique (TOF method) are described in detail. In addition, the precise information of the world highest class J-PARC MLF spallation neutron source and typical J-PARC neutron total scattering instrument NOVA are also given. Recent structural modelling methods of disordered materials such like reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation method is briefly described using an example of the analysis of a typical disordered material silica glass. (author)

  18. Study of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of various leaves crude extracts of locally grown Thymus vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Amzad; AL-Raqmi, Khulood Ahmed Salim; AL-Mijizy, Zawan Hamood; Weli, Afaf Mohammed; Al-Riyami, Qasim

    2013-09-01

    To prepare various crude extracts using different polarities of solvent and to quantitatively evaluate their total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening of Thymus vulgaris collected from Al Jabal Al Akhdar, Nizwa, Sultanate of Oman. The leave sample was extracted with methanol and evaporated. Then it was defatted with water and extracted with different polarities organic solvents with increasing polarities. The prepare hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and methanol crude extracts were used for their evaluation of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening study. The established conventional methods were used for quantitative determination of total phenol, flavonoids contents and phytochemical screening. Phytochemical screening for various crude extracts were tested and shown positive result for flavonoids, saponins and steroids compounds. The result for total phenol content was the highest in butanol and the lowest in methanol crude extract whereas the total flavonoids contents was the highest in methanol and the lowest hexane crude extract. The crude extracts from locally grown Thymus vulgaris showed high concentration of flavonoids and it could be used as antibiotics for different curable and uncurable diseases.

  19. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijevic, Jovan; Gajic, Dragoljub; Brkovic, Aleksandar; Savic-Gajic, Ivana; Georgieva, Olga; Di Gennaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  20. Online Condition Monitoring of Bearings to Support Total Productive Maintenance in the Packaging Materials Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Gligorijevic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The packaging materials industry has already recognized the importance of Total Productive Maintenance as a system of proactive techniques for improving equipment reliability. Bearing faults, which often occur gradually, represent one of the foremost causes of failures in the industry. Therefore, detection of their faults in an early stage is quite important to assure reliable and efficient operation. We present a new automated technique for early fault detection and diagnosis in rolling-element bearings based on vibration signal analysis. Following the wavelet decomposition of vibration signals into a few sub-bands of interest, the standard deviation of obtained wavelet coefficients is extracted as a representative feature. Then, the feature space dimension is optimally reduced to two using scatter matrices. In the reduced two-dimensional feature space the fault detection and diagnosis is carried out by quadratic classifiers. Accuracy of the technique has been tested on four classes of the recorded vibrations signals, i.e., normal, with the fault of inner race, outer race, and ball operation. The overall accuracy of 98.9% has been achieved. The new technique can be used to support maintenance decision-making processes and, thus, to increase reliability and efficiency in the industry by preventing unexpected faulty operation of bearings.

  1. Changes in total phenol, flavonoid contents and anti-Lactobacillus activity of Callisia fragrans due to extraction solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Thom; Cao, Diem Kieu; Pham, Thanh Vy; Huynh, Tan Dat; Ta, Nhat Thuy Anh; Nguyen, Ngoc Thao Linh; Nguyen, Huu Thanh; Le, Hue Huong; Bui, Anh Vo; Truong, Dieu-Hien

    2018-04-01

    Callisia fragrans is a wonder herb with many medicinal properties such as burn, dental diseases, cancer diseases and arthritis in folk medicine. It is noted that the phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity of traditional plants depend on not only the extracting method but also the solvent used for extraction. In this study, the effect of five extraction solvents (i.e., distilled water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% ethyl acetate, and 80% chloroform) on yield, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) of Callisia leaves was determined. Besides, changes in anti-Lactobacillus fermentum activity of C. fragrans freeze-dried extract was also evaluated using disk-diffusion method. The recovery percentage of extractable yield of fresh leaves are ranged from 11.93% w/w for distilled water extract to 16.60% w/w for aqueous ethanol extracts. The yield of 80% aqueous methanol extract (16.27% w/w) is only slightly less than that of the ethanol extract. Significant differences were observed among TPC and TFC obtaining by 80% methanol (0.0522% and 0.0335% w/w, respectively) compared to other solvents (p < 0.05). TPC and TFC of C. fragrans extracts increase in the following order: distilled water < 80% chloroform < 80% ethyl acetate < 80% ethanol < 80% methanol. The results revealed that 80% aqueous methanol Calissia extracts has moderate inhibition (9.0 mm of inhibition zone for 1.5 mg/mL of extracts) of L. fermentum compared to standard antibacterial agent. Based on the study results, it can be concluded that the yield, TPC and TFC of C. frgrans extract varied with the extracting solvent. It also showed that Callisia extracts can prevent dental caries by inhibiting the growth of L. fermentum, towards new insights for treatment of dental caries.

  2. Assessment of total polar materials in Frying fats from Czech restaurants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mlcek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-frying is commonly used as convenient technique for the preparation of foods. The frying oils and fats are absorbed by fried food and become a part of diet. The content of total polar materials was determined in frying oils and fats in 46 restaurants from South Moravia and the Olomouc regions. Twenty-eight samples were found with total polar materials with limit of rejection over 24%. The highest total polar materials values were observed in cooking fat; the lowest one was in vegetable shortening oil. This conclusion corresponds with frying temperatures, which were highest in cooking fat.

  3. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A.

    2013-01-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60 Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60 Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  4. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  5. [Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus by response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-wu; Liu, Yan-qing; Wang, Yuan-hong

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the ultrasonic-assisted extract on of total flavonoids from leaves of the Artocarpus heterophyllus. Investigated the effects of ethanol concentration, extraction time, and liquid-solid ratio on flavonoids yield. A 17-run response surface design involving three factors at three levels was generated by the Design-Expert software and experimental data obtained were subjected to quadratic regression analysis to create a mathematical model describing flavonoids extraction. The optimum ultrasonic assisted extraction conditions were: ethanol volume fraction 69.4% and liquid-solid ratio of 22.6:1 for 32 min. Under these optimized conditions, the yield of flavonoids was 7.55 mg/g. The Box-Behnken design and response surface analysis can well optimize the ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

  6. The ability of Abelmoschus manihot L. leaf extract in scavenging of free radical DPPH and total flavonoid determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudewi, S.; Lolo, W. A.; Warongan, M.; Rifai, Y.; Rante, H.

    2017-11-01

    Abelmoschus manihot L. has reported to have flavonoids content. This study aims were to determine the ability of A. manihot extract in counteracting free radical DPPH and determine the content of total flavonoids. A. manihot leaf was taken from 2 regions in North Sulawesi, namely Tomohon and Kotamobagu. The maceration was carried out to extract the active compound in a 96% ethanol solvent. Free radical scavenging analysis was carried out by DPPH and determination of its total flavonoid in the extract was measured using spectrophotometri method. The results showed that A. manihot extract from Tomohon and Kotamobagu could counteract free radical of DPPH with value of free radical activity of 88.151 and 88.801 %, respectively. A. manihot leaf from Kotamobagu has higher total flavonoids content 61.763 mg/g compare to Tomohon 46.679 mg/g which presented as quercetin. A. manihot has antioxidant activity.

  7. In vitro antioxidant evaluation and total phenolics of methanolic leaf extracts of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, J Savarimuthu; Kalirajan, A; Padmalatha, C; Singh, A J A Ranjit

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the methanolic leaf extract of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. (NA). The sample was tested using five in vitro antioxidant methods (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazine radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity (-OH), nitric oxide scavenging activity (NO), superoxide radical-scavenging activity, and total antioxidant activity) to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential of NA and the total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu method). The extract showed good free radical scavenging property which was calculated as an IC50 value. IC50 (Half maximal inhibitory concentration) of the methanolic extract was found to be 57.93 μg·mL(-1) for DPPH, 98.61 μg·mL(-1) for -OH, 91.74 μg·mL(-1) for NO, and 196.07 μg·mL(-1) for superoxide radical scavenging activity. Total antioxidant capacity of the extract was found to be (1198 ± 24.05) mg ascorbic acid for the methanolic extract. Free radical scavenging activity observed in the extracts of NA showed a concentration-dependent reaction. The in vitro scavenging tested for free radicals was reported to be due to high phenolic content in the leaf extract. The leaf extract of NA showed the highest total phenolic content with a value of 78.48 ± 4.2 equivalent mg TAE/g (tannic acid equivalent). N. arbor-tristis leaf extract exhibited potent free radical scavenging activity. The finding suggests that N. arbor-tristis leaves could be a potential source of natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Total scattering investigation of materials for clean energy applications: the importance of the local structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavasi, Lorenzo

    2011-04-21

    In this Perspective article we give an account of the application of total scattering methods and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to the investigation of materials for clean energy applications such as materials for solid oxide fuel cells and lithium batteries, in order to show the power of this technique in providing new insights into the structure-property correlation in this class of materials.

  9. Sequential Combination of Microwave- and Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Total Flavonoids from Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Yu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-assisted and ultrasound-assisted extraction assays were used to isolate total flavonoids (TF from Osmanthus fragrans flowers. The effects of the solid-liquid ratio, ethanol concentration, microwave power, microwave extraction time, ultrasonic power and ultrasonic extraction time on the yield of TF were studied. A sequential combination of microwave- and ultrasound-assisted extraction (SC-MUAE methods was developed, which was subsequently optimized by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology (BBD-RSM. The interaction effects of the ethanol concentration (40–60%, microwave extraction time (5–7 min, ultrasonic extraction time (8–12 min and ultrasonic power (210–430 W on the yield of TF were investigated. The optimum operating parameters for the extraction of TF were determined to be as follows: ethanol concentration (48.15%, microwave extraction time (6.43 min, ultrasonic extraction time (10.09 min and ultrasonic power (370.9 W. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of TF was 7.86 mg/g.

  10. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Total Alkaloid Extract from Fumaria capreolata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Bribi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumaria capreolata is used in traditional medicine in North Africa for its gastrointestinal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigates the effects of total alkaloids extracted from the aerial parts of Fumaria capreolata (AFC on LPS-induced production of proinflammatory mediators (IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, COX-2, and MIP-2 in RAW264.7 cells. AFC significantly reduced the inflammatory response inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting the viability of cells, and downregulated mRNA expression of proinflammatory key players: IL-6, IL-1β, iNOS, TNF-α, and COX-2. AFC antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties were also evaluated on the acetic acid- and formalin-induced pain models in mice. AFC oral administration significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced writhes and reduced formalin-induced paw licking time. Therefore, AFC may be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, such as colitis and arthritis.

  11. Total flavonoid extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. protects rats against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Yuan, Changsheng; Fang, He; Li, Jia; Su, Shanshan; Chen, Wen

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of total flavonoid extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (CTF) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) using an isolated Langendorff rat heart model. Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum rate of rise and fall of LV pressure (±dp/dtmax) were recorded. Cardiac injury was assessed by analyzing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released in the coronary effluent. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. Myocardial inflammation was assessed by monitoring tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Myocardial infarct size was estimated. Cell morphology was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Cardiomyocyte apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Pretreatment with CTF significantly increased the heart rate and increased LVDP, as well as SOD and GSH-Px levels. In addition, CTF pretreatment decreased the TUNEL-positive cell ratio, infarct size, and levels of CK, LDH, MDA, TNF-α, CRP, IL-6, and IL-8. These results suggest that CTF exerts cardio-protective effects against MIRI via anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities.

  12. The extraction of total lipids from parsley: Petroselinum crispum (mill. Nym. Ex. A.W. Hill seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mihajlo Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of extraction of total lipids from ground parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill. Nym. ex. A.W. Hill seeds with a mixture of ethanol or methanol with non-polar organic solvents, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene and petroleum ether, at various temperatures were studied. The maceration technique with reflux was used. The kinetic parameters were determined in extraction kinetic equations, as well as the optimal operation conditions for total lipids extraction. The maximum total lipids yield under optimal conditions was 33.7 g per 100 g of dry parsley seeds. Nine lipid fractions of the total lipids were separated by thin layer chromatography among which were phospholipids, sterol, mono-, di- and triacylglycerol, free fatty acids and carbohydrates.

  13. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in leaves and stems extract of cultivated and wild tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurung, Hetty; Kustiawan, Wawan; Kusuma, Irawan W.; Marjenah

    2017-02-01

    Tabat barito (Ficus deltoidea Jack) is a name given by Dayak Tribe who lived in Borneo-Kalimantan and it is belongs to the moraceae. Almost all of the parts of F. deltoidea plant is widely used as a medicinal property. The total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity from cultivated and wild F. deltoidea leaves and stems extract were assessed. Total flavonoid content was estimated by using Aluminium chloride colorimetric method and expressed as catechin equivalents (mg CE g-1 extract) and the antioxidant activity by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) method. The content of total flavonoid of leaves and stems (430.77 and 371.80 µg CE mg-1 extract) of cultivated F. deltoidea were higher than in the wild leaves and stems (114.82 and 66.67 µg CE mg-1 extract). The IC50 of leaves extract of cultivated and wild F. deltoidea, based on the DPPH assay, has a strong antioxidant activity (34.19 and 39.31 µg mL-1 extract) as compared to stems extract. These results showed that the cultivated F. deltoidea are suitable source for medicinal properties and the leaves could be exploited as source of natural antioxidants.

  14. A simple and rapid infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction method for total flavonoid aglycones extraction from Scutellariae Radix and mechanism exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liping; Duan, Haotian; Jiang, Jiebing; Long, Jiakun; Yu, Yingjia; Chen, Guiliang; Duan, Gengli

    2017-09-01

    A new, simple, and fast infrared-assisted self enzymolysis extraction (IRASEE) approach for the extraction of total flavonoid aglycones (TFA) mainly including baicalein, wogonin, and oroxylin A from Scutellariae Radix is presented to enhance extraction yield. Extraction enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis liquid-to-solid ratio, enzymolysis pH, enzymolysis time and infrared power, the factors affecting IRASEE procedure, were investigated in a newly designed, temperature-controlled infrared-assisted extraction (TC-IRAE) system to acquire the optimum analysis conditions. The results illustrated that IRASEE possessed great advantages in terms of efficiency and time compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Furthermore, the mechanism of IRASEE was preliminarily explored by observing the microscopic change of the samples surface structures, studying the main chemical compositions change of the samples before and after extraction and investigating the kinetics and thermodynamics at three temperature levels during the IRASEE process. These findings revealed that IRASEE can destroy the surface microstructures to accelerate the mass transfer and reduce the activation energy to intensify the chemical process. This integrative study presents a simple, rapid, efficient, and environmental IRASEE method for TFA extraction which has promising prospects for other similar herbal medicines. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  15. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for total sulphur measurement in mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Shang, Julie Q.; Alam, Raquibul

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop a total sulphur measuring procedure of mine tailings. ► Ultrasound is used in the sample pre-treatment process. ► Full factorial design is applied to identify the best level of effecting factors. - Abstract: A sample preparation method for percentage recovery of total sulphur (%S) in reactive mine tailings based on ultrasound-assisted digestion (USAD) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was developed. The influence of various methodological factors was screened by employing a two-level and three-factor (2 3 ) full factorial design and using KZK-1, a sericite schist certified reference material (CRM), to find the optimal combination of studied factors and %S. Factors such as the sonication time, temperature and acid combination were studied, with the best result identified as 20 min of sonication, 80 °C temperature and 1 ml of HNO 3 :1 ml of HCl, which can achieve 100% recovery for the selected CRM. Subsequently a fraction of the 2 3 full factorial design was applied to mine tailings. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the ultrasound method is less than 3.0% for CRM and less than 6% for the mine tailings. The investigated method was verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The USAD method compared favorably with existing methods such as hot plate assisted digestion method, X-ray fluorescence and LECO™-CNS method.

  16. Use of anthocyanin extracted from natural plant materials to develop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-19

    Dec 19, 2011 ... 3Faculty of Industrial Education, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Ladkrabang, Bangkok ..... (Figure 3d) and BPF+WL extract (Figure 3e) were tested ..... Tippanate Printing Press, Bangkok, Thailand. p. 818.

  17. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  18. Establishment of the total RNA extraction system for lily bulbs with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... The brightness of. CTAB was higher than that of SDS, which indicated that only improved CTAB method can extract biologically active. RNA from lily bulbs. DISCUSSION. The presence of RNase, which can be classified into endogenous and exogenous, is the major cause for the failure of RNA extraction.

  19. Rapid determination of carbohydrates, ash, and extractives contents of straw using attenuated total reflectance fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Yukihiro; Mazza, Giuseppe

    2011-06-22

    Analysis of the chemical components of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to understanding its potential for utilization. Mid-infrared spectroscopy and partial least-squares regression were used for rapid measurement of the carbohydrate (total glycans; glucan; xylan; galactan; arabinan; mannan), ash, and extractives content of triticale and wheat straws. Calibration models for total glycans, glucan, and extractives showed good and excellent predictive performance on the basis of slope, r², RPD, and R/SEP criteria. The xylan model showed good and acceptable predictive performance. However, the ash model was evaluated as providing only approximate quantification and screening. The models for galactan, arabinan, and mannan indicated poor and insufficient prediction for application. Most models could predict both triticale and wheat straw samples with the same degree of accuracy. Mid-infrared spectroscopic techniques coupled with partial least-squares regression can be used for rapid prediction of total glycans, glucan, xylan, and extractives in triticale and wheat straw samples.

  20. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for total sulphur measurement in mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain, E-mail: ad_li2@yahoo.com [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario (Canada); Shang, Julie Q.; Alam, Raquibul [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We develop a total sulphur measuring procedure of mine tailings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasound is used in the sample pre-treatment process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Full factorial design is applied to identify the best level of effecting factors. - Abstract: A sample preparation method for percentage recovery of total sulphur (%S) in reactive mine tailings based on ultrasound-assisted digestion (USAD) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was developed. The influence of various methodological factors was screened by employing a two-level and three-factor (2{sup 3}) full factorial design and using KZK-1, a sericite schist certified reference material (CRM), to find the optimal combination of studied factors and %S. Factors such as the sonication time, temperature and acid combination were studied, with the best result identified as 20 min of sonication, 80 Degree-Sign C temperature and 1 ml of HNO{sub 3}:1 ml of HCl, which can achieve 100% recovery for the selected CRM. Subsequently a fraction of the 2{sup 3} full factorial design was applied to mine tailings. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the ultrasound method is less than 3.0% for CRM and less than 6% for the mine tailings. The investigated method was verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The USAD method compared favorably with existing methods such as hot plate assisted digestion method, X-ray fluorescence and LECO Trade-Mark-Sign -CNS method.

  1. Ultrasound-assisted extraction for total sulphur measurement in mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adnan Hossain; Shang, Julie Q; Alam, Raquibul

    2012-10-15

    A sample preparation method for percentage recovery of total sulphur (%S) in reactive mine tailings based on ultrasound-assisted digestion (USAD) and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) was developed. The influence of various methodological factors was screened by employing a two-level and three-factor (2(3)) full factorial design and using KZK-1, a sericite schist certified reference material (CRM), to find the optimal combination of studied factors and %S. Factors such as the sonication time, temperature and acid combination were studied, with the best result identified as 20 min of sonication, 80°C temperature and 1 ml of HNO(3):1 ml of HCl, which can achieve 100% recovery for the selected CRM. Subsequently a fraction of the 2(3) full factorial design was applied to mine tailings. The percentage relative standard deviation (%RSD) for the ultrasound method is less than 3.0% for CRM and less than 6% for the mine tailings. The investigated method was verified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The USAD method compared favorably with existing methods such as hot plate assisted digestion method, X-ray fluorescence and LECO™-CNS method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of in vitro total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of Echium amoenum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi H

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In traditional and modern medicine, active ingredients of medicinal plants have many applications in food, pharmaceutical, medical and industry. Antioxidants are compounds that prevent the oxidation process in the cell. Echium amoenum L. is a plant which grows in the mountainous regions of Mazandaran. This plant has different biological effects such as sedation, anti-inflammation, antidepressant and cancer preventive properties in traditional medicine. The aim of this study was to determine the total phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract of E.amoenum plant. Methods:In this experimental laboratory study the content of total phenolic Using the folin-siokalatio reactive at 760 nm wavelength and flavonoid With the use of aluminum chloride reagent at 420nm of E.amoenum extract were measured and antioxidant capacities of different concentrations of the extract were evaluated. Results: The results showed that total phenolic content of the extract was 429±2μg gallic acid equivalent/ml and flavonoid content was 148.56±1.52μg quercetin equivalent/ml, respectively. The radical scavenging activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl hydrate (DPPH,inhibitory concentration of 50%(IC50,was determined 178.11 μg/ml. Assessment of the reducing ability of extract showed that the extract had more activity than vitamin C. The percent nitric oxide trap inhibition of the extract was 57.89% and power iron chelating properties was 51.74%,that showed statistically significant difference in comparison with vitamin C and Quercetin (P=0.0473 and (P=0.0096 respectively. Conclusion: According to the results, E.amoenum extract had remarkable antioxidant capacity and can be proposed as an antioxidant compound used in the manufacture of food and pharmaceutical products.

  3. Phytochemical screening, total phenolics and antioxidant activities of bark and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus velutinus (Airy Shaw from Brunei Darussalam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erum Iqbal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus velutinus Airy Shaw belongs to the family Annonaceae which is known to have anticancer, antitumor and many other bioactivities. Natives of Sabah and Sarawak use root decoction of G. velutinus for the treatment of headache and food poisoning while the bark was used as a mosquito repellent. Bark and leaf extracts of this plant, obtained from Brunei Darussalam, were tested for phytochemical and antioxidant activities. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids and cardiac glycosides. Quantitative determination of total phenolics, total flavonoids, and various in vitro antioxidant activities (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP of methanolic extract was carried out using colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content, expressed as mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE per gram of extract, was found to be 68 mg GAE/g and 78 mg GAE/g for bark and leaves respectively. The radical scavenging activity measurement, expressed in terms of EC50 (effective concentration of extract in μg/mL that reduces DPPH absorbance to 50% as compared to negative control, for leaf and bark extracts was found to be 155 μg/mL and 204 μg/mL respectively. Standards trolox and ascorbic acid show EC50 value of 5 μg/mL and 4 μg/mL respectively. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC was measured using the ABTS and FRAP method. Result for bark and leaf extracts was 79 mg and 106 mg trolox equivalent (TE/g respectively for the ABTS method. For FRAP assay, results for bark and leaf extracts were 80 and 89 mg TE/g respectively.

  4. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of total lipids and characterization of marigold flower extracts (Calendula officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive extracts from marigold flower are important ingredients for parapharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. Their antiflogistic holeretic.antimicrobic, antidermatic and anticancer effects are due to the presence of flavonoids, carotenoids, etheric oils, and terpenoids. This study presents the results of spectrophotometric investigation for the overall carotene content calculated as (3-caroten (442 nm, visual and physico-chemical characteristics according to Ph.Jug. V in oil extracts of marigold flower obtained by maceration (room temperature and 70°C and percolation (room temperature with olive oil and sunflower oil by original procedures.The largest content of (3-carotene (57.5 mg/kg of oil extracts is in the oil extract obtained by maceration for 72 hours with olive oil (solvomodulus 1:5 m/m at room temperature.

  6. Optical Sensing Material for pH Detection based on the Use of Roselle Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Huda Abd Karim; Musa Ahmad; Mohammad Osman Herman; Ahmad Mahir Mokhtar

    2008-01-01

    This research assessed the potential of natural colour extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. (roselle) as sensing material.The pH sensor was developed based on the use of natural reddish colour in roselle calyx, delphinidin-3-sambubioside immobilised in a glass fibre filter paper. In free solution, roselle extract was characterised by using UV-visible spectrophotometer to study the effect of pH, extract concentration, response time, repeatability and photo stability. The study showed that natural colour extract can be used as sensing material for the development of an optical pH sensor. (author)

  7. Influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blackberry juice during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanka Bilić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigation of influence of different extracts addition on total phenols, anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and percent of polymeric colour of blackberry juice during storage of 52 days at 4 °C. Anthocyanin content of control sample (blackberry juice without extracts addition was 149.91 mg/L. Samples with addition of extracts (olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1, pine bark PE 95 %, green tea, red wine PE 30 %, red wine PE 4:1 and bioflavonoids had higher anthocyanin content (from 152.42 to 161.19 mg/L in comparison to control sample. Sample with addition of bioflavonoids had the highest anthocyanin content. Samples with addition of extracts had much higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than control sample, what was expected since extracts are rich in phenols. During storage decrease of phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity occurred in higher or lesser extent, depending on extract type addition. Anthocyanin content in control sample was 119.85 mg/L. Samples with addition of bioflavonoids, olive leaf, pine bark PE 5:1 and red wine PE 4:1 had lower (from 103.44 to 118.84 mg/L, while other samples had higher (from 131.99 to 135.57 mg/L anthocyanin content than control sample. After storage, decrease of anthocyanins was followed with increase of percent of polymeric colour, with exception of samples with addition of green tea.

  8. Evaluating the impact of extraction and cleanup parameters on the yield of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Eija; Peraemaeki, Paavo; Jalonen, Jorma [University of Oulu, Department of Chemistry (Finland)

    2008-11-15

    Interlaboratory comparisons for the analysis of mineral oil in polluted soil using the GC-FID method indicate that extraction and cleanup conditions have significant effects on the analytical results. In this investigation a ruggedness test was performed on the extraction and cleanup method for the determination of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil. A two-level Plackett-Burman design was utilized to study the effect of 11 different method parameters on the extraction recovery of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. Both qualitative and quantitative factors were investigated. The results indicate that total petroleum hydrocarbons can be relatively reliably monitored through strict implementation of the ISO and CEN draft standards. However, variation in certain method parameters readily affects the validity of the results. The most critical factors affecting TPH recovery were the solvent and co-solvent used for extraction, the extraction time, adsorbent and its weight and sample TPH concentration. Because adaptation of the draft standards especially with respect to these factors easily leads to TPH recoveries higher than 200% or lower than 70%, the validity of the adapted method should always be verified. A proper estimate of the expanded uncertainty should also be appended to TPH results, because only then can the reliability of the results be guaranteed and further justification is gained to support the end-use of the data. This also supports the credibility of the analytical services and prevents the data end-users from drawing misleading conclusions concerning the environmental risks and potential remediation requirements. (orig.)

  9. Determination of total and extractable hydrogen peroxide in organic and aqueous solutions of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodall, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a spectrophotometric method for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in uranyl nitrate solutions is reported. The method involves the measurement of the absorbance at 520 mm of a vanadyl peroxide species. This species was formed by the addition of a reagent consisting of vanadium (V) (50 mmol x dm -3 ) in dilute sulphuric acid (2 mol x dm -3 H 2 SO 4 ). This reagent, after dilution, was also used as an extractant for organic phase samples. The method is simple and robust and tolerant of nitric acid and U(VI). Specificity and accuracy were improved by the application of solid phase extraction techniques to remove entrained organic solvents and Pu(VI). Reverse phase solid phase extraction was used to clean-up aqueous samples or extracts which were contaminated with entrained solvent. A solid phase extraction system based upon an extraction chromatography system was used to remove Pu(IV). Detection limits of 26 μmol x dm -3 (0.88 μg x cm -3 ) or 7 μmol x dm -3 (0.24 μg x cm -3 ) for, respectively, a 1 and 4 cm path length cell were obtained. Precisions of RSD = 1.4% and 19.5% were obtained at the extremes of the calibration curve (5 mmol x dm -3 and 50 μmol x dm -3 H 2 O 2 , 1 cm cell). The introduction of the extraction and clean-up stages had a negligible effect upon the precision of the determination. The stability of an organic phase sample was tested and no loss of analyte could be discerned over a period of at least 5 days. (author)

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Soils: Comparison between Reflectance Spectroscopy and Solvent Extraction by 3 Certified Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Schwartz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commonly used analytic method for assessing total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH in soil, EPA method 418.1, is usually based on extraction with 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane (Freon 113 and FTIR spectroscopy of the extracted solvent. This method is widely used for initial site investigation, due to the relative low price per sample. It is known that the extraction efficiency varies depending on the extracting solvent and other sample properties. This study’s main goal was to evaluate reflectance spectroscopy as a tool for TPH assessment, as compared with three commercial certified laboratories using traditional methods. Large variations were found between the results of the three commercial laboratories, both internally (average deviation up to 20%, and between laboratories (average deviation up to 103%. Reflectance spectroscopy method was found be as good as the commercial laboratories in terms of accuracy and could be a viable field-screening tool that is rapid, environmental friendly, and cost effective.

  11. The extraction of φ-N total cross section from d(γ,pK+K-)n

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, X.; Chen, W.; Gao, H.; Hicks, K.; Kramer, K.; Laget, J.M.; Mibe, T.; Stepanyan, S.; Tedeschi, D.J.; Xu, W.; Adhikari, K.P.; Amaryan, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Baghdasaryan, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Batourine, V.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the first measurement of the differential cross section of φ-meson photoproduction for the d(γ,pK + K - )n exclusive reaction channel. The experiment was performed using a tagged-photon beam and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab. A combined analysis using data from the d(γ,pK + K - )n channel and those from a previous publication on coherent φ production on the deuteron has been carried out to extract the φ-N total cross section, σ φN . The extracted φ-N total cross section favors a value above 20 mb. This value is larger than the value extracted using vector-meson dominance models for φ photoproduction on the proton.

  12. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing.

  13. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okech, B.G.A.; Irungu, L.W.; Anjili, C.O.; Munyua, J.K.; Njagi, E.N.M.; Rukungu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  14. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) for rapid and efficient extraction of superficial and total mineral oil contamination from dry foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, Sabrina; Scolaro, Marianna; Barp, Laura; Purcaro, Giorgia; Sander, Maren; Conte, Lanfranco S

    2014-08-15

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) represents a powerful technique which can be conveniently used for rapid extraction of mineral oil saturated (MOSH) and aromatic hydrocarbons (MOAH) from dry foods with a low fat content, such as semolina pasta, rice, and other cereals. Two different PLE methods, one for rapid determination of superficial contamination mainly from the packaging, the other for efficient extraction of total contamination from different sources, have been developed and optimised. The two methods presented good performance characteristics in terms of repeatability (relative standard deviation lower than 5%) and recoveries (higher than 95%). To show their potentiality, the two methods have been applied in combination on semolina pasta and rice packaged in direct contact with recycled cardboard. In the case of semolina pasta it was possible to discriminate between superficial contamination coming from the packaging, and pre-existing contamination (firmly enclosed into the matrix). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637459 (Singapore); Tan, Nguan Soon [School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, 61 Biopolis Drive, Proteos, Singapore 138673 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Choong, Cleo, E-mail: cleochoong@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); KK Research Centre, KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, 100 Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 229899 (Singapore); Wong, Marcus Thien Chong [Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 11 Jalan Tan Tock Seng, Singapore 308433 (Singapore)

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO{sub 2}) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO{sub 2}-treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-06-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  17. Supercritical carbon dioxide extracted extracellular matrix material from adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jun Kit; Luo, Baiwen; Guneta, Vipra; Li, Liang; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Dai, Yun; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang; Tan, Nguan Soon; Choong, Cleo; Wong, Marcus Thien Chong

    2017-01-01

    Adipose tissue is a rich source of extracellular matrix (ECM) material that can be isolated by delipidating and decellularizing the tissue. However, the current delipidation and decellularization methods either involve tedious and lengthy processes or require toxic chemicals, which may result in the elimination of vital proteins and growth factors found in the ECM. Hence, an alternative delipidation and decellularization method for adipose tissue was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO 2 ) that eliminates the need of any harsh chemicals and also reduces the amount of processing time required. The resultant SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed an absence of nuclear content but the preservation of key proteins such as collagen Type I, collagen Type III, collagen Type IV, elastin, fibronectin and laminin. In addition, other biological factors such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also retained. Subsequently, the resulting SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material was used as a bioactive coating on tissue culture plastic (TCP). Four different cell types including adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), immortalized human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells and human monocytic leukemia cells (THP-1) were used in this study to show that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM coating can be potentially used for various biomedical applications. The SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material showed improved cell-material interactions for all cell types tested. In addition, in vitro scratch wound assay using HaCaT cells showed that the presence of SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material enhanced keratinocyte migration whilst the in vitro cellular studies using THP-1-derived macrophages showed that the SC-CO 2 -treated ECM material did not evoke pro-inflammatory responses from the THP-1-derived macrophages. Overall, this study shows the efficacy

  18. Assessment of Corrosion, Fretting, and Material Loss of Retrieved Modular Total Knee Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Audrey J; Seagers, Kirsten A; Van Citters, Douglas W

    2017-07-01

    Modular junctions in total hip arthroplasties have been associated with fretting, corrosion, and debris release. The purpose of this study is to analyze damage severity in total knee arthroplasties of a single design by qualitative visual assessment and quantitative material loss measurements to evaluate implant performance and patient impact via material loss. Twenty-two modular knee retrievals of the same manufacturer were identified from an institutional review board-approved database. Junction designs included tapers with an axial screw and tapers with a radial screw. Constructs consisted of 2 metal alloys: CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Components were qualitatively scored and quantitatively measured for corrosion and fretting. Negative values represent adhered material. Statistical differences were analyzed using sign tests. Correlations were tested with a Spearman rank order test (P corrosion than other components, suggesting preferential corrosion when interfacing with Ti6Al4V. Overall, although corrosion was noted in this series, material loss was low, and none were revised for clinical metal-related reaction. This suggests the clinical impact from corrosion in total knee arthroplasty is low. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Truncation of Periodic Structures on NRW Material Parameter Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    Using the Nicolson-Ross-Weir (NRW) material parameter extraction method, we compare the difference between using 1 or 10 cells when obtaining the scattering parameters. Obviously these parameters are different, but we see that we practically extract the same propagation constant, wave impedance, ......, permittivity and permeability....

  20. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Investigation of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents, and Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities from Baeckea frutescens Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisa, K.; Nurhayati, S.; Apriyana, W.; Indrianingsih, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Baeckea frutescens L. is a medicinal plant endemic to the tropical area and it has been used by locals for topical and oral ailments. This study investigated total phenolic and flavonoid contents and also evaluated in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of of Baeckea frutescens crude extracts. These extracts were assessed for their antibacterial activities against strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypii, and Pseudomonas aureginosa by the broth micro-dilution methods using a modified tetrazolium-based colorimetric assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay). Baeckea frutescens crude extracts were also tested against the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate) free-radical. The results indicated that Baeckea frutescens water and ethanol extracts possesed remarkable antibacterial activity with the minimum inhibitory concentration less than 100 μg/ml against Escherichia coli and Salmonella thypi. On the evaluation of the antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, Baeckea frutescens ethanol extracts exhibited a good antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 50 μg/ml and Baeckea frutescens water extracts showed a moderate antioxidant activity with IC50 less than 100 μg/ml.

  2. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract

    OpenAIRE

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    Purpose In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. Methods A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times we...

  3. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  4. A comparison of two colorimetric assays, based upon Lowry and Bradford techniques, to estimate total protein in soil extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, M A; Armenise, E; White, R P; Hirsch, P R; Goulding, K W T

    2013-12-01

    Soil extracts usually contain large quantities of dissolved humified organic material, typically reflected by high polyphenolic content. Since polyphenols seriously confound quantification of extracted protein, minimising this interference is important to ensure measurements are representative. Although the Bradford colorimetric assay is used routinely in soil science for rapid quantification protein in soil-extracts, it has several limitations. We therefore investigated an alternative colorimetric technique based on the Lowry assay (frequently used to measure protein and humic substances as distinct pools in microbial biofilms). The accuracies of both the Bradford assay and a modified Lowry microplate method were compared in factorial combination. Protein was quantified in soil-extracts (extracted with citrate), including standard additions of model protein (BSA) and polyphenol (Sigma H1675-2). Using the Lowry microplate assay described, no interfering effects of citrate were detected even with concentrations up to 5 times greater than are typically used to extract soil protein. Moreover, the Bradford assay was found to be highly susceptible to two simultaneous and confounding artefacts: 1) the colour development due to added protein was greatly inhibited by polyphenol concentration, and 2) substantial colour development was caused directly by the polyphenol addition. In contrast, the Lowry method enabled distinction between colour development from protein and non-protein origin, providing a more accurate quantitative analysis. These results suggest that the modified-Lowry method is a more suitable measure of extract protein (defined by standard equivalents) because it is less confounded by the high polyphenolic content which is so typical of soil extracts.

  5. Statistically extracted fundamental watershed variables for estimating the loads of total nitrogen in small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Scott C.; Capel, Paul D.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of total nitrogen loads is essential for evaluating conditions in the aquatic environment. Extrapolation of estimates beyond measured streams will greatly expand our understanding of total nitrogen loading to streams. Recursive partitioning and random forest regression were used to assess 85 geospatial, environmental, and watershed variables across 636 small (monitoring may be beneficial.

  6. Determination of Total Phenolics, Flavonoids and Antioxidant Capacity of Methanolic Extracts of Some Brassica Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Doiniţa Borş

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cruciferous vegetables are rich in nutrients and bioactive compounds. Seeds are highly nutritious and they are becoming more and more popular in nowadays diets. In the present study various types of radish and mustard seeds were evaluated on the basis of the total phenolic content (TPC, total flavonoid content (TFC and the antioxidant potential, using simple spectrophotometric methods.

  7. Total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and acceptance of synbiotic yoghurt with red ginger extract (Zingiberofficinale var. rubrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati, B. A.; Panunggal, B.; Afifah, D. N.; Anjani, G.; Rustanti, N.

    2018-02-01

    Antioxidant related to oxidative stress can caused the metabolic disorders. A functional food that high in antioxidant can be use as the alternative prevention. The addition of red ginger extract in yoghurt could form a functional food, that high in antioxidant, synbiotic and fiber. The influence of red ginger extract on yoghurt synbiotic against lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity and acceptance were analyzed. This was an experimental research with one factor complete randomized design, specifically the addition of red ginger extract 0%; 0,1%; 0,3% and 0,5% into synbiotic yoghurt. Total plate count method used to analyze the lactic acid bacteria, 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antioxidant activity, and acceptance analyzed with hedonic test. The higher the dose of extract added to synbiotic yoghurt, the antioxidant activity got significantly increased (ρ=0,0001), while the lactic acid bacteria got insignificantly decreased (ρ=0,085). The addition of 0,5% red ginger extract obtained the antioxidant activity of 71% and 4,86 × 1013 CFU/ml on lactic acid bacteria, which the requirement for probiotic on National Standard of Indonesia is >107 CFU/ml. The addition of extract had a significant effect on acceptance (ρ=0,0001) in flavor, color, and texture, but not aroma (ρ=0,266). The optimal product in this research was the yoghurt synbiotic with addition of 0,1% red ginger extract. To summarize, the addition of red ginger extract in synbiotic yoghurt had significant effect on antioxidant activity, flavor, color, and texture, but no significant effect on lactic acid bacteria and aroma.

  8. Studies on total polyphenols and reducing power of aqueous extracts from selected lamiaceae species

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cioroi; Daniela Dumitriu

    2010-01-01

    Certain phytochemicals in species are attracting increased attention because of a wide range of biological activities especially the possible cancer preventive properties. Polyphenols, the naturalantioxidants are present in plant extracts and they play a key role in antioxidative defence mechanisms in biological systems and they act as free radicals scavenging agents. Polyphenols might thereforeinhibit development of coronary heart disease and cancers. Basil, oregano and sage are highly fragr...

  9. Use of INAA in the preparation of a set soil Reference Materials with certified values of total element contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Horakova, J.; Soukal, L.

    1997-01-01

    A set of certified Reference Materials was prepared consisting of four natural agricultural soils with normal (n) and elevated (e) levels of element contents: CRM 7001 Light Sandy Soil (n), CRM 7002 Light Sandy Soil (e), CRM 7003 Silty Clay Loam (n), and CRM 7004 Loam (e). In these materials, certified and/or information values of the total contents of the elements As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and their fractions extractable by aqua regia, boiling and cold 2M nitric acid were derived from an interlaboratory comparison in which 28 laboratories participated. Highly precise and accurate procedures of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were employed for homogeneity testing and also for certification of the total element contents. For comparation purposes, NIST SRM-2704 Buffalo River Sediment was analyzed by INAA, as well. The INAA results obtained compared very well with the certified and/or information values for four soil CRMs and also with NIST values for SRM-2704. From this agreement, a very high reliability of the new soil CRMs can be inferred. (author)

  10. Fractionation of extracts from paper and board food contact materials forin vitroscreening of toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtström, Linda; Trier, Xenia; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    materials, information on the exposure as well as on the toxicity of substances in the packaging must be obtained. This study describes a comprehensive method for the extraction and fractionation of substances present in paper and board FCMs for further investigation by in vitro testing and chemical...... assay. Both raw extracts and two of the fractions of the raw extracts gave a positive response in the AhR assay. The strategy of extraction followed by fractionation offers a powerful tool in order to make the workflow for screening FCMs for potentially adverse effects more efficient....

  11. Comparison of total and cold-extractable uranium in stream sediments of the southwestern Karoo supergroup, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, W.R.O.; Smit, M.C.B.; Murphy, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    In order to evaluate the usefullness of cold-extractable uranium as a tool of uranium prospecting in stream sediments of the southwestern Karoo, South Africa, ten orientation studies were conducted near known mineralisation jointly by the Atomic Energy Board and the Geological Survey of South Africa. These indicate that the topography determines the nature of the dispersion. In areas of moderate to high relief the total uranium content of the stream sediment gives dispersion trains up to about 500 m from the mineralisation, and peak-to-background ratios of about 3. The use of cold-extractable uranium doubles the length of the dispersion, and peak-to-background ratios are greater than 10 and may be as high as 35. In areas of low relief, the total uranium content of the sediment gives low anomalies, with short dispersion downstream. Cold-extractable uranium gives anomalies 500-1 000 m from the mineralisation. This is interpreted to be due to the longer residence time of the clay minerals in the stream. In order to test the applicability of cold-extractable uranium on a regional scale, 720 samples were collected at a density of one sample per square kilometre. Statistical treatment of the data shows the U content of the stream sediments, to be log-normally distributed. For cold-extractable uranium, polymodal distributions, apparently representing background and anomalous samples, can be separated with a high rate of success, and meaningful threshold values can be assigned. This is not the case for the total uranium content of the stream sediments [af

  12. Anastomose cavo-pulmonar total sem uso de material protético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdester C. PINTO Jr.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Demonstrar a viabilidade na feitura de túnel cava inferior-cava superior com retalho da parede atrial direita, evitando o emprego de material protético. Casuística e Métodos: Foram operados 2 pacientes nos quais se empregou a técnica de anastomose cavo-pulmonar total, sem uso de material protético. O primeiro caso, A.L.M., masc, 4 anos, 15 kg, era portador de atresia tricúspide (EP, com comunicação interventricular (CIV restritiva. O segundo caso, M.E.N.O., fem, 15 anos, 47 kg, tinha doença de Ebstein. O controle pós-operatório dos pacientes foi feito com ecocardiograma e cateterismo cardíaco. As operações foram realizadas com o emprego de circulação extracorpórea (CEC, e cardioplegia sangüínea como método de proteção miocárdica. A canulação das cavas foi o mais distal possível. A tunelização foi realizada com retalho de tecido atrial direito, suturado ao septo interatrial, deixando-se o seio coronariano e a comunicação interatrial (CIA para a esquerda. Resultados: Ambos os pacientes evoluíram, sem complicações, na UTI. O primeiro apresentou derrame pleural discreto à direita, e o segundo mantém-se em estimulação artificial (VVI,R. Conclusões: A tunelização intra-atrial para anastomose cavo-pulmonar total pode ser realizada sem o uso de material protético, evitando-se os riscos advindos do seu emprego (calcificação, retração, embolização.The authors describe two cases (one tricuspid atresia without TGA or pulmonary stenosis, but with a restrictive IVC: the second of an Ebstein disease of total cavo-pulmonary anastomosis using only the tissue of the atrial wall, avoiding any prosthetic material. Both cases were done under cardiopulmonary bypass and cold blood cardioplegia. A flap of the right atrial wall was used to re-direct the blood flow. Pleural effusion in one patient and complete AV block in the other were the complications found. They conclude that right intra-atrial tunneling for

  13. TOTAL AND HOT-WATER EXTRACTABLE CARBON RELATIONSHIP IN CHERNOZEM SOIL UNDER DIFFERENT CROPPING SYSTEMS AND LAND USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srdjan Šeremešić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the hot water extractable organic carbon (HWOC in 9 arable and 3 non arable soil samples on Haplic Chernozem. The hot water extractable carbon represents assimilative component of the total organic matter (OM that could contain readily available nutrients for plant growth. The obtained fraction of organic carbon (C makes up only a small percentage of the soil OM and directly reflects the changes in the rhizosphere. This labile fraction of the organic matter was separated by hot water extraction at 80°C. In our study the HWOC content in different samples ranged from 125 mg g-1 to 226 mg g-1. On the plots that are under native vegetation, higher values were determined (316 mg g-1 to 388 mg g-1. Whereas samples from arable soils were lower in HWOC. It was found that this extraction method can be successfully used to explain the dynamics of the soil OM. Soil samples with lower content of the total OM had lower HWOC content, indicating that the preservation of the OM depends on the renewal of its labile fractions.

  14. Total Phenolic, Flavonoid, Tomatine, and Tomatidine Contents and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Extracts of Tomato Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Cira-Chávez, Luis Alberto; Estrada-Alvarado, María Isabel; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco Antonio; Del-Toro-Sánchez, Carmen Lizette; Ayala-Zavala, J. Fernando; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of extracts of different fractions of two tomato plant cultivars. The stems, roots, leaves, and whole-plant fractions were evaluated. Tomatine and tomatidine were identified by HPLC-DAD. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest flavonoids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, and total phenolics contents and the highest antioxidant activity determined by DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC. A positive correlation was observed between the antioxidant capacities of the extracts and the total phenolic, flavonoid, and chlorophyll contents. The Pitenza variety extracts inhibited the growth of pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria ivanovii, yielding inhibition halos of 8.0 to 12.9 mm in diameter and MIC values of 12.5 to 3.125 mg/mL. These results suggest that tomato plant shows well potential as sources of various bioactive compounds, antioxidants, and antimicrobials. PMID:26609308

  15. Evaluation of Ion Exchange Materials in K Basin Floor Sludge and Potential Solvents for PCB Extraction from Ion Exchange Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Klinger, G.S.; Bredt, P.R.

    1998-01-01

    Approximately 73 m 3 of heterogeneous solid material, ''sludge,'' (upper bound estimate, Packer 1997) have accumulated at the bottom of the K Basins in the 100 K Area of the Hanford Site. This sludge is a mixture of spent fuel element corrosion products, ion exchange materials (organic and inorganic), graphite-based gasket materials, iron and aluminum metal corrosion products, sand, and debris (Makenas et al. 1996, 1997). In addition, small amounts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found. These small amounts are significant from a regulatory standpoint. Ultimately, it is planned to transfer the K Basins sludge to the Hanford double shell tanks (DSTs). Chemical pretreatment is required to address criticality issues and the destruction or removal of PCBs before the K Basin sludge can be transferred to the DSTs. Eleven technologies have been evaluated (Papp 1997) as potential pretreatment methods. Based on the evaluations and engineering studies and limited testing, Fluor Daniel Hanford recommended solvent washing of the K Basin sludge, followed by nitric acid dissolution and, potentially, peroxide addition (FDH 1997). The solvent washing (extraction) and peroxide addition would be used to facilitate PCB removal and destruction. Following solvent extraction, the PCBs could be distilled and concentrated for disposal as a low-level waste. The purpose of the work reported here was to continue investigating solvent extraction, first by better identifying the ion exchange materials in the actual sludge samples and then evaluating various solvents for removing the PCBs or possibly dissolving the resins. This report documents some of the process knowledge on ion exchange materials used and spilled in the K Basins and describes the materials identified from wet sieving KE Basin floor and canister sludge and the results of other analyses. Several photographs are included to compare materials and illustrate material behavior. A summary of previous tests on solvent

  16. Effects of certain polyphenols and extracts on furans and acrylamide formation in model system, and total furans during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral, Rasim Alper; Dogan, Mahmut; Sarioglu, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    Using a glucose-glycine and asparagine-fructose system as a Maillard reaction model, the effects of seven polyphenols and solid phase extracts of three plants on the formation of furans and acrylamide were investigated. The polyphenols and extracts were used in biscuit formulation and acrylamide formation was observed. They were used for the storage of the glycine-glucose model system at three different temperatures. The addition of some of the extracts and polyphenols significantly decreased furan formation to different extents. All phenolic compounds and plant extracts decreased in the range of 30.8-85% in the model system except for oleuropein, and all of them decreased in the range of 10.3-19.2% in biscuit. Total furan formation was inhibited by caffeic acid, punicalagin, epicatechin, ECE and PPE during storage. This study evaluated and found the inhibitory effect on the formation of furans and acrylamide in Maillard reactions by the use of some plant extracts and polyphenols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Material Properties on the Total Stored Energy of a Hybrid Flywheel Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, S.K.; Yoon, Y.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Han, S.C. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-05-01

    A numerical method based on an assumption of a generalized plane strain (GPS) state is presented for calculating the stress and strength ratio distributions of the rotating composite flywheel rotor of varying material properties in the radial direction. The rotor is divided into many rings and each ring has constant material properties. All the rings are assumed to expand and have the same axial strain. A three-dimensional finite element method is then used to verify the accuracy of the present method for various height ratios and ply angles. This method gives a better solution for most of the rotors than other methods of a plane stress or plane strain state. After verification, the effects of material properties on the total stored energy (TSE) of the composite flywheel rotor are investigated. For this purpose, the material properties of the rotor, i.e., circumferential and radial Youngs moduli, ply angles and mass densities, are expressed by power functions of the radius and the rotor is analyzed. The analysis shows that TSE can be most effectively increased by changing the circumferential Youngs moduli along the radius, which amounts to over 300% of TSE of the constant material properties. The variation of ply angles along the radius can increase TSE by about 30% at most. The method of changing the mass densities along the radius could be also effective but its effects are not so noticeable in the rotor where the circumferential stiffness is properly arranged. (author). 24 refs., 7 figs.

  18. Structural Features and Potent Antidepressant Effects of Total Sterols and β-sitosterol Extracted from Sargassum horneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghai Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purified total sterols and β-sitosterol extracted from Sargassum horneri were evaluated for their antidepressant-like activity using the forced swim test (FST and tail suspension test (TST in mice. Total sterols and β-sitosterol significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST and TST. Total sterols were administered orally for 7 days at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, and β-sitosterol was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/kg. β-sitosterol had no effect on locomotor activity in the open field test. In addition, total sterols and β-sitosterol significantly increased NE, 5-HT, and the metabolite 5-HIAA in the mouse brain, suggesting that the antidepressant-like activity may be mediated through these neurotransmitters.

  19. Determination of total phenolic content and antioxidant activitity of methanol extract of Maranta arundinacea L fresh leaf and tuber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusbandari, A.; Susanti, H.

    2017-11-01

    Maranta arundinacea L is one of herbaceous plants in Indonesia which have flavonoid content. Flavonoids has antioxidants activity by inhibition of free radical oxidation reactions. The study aims were to determination total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of methanol extract of fresh leaf and tuber of M. arundinacea L by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The methanol extracts were obtained with maceration and remaseration method of fresh leaves and tubers. The total phenolic content was assayed with visible spectrophotometric using Folin Ciocalteau reagent. The antioxidant activity was assayed with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH) compared to gallic acid. The results showed that methanol extract of tuber and fresh leaf of M. arundinacea L contained phenolic compound with total phenolic content (TPC) in fresh tuber of 3.881±0.064 (% GAE) and fresh leaf is 6.518±0.163 (% b/b GAE). IC50 value from fresh tuber is 1.780±0.0005 μg/mL and IC50 fresh leaf values of 0.274±0.0004 μg/mL while the standard gallic acid is IC50 of 0.640±0.0002 μg/mL.

  20. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  1. Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Extract on Glutathione Peroxidase Tissue Levels and Total Oxidative Capacity of Liver and Plasma Lipid Profile of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Farzanegi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise causes increased oxygen consumption, leaving cells exposed to oxidative stress. Antioxidants may have a protective effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. Thus, this study aims to examine the effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 28 female rats’ weight 155.8±2.7 grams were randomly and equally divided into 4 groups of exercise-saline, control-saline, exercise-mastic, and control-mastic. The exercise groups exercised for 8 weeks (5 days per week, 60 minutes daily, 25 meters per minute, on a zero degree slope. The rats received equal volumes of mastic and saline orally for 4 weeks. Blood and tissue samples were taken 72 hours after the last exercise session. Data were analyzed using one-way variance analysis (ANOVA.Results: Consumption of Pistacia atlantica extract together with endurance exercising for 8 weeks did not significantly affect glutathione peroxidase concentration, total oxidative capacity, LDL, triglyceride, or cholesterol, but significantly reduced HDL (p=0.002.Conclusion: Results showed that antioxidant and lipid profile levels were not affected by consumption of supplements and endurance exercising. However, further studies are required to assess the long term effects of this herbal extract.

  2. Aloe vera extract reduces 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine levels and improves total antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Christijanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease caused by lack of insulin production in the pancreas or by insulin resistance, the disease being characterized by elevated blood glucose levels. Hyperglycemia in diabetes could lead to oxidative stress due to the rise in 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG levels and the decrease in levels of total antioxidant status (TAS. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect Aloe vera extract on 8-oxo-dG level and total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.   Methods This was an experimental laboratory study with 20 rat samples which were divided into 4 groups (1 control group and 3 treatment groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by streptozotocin (STZ at 65 mg/kgBW. The diabetic rats were then treated for 28 days with Aloe vera extract at 0 mg (P0, 200 mg rind (P1, 200 mg pulp (P2, respectively. The level of 8 -oxo-dG was measured by ELISA and total antioxidant status with 2,2' -azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Least Significant Difference Advanced Test at P<0.05.   Results 8-Oxo-dG levels were significantly different between the control group and both P0 and P2, but not between the control group and P1. Among the treatment groups the 8-oxo-dG levels were significantly different. Mean total antioxidant status was significantly different between control and treatment groups, and also between treatment groups (p<0.05.   Conclusions Aloe vera extract reduced free radicals (level of 8-oxo-dG and increased the total antioxidant status in diabetic rat testis.

  3. Simulation-based Extraction of Key Material Parameters from Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Huseen; Peninngton, Gray

    Models for the atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip and sample interaction contain numerous material parameters that are often poorly known. This is especially true when dealing with novel material systems or when imaging samples that are exposed to complicated interactions with the local environment. In this work we use Monte Carlo methods to extract sample material parameters from the experimental AFM analysis of a test sample. The parameterized theoretical model that we use is based on the Virtual Environment for Dynamic AFM (VEDA) [1]. The extracted material parameters are then compared with the accepted values for our test sample. Using this procedure, we suggest a method that can be used to successfully determine unknown material properties in novel and complicated material systems. We acknowledge Fisher Endowment Grant support from the Jess and Mildred Fisher College of Science and Mathematics,Towson University.

  4. Comparative analysis of three different of extraction protocols of total nucleic acids of squash (Cucurbita moschata) for the diagnosis from geminivirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Jimenez, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The geminivirus constitute an important group of plant pathogens, characterized by an unusual morphology of the viral particle and its DNA. They have a paired icosahedral cover and a small circular genome of DNA simple band that is replicated, by DNA double band, in the nucleus of the infected cell of the plant. Many researchers have focused on the development and optimization of protocols for obtaining DNA or RNA of interest, because of rapid advances in molecular biology during the second half of the XX century and the beginning of XXI century, and to that the extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step mainly of the procedures in this area. The objective is to compare, by means of molecular techniques, the DNA purification in squash from different ways of storage and extraction protocols of total nucleic acids of the plant, in order to improve the quality and amount of genetic matters whereupon the detection and characterization of geminivirus are realised. Three methods were compared: i. Dellaporta and collaborators (1983), ii.- Doyle and Doyle (1990) and iii.- Jose and Usha (2000). The operation of the three methods scaled downward (15 milligrams of leaf tissue) and two ways of storage were evaluated: 1.- tubes with silica gel (SG, a desiccant) and 2.- frozen to -70 degrees Celsius. The method of Jose and Usha (2000) presented technical difficulties that not permitted to scale downward, for which it should work with the purification from a gram of foliar tissue. The integrity of the total DNA was verified superior in the material stored to -70 degrees celsius for all the methods, by means of electrophoresis in gels of agarose, besides that the protocol of Dellaporta et al. (1983) tends to enrich the RNA. The readings were similar for the methods of Dellaporta et al. (1983) and Doyle and Doyle (1993), this was evidenced upon quantifying the total DNA and that is extracted at least a 30% more of DNA from material in the desiccant with respect

  5. Determination of As concentration in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Panzarino, Onofrio; Fontanella, Maria Chiara; Beone, Gian Maria; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are often used as sentinel organisms to study As bioavailability in polluted soils. Arsenic in earthworms is mainly sequestrated in the coelomic fluids whose As content can therefore be used to asses As bioavalability. In this work, a method for determining As concentration in coelomic fluid extracts using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is presented. For this purpose coelomic fluid extracts from earthworms living in three polluted soils and one non-polluted (control) soil have been collected and analysed. A very simple sample preparation was implemented, consisting of a dilution of the extracts with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a 1:8 ratio and dropwise deposition of the sample on the reflector. A detection limit of 0.2 μg/l and quantification limit of 0.6 μg/l was obtained in the diluted samples, corresponding to 2 μg/l and 6 μg/l in the coelomic fluid extracts, respectively. This allowed to quantify As concentration in coelomic fluids extracted from earthworms living in soils polluted with As at concentrations higher than 20 mg/kg (considered as a pollution threshold for agricultural soils). The TXRF method has been validated by comparison with As concentrations in standards and by analysing the same samples by ICP-MS, after acid digestion of the sample. The low limit of detection, the proven reliability of the method and the little sample preparation make TXRF a suitable, cost-efficient and "green" technique for the analysis of As in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts for bioavailability studies.

  6. Evaluation of automated analysis of 15N and total N in plant material and soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous determination of N-15 and total N using an automated nitrogen analyser interfaced to a continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer (ANA-MS method) was evaluated. The coefficient of variation (CV) of repeated analyses of homogeneous standards and samples at natural abundance...... was lower than 0.1%. The CV of repeated analyses of N-15-labelled plant material and soil samples varied between 0.3% and 1.1%. The reproducibility of repeated total N analyses using the automated method was comparable to results obtained with a semi-micro Kjeldahl procedure. However, the automated method...... analysis showed that the recovery of inorganic N in the NH3 trap was lower when the N was diffused from water than from 2 M KCl. The results also indicated that different proportions of the NO3- and the NH4+ in aqueous solution were recovered in the trap after combined diffusion. The method is most suited...

  7. Total mineral material, acidity, sulphur, and nitrogen in rain and snow at Kentville, Nova Scotia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, F A; Gorham, E

    1957-01-01

    Analyses of total ash, sulphur, ph, ammonia, and nitrate nitrogen have been made on 23 monthly precipitation samples and 17 individual snow samples collected between June 1952 and May 1954 at Kentville, Nova Scotia, in a predominantly agricultural area. Mean annual supply of total mineral ash was 95 kg/ha, of sulphur 9.1 hg/ha, of ammonia nitrogen 2.8 kg/ha, and of nitrate nitrogen 1.1 kg/ha. Average pH was 5.7, and rains more acid than this exhibited higher levels of both nitrate and sulphur, and a marked correlation between the latter and ammonia. Snow samples had much lower concentrations of ash, sulphur, and nitrogen than rain samples collected in the same months, which may perhaps indicate a lower efficiency of snow flakes in removing materials from the atmosphere.

  8. BRICKS WITH TOTAL REPLACEMENT OF CLAY BY FLY ASH MIXED WITH DIFFERENT MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    J.N Akhtar; J.Alam; M.N Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Fly ash is a powdery substance obtained from the dust collectors in the Thermal power plants that use coal as fuel. From the cement point of view the mineralogy of Fly ash is important as it contains 80% - 90% of glass. The impurities in coal-mostly clays, shale’s, limestone & dolomite; they cannot be burned so they turn up as ash. The Fly ash of class C category was used as a raw material to total replacement of clay for making Fly ash bricks. In present study the effect of Fly ash with high...

  9. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Krasimir; Zaprjanova, Penka; Petkova, Milena; Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana; Angelova, Violina

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO 4 digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner–Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner–Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower P

  10. Comparison of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and colorimetric determination of total and extractable phosphorus in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Krasimir, E-mail: kivanov1@abv.bg [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Zaprjanova, Penka [Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Petkova, Milena [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Stefanova, Violeta; Kmetov, Veselin; Georgieva, Deyana [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Plovdiv University ' Paisii Hilendarski,' Plovdiv (Bulgaria); Angelova, Violina [Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Plovdiv (Bulgaria)

    2012-05-15

    The most widely used method for determination of total phosphorus in soils is perchloric acid digestion, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The first part of this study compares an alternative digestion method, using aqua regia (ISO 11466 and EPA Method 3052), with perchloric acid digestion procedure, and also compares inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) with colorimetry for the measurement of P on the basis of five internationally certified standard soils and 20 real-life soils with widely different extractability of phosphorus. The phosphorus concentration was determined by means of the reduced phosphomolybdenum blue and ICP-MS. The relationship between methods has been examined statistically. Good agreement of the results from colorimetry and ICP-MS was established for all certified soils. The microwave-assisted digestion with aqua regia was comparable, both in precision and accuracy, with the hot plate aqua regia method. The phosphorus concentration found with the HF + HClO{sub 4} digestion method was in good agreement with the certified mean values, while the superiority in extracting phosphorus, when compared to other methods, was obvious. Soil testing for plant-available phosphorus in Bulgaria and many European countries is most commonly conducted using acid Ca-lactate extraction (Egner-Riehm test) and alkaline sodium bicarbonate extraction (BDS ISO 11263:2002), based on Olsen test, followed by a colorimetric assay to measure the concentration of P in solution. The second part of this study reports the differences between Egner-Riehm test and BDS ISO 11263:2002 measured colorimetrically and by ICP-MS. Fifty soils were selected from South Bulgaria to represent a wide range of soil properties. It was established that ICP-MS consistently yielded significantly higher P concentrations than the colorimetric method in both extraction tests, and the relative differences were greatest in soils with lower

  11. Evaluation of extracts and essential oil from Callistemon viminalis leaves: antibacterial and antioxidant activities, total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Mohamed Z M; Ali, Hayssam M; El-Shanhorey, Nader A; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed

    2013-10-01

    To investigate antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Callistemon viminalis (C. viminalis) leaves. The essential oil of C. viminalis leaves obtained by hydro-distillation was analyzed by GC/MS. Different extracts were tested for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and in vitro antioxidant (DPPH assay) and antibacterial (agar disc diffusion and 96-well micro-plates methods) actives. Fourteen components were identified in the essential oil, representing 98.94% of the total oil. The major components were 1,8-cineole (64.53%) and α-pinene (9.69%). Leaf essential oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity of (88.60±1.51)% comparable to gallic acid, a standard compound [(80.00±2.12)%]. Additionally, the biggest zone of inhibitions against the studied bacterial strains was observed by the essential oil when compared to the standard antibiotic (tetracycline). The crude methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction had a significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. It can be suggested that C. viminalis is a great potential source of antibacterial and antioxidant compounds useful for new antimicrobial drugs from the natural basis. The present study revealed that the essential oil as well as the methanol extracts and ethyl acetate fraction of C. viminalis leaves exhibited highly significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strains. Copyright © 2013 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Development of Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry quantitative methodologies for elemental characterization of building materials and their degradation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Florentino, Cristina; Maguregui, Maite; Marguí, Eva; Torrent, Laura; Queralt, Ignasi; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2018-05-01

    In this work, a Total Reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometry based quantitative methodology for elemental characterization of liquid extracts and solids belonging to old building materials and their degradation products from a building of the beginning of 20th century with a high historic cultural value in Getxo, (Basque Country, North of Spain) is proposed. This quantification strategy can be considered a faster methodology comparing to traditional Energy or Wavelength Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF and WD-XRF) spectrometry based methodologies or other techniques such as Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). In particular, two kinds of liquid extracts were analysed: (i) water soluble extracts from different mortars and (ii) acid extracts from mortars, black crusts, and calcium carbonate formations. In order to try to avoid the acid extraction step of the materials and their degradation products, it was also studied the TXRF direct measurement of the powdered solid suspensions in water. With this aim, different parameters such as the deposition volume and the measuring time were studied for each kind of samples. Depending on the quantified element, the limits of detection achieved with the TXRF quantitative methodologies for liquid extracts and solids were set around 0.01-1.2 and 2-200 mg/L respectively. The quantification of K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Zn, Rb, Sr, Sn and Pb in the liquid extracts was proved to be a faster alternative to other more classic quantification techniques (i.e. ICP-MS), accurate enough to obtain information about the composition of the acidic soluble part of the materials and their degradation products. Regarding the solid samples measured as suspensions, it was quite difficult to obtain stable and repetitive suspensions affecting in this way the accuracy of the results. To cope with this problem, correction factors based on the quantitative results obtained using ED-XRF were calculated to improve the accuracy of

  13. Extraction and purification of total flavonoids from pine needles of Cedrus deodara contribute to anti-tumor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaofeng; Liu, Dongyan; Zhang, Junmin; Hu, Pengbin; Shen, Wei; Fan, Bin; Ma, Quhuan; Wang, Xindi

    2016-07-26

    Cedrus deodara is one of the traditional Chinese medicinal herbs that exhibits a line of biological activities. The current study extracted the total flavonoids from the pine needles of Cedrus deodara (TFPNCD), and investigated its anti-cancer effects in tumor cell lines. The total flavonoids was extracted from pine needles of Cedrus deodara by ethanol hot refluxing and purified by HPD722 macroporous resin. The contents of total flavonoids and the active ingredients of TFPNCD were analyzed through UV and HPLC. MTT assay was used to investigate its inhibitory effect on tumor cell lines. The flow cytometry was employed to determine the apoptosis and cell cycle distribution after treated TFPNCD on HepG2 cells. The TFPNCD, in which the contents of total flavonoid reached up to 54.28 %, and the major ingredients of myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin in TFPNCD were 1.89, 2.01, 2.94 and 1.22 mg/g, respectively. The MTT assays demonstrated that TFPNCD inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner, with the IC50 values of 114.12 μg/mL. By comparison, TFPNCD inhibited the proliferation to a less extent in human cervical carcinoma HeLa, gastric cancer MKN28 cells, glioma SHG-44 cells and lung carcinoma A549 than HepG2 cells. We found that even at the lower doses, the total flavonoids effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Comparison of IC50 values implicated that HepG2 cells might be more sensitive to the treatment with total flavonoids. TFPNCD was able to increase the population of HepG2 cells in G0 /G1 phase. Meanwhile, TFPNCD treatment increased the percentage of apoptotic HepG2 cells. These data suggested that TFPNCD might have therapeutic potential in cancer through the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.

  14. Mechanical properties and total hydroxycinnamic derivative release of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis extract films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Mello Rechia

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of starch/glycerol/Melissa officinalis, a topical drug delivery system for labial herpes treatment. Four films were prepared with different concentrations of starch, glycerol, and Melissa officinalis extract. The results revealed that increasing the glycerol concentration in the film reduced elasticity modulus and tensile strength, exhibiting a plasticizing effect. The increase in free volume resulted in increased release of hydroxycinnamic derivatives expressed as rosmarinic acid.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar as propriedades mecânicas e o mecanismo de liberação de um sistema tópico de liberação prolongada para o tratamento do Herpes labial a partir de filmes de amido/glicerol/extrato de Melissa officinalis, planta com comprovada atividade antiviral. Foram obtidos quatro filmes poliméricos com diferentes concentrações de amido, glicerol e extrato de Melissa officinalis os quais foram caracterizados mecanicamente e determinado o perfil de liberação de derivados hidroxicinâmicos. Os resultados demonstraram que o aumento da concentração de glicerol no filme produz uma redução no módulo de elasticidade e na tensão de deformação como conseqüência do efeito plastificante. O aumento no volume livre do polímero resultou em aumento da liberação dos derivados hidroxicinâmicos expressos como ácido rosmarínico.

  15. Evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership of Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsden, T.

    2013-04-01

    This report discusses an analysis of the total cost of ownership of fuel cell-powered and traditional battery-powered material handling equipment (MHE, or more typically 'forklifts'). A number of fuel cell MHE deployments have received funding support from the federal government. Using data from these government co-funded deployments, DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been evaluating the performance of fuel cells in material handling applications. NREL has assessed the total cost of ownership of fuel cell MHE and compared it to the cost of ownership of traditional battery-powered MHE. As part of its cost of ownership assessment, NREL looked at a range of costs associated with MHE operation, including the capital costs of battery and fuel cell systems, the cost of supporting infrastructure, maintenance costs, warehouse space costs, and labor costs. Considering all these costs, NREL found that fuel cell MHE can have a lower overall cost of ownership than comparable battery-powered MHE.

  16. Visual and colorimetric methods for rapid determination of total tannins in vegetable raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Kalinkina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the development of rapid colorimetric method for determining the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw materials. The sorption-based colorimetric test is determining sorption tannins polyurethane foam, impregnated of FeCl3, receiving on its surface painted in black and green color of the reaction products and the determination of their in sorbent matrix. Selectivity is achieved by determining the tannins specific interaction of polyphenols with iron ions (III. The conditions of sorption-colorimetric method: the concentration of ferric chloride (III, impregnated in the polyurethane foam; sorbent mass in the analytical cartridge; degree of loading his agent; the contact time of the phases. color scales have been developed for the visual determination of the amount of tannins in terms of gallic acid. Spend a digitized image obtained scales using computer program “Sorbfil TLC”, excluding a subjective assessment of the intensity of the color scale of the test. The results obtained determine the amount of tannins in aqueous extracts of vegetable raw rapid method using tablets and analytical cartridges. The results of the test determination of tannins with visual and densitometric analytical signal registration are compared to known methods. Spend a metrological evaluation of the results of determining the amount of tannins sorption rapid colorimetric methods. Time visual and densitometric rapid determination of tannins, taking into account the sample preparation is 25–30 minutes, the relative error does not exceed 28 %. The developed test methods for quantifying the content of tannins allow to exclude the use of sophisticated analytical equipment, carry out the analysis in non-laboratory conditions do not require highly skilled personnel.

  17. High-throughput sequencing of nematode communities from total soil DNA extractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    nematodes without the need for enrichment was developed. Using this strategy on DNA templates from a set of 22 agricultural soils, we obtained 64.4% sequences of nematode origin in total, whereas the remaining sequences were almost entirely from other metazoans. The nematode sequences were derived from...... in previous sequence-based studies are not nematode specific but also amplify other groups of organisms such as fungi and plantae, and thus require a nematode enrichment step that may introduce biases. Results: In this study an amplification strategy which selectively amplifies a fragment of the SSU from...... a broad taxonomic range and most sequences were from nematode taxa that have previously been found to be abundant in soil such as Tylenchida, Rhabditida, Dorylaimida, Triplonchida and Araeolaimida. Conclusions: Our amplification and sequencing strategy for assessing nematode diversity was able to collect...

  18. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  19. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction

  20. A novel solid phase extraction procedure on Amberlite XAD-1180 for speciation of Cr(III), Cr(VI) and total chromium in environmental and pharmaceutical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narin, Ibrahim; Kars, Ayse; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Due to the toxicity of chromium, species depend on their chemical properties and bioavailabilities, speciation of chromium is very important in environmental samples. A speciation procedure for chromium(III), chromium(VI) and total chromium in environmental samples is presented in this work, prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of chromium. The procedure is based on the adsorption of Cr(III)-diphenylcarbazone complex on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin. After oxidation of Cr(III), the developed solid phase extraction system was applied to determinate the total chromium. Cr(III) was calculated as the difference between the total Cr content and the Cr(VI) content. The analytical conditions for the quantitative recoveries of Cr(VI) on Amberlite XAD-1180 resin were investigated. The effects of some alkaline, earth alkaline, metal ions and also some anions were also examined. Preconcentration factor was found to be 75. The detection limits (LOD) based on three times sigma of the blank (N: 21) for Cr(VI) and total chromium were 7.7 and 8.6 μg/L, respectively. Satisfactory results for the analysis of total chromium in the stream sediment (GBW7310) certified reference material for the validation of the presented method was obtained. The procedure was applied to food, water and pharmaceutical samples successfully

  1. Anthocyanin Characterization, Total Phenolic Quantification and Antioxidant Features of Some Chilean Edible Berry Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anghel Brito

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The anthocyanin composition and HPLC fingerprints of six small berries endemic of the VIII region of Chile were investigated using high resolution mass analysis for the first time (HR-ToF-ESI-MS. The antioxidant features of the six endemic species were compared, including a variety of blueberries which is one of the most commercially significant berry crops in Chile. The anthocyanin fingerprints obtained for the fruits were compared and correlated with the antioxidant features measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, the superoxide anion scavenging activity assay (SA, and total content of phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty one anthocyanins were identified, and the major ones were quantified by HPLC-DAD, mostly branched 3-O-glycosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. Three phenolic acids (feruloylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and neochlorogenic acid and five flavonols (hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin, rutin, myricetin and isorhamnetin were also identified. Calafate fruits showed the highest antioxidant activity (2.33 ± 0.21 μg/mL in the DPPH assay, followed by blueberry (3.32 ± 0.18 μg/mL, and arrayán (5.88 ± 0.21, respectively.

  2. Extractables characterization for five materials of construction representative of packaging systems used for parenteral and ophthalmic drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenke, Dennis; Castner, James; Egert, Thomas; Feinberg, Tom; Hendricker, Alan; Houston, Christopher; Hunt, Desmond G; Lynch, Michael; Shaw, Arthur; Nicholas, Kumudini; Norwood, Daniel L; Paskiet, Diane; Ruberto, Michael; Smith, Edward J; Holcomb, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Polymeric and elastomeric materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging systems used to manufacture, store, deliver, and/or administer drug products. Characterizing extractables from such materials is a necessary step in establishing their suitability for use in these applications. In this study, five individual materials representative of polymers and elastomers commonly used in packaging systems and devices were extracted under conditions and with solvents that are relevant to parenteral and ophthalmic drug products (PODPs). Extraction methods included elevated temperature sealed vessel extraction, sonication, refluxing, and Soxhlet extraction. Extraction solvents included a low-pH (pH = 2.5) salt mixture, a high-pH (pH = 9.5) phosphate buffer, a 1/1 isopropanol/water mixture, isopropanol, and hexane. The resulting extracts were chemically characterized via spectroscopic and chromatographic means to establish the metal/trace element and organic extractables profiles. Additionally, the test articles themselves were tested for volatile organic substances. The results of this testing established the extractables profiles of the test articles, which are reported herein. Trends in the extractables, and their estimated concentrations, as a function of the extraction and testing methodologies are considered in the context of the use of the test article in medical applications and with respect to establishing best demonstrated practices for extractables profiling of materials used in PODP-related packaging systems and devices. Plastic and rubber materials are commonly encountered in medical devices and packaging/delivery systems for drug products. Characterizing the extractables from these materials is an important part of determining that they are suitable for use. In this study, five materials representative of plastics and rubbers used in packaging and medical devices were extracted by several means, and the extracts were analytically

  3. Antioxidant activity, phenolic and flavonoids total of ethanolic extract of Ipomoea batata L. leaves (white, yellow, orange, and purple)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewijanti, Indah Dwiatmi; Banjarnahor, Sofna D.; Triyuliani, Maryani, Faiza; Meilawati, Lia

    2017-11-01

    Antioxidant activity, phenolic and total flavonoids from sweet potato ethanol extract (Ipomea batatas L.) of different varieties (white, yellow, orange and purple) were studied. Sweet potatoes were collected from Research Centre for Chemistry. Sweet potato leaves have been used for numerous oxidative-associated diseases such as cancer, allergy, aging, HIV and cardiovascular. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to investigate antioxidant activity in leaves, in which the yellow and purple varieties showed the highest and the lowest scavenging activities of 47.65 µg/ ml (IC50) and 87.402 µg/ ml (IC50), respectively. In this study, the yellow leaves showed the highest concentrations of total phenolic and flavonoids contents at 11.293 µg/g and 44.963 µg/g, respectively. Therefore, sweet potato leaves can be used as a prospective natural antioxidant.

  4. Total dose radiation effects of pressure sensors fabricated on uni-bond-SOI materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shiyang; Huang Yiping; Wang Jin; Li Anzhen; Shen Shaoqun; Bao Minhang

    2001-01-01

    Piezoresistive pressure sensors with a twin-island structure were successfully fabricated using high quality Uni-bond-SOI (On Insulator) materials. Since the piezoresistors were structured by the single crystalline silicon overlayer of the SOI wafer and were totally isolated by the buried SiO 2 , the sensors are radiation-hard. The sensitivity and the linearity of the pressure sensors keep their original values after being irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays up to 2.3 x 10 4 Gy(H 2 O). However, the offset voltage of the sensor has a slight drift, increasing with the radiation dose. The absolute value of the offset voltage deviation depends on the pressure sensor itself. For comparison, corresponding polysilicon pressure sensors were fabricated using the similar process and irradiated at the same condition

  5. Modeling river total bed material load discharge using artificial intelligence approaches (based on conceptual inputs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushangar, Kiyoumars; Mehrabani, Fatemeh Vojoudi; Shiri, Jalal

    2014-06-01

    This study presents Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based modeling of total bed material load through developing the accuracy level of the predictions of traditional models. Gene expression programming (GEP) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)-based models were developed and validated for estimations. Sediment data from Qotur River (Northwestern Iran) were used for developing and validation of the applied techniques. In order to assess the applied techniques in relation to traditional models, stream power-based and shear stress-based physical models were also applied in the studied case. The obtained results reveal that developed AI-based models using minimum number of dominant factors, give more accurate results than the other applied models. Nonetheless, it was revealed that k-fold test is a practical but high-cost technique for complete scanning of applied data and avoiding the over-fitting.

  6. SCREENING OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM SOME KINDS OF RAW MATERIALS WITH QUINONEDERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyko N.N.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents data on screening of antimicrobial properties of extracts from some kinds of raw materials (18 plants with hydroquinone, naphtoquinone or anthraquinone derivatives. Some technological parameters of extracts (density and concentration of extraneous substances have been determined. The most appropriate microbiological method of studying antimicrobial properties of extracts, diffusion method of “well”, has been applied; special mathematic method of comparison of antimicrobial properties of extracts vector analysis has been applied in order to study and to compare antimicrobial properties of extracts. Indexes of antimicrobial properties of extracts have been determined: a complex index of medicinal product antimicrobial activity for quantitative estimation of antimicrobial effect - A, and square of correlation coefficient - r², which demonstrates the spectrum of antimicrobial activity of the extracts (degree of similarity to the standard. The most active extracts have been selected; they have antimicrobial properties of medium strength: from the herb of chimaphila umbellata А=2.20; the fruits of rhamnus cathartica А=2.12; the root of rubia tinctorum А=2.11; the bark of frangula alnus А=2.05; the root of rumex confertus А=2.04; the leaf of pyrola rotundifolia А=2.00; and leaf of arctostaphylos uva-ursi А=2.08 (but extract from uva-ursi did not affected on 2 strains of microorganisms r²=0.64. Low levels of antimicrobial activity have been demonstrated by the extract obtained from the leaf of urtica dioica А=0.72, r²=0.34. The mean result of the complex index of antimicrobial activity for the most of extracts from plants containing quinonederivatives is A = 1.77 (on 70% vol. ethanol at a ratio of raw material : extracting agent – 1:7 wt. : vol. and may range from 0.68 to 2.85. The mean result of the correlation coefficient is r = 0.93 and may range from 0.59 to 0.99. The mean result of the concentration of

  7. Determination of total arsenic and arsenic(III) in phosphate fertilizers by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry after ultrasound-assisted extraction based on a control acid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Helen Cristine; Coelho, Nivia Maria Melo

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound-assisted extraction procedure was developed for determination of inorganic arsenic (As) in phosphate fertilizer by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. The variables that affect the hydride generation step were optimized, including the reducer, acid, sample flow rate, and concentrations of the acid and reducer. The determination of As(lll) was performed through the simple control of solution pH with a 0.5 M citric acid-sodium citrate buffer solution at pH 4.5, and total As was determined after a pre-reduction reaction with 1.0% (w/v) thiourea. Ultrasound-assisted acid extraction was performed, and the parameters sonication time and acid and Triton X-114 concentrations were optimized using a 23 factorial design and central composite design. LODs for As(lll) and total As were 0.029 and 0.022 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the method was confirmed with certified reference materials. The method was successfully applied in the determination of inorganic As in phosphate fertilizer samples.

  8. Evaluation of pitches and cokes from solvent-extracted coal materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, E.R.

    1996-12-01

    Three initial coal-extracted (C-E) samples were received from the West Virginia University (WVU) Chemical Engineering Department. Two samples had been hydrogenated to obtain pitches that satisfy Theological requirements. One of the hydrogenated (HC-E) samples had been extracted by toluene to remove ash and higher molecular weight aromatic compounds. We were unable to measure the softening point and viscosity of the non-hydro treated solid extract sample, Positive characteristics in the HC-E materials were softening points of 113-119{degrees}C, low sulfur and ash. The oxygen and nitrogen content of the HC-E samples may limit future usage in premium carbon and graphite products. Coking values were similar to petroleum pitches. Laboratory anode testing indicates that in combination with standard coal-tar pitch, the HC-E material can be used as a binder pitch.

  9. State planning policy 2/07: protection of extractive resources results in certainty of materials supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-09-15

    Extractive resources are primary source materials used for building infrastructure such as roads, ports, airports, bridges, railways, factories, hospitals, schools and homes. The Policy seeks to protect those essential and finite construction materials for future and existing extraction purposes. Population increases in south-east Queensland the upgrading of rail and port facilities to export coal and other minerals will form a major part in the expansion of extractive industry. Over $4 billion has been committed by the Government and industry to coal infrastructure developments such as upgrades at RG Tanna, Barney Point and the proposed Wiggins Island coal terminals at Gladstone, the Dalryample Bay and Hay Point terminals near Mackay and the Abbot Point coal terminal near Bower. The new Bauhinia regional railway will service the Rolleston coal mines.

  10. Effect of dental restorative materials on total antioxidant capacity and calcium concentration of unstimulated saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Gholam H; Moghadam, Mona-Momeni; Saghiri, Mohammad-Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Asatourian, Armen; Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Scarbecz, Mark; Sheibani, Nader

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of dental amalgam and composite restorations on total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and calcium (Ca) ion concentration of unstimulated saliva. Forty-eight children aged 6-10 years selected and divided into three groups of sixteen (8 males, 8 females). In group A and B, samples consisted of two class II dental composite or amalgam restorations, while in group C samples were caries-free (control group). Unstimulated saliva from all samples was collected and TAC was measured by spectrophotometry using an adaptation of 2, 2'-azino-di-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS) assay. The Ca ion level was estimated by an auto- analyzer. Data were analyzed with one- and two-way ANOVA test, at a p difference between groups ( p differences within and between groups ( p Gender is an effective factor in changes induced in oral cavity as females showed more emphatic reaction to dental filling materials than males. Patients who have dental restorations, especially dental composites, should pay more attention to their dental hygiene, because dental restorations can increase oxidative stress and decrease Ca ion level in saliva, which might jeopardize remineralization process of tooth structures after demineralization. Key words: Amalgam, caries, composite, saliva, total antioxidant capacity.

  11. Mass extraction rates of radionuclides in fallout material from a 170-kt nuclear crater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, E H [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    The quantity k is defined as the fraction of a nuclide in the environment which must be ingested each day over a given time period to receive a maximum allowable dose, in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines. Values of k were computed for radionuclides produced in a single cratering detonation using current design technology. A new concept, called the 'Mass Extraction Rate,' is presented. This concept is defined as the mass of earth material from which the entire quantity of the radionuclide must be extracted and ingested each day by some natural process over a given time interval, which results in a permissible dose. Mass Extraction Rate values are tabulated. A comparison is made between the Mass Extraction Rate and the specific activity methods. (author)

  12. Mass extraction rates of radionuclides in fallout material from a 170-kt nuclear crater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, E.H.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity k is defined as the fraction of a nuclide in the environment which must be ingested each day over a given time period to receive a maximum allowable dose, in accordance with the International Commission on Radiological Protection guidelines. Values of k were computed for radionuclides produced in a single cratering detonation using current design technology. A new concept, called the 'Mass Extraction Rate,' is presented. This concept is defined as the mass of earth material from which the entire quantity of the radionuclide must be extracted and ingested each day by some natural process over a given time interval, which results in a permissible dose. Mass Extraction Rate values are tabulated. A comparison is made between the Mass Extraction Rate and the specific activity methods. (author)

  13. Scattering-parameter extraction and calibration techniques for RF free-space material characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaniecki, M.; Saenz, E.; Rolo, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method for material characterization (permittivity, permeability, loss tangent) based on the scattering parameters. The performance of the extraction algorithm will be shown for modelled and measured data. The measurements were carried out at the European Space Agency...

  14. Optimizing the extraction of Soluble salts from porous materials by poultices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawdy, A.; Lubelli, B.; Voronina, V.; Pel, L

    2010-01-01

    Poultices are often used to extract salts from salt-deteriorated objects, but the results achieved can be highly variable. Currently, poulticing materials and methodologies are selected empirically, but many variables affect the treatment outcome, so achieving the 'best fit' between available

  15. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit (Bactris gasipaes) by-products with sunflower oil using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Santos, Luis Eduardo; Pinzón-Zarate, Lina Ximena; González-Salcedo, Luis Octavio

    2015-11-01

    The present study reports on the extraction of total carotenoids from peach palm fruit by-products with sunflower oil. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of process variables on the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Three independent variables including ultrasonic intensity (764-1528, W/m(2)), temperature (25-45°C), and the extraction time (10-30 min). According to the results, the optimal UAE condition was obtained with an ultrasonic intensity of 1528 W/m(2), extraction temperature of 35°C and extraction time of 30 min. At these conditions, extraction maximum extraction of total carotenoids as 163.47 mg/100 g dried peel. The experimental values under optimal condition were in good consistent with the predicted values. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J. [Wroclaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Chemii

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements. (orig.)

  18. Microwave assisted extraction for trace element analysis of plant materials by ICP-AES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowska-Burnecka, J

    2000-11-01

    Application of microwave assisted extraction for the decomposition and dissolution of plant samples for trace metal determination by ICP-AES was examined. Dried onion, leaves of spinach beet and three reference materials CTA-OTL-1, CTA-VTL-2 and CL-1 were analyzed. Water, EDTA and hydrochloric acid (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0 M, respectively) were used as leaching solutions. The extraction efficiency was investigated by comparison of the results with those obtained after microwave wet digestion. HCl was found to be very suitable for quantitative extraction of B, Ba, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn from the samples. For reference materials, the measured concentrations are well consistent with the certified values. The use of EDTA led to a complete extraction of B, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn. Water was found to be a good leaching solution for boron. For extraction with HCl and EDTA, the RSD values for the concentrations measured were below 8% for most of the elements.

  19. Microbes on building materials - Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettenauer, Joerg D., E-mail: joerg.ettenauer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Pinar, Guadalupe, E-mail: Guadalupe.Pinar@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Lopandic, Ksenija, E-mail: Ksenija.Lopandic@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Spangl, Bernhard, E-mail: Bernhard.Spangl@boku.ac.at [University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Landscape, Spatial and Infrastructure Science, Institute of Applied Statistics and Computing (IASC), Gregor Mendel-Str. 33, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Ellersdorfer, Guenther, E-mail: Guenther.Ellersdorfer@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Voitl, Christian, E-mail: Christian.Voitl@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria); Sterflinger, Katja, E-mail: Katja.Sterflinger@boku.ac.at [VIBT-BOKU, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Department of Biotechnology, Muthgasse 11, A-1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-11-15

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials - common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three

  20. Microbes on building materials — Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols as common basis for molecular analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettenauer, Jörg D.; Piñar, Guadalupe; Lopandic, Ksenija; Spangl, Bernhard; Ellersdorfer, Günther; Voitl, Christian; Sterflinger, Katja

    2012-01-01

    The study of microbial life in building materials is an emerging topic concerning biodeterioration of materials as well as health risks in houses and at working places. Biodegradation and potential health implications associated with microbial growth in our residues claim for more precise methods for quantification and identification. To date, cultivation experiments are commonly used to gain insight into the microbial diversity. Nowadays, molecular techniques for the identification of microorganisms provide efficient methods that can be applied in this field. The efficiency of DNA extraction is decisive in order to perform a reliable and reproducible quantification of the microorganisms by qPCR or to characterize the structure of the microbial community. In this study we tested thirteen DNA extraction methods and evaluated their efficiency for identifying (1) the quantity of DNA, (2) the quality and purity of DNA and (3) the ability of the DNA to be amplified in a PCR reaction using three universal primer sets for the ITS region of fungi as well as one primer pair targeting the 16S rRNA of bacteria with three typical building materials — common plaster, red brick and gypsum cardboard. DNA concentration measurements showed strong variations among the tested methods and materials. Measurement of the DNA yield showed up to three orders of magnitude variation from the same samples, whereas A260/A280 ratios often prognosticated biases in the PCR amplifications. Visualization of the crude DNA extracts and the comparison of DGGE fingerprints showed additional drawbacks of some methods. The FastDNA Spin kit for soil showed to be the best DNA extraction method and could provide positive results for all tests with the three building materials. Therefore, we suggest this method as a gold standard for quantification of indoor fungi and bacteria in building materials. -- Highlights: ► Up to thirteen extraction methods were evaluated with three building materials.

  1. Total emissivity and spectral emissivity of high-temperature materials; Gesamtemissionsgrad und spektraler Emissionsgrad von Hochtemperaturmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuer, G.; Pohlmann, P.; Schreiber, E.

    1998-05-01

    A new emissivity measurement device with inductive sample heating is described. The disc shaped samples can be measured between 800 C and 2000 C in vacuum or in each available gas atmosphere. Two kinds of surface temperature measurement methods are described, one by measuring in a blackbody hole and one by measuring at the surface without additional measures to correct emissivity. Total normal and spectral emissivity at wavelengths between 0,5 {mu}m and 8,3 {mu}m of various high temperature materials like platinum and Pt-Rh-alloys, siliconcarbide and molybdenum disilicide have been measured. From the investigated materials a few have been selected as reference samples for comparative emissivity measurements fullfilling the requirement of stability on air up to 400 C to 1000 C in order to ensure reproducibility of the results at different measurement conditions in air and in vacuum. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Aufbau einer neuen Messapparatur fuer Emissionsgradmessungen bei Temperaturen zwischen 1000 C und 2000 C wird beschrieben. Die scheibenfoermigen Proben werden induktiv beheizt, und die Messungen koennen entweder in Vakuum oder einer beliebigen Gasatmosphaere durchgefuehrt werden. Es werden zwei verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Oberflaechentemperatur bechrieben, wobei entweder in einer oder direkt an der Oberflaeche ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen zur Emissionsgradkorrektur gemessen wird. An verschiedenen Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen wie Platin und Platin-Rhodium-Legierungen, Siliziumkarbid mit unterschiedlichen Herstellungsarten und Molybdaen-Disilizid wurden der Gesamtemissionsgrad und der spektrale Emissionsgrad bei Wellenlaengen von 0,5 {mu}m bis 8,3 {mu}m senkrecht zur Oberflaeche gemessen. Aus den untersuchten Materialien wurden solche als Referenzmaterialien fuer vergleichende Emissionsgradmessungen ausgewaehlt, die sowohl im Vakuum als auch in Luft und bei Temperaturen von 1400 C bis 1600 C unter verschiedenen Messbedingungen reproduzierbare Ergebnisse

  2. Study utilization of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrianie, Nuniek; Juliastuti, Sri Rachmania; Ar-rosyidah, Fanny Husna; Rochman, Hilal Abdur

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays the existence of energy sources of oil and was limited. Therefore, it was important to searching for new innovations of renewable energy sources by utilizing the waste into a source of energy. On the other hand, the process of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation generated sludge that had calorific value and untapped. Because of the need for alternative sources of energy innovation with the concept of zero waste and the fuel potential from extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste, so it was necessary to study the use of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste as the main material for making solid fuel. In addition, sawdust is a waste that had a great quantities and also had a high calorific value to be mixed with extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of the extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and to determine the potential and a combination of a mixture of extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste and sawdust which has the best calorific value. The variables of this study was the composition of the waste and sawdust as follows 1:1; 1:3; and 3:1 (mass of sawdust : mass of waste) and time of sawdust carbonization was 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Sawdust was carbonized to get the high heating value. The characteristic of main material and fuel analysis performed with proximate analysis. While the calorific value analysis was performed with a bomb calorimeter. From the research, it was known that extractable petroleum hydrocarbons biodegradation waste had a moisture content of 3.06%; volatile matter 19.98%; ash content of 0.56%; fixed carbon content of 76.4% and a calorific value of 717 cal/gram. And a mixture that had the highest calorific value (4286.5 cal/gram) achieved in comparison sawdust : waste (3:1) by carbonization of sawdust for 20 minutes.

  3. Ionic liquid-modified materials for solid-phase extraction and separation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Lorena; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa; Canals, Antonio

    2012-02-17

    In recent years, materials science has propelled to the research forefront. Ionic liquids with unique and fascinating properties have also left their footprints to the developments of materials science during the last years. In this review we highlight some of their recent advances and provide an overview at the current status of ionic liquid-modified materials applied in solid-phase extraction, liquid and gas chromatography and capillary electrochromatography with reference to recent applications. In addition, the potential of ionic liquids in the modification of capillary inner wall in capillary electrophoresis is demonstrated. The main target material modified with ionic liquids is silica, but polymers and monoliths have recently joined the studies. Although imidazolium is still clearly the most commonly used ionic liquid for the covalently modification of materials, the exploitation of pyridinium and phosphonium will most probably increase in the future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  5. A data reduction program for the linac total-scattering amorphous materials spectrometer (LINDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    A computer program has been written to reduce the data collected on the A.E.R.E., Harwell linac total-scattering spectrometer (TSS) to the differential scattering cross-section. This instrument, used for studying the structure of amorphous materials such as liquids and glasses, has been described in detail. Time-of-flight spectra are recorded by several arrays of detectors at different angles using a pulsed incident neutron beam with a continuous distribution of wavelengths. The program performs all necessary background and container subtractions and also absorption corrections using the method of Paalman and Pings. The incident neutron energy distribution is obtained from the intensity recorded from a standard vanadium sample, enabling the observed differential scattering cross-section dsigma/dΩ (theta, lambda) and the structure factor S(Q) to be obtained. Various sample and vanadium geometries can be analysed by the program and facilities exist for the summation of data sets, smoothing of data, application of Placzek corrections and the output of processed data onto magnetic tape or punched cards. A set of example data is provided and some structure factors are shown with absorption corrections. (author)

  6. Capsule shell material impacts the in vitro disintegration and dissolution behaviour of a green tea extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glube, Natalie; Moos, Lea von; Duchateau, Guus

    2013-01-01

    In vitro disintegration and dissolution are routine methods used to assess the performance and quality of oral dosage forms. The purpose of the current work was to determine the potential for interaction between capsule shell material and a green tea extract and the impact it can have on the release. A green tea extract was formulated into simple powder-in-capsule formulations of which the capsule shell material was either of gelatin or HPMC origin. The disintegration times were determined together with the dissolution profiles in compendial and biorelevant media. All formulations disintegrated within 30 min, meeting the USP criteria for botanical formulations. An immediate release dissolution profile was achieved for gelatin capsules in all media but not for the specified HPMC formulations. Dissolution release was especially impaired for HPMCgell at pH 1.2 and for both HPMC formulations in FeSSIF media suggesting the potential for food interactions. The delayed release from studied HPMC capsule materials is likely attributed to an interaction between the catechins, the major constituents of the green tea extract, and the capsule shell material. An assessment of in vitro dissolution is recommended prior to the release of a dietary supplement or clinical trial investigational product to ensure efficacy.

  7. In vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M Amzad; Shah, Muhammad Dawood; Gnanaraj, Charles; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2011-09-01

    To detect the in vitro total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activity of essential oil, various organic extracts from the leaves of tropical medicinal plant Tetrastigma from Sabah. The dry powder leaves of Tetrastigma were extracted with different organic solvent such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous methanol. The total phenolic and total flavonoids contents of the essential oil and various organic extracts such as hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform, butanol and aqueous ethanol were determined by Folin - Ciocalteu method and the assayed antioxidant activity was determined in vitro models such as antioxidant capacity by radical scavenging activity using α, α-diphenyl- β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The total phenolic contents of the essential oil and different extracts as gallic acid equivalents were found to be highest in methanol extract (386.22 mg/g) followed by ethyl acetate (190.89 mg/g), chloroform (175.89 mg/g), hexane (173.44 mg/g), and butanol extract (131.72 mg/g) and the phenolic contents not detected in essential oil. The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil and different extracts as ascorbic acid standard was in the order of methanol extract > ethyl acetate extract >chloroform> butanol > hexane extract also the antioxidant activity was not detected in essential oil. The findings show that the extent of antioxidant activity of the essential oil and all extracts are in accordance with the amount of phenolics present in that extract. Leaves of Tetrastigma being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of antioxidant. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination of the total attenuation coefficient for six contact lens materials using the Beer-Lambert law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, C C; Crofts, N C

    1996-03-01

    The Beer-Lambert law has been used to determine the total attenuation coefficient, mu t, of three hard and three soft contact lens materials. The three hard contact lens materials were PMMA, Polycon II and Boston IV whereas the 3 soft materials were chosen with differing water contents of 38, 55 and 70%, respectively. The total attenuation coefficients of all six materials were obtained from measurements of the axial transmission at 632.8 nm of a series of plano powered lenses varying in axial thickness from 0.5 to 3.5 mm. The value of the total attenuation coefficient depends on both scattering and absorption and hence PMMA and Boston IV, which both incorporated a handling tint, showed significantly higher values (P 0.5) was found between any of the hydrated soft contact lens materials tested.

  9. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, L V; Sarkis, J E S; Ulrich, J C; Hortellani, M A

    2015-01-01

    We provide an uncertainty estimates for homogeneity and stability studies of reference material used in proficiency test for determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue. Stability was estimated by linear regression and homogeneity by ANOVA. The results indicate that the reference material is both homogeneous and chemically stable over the short term. Total mercury concentration of the muscle tissue, with expanded uncertainty, was 0.294 ± 0.089 μg g −1

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of lanthanides and actinides from solid materials with a fluorinated β-diketone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Y.; Brauer, R.D.; Laintz, K.E.; Wai, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Direct extraction of metal ions by supercritical carbon dioxide is highly inefficient because of the charge neutralization requirement and the weak solute-solvent interactions. One suggested approach of extracting metal ions by supercritical carbon dioxide is to convert the charged species into metal chelates using a chelating agent in the fluid phase. This paper describes a method of extracting lanthanide and uranyl ions from a solid material by supercritical carbon dioxide containing a fluorinated beta-diketone, 2,2-dimethyl-6,6,7,7,8,8,8-heptafluoro-3,5-octanedione(FOD). Potential applications of this SFE method for separating the f-block elements from environmental samples are discussed. 13 refs., 2 tabs

  11. Extraction of organic materials from red water by metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Fangfang [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, Yihe, E-mail: zyh@cugb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Lv, Fengzhu [State Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resources, National Laboratory of Mineral Materials, School of Materials Science and Technology, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Ye, Zhengfang, E-mail: zhengfangye@163.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Sciences of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal-impregnated lignite activated carbon was investigated as adsorbent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorbent for the extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of different metals on the extraction were investigated and discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Many loading factors of Cu{sup 2+} were found having great influences on the extraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extraction performances and mechanism of TNT red water on Cu/LAC were investigated. - Abstract: Extraction of organic materials from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) red water by lignite activated carbon (LAC) impregnated with Cu{sup 2+}, Ba{sup 2+}, Sn{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Ca{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} was investigated. The affinity to organic materials in red water was found to follow the order: Cu/LAC > Sn/LAC > Ag/LAC > Ba/LAC > Fe/LAC > Ca/LAC, which was explained by the hard and soft acid base (HSAB) theory. Cu{sup 2+} showed the best performance and several parameters were further studied. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) verified effective loading of Cu{sup 2+} on the LAC surface. The water quality before and after treated by Cu/LAC was evaluated using high performance liquid chromatograph, Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS), UV-vis spectroscopy and other analyses. The extraction performances and mechanism of organic materials on Cu/LAC were investigated through static methods. The experimental results showed that Cu/LAC possessed stronger extraction ability for the sulfonated nitrotoluenes than the non-sulfonated nitrotoluenes, the kinetic data fitted the pseudo-second-order kinetic model well. In addition, the leaching out of Cu{sup 2+} from Cu/LAC was found much lower in the 100 times diluted red water (0.074%) than in the raw water (10.201%). Column adsorptions with more concentrated red water were also studied. Finally, Cu/LAC was observed to possess excellent

  12. Inorganic-Organic hybrid materials for uranium extraction from phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mourabit, Sabah

    2013-01-01

    Phosphate rocks are industrially processed in large quantities to produce phosphoric acid and fertilisers. These rocks contain significant concentration of uranium (50 to 300 ppm) which could be interesting for nuclear industry. This work deals with the valorisation of uranium as a by-product from fertiliser industry. The aim of this study is to develop a hybrid material, constituted of an inorganic solid support grafted with an extractant (complexing molecule), which can extract selectively uranium from phosphoric acid medium. The first step of our approach was to identify an inorganic support which is stable under these particular conditions (strong acidity and complexing medium). The chemical and mechanical stability of different meso-porous materials, such as silica, glass and carbon was studied. In a second phase, we focused on the identification and the optimisation of complexing molecules, specific of uranium in phosphoric acid. These ligands were then grafted on the most stable solids. Finally, the efficiency of these hybrid systems was evaluated through different tests of extraction, selectivity and de-extraction. (author) [fr

  13. Spectrophotometric Quantification of Flavonoids in Herbal Material, Crude Extract, and Fractions from Leaves of Eugenia uniflora Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Rhayanne T M; Bezerra, Isabelle C F; Ferreira, Magda R A; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira

    2017-01-01

    The traditional use of Eugenia uniflora L. ("Pitanga") is reported due to several properties, which have often been related to its flavonoid content. The aim was to evaluate analytical procedures for quantification of total flavonoids content (TFCs) by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry in the herbal material (HM), crude extract (CE), and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora . The method for quantification of flavonoids after complexation with aluminum chloride (AlCl 3 ) was evaluated: amount of sample (0.25-1.5 g); solvent (40%-80% ethanol); reaction time and AlCl 3 concentration (2.5%-7.5%). The procedures by direct dilution (DD) and after acid hydrolysis (AH) were used and validated for HM and CE and applied to the aqueous fraction (AqF), hexane fraction, and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF). The ideal conditions of analysis were ethanol 80% as solvent; 0.5 g of sample; λmax of 408 (DD) and 425 nm (AH); 25 min after addition of AlCl 3 5%. The procedures validated for standards and samples showed linearity ( R 2 > 0.99) with limit of detection and limit of quantification between 0.01 and 0.17 mg/mL (rutin and quercetin); and 0.03 and 0.09 mg/mL (quercetin), for DD and AH, respectively. The procedures were accurate (detect, practice, and repair 90%), and stable under robustness conditions (luminosity, storage, reagents, and equipment). The TFCs in AqF and EAF were 0.65 g% and 17.72 g%, calculated as rutin. UV-Vis methods for quantification of TFC in HM, CE, and fractions from leaves of E. uniflora were suitably validated. Regarding the analysis of fractions, the EAF achieved enrichment of about nine times in the content of flavonoids. The total flavonoids content (TFCs) of herbal material, crude extract, and fractions from Eugenia uniflora can be quantified by ultraviolet-visibleThe spectrophotometric methods (direct dilution and acid hydrolysis) were reproducible and able to quantify TFC in raw material and derivatives from leaves of E. uniflora Higher

  14. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which sim...

  15. Evaluation of Extractables in Processed and Unprocessed Polymer Materials Used for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Stults, Cheryl L. M.; Ansell, Jennifer M.; Shaw, Arthur J.; Nagao, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables du...

  16. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf and the antibacterial activity towards Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rita, Wiwik Susanah; Swantara, I. Made Dira; Asih, I. A. Raka Astiti; Sinarsih, Ni Ketut; Suteja, I. Kadek Pater

    2016-03-01

    Total flavonoid and phenolic contents in some natural products was suspected of having a positive correlation to its activity in inhibiting the growth of bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the total flavonoid and phenolic contents of n-butanol extract of Samanea saman leaf, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity towards Escherechia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Extraction of compounds was done by ethanol 96%, followed by fractionation into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Determination of total flavonoid and phenolic contents was done by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer using standard of quersetin and galic acid respectively. In addition, antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar disc diffusion method. Extraction of 1000 g of Samanea saman leaf was obtained 80 g of ethanol extracts, fractionation of the extract was obtained 8.02 g of n-hexane extracts, 7.11 g of ethyl acetate extracts, 13.5 g of n-butanol extracts, and 14.16 g of aqueous extracts. Phytochemical screening of the n-butanol extracts revealed the presence of flavonoid and phenolic compounds. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents were successively 43.5798 mg QE/100g and 34.0180 mg GAE/100g. The butanol extracts inhibited the growth of S.aureus higher than the growth of E.coli. At the concentration of 2, 4, 6, 8 % (b/v), and positive control (meropenem μg/disc), inhibition zone towards S. aureus was successively 5.67, 9.33, 10.33, 12.00, and 32.33 mm, while the inhibition zone towards E. coli was1.33, 3.33, 4.33, 5.43, and 34.00 mm.

  17. Separation of gallium and actinides in plutonium nuclear materials by extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eitrheim, E.S.; Knight, A.W.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of stable gallium in nuclear materials has applications in nuclear fuel characterization and nuclear forensics. The use of positron-emitting gallium isotope 68 Ga as a tracer for Ga recoveries for analyses in materials containing actinides was explored. A radiochemical method for the separation of Ga, Pu, U, Th, and Am using commercially-available extraction chromatography resins was developed and evaluated. The method effectively allows precise determination of Ga yield (97 ± 3 %) in the analysis of stable Ga (spike recovery 101 ± 1 %) and radioactive Pu (radiochemical yield, 82 ± 10 %; spike recovery, 96 ± 3 %), while also providing pure elemental fractions of other actinides relevant to materials encountered in the analysis Pu-containing materials. (author)

  18. Characterization of Merbau Extractives as a Potential Wood-Impregnating Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Malik

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the major content of merbau extractives (ME and their potential use as an impregnating material for low-quality timber. Extraction was done by maceration with ethanol, ethyl-acetate, and hot-water. Physico-chemical, phyto-chemical, UV-visible, and infrared spectroscopy, as well as py-GCMS analysis were then performed on dried extract. The results showed that organic solvent extractions resulted in much higher yields, by 12.50% than that of hot water (1.10%. The merbau extractives liquid obtained had a low acidity, with a pH ranging from 5 to 6, which is typical of phenolic compounds. Flavonoids and phenolics were found as the major compounds. UV-vis spectra showed that ME (λ=279 nm consists of conjugated or aromatic systems, similar to standard resorcinol, which was used as the reference (λ=274 nm. The FTIR spectra showed the absorption bands at 3369 cm-1 that represent the functional group of hydroxyl (OH bonds, and 1619 and 1510 cm-1, representing the aromatic ring (C=C, which could be associated with resorcinol. The Py-GCMS showed that ME is predominated by resorcinol (C6H6O2 with a 79% concentration. The ME could be potentially used for producing phenolic/resorcinolic resin through polymerization, which could be applied for wood impregnation.

  19. Optimizing Pretreatment of Medicinal Raw Materials by RFC Plasma before Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of the RF-plasma treatment modes of chaga raw materials using the Statistica 6.0 software package has been performed. Mathematical design has been carried out to calculate the optimum parameters of RF-plasma treatment using three plasma-forming gases – argon, air, and nitrogen. Plasma treatment of chaga raw materials has been undertaken at the constant parameters: pressure P = 30.0 Pa, anodic current J = 0.7 A, gas consumption G = 0.04 g/s; the variable parameters were power U = 5.0÷7.0 kV and treatment duration at the high-frequency capacitor category of the lowered pressure t = 30÷60 min. Optimization of four key parameters for extraction of chaga raw materials (solid residue, melanin yield, antioxidant activity of both extract and chaga melanin depending on the chosen plasma-forming gas (argon, air, or nitrogen has been achieved. The optimum modes of RF-plasma treatment allowing to obtain the extracts and melanin of chaga mushroom with the improved physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics have been calculated.

  20. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Díaz-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  1. Properties of Residue from Olive Oil Extraction as a Raw Material for Sustainable Construction Materials. Part I: Physical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Almudena; Martínez-García, Carmen; Cotes-Palomino, Teresa

    2017-01-25

    Action on climate, the environment, and the efficient use of raw materials and resources are important challenges facing our society. Against this backdrop, the construction industry must adapt to new trends and environmentally sustainable construction systems, thus requiring lines of research aimed at keeping energy consumption in new buildings as low as possible. One of the main goals of this research is to efficiently contribute to reducing the amount of residue from olive oil extraction using a two-phase method. This can be achieved by producing alternative structural materials to be used in the construction industry by means of a circular economy. The technical feasibility of adding said residue to ceramic paste was proven by analyzing the changes produced in the physical properties of the paste, which were then compared to the properties of the reference materials manufactured with clay without residue. Results obtained show that the heating value of wet pomace can contribute to the thermal needs of the sintering process, contributing 30% of energy in pieces containing 3% of said material. Likewise, adding larger amounts of wet pomace to the clay body causes a significant decrease in bulk density values.

  2. Observation of Enhanced Hole Extraction in Br Concentration Gradient Perovskite Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Cheol; Kim, Byeong Jo; Son, Dae-Yong; Park, Nam-Gyu; Jung, Hyun Suk; Choi, Mansoo

    2016-09-14

    Enhancing hole extraction inside the perovskite layer is the key factor for boosting photovoltaic performance. Realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials has been expected to exhibit rapid hole extraction due to the precise bandgap tuning. Moreover, a formation of Br-rich region on the tri-iodide perovskite layer is expected to enhance moisture stability without a loss of current density. However, conventional synthetic techniques of perovskite materials such as the solution process have not achieved the realization of halide concentration gradient perovskite materials. In this report, we demonstrate the fabrication of Br concentration gradient mixed halide perovskite materials using a novel and facile halide conversion method based on vaporized hydrobromic acid. Accelerated hole extraction and enhanced lifetime due to Br gradient was verified by observing photoluminescence properties. Through the combination of secondary ion mass spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, the diffusion behavior of Br ions in perovskite materials was investigated. The Br-gradient was found to be eventually converted into a homogeneous mixed halide layer after undergoing an intermixing process. Br-substituted perovskite solar cells exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 18.94% due to an increase in open circuit voltage from 1.08 to 1.11 V and an advance in fill-factor from 0.71 to 0.74. Long-term stability was also dramatically enhanced after the conversion process, i.e., the power conversion efficiency of the post-treated device has remained over 97% of the initial value under high humid conditions (40-90%) without any encapsulation for 4 weeks.

  3. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucchetti, Massimo [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Utili, Marco, E-mail: marco.utili@enea.it [ENEA UTIS – C.R. Brasimone, Bacino del Brasimone, Camugnano, BO (Italy); Nicolotti, Iuri [DENERG, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Ying, Alice [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States); Franza, Fabrizio [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Abdou, Mohamed [University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  4. Tritium control in fusion reactor materials: A model for Tritium Extracting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Utili, Marco; Nicolotti, Iuri; Ying, Alice; Franza, Fabrizio; Abdou, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a Molecular sieve as adsorbent material. • A computational model has been setup and tested in this paper. • The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. • It turns out the capability to model the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT). - Abstract: In fusion reactors, tritium is bred by lithium isotopes inside the blanket and then extracted. However, tritium can contaminate the reactor structures, and can be eventually released into the environment. Tritium in reactor components should therefore be kept under close control throughout the fusion reactor lifetime, bearing in mind the risk of accidents, the need for maintenance and the detritiation of dismantled reactor components before their re-use or disposal. A modeling work has been performed to address these issues in view of its utilization for the TES (Tritium Extraction System), in the case of the HCPB TBM and for a molecular sieve as adsorbent material. A computational model has been setup and tested. The results of experimental measurement of fundamental parameters such as mass transfer coefficients have been implemented in the model. It turns out the capability of the model to describe the extraction process of gaseous tritium compounds and to estimate the breakthrough curves of the two main tritium gaseous species (H2 and HT).

  5. Control Analysis Of Tobacco Raw Material Supplies Using Eoq Method Economic Order Quantity To Reach Efficiency Total Costs Of Raw Material In Pr. Sukun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwik Sudarwati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The raw material inventory control system determines and guarantees the availability of raw material stock in the right quantity quality and timing. The problem in this research is the procurement of raw materials of tobacco. PR. Sukun still often experiences the excess. This is related to the frequency of raw material purchases and the quantity of raw material purchases which can lead to waste of working capital embedded in raw material inventory raw material ordering costs and raw material storage costs. The purpose of this research is to know how to make an efficiency level in procurement of raw material inventory between EOQ method compared with policy of PR. Sukun. The type of research used is analytic descriptive type. Data analysis begins by analyzing raw material quantity comparison total raw material inventory cost and raw material cost between PR Sukun policy with EOQ method. Based on the results of research known that by using EOQ method can be much more efficient compared to policy of PR. Sukun. The quantity and frequency of purchasing raw materials is less but still take into account the safety stock and reorder point so the production process is not disturbed. In addition the cost of purchasing ordering costs and raw materials storage costs less so as to create efficiencies on the cost of raw materials inventory. PR. Sukun in the procurement of raw material inventory should use EOQ method to be more efficient and take into account the safety stock and reorder point to avoid the inventory excess of raw materials.

  6. Selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction of metal ions from waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.N.; Laintz, K.E.; Yonker, C.R.

    1993-01-01

    The removal of toxic organics, metals, and radioisotopes from solids or liquids is a major concern in the treatment of industrial and nuclear wastes. For this reason, developing methods for selective separation of toxic metals and radioactive materials from solutions of complex matrix is an important problem in environmental research. Recent developments indicate supercritical fluids are good solvents for organic compounds. Many gases become supercritical fluids under moderate temperatures and pressures. For example, the critical temperature and pressure of carbon dioxide are 31 degrees C and 73 atm, respectively. The high diffusivity, low viscosity, and T-P dependence of solvent strength are some attractive properties of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). Since CO 2 offers the additional benefits of stability and non-toxicity, the SFE technique avoids generation of organic liquid waste and exposure of personnel to toxic solvents. While direct extraction of metal ions by supercritical fluids is highly inefficient, these ions when complexed with organic ligands become quite soluble in supercritical fluids. Specific ligands can be used to achieve selective extraction of metal ions in this process. After SFE, the fluid phase can be depressurized for precipitation of the metal chelates and recycled. The ligand can also be regenerated for repeated use. The success of this selective chelation-supercritical fluid extraction (SC-SFE) process depends on a number of factors including the efficiencies of the selective chelating agents, solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical fluids, rate of extraction, ease of regeneration of the ligands, etc. In this report, the authors present recent results on the studies of the solubilities of metal chelates in supercritical CO 2 , experimental ions from aqueous solution, and the development of selective chelating agents (ionizable crown ethers) for the extraction of lanthanides and actinides

  7. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  8. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Part 3. Survey on total energy and material control (Survey on feasibility of structuring a circulation type society); 1999 nendo total energy and material control ni kansuru chosa hokokusho. 3. Junkangata shakai kochiku kanosei chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Structuring a circulation type society indispensably requires effective utilization of energies and resources, to which approaches have been taken by industries independently. An approach upon structuring an industry crossing network may be taken effective for further effective utilization of the energies and resources. The present survey is intended to extract problems therefrom. It is also intended to perform surveys and studies on the following three points: (1) process-linking with different industries aimed at zero wasting in industrial complexes and electric furnaces dispersed adequately nationwide, (2) effective use and cascading utilization of energies and resources, and (3) a circulating type economic system simulation using metallic material industry as the core. It is further intended that problems shall be extracted; the results are compiled as the 'basic technology development for the metallic material circulating type economic system'; technological development themes are extracted; and the draft proposal shall be prepared. The total energy and materials control system (TECOS) activities are aimed at structuring a circulation type industrial structure, in which the following requirements are executed: the process-linking transcending the conventional industrial boundaries is performed; substances included in respective materials and discharges, and energies used in the processes are controlled comprehensively; the energies are utilized at ultra-high efficiency; and minimization of all the discharges is realized. (NEDO)

  9. USE OF SPONGE, Callyspongia basilana EXTRACT AS ADDITIVE MATERIAL ON TIGER SHRIMP CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmiati Rosmiati

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Blue shrimp disease is one of the main problems in tiger shrimp culture. It reduces shrimp quality which eventually will decrease its market price. Blue shrimp is caused by deficiency of nutrition and additive materials such as carotene and other nutrient which function as vitamin source for important metabolic processes and formation of color profile in shrimp and fish. The aims of this study were to study the application effect of carotenoid extract of sponge Callyspongia basilana, as an additive material on the ability of shrimp to get back to normal state after suffering blue shrimp disease and survival rate of shrimp and to find out the optimal concentration of sponge carotenoid extract to cure the diseased shrimp. This study was consisted of two steps namely; (1. Extraction of sponge carotenoid by maseration and fractionation using acetone and petroleum ether solvents and (2, the application of carotenoid extract on the diseased shrimp. The research was arranged in a complete randomized design with four experiments consisted of (A. Control (without carotenoid extract; (B,(C, and (D carotetoid extract addition of 3 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 9 mg/L respectively with three replication each. The test animal used were blue diseased tiger shrimp with the density of 15 ind./container having 7.5–9.5 cm in size and the average weight of 5.5–10.0 g. The study showed that Callyspongia basilana carotenoid extract was able to change blue diseased shrimp to be normal within six days at the concentration of 9 mg/L. The highest survival rate was found in the experiment D (93.3%. Meanwhile, the lowest was obtained by the control population (13.3% and the other two treatments were 80.0%(C and 73.3% (B. The average of water quality parameters such as temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity, nitrite, and ammonia were in the suitable range for the growth and survival rate of tiger shrimp.

  10. Method of and arrangement for extracting volatile bituminous condensable materials from shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodin, H G

    1918-06-22

    A method and arrangement for extracting volatile bituminous condensable materials, such as oils and similar material, as well as sulfur, whereby the material used is heated in a generator by introduction of a hot indifferent gas, such as carbon monoxide or generator gas, which is brought into circulation through a heating apparatus and the generator are characterized by removal of the shales distilled in the generator and their being charged into another generator or furnace where they are oxidized by means of air. Sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide and possible carbon monoxide are formed and the sulfur dioxide and carbon dioxide formed by the oxidation of the distilled shales are brought into contact with hot coal for regeneration of sulfur and carbon monoxide. The patent contains five additional claims.

  11. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  12. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO2 Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Molnar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH, and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2 targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs content (by Folin–Ciocalteu assay. The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO2. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO2 extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO2 extracts of S. officinalis, R. graveolens, A. archangelica, and L. officinalis. EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO2 extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO2 extracts were the most potent (95.7%. EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/g from H. italicum in comparison to hexane or SC-CO2 extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  13. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halloy, David J.; Gustin, Pascal G.; Bouhet, Sandrine; Oswald, Isabelle P.

    2005-01-01

    Fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB 1 /kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-γ mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-α. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB 1 contaminated food or feed

  14. Oral exposure to culture material extract containing fumonisins predisposes swine to the development of pneumonitis caused by Pasteurella multocida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halloy, David J [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Gustin, Pascal G [Department of Functional Sciences, Unit of Pharmacology, Pharmacotherapy and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Liege, Liege (Belgium); Bouhet, Sandrine [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France); Oswald, Isabelle P [INRA, UR66, Laboratory of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 180 Chemin de Tournefeuille, BP3, 31931 Toulouse (France)

    2005-09-15

    Fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum that commonly occurs in maize. In swine, consumption of contaminated feed induces liver damage and pulmonary edema. Pasteurella multocida is a secondary pathogen, which can generate a respiratory disorder in predisposed pigs. In this study, we examined the effect of oral exposure to fumonisin-containing culture material on lung inflammation caused by P. multocida. Piglets received by gavage a crude extract of fumonisin, 0.5 mg FB{sub 1}/kg body weight/day, for 7 days. One day later, the animals were instilled intratracheally with a non toxin producing type A strain of P. multocida and followed up for 13 additional days. Pig weight and cough frequency were measured throughout the experiment. Lung lesions, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cell composition and the expression of inflammatory cytokines were evaluated at the autopsy. Ingestion of fumonisin culture material or infection with P. multocida did not affect weight gain, induced no clinical sign or lung lesion, and only had minimal effect on BALF cell composition. Ingestion of mycotoxin extract increased the expression of IL-8, IL-18 and IFN-{gamma} mRNA compared with P. multocida infection that increased the expression of TNF-{alpha}. The combined treatment with fumonisin culture material and P. multocida delayed growth, induced cough, and increased BALF total cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Lung lesions were significantly enhanced in these animals and consisted of subacute interstitial pneumonia. TNF-{alpha}, IFN-{gamma} and IL-18 mRNA expression was also increased. Taken together, our data showed that fumonisin culture material is a predisposing factor to lung inflammation. These results may have implications for humans and animals consuming FB{sub 1} contaminated food or feed.

  15. Sequential Total Variation Denoising for the Extraction of Fetal ECG from Single-Channel Maternal Abdominal ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jin; Lee, Boreom

    2016-07-01

    Fetal heart rate (FHR) is an important determinant of fetal health. Cardiotocography (CTG) is widely used for measuring the FHR in the clinical field. However, fetal movement and blood flow through the maternal blood vessels can critically influence Doppler ultrasound signals. Moreover, CTG is not suitable for long-term monitoring. Therefore, researchers have been developing algorithms to estimate the FHR using electrocardiograms (ECGs) from the abdomen of pregnant women. However, separating the weak fetal ECG signal from the abdominal ECG signal is a challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the FHR using sequential total variation denoising and compare its performance with that of other single-channel fetal ECG extraction methods via simulation using the Fetal ECG Synthetic Database (FECGSYNDB). Moreover, we used real data from PhysioNet fetal ECG databases for the evaluation of the algorithm performance. The R-peak detection rate is calculated to evaluate the performance of our algorithm. Our approach could not only separate the fetal ECG signals from the abdominal ECG signals but also accurately estimate the FHR.

  16. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms in Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells by which Total Saponin Extracted from Tribulus Terrestris Protects Against Artherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengquan Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Methods: Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT; Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca2+ was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR; Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2 was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and western blotting. Results: TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca2+ induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. Conclusion: These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis.

  17. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells by which total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris protects against artherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengquan; Guan, Yue; Liu, Jiaqi; Zhai, Fengguo; Zhang, Xiuping; Guan, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Total saponin extracted from Tribulus terrestris (TSETT) has been reported to protect against atherosclerosis. We here investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of TSETT underlying protection against atherosclerosis. Cell proliferation was measured with Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT); Intracellular H2O2 was measured with DCFH-DA, a fluorescent dye; Intracellular free Ca(2+) was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscopy; Genes expression was measured with gene array and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (phospho-ERK1/2) was measured with cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting. TSETT significantly suppressed the increase in cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II, significantly suppressed the increase in the intracellular production of H2O2 induced by angiotensin II, significantly inhibited the increase in intracellular free Ca(2+) induced by H2O2, significantly inhibited the increase in phospho-ERK1/2 induced by angiotensin II; significantly inhibited the increase in mRNA expression of c-fos, c-jun and pkc-α induced by angiotensin II. These findings provide a new insight into the antiatherosclerotic properties of TSETT and provide a pharmacological basis for the clinical application of TSETT in anti-atherosclerosis. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Ancient DNA in historical parchments - identifying a procedure for extraction and amplification of genetic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, T

    2016-05-06

    Historical parchments in the form of documents, manuscripts, books, or letters, make up a large portion of cultural heritage collections. Their priceless historical value is associated with not only their content, but also the information hidden in the DNA deposited on them. Analyses of ancient DNA (aDNA) retrieved from parchments can be used in various investigations, including, but not limited to, studying their authentication, tracing the development of the culture, diplomacy, and technology, as well as obtaining information on the usage and domestication of animals. This article proposes and verifies a procedure for aDNA recovery from historical parchments and its appropriate preparation for further analyses. This study involved experimental selection of an aDNA extraction method with the highest efficiency and quality of extracted genetic material, from among the multi-stage phenol-chloroform extraction methods, and the modern, column-based techniques that use selective DNA-binding membranes. Moreover, current techniques to amplify entire genetic material were questioned, and the possibility of using mitochondrial DNA for species identification was analyzed. The usefulness of the proposed procedure was successfully confirmed in identification tests of historical parchments dating back to the 13-16th century AD.

  19. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  20. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerkov Thomsen, Kristina

    2004-02-01

    This work investigates the possibility of applying optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in retrospective dose determinations using unheated materials. It focuses on identifying materials suitable for use in assessment of doses absorbed as a consequence of radiation accidents (i.e. accident dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbed doses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements of single grains of quartz extracted from poorly-bleached building materials can provide useful information on radiation accident doses, even when the luminescence sensitivity is low. Sources of variance in well-bleached single grain dose distributions have been investigated in detail and it is concluded that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component, which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured and minimum detection limits of less than 100 mGy are derived. Measurements of thermal transfer in single grains of poorly-bleached quartz show that thermal transfer is variable on a grain-to-grain basis and that it can be a source of variance in single-grain dose distributions. Furthermore, the potential of using common household and workplace chemicals, such as table salt, washing powder and water softener, in retrospective dosimetry has been investigated. It is concluded that such materials should be considered as retrospective dosimeters in the event of a radiation accident. (au)

  1. Novel bone substitute material in alveolar bone healing following tooth extraction: an experimental study in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyi; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Philipp, Alexander; Hild, Nora; Tawse-Smith, Andrew; Duncan, Warwick

    2016-07-01

    Electrospun cotton wool-like nanocomposite (ECWN) is a novel synthetic bone substitute that incorporates amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles into a biodegradable synthetic copolymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide). The objectives of this study were to develop a tooth extraction socket model in sheep for bone graft research and to compare ECWN and bovine-derived xenograft (BX) in this model. Sixteen cross-bred female sheep were used. Bilateral mandibular premolars were extracted atraumatically. Second and third premolar sockets were filled (Latin-square allocation) with BX, ECWN or left unfilled. Resorbable collagen membranes were placed over BX and selected ECWN grafted sockets. Eight sheep per time period were sacrificed after 8 and 16 weeks. Resin-embedded undemineralised sections were analysed for descriptive histology and histomorphometric analyses. At 8 weeks, there were with no distinct differences in healing among the different sites. At 16 weeks, osseous healing followed a fine trabecular pattern in ECWN sites. Non-grafted sites showed thick trabeculae separated by large areas of fibrovascular connective tissue. In BX grafted sites, xenograft particles were surrounded by newly formed bone or fibrovascular connective tissue. There were no statistically significant differences in bone formation across the four groups. However, ECWN sites had significantly less residual graft material than BX sites at 16 weeks (P = 0.048). This first description of a tooth extraction socket model in sheep supports the utility of this model for bone graft research. The results of this study suggested that the novel material ECWN did not impede bone ingrowth into sockets and showed evidence of material resorption. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An Apparatus for Bed Material Sediment Extraction From Coarse River Beds in Large Alluvial Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, M. B.; Adam, H.; Cooper, J.; Cepello, S.

    2005-12-01

    Grain size distributions of bed material sediment in large alluvial rivers are required in applications ranging from habitat mapping, calibration of sediment transport models, high resolution sediment routing, and testing of existing theories of longitudinal and cross steam sediment sorting. However, characterizing bed material sediment from coarse river beds is hampered by difficulties in sediment extraction, a challenge that is generally circumvented via pebble counts on point bars, even though it is unclear whether the bulk grain size distribution of bed sediments is well represented by pebble counts on bars. We have developed and tested a boat-based sampling apparatus and methodology for extracting bulk sediment from a wide range of riverbed materials. It involves the use of a 0.4 x 0.4 x 0.2 meter stainless steel toothed sampler, called the Cooper Scooper, which is deployed from and dragged downstream by the weight of a jet boat. The design is based on that of a river anchor such that a rotating center bar connected to a rope line in the boat aligns the sampler in the downstream direction, the teeth penetrate the bed surface, and the sampler digs into the bed. The sampler is fitted with lead weights to keep it from tipping over. The force of the sampler `biting' into the bed can be felt on the rope line held by a person in the boat at which point they let out slack. The boat then motors to the spot above the embedded sampler, which is hoisted to the water surface via a system of pulleys. The Cooper Scooper is then clipped into a winch and boom assembly by which it is brought aboard. This apparatus improves upon commonly used clamshell dredge samplers, which are unable to penetrate coarse or mixed bed surfaces. The Cooper Scooper, by contrast, extracts statistically representative bed material sediment samples of up to 30 kilograms. Not surprisingly, the sampler does not perform well in very coarse or armored beds (e.g. where surface material size is on the

  3. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F.; Pullar, R.C.; Braga da Cruz, I.; Jorge, R.; Pintado, M.M.E.; Castro, P.M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 °C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 and β-Ca(PO 4 ) 3 ) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 Cl 2 ) and fluorapatite (Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 F 2 ) were obtained using CaCl 2 and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: ► Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones ► Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production ► Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. ► Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. ► Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications

  4. Extraction and characterisation of apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials from cod fish bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccirillo, C.; Silva, M.F. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pullar, R.C. [Dept. Engenharia de Materiais e Ceramica/CICECO, Universidade de Aveiro, Aveiro (Portugal); Braga da Cruz, I. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Jorge, R. [WeDoTech, CiDEB/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Pintado, M.M.E. [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal); Castro, P.M.L., E-mail: plcastro@porto.ucp.pt [CBQF/Escola Superior de Biotecnologia, Universidade Catolica Portuguesa, Porto (Portugal)

    2013-01-01

    Apatite- and tricalcium phosphate-based materials were produced from codfish bones, thus converting a waste by-product from the food industry into high added-valued compounds. The bones were annealed at temperatures between 900 and 1200 Degree-Sign C, giving a biphasic material of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2} and {beta}-Ca(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}) with a molar proportion of 75:25, a material widely used in biomedical implants. The treatment of the bones in solution prior to their annealing changed the composition of the material. Single phase hydroxyapatite, chlorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}Cl{sub 2}) and fluorapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F{sub 2}) were obtained using CaCl{sub 2} and NaF solutions, respectively. The samples were analysed by several techniques (X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis) and by elemental analyses, to have a more complete understanding of the conversion process. Such compositional modifications have never been performed before for these materials of natural origin to tailor the relative concentrations of elements. This paper shows the great potential for the conversion of this by-product into highly valuable compounds for biomedical applications, using a simple and effective valorisation process. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apatite and calcium phosphate compounds extraction from cod fish bones Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone calcination: biphasic material hydroxyapatite-calcium phosphate production Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bone pre-treatments in solution change the material composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Single phase materials (hydroxy-, chloro- or fluoroapatite) are obtained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concentration of other elements (Na, F, Cl) suitable for biomedical applications.

  5. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  6. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry using single grains of quartz extracted from unheated materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    dosimetry). Special attention has been paid to quartz extracted from unheated building materials such as concrete and mortar. The single-aliquot regeneration-dose (SAR) protocol has been used to determine absorbeddoses in small aliquots as well as single grains of quartz. It is shown that OSL measurements...... that the observed variability in the data is consistent with the sum (in quadrature) of a component,which depends on the number of photons detected from each grain, and a fixed component independent of light level. Dose depth profiles through laboratory irradiated concrete bricks have successfully been measured...

  7. Niobium, tantalum and titanium extraction from natural and technogenic raw materials of the Kola Peninsula by liquid-liquid extraction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassikova, N.I.; Kassikov, A.G.; Balabanov, Yu.I.; Petrov, V.B.; Kalinnikov, V.T.

    2003-01-01

    Such rare metals as niobium and tantalum are important strategic materials underlying many of the modern advanced technologies. Since the extraction and processing of rare metal concentrates from own deposits has diminished abruptly in recent years, it is essential to look into the possibility of extracting these elements from various production wastes. This work discusses liquid-liquid extraction and purification of niobium, tantalum and titanium from process solutions of loparite, perovskite and sphene concentrate decomposition with sulphuric and hydrochloric acids; niobium from lithium niobate production wastes decomposed by hydrochloric acid; and tantalum from tantalum capacitor and heat-resistant alloy wastes. (Original)

  8. Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Enzymatic Extraction Conditions for Improving Total Phenolic Content, Antioxidant and Antitumor Activities In Vitro from Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb. Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Mao, Yi-Dan; Wang, Yi-Fan; Raza, Aun; Qiu, Li-Peng; Xu, Xiu-Quan

    2017-03-06

    Stems are the important residues of Trapa quadrispinosa Roxb., which are abundant in phenolic compounds. Ultrasonic-assisted enzymatic extraction (UAEE) is confirmed as a novel extraction technology with main advantages of enhancing extraction yield and physiological activities of the extracts from various plants. In this study, UAEE was applied to obtain the highest yield of phenolic content, strongest antioxidant, and antitumor activities and to optimize the extraction conditions using response surface methodology (RSM). The extracts from the stems of T. quadrispinosa were characterized by determination of their antioxidant activities through 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazxyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), ferric reducing antioxidant capacity (FRAC) methods and of their antitumor activity by MTT method. The selected key independent variables were cellulase concentration ( X ₁: 1.5%-2.5%), extraction time ( X ₂: 20-30 min) and extraction temperature ( X ₃: 40-60 °C). The optimal extraction conditions for total phenolic content (TPC) value of the extracts were determined as 1.74% cellulase concentration, 25.5 min ultrasonic extraction time and 49.0 °C ultrasonic temperature. Under these conditions, the highest TPC value of 53.6 ± 2.2 mg Gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry weight (DW) was obtained, which agreed well with the predicted value (52.596 mg GAE/g·DW. Furthermore, the extracts obtained from UAEE presented highest antioxidant activities through ABTS, DPPH, TAC and FRAC methods were of 1.54 ± 0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent (TE)/g·DW; 1.45 ± 0.07 mmol·TE/g·DW; 45.2 ± 2.2 mg·GAE/g·DW; 50.4 ± 2.6 μmol FeSO₄ equivalent/g·DW and lowest IC 50 values of 160.4 ± 11.6 μg/mL, 126.1 ± 10.8 μg/mL, and 178.3 ± 13.1 μg/mL against Hela, HepG-2 and U251 tumor cells, respectively. The results indicated that the UAEE was an efficient alternative to improve

  9. Hippophae leaf extract (SBL-1) countered radiation induced dysbiosis in jejunum of total body 60Cobalt gamma - irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beniwal, C.S.; Madhu Bala

    2014-01-01

    Single dose of SBL-1 administered at the rate 30 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) 30 min prior to whole body 60 Co-gamma-irradiation at lethal dose (10 Gy), rendered >90% survival in comparison to zero survival in the non-SBL-1 treated 60 Co-gamma-irradiated (10 Gy) mice population (J Herbs Spices Med Plants, 2009; 15(2): 203-215). Present study investigated the effect of SBL-1 on jejunal microbiota in lethally irradiated mice. Study was performed with inbred Swiss albino Strain 'A' male mice (age 9 weeks) weighing 28±2 g. The animals were maintained under controlled environment at 26±2℃; 12 h light/dark cycle and offered standard animal food (Golden feed, Delhi) as well as tap water ad libitum. Metagenomic DNA was extracted, purified and quantified from jejunum of the mice. Universal primers (27f and 1492r) were used to amplify the 16S rRNA DNA from the metagenomic DNA. Amplicons were sequenced, vector contamination and chimeras were removed. The sequences (GenBank Accession No: KF681283 to KF681351) were taxonomically classified by using Sequence Match program, Ribosomal Database Project as well as by nucleotide-BLAST (E-value: 10, database: 16S rRNA gene sequences, Bacteria and Archea). Phylogenetic Tree was prepared using MEGA 5.2 package, using maximum likelihood algorithm after sequence alignment by MUSCLE. Thermus aquaticus was used as out-group to construct rooted tree. Branch stability was assessed by bootstrap analysis. Untreated animals and the animals treated with SBL-1 had 100% Lactobacillus; 60 Co gamma-irradiated animals had 55% Cohaesibacter (Alphaproteobacteria); 27% Mycoplasma (Tenericutes) and only 18% Lactobacillus; animals treated with SBL-1 prior to irradiation had 89% Lactobacillus and 11% Clostridium. This study demonstrated that treatment with SBL-1 at radioprotective doses before total body irradiation with lethal dose (10 Gy) countered the jejunal dysbiosis. (author)

  10. Protective effects of total extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae) roots on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaohui; Liang, Tao; Wen, Qingwei; Lin, Xing; Tang, Jingzhi; Zuo, Qiaoyun; Tao, Liqun; Xuan, Feifei; Huang, Renbin

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR), which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight) and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d) and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d) via intragastric gavage for three weeks. The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs) and free fatty acids (FFAs), whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9) and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Protective Effects of Total Extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae Roots on Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Xu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Chinese culture, the roots of Averrhoa carambola L. have long been used for medical purposes due to their potent pharmaceutical activities, such as improving digestive function and treating diabetes. Methods: Recently, we prepared extracts of Averrhoa carambola L. root (EACR, which were isolated from Averrhoa carambola L. roots using ethanol or water. This study was designed to investigate the potential effects of EACR on streptozotocin (STZ diabetic mice and to explore the underlying mechanism of these effects. Male mice were injected with STZ through the tail vein (120 mg/kg body weight and were identified as a diabetic mouse model when the level of blood glucose was ≥11.1 mmol/L. Subsequently, the mice were administered EACR (150, 300, 600, 1200 mg/kg body weight/d and metformin (320 mg/kg body weight/d via intragastric gavage for three weeks. Results: The results indicated that EACR significantly decreased the serum levels of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs and free fatty acids (FFAs, whereas the content of serum insulin was elevated. In addition, the expressions of apoptosis-related regulators (including caspase-3, caspase-8 and caspase-9 and the apoptosis-induced protein Bax were markedly down-regulated by EACR, whereas the expression of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was notably increased. Furthermore, EACR could protect the diabetic mice against the STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. Conclusion: Taken together, these findings indicate that EACR plays an effective hyperglycemic role that is associated with ameliorating metabolic functions and with inhibiting apoptosis in pancreas tissue.

  12. Assessment of efficacy and safety of various adjuvant formulations with a total soluble extract of Trichinella spiralis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucouturier J.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Trichinellosis, a re-emerging zoonosis in several countries and pig, is the main species responsible for its transmission to human. Vaccination of swine could be an alternative to prevent the risk of human contamination. In order to develop an efficient and safe inactivate vaccine, the choice of the adjuvant is an important issue. The aim of this study was to develop and select potent and safe adjuvants by screening them in an experimental model with a crude soluble antigen from L1 muscular larvae (ML of Trichinella spiralis (Ts. The efficacy was checked by the quantification of specific antibody levels. Specific and non-specific IgE antibody levels were also assessed. Safety was checked by the assessment of the local reaction at the injection site.Various Montanide® ISA adjuvant formulations including water in oil, oil in water and multiphasic emulsions, but also nanoparticles or microbeads were tested. The results clearly showed differences between the antibody responses induced by the adjuvants and demonstrated the necessity to use an adjuvant to obtain a specific IgG (IgG1or lgG2a response directed against the total soluble extract of Ts. All the formulations enhanced the humoral immune response. The origin of the oil contained in the emulsions played an important role on the efficacy. Indeed emulsions based on mineral oils were more efficient than those based on metabolisable oils. However it was linked with stronger local reactions. Multiphasic and oil in water emulsions but also nanoparticles failed to induce 1gG2a antibody levels. Microbeads and water in oil formulations based on mineral oils were more efficient. This experimentation allowed then the selection of several adjuvants which efficacy will be further Investigated by a challenge test and an analysis of the cellular populations involved in the mechanism of the immune response.

  13. A Metabolism-Based Synergy for Total Coumarin Extract of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae and Ligustrazine on Migraine Treatment in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae dahuricae, containing coumarins, which might affect cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP450 activity, has been co-administered with ligustrazine, a substrate of CYP450s, for the clinical treatment of migraine. However, whether a pharmacokinetic-based synergy exists between Radix Angelicae dahuricae and ligustrazine is still unknown. In this study, the total coumarin extract (TCE of Radix Angelicae dahuricae (50 mg/kg, orally reinforced the anti-migraine activity of ligustrazine by declining head scratching, plasma calcitonin gene-related peptide, and serum nitric oxide, as well as increasing plasma endothelin levels in rats (p < 0.05. Moreover, the pharmacokinetic study reflected that TCE potentiated the area under the concentration–time curve of ligustrazine and prolonged its mean retention time in rats (p < 0.05. Besides, the IC50 for TCE, imperatorin and isoimperatorin inhibiting ligustrazine metabolism were 5.0 ± 1.02, 1.35 ± 0.46, 4.81 ± 1.14 µg/mL in human liver microsomes, and 13.69 ± 1.11, 1.19 ± 1.09, 1.69 ± 1.17 µg/mL in rat liver microsomes, respectively. Moreover, imperatorin and isoimperatorin were CYP450s inhibitors with IC50 < 10 µM for CYP1A2, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4. Therefore, this study concluded that Radix Angelicae dahuricae could increase ligustrazine plasma concentration and then reinforce its pharmacological effect by inhibiting its metabolism through interference with CYP450s. This could be one mechanism for the synergy between Radix Angelicae dahuricae and ligustrazine on migraine treatment.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of oscillations in extracted material parameters for finite Bragg stacks using the NRW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2012-01-01

    A 1D dielectric finite Bragg stack situated in a rectangular waveguide and illuminated by the fundamental TE10 mode is examined analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Calculated as well as measured scattering parameters are used to extract the effective/equivalent material parameters...... for three specific configurations of its constituent unit cell. Particular attention is devoted to the absence/presence of certain oscillations in the extracted material parameters, depending on the unit cell configuration. The results for the finite Bragg stack are further verified to agree with those...... of an infinite Bragg stack, for which the dispersion equation is used in conjunction with the Floquet-Bloch harmonics expansion to extract the material parameters. It is shown that the extracted material parameters for the finite and infinite Bragg stacks agree for the symmetric unit cell configuration....

  15. Application of composite materials based on various extractants for isolation of lanthanides(III) nitrates from multicomponent aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyrin, A.A.; Pyartman, A.K.; Kesnikov, V.A.; Pleshkov, M.A.; Exekov, M.H.

    1999-01-01

    In present work we obtained samples of composite materials mentioned containing tributylphosphate (TBP) and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate (TAMAN). Extraction of lanthanides(III) nitrates of cerium group from multicomponent aqueous solutions by means of these materials was studied. Some systems with different concentration of sodium nitrate up to 5 mol/l and the same systems containing additions of sodium chloride or sulfate along with sodium nitrate was investigated, isotherm of extraction being obtained for all cases. Also we compared in identical conditions extraction process when liquid extractants were used and process with composite materials. It was found that traditional extraction systems and systems based on composite extractants demonstrated almost the same extraction properties in respect to lanthanides(III) nitrates. Extraction isotherms observed in identical conditions and being shown in the same coordinates had no difference with taking into account errors of experiment. This fact allow to use the same mathematical model for those systems. For systems studied it was generated mathematical model that is able to describe extraction process when component concentration vary in wide range, with assumption being used that ratio activity coefficients in organic phase stay constant. (authors)

  16. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-10

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  17. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  18. New sorbent materials for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from human urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak, Renata; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowaczyk, Alicja; Raczak-Gutknecht, Joanna; Kordalewska, Marta; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Waszczuk-Jankowska, Małgorzata; Tomczak, Ewa; Kaliszan, Michał; Buszewski, Bogusław; Markuszewski, Michał J

    2016-02-20

    An increase in cocaine consumption has been observed in Europe during the last decade. Benzoylecgonine, as a main urinary metabolite of cocaine in human, is so far the most reliable marker of cocaine consumption. Determination of cocaine and its metabolite in complex biological samples as urine or blood, requires efficient and selective sample pretreatment. In this preliminary study, the newly synthesized sorbent materials were proposed for selective extraction of cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples. Application of these sorbent media allowed to determine cocaine and benzoylecgonine in urine samples at the concentration level of 100ng/ml with good recovery values as 81.7%±6.6 and 73.8%±4.2, respectively. The newly synthesized materials provided efficient, inexpensive and selective extraction of both cocaine and benzoylecgonine from urine samples, which can consequently lead to an increase of the sensitivity of the current available screening diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  20. Mackerel (Scomber Scrombrus Oil Extraction and Evaluation as Raw Materials for Industrial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. BAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction, evaluation and refining of fish oil from mackerel (scomber scrombrus has been conducted in this work. The total percentage oil yield using solvent extraction and total moisture content was 28.24% and 56.50 %respectively, which were found to increase linearly with time. The analytical properties of the crude and the refined oil were evaluated. It was observed that the crude oil consist from: acid value 2.5 mg/KOH, peroxide value 2.19 mEq/kg, saponification value 201.6 mgKOH/g, iodine value 108.09 I2/100g, specific gravity 0.911, refractive index 1.485 and reddish brown colour. The refined oil was also evaluated as follows: acid value 2.27 mg/KOH, peroxide 1.00 meq/kg, saponification value 147.84 mgKOH/g, iodine value 106.93 I2 /100g and golden brown colour. These values fall within the acceptable standard values. The refining of the oil brought about a notable improvement in the analytical properties of the oil. Thus, leads to a high quality fish oil in terms of the taste, colour, odours, shelf life and market value. Based on the improved characteristics of the oil, it could be suitable for applications in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  1. Mechanical Behavior Optimization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells as a Sustainable Material for Shopping Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Giacomo; Elhussieny, Amal; Faisal, Marwa; Fahim, I S; Everitt, Nicola M

    2018-05-22

    The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research-with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose). Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. The raw materials most abundantly available are the shells of crab, shrimp, and prawn. Hence, in this study chitosan was selected as one of the main components of biodegradable materials used for shopping bag production. Firstly, chitin was extracted from shrimp shell waste and then converted to chitosan. The chitosan was next ground to a powder. Although, currently, polyethylene bags are prepared by blown extrusion, in this preliminary research the chitosan powder was dissolved in a solvent and the films were cast. Composite films with several fillers were used as a reinforcement at different dosages to optimize mechanical properties, which have been assessed using tensile tests. These results were compared with those of conventional polyethylene bags used in Egypt. Overall, the chitosan films were found to have a lower ductility but appeared to be strong enough to fulfill shopping bag functions. The addition of fillers, such as chitin whiskers and rice straw, enhanced the mechanical properties of chitosan films, while the addition of chitin worsened overall mechanical behavior.

  2. Mechanical Behavior Optimization of Chitosan Extracted from Shrimp Shells as a Sustainable Material for Shopping Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo D’Angelo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of biodegradable materials for shopping bag production, and other products made from plastics, has recently been an object of intense research—with the aim of reducing the environmental burdens given by conventional materials. Chitosan is a potential material because of its biocompatibility, degradability, and non-toxicity. It is a semi-natural biopolymeric material produced by the deacetylation of chitin, which is the second most abundant natural biopolymer (after cellulose. Chitin is found in the exoskeleton of insects, marine crustaceans, and the cell walls of certain fungi and algae. The raw materials most abundantly available are the shells of crab, shrimp, and prawn. Hence, in this study chitosan was selected as one of the main components of biodegradable materials used for shopping bag production. Firstly, chitin was extracted from shrimp shell waste and then converted to chitosan. The chitosan was next ground to a powder. Although, currently, polyethylene bags are prepared by blown extrusion, in this preliminary research the chitosan powder was dissolved in a solvent and the films were cast. Composite films with several fillers were used as a reinforcement at different dosages to optimize mechanical properties, which have been assessed using tensile tests. These results were compared with those of conventional polyethylene bags used in Egypt. Overall, the chitosan films were found to have a lower ductility but appeared to be strong enough to fulfill shopping bag functions. The addition of fillers, such as chitin whiskers and rice straw, enhanced the mechanical properties of chitosan films, while the addition of chitin worsened overall mechanical behavior.

  3. Automated atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total arsenic in water and streambed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M.

    1977-01-01

    An automated method to determine both inorganic and organic forms of arsenic In water, water-suspended mixtures, and streambed materials Is described. Organic arsenic-containing compounds are decomposed by either ultraviolet radiation or by suHurlc acid-potassium persulfate digestion. The arsenic liberated, with Inorganic arsenic originally present, is reduced to arsine with sodium borohydrlde. The arable Is stripped from the solution with the aid of nitrogen and Is then decomposed In a tube furnace heated to 800 ??C which Is placed in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed to levels of 1 ??g arsenic per liter.

  4. Method for increasing the lifetime of an extraction medium used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and/or breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmieder, H.; Stieglitz, L.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for increasing the lifetime of an extraction medium containing an organophosphorus acid ester and a hydrocarbon and being used for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and/or breeder materials. Impurities resulting from chemical and/or radiolytic decomposition and interfering compounds of such impurities with radionuclides are removed from the extraction medium by bringing the extraction medium, after use, into intimate contact with an aqueous hydrazine hydrate solution having a concentration of between 0.1 and 1.0 molar at a temperature between 20 to 75 0 C. The aqueous hydrazine hydrate solution is then separated from the extraction medium

  5. Chemical composition, total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from red chilli seeds (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Gurnani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of present study were to assess the antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Capsicum frutescens L. seeds and to characterize the chemical constituents of the crude extracts. The n-hexane and chloroform extracts were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS, which showed the presence of many biologically important volatile constituents, including heterocyclic compounds, β-diketones, hydrocarbons, long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids, and their derivatives, such as esters, hydroxy ester, and aromatic compounds. The amounts of the total phenolic content and the total flavonoid content in same the extracts were in the ranges of 7.95–26.15 gallic acid equivalents (GAE mg/g and 4.64–12.84 rutin equivalents (RU mg/g of dry weight of extract, respectively. In the determination of the in vitro antimicrobial activity, seed extracts prevented the growth of most of the tested pathogens by forming significant inhibition zones. The inhibitory activity was especially remarkable (inhibition zone ≥ 13 mm against Pesudomaonas aeruginosa, Klebsilla pneumonae, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. During the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity via DPPH assay, n-hexane and chloroform extracts showed 26.9% and 30.9% free radical scavenging abilities, respectively, at the concentration of 1 mg/mL. Considering these results, C. frutescens seeds can be used as a source of novel antimicrobial and antioxidant compounds.

  6. Characterization of high viscosity materials by total reflection x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custo, G.; Boeykens, S.; Vazquez, C.

    2000-01-01

    Gel are soft, solid or solid-like materials of two or more components, one of which is a liquid present in substantial amount. It consists of three-dimensional polymer network and solvent and is an important state of matter. Polymer is a long-chain molecule that is composed of a large number of repeating units of identical structure. These macromolecules assemblies recently developed have interesting properties, which depends of their structure. Their impurities change these physical properties. The great inconvenient of these systems is their high viscosity that difficult sample preparation and analysis by most common chemical techniques. The purpose of this work is to explore the applicability of the TRXRF for the multi-elemental and structural analysis of synthetic and natural aqueous gels (mean polymer molecular weight greater than 10 3 ). The polymers investigated are scleroglucan, polyacrilamide, polyoxyethylene and xhantan. (author)

  7. The total amounts of radioactively contaminated materials in forests in Fukushima, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Ugawa, Shin; Nanko, Kazuki; Shichi, Koji

    2012-01-01

    There has been leakage of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. A heavily contaminated area (≥ 134, 137Cs 1000 kBq m−2) has been identified in the area northwest of the plant. The majority of the land in the contaminated area is forest. Here we report the amounts of biomass, litter (small organic matter on the surface of the soil), coarse woody litter, and soil in the contaminated forest area. The estimated overall volume and weight were 33 Mm3 (branches, leaves, litter, and coarse woody litter are not included) and 21 Tg (dry matter), respectively. Our results suggest that removing litter is an efficient method of decontamination. However, litter is being continuously decomposed, and contaminated leaves will continue to fall on the soil surface for several years; hence, the litter should be removed promptly but continuously before more radioactive elements are transferred into the soil. PMID:22639724

  8. Single/total-economy aspects of production and utilization of energy from renewable raw materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinhold, K

    1982-01-01

    ''Biosprit (biologically produced gasohol) can compete with synthetically produced ethanol for use in commerce and industries but not fully so with petrol due to the present refinery selling prices. Nevertheless, a 10% admixture will increase the price of one litre of petrol only slightly. If the consumer is not meant to cover this price increase, it could be covered by a small proportion of those expenditures which will be saved through a changeover to biogasohol production and which have been payed for necessary export refunding so far. Even at present, there is a considerable benefit involved for the overall national economy if there was a changeover to biogasohol production. In terms of total economy, transitional or initial subsidization would be just as justified as it is with initial promotion by the government with the introduction of new technologies.

  9. Applications of Total Scattering & Pair Distribution Function Analysis in Metal-Organic Framework Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Hui; Birgisson, Steinar; Sommer, Sanna

    structure. At the same time, there is an ongoing debate on whether the SBU is present prior, or during MOF crystallization in MOF chemistry. However, little is known about MOFs formation mechanism. Currently techniques to study the in situ MOF formation process mainly focused on after......-crystallization process, for example in situ XRD and SAXS/WAXS study on MOF formation. However, the pre-crystallization process in the early stage of MOF formation is still unexplored. In this project, total scattering and PDF study will be carried out to explore the MOF formation process in early stage. This includes......Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) is constructed by metal-oxide nodes and organic ligands. The formation of different structures of metal-oxide nodes (also called secondary building units, SBU) is crucial for MOF final structures, because the connectivity of SBU greatly influence the final MOF...

  10. Geometrical Feature Extraction from Ultrasonic Time Frequency Responses: An Application to Nondestructive Testing of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Valery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing is an essential tool in nondestructive material characterization. Pulse-echo inspection with ultrasonic energy provides signals (A-scans that can be processed in order to obtain parameters which are related to physical properties of inspected materials. Conventional techniques are based on the use of a short-term frequency analysis of the A-scan, obtaining a time-frequency response (TFR, to isolate the evolution of the different frequency-dependent parameters. The application of geometrical estimators to TFRs provides an innovative way to complement conventional techniques based on the one-dimensional evolution of an A-scan extracted parameter (central or centroid frequency, bandwidth, etc.. This technique also provides an alternative method of obtaining similar meaning and less variance estimators. A comparative study of conventional versus new proposed techniques is presented in this paper. The comparative study shows that working with binarized TFRs and the use of shape descriptors provide estimates with lower bias and variance than conventional techniques. Real scattering materials, with different scatterer sizes, have been measured in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed estimators to distinguish among scattering soft tissues. Superior results, using the proposed estimators in real measures, were obtained when classifying according to mean scatterer size.

  11. Study of 225 deg C thermoluminescent of quartz inclusions extracted from cementitious building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Simara S.; Almeida, Geangela M. de; Souza, Suzana O.

    2009-01-01

    Incidents of excessive exposure of the population to ionizing radiation could result from a nuclear explosion, the direct exposure to a source theft or loss or an accidental exposure to a source without shielding, for example. During these incidents the victims seldom are using individual protection equipment used in the measurement and control of the doses that were exposed. One of the ways found to the doses assessment due to exposure to this type of accident is the retrospective dosimetry, which determines the excessive doses of radiation exposure, whether chronological or acute, using common materials available in the public domain. The methodology for the application of retrospective dosimetry for thermoluminescence in buildings previously burned, as bricks, it is already well established. Interest is now turning to the use of cementitious building materials such as mortar and concrete to enlarge the scope of application. This study aimed to examine some of these materials and techniques for their possible application in the doses assessment from an accidental irradiation by thermoluminescence. For this the peak about 225 deg C of natural quartz and it extracted of mortar and concrete was certain your stability for the plateau and storage tests, and also the dependence of your luminescent intensity with radiation dose. Presenting a life relatively tans compared enough to that of the accumulation of natural and long radiation sign for dosimetric applications, besides other favorable characteristics, the mortar presented evidence that is possible for retrospective dosimetry through thermoluminescence. (author)

  12. Extracting material response from simple mechanical tests on hardening-softening-hardening viscoplastic solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Nisha

    Compliant foams are usually characterized by a wide range of desirable mechanical properties. These properties include viscoelasticity at different temperatures, energy absorption, recoverability under cyclic loading, impact resistance, and thermal, electrical, acoustic and radiation-resistance. Some foams contain nano-sized features and are used in small-scale devices. This implies that the characteristic dimensions of foams span multiple length scales, rendering modeling their mechanical properties difficult. Continuum mechanics-based models capture some salient experimental features like the linear elastic regime, followed by non-linear plateau stress regime. However, they lack mesostructural physical details. This makes them incapable of accurately predicting local peaks in stress and strain distributions, which significantly affect the deformation paths. Atomistic methods are capable of capturing the physical origins of deformation at smaller scales, but suffer from impractical computational intensity. Capturing deformation at the so-called meso-scale, which is capable of describing the phenomenon at a continuum level, but with some physical insights, requires developing new theoretical approaches. A fundamental question that motivates the modeling of foams is `how to extract the intrinsic material response from simple mechanical test data, such as stress vs. strain response?' A 3D model was developed to simulate the mechanical response of foam-type materials. The novelty of this model includes unique features such as the hardening-softening-hardening material response, strain rate-dependence, and plastically compressible solids with plastic non-normality. Suggestive links from atomistic simulations of foams were borrowed to formulate a physically informed hardening material input function. Motivated by a model that qualitatively captured the response of foam-type vertically aligned carbon nanotube (VACNT) pillars under uniaxial compression [2011,"Analysis of

  13. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  14. Correlation Between Total Flavonoid Contents and Macrophage Phagocytosis Activity of Fractions From Faloak (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. Barks Ethanolic Extract In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Munawaroh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available On Timor island, Nusa Tenggara Timur, faloak barks (Sterculia quadrifida R.Br. has been used empirically to restore stamina. Faloak bark ethanolic extract proved to have immunomodulatory activity in vitro, which can increase macrophage phagocytosis activity. This research aimed: (i to determine the immunomodulatory active fraction of faloak bark ethanolic extract, (ii to determine the total flavonoid contents of faloak extract and fractions, and (iii to evaluate the correlation of the total flavonoid contents of those extract and fractions with their macrophage phagocytosis activity. The simplisia powder is macerated with 96% ethanol. The extract was dissolved in methanol:water (9:1v/v was then subsequently partitioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and water to obtain n-hexane fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, water fraction, and insoluble fraction. Faloak extract and fractions at concentration 62,5; 125; 250; 500μg/mL were tested for their effect on the peritoneal macrophage phagocytosis of Balb/c mice in vitro by the latex beads method. Phagocytosis capacity and phagocytosis index were analyzed using one-way anova and post hoc Tukey HSD test with 95% confidence level. The results showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the highest macrophage phagocytosis capacity and the highest total flavonoid content compared to other fractions. The highest macrophage phagocytosis capacity of ethyl acetate fraction at concentration of 250 μg/mL was 51,94±4,67%, this value was significantly different from cell control (7,50±1,29%, negative controls of 0,0625% dimethylsulphoxide (6,25±0,36%, as well as positive control of 200 μg/mL echinaceae extract syrup® (9,97±0,33%. The total flavonoid content of ethyl acetate fraction determined by aluminum chloride method was 4,290±0.029 mg of quercetin equivalent/g fraction. There was a positive and strong correlation between the total flavonoid content of these extract and fractions with their macrophage

  15. [Preparation and applications of a supported liquid-liquid extraction column with a composite diatomite material].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jianmin; Ma, Zhishuang; Sun, Ying; Wang, Yongzun; Li, Youxin

    2012-08-01

    A rapid and special supported liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) column was developed with a composite diatomite material. The SLE column was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with acidic, neutral and alkaline compounds dissolved in water. Furthermore, some real complex samples were also analyzed by HPLC with the SLE method. The recoveries of benzoic acid (acidic), p-nitroaniline (alkaline) and 4-hydroxy-benzoic methyl ester (neutral) treated by the SLE column were 90.6%, 98.1% and 97.7%. However, the recoveries of the three compounds treated by traditional liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method were 71.9%, 81.9% and 83.9%. The results showed that the SLE technique had higher recoveries than the traditional LLE method. The spiked recoveries of the complex samples, such as benzoic acid in Sprite and dexamethasone acetate, chlorphenamine maleate, indomethacin in bovine serum, were between 80% and 110% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 15%. For biological specimen, the results could be accepted. Meantime, many disadvantages associated with traditional LLE method, such as emulsion formation, didn't occur using SLE column. The SLE column technique is a good sample preparation method with many advantages, such as rapid, simple, robust, easily automated, high recovery and high-throughput, which would be widely used in the future.

  16. Total milk fat extraction and quantification of polar and neutral lipids of cow, goat, and ewe milk by using a pressurized liquid system and chromatographic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gómez, M P; Rodriguez-Alcalá, L M; Calvo, M V; Romero, J; Mendiola, J A; Ibañez, E; Fontecha, J

    2014-11-01

    Although milk polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids located in the milk fat globule membrane constitute 0.1 to 1% of the total milk fat, those lipid fractions are gaining increasing interest because of their potential beneficial effects on human health and technological properties. In this context, the accurate quantification of the milk polar lipids is crucial for comparison of different milk species, products, or dairy treatments. Although the official International Organization for Standardization-International Dairy Federation method for milk lipid extraction gives satisfactory results for neutral lipids, it has important disadvantages in terms of polar lipid losses. Other methods using mixtures of solvents such as chloroform:methanol are highly efficient for extracting polar lipids but are also associated with low sample throughput, long time, and large solvent consumption. As an alternative, we have optimized the milk fat extraction yield by using a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) method at different temperatures and times in comparison with those traditional lipid extraction procedures using 2:1 chloroform:methanol as a mixture of solvents. Comparison of classical extraction methods with the developed PLE procedure were carried out using raw whole milk from different species (cows, ewes, and goats) and considering fat yield, fatty acid methyl ester composition, triacylglyceride species, cholesterol content, and lipid class compositions, with special attention to polar lipids such as phospholipids and sphingolipids. The developed PLE procedure was validated for milk fat extraction and the results show that this method performs a complete or close to complete extraction of all lipid classes and in less time than the official and Folch methods. In conclusion, the PLE method optimized in this study could be an alternative to carry out milk fat extraction as a routine method. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  17. Comparison of the effectiveness of two different bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction: a controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibaie-M, Behnam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two bone substitute materials for socket preservation after tooth extraction. Extraction sockets in 10 patients were filled with either inorganic bovine bone material (Bio-Oss) or with synthetic material consisting of hydroxyapatite and silicon dioxide (NanoBone). Extraction sockets without filling served as the control. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented protocol for socket preservation and that the choice of a suitable bone substitute material is crucial. The dimensions of the alveolar ridge were significantly better preserved with Bio-Oss than with NanoBone or without treatment. Bio-Oss treatment resulted in better bone quality and quantity for successful implant placement.

  18. Stowing of radioactive materials package during road transport on vehicles of a total weight under 38 tons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Chevalier, G.; Pouard, M.

    1985-01-01

    Results of testing allow the formulation of recommendations for stowing radioactive material packaging for severe accidental conditions during land transport. For frontal impact kinetic energy acquired by deceleration should be totally absorbed by the packaging, as this energy is proportional to its mass it will stay on the vehicle. For side impact, the packaging should yield because kinetic energy to absorb, if fasteners are not deformed before rupture, can be largely over the packaging mass and damage could be very severe

  19. Development of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens) fruit and extract standard reference materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schantz, Michele M; Bedner, Mary; Long, Stephen E; Molloy, John L; Murphy, Karen E; Porter, Barbara J; Putzbach, Karsten; Rimmer, Catherine A; Sander, Lane C; Sharpless, Katherine E; Thomas, Jeanice B; Wise, Stephen A; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Yarita, Takashi; NguyenPho, Agnes; Sorenson, Wendy R; Betz, Joseph M

    2008-10-01

    As part of a collaboration with the National Institutes of Health's Office of Dietary Supplements and the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed two standard reference materials (SRMs) representing different forms of saw palmetto (Serenoa repens), SRM 3250 Serenoa repens fruit and SRM 3251 Serenoa repens extract. Both of these SRMs have been characterized for their fatty acid and phytosterol content. The fatty acid concentration values are based on results from gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis while the sterol concentration values are based on results from GC-FID and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry analysis. In addition, SRM 3250 has been characterized for lead content, and SRM 3251 has been characterized for the content of beta-carotene and tocopherols. SRM 3250 (fruit) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 14 fatty acids as triglycerides, and lead along with reference concentration values for four fatty acids as triglycerides and 16 free fatty acids. SRM 3251 (extract) has certified concentration values for three phytosterols, 17 fatty acids as triglycerides, beta-carotene, and gamma-tocopherol along with reference concentration values for three fatty acids as triglycerides, 17 fatty acids as free fatty acids, beta-carotene isomers, and delta-tocopherol and information values for two phytosterols. These SRMs will complement other reference materials currently available with concentrations for similar analytes and are part of a series of SRMs being developed for dietary supplements.

  20. Solid-phase extraction of the alcohol abuse biomarker phosphatidylethanol using newly synthesized polymeric sorbent materials containing quaternary heterocyclic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Mariana; Jagadeesan, Kishore Kumar; Billing, Johan; Yilmaz, Ecevit; Laurell, Thomas; Ekström, Simon

    2017-10-13

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is an interesting biomarker finding increased use for detecting long term alcohol abuse with high specificity and sensitivity. Prior to detection, sample preparation is an unavoidable step in the work-flow of PEth analysis and new protocols may facilitate it. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a versatile sample preparation method widely spread in biomedical laboratories due to its simplicity of use and the possibility of automation. In this work, SPE was used for the first time to directly extract PEth from spiked human plasma and spiked human blood. A library of polymeric SPE materials with different surface functionalities was screened for PEth extraction in order to identify the surface characteristics that control PEth retention and recovery. The plasma samples were diluted 1:10 (v/v) in water and spiked at different concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 5μM. The library of SPE materials was then evaluated using the proposed SPE method and detection was done by LC-MS/MS. One SPE material efficiently retained and recovered PEth from spiked human plasma. With this insight, four new SPE materials were formulated and synthesized based on the surface characteristics of the best SPE material found in the first screening. These new materials were tested with spiked human blood, to better mimic a real clinical sample. All the newly synthetized materials outperformed the pre-existing commercially available materials. Recovery values for the new SPE materials were found between 29.5% and 48.6% for the extraction of PEth in spiked blood. A material based on quaternized 1-vinylimidazole with a poly(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) backbone was found suitable for PEth extraction in spiked blood showing the highest analyte recovery in this experiment, 48.6%±6.4%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Establishment of five cover crops and total soil nutrient extraction in a humid tropical soil in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to evaluate the establishment of five cover crops and their potential to increase soil fertility through nutrient extraction, an experiment was installed in the Research Station of Choclino, San Martin, Peru. Five cover crops were planted: Arachis pintoi Krapov. & W.C. Greg, Calopogonium m...

  2. Effect of domestic processing on total and extractable calcium and zinc content of bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K; Sehgal, S

    1999-01-01

    Bathua (Chenopodium album) and fenugreek (Trigonellafoenum graecum) stored in polyethylene bags and without packaging for 24 or 48 hours in a refrigerator at 5 or 30 degrees C in polyethylene bags. The fresh leaves were also dried (oven and sun); blanched (5, 10 or 15 min) and cooked in an open pan and a pressure cooker. The processed leaves were analyzed for total and extractable calcium and zinc content. The Ca and Zn content of these leaves varied from 970 to 2230 and 10.50 to 12.30 mg/100 g DM and the percentage HCl-extractability was 80.34 to 83.04 and 82.43 to 83.90, respectively. Non significant effects of drying and storage were observed on total Ca and Zn content and HCl-extractability while blanching and cooking resulted in significant improvement of HCl-extractability of these two minerals. Thus, cooking and blanching are good ways to improve the HCl-extractability of Ca and Zn.

  3. Optimization of dynamic-microwave assisted enzymatic hydrolysis extraction of total ginsenosides from stems and leaves of panax ginseng by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yan; Ren, Hui

    2018-03-21

    Ginseng stems and leaves (GSAL) are abundant in ginsenosides compounds. For efficient utilization of GSAL and the enhancement of total ginsenosides (TG) compound yields in GSAL, TG from GSAL were extracted, using dynamic-microwave assisted extraction coupled with enzymatic hydrolysis (DMAE-EH) method. The extraction process has been simulated and its main influencing factors such as ethanol concentration, microwave temperature, microwave time and pump flow rate have been optimized by response surface methodology coupled with a Box-Behnken design(BBD). The experimental results indicated that optimal extraction conditions of TG from GSAL were as follows: ethanol concentration of 75%, microwave temperature of 60°C, microwave time of 20 min and pump flow rate of 38 r/min. After experimental verification, the experimental yields of TG was 60.62 ± 0.85 mg g -1 , which were well agreement with the predicted by the model. In general, the present results demonstrated that DMAE-EH method was successfully used to extract total ginsenosides in GSAL.

  4. Investigation of Inonotus obliquus (Pers. Pil. Extracts and Melanins after RF-plasma Treatment of Raw Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.Yu. Kuznetsova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency capacitive discharge (RF plasma at low pressure was used as preliminary stage for the intensification of extraction from natural medicinal raw material. RF-plasma treatment was carried out in two modes differed by the nature of plasma-forming gas. Chaga (Inonotus obliquus (Pers. Pil. known as the birch mushroom was selected as a perspective source of raw material. Extraction was carried out in two ways – remaceration and maceration. The analy-sis of chaga extracts and melanins was performed using traditional techniques including determination of physical and chemical, antioxidant and spectral characteristics. The obtained extracts and melanins were compared to the control samples and literature data. RF-plasma treatment of medicinal raw material increased the yield of extractive substances, in particular of the main active component of chaga – melanin. The antioxidant activity of chaga extracts grew, while for melanins it remained at the level similar to that of control samples. The IR spectral characteristics of the studied chaga melanins are similar and agree well with the literature data. Insignificant deviations in the position and intensity of absorption strips were observed for the samples after RF treatment. IR spectra of the studied chaga melanins are similar to those for mushroom melanins, thereby confirming the similarity in their nature. RF-plasma treatment of chaga medicinal raw materials allows to modify them partially. The structural and mechanical properties of melanins modified by RF plasma remain the same.

  5. Effects of process parameters on supercritical CO2 extraction of total phenols from strawberry (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits: An optimization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akay, Seref; Alpak, Ilknur; Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize total phenolic yield of Arbutus unedo fruits using supercritical fluid extraction. A Box-Behnken statistical design was used to evaluate the effect of various values of pressure (50-300 bar), temperature (30-80°C) and concentration of ethanol as co-solvent (0-20%) by CO2 flow rate of 15 g/min for 60 min. The most effective variable was co-solvent ratio (p<0.005). Evaluative criteria for both dependent variables (total phenols and radical scavenging activity) in the model were assigned maximum. Optimum extraction conditions were elicited as 60 bar, 48°C and 19.7% yielding 25.72 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) total phenols/g extract and 99.9% radical scavenging capacity, which were higher than the values obtained by conventional water (24.89 mg/g; 83.8%) and ethanol (15.12 mg/g; 95.8%) extractions demonstrating challenges as a green separation process with improved product properties for industrial applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Extraction of total polyphenols from hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and waxweed / ‘sete-sangrias’ (Cuphea carthagenensis and evaluation of their antioxidant potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Begmeier

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Current research investigates the extraction process of total polyphenols from hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L. and waxweed (Brazilian name: ‘sete-sangrias’ (Cuphea carthagenensis and evaluates the antioxidant potential of their extracts. The extraction stage comprised investigation on the following parameters: i solvents (acetone and ethanol pure and fractioned with water; ii variables (temperature, stirring, solvent ratio, time and pH. Total polyphenols were quantified by Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and antioxidant activity was determined by ABTS•+ (2,2′-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Results showed that, depending on experimental conditions, total phenolic contents for hibiscus and waxweed ranged between 460.86 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 5012.54 mg GAE 100 g-1 and between 462.86 mg GAE 100 g-1 and 4215.99 mg GAE 100 g-1, respectively. Waxweed had a higher antioxidant activity when compared to that of hibiscus by both ABTS•+ and DPPH. Data showed that hibiscus and waxweed have a significant amount of polyphenols which may be extracted in mild processing conditions and then employed as natural antioxidant sources in industrial processes.

  7. Surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric determination of total aflatoxins from wheat samples after magnetic solid-phase extraction using modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, Mohammad Hanif; Allahyari, Mehdi; Pourghazi, Kamyar; Amoli-Diva, Mitra; Taherimaslak, Zohreh

    2015-07-01

    The extraction and preconcentration of total aflatoxins (including aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2) using magnetic nanoparticles based solid phase extraction (MSPE) followed by surfactant-enhanced spectrofluorimetric detection was proposed. Ethylene glycol bis-mercaptoacetate modified silica coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles as an efficient antibody-free adsorbent was successfully applied to extract aflatoxins from wheat samples. High surface area and strong magnetization properties of magnetic nanoparticles were utilized to achieve high enrichment factor (97), and satisfactory recoveries (92-105%) using only 100 mg of the adsorbent. Furthermore, the fast separation time (less than 10 min) avoids many time-consuming cartridge loading or column-passing procedures accompany with the conventional SPE. In determination step, signal enhancement was performed by formation of Triton X-100 micelles around the analytes in 15% (v/v) acetonitrile-water which dramatically increase the sensitivity of the method. Main factors affecting the extraction efficiency and signal enhancement of the analytes including pH of sample solution, desorption conditions, extraction time, sample volume, adsorbent amount, surfactant concentration and volume and time of micelle formation were evaluated and optimized. Under the optimum conditions, wide linear range of 0.1-50 ng mL-1 with low detection limit of 0.03 ng mL-1 were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied to the extraction and preconcentration of aflatoxins in three commercially available wheat samples and the results were compared with the official AOAC method.

  8. The carbonaceous sorbent based on the secondary silica-containing material from oil extraction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, I. V.; Stolyarov, D. V.; Anichina, Ya N.; Porozhnyuk, E. V.

    2018-01-01

    The object of research in this work is the silica-containing waste of oil extraction industry - the waste kieselghur (diatomite) sludge from precoat filtering units, used for the purification of vegetable oils from organic impurities. As a result of the thermal modification of the sludge, which contains up to 70% of organic impurities, a finely-dispersed low-porous carbonaceous mineral sorption material is formed. The modification of the sludge particles surface causes the substantial alteration of its physical, chemical, adsorption and structural properties - the organic matter is charred, the particle size is reduced, and on the surface of diatomite particles a carbon layer is formed, which deposits in macropores and partially occludes them. The amount of mesopores is increased, along with the specific surface of the obtained product. The optimal temperature of sludge modification is 500°C. The synthesized carbonaceous material can be used as an adsorbing agent for the purification of wastewater from heavy metal ions. The sorption capacity of Cu2+ ions amounted to 14.2 mg·g-1 and for Ni2+ ions - 17.0 mg·g-1. The obtained values exceed the sorption capacity values of the initial kieselghur, used as a filtering charge, for the researched metal ions.

  9. Investigations on extraction separation of noble metals from secondary raw materials by means of tracer technique application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban'ski, T.S.; Migdal, V.; Lada, V.

    1979-01-01

    In laboratory scale equilibrium and kinetics of the liquid extraction of gold, platinum and palladium from chloride and nitrate-chloride solutions were investigated. Experiments were done using model solutions and solutions, obtained in processing of secondary raw materials, for example: solutions in aqua regia of anode slurries after electrical refining of silver and jewelry wastes, as well as solutions after extraction of silver from nitrate mwdia. In investigations for determination of the extraction factor, the radioisotope indicators method have been used. Gold-198, platinum-197, palladium-109, silver-110 m and copper-64 were used. Radioisotope platinum-197 was refined from gold-199 on the ionite Dauex 50VX2 in the medium of hydrobromic acid. Gold was extracted by neutral extraction agents such as tributilphosphate; methylizobutylketone; amylacetate; amil alcohol; 2-ethylhexanol and dibutylcarbitol. In details extraction of palladium and platinum by tri-n-actylamine in different diluents with additions of modifiers, as well as their extraction by aliquat 336 in benzene and by some petroleum products. Influence was determined of the time of phases contact, of application of diluents, influence of extracting agents concentrations on the magnitude of extraction factor and on the separation factor for investigated metals [ru

  10. Faecal excretion of total and acid extractable phosphorus in dairy cows fed rations with different levels of phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordqvist, Maria; Spörndly, Rolf; Holtenius, Kjell

    2016-03-15

    The phosphorus (P) originating from livestock operations causes eutrophication. Determination of acid extractable P (AEP) in cattle faeces has been proposed as a tool to identify excessive P feeding. The method has not yet been evaluated in controlled studies with cows subjected to individual recording of P intake. Thus the present study focused on investigating the relationship between different P fractions in faeces from cows fed rations with varying P content. The study also investigated whether AEP in faeces could be used to estimate dietary P intake in relation to the P requirement. The results showed that acid extractable P predicted P overfeeding. P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as acid extractable P. The unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. This study demonstrates in experimental studies a positive relationship between measured AEP and indirectly calculated regulated P. Any P fed in excess of requirements was largely excreted as AEP. This fraction is thought to be the most mobile P fraction with regard to potential runoff losses. However, the unavailable and/or inevitably lost P fractions in the diets were smaller than assumed. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Optimization of Conditions for Extraction of Polyphenols and the Determination of the Impact of Cooking on Total Polyphenolic, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laib, Imen; Barkat, Malika

    2018-01-01

    In this work we optimized the cooking and extraction conditions for obtaining high yields of total polyphenols from potato and studied the effect of three domestic methods of cooking on total phenols, antioxidant activity, and anticholinesterase activities. The optimization of the experiment was carried out by the experimental designs. The extraction of the polyphenols was carried out by maceration and ultrasonication. Determination of the polyphenols was performed by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and CUPRAC(Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), the anticholinesterase activity was evaluated by the method of Elmann. The optimum of total phenolic obtained was: 4.668 × 104, 1.406 × 104, 3357.009, 16,208.99 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of dry extract for crude potato, steamed potatoes, in boiling water, and by microwave, respectively. The three modes of cooking cause a decrease in the total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. PMID:29522482

  12. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denkena Berend

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in

  13. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Berna I; Ostermeier, Sven; Turger, Anke; Denkena, Berend; Hurschler, Christof

    2010-06-15

    Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement implants.

  14. A rolling-gliding wear simulator for the investigation of tribological material pairings for application in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Material wear testing is an important technique in the development and evaluation of materials for use in implant for total knee arthroplasty. Since a knee joint induces a complex rolling-gliding movement, standardised material wear testing devices such as Pin-on-Disc or Ring-on-Disc testers are suitable to only a limited extent because they generate pure gliding motion only. Methods A rolling-gliding wear simulator was thus designed, constructed and implemented, which simulates and reproduces the rolling-gliding movement and loading of the knee joint on specimens of simplified geometry. The technical concept was to run a base-plate, representing the tibia plateau, against a pivoted cylindrical counter-body, representing one femur condyle under an axial load. A rolling movement occurs as a result of the friction and pure gliding is induced by limiting the rotation of the cylindrical counter-body. The set up also enables simplified specimens handling and removal for gravimetrical wear measurements. Long-term wear tests and gravimetrical wear measurements were carried out on the well known material pairings: cobalt chrome-polyethylene, ceramic-polyethylene and ceramic-ceramic, over three million motion cycles to allow material comparisons to be made. Results The observed differences in wear rates between cobalt-chrome on polyethylene and ceramic on polyethylene pairings were similar to the differences of published data for existing material-pairings. Test results on ceramic-ceramic pairings of different frontal-plane geometry and surface roughness displayed low wear rates and no fracture failures. Conclusions The presented set up is able to simulate the rolling-gliding movement of the knee joint, is easy to use, and requires a minimum of user intervention or monitoring. It is suitable for long-term testing, and therefore a useful tool for the investigation of new and promising materials which are of interest for application in knee joint replacement

  15. Solid phase speciation of arsenic by sequential extraction in standard reference materials and industrially contaminated soil samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreweghe, Samuel van; Swennen, Rudy; Vandecasteele, Carlo; Cappuyns, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Leaching experiments, a mineralogical survey and larger samples are preferred when arsenic is present as discrete mineral phases. - Availability, mobility, (phyto)toxicity and potential risk of contaminants is strongly affected by the manner of appearance of elements, the so-called speciation. Operational fractionation methods like sequential extractions have been applied for a long time to determine the solid phase speciation of heavy metals since direct determination of specific chemical compounds can not always be easily achieved. The three-step sequential extraction scheme recommended by the BCR and two extraction schemes based on the phosphorus-like protocol proposed by Manful (1992, Occurrence and Ecochemical Behaviours of Arsenic in a Goldsmelter Impacted Area in Ghana, PhD dissertation, at the RUG) were applied to four standard reference materials (SRM) and to a batch of samples from industrially contaminated sites, heavily contaminated with arsenic and heavy metals. The SRM 2710 (Montana soil) was found to be the most useful reference material for metal (Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) fractionation using the BCR sequential extraction procedure. Two sequential extraction schemes were developed and compared for arsenic with the aim to establish a better fractionation and recovery rate than the BCR-scheme for this element in the SRM samples. The major part of arsenic was released from the heavily contaminated samples after NaOH-extraction. Inferior extraction variability and recovery in the heavily contaminated samples compared to SRMs could be mainly contributed to subsample heterogeneity

  16. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon (Benincasa hispida) seed using response surface methodology and evaluation of its antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimakr, Mandana; Rahman, Russly Abdul; Taip, Farah Saleena; Adzahan, Noranizan Mohd; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ganjloo, Ali

    2012-10-08

    In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM). Process variables were power level (25-75%), temperature (45-55 °C) and sonication time (20-40 min). It was found that all process variables have significant (p yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter). The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY) of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  17. The utilization of mechanochemistry in the extractive metallurgy and at the nanocrystalline materials preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldižárová Eva

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the application of mechanochemistry in the extractive metallurgy and the nanocrystalline materials preparation is studied. The aim of the experiments is the chloride leaching of a complex sulphidic CuPbZn concentrate (Hodruša-Hámre, the modification of properties of CaCO3 (Yauli, Peru for zinc sorption from model solutions and the mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide by elemental iron.The chloride leaching of mechanically activated complex sulphidic CuPbZn concentrate is a selective process. While the recoveries of copper, lead and zinc are 65-85 %, the recoveries of silver and gold are less than 7 % and 2 %, respectively.The positive influence of CaCO3 mechanical activation for zinc sorption from ZnSO4 solution was observed. While only 58 % of zinc sorption was determined after 30 minutes for a non-activated sample, 98 % of zinc sorption was determined after 3 minutes sorption for the sample mechanically activated for 15 minutes.By the mechanochemical reduction of copper sulphide with iron, nanocrystalline copper and iron sulphide are formed. This reaction is an example of the new “solid state technology“, where chemical processes in the gaseous and liquid states are excluded.The results can serve as a contribution to the optimization of copper, lead and zinc extraction from complex sulphidic concentrates, the increase of non-ferrous metals sorption efficiency on mineral sorbents as well as to the nanocrystalline copper preparation.The application of mechanical activation has grown in the laboratory research. The Institute of Geotechnics of SAS has also achieved significant theoretical results in study of mechanical activation of sulphides and their reactivity in the different solid-phase reactions with the effect on industrial applications. The Institute has developed the technology of mechanochemical leaching (process MELT which was successfully tested in a pilot plant unit.

  18. Sensing cocaine in saliva with attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) spectroscopy combined with a one-step extraction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Kerstin M.-C.; Gianella, Michele; Sigrist, Markus W.

    2012-03-01

    On-site drug tests have gained importance, e.g., for protecting the society from impaired drivers. Since today's drug tests are majorly only positive/negative, there is a great need for a reliable, portable and preferentially quantitative drug test. In the project IrSens we aim to bridge this gap with the development of an optical sensor platform based on infrared spectroscopy and focus on cocaine detection in saliva. We combine a one-step extraction method, a sample drying technique and infrared attenuated total reflection (ATR) spectroscopy. As a first step we have developed an extraction technique that allows us to extract cocaine from saliva to an almost infrared-transparent solvent and to record ATR spectra with a commercially available Fourier Transform-infrared spectrometer. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that such a simple and easy-to-use one-step extraction method is used to transfer cocaine from saliva into an organic solvent and detect it quantitatively. With this new method we are able to reach a current limit of detection around 10 μg/ml. This new extraction method could also be applied to waste water monitoring and controlling caffeine content in beverages.

  19. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    -I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure.......e., by measuring both the Bragg and diffuse scattering from a sample. This method has rarely been exploited by the non-oxide thermoelectrics community. , , Treating total scattering data by the Pair Distribution Function method is a logical approach to understanding defects, disorder and amorphous components...... to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type...

  20. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong [Dongwon Research and Development Center, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Jung [Division of Food Science, Jinju International University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Jin [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB.

  1. Study on the change of total fat content and fatty acid composition of the ethanol extract from cooking drips of thunnus thynnus by ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Sub; Choi, Jong Il; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Jin Kyu; Byun, Myung Woo; Lee, Ju Woon; Yoo, Cheon Woo; Kim, Ju Bong; Hwang, Young Jung; Chung, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of a gamma irradiation (GM) and an electron-beam irradiation (EB) on the total fat content and fatty acid composition of ethanol extract from cooking drips of Thunnus thynnus (ECT). The total fat content of samples were determined by fat extraction (Folch method) and fatty acid composition was by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) after fat extraction. The results showed that total fat contents were not changed by GM and EB up to the dose of 50 kGy. The content of unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) such as vaccenic acid and DHA, was decreased by irradiation. But, the content of palmitoleic acid was not changed by GM. In contrast, the content of saturated fatty acids(SFA) such as myristic acid and palmitic acid, was increased by the irradiation. But, the content of stearic acid was decreased with the increase of irradiation dose. Also, it has been shown that the GM had further affected the change of fatty acid content than EB

  2. Study of the composition and gas-phase release characteristics of salt material extracted from MSW ash particles using STA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Frandsen, Flemming; Koukios, E.G.

    2007-01-01

    material extracted from MSW ash particles using a six-stage leaching process is studied using simultaneous thermal analysis (STA). The produced results provide useful information regarding the composition of the salt material and its melting behavior that is considered to play an important role...... to deposition and corrosion problems at MSW incinerators. The results may be used to model the deposition process and to the better understanding of the corrosion process during MSW incineration....

  3. Nuclear material inventory estimation in solvent extraction contactors III. Final report for the period 1 January 1988 - 28 February 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyerlein, A.L.; Geldard, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    Simple mathematical models have been developed for estimating the nuclear material inventory in the solvent extraction contactors of nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities from measured nuclear material concentrations in the tanks feeding the purification cycles. The report describes the models and their application to the Eurochemic Reprocessing Plant in Belgium, and the development of a computer simulation program, PUPART, for investigating the effects of process variation as well as measurement error on near-real-time accounting methods. Figs and tabs

  4. Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina; Sordi, Alessio; Cirulli, Giuseppe; Marionni, Moreno

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Material recycling and recovery from residual waste by physical and mechanical process has been investigated. • About 6% of recyclable can be extracted by NIR and 2-3Dimension selector. • Another 2% of construction materials can be extracted by adopting modified soil washing process. • Extracted material quality is quite high even some residual heavy metal have been detected by leaching test. - Abstract: The mechanically sorted dry fraction (MSDF) and Fines (<20 mm) arising from the mechanical biological treatment of residual municipal solid waste (RMSW) contains respectively about 11% w/w each of recyclable and recoverable materials. Processing a large sample of MSDF in an existing full-scale mechanical sorting facility equipped with near infrared and 2-3 dimensional selectors led to the extraction of about 6% w/w of recyclables with respect to the RMSW weight. Maximum selection efficiency was achieved for metals, about 98% w/w, whereas it was lower for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE), about 2% w/w. After a simulated lab scale soil washing treatment it was possible to extract about 2% w/w of inert exploitable substances recoverable as construction materials, with respect to the amount of RMSW. The passing curve showed that inert materials were mainly sand with a particle size ranging from 0.063 to 2 mm. Leaching tests showed quite low heavy metal concentrations with the exception of the particles retained by the 0.5 mm sieve. A minimum pollutant concentration was in the leachate from the 10 and 20 mm particle size fractions

  5. FORTRAN 4 programs for the extraction of potential well parameters from the energy dependence of total elastic scattering cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labudde, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    An attempt has been made to keep the programs as subroutine oriented as possible. Usually only the main programs are directly concerned with the problem of total cross sections. In particular the subroutines POLFIT, BILINR, GASS59/MAXLIK, SYMOR, MATIN, STUDNT, DNTERP, DIFTAB, FORDIF, EPSALG, REGFAL and ADSIMP are completely general, and are concerned only with the problems of numerical analysis and statistics. Each subroutine is independently documented.

  6. Sorption behavior of charged and neutral polar organic compounds on solid phase extraction materials: which functional group governs sorption?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bäuerlein, P.S.; Mansell, J.E.; ter Laak, T.L.; de Voogt, P.

    2012-01-01

    Numerous polar anthropogenic organic chemicals have been found in the aqueous environment. Solid phase extraction (SPE) has been applied for the isolation of these from aqueous matrices, employing various materials. Nevertheless, little is known about the influence of functional groups on the

  7. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C.; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart, E-mail: s.t.wagland@cranfield.ac.uk

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Samples from multiple core drills were obtained from 4× landfill sites in the UK. • Each sample analysed for rare earth elements, critical metals and valuable metals. • Two stage microwave digestion method ensuring high yield. • High quantities of copper and aluminium were observed in the soil layers of landfill. • Across 4× landfills aluminium and copper present has a value of around $400 million. - Abstract: Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58 ± 6 mg kg{sup −1} for REEs comprising 44 ± 8 mg kg{sup −1} for light REEs, 11 ± 2 mg kg{sup −1} for heavy REEs and 3 ± 1 mg kg{sup −1} for Scandium (Sc) and 3 ± 1.0 mg kg{sup −1} of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are

  8. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Shakeri; Mohammad Soukhtanloo; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): The effects of Curcuma longa (C. longa) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO2, NO3, MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 ?g/ml) rats. Results: Total and mo...

  9. Advances in extraction and analysis of phenolic compounds from plant materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Cong-Cong; WANG Bing; PU Yi-Qiong; TAO Jian-Sheng; ZHANG Tong

    2017-01-01

    Phenolic compounds,the most abundant secondary metabolites in plants,have received more and more attention in recent years because of their distinct bioactivities.This review summarizes different types of phenolic compounds and their extraction and analytical methods used in the recent reports,involving 59 phenolic compounds from 52 kinds of plants.The extraction methods include solid-liquid extraction,ultrasound-assisted extractions,microwave-assisted extractions,supercritical fluid extraction,and other methods.The analysis methods include spectrophotometry,gas chromatography,liquid chromatography,thin-layer chromatography,capillary electrophoresis,and near-infrared spectroscopy.After illustrating the specific conditions of the analytical methods,the advantages and disadvantages of each method are also summarized,pointing out their respective suitability.This review provides valuable reference for identification and/or quantification of phenolic compounds from natural products.

  10. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Novel determination of the total phenolic content in crude plant extracts by the use of 1H NMR of the -OH spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerantzaki, A.A.; Tsiafoulis, C.G.; Charisiadis, P.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Gerothanassis, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using 1 H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d 6 , which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the 'appearance' of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d 6 ; (ii) a subsequent 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D 1 H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO 3 , which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d 4 , of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed 1 H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since 1 H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A e , is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The 1 H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.

  12. The effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa rhizome and curcumin on total and differential WBC and serum oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers in rat model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeri, Farzaneh; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-02-01

    The effects of Curcuma longa ( C. longa ) and curcumin on total and differential WBC count and oxidant, antioxidant biomarkers, in rat model of asthma were evaluated. Total and differential WBC count in the blood, NO 2 , NO 3 , MDA, SOD, CAT and thiol levels in serum were examined in control, asthma, Asthmatic rats treated with C. longa (0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 mg/ml), curcumin (0.15, 0.30, and 0.60 mg/ml), and dexamethasone (1.25 μg/ml) rats. Total and most differential WBC count, NO 2 , NO 3 and MDA were increased but lymphocytes, SOD, CAT and thiol were decreased in asthmatic animals compared to controls ( P longa and curcumin compared to asthmatic group ( P longa and curcumin ( P longa extract and its constituent curcumin in animal model of asthma was observed which suggest a therapeutic potential for the plant and its constituent on asthma.

  13. Some properties of 2-D dielectric-based ENG/MNG material parameters extracted using the S-parameter method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Yunqiu; Arslanagic, Samel

    This work presents a systematic investigation of material parameters for two-dimensional epsilon-negative (ENG) and mu-negative (MNG) materials as obtained by the scattering parameter method. The unit cell consists of infinite dielectric cylinders, their sizes and permittivities are chosen...... to enable the ENG and MNG behaviors. For the both configurations, the permittivity and the permeability is reported. Influence of several effects on the extracted material parameters is examined, including the loss inside the cylinders and the size of the unit cells...

  14. Effect of natural extracts pH on morphological characteristics of hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olenic, L.; Vulcu, A.; Chiorean, I.; Crisan, M.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Dreve, S.; David, L.; Tudoran, L. B.; Kacso, I.; Bratu, I.; Neamtu, C.; Voica, C.

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper we have investigated the pH influence on the morphology of some new hybrid materials based on gold nanoparticles and natural extracts from fruits of Romanian native plants of Adoxaceae family (Viburnum opulus L. and Sambucus nigra L.). It is well known that the natural plants extracts are beneficial for humans thanks to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. The biological activity of these berries is mainly due to their high content of anthocyanins and other polyphenols. The nanoparticles facilitate the penetration of substances in skin, enhancing their antimitotic, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. We have chosen the optimal method to get these materials in which gold nanoparticles of 10-80 nm were obtained. We characterized them by UV-Vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, by TEM and DSC. Creams prepared with the hybrid materials have been tested on psoriatic lesions and the medical results emphasized a remarkable improvement in this diseases.

  15. COMPARISON OF TWO TOTAL RNA EXTRACTION PROTOCOLS FROM CHO-K1 CELLS FOR RT-PCR: CUT-OFF COST FOR RESEARCHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasila Packeer Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Various methods have been described to extract RNA from adherent mammalian cells. RNA isolation in conjunction with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is a valuable tool used to study gene expression profiling. This approach is now being used in mammalian cell bioprocessing to help understand and improve the system. The objective of this study was to compare and determine the most suitable RNA extraction method for CHO-K1 cells in a setting where a relatively large amount of samples was involved. Total RNA was extracted using Total RNA purification kit (without DNase treatment; Norgen, Canada and RNeasy mini kit (with DNase treatment; Qiagen, USA respectively. The extracted RNA was then reverse transcribed, and the cDNA was subjected to PCR-amplifying 18S. Yield from RNeasy kit was significantly higher (0.316 ± 0.033 µg/µl; p=0.004 than Total RNA purification kit (0.177 ± 0.0243 µg/µl. However, RNA purity for both methods was close to 2.0 and there was no significant difference between the methods. Total RNA purification kit is less expensive than RNeasy kit. Since there is no DNase treatment step in the former, extraction time for RNA is shorter. When the extracted RNA was subjected to RT-PCR, both methods were able to show detection of 18S at 219 bp.   Therefore, this study demonstrates that both protocols are suitable for RNA extraction for CHO-K1 cells. RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen is recommended if higher yields is the primary concern and Total RNA Purification kit (Norgen is recommended if time and cost are concerned. ABSTRAK: Pelbagai kaedah telah digunakan untuk mengekstrak RNA daripada sel mamalia lekat.  Pemencilan RNA dengan menggunakan reaksi rantai polimerase transkripsi berbalik (RT-PCR merupakan kaedah penting yang digunakan dalam mengkaji pernyataan gen berprofil.  Pendekatan ini kini digunakan dalam pemprosesan bio sel mamalia untuk memahami dan menambah baik sistem.  Tujuan kajian dijalankan

  16. Total neutron-counting plutonium inventory measurement systems (PIMS) and their potential application to near real time materials accountancy (NRTMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscall, I.; Fox, G.H.; Orr, C.H.; Whitehouse, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    A radiometric method of determining the inventory of an operating plutonium plant is described. An array of total neutron counters distributed across the plant is used to estimate hold-up at each plant item. Corrections for the sensitivity of detectors to plutonium in adjacent plant items are achieved through a matrix approach. This paper describes our experience in design, calibration and operation of a Plutonium Inventory Measurement System (PIMS) on an oxalate precipitation plutonium finishing line. Data from a recent trial of Near-Real-Time Materials Accounting (NRTMA) using the PIMS are presented and used to illustrate its present performance and problem areas. The reader is asked to consider what role PIMS might have in future accountancy systems

  17. Determination of total fluorine in five coal reference materials by proton-induced gamma-ray emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Delbrouck-Habaru, J.M.; Weber, G. [University of Liege, Sart (Belgium). Dept. of Geology, Petrology and Geochemistry

    1996-03-01

    The direct non-destructive proton-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) technique with a germanium detector was applied to the determination of total fluorine concentration in five coal reference materials (BCR 30, NIST 1632b, NIST 1635, SARM 20 and USGS CLB-1). Duplicate analyses were made from five randomly selected bottles of each coal. Individual data are presented and some problems (calibration, proton stopping power, effects of sample heating by the proton beam, background estimation) which were encountered during this study are discussed. Sensitivity and reproducibility of the determinations, and homogeneity of the coal samples with respect to fluorine contents by analysis of variance were investigated. The present data are also compared with the few published values for these reference samples, including other PIGE data. The use of synthetic standards and spiked samples in the present study suggested that the PIGE method was more accurate than other techniques.

  18. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) extract may prevent the deterioration of spatial memory and the deficit of estimated total number of hippocampal pyramidal cells of trimethyltin-exposed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliani, Sapto; Mustofa; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2018-01-01

    Protection of neurons from degeneration is an important preventive strategy for dementia. Much of the dementia pathology implicates oxidative stress pathways. Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) contains curcuminoids which has anti-oxidative and neuro-protective effects. These effects are considered to be similar to those of citicoline which has been regularly used as one of standard medications for dementia. This study aimed at investigating the effects of turmeric rhizome extract on the hippocampus of trimethyltin (TMT)-treated Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided randomly into six groups, i.e., a normal control group (N); Sn group, which was given TMT chloride; Sn-Cit group, which was treated with citicoline and TMT chloride; and three Sn-TE groups, which were treated with three different dosages of turmeric rhizome extract and TMT chloride. Morris water maze test was carried out to examine the spatial memory. The estimated total number of CA1 and CA2-CA3 pyramidal cells was calculated using a stereological method. The administration of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw has been shown to prevent the deficits in the spatial memory performance and partially inhibit the reduction of the number of CA2-CA3 regions pyramidal neurons. TMT-induced neurotoxic damage seemed to be mediated by the generation of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. Turmeric extract might act as anti inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant agent. The effects of turmeric extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg bw seem to be comparable to those of citicoline.

  19. [Effect of total hypothermia on the fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids of rats and sousliks and light irradiation on chemical processes in lipid extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabelinskiĭ, S A; Chebotareva, M A; Kalandarov, A M; Feĭzulaev, B A; Klichkhanov, N K; Krivchenko, A I; Kazennov, A M

    2011-01-01

    Effect of hypothermia on the fatty acid composition of rat and souslik blood phospholipids is studied. Different reaction of these animals to cooling is revealed: in rats no changes were observed in the fatty acid composition of blood phospholipids, whereas in the hibernating there were significant changes in the content of individual fatty acids (FA). The content of monoenic acids in sousliks decreased almost by 50%, while the content of saturated acid (C18) and of polyenic acids C18 : 2omega6 and C20 : 4omega6 rose significantly. Such changes seem to be the mechanism that promotes maintenance of the organism viability under conditions of a decreased level of metabolism, heart rhythm, and body temperature and is evolutionarily acquired. At the same time, the observed changes in the content of individual FA do not lead to sharp changes in such integrative parameters as the total non-saturation of phospholipids, which determines liquid properties of chylomicrons and other lipolipoprotein transport particles of the souslik blood. There are studied absorption spectra of blood lipid extracts of rats and sousliks under effect of light as well as effect of light upon the FA composition of lipid extracts of these animals. The FA composition of lipid extracts has been established to remain practically constant, whereas the character of changes of spectra under action of light indicates the presence in the extracts of oxidation-reduction reactions. The obtained data allow suggesting that in the lipid extract there occurs cooperation both of the phospholipid molecules themselves and of them with other organic molecules, which makes it possible for fatty acids to participate in processes of transport both of electrons and of protons. This novel role of FA as a participant of the electron transfer might probably be extrapolated to chemical reactions (processes) occurring inside the membrane.

  20. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrose, Diana [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  1. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of total extract, stevioside and rebaudioside-A from Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) leaves, using response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameer, Kashif; Bae, Seong-Woo; Jo, Yunhee; Lee, Hyun-Gyu; Ameer, Asif; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2017-08-15

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) consists of stevioside and rebaudioside-A (Reb-A). We compared response surface methodology (RSM) and artificial neural network (ANN) modelling for their estimation and predictive capabilities in building effective models with maximum responses. A 5-level 3-factor central composite design was used to optimize microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) to obtain maximum yield of target responses as a function of extraction time (X 1 : 1-5min), ethanol concentration, (X 2 : 0-100%) and microwave power (X 3 : 40-200W). Maximum values of the three output parameters: 7.67% total extract yield, 19.58mg/g stevioside yield, and 15.3mg/g Reb-A yield, were obtained under optimum extraction conditions of 4min X 1 , 75% X 2 , and 160W X 3 . The ANN model demonstrated higher efficiency than did the RSM model. Hence, RSM can demonstrate interaction effects of inherent MAE parameters on target responses, whereas ANN can reliably model the MAE process with better predictive and estimation capabilities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Characterization, antibacterial, total antioxidant, scavenging, reducing power and ion chelating activities of green synthesized silver, copper and titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Mehran; Karimi, Naser

    2017-12-12

    Recently, major problem related to pathogenic bacteria is augmentation of antibiotic resistance which has been changed treatment and recovery of millions of infectious patients. The present study reports an eco-friendly, rapid and easy method for synthesis of silver (Ag), copper (Cu) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles (NPs) using Artemisia haussknechtii leaf aqueous extract with antibacterial activities against multi-drug resistance (MDR) bacteria species. Three different concentrations (0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 M) of AgNO 3 , CuSO 4 and TiO (OH) 2 were investigated for obtaining optimum NPs green synthesis. Total phenolic content, total flavonoid content of leaf extract and total antioxidant activity (DPPH) assay were determined as radical scavenging methods. UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used due to NPs characterization. The size average of the Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs obtained were respectively 10.69 ± 5.55, 35.36 ± 44.4 and 92.58 ± 56.98 nm. In the case of antibacterial assay, disc diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration, bacterial growth and morphology of four MDR species Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12258, Serratia marcescens ATTC13880 and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were evaluated. Results of this study demonstrated that A. haussknechtii leaf extract with various groups of phytochemicals such as phenols and flavonoids had suitable ability in green synthesis of Ag, Cu and TiO 2 NPs. Also, Ag and Cu NPs had more antibacterial activities compared to TiO 2 NPs.

  3. Optimization of two methods based on ultrasound energy as alternative to European standards for soluble salts extraction from building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Taboada, N; Gómez-Laserna, O; Martinez-Arkarazo, I; Olazabal, M A; Madariaga, J M

    2012-11-01

    The Italian recommendation NORMAL 13/83, later replaced by the UNI 11087/2003 norm, were used as standard for soluble salts extraction from construction materials. These standards are based on long-time stirring (72 and 2h, respectively) of the sample in deionized water. In this work two ultrasound based methods were optimized in order to reduce the extraction time while efficiency is improved. The instrumental variables involved in the extraction assisted by ultrasound bath and focused ultrasounds were optimized by experimental design. As long as it was possible, the same non-instrumental parameters values as those of standard methods were used in order to compare the results obtained on a mortar sample showing a black crust by the standards and the optimized methods. The optimal extraction time for the ultrasounds bath was found to be of two hours. Although the extraction time was equal to the standard UNI 11087/2003, the obtained extraction recovery was improved up to 119%. The focused ultrasound system achieved also better recoveries (up to 106%) depending on the analyte in 1h treatment time. The repeatabilities of the proposed ultrasound based methods were comparables to those of the standards. Therefore, the selection of one or the other of the ultrasound based methods will depend on topics such as laboratory facilities or number of samples, and not in aspects related with their quality parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Supercritical gas extracts from low-quality coals. On the search of new precursors for carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Roberto; Arenillas, Ana; Rubiera, Fernando; Moinelo, Sabino R. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon INCAR, CSIC, Apartado 73, 33080, Oviedo (Spain)

    2004-11-25

    This paper studies the chemical composition of several supercritical gas (SCG) extracts and its influence on the thermal behaviour under carbonisation conditions. The extracts were obtained from a Spanish lignite (Mequinenza), a low-quality coal from the point of view of energy applications. The lignite was treated with toluene, ethanol (EtOH) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvents under different supercritical temperature and pressure conditions. The extracts display high aliphatic nature and enhanced concentrations of oxygen functional groups, aided by the contribution of hydrogenation and oxygen incorporation reactions occurring in the SCG extraction with EtOH and THF. Thiophenic compounds are also present in great concentrations derived from the exceptionally high organic sulphur content of the parent coal. The carbonisation of the extracts renders anisotropic material with fine mosaic texture, as a consequence of the significant thermal reactivity inferred by the aliphatic and oxygenated groups. The size of the mosaic increases with the temperature of the SCG extraction and varies with the supercritical solvent in the order: toluene

  5. New method to determine the total carbonyl functional group content in extractable particulate organic matter by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dron, J; Zheng, W; Marchand, N; Wortham, H

    2008-08-01

    A functional group analysis method was developed to determine the quantitative content of carbonyl functional groups in atmospheric particulate organic matter (POM) using constant neutral loss scanning-tandem mass spectrometry (CNLS-MS/MS). The neutral loss method consists in monitoring the loss of a neutral fragment produced by the fragmentation of a precursor ion in a collision cell. The only ions detected are the daughter ions resulting from the loss of the neutral fragment under study. Then, scanning the loss of a neutral fragment characteristic of a functional group enables the selective detection of the compounds bearing the chemical function under study within a complex mixture. The selective detection of carbonyl functional groups was achieved after derivatization with pentafluorophenylhydrazine (PFPH) by monitoring the neutral loss of C(6)F(5)N (181 amu), which was characteristic of a large panel of derivatized carbonyl compounds. The method was tested on 25 reference mixtures of different composition, all containing 24 carbonyl compounds at randomly determined concentrations. The repeatability and calibration tests were satisfying as they resulted in a relative standard deviation below 5% and a linear range between 0.01 and 0.65 mM with a calculated detection limit of 0.0035 mM. Also, the relative deviation induced by changing the composition of the mixture while keeping the total concentration of carbonyl functional groups constant was less than 20%. These reliability experiments demonstrate the high robustness of the developed procedure for accurate carbonyl functional group measurement, which was applied to atmospheric POM samples. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Automated Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) LC/NMR Applied to the Structural Analysis of Extractable Compounds from a Pharmaceutical Packaging Material of Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwood, Daniel L; Mullis, James O; Davis, Mark; Pennino, Scott; Egert, Thomas; Gonnella, Nina C

    2013-01-01

    The structural analysis (i.e., identification) of organic chemical entities leached into drug product formulations has traditionally been accomplished with techniques involving the combination of chromatography with mass spectrometry. These include gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for volatile and semi-volatile compounds, and various forms of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS or HPLC/MS) for semi-volatile and relatively non-volatile compounds. GC/MS and LC/MS techniques are complementary for structural analysis of leachables and potentially leachable organic compounds produced via laboratory extraction of pharmaceutical container closure/delivery system components and corresponding materials of construction. Both hyphenated analytical techniques possess the separating capability, compound specific detection attributes, and sensitivity required to effectively analyze complex mixtures of trace level organic compounds. However, hyphenated techniques based on mass spectrometry are limited by the inability to determine complete bond connectivity, the inability to distinguish between many types of structural isomers, and the inability to unambiguously determine aromatic substitution patterns. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) does not have these limitations; hence it can serve as a complement to mass spectrometry. However, NMR technology is inherently insensitive and its ability to interface with chromatography has been historically challenging. This article describes the application of NMR coupled with liquid chromatography and automated solid phase extraction (SPE-LC/NMR) to the structural analysis of extractable organic compounds from a pharmaceutical packaging material of construction. The SPE-LC/NMR technology combined with micro-cryoprobe technology afforded the sensitivity and sample mass required for full structure elucidation. Optimization of the SPE-LC/NMR analytical method was achieved using a series of model compounds

  7. DPPH RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, TOTAL PHENOLICS AND FLAVONOIDS OF WATER SOLUBLE EXTRACTS DERIVED FROM LEAVES AND FRUIT OF Ficus carica L. AND Ficus parietalis Bl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavia Tri Wahyuni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ficus carica L and Ficus parietalis Bl. (Moraceae are closely related plants which also known in Indonesia as Figs L. Considering the wide therapeutic value of Figs, this research was aimed to evaluate the DPPH-radical scavenging activity of both plants as well as their total phenolic and flavonoids. Extracts were produced by using boiled water and diluted to gain the desired concentration. Analyses were performed by using UV-vis spectrophotometer. Radical scavenging activity testing was done by using radical of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-pycrylhydrazyl to determine the IC50s. The determination of total phenolic was conducted by using Folin-Ciocalteau method and calculated as Gallic Acid Equivalence (GAE. The total flavonoid was measured by using AlCl3-reagents, and calculated as Rutin Equivalence (RE. Afterwards, the radical scavenging activity was correlated to the total phenolic and flavonoids contents. The results showed that the water soluble extract of F. carica fruit had the best IC50 value of 33.38 mg/mL, followed successively by the F. parietalis fruit (35.69 mg/mL, F. parietalis leaves (44.01 mg/mL and the F. carica leaves (76.38 mg/mL. The highest content of total phenolic was shown by the leaves of F. parietalis (1.46% w/w GAE and the lowest was in the fruit or F. carica (0.36% w/w GAE. The highest flavonoid content was detected in the leaves of F. carica (1.42% w/w RE and the lowest was in the F. parietalis fruit (0.20% w/w RE. Correlation analyses of the IC50 values vs. the total phenolic and the flavonoids contents resulted in a positive slope having R2 values as 0.5362 and 0.9895, respectively. As a conclusion, the total flavonoid content influenced the DPPH radical scavenging activity by 98.95%, while the total phenolic content influence was only 53.62%.

  8. Effect of montmorillonite on carboxylated styrene butadiene rubber/hindered phenol damping material with improved extraction resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Meijun; Xi, Xue; Zhang, Xin; Jia, Demin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MMT and XSBR display synergic effect on protecting HP1098 from being extracted. • A new hindered phenol HP1098 was used to prepare damping material. • Effects of three preparation methods on the material properties were studied. - Abstract: Three methods of blending, including direct blending, melt blending and latex blending, were introduced to disperse sodium based montmorillonite (Na-MMT) and N,N′-hexane-1,6-diylbis{3-(5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl-propionamide)} (HP1098) into the carboxylated styrene butadiene (XSBR) matrix. Small angle X-ray Diffraction testing indicated that melting Na-MMT with HP1098 enlarged the d-spacing of Na-MMT, which was further enlarged by mechanical blending with XSBR, and this led to homogeneous dispersion of Na-MMT and HP1098, which was indicated by Transmission Electronic Microscopy; latex blending was found most advantageous in dispersing HP1098 which was essential for improved damping performance. Dynamic Mechanical Analysis was utilized to characterize damping properties, and enhanced static mechanical properties were presumably originated from molecule chains being intercalated into the enlarged galleries of Na-MMT by mechanical blending. Formation of hydrogen bonds was observed by Fourier Transformation Infrared Spectrum and was supposed to be responsible for exceptional damping performance at elevated temperature. Extraction measurement of XSBR/Na-MMT/HP1098 composite indicated that XSBR and Na-MMT showed synergic effect in protecting HP1098 molecules from being extracted, which is a promising method in preparing rubber/hindered phenol damping materials with improved extraction resistance, whereby increasing the performance stability and lifespan of the composite materials. Additional advantage of this type of materials is better processability and shortened vulcanization process

  9. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  10. Column, particularly extraction column, for fission and/or breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietzke, H.; Pirk, H.

    1980-01-01

    An absorber rod with a B 4 C insert is situated in the long extraction column for a uranyl nitrate solution or a plutonium nitrate solution. The geometrical dimensions are designed for a high throughput with little corrosion. (DG) [de

  11. Materializing Exposure: Developing an Indexical Method to Visualize Health Hazards Related to Fossil Fuel Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Wylie

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available How can STS researchers collaborate with communities to design environmental monitoring devices that more effectively express their experiences and address gaps in regulation? This paper describes and shows the results of a novel method of visualizing environmental emissions of corrosive gases such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S exposure using photographic paper. H2S is a neurotoxic and flammable gas that smells like rotten eggs and is frequently associated with oil and natural gas extraction. Communities living with oil and gas development in Wyoming report odors of rotten eggs and describe symptoms of H2S exposure. H2S is recognized as an acute and chronic threat to human and environmental health and oil and gas companies are required to have plans in place to prevent and respond to accidental, high concentration releases of H2S. They are not, however, required to monitor, report or prevent routine daily emissions. Yet 15-25% of the oil and gas wells in the US are predicted to contain H2S, and some communities surrounded by multiple wells report chronic, routine exposure. Chronic exposure is difficult to represent with current tools for monitoring H2S because they are designed to measure acute workplace exposure. Informed by STS theories of black boxes and regimes of imperceptibility that focus on the need to revise not only regulations but also material tools of science, this paper describes the development of an indexical approach to visualizing this hazard. In indexical design, the reactive sensing element of a scientific instrument is brought to the foreground. The silver in the photopaper is an index as it tarnishes with H2S exposure. Discolored tests strips can be arranged together to form data-rich maps of the exposure landscape where this discoloration both represents how the gas spreads through a space and is a physical trace of the gas. Preliminary results in the form of data-rich maps show that regulating H2S emissions as primarily

  12. Association Mapping of Total Carotenoids in Diverse Soybean Genotypes Based on Leaf Extracts and High-Throughput Canopy Spectral Reflectance Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Prabhu Dhanapal

    Full Text Available Carotenoids are organic pigments that are produced predominantly by photosynthetic organisms and provide antioxidant activity to a wide variety of plants, animals, bacteria, and fungi. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is highly conserved in plants and occurs mostly in chromoplasts and chloroplasts. Leaf carotenoids play important photoprotective roles and targeted selection for leaf carotenoids may offer avenues to improve abiotic stress tolerance. A collection of 332 soybean [Glycine max (L. Merr.] genotypes was grown in two years and total leaf carotenoid content was determined using three different methods. The first method was based on extraction and spectrophotometric determination of carotenoid content (eCaro in leaf tissue, whereas the other two methods were derived from high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance measurements using wavelet transformed reflectance spectra (tCaro and a spectral reflectance index (iCaro. An association mapping approach was employed using 31,253 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to identify SNPs associated with total carotenoid content using a mixed linear model based on data from two growing seasons. A total of 28 SNPs showed a significant association with total carotenoid content in at least one of the three approaches. These 28 SNPs likely tagged 14 putative loci for carotenoid content. Six putative loci were identified using eCaro, five loci with tCaro, and nine loci with iCaro. Three of these putative loci were detected by all three carotenoid determination methods. All but four putative loci were located near a known carotenoid-related gene. These results showed that carotenoid markers can be identified in soybean using extract-based as well as by high-throughput canopy spectral reflectance-based approaches, demonstrating the utility of field-based canopy spectral reflectance phenotypes for association mapping.

  13. Lead isotopic signatures in Antarctic marine sediment cores: A comparison between 1 M HCl partial extraction and HF total digestion pre-treatments for discerning anthropogenic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, A.T.; Snape, I.; Palmer, A.S.; Seen, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitive analytical techniques are typically required when dealing with samples from Antarctica as even low concentrations of contaminants can have detrimental environmental effects. Magnetic Sector ICP-MS is an ideal technique for environmental assessment as it offers high sensitivity, multi-element capability and the opportunity to determine isotope ratios. Here we consider the Pb isotope record of five marine sediment cores collected from three sites in the Windmill Islands area of East Antarctica: Brown Bay adjacent to the current Australian station Casey, Wilkes near the abandoned US/Australian Station and McGrady Cove lying midway between the two. Two sediment pre-treatment approaches were considered, namely partial extraction with 1 M HCl and total dissolution involving HF. Lead isotope ratio measurements made following sediment partial extraction provided a more sensitive indication of Pb contamination than either Pb concentrations alone (irrespective of sample pre-treatment method) or isotope ratios made after HF digestion, offering greater opportunity for discrimination between impacted and natural/geogenic samples and sites. Over 90% of the easily extractable Pb from sediments near Casey was anthropogenic in origin, consisting of Pb from major Australian deposits. At Wilkes impact from discarded batteries with a unique isotopic signature was found to be a key source of Pb contamination to the marine environment with ∼ 70-80% of Pb being anthropogenic in origin. The country and source of origin of these batteries remain unknown. Little evidence was found suggesting contamination at Wilkes by Pb originating from the major US source, Missouri. No definitive assessment could be made regarding Pb impact at McGrady Cove as the collected sediment core was of insufficient depth. Although Pb isotope ratio signatures may indicate anthropogenic input, spatial concentration gradients at nearby Brown Bay suggest contamination at McGrady Cove is unlikely. We

  14. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  15. A total cost perspective on use of polymeric materials in solar collectors – Importance of environmental performance on suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Bo; Persson, Helena; Meir, Michaela; Rekstad, John

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A polymeric solar collector system was compared with two traditional ones. • It was found the best in terms of climatic performance per solar heat collected. • The differences in climatic cost between the systems compared however are small. • The low climatic cost makes solar heating better compared to natural gas heating. • Use of Ecoindicator 99 for environmental cost makes solar heating even better. - Abstract: To assess the suitability of solar collector systems in which polymeric materials are used versus those in which more traditional materials are used, a case study was undertaken. In this case study a solar heating system with polymeric solar collectors was compared with two equivalent but more traditional solar heating systems: one with flat plate solar collectors and one with evacuated tube solar collectors. To make the comparison, a total cost accounting approach was adopted. The life cycle assessment (LCA) results clearly indicated that the polymeric solar collector system is the best as regards climatic and environmental performance when they are expressed in terms of the IPPC 100 a indicator and the Ecoindicator 99, H/A indicator, respectively. In terms of climatic and environmental costs per amount of solar heat collected, the differences between the three kinds of collector systems were small when compared with existing energy prices. With the present tax rates, it seems unlikely that the differences in environmental and climatic costs will have any significant influence on which system is the most favoured, from a total cost point of view. In the choice between a renewable heat source and a heat source based on the use of a fossil fuel, the conclusion was that for climatic performance to be an important economic factor, the tax or trade rate of carbon dioxide emissions must be increased significantly, given the initial EU carbon dioxide emission trade rate. The rate would need to be at least of the same order of magnitude

  16. Fish scale collagen sponge incorporated with Macrotyloma uniflorum plant extract as a possible wound/burn dressing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumar, Thangavelu; Prabu, P; Ghosh, Kausik; Sastry, Thotapalli Parvathaleswara

    2014-01-01

    Application of plant extracts for the burn/wound treatment is followed over the decades as a common practice and it is an important aspect in clinical management. In this study porous collagen sponges (CS) were prepared using fish scales and were incorporated with mupirocin (CSM) and extracts of Macrotyloma uniflorum (CSPE) separately to impart antimicrobial activity to the sponges. The results showed that the addition of plant extract increased the tensile strength of CSPE and stability against collagenase enzyme. FTIR studies have shown the incorporation of plant extract in CSPE, SEM studies have revealed the porous nature of the sponges and XRD patterns have shown the retention of collagen triple helical structure even after the addition of plant extract. CSPE and CSM have exhibited antimicrobial properties. The sponges prepared were analysed for their in vitro biocompatibility studies using fibroblasts and keratinocyte cell lines and the results have shown their biocompatible nature. Based on the results obtained, CS, CSM and CSPE may be tried as a burn/wound dressing materials, initially, in small animals in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A new estimation of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoon sericin layer through aglycone determination by hydrolysis-assisted extraction and HPLC-DAD analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ge Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Silk sericin and a few non-protein components isolated from the cocoon layer including two silk proteins in silkworm Bombyx mori has many bioactivities. The dietary sericin possess antinatural oxidation, anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activities. The non-protein components surrounding the sericin layer involve in wax, pigments mainly meaning flavonoids, sugars, and other impurities. However, very few investigations have reported the estimation of the total flavonoids derived from the cocoon layer. The flavonoids are commonly present in their glycosylated forms and mostly exist as quercetin glycosides in the sericin layers of silkworm cocoons. Objective: The aim of this study was to find a more accurate method to estimate the level of the total flavonoids in silkworm cocoons. Design: An efficient procedure of hydrolysis-assisted extraction (HAE was first established to estimate the level of the total flavonoids through the determination of their aglycones, quercetin, and kaempferol. Then, a comparison was made between traditional colorimetric method and our method. In addition, the antioxidant activities of hydrolysis-assisted extract sample were determined. Results: The average contents of quercetin and kaempferol were 1.98 and 0.42 mg/g in Daizo cocoon. Their recoveries were 99.56 and 99.17%. The total sum of quercetin and kaempferol was detected to be 2.40±0.07 mg/g by HAE-HPLC, while the total flavonoids (2.59±0.48 mg/g estimated by the traditional colorimetric method were only equivalent to 1.28±0.04 mg/g of quercetin. The HAE sample also exhibits that IC50 values of scavenging ability of diphenyl picryl hydrazinyl (DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical (HO· are 243.63 µg/mL and 4.89 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These results show that the HAE-HPLC method is specificity of cocoon and far superior to the colorimetric method. Therefore, this study has profound significance for the comprehensive utilization

  19. Development of analytical procedures for determination of total chromium by quadrupole ICP-MS and high-resolution ICP-MS, and hexavalent chromium by HPLC-ICP-MS, in different materials used in the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séby, F; Gagean, M; Garraud, H; Castetbon, A; Donard, O F X

    2003-10-01

    A European directive was recently adopted limiting the use of hazardous substances such as Pb, Hg, Cd, and Cr(VI) in vehicle manufacturing. From July 2003 a maximum of 2 g Cr(VI) will be authorised per vehicle in corrosion-preventing coatings of key components. As no standardised procedures are available to check if produced vehicles are in agreement with this directive, the objective of this work was to develop analytical procedures for total chromium and Cr(VI) determination in these materials. The first step of this study was to optimise digestion procedures for total chromium determination in plastic and metallic materials by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). High resolution (HR) ICP-MS was used to examine the influence of polyatomic interferences on the detection of the (52)Cr(+) and (53)Cr(+) isotopes. If there was strong interference with m/ z 52 for plastic materials, it was possible to use quadrupole ICP-MS for m/ z 53 if digestions were performed with HNO(3)+H(2)O(2). This mixture was also necessary for digestion of chromium from metallic materials. Extraction procedures in alkaline medium (NH(4)(+)/NH(3) buffer solution at pH 8.9) assisted by sonication were developed for determining Cr(VI) in four different corrosion-preventing coatings by HPLC-ICP-MS. After optimisation and validation with the only solid reference material certified for its Cr(VI) content (BCR 545; welding dusts), the efficiency of this extraction procedure for screw coatings was compared with that described in the EN ISO 3613 standard generally used in routine laboratories. For coatings comprising zinc and aluminium passivated in depth with chromium oxides the extraction procedure developed herein enabled determination of higher Cr(VI) concentrations. This was also observed for the screw covered with a chromium passivant layer on zinc-nickel. For coating comprising a chromium passivant layer on alkaline zinc the standardized extraction procedure was more efficient

  20. High performance preconcentration of inorganic Se species by dispersive micro-solid phase extraction with a nanosilica-ionic liquid hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llaver, Mauricio; Coronado, Eduardo A.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.

    2017-12-01

    A highly sensitive and efficient dispersive micro-solid phase extraction (D-μ-SPE) method was developed for inorganic Se speciation analysis. A novel ionic liquid (IL)-nanomaterial hybrid consisting of 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide-functionalized nanosilica was used for the efficient retention of Se(IV) complexed with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, followed by elution with an ethyl acetate/Triton X-114 mixture and determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Se(VI) species was selectively determined by difference between total inorganic Se and Se(IV) after pre-reduction. The IL-nanomaterial hybrid was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. Likewise, Se(IV) sorption capacity of the retention material and maximum amount of IL loaded on its surface were determined. Several factors concerning the functionalization, extraction and elution steps were optimized, yielding a 100% extraction efficiency for Se(IV) under optimal conditions. A limit of detection of 1.1 ng L- 1, a relative standard deviation of 5.7% and a 110-fold enhancement factor were obtained. The D-μ-SPE method was successfully applied to several water samples from different origins and compositions, including rain, tap, underground, river and sea.

  1. INTERACTION’S EFFECT OF ORGANIC MATERIAL AND AGGREGATION ON EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY OF TPHS FROM PETROLEUM CONTAMINATED SOILS WITH MAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ganjidoust and Gh. Naghizadeh

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Microwave-Assisted Extraction (MAE is a type of low-temperature thermal desorption process that its numerous advantages have caused a wide spread use of it. Microwave heating is a potentially attractive technique as it provides volumetric heating process to improve heating efficiencies as compared with conventional techniques. The ability to rapidly heat the sample solvent mixture is inherent to MAE and the main advantage of this technique. Presently MAE has been shown to be one of the best technologies for removing environmental pollutants specially PAHs, phenols and PCBs from soils and sediments. Five different mixtures and types of aggregation (Sand, Top soil, Kaolinite besides three concentrations of crude oil as a contaminant (1000, 5000 and 10000 mg/L were considered. The results indicated that regardless of aggregation, the presence of humus component in soil reduces the efficiency. Minimum and maximum efficiencies were for sandy soil (containing organic components and kaolinite (without any organic content, respectively. According to the results of this research when some amount of humus and organic materials are available in the matrix, it causes the extraction efficiency to perform as a function of just humus materials but not aggregation. Increasing the concentration of crude oil reduced the efficiency with a sharp steep for higher concentration (5000-10000 mg/L and less steeper for lower concentration (1000-5000 mg/L. The concentration of the contaminant, works just as an independent function with extraction time and aggregation factors. The extraction period of 10 min. can be suggested as an optimum extraction time in FMAE for PAHs contaminated soils.

  2. Advanced functional materials in solid phase extraction for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Man; Huang, Lijin; Zhao, Bingshan; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2017-06-22

    For the determination of trace elements and their species in various real samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), solid phase extraction (SPE) is a commonly used sample pretreatment technique to remove complex matrix, pre-concentrate target analytes and make the samples suitable for subsequent sample introduction and measurements. The sensitivity, selectivity/anti-interference ability, sample throughput and application potential of the methodology of SPE-ICP-MS are greatly dependent on SPE adsorbents. This article presents a general overview of the use of advanced functional materials (AFMs) in SPE for ICP-MS determination of trace elements and their species in the past decade. Herein the AFMs refer to the materials featuring with high adsorption capacity, good selectivity, fast adsorption/desorption dynamics and satisfying special requirements in real sample analysis, including nanometer-sized materials, porous materials, ion imprinting polymers, restricted access materials and magnetic materials. Carbon/silica/metal/metal oxide nanometer-sized adsorbents with high surface area and plenty of adsorption sites exhibit high adsorption capacity, and porous adsorbents would provide more adsorption sites and faster adsorption dynamics. The selectivity of the materials for target elements/species can be improved by using physical/chemical modification, ion imprinting and restricted accessed technique. Magnetic adsorbents in conventional batch operation offer unique magnetic response and high surface area-volume ratio which provide a very easy phase separation, greater extraction capacity and efficiency over conventional adsorbents, and chip-based magnetic SPE provides a versatile platform for special requirement (e.g. cell analysis). The performance of these adsorbents for the determination of trace elements and their species in different matrices by ICP-MS is discussed in detail, along with perspectives and possible challenges in the future

  3. Modeling the Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Essential Oils from Plant Materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 1250, SI (2012), s. 27-33 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01010578 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * essential oils * model for kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 4.612, year: 2012

  4. Polyaniline silver nanoparticle coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide nanocomposite structures as novel electrode material for rechargeable batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundriyal, Poonam; Bhattacharya, Shantanu

    2017-03-01

    The exploration of new and advanced electrode materials are required in electronic and electrical devices for power storage applications. Also, there has been a continuous endeavour to formulate strategies for extraction of high performance electrode materials from naturally obtained waste products. In this work, we have developed an in situ hybrid nanocomposite from coffee waste extracted porous graphene oxide (CEPG), polyaniline (PANI) and silver nanoparticles (Ag) and have found this novel composite to serve as an efficient electrode material for batteries. The successful interaction among the three phases of the nano-composite i.e. CEPG-PANI-Ag have been thoroughly understood through RAMAN, Fourier transform infrared and x-ray diffraction spectroscopy, morphological studies through field emission scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the nano-composite demonstrates higher thermal stability up-to a temperature of 495 °C. Further BET studies through nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms confirm the presence of micro/meso and macro-pores in the nanocomposite sample. The cyclic-voltammetry (CV) analysis performed on CEPG-PANI-Ag nanocomposite exhibits a purely faradic behaviour using nickel foam as a current collector thus suggests the prepared nanocomposite as a battery electrode material. The nanocomposite reports a maximum specific capacity of 1428 C g-1 and excellent cyclic stability up-to 5000 cycles.

  5. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization with polydimethylsiloxane as extraction phase and sample plate material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaikkinen, A. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kotiaho, T. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kostiainen, R. [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Kauppila, T.J., E-mail: tiina.kauppila@helsinki.fi [Division of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, P.O. Box 56, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-12-03

    Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) is an ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry (MS) that can be used to ionize polar as well as neutral and completely non-polar analytes. In this study polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as a solid phase extraction sorbent for DAPPI-MS analysis. Pieces of PDMS polymer were soaked in an aqueous sample, where the analytes were sorbed from the sample solution to PDMS. After this, the extracted analytes were desorbed directly from the polymer by the hot DAPPI spray solvent plume, without an elution step. Swelling and extracting the PDMS with a cleaning solvent prior to extraction diminished the high background in the DAPPI mass spectrum caused by PDMS oligomers. Acetone, hexane, pentane, toluene, diisopropylamine and triethylamine were tested for this purpose. The amines were most efficient in reducing the PDMS background, but they also suppressed the signals of low proton affinity analytes. Toluene was chosen as the optimum cleaning solvent, since it reduced the PDMS background efficiently and gave intensive signals of most of the studied analytes. The effects of DAPPI spray solvents toluene, acetone and anisole on the PDMS background and the ionization of analytes were also compared and extraction conditions were optimized. Anisole gave a low background for native PDMS, but toluene ionized the widest range of analytes. Analysis of verapamil, testosterone and anthracene from purified, spiked wastewater was performed to demonstrate that the method is suited for in-situ analysis of water streams. In addition, urine spiked with several analytes was analyzed by the PDMS method and compared to the conventional DAPPI procedure, where sample droplets are applied on PMMA surface. With the PDMS method the background ion signals caused by the urine matrix were lower, the S/N ratios of analytes were 2-10 times higher, and testosterone, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene that were not detected from PMMA in urine

  6. Antibacterial activity of kecombrang flower extract (Nicolaia speciosa) microencapsulation with food additive materials formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naufalin, R.; Rukmini, H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Kecombrang flower (Nicolaia speciosa) contains bioactive components of alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, steroids, saponins, and essential oils as potential antimicrobials. The use of antibacterials in the form of essential oils has constraints; therefore microencapsulation needs to be done to prevent damage to the bioactive components. Microencapsulation can prevent degradation due to radiation or oxygen, easy-mix with foodstuffs and also slow the occurrence of evaporation. This study aimed to determine the effect of types of kecombrang extract, the concentration of microcapsules in food additives (NaCl and sucrose), and concentration of flower extract in the microcapsules. This study used Randomized Block Design (RBD) with 18 treatment combinations and two replications. Factors studied were types of kecombrang flower extract of (semi polar and polar extract), Food Additive types (sucrose and NaCl), the concentration of microcapsules in food additive (0%; 15%; 30% w /v). The results showed that polar and non-polar extract microcapsules produced antibacterial activity of 7.178 mm and 7.145 respectively of Bacillus cereus bacteria, while Escherichia coli was 7.272 mm and 7.289 mm respectively. A 30 percent microcapsule concentration provides antibacterial activity with inhibiting zone of 7, 818 mm for B. cereus and 8,045 for E.coli. Food Additive of sucrose concentrations showed that microcapsules produced tend to be more effective in inhibiting the growth of E.coli and B. cereus bacteria than that of NaCl, with each inhibition zone of 7.499 mm and 7.357 mm

  7. Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization with polydimethylsiloxane as extraction phase and sample plate material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaikkinen, A.; Kotiaho, T.; Kostiainen, R.; Kauppila, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) is an ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry (MS) that can be used to ionize polar as well as neutral and completely non-polar analytes. In this study polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was used as a solid phase extraction sorbent for DAPPI-MS analysis. Pieces of PDMS polymer were soaked in an aqueous sample, where the analytes were sorbed from the sample solution to PDMS. After this, the extracted analytes were desorbed directly from the polymer by the hot DAPPI spray solvent plume, without an elution step. Swelling and extracting the PDMS with a cleaning solvent prior to extraction diminished the high background in the DAPPI mass spectrum caused by PDMS oligomers. Acetone, hexane, pentane, toluene, diisopropylamine and triethylamine were tested for this purpose. The amines were most efficient in reducing the PDMS background, but they also suppressed the signals of low proton affinity analytes. Toluene was chosen as the optimum cleaning solvent, since it reduced the PDMS background efficiently and gave intensive signals of most of the studied analytes. The effects of DAPPI spray solvents toluene, acetone and anisole on the PDMS background and the ionization of analytes were also compared and extraction conditions were optimized. Anisole gave a low background for native PDMS, but toluene ionized the widest range of analytes. Analysis of verapamil, testosterone and anthracene from purified, spiked wastewater was performed to demonstrate that the method is suited for in-situ analysis of water streams. In addition, urine spiked with several analytes was analyzed by the PDMS method and compared to the conventional DAPPI procedure, where sample droplets are applied on PMMA surface. With the PDMS method the background ion signals caused by the urine matrix were lower, the S/N ratios of analytes were 2-10 times higher, and testosterone, anthracene and benzo[a]pyrene that were not detected from PMMA in urine

  8. PLE in the analysis of plant compounds. Part II: One-cycle PLE in determining total amount of analyte in plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowicz, Andrzej L; Wianowska, Dorota

    2005-04-29

    Pressurised liquid extraction (PLE) is recognised as one of the most effective sample preparation methods. Despite the enhanced extraction power of PLE, the full recovery of an analyte from plant material may require multiple extractions of the same sample. The presented investigations show the possibility of estimating the true concentration value of an analyte in plant material employing one-cycle PLE in which plant samples of different weight are used. The performed experiments show a linear dependence between the reciprocal value of the analyte amount (E*), extracted in single-step PLE from a plant matrix, and the ratio of plant material mass to extrahent volume (m(p)/V(s)). Hence, time-consuming multi-step PLE can be replaced by a few single-step PLEs performed at different (m(p)/V(s)) ratios. The concentrations of rutin in Sambucus nigra L. and caffeine in tea and coffee estimated by means of the tested procedure are almost the same as their concentrations estimated by multiple PLE.

  9. Bienzymatic sensor based on the use of redox enzymes and chitosan-MWCNT nanocomposite. Evaluation of total phenolic content in plant extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaconu, M.; Litescu, S.C.; Radu, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    We are presenting a bienzymatic sensor for the determination of polyphenols. An ITO electrode was modified with multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the enzymes laccase and tyrosinase were co-entrapped into a chitosan matrix. The resulting biosensor was calibrated at -50 mV (vs. the Ag/AgCl reference electrode) using rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and gallic acid as the substrates. The new biosensor resulted in a 10.7-fold increase in response sensitivity and a considerable improvement of the detection limit (42 nM for rosmarinic acid). Fouling of the surface of the biosensor was prevented by applying the surfactant Tween 20. The data recorded in surfactant medium revealed a significant improvement of the operational stability and an enlarged linear concentration ranges (up to 12 μM for rosmarinic acid). The sensor was used to evaluate the total phenolic content from extracts of Salvia officinalis and cultures of Basilicum callus. (author)

  10. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase reg-sign and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase reg-sign and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase reg-sign or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied

  11. In growing pigs, the true ileal and total tract digestibility of acid hydrolyzed ether extract in extracted corn oil is greater than in intact sources of corn oil or soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Stein, H H

    2013-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the true ileal digestibility (TID) and the true total tract digestibility (TTTD) of acid-hydrolyzed ether extract (AEE) in extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), corn germ, and high protein distillers dried grains (HP DDG) and to compare these values to the TID and TTTD of AEE in full-fat soybeans. Nineteen barrows with an initial BW of 52.2 kg (SD = 3.8) were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a 19 × 11 Youden square design with 19 diets and 11 periods. A basal diet based on cornstarch, casein, sucrose, and corn bran was formulated. Eighteen additional diets were formulated by adding 3 levels of extracted corn oil, high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, HP DDG, or full-fat soybeans to the basal diet. The apparent ileal and the apparent total tract digestibility of AEE were calculated for each diet. The endogenous flow of AEE associated with each ingredient and values for TID and TTTD were calculated using the regression procedure. Results indicated that digested AEE in ileal digesta and feces linearly increased as AEE intake increased regardless of ingredient (P 0.77). However, the ileal and fecal endogenous losses of AEE were different (P oil, HP DDG, and full-fat soybeans. The TID of AEE was greater (P oil (95.4%) than for all other ingredients. The TID of AEE in HP DDG (76.5%) was not different from the TID of AEE in full-fat soybeans (85.2%) but greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ (53.0, 62.1, and 50.1%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE was greater (P oil (94.3%) than for all other ingredients, and the TTTD in full-fat soybeans (79.7%) was greater (P oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, and HP DDG (41.4, 51.9, 43.9, and 70.2%, respectively). The TTTD of AEE in HP DDG was also greater (P oil corn, DDGS, and corn germ. In conclusion, the intact sources of oil originating from high-oil corn, DDGS, corn germ, or HP DDG are much less digestible than extracted corn oil

  12. COMPARATION OF SEVERAL PLANTS EXTRACT AND VITAMIN C INHIBITION ACTIVITY TO TYROSINE PHOTODEGRADATION INDUCED BY KETOPROFEN AND ITS TOTAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatang Irianti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant is known to inhibit free radical reaction. Tyrosine photodegradation can be caused by radical reaction. Nowadays, plant with antioxidants are widely used to inhibit free radical reaction. Study of inhibition of photodegradation used four groups. Those groups are: P1 consisted of 2mL tyrosine 0,05 %; P2 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, and 600 μL Rhetoflam (topical ketoprofen 1 %; P3 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 60μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL tea leaf water ekstract 0,15 %; P4 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL mahkota dewa fruit water ekstract 0,15 %; P5 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL finger root etanolic ekstract 0,15 %; P6 consisted of 2 mL tyrosine 0,05 %, 600 μL Rhetoflam 1 %, and 100 μL vitamin C 0,15 %; each group is added with aquadest up to 5,0 mL and illuminated with mercuric lamp for four hours. Level of remaining tyrosine was measured with visible spectrophotometric method. We used ANOVA to analyse the data with convidence level of 0,95 and then continued by Tukey (HSD. Follin-Ciocalteu method with galic acid calibration curve was used to determine total phenolic level. The level of total phenolic of tea leaf aquoeus extract, mahkota dewa fruit aquoeus extract, fingerroot ethanolic extract were 29.64±0.86 %; 8.29 % 0.27 %; and 7.11 %, 0.15 %, respectively. Our investigation also found gallic acid equivalent (GAE with the inhibition activity of 4.03; 1.58; and 2.09 and they were bigger than Vitamin C with the same concentration of 0.15 %.

  13. Effects of dietary onion ( extract supplementation on performance, apparent total tract retention of nutrients, blood profile and meat quality of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siska Aditya

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary onion (Allium cepa extract (OE supplementation on growth performance, apparent total tract retention (ATTR, blood profile, carcass characteristics and meat quality in broilers. Methods Four hundred male broiler chicks (Ross 308, 3-d old were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments for 28 d feeding trial. Each treatment has five replications with 20 birds each. Four dietary treatments were designated according to the OE supplementation levels (0 as control, 5, 7.5, and 10 g of OE per kg of basal diet respectively. On d 28, a total of 20 birds from each treatment were subjected for ATTR, serum biochemical assay, carcass characteristic and organ weight measurement. Results Overall weight gain of OE 7.5 g/kg group was higher (p = 0.04 than control group. The ATTRs of dietary energy (p<0.01 and ether extract (p = 0.04 linearly increased with increasing levels of dietary OE. However, no difference in ATTR of dry matter and crude protein was evident. Furthermore, serum IgG concentration increased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p = 0.03 with increasing OE supplementation. No differences in carcass dressing weight and amount of abdominal fat by treatments were observed. Also, the weight of organ including immune organ was not different among the treatments. The TBARS values of 10 d stored breast meat decreased linearly (p<0.01 and quadratically (p<0.01 with increasing dietary OE levels. The meat color was also affected, with lower (p<0.01 redness score in meats from OE supplemented groups. This study showed that dietary OE improved broiler weight gain presumably by increasing feed intake and ATTR of both energy and ether extract. The dietary OE increased serum IgG level and meat anti-oxidation capacity. Conclusion This study implies that the recommended level of dietary OE supplementation could be beneficial for improving broiler performance and meat quality.

  14. Microdetermination of lead, cadmium, zinc and tin in biological and related materials by atomic absorption spectrometry after mineralisation and extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boiteau, H.L.; Metayer, C.

    1978-01-01

    Two technics permitting to determine either lead, cadmium and zinc, or tin in any biological material (blood, urines, organs, alimentary products of animal or vegetable origin) are described. Every operation (mineralisation and extraction) is made in the same tube and technics, conceived in a way to simplify the manipulations and to reduce the more possible the contamination risks are suitable for determination in series. By working on trial samples near 250 mg, the lower determination limits are around 2 ppb for cadmium, 40 ppb for lead and tin and 2 ppm for zinc. The repeatability studies of different technical stages show that mineralisation and extraction only have a weak incidence on the acccuracy of the results [fr

  15. Determination of several trace metals in biological materials by PIXE analysis after solvent extraction and polystyrene-film collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Yoshihiro; Korenaga, Tatsumi; Suzuki, Nobuo

    1991-01-01

    Traces of vanadium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc were quantitatively extracted with diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) in benzene from a digested solution of biological materials and the metal-DDTC complexes were collected into a small amount of polystyrene foam produced by lyophilization of the benzene extract after addition of polystyrene. The polystyrene foam was dissolved in benzene and spread on Mylar film. After drying, a polystyrene film containing metal-DDTC complexes was produced on Mylar film, and then the polystyrene film was peeled from the Mylar film. This film was subjected to PIXE analysis. This method was applied to NBS SRM 1572 citrus leaves and a marine macroalgal sample, and 6 trace metals were simultaneously and accurately determined. (author)

  16. Development and inculcation of new methods in the field of exploring, extraction and reprocessing of uranium raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Yu.V.; Efimova, Z.I.; Skorovarov, D.I.; Ivanov, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The situation is briefly overviewed in the field of exploration, prospecting, extraction and processing of uranium raw material and industrial introduction of the recently developed methods. The method of underground leaching, including that from deep-seated deposits, is gaining wide acceptance. Of high importance is the industrial introduction of such promising processes as bacterial leaching, continuous column-sorption with a pseudo-luquefied sorbent layer, direct production of UF 6 in an ore-processing factory. Active works are under way now in the field of multi-purpose utilization of uranium ore. New methods are industrially introduced for the extraction of associated uranium from phosphoric acid solutions, copper ore, sea water

  17. Approach for determining the contributions of phytoplankton, colored organic material, and nonalgal particles to the total spectral absorption in marine waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junfang; Cao, Wenxi; Wang, Guifeng; Hu, Shuibo

    2013-06-20

    Using a data set of 1333 samples, we assess the spectral absorption relationships of different wave bands for phytoplankton (ph) and particles. We find that a nonlinear model (second-order quadratic equations) delivers good performance in describing their spectral characteristics. Based on these spectral relationships, we develop a method for partitioning the total absorption coefficient into the contributions attributable to phytoplankton [a(ph)(λ)], colored dissolved organic material [CDOM; a(CDOM)(λ)], and nonalgal particles [NAP; a(NAP)(λ)]. This method is validated using a data set that contains 550 simultaneous measurements of phytoplankton, CDOM, and NAP from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Dataset. We find that our method is highly efficient and robust, with significant accuracy: the relative root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) are 25.96%, 38.30%, and 19.96% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. The performance is still satisfactory when the method is applied to water samples from the northern South China Sea as a regional case. The computed and measured absorption coefficients (167 samples) agree well with the RMSEs, i.e., 18.50%, 32.82%, and 10.21% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively. Finally, the partitioning method is applied directly to an independent data set (1160 samples) derived from the Bermuda Bio-Optics Project that contains relatively low absorption values, and we also obtain good inversion accuracy [RMSEs of 32.37%, 32.57%, and 11.52% for a(ph)(443), a(CDOM)(443), and the CDOM exponential slope, respectively]. Our results indicate that this partitioning method delivers satisfactory performance for the retrieval of a(ph), a(CDOM), and a(NAP). Therefore, this may be a useful tool for extracting absorption coefficients from in situ measurements or remotely sensed ocean-color data.

  18. Determination of phthalates released from paper packaging materials by solid-phase extraction-high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Yang, Bofeng; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wang, Fengmei; Xu, Hui; Cai, Xue

    2014-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 10 phthalic acid esters (dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, dipropyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate, dicyclohexyl phthalate, diamyl phthalate, di-n-hexyl phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate) released from food paper packaging materials. The use of distilled water, 3% acetic acid (w/v), 10% ethanol (v/v) and 95% ethanol (v/v) instead of the different types of food simulated the migration of 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials; the phthalic acid esters in four food simulants were enriched and purified by a C18 SPE column and nitrogen blowing, and quantified by HPLC with a diode array detector. The chromatographic conditions and extraction conditions were optimized and all 10 of the phthalate acid esters had a maximum absorbance at 224 nm. The method showed limitations of detection in the range of 6.0-23.8 ng/mL the correlation coefficients were greater than 0.9999 in all cases, recovery values ranged between 71.27 and 106.97% at spiking levels of 30, 60 and 90 ng/mL and relative standard deviation values ranged from 0.86 to 8.00%. The method was considered to be simple, fast and reliable for a study on the migration of these 10 phthalic acid esters from food paper packaging materials into food.

  19. Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Crude Oil from Winter Melon (Benincasa hispida Seed Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Its Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic Content and Fatty Acid Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Zaidul Islam Sarker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, ultrasound-assisted extraction of crude oil from winter melon seeds was investigated through response surface methodology (RSM. Process variables were power level (25–75%, temperature (45–55 °C and sonication time (20–40 min. It was found that all process variables have significant (p < 0.05 effects on the response variable. A central composite design (CCD was used to determine the optimum process conditions. Optimal conditions were identified as 65% power level, 52 °C temperature and 36 min sonication time for maximum crude yield (108.62 mg-extract/g-dried matter. The antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and fatty acid composition of extract obtained under optimized conditions were determined and compared with those of oil obtained by the Soxhlet method. It was found that crude extract yield (CEY of ultrasound-assisted extraction was lower than that of the Soxhlet method, whereas antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of the extract obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction were clearly higher than those of the Soxhlet extract. Furthermore, both extracts were rich in unsaturated fatty acids. The major fatty acids of the both extracts were linoleic acid and oleic acid.

  20. Improved resins and novel materials and methods for solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeze, Ronald [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    Solid-phase extraction (SPE) has grown to be one of the most widely used methods for isolation and preconcentration of a vast range of compounds from aqueous solutions. By modifying polymeric SPE resins with chelating functional groups, the selective uptake of metals was accomplished. The resin, along with adsorbed metals, was vaporized in the ICP and detection of the metals was then possible using either mass or emission spectroscopy. Drug analyses in biological fluids have received heightened attention as drug testing is on the increase both in sports and in the work environment. By using a direct-injection technique, biological fluids can be injected directly into the liquid chromatographic system with no pretreatment. A new surfactant, a sulfonated form of Brij-30 (Brij-S) is shown to prevent the uptake of serum proteins on commercial HPLC columns by forming a thin coating on the silica C18 surface. Excellent separations of eight or more drugs with a wide range of retention times were obtained. The separations had sharper peaks and lower retention times than similar separations performed with the surfactant sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). Quantitative recovery of a number of drugs with limits of detection near 1 ppm with a 5 μl injection volume were obtained. Finally, a method for solid-phase extraction in a syringe is introduced. The system greatly reduced the volume of solvent required to elute adsorbed analytes from the SPE bed while providing a semi-automated setup. SPE in a syringe consists of a very small bed of resin-loaded membrane packed into a GC or HPLC syringe. After extraction, elution was performed with just a few μl of solvent. This small elution volume allowed injection of the eluent directly from the syringe into the chromatographic system, eliminating the handling problems associated with such small volumes.

  1. Extraction of pulsed ion beams from an anode covered with liquid material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Akira; Yano, Syukuro

    1982-01-01

    In order to extend the life of anodes of pulsed ion diodes, a trial was made to extract ions from a plasma created by surface flashover on the oil-covered anode. The diode with this anode worked well as a so-called pinched electron beam diode. Production of proton beams of 10 kA with energies of about 400 keV was confirmed by measurements with biased ion collectors and those of prompt γ-rays from the reaction 19 F(p,γα) 16 O. Substantial reduction of damage and substantial extension of the life of the anode disc were realized. (author)

  2. Using the OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol with quartz extracted from building materials in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Solongo, S.; Murray, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the application of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz extracted from fired bricks acid unfired mortar in retrospective dosimetry. The samples came from a radioactive materials storage facility, with ambient...... dose rates of about 0.1 mGy/h. A detailed dose-depth profile was analysed from one brick, and compared with dose records from area TL dosemeters. Small-aliquot dose-distributions were analysed from the mortar samples; one associated with the exposed brick, and one from a remote site exposed only...

  3. Advanced biomaterials from renewable resources: An investigation on cellulose nanocrystal composites and carbon dioxide extraction of rendered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jose Luis

    The annual global consumption of petroleum-based plastics is approximately 280 million tons and is impacting the sustainability of our planet and prosperity of future generations. One solution is the development of bio-based polymer materials with advanced properties for commercial applications. Therefore, the ultimate goal of this dissertation is to investigate the properties of new bio-based materials for broader applications. This dissertation includes two research areas: cellulose nanocomposites, and CO2 extractions of rendered fat. In the first half, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), which exhibit excellent mechanical and optical properties, were investigated for the reinforcement of a biodegradable polymer. The properties of these nanocomposites were studied to intellectually contribute to the understanding of the reinforcement mechanisms of CNC nanocomposites. In the second half, a more efficient and greener extraction of fat from rendered materials (RMs) was explored to broaden their potential applications, which include protein-based polymers and biofuels. Since CNCs are hydrophilic, surface modification with various surfactants was first accomplished in this research, increasing the dispersion stability in non-polar solvents by at least a month. Only 1 wt.% of surfactant with respect to CNCs was needed to afford a significant increase in the CNC stability, representing a much lower percentage than the values reported in the literature. Moreover, these CNCs showed the ability to selfassemble into local liquid crystal structures, a potential advantage for polymer reinforcement. CNCs were subsequently investigated as an additive for polylactic acid (PLA), which is the most widely used synthetic biopolymer in the market. CNC addition yielded a 61% increase in toughness at 1 wt.% CNC load. The tensile strength and modulus were not affected by the CNC addition, addressing one of the most frequent issues in the toughening of polymers. In addition, polarized

  4. Vertical distribution of soil extractable organic C and N contents and total C and N stocks in 78-year-old tree plantations in subtropical Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoqi; Dong, Haibo; Lan, Zhongming; Bacon, Gary; Hao, Yanbin; Chen, Chengrong

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have focused on the effects of long-term forest plantations on the soil profile of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks. In this study, we selected 78-year-old tree plantations that included three coniferous tree species (i.e., slash pine, hoop pine and kauri pine) and a Eucalyptus species in subtropical Australia. We measured soil extractable organic C (EOC) and N (EON) contents and total C and N stocks under different tree species on the forest floor and along a soil profile to 100 cm depth. The results showed that Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil EOC contents (3.3 Mg ha -1 ) than the other tree species (EOC of 1.9-2.3 Mg ha -1 ) and had significantly higher EON (156 kg ha -1 ) contents than slash pine (107 kg ha -1 ). Eucalyptus had significantly higher soil C (58.9 Mg ha -1 ) and N (2.03 Mg ha -1 ) stocks than the other tree species (22.3-27.6 Mg C ha -1 and 0.71-1.23 Mg N ha -1 ) at 0-100 cm depth. There were no differences in soil C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth among the coniferous tree species. Forest floor C stocks had stronger effects on mineral soil total N stocks than fine root biomass, whereas fine root biomass exerted stronger effects on soil total C stocks at the 0-100 cm depth than forest floor C and N stocks. Our results addressed large differences in soil C and N stocks under different tree species, which can provide useful information for local forest management practices in this region.

  5. A sensitive method for determining total vanadium in water samples using colorimetric-solid-phase extraction-fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filik, Hayati; Yanaz, Zeynep

    2009-01-01

    A selective colorimetric-solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) method for the determination of total vanadium in water samples was developed. This method introduced a new variation of C-SPE. The colour reaction is based on the reaction of vanadium(V) ternary complex formed with 1-(2-Pyridylazo)-2-naphtol (PAN) in the presence hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). In this technique, the target analytes in samples are extracted onto solid matrix loaded with a colorimetric reagent and then quantified directly on the adsorbent surface by using a miniature fiber optic reflectance spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at a wavelength of 589.4 nm since it yielded the largest divergence different in reflectance spectra before and after reaction with the vanadium. The overall time required for the C-SPE procedure was ∼20 min. The amount of concentrated V is then determined in a few seconds by using miniature reflectance spectrometer. At the optimal conditions, a calibration curve was constructed, revealing a linear range of 0.05-0.52 mg L -1 and a detection limit as low as 0.01 mg L -1 while the RSD lower than 2.8%. In order to verify the accuracy of the method, a certified reference water samples (TMDA) were analysed and the results obtained were in good agreement with the certified values. The proposed method was applied to the determination of vanadium in tap water, seawater samples with a recovery for the spiked samples in the range of 98-102%.

  6. Using the OSL single-aliquot regenerative-dose protocol with quartz extracted from building materials in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Solongo, S.; Murray, A.S.; Banerjee, D.; Jungner, H.

    2000-01-01

    We report on the application of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol to the optically stimulated luminescence signal from quartz extracted from fired bricks and unfired mortar in retrospective dosimetry. The samples came from a radioactive materials storage facility, with ambient dose rates of about 0.1 mGy/h. A detailed dose-depth profile was analysed from one brick, and compared with dose records from area TL dosemeters. Small-aliquot dose-distributions were analysed from the mortar samples; one associated with the exposed brick, and one from a remote site exposed only to background radiation. We conclude that unfired materials have considerable potential in retrospective dosimetry

  7. Polyacrylonitrile based composite materials with extracting agents containing chemically bonded CMPO groups for separation of actinoids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Šebesta, F.; John, J.; Böhmer, V.; Rudzevich, V.; Grüner, Bohumír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 304, č. 1 (2015), s. 313-319 ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : actinoids * CMPO * Calix[4]arene * cobalt bis(dicarbollide) * polyacrylonitrile * composite material Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2015

  8. Remediation Performance and Mechanism of Heavy Metals by a Bottom Up Activation and Extraction System Using Multiple Biochemical Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Kemeng; Li, Yunzhen; Sun, Yang; Liu, Ruyue; Li, Junjie; Zhao, Yun; Xu, Heng

    2017-09-13

    Soil contamination with heavy metals has caused serious environmental problems and increased the risks to humans and biota. Herein, we developed an effective bottom up metals removal system based on the synergy between the activation of immobilization metal-resistant bacteria and the extraction of bioaccumulator material (Stropharia rugosoannulata). In this system, the advantages of biochar produced at 400 °C and sodium alginate were integrated to immobilize bacteria. Optimized by response surface methodology, the biochar and bacterial suspension were mixed at a ratio of 1:20 (w:v) for 12 h when 2.5% sodium alginate was added to the mixture. Results demonstrated that the system significantly increased the proportion of acid soluble Cd and Cu and improved the soil microecology (microbial counts, soil respiration, and enzyme activities). The maximum extractions of Cd and Cu were 8.79 and 77.92 mg kg -1 , respectively. Moreover, details of the possible mechanistic insight into the metal removal are discussed, which indicate positive correlation with the acetic acid extractable metals and soil microecology. Meanwhile, the "dilution effect" in S. rugosoannulata probably plays an important role in the metal removal process. Furthermore, the metal-resistant bacteria in this system were successfully colonized, and the soil bacteria community were evaluated to understand the microbial diversity in metal-contaminated soil after remediation.

  9. Antioxidant properties of extracts from selected plant materials (Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana) in vitro and in model food systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skowyra, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are of considerable interest and are increasingly becoming a subject of intensive research due to their bioactive properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-mutagenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this research was to determine the antioxidant activity of extracts from selected plant materials, namely Caesalpinia spinosa, Perilla frutescens, Artemisia annua and Viola wittrockiana Gams. Plant material extracts we...

  10. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wan Qianhong, E-mail: qhwan@tju.edu.cn [School of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2012-02-15

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 {mu}g/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 {mu}g/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  11. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yu; Wang Yuxia; Chen Lei; Wan Qianhong

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  12. Near infrared spectroscopy based monitoring of extraction processes of raw material with the help of dynamic predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Suo, Tongchuan; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Chunhua; Yu, Heshui; Li, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The control of batch-to-batch quality variations remains a challenging task for pharmaceutical industries, e.g., traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) manufacturing. One difficult problem is to produce pharmaceutical products with consistent quality from raw material of large quality variations. In this paper, an integrated methodology combining the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and dynamic predictive modeling is developed for the monitoring and control of the batch extraction process of licorice. With the spectra data in hand, the initial state of the process is firstly estimated with a state-space model to construct a process monitoring strategy for the early detection of variations induced by the initial process inputs such as raw materials. Secondly, the quality property of the end product is predicted at the mid-course during the extraction process with a partial least squares (PLS) model. The batch-end-time (BET) is then adjusted accordingly to minimize the quality variations. In conclusion, our study shows that with the help of the dynamic predictive modeling, NIRS can offer the past and future information of the process, which enables more accurate monitoring and control of process performance and product quality.

  13. New ion selective materials. Application to the selective extraction of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favre-Reguillon, Alain

    1996-01-01

    This research thesis addresses the synthesis and assessment of ion selective materials. The first part reports the development of a general method of assessment of ion selective materials. In the second part, the author describes different methods used to insolubilize macro-cycles on hydrophilic polymers. The obtained polyurethanes are synthesised. These hydrophilic polymers display interesting complexing properties and selectivities with respect to cations of alkali metals. Then the author addresses the improvement of selectivity with respect to caesium of ion exchange resorcinol-formaldehyde resins. Different factors affecting selectivity are identified, and the concept of molecular print is used to study the improvement of selectivity. The effect of macro-cyclic structures on phenolic resins with respect to caesium is highlighted [fr

  14. Two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy applied to analyzing and identifying the extracts of Baeckea frutescens medicinal materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Adiana Mohamed; Jamaludin, Fadzureena; Kiong, Ling Sui; Hashim, Nuziah; Abdullah, Zunoliza

    2014-08-05

    Baeckea frutescens or locally known as Cucur atap is used as antibacterial, antidysentery, antipyretic and diuretic agent. In Malaysia and Indonesia, they are used as an ingredient of the traditional medicine given to mothers during confinement. A three-steps infra-red (IR) macro-fingerprinting method combining conventional IR spectra, and the secondary derivative spectra with two dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) have been proved to be effective methods to examine a complicated mixture such as herbal medicines. This study investigated the feasibility of employing multi-steps IR spectroscopy in order to study the main constituents of B. frutescens and its different extracts (extracted by chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous in turn). The findings indicated that FT-IR and 2D-IR can provide many holistic variation rules of chemical constituents. The structural information of the samples indicated that B. frutescens and its extracts contain a large amount of flavonoids, since some characteristic absorption peaks of flavonoids, such as ∼1600cm(-1), ∼1500cm(-1), ∼1450cm(-1), and ∼1270cm(-1) can be observed. The macroscopical fingerprint characters of FT-IR and 2D-IR spectra can not only provide the information of main chemical constituents in medicinal materials and their different extracts, but also compare the components differences among the similar samples. In conclusion, the multi-steps IR macro-fingerprint method is rapid, effective, visual and accurate for pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. BIOSORBENTS – PROSPECTIVE MATERIALS FOR HEAVY METAL IONS EXTRACTION FROM WASTEWATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Kovalenko

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with ecological safety, resource saving, economic efficienty in the technologies of wastewater purification from heavy metals ions. It is shown that modern technologies of wastewater purification from such substances need to be improved. А promising way to solve this problem is the production and wide use of carbon sorbents obtained from the waste of processing agricultural raw materials and waste generated at food enterprises. Scientific research is actively carried out in this area. This is due to the possibility of organizing the process of wastewater purification from heavy metal ions in a cheap and effective way. The development of biosorbent production is relevant for Ukraine, as the development of agriculture and food industry is of primary importance. The article presents the results of an analytical review of literary sources on various aspects of the scientific problem. In particular, possible sources of raw materials for the production of biosorbents, classical and modified technologies for their production, mechanisms of biosorption using raw materials with different chemical composition, sorption characteristics of biosorbents, and indicators of the economic efficiency of their production are considered.

  16. Extracting dimer structures from simulations of organic-based materials using QM/MM methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez-Jiménez, A.J., E-mail: aj.perez@ua.es; Sancho-García, J.C., E-mail: jc.sancho@ua.es

    2015-09-28

    Highlights: • DFT geometries of isolated dimers in organic crystals differ from experimental ones. • This can be corrected using QM/MM geometry optimizations. • The QM = B3LYP–D3(ZD)/cc-pVDZ and MM = GAFF combination works reasonably well. - Abstract: The functionality of weakly bound organic materials, either in Nanoelectronics or in Materials Science, is known to be strongly affected by their morphology. Theoretical predictions of the underlying structure–property relationships are frequently based on calculations performed on isolated dimers, but the optimized structure of the latter may significantly differ from experimental data even when dispersion-corrected methods are used for it. Here, we address this problem on two organic crystals, namely coronene and 5,6,11,12-tetrachlorotetracene, concluding that it is caused by the absence of the surrounding monomers present in the crystal, and that it can be efficiently cured when the dimer is embedded into a general Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) geometry optimization scheme. We also investigate how the size of the MM region affects the results. These findings may be helpful for the simulation of the morphology of active materials in crystalline or glassy samples.

  17. Cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry for the speciation of antimony(III) and antimony(V) in food packaging materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiuming; Wen Shengping; Xiang Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    A simple, sensitive method for the speciation of inorganic antimony by cloud point extraction combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is presented and evaluated. The method based on the fact that formation of a hydrophobic complex of antimony(III) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) at pH 5.0 and subsequently the hydrophobic complex enter into surfactant-rich phase, whereas antimony(V) remained in aqueous solutions. Antimony(III) in surfactant-rich phase was analyzed by ETAAS after dilution by 0.2 mL nitric acid in methanol (0.1 M), and antimony(V) was calculated by subtracting antimony(III) from the total antimony after reducing antimony(V) to antimony(III) by L-cysteine. The main factors affecting the cloud point extraction, such as pH, concentration of APDC and Triton X-114, equilibrium temperature and incubation time, sample volume were investigated in detail. Under the optimum conditions, the detection limit (3σ) of the proposed method was 0.02 ng mL -1 for antimony(III), and the relative standard deviation was 7.8% (c = 1.0 ng mL -1 , n = 7). The proposed method was successfully applied to speciation of inorganic antimony in the leaching solutions of different food packaging materials with satisfactory results.

  18. PLANT RAW MATERIAL EXTRACTS AS COMPONENTS OF COSMETIC PRODUCTS AND FORMULATIONS FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION: THE PRODUCT RANGE, THE PRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Evseeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary pharmaceutical practice extracts are used as a separate cosmetic product and as an intermediate for external medicinal forms (ointments, gels, liniments and cosmetic forms. Their range is highly diverse.The aim is an overview of the scientific and technical information concerning plant  raw materials extracts using in the external drug and cosmetic products.Methods. To describe the range of extracts proposed for external use the analysis of the proposals of Russian and foreign producers submitted their official websites and online trading platforms was used. The specificity of extraction of biologically active substances of plant extracting agents: water, ethyl alcohol, glycols, vegetable oils, carbon dioxide used to obtain extracts was described on the basis of available scientific literature (eLIBRARY, PubMed, Cyberleninca, Google Books. Results. Examples of external drugs and cosmetic products based on plant raw materials extracts from a range of pharmaceutical organizations are given. It was found that from the extracting solvent used the range is presented by hydrophilic, such as glycol (propylene glycol, glycerin, water, alcoholic extracts; lipophilic (oil, CO2-extracts, and two-phase (caprylic/caprate triglyceride/water extracts. The main features of the extracting solvent used for this category of extracts: the specifics of the use in cosmetics (the skin specific effect, in particular selectivity to groups of biologically active plant substances, microbiological purity, are noted. Results of research data on the study of the prospects for the use of cosmetic ingredients – silicones, caprylic/ capric triglyceride, isopropyl myristate both solvents. The extraction techniques: classical (maceration, percolation and intensified (electro-plasma dynamic extraction, vacuum extraction circulation, CO2 supercritical extraction used in industry to produce cosmetic extracts are described

  19. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles containing total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. and their therapeutic effect against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei-E; He, Cheng-Hui; Jiang, Wen; Zeng, Cheng; Yu, Ning; Huang, Wei; Gao, Zhong-Gao; Xing, Jian-Guo

    2017-01-01

    Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM) contains effective components of D. moldavica L. that have myocardial protective function. However, the cardioprotection function of TFDM is undesirable due to its poor solubility. In order to improve the solubility and efficacy of TFDM, we developed TFDM-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TFDM-SLNs) and optimized the formulation of TFDM-SLNs using central composite design and response surface methodology. The physicochemical properties of TFDM-SLNs were characterized, and the pharmacodynamics was investigated using the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury model in rats. The nanoparticles of optimal formulation for TFDM-SLNs were spherical in shape with the average particle size of 104.83 nm and had a uniform size distribution with the polydispersity index value of 0.201. TFDM-SLNs also had a negative zeta potential of -28.7 mV to ensure the stability of the TFDM-SLNs emulsion system. The results of pharmacodynamics demonstrated that both TFDM and TFDM-SLN groups afforded myocardial protection, and the protective effect of TFDM-SLNs was significantly superior to that of TFDM alone, based on the infarct area, histopathological examination, cardiac enzyme levels and inflammatory factors in serum. Due to the optimal quality and the better myocardial protective effect, TFDM-SLNs are expected to become a safe and effective nanocarrier for the oral delivery of TFDM.

  20. Determination of calcium, potassium, manganese, iron, copper and zinc levels in representative samples of two onion cultivars using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and ultrasound extraction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.; Marco, L.M.; Arroyo, J.; Greaves, E.D.; Rivas, R.

    2003-01-01

    The chemical characterization of onion cultivar samples is an important tool for the enhancement of their productivity due to the fact that chemical composition is closed related to the quality of the products. A new sample preparation procedure for elemental characterization is proposed, involving the acid extraction of the analytes from crude samples by means of an ultrasonic bath, avoiding the required digestion of samples in vegetable tissue analysis. The technique of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of the elements Ca, K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn. The procedure was compared with the wet ashing and dry ashing procedures for all the elements using multivariate analysis and the Scheffe test. The technique of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was employed for comparison purposes and accuracy evaluation of the proposed analysis method. A good agreement between the two techniques was found when using the dry ashing and ultrasound leaching procedures. The levels of each element found for representative samples of two onion cultivars (Yellow Granex PRR 502 and 438 Granex) were also compared by the same method. Levels of K, Mn and Zn were significantly higher in the 438 Granex cultivar, while levels of Ca, Fe and Cu were significantly higher in the Yellow Granex PRR 502 cultivar

  1. Environmentally Benign, Rapid, and Selective Extraction of Gold from Ores and Waste Electronic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chunlin; Sun, Huaming; Liu, Wen-Jing; Guan, Binbin; Deng, Xudong; Zhang, Xu; Yang, Peng

    2017-08-01

    The extraction of gold from ores and electronic waste is an important topic worldwide, as this precious metal has immense value in a variety of fields. However, serious environmental pollution and high energy consumption due to the use of toxic oxidation reagents and harsh reaction conditions is a well-known problem in the gold industry. Herein, we report a new chemical method based on the combined use of N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and pyridine (Py), which has a greatly decreased environmental impact and reagent cost, as well as mild reaction requirements. This method can directly leach Au 0 from gold ore and electronic waste to form Au III in water. The process is achieved in a yield of approximately 90 % at room temperature and a nearly neutral pH. The minimum dose of NBS/Py is as low as 10 mm, which exhibits low toxicity towards mammalian cells and animals as well as aquatic creatures. The high leaching selectivity of Au over other metals during gold leaching is demonstrated, showing that this method has great potential for practical industrial application towards the sustainable refining of gold from ores and electronic waste. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Pharmaceutical films made from the waste material from the preparation of propolis extracts: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Alcântara Sica de Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study investigated the development and characterized the physicochemical properties of films obtained from by-products (BP from the preparation of propolis extracts. Films were produced in the presence and absence of a polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose and propylene glycol by a solvent casting method. Density, surface topography by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties (folding endurance, tensile strength and percentage elongation, water vapour permeability (WVP, moisture uptake capacity, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were determined. The films were a transparent, light greenish-yellow colour, with a uniform surface, and were flexible and easy to handle. The thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. Mechanical properties were influenced by the film composition; films containing gelatin were more resistant to stress, while those containing ethylcellulose were more flexible. Increasing the adjuvant concentration decreased the elasticity and the rupture resistance, but increased the moisture uptake capacity and WVP of the formulations. BP was thermally stable as were the films. FTIR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. This work could contribute to the utilization of BP to prepare films for food and pharmaceutical uses

  3. Innovative solutions for the extraction of technology metals from complex primary and secondary raw materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamberović Željko J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented compilation of scientific, theoretical and experimental results, promotes an innovative synergy of various metals and industrial activities in metallurgy, resulting in profitable transformation of by­products and waste materials into resources. Focusing on treatment of specific by-products from zinc and copper primary production, as well on specific waste streams like WEEE and waste automotive catalysts, group is actively contribute to the Serbia, region and EU sustainability policies. In terms of sustainable development, metallurgy is a traditional part of the solution rather than part of the problem, so it is necessary to take the chance and centuries-old tradition.

  4. Methods of and apparatus for extracting oil from shale and like materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, C; Edwards, C L

    1933-02-20

    The design comprises a casing, a vertical chamber therein divided into a series of superposed zones, a tray fixed in each zone deflecting vanes rotatably mounted above each tray, a conical chute receives material from the circumference of the tray and conducts it to the tray beneath a flue through which heating gases are delivered to a space between the chamber and casing at each zone. An exhaust pipe is in communication with said space, and a fan draws gases therethrough. A pipe from the interior of the chamber at each zone conveys vapour obtained by distillation to an offtake pipe, and a fan is up on top of the offtake pipe.

  5. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Mirna, E-mail: msigrist@fiq.unl.edu.ar [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio [Laboratorio Central, Facultad de Ingenieria Quimica, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2654-Piso 6, (3000) Santa Fe (Argentina); Tudino, Mabel [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica/INQUIMAE, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Pabellon II, Ciudad Universitaria (1428), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-04-15

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH{sub 3} generation using 3.5 mol L{sup -1} HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH{sub 4} in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, HPO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, HCO{sub 3}{sup -} on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 6} solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 0.6 {mu}g L{sup -1} for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 {mu}L sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h{sup -1}. The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species

  6. Determination of As(III) and total inorganic As in water samples using an on-line solid phase extraction and flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigrist, Mirna; Albertengo, Antonela; Beldomenico, Horacio; Tudino, Mabel

    2011-01-01

    A simple and robust on-line sequential injection system based on solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometer (FI-HGAAS) with a heated quartz tube atomizer (QTA) was developed and optimized for the determination of As(III) in groundwater without any kind of sample pretreatment. The method was based on the selective retention of inorganic As(V) that was carried out by passing the filtered original sample through a cartridge containing a chloride-form strong anion exchanger. Thus the most toxic form, inorganic As(III), was determined fast and directly by AsH 3 generation using 3.5 mol L -1 HCl as carrier solution and 0.35% (m/v) NaBH 4 in 0.025% NaOH as the reductant. Since the uptake of As(V) should be interfered by several anions of natural occurrence in waters, the effect of Cl - , SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HPO 4 2- , HCO 3 - on retention was evaluated and discussed. The total soluble inorganic arsenic concentration was determined on aliquots of filtered samples acidified with concentrated HCl and pre-reduced with 5% KI-5% C 6 H 8 O 6 solution. The concentration of As(V) was calculated by difference between the total soluble inorganic arsenic and As(III) concentrations. Detection limits (LODs) of 0.5 μg L -1 and 0.6 μg L -1 for As(III) and inorganic total As, respectively, were obtained for a 500 μL sample volume. The obtained limits of detection allowed testing the water quality according to the national and international regulations. The analytical recovery for water samples spiked with As(III) ranged between 98% and 106%. The sampling throughput for As(III) determination was 60 samples h -1 . The device for groundwater sampling was especially designed for the authors. Metallic components were avoided and the contact between the sample and the atmospheric oxygen was carried to a minimum. On-field arsenic species separation was performed through the employ of a serial connection of membrane filters and

  7. Automated extraction of DNA from reference samples from various types of biological materials on the Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads; Hansen, Anders Johannes

    2009-01-01

    , and muscle biopsies. The DNA extraction was validated according to EN/ISO 17025 for the STR kits AmpFlSTR« Identifiler« and AmpFlSTR« Yfiler« (Applied Biosystems). Of 298 samples extracted, 11 (4%) did not yield acceptable results. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that extraction of DNA from various types......We have validated and implemented a protocol for DNA extraction from various types of biological materials using a Qiagen BioRobot EZ1 Workstation. The sample materials included whole blood, blood from deceased, buccal cells on Omni swabs and FTA Cards, blood on FTA Cards and cotton swabs...... of biological material can be performed quickly and without the use of hazardous chemicals, and that the DNA may be successfully STR typed according to the requirements of forensic genetic investigations accredited according to EN/ISO 17025...

  8. Evaluation of Method-Specific Extraction Variability for the Measurement of Fatty Acids in a Candidate Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula Reference Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Benjamin J

    2017-05-01

    To address community needs, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed a candidate Standard Reference Material (SRM) for infant/adult nutritional formula based on milk and whey protein concentrates with isolated soy protein called SRM 1869 Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula. One major component of this candidate SRM is the fatty acid content. In this study, multiple extraction techniques were evaluated to quantify the fatty acids in this new material. Extraction methods that were based on lipid extraction followed by transesterification resulted in lower mass fraction values for all fatty acids than the values measured by methods utilizing in situ transesterification followed by fatty acid methyl ester extraction (ISTE). An ISTE method, based on the identified optimal parameters, was used to determine the fatty acid content of the new infant/adult nutritional formula reference material.

  9. Quantitative analysis of unconjugated and total bisphenol A in human urine using solid-phase extraction and UPLC-MS/MS: method implementation, method qualification and troubleshooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Brigitte; van de Lagemaat, Dick; Gries, Wolfgang; Beyer, Dieter; Markham, Dan A; Budinsky, Robert A; Dimond, Stephen S; Nath, Rajesh V; Snyder, Stephanie A; Hentges, Steven G

    2015-11-15

    The aim of the presented investigation was to document challenges encountered during implementation and qualification of a method for bisphenol A (BPA) analysis and to develop and discuss precautions taken to avoid and to monitor contamination with BPA during sample handling and analysis. Previously developed and published HPLC-MS/MS methods for the determination of unconjugated BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 34 (2010) 293-303) [17] and total BPA (Markham et al. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 38 (2014) 194-203) [20] in human urine were combined and transferred into another laboratory. The initial method for unconjugated BPA was developed and evaluated in two independent laboratories simultaneously. The second method for total BPA was developed and evaluated in one of these laboratories to conserve resources. Accurate analysis of BPA at sub-ppb levels is a challenging task as BPA is a widely used material and is ubiquitous in the environment at trace concentrations. Propensity for contamination of biological samples with BPA is reported in the literature during sample collection, storage, and/or analysis. Contamination by trace levels of BPA is so pervasive that even with extraordinary care, it is difficult to completely exclude the introduction of BPA into biological samples and, consequently, contamination might have an impact on BPA biomonitoring data. The applied UPLC-MS/MS method was calibrated from 0.05 to 25ng/ml. The limit of quantification was 0.1ng/ml for unconjugated BPA and 0.2ng/ml for total BPA, respectively, in human urine. Finally, the method was applied to urine samples derived from 20 volunteers. Overall, BPA can be analyzed in human urine with acceptable recovery and repeatability if sufficient measures are taken to avoid contamination throughout the procedure from sample collection until UPLC-MS/MS analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces: The origin of extractable materials of high molecular mass in blast furnace carryover dusts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, S.N.; Wu, L.; Paterson, N.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [University of London Imperial College of Science & Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the fate of injectant coal in blast furnaces and the origin of extractable materials in blast furnace carryover dusts. Two sets of samples including injectant coal and the corresponding carryover dusts from a full sized blast furnace and a pilot scale rig have been examined. The samples were extracted using 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent and the extracts studied by size exclusion chromatography (SEC). The blast furnace carryover dust extracts contained high molecular weight carbonaceous material, of apparent mass corresponding to 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} u, by polystyrene calibration. In contrast, the feed coke and char prepared in a wire mesh reactor under high temperature conditions did not give any extractable material. Meanwhile, controlled combustion experiments in a high-pressure wire mesh reactor suggest that the extent of combustion of injectant coal in the blast furnace tuyeres and raceways is limited by time of exposure and very low oxygen concentration. It is thus likely that the extractable, soot-like material in the blast furnace dust originated in tars is released by the injectant coal. Our results suggest that the unburned tars were thermally altered during the upward path within the furnace, giving rise to the formation of heavy molecular weight (soot-like) materials.

  11. Survey of total error of precipitation and homogeneous HDL-cholesterol methods and simultaneous evaluation of lyophilized saccharose-containing candidate reference materials for HDL-cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Cobbaert (Christa); H. Baadenhuijsen; L. Zwang (Louwerens); C.W. Weykamp; P.N. Demacker; P.G.H. Mulder (Paul)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Standardization of HDL-cholesterol is needed for risk assessment. We assessed for the first time the accuracy of HDL-cholesterol testing in The Netherlands and evaluated 11 candidate reference materials (CRMs). METHODS: The total error (TE) of

  12. Truly Absorbed Microbial Protein Synthesis, Rumen Bypass Protein, Endogenous Protein, and Total Metabolizable Protein from Starchy and Protein-Rich Raw Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parand, Ehsan; Vakili, Alireza; Mesgaran, Mohsen Danesh; Duinkerken, Van Gert; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein, and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein, from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more

  13. Accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls impede the extraction of genetic materials for effective colony PCRs in Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Failure of colony PCRs in green microalga Chlorella vulgaris is typically attributed to the difficulty in disrupting its notoriously rigid cell walls for releasing the genetic materials and therefore the development of an effective colony PCR procedure in C. vulgaris presents a challenge. Results Here we identified that colony PCR results were significantly affected by the accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls of C. vulgaris. The higher lipids accumulated in C. vulgaris negatively affects the effective amplification by DNA polymerase. Based on these findings, we established a simple and extremely effective colony PCR procedure in C. vulgaris. By simply pipetting/votexing the pellets of C. vulgaris in 10 ul of either TE (10 mM Tris/1 mM EDTA) or 0.2% SDS buffer at room temperature, followed by the addition of 10 ul of either hexane or Phenol:Chloroform:Isoamyl Alcohol in the same PCR tube for extraction. The resulting aqueous phase was readily PCR-amplified as genomic DNA templates as demonstrated by successful amplification of the nuclear 18S rRNA and the chloroplast rbcL gene. This colony PCR protocol is effective and robust in C. vulgaris and also demonstrates its effectiveness in other Chlorella species. Conclusions The accumulated lipids rather than the rigid cell walls of C. vulgaris significantly impede the extraction of genetic materials and subsequently the effective colony PCRs. The finding has the potential to aid the isolation of high-quality total RNAs and mRNAs for transcriptomic studies in addition to the genomic DNA isolation in Chlorella. PMID:24219401

  14. Textural Properties of Hybrid Biomedical Materials Made from Extracts of Tournefortia hirsutissima L. Imbibed and Deposited on Mesoporous and Microporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research group has developed a group of hybrid biomedical materials potentially useful in the healing of diabetic foot ulcerations. The organic part of this type of hybrid materials consists of nanometric deposits, proceeding from the Mexican medicinal plant Tournefortia hirsutissima L., while the inorganic part is composed of a zeolite mixture that includes LTA, ZSM-5, clinoptilolite, and montmorillonite (PZX as well as a composite material, made of CaCO3 and montmorillonite (NABE. The organic part has been analyzed by GC-MS to detect the most abundant components present therein. In turn, the inorganic supports were characterized by XRD, SEM, and High Resolution Adsorption (HRADS of N2 at 76 K. Through this latter methodology, the external surface area of the hybrid materials was evaluated; besides, the most representative textural properties of each substrate such as total pore volume, pore size distribution, and, in some cases, the volume of micropores were calculated. The formation and stabilization of nanodeposits on the inorganic segments of the hybrid supports led to a partial blockage of the microporosity of the LTA and ZSM5 zeolites; this same effect occurred with the NABE and PZX substrates.

  15. Certification of a reference material for determination of total cyanide in soil to support implementation of the International Standard ISO 11262:2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Holger; Bremser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    Cyanides are among the most important inorganic pollutants to be tested and monitored in environmental compartments. They can be distinguished and determined as free cyanide, weak acid dissociable cyanide or as total cyanide. However, in any case obtained, measurement results are operationally defined referring to the applied analytical method. In 2011, the International Standard ISO 11262 has been published which specifies a normative analytical method for the determination of total cyanide in soil. The objective of the project described in this paper was to provide the first soil reference material (CRM) certified for its mass fraction of total cyanide on the basis of this standard. A total of 12 German laboratories with proven experience in the determination of cyanides in environmental samples participated in the certification study. Measurement results were evaluated in full compliance with the requirements of ISO Guide 35. Taking into account the results of the inter-laboratory comparison as well as the outcome of the homogeneity and stability studies, a certified mass fraction of total cyanide of 21.1 mg/kg and an expanded uncertainty (k = 2) of 1.3 mg/kg were assigned to the material. The reference material has been issued as CRM BAM-U114.

  16. PRACTICAL PROPOSALS AS A RESULT OF THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF THE PROCESS OF EXTRACTION FROM RAW MATERIALS OF PLANT ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Shishatskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Theoretical and experimental researches of extraction processes from plant origin raw materials: barley, acorns and chicory with liquid carbon dioxide, as well as lupin with cheese whey were carried out. Quality indicators of extracts and secondary raw materials are defined. It is established that they are perspective raw sources for the enriched and functional products as they contain amino acids, vitamins and microelements. The dairy-vegetative lupine extract, for example, contains 17 amino acids, including the essential as well as vitamins and minerals. The studies of secondary raw materials, barley, acorns, chicory and lupine quality showed the expediency of their use for foods enrichment. Quality indicators of secondary raw materials are presented in the tables form in the given work. It formed the basis for the development of hardware-technological schemes of obtaining СО2-extracts and their use. The hardware-technological scheme of obtaining СО2-extracts from barley, acorns and chicory includes a number of equipment units: motor transport for raw materials delivery to the enterprise, the scraper hydroconveyor, the jet washer, a photoseparator for of poor-quality raw materials and impurities removal, a blowing machine for removing surface moisture from the raw materials, a jet washer for peeling, a cutter, drying and frying device, a crusher, a roller machine tool and an extracting unit. Hardware providing for yoghurt technology enriched with amino acids, microelements and vitamins which are present in a dairy-plant extract differs from the mentioned above one in the following. The extract used is a cheese whey, and the extraction of a target component is carried out in a vibrating extractor. The hardwaretechnological scheme is made according to Russian technology of yoghurt and furnished with the equipment for dairy-vegetative extract feeding into a product. It includes the following: a vibrating extractor (not shown in fig

  17. Fiscal 2000 report on result of R and D of nonmetallic material recycling promotion technology (demonstration test and research, total system technology); 2000 nendo hitetsu kinzokukei sozai recycle sokushin gijutsu kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Jissho shiken kenkyu, total system gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    R and D was conducted on advanced recycling technology for aluminum and base metal/rare metal based materials, with fiscal 2000 results compiled. In the research of aluminum recycling technology, on a continuous fractional crystallization process and a purification by zinc removal process, the existing facilities for each demonstrated that they could simulate an aluminum scrap melting process capacity of 1,000 t/month, with a series of initial conditions determined. In the research of total system technology, combined test facilities were completed in which a purification process and a melt cleaning process were integrated. In the research of the recycling technology for base metal/rare metal based materials, a test was carried out by demonstrative facilities, with the aim of establishing copper regeneration technology in which high grade copper is produced using metal/resin based scraps such as shredder dust of automobiles as the materials. In structuring the total system technology, a preliminary survey and environmental load measures were carried out toward the practicability of a comprehensive copper metal collection recycling system. (NEDO)

  18. Extracting the redox orbitals in Li battery materials with high-resolution x-ray compton scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; Barbiellini, B; Orikasa, Y; Go, N; Sakurai, H; Kaprzyk, S; Itou, M; Yamamoto, K; Uchimoto, Y; Wang, Yung Jui; Hafiz, H; Bansil, A; Sakurai, Y

    2015-02-27

    We present an incisive spectroscopic technique for directly probing redox orbitals based on bulk electron momentum density measurements via high-resolution x-ray Compton scattering. Application of our method to spinel Li_{x}Mn_{2}O_{4}, a lithium ion battery cathode material, is discussed. The orbital involved in the lithium insertion and extraction process is shown to mainly be the oxygen 2p orbital. Moreover, the manganese 3d states are shown to experience spatial delocalization involving 0.16±0.05 electrons per Mn site during the battery operation. Our analysis provides a clear understanding of the fundamental redox process involved in the working of a lithium ion battery.

  19. Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauret, G; López-Sánchez, J F; Sahuquillo, A; Barahona, E; Lachica, M; Ure, A M; Davidson, C M; Gomez, A; Lück, D; Bacon, J; Yli-Halla, M; Muntau, H; Quevauviller, P

    2000-06-01

    This paper provides additional data on a sewage sludge amended soil certified reference material, CRM 483, which was certified in 1997 for its EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of some trace metals, following standardised extraction procedures. The additional work aimed to test the long-term stability of the material and the applicability of an improved version of the BCR three-step sequential extraction procedure on the sewage sludge amended soil (CRM 483). The paper demonstrates the CRM 483 long-term stability for EDTA and acetic acid extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and gives the results (obtained in the framework of an interlaboratory study) for the extractable contents of the same elements in the CRM 483, following the BCR three-step sequential extraction scheme. The aqua regia extractable contents following the ISO 11466 Standard are also given. The data are given as indicative (not certified) values.

  20. Restricted access magnetic materials prepared by dual surface modification for selective extraction of therapeutic drugs from biological fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yuxia; Chen, Lei; Wan, Qian-Hong

    2012-02-01

    Magnetic porous particles with dual functionality have been prepared by a two-step procedure and evaluated as novel restricted access materials for extraction of therapeutic agents from biological fluids. The magnetic silica particles served as scaffolds were first modified with diol groups, which were then converted to octadecyl esters through reaction with stearoyl chloride. In the second step, the octadecyl esters on the exterior surface were hydrolyzed by the action of lipase to yield magnetic particles with hydrophobic reversed-phase ligands on the inner surface and biocompatible diol groups on the outer surface. The restricted access behavior of the resulting materials was confirmed by differential binding of small molecules such as methotrexate (MTX), leucovorin (LV) and folic acid (FA) relative to bovine serum albumin. While MTX, LV and FA were all bound to the magnetic particles with high affinity, the adsorption of the protein was markedly reduced due to size exclusion effect. The utility of the magnetic particles for sample preparation was tested in solid-phase extraction of MTX, LV and FA from spiked human serum and the effects of the SPE conditions on the recovery of the analytes were systematically studied. Moreover, the magnetic particle-based sample preparation procedure coupled with reversed-phase liquid chromatography analysis was validated in terms of specificity, linearity and reproducibility. The method was shown to be free from interference of endogenous compounds and linear over the concentration range of 0.5-10 μg/mL for the three drugs studied. The limits of detection for the three drugs in serum were in the range of 0.160-0.302 μg/mL. Reproducibility expressed as the RSD of the recovery for ten replicated extractions at three different concentrations was found to be less than 8.93%. With a unique combination of surface functionality with magnetic cores, the restricted access magnetic particles may be adapted in automated and high

  1. Estimation of uncertainty of a reference material for proficiency testing for the determination of total mercury in fish in natura; Estimativa da incerteza de um material de referencia para ensaios de proficiencia para a determinacao de mercurio total em pescado in natura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, L.V.; Sarkis, J.E.S.; Ulrich, J.C.; Hortellani, M.A., E-mail: santana-luciana@ig.com.br, E-mail: jesarkis@ipen.br, E-mail: jculrich@ipen.br, E-mail: mahortel@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This study presents the uncertainty estimate for characterization, study of homogeneity and stability study obtained in the preparation of a reference material for the determination of total mercury in fish fresh muscle tissue for proficiency testing. The test results for stability were obtained by linear regression and to homogeneity study was obtained by ANOVA-one way showed that the material is homogeneous and stable. The value of total mercury concentration with expanded uncertainty for the material was 0,294 ± 0,089 μg g{sup -}. (author)

  2. Heavy metal speciation in solid-phase materials from a bacterial sulfate reducing bioreactor using sequential extraction procedure combined with acid volatile sulfide analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2004-04-01

    Heavy metal mobility, bioavailability and toxicity depends largely on the chemical form of metals and ultimately determines potential for environmental pollution. For this reason, determining the chemical form of heavy metals and metalloids, immobilized in sludges by biological mediated sulfate reduction, is important to evaluate their mobility and bioavailability. A modified Tessier sequential extraction procedure (SEP), complemented with acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneous extracted metals (SEM) measurements, were applied to determine the partitioning of five heavy metals (defined as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, and the metalloid As) in anoxic solid-phase material (ASM) from an anaerobic, sulfate reducing bioreactor into six operationally defined fractions. These fractions were water soluble, exchangeable, bound to carbonates (acid soluble), bound to Fe-Mn oxides (reducible), bound to organic matter and sulfides (oxidizable) and residual. It was found that the distribution of Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and As in ASM was strongly influenced by its association with the above solid fractions. The fraction corresponding to organic matter and sulfides appeared to be the most important scavenging phases of As, Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu in ASM (59.8-86.7%). This result was supported by AVS and SEM (Sigma Zn, Ni and Cu) measurements, which indicated that the heavy metals existed overwhelmingly as sulfides in the organic matter and sulfide fraction. A substantial amount of Fe and Ni at 16.4 and 20.1%, respectively, were also present in the carbonate fraction, while an appreciable portion of As (18.3%) and Zn (19.4%) was bound to Fe-Mn oxides. A significant amount of heavy metals was also associated with the residual fraction, ranging from 2.1% for Zn to 18.8% for As. Based on the average total extractable heavy metal (TEHM) values, the concentration of heavy metals in the ASM was in the order of Cu > Ni > Zn > Fe > As. If the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals are assumed to be

  3. Patterning of light-extraction nanostructures on sapphire substrates using nanoimprint and ICP etching with different masking materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Zhang, Qi; Chou, Stephen Y

    2015-02-27

    Sapphire nanopatterning is the key solution to GaN light emitting diode (LED) light extraction. One challenge is to etch deep nanostructures with a vertical sidewall in sapphire. Here, we report a study of the effects of two masking materials (SiO2 and Cr) and different etching recipes (the reaction gas ratio, the reaction pressure and the inductive power) in a chlorine-based (BCl3 and Cl2) inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etching of deep nanopillars in sapphire, and the etching process optimization. The masking materials were patterned by nanoimprinting. We have achieved high aspect ratio sapphire nanopillar arrays with a much steeper sidewall than the previous etching methods. We discover that the SiO2 mask has much slower erosion rate than the Cr mask under the same etching condition, leading to the deep cylinder-shaped nanopillars (122 nm diameter, 200 nm pitch, 170 nm high, flat top, and a vertical sidewall of 80° angle), rather than the pyramid-shaped shallow pillars (200 nm based diameter, 52 nm height, and 42° sidewall) resulted by using Cr mask. The processes developed are scalable to large volume LED manufacturing.

  4. A Highly Sensitive Multicommuted Flow Analysis Procedure for Photometric Determination of Molybdenum in Plant Materials without a Solvent Extraction Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisberto G. Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive analytical procedure for photometric determination of molybdenum in plant materials was developed and validated. This procedure is based on the reaction of Mo(V with thiocyanate ions (SCN− in acidic medium to form a compound that can be monitored at 474 nm and was implemented employing a multicommuted flow analysis setup. Photometric detection was performed using an LED-based photometer coupled to a flow cell with a long optical path length (200 mm to achieve high sensitivity, allowing Mo(V determination at a level of μg L−1 without the use of an organic solvent extraction step. After optimization of operational conditions, samples of digested plant materials were analyzed employing the proposed procedure. The accuracy was assessed by comparing the obtained results with those of a reference method, with an agreement observed at 95% confidence level. In addition, a detection limit of 9.1 μg L−1, a linear response (r=0.9969 over the concentration range of 50–500 μg L−1, generation of only 3.75 mL of waste per determination, and a sampling rate of 51 determinations per hour were achieved.

  5. Long-chain ionic liquid based mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersed solid-phase extraction for the extraction of fluorescent whitening agents in paper materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Qiu, Bin; Chen, Xianbo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2017-06-01

    A novel mixed hemimicelles and magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction method based on long-chain ionic liquids for the extraction of five fluorescent whitening agents was established. The factors influenced on extraction efficiency were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, namely, the pH of sample solution at 8.0, the concentration of long chain ionic liquid at 0.5 mmol/L, the amount of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticle at 12 mg, extraction time at 10 min, pH 6.0 of methanol as eluent, and the desorption time at 1 min, satisfactory results were obtained. Wide linear ranges (0.02-10 ng/mL) and good linearity were attained (0.9997-0.9999). The intraday and interday RSDs were 2.1-8.3%. Limits of detection were 0.004-0.01 ng/mL, which were decreased by almost an order of magnitude compared to direct detection without extraction. The present method was applied to extract the fluorescent whitening agents in two kinds of paper samples, obtaining satisfactory results. All showed results illustrated that the detection sensitivity was improved and the proposed method was a good choice for the enriching and monitoring of trace fluorescent whitening agents. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Development of solid lipid nanoparticles containing total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. and their therapeutic effect against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan ME

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mei-e Tan,1–3,* Cheng-hui He,3,* Wen Jiang,4 Cheng Zeng,2–4 Ning Yu,3 Wei Huang,2 Zhong-gao Gao,2 Jian-guo Xing3 1Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Endemic Phytomedicine Resources of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmacy, Shihezi University, Shihezi, 2State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, Department of Pharmaceutics, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 3Xinjiang Key Laboratory of Uighur Medicines, Xinjiang Institute of Materia Medica, 4Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Total flavonoid extract from Dracocephalum moldavica L. (TFDM contains effective components of D. moldavica L. that have myocardial protective function. However, the cardioprotection function of TFDM is undesirable due to its poor solubility. In order to improve the solubility and efficacy of TFDM, we developed TFDM-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (TFDM-SLNs and optimized the formulation of TFDM-SLNs using central composite design and response surface methodology. The physicochemical properties of TFDM-SLNs were characterized, and the pharmacodynamics was investigated using the myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury model in rats. The nanoparticles of optimal formulation for TFDM-SLNs were spherical in shape with the average particle size of 104.83 nm and had a uniform size distribution with the polydispersity index value of 0.201. TFDM-SLNs also had a negative zeta potential of -28.7 mV to ensure the stability of the TFDM-SLNs emulsion system. The results of pharmacodynamics demonstrated that both TFDM and TFDM-SLN groups afforded myocardial protection, and the protective effect of TFDM-SLNs was significantly superior to that of TFDM alone, based on the infarct area, histopathological examination, cardiac enzyme levels and inflammatory factors in serum. Due to the optimal

  7. Gas pressure of extractive system from the high power ion source and effect of compound materials on the optical characteristics of ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Zudong; Chen Miaosun; Wang Shouhu; Chen Xingqin; Ge Yisan; Fu Peng

    1991-01-01

    The mechanism of extractive beam from the ion source and the ion optical condition of a minimal divergence angle were introduced briefly. Two problems in researching 15 cm Duo Penning Ion Source (extractive voltage-25 kV, current-20 A) are expounded: (1) The pulse admission way makes the extractive system keeping optimum vacuum; (2) The insulating rings are made of a compound material, therefore, insulating characteristic is improved. Both the described points (1) and (2) will make a contribution to the ion optics

  8. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatollah Alirahmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  10. Comparative Assay of Glutathione S- Transferase (GSTs Activity of Excretory-Secretory Materials and Somatic Extract of Fasciola spp Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Golmohamadi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fascioliasis is a worldwide parasitic disease in human and domestic animals. The causative agents of fascioliasis are Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. In the recent years, fasciola resistance to drugs has been reported in the many of publications. Fasciola spp has detoxification system including GST enzyme which may be responsible for its resistance. Therefore , the aim of the study was to assay of GST enzyme activity in fasciola parasites. Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica helminths were collected from abattoir as a live and cultured in buffer media for 4 h at 37 °C. Excretory-Secretory products were collected and stored in -80◦C. F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica were homogenized with homogenizing buffer in a glass homogenizer to prepare of somatic extract. Suspension was then centrifuged and supernatant was stored at -80°C. In order to assay the enzyme activity, excretory-secretory and somatic extracts in the form of cocktails (potassium phosphate buffer, reduced glutathione and 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene substrates were prepared and their absorbance recorded for 5 minutes at 340 nm. The total and specific GST activity of F. gigantica somatic and ES products were obtained as 2916.00, 272.01 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.70 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. Fasciola hepatica also showed 2705.00, 276.86 micromole/minute and 1.33, 1.52 micromole/minute/mg protein, respectively. These results are important for analysis of parasite survival / resistance to drugs which use for treatment of fascioliasis.

  11. Production and disposal of waste materials from gas and oil extraction from the Marcellus Shale Play in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Yoxtheimer, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing world demand for energy has led to an increase in the exploration and extraction of natural gas, condensate, and oil from unconventional organic-rich shale plays. However, little is known about the quantity, transport, and disposal method of wastes produced during the extraction process. We examined the quantity of waste produced by gas extraction activities from the Marcellus Shale play in Pennsylvania for 2011. The main types of wastes included drilling cuttings and fluids from vertical and horizontal drilling and fluids generated from hydraulic fracturing [i.e., flowback and brine (formation) water]. Most reported drill cuttings (98.4%) were disposed of in landfills, and there was a high amount of interstate (49.2%) and interbasin (36.7%) transport. Drilling fluids were largely reused (70.7%), with little interstate (8.5%) and interbasin (5.8%) transport. Reported flowback water was mostly reused (89.8%) or disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (8.0%) and largely remained within Pennsylvania (interstate transport was 3.1%) with little interbasin transport (2.9%). Brine water was most often reused (55.7%), followed by disposal in injection wells (26.6%), and then disposed of in brine or industrial waste treatment plants (13.8%). Of the major types of fluid waste, brine water was most often transported to other states (28.2%) and to other basins (9.8%). In 2011, 71.5% of the reported brine water, drilling fluids, and flowback was recycled: 73.1% in the first half and 69.7% in the second half of 2011. Disposal of waste to municipal sewage treatment plants decreased nearly 100% from the first half to second half of 2011. When standardized against the total amount of gas produced, all reported wastes, except flowback sands, were less in the second half than the first half of 2011. Disposal of wastes into injection disposal wells increased 129.2% from the first half to the second half of 2011; other disposal methods decreased. Some

  12. Encapsulation of antioxidant phenolic compounds extracted from spent coffee grounds by freeze-drying and spray-drying using different coating materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballesteros, Lina F.; Ramirez, Monica J.; Orrego, Carlos E.

    2017-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve their antiox......Freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques were evaluated for encapsulation of phenolic compounds (PC) extracted from spent coffee grounds. Additionally, the use of maltodextrin, 29 gum arabic and a mixture of these components (ratio 1:1) as wall material to retain the PC and preserve...... the technique and the coating material greatly influenced the encapsulation of antioxidant PC. The best results were achieved when PC were encapsulated by freeze-drying using maltodextrin as wall material. Under these conditions, the amount of PC and FLA retained in the encapsulated sample corresponded to 62...

  13. Use of Tectonagrandis Leaf Extract in Colouring Silk Cloth Material Based on pH and Mordant Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyida, A.; Suranto

    2018-03-01

    One of the very potential use of plant natural colour in the industrial activities was Anthocyanin. This substance contains in a number on plant organs such as Tectona Grandis (Fabaceae) particularly in their leaf materials. In order to get this secondary metabolism, the aim of this research was to find out the optimum condition of mordant and the pH combination in producing natural colour of Tectonagrandis leaf extract. To get this chemical substance, 1 kilogram of young leaves were cut into smaller size and soaked in 7 litre of H2O for 12 hour9. The solution was then boiled for 15 minutes. To get the best colour, variations of pH (5, 7 and 9) respectivelly were applied. The results showed that purple to redness were resulted when pH 5 and no additional mordant was added. Conversly the greyness to black, were produced when ferrosulphate were added. When the addition of alum was made the redies purple will appear. These colours were considered quite good quality under examination of grey and staining scales (4-5) after treated by both wet and dry rubbing methods. The test for wash fastness resulted in sufficiently good value of color change (value of 3 on Grey Scale standard), while test for staining demonstrated good staining (value of 4 on Staining Scale standard). This early finding was quite promosing to be applied in the near future in providing natural colours for industrial purposes.

  14. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in geological materials with matrix masking and chelation-extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.; Crenshaw, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is reported for the determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in a variety of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, and calcareous samples. The sample is decomposed with HP-HNO3 and the residue is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Ammonium fluoride is added to mask iron and 'aluminum. After adjustment to pH 6, cobalt, nickel, and copper are chelated with sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone. The sample is set aside for 24 h before analysis to remove interferences from manganese. For a 0.200-g sample, the limits of determination are 5-1000 ppm for Co, Ni, and Cu. As much as 50% Fe, 25% Mn or Ca, 20% Al and 10% Na, K, or Mg in the sample either individually or in various combinations do not interfere. Results obtained on five U.S. Geological Survey rock standards are in general agreement with values reported in the literature. ?? 1979.

  15. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  16. The solid-liquid extraction separation of lithium isotopes by porous composite materials doped with ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Li Sun; Ling Gu; Dan Qiu; Dong-Hong Ren; Zaijun Li; Zhi-Guo Gu; Jiangnan University, Wuxi

    2015-01-01

    A green and efficient solid-liquid extraction method of lithium isotopes separation by porous composite materials doped with imidazolium ionic liquids and 2,2'-binaphthyldiyl-17-crown-5 has been reported in this paper. The composite materials of mesoporous silica and impregnated resin were synthesized by sol-gel and direct impregnation process, respectively. Various extraction parameters such as the concentration of lithium salt, anion of lithium salt, initial pH, time and temperature were investigated. Under optimized conditions, the maximum single-stage separation factor of 6 Li/ 7 Li was 1.048 ± 0.002, the maximum extraction efficiency was 15.86 %. The sorbents can be regenerated easily with HCl solution and reused repeatedly. (author)

  17. Determination of gold, indium, tellurium and thallium in the same sample digest of geological materials by atomic-absorption spectroscopy and two-step solvent extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.E.; Chao, T.T.

    1985-01-01

    A rock, soil, or stream-sediment sample is decomposed with hydrofluoric acid, aqua regia, and hydrobromic acid-bromine solution. Gold, thallium, indium and tellurium are separated and concentrated from the sample digest by a two-step MIBK extraction at two concentrations of hydrobromic add. Gold and thallium are first extracted from 0.1M hydrobromic acid medium, then indium and tellurium are extracted from 3M hydrobromic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid to eliminate iron interference. The elements are then determined by flame atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The two-step solvent extraction can also be used in conjunction with electrothermal atomic-absorption methods to lower the detection limits for all four metals in geological materials. ?? 1985.

  18. Acceleration of direct identification of S.aureus versus Coagulase Negative Staphylococci from blood culture material: a comparison of six bacterial DNA extraction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. C.A. Bruggeman; Drs H. Kreeftenberg; Dr. Ir. P.F.G. Wolffs; Drs A.J.M. Loonen; Dr. A.J.C. van den Brule, van den; Drs A.R. Jansz

    2010-01-01

    To accelerate differentiation between Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS), this study aimed to compare six different DNA extraction methods from 2 commonly used blood culture materials, i.e. BACTEC and Bact/ALERT. Furthermore, we analyzed the effect of reduced blood

  19. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  20. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  1. Realization of Intrinsically Stretchable Organic Solar Cells Enabled by Charge-Extraction Layer and Photoactive Material Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Ting; Chen, Jung-Yao; Fukuta, Seijiro; Lin, Po-Chen; Higashihara, Tomoya; Chueh, Chu-Chen; Chen, Wen-Chang

    2018-06-12

    The rapid development of wearable electronic devices has prompted a strong demand to develop stretchable organic solar cells (OSCs) to serve as the advanced powering systems. However, to realize an intrinsically stretchable OSC is challenging because it requires all the constituent layers to possess certain elastic properties. It thus necessitates a combined engineering of charge-transporting layers and photoactive materials. Herein, we first describe a stretchable electron-extraction layer using a blend of poly[(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)- alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluorene)] (PFN) and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR, Nipol 1072). This hybrid PFN/NBR layer exhibits a much lower Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov modulus (0.45 GPa) than the value (1.25 GPa) of the pristine PFN and could withstand a high strain (60% strain) without showing any cracks. Moreover, besides enriching the stretchability of PFN, the terminal carboxyl groups of NBR can ionize PFN to promote its solution-processability in polar solvents and to ensure the interfacial dipole formation at the corresponding interface in the device, as evidenced by the Fourier transform infrared and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. By further coupling the replacement of [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) with nonfullerene acceptors owing to better mechanical stretchability in the photoactive layer, OSCs with improved intrinsically stretchability and performance were demonstrated. An all-polymer OSC can exhibit a power conversion efficiency of 2.82% after 10% stretching, surpassing the PCBM-based device that can only withstand 5% strain.

  2. Determining the better solvent and time for extracting soil by soxhlet in TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetric method; A determinacao de qual o melhor solvente e o melhor tempo de extracao de sedimento em aparato Soxhlet na metodologia do TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon) gravimetrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koike, Renato S.; Lima, Guilherme; Baisch, Paulo R. [Fundacao Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    There are several methods of TPH (Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons) analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminants in sediment. The TPH gravimetric has been widely used in many studies and in oil spill monitoring case. The present work examined three different solvents (DCM, DCM/N-HEX and N-HEX), in three different times, to the purpose to optimize the contaminants extraction using USEPA 9071 and 3540 reference method. Then was realized analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) for monitoring the reproducible extracts. The sediments used in this experiment was collected in the Cavalos Island, localized in the city of Rio Grande, RS-Brasil. The sediment was 'washed' and after then contaminated with petroleum. The extracts were realized in Soxhlet apparatus, in three different times (4, 8 and 12 hours), and TOC analysis were realized before and after the extraction. The result demonstrated that eight hours with DCM/N-HEX solvent is more indicated for TPH gravimetric in sediment analysis with high concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons. TOC analysis demonstrated inappropriate for monitoring extract reproducibility. (author)

  3. Atomic-absorption determination of mercury in geological materials by flame and carbon-rod atomisation after solvent extraction and using co-extracted silver as a matrix modifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1983-01-01

    Based on modifications and expansion of the original Tindall's solvent extraction flame atomic-absorption procedure, an atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method has been developed for the determination of mercury in geological materials. The sample is digested with nitric and hydrochloric acids in a boiling water-bath. The solution is made ammoniacal and potassium iodide and silver nitrate are added. The mercury is extracted into isobutyl methyl ketone as the tetraiodomercurate(ll). Added silver is co-extracted with mercury and serves as a matrix modifier in the carbon-rod atomiser. The mercury in the isobutyl methyl ketone extract may be determined by either the flame- or the carbon-rod atomisation method, depending on the concentration level. The limits of determination are 0.05-10 p.p.m. of mercury for the carbon-rod atomisation and 1 -200 p.p.m. of mercury for the flame atomisation. Mercury values for reference samples obtained by replicate analyses are in good agreement with those reported by other workers, with relative standard deviations ranging from 2.3 to 0.9%. Recoveries of mercury spiked at two levels were 93-106%. Major and trace elements commonly found in geological materials do not interfere.

  4. O the Determination of the Complex Refractive Index of Powdered Materials in the 9 TO 11 Micrometer Spectral Region Utilizing AN Attenuated Total Reflectance Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, James Bryce

    1982-03-01

    A specific method of determining the complex refractive index of powdered materials using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) spectroscopy was investigated. A very precise laser/goniometric ATR system was assembled and applied to powdered samples of carbon blacks, graphite, kaolin clay, quartz, calcite, and sodalime glass beads. The reflectivity data fell into two categories: (1) data representative of a medium having a unique effective refractive index and (2) data representative of a scattering medium having no unique refractive index. Data of the first kind were obtained from all the carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay samples. The Fahrenfort-Visser solution of the Fresnel equations was applied to the goniometric reflectivity data for these samples to obtain the complex refractive index of these effective media. The complex refractive index obtained in this manner is not that of the bulk material but is instead a value which may be related to the bulk material value through some refractive index mixing rule. A systematic experiment using carbon black of particle size 0.0106 mm diameter was conducted to determine the applicability of several mixture rules for the volume packing fraction range of .2 to .6 which is most often encountered. The Bruggemann effective medium theory produced credible results while the Lorentz-Lorenz rule and the empirical Biot-Arago rule were invalid in this volume packing region. The Bruggemann rule was applied to lampblack, Mogul-L carbon black, graphite, and kaolin clay to obtain the complex refractive indices of these materials from the ATR spectroscopy data. Goniometric reflectivity data representative of an inhomogeneous scattering medium were obtained from all the powdered quartz, powdered calcite, and sodalime glass beads samples. These samples all contained particles with diameters nearly as large as the wavelength. These data demonstrate that the ATR technique, coupled with an effective medium analysis, may be used to obtain

  5. Extraction of Total DNA and RNA from Marine Filter Samples and Generation of a cDNA as Universal Template for Marker Gene Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Wemheuer, Franziska; Pfeiffer, Birgit; Wemheuer, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities play an important role in marine ecosystem processes. Although the number of studies targeting marker genes such as the 16S rRNA gene has been increased in the last few years, the vast majority of marine diversity is rather unexplored. Moreover, most studies focused on the entire bacterial community and thus disregarded active microbial community players. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for the simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA from marine water samples and for the generation of cDNA from the isolated RNA which can be used as a universal template in various marker gene studies.

  6. Measurement of total alpha activity of neptunium, plutonium, and americium in highly radioactive Hanford waste by iron hydroxide precipitation and 2-heptanone solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, T.C.; Kaye, J.H.

    1992-06-01

    An improved method has been developed to concentrate the major alpha-emitting actinide elements neptunium, plutonium, and americium from samples with high salt content such as those resulting from efforts to characterize Hanford storage tank waste. Actinide elements are concentrated by coprecipitation of their hydroxides using iron carrier. The iron is removed by extraction from 8M HCI with 2-heptanone. The actinide elements remain in the aqueous phase free from salts, iron, and long-lived fission products. Recoveries averaged 98 percent

  7. TOTAL Reference 27

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ENEH O C

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... health effects of crude lead extracted from e-wastes materials, ... children and pregnant women, whose bones are under- .... able to pass through the placenta and into breast milk, ..... Protecting children from toxic exposure:.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of hybrid silicon based complexing materials: extraction of transuranic elements from high level liquid waste; Synthese et caracterisation de gels hybrides de silice a proprietes complexantes: applications a l'extraction des transuraniens des effluents aqueux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conocar, O

    1999-07-01

    Hybrid organic/inorganic silica compounds with extractive properties have been developed under an enhanced decontamination program for radioactive aqueous nitric acid waste in nuclear facilities. The materials were obtained by the sol-gel process through hydrolysis and poly-condensation of complexing organo-tri-alkoxy-silanes with the corresponding tetra-alkoxy-silane. Hybrid silica compounds were initially synthesized and characterized from mono- and bis-silyl precursors with malonamide or ethylenediamine patterns. Solids with different specific areas and pore diameters were obtained depending on the nature of the precursor, its functionality and its concentration in the tetra-alkoxy-silane. These compounds were then considered and assessed for use in plutonium and americium extraction. Excellent results-partitioning coefficients and capacities have been obtained with malonamide hybrid silica. The comparison with silica compounds impregnated or grafted with the same type of organic group is significant in this respect. Much of the improved performance obtained with hybrid silica may be attributed to the large quantity of complexing groups that can be incorporated in these materials. The effect of the solid texture on the extraction performance was also studied. Although the capacity increased with the specific area, little effect was observed on the distribution coefficients -notably for americium- indicating that the most favorable complexation sites are found on the outer surface. Macroporous malonamide hybrid silica compounds were synthesized to study the effects of the pore diameter, but the results have been inconclusive to date because of the unexpected molecular composition of the materials. (author)

  9. An analysis of the impact of native oxide, surface contamination and material density on total electron yield in the absence of surface charging effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iida, Susumu, E-mail: susumu.iida@toshiba.co.jp [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan); Ohya, Kaoru [Institute of Technology and Science, The University of Tokushima, 2-1 Minamijyousanjima-cho,Tokushima, 770-8506 (Japan); Hirano, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Hidehiro [EUVL Infrastructure Development Center, Inc., 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken, 305-8569 (Japan)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Total electron yields were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. • Experimental and simulation results showed a low native oxide energy barrier. • The yield enhancement effect of a native oxide layer was confirmed. • The yield enhancement effect of a thin surface contamination layer was confirmed. • Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were evaluated. - Abstract: The effects of the presence of a native oxide film or surface contamination as well as variations in material density on the total electron yield (TEY) of Ru and B{sub 4}C were assessed in the absence of any surface charging effect. The experimental results were analyzed using semi-empirical Monte Carlo simulations and demonstrated that a native oxide film increased the TEY, and that this effect varied with film thickness. These phenomena were explained based on the effect of the backscattered electrons (BSEs) at the interface between Ru and RuO{sub 2}, as well as the lower potential barrier of RuO{sub 2}. Deviations in the material density from the theoretical values were attributed to the film deposition procedure based on fitting simulated TEY curves to experimental results. In the case of B{sub 4}C, the TEY was enhanced by the presence of a 0.8-nm-thick surface contamination film consisting of oxygenated hydrocarbons. The effect of the low potential barrier of the contamination film was found to be significant, as the density of the B{sub 4}C was much lower than that of the Ru. Comparing the simulation parameters generated in the present work with Joy’s database, it was found that the model and the input parameters used in the simulations were sufficiently accurate.

  10. Determination of nitrogen in UO2 pellets by hot extraction-TCD method without using flux material and evaluation of associated measurement uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Zahida; Balaji Rao, Y.; Subba Rao, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Presence of non metallic impurity elements like nitrogen above the specified limit of 75 ppm (max.) in fuel pellets affects the sintered density of fuel and also effect the Zircaloy fuel clad by forming brittle nitride phase. Hence, estimation of nitrogen plays an important role in qualifying the fuel material. Conventionally, Kjeldahl steam distillation followed by UV-Visible Spectro-photometric method has been widely employed for the estimation of nitrogen in UO 2 pellets. However, inherent chemical treatment processes causes the blank variations and provides the scope for uncertainty in measurements apart from being time consuming method. This makes Kjeldahl method as an un-attractive choice for any industrial lab where high analytical loads usually exist to meet the production targets and also where urgency for quick analytical feedback is an issue. In view of this, a simple, rapid and reliable method using A LECO Model TN- 600 Nitrogen analyzer based on Hot Extraction (HT) without adding any flux material followed by Thermal Conductivity Detection (TCD) has been developed for routine analysis. Several flux materials like Pt or Ni are used to bring down the temperature of extraction due to formation of stable uranium nitrides and temperatures of 2500°C is maintained for quantitative extraction. However usage of flux materials leads to several practical problems in analysis like deposition of uranium carbide dust onto the upper electrode requiring tedious cleaning and even sometimes causing the breakage of crucibles during the analysis. Thus an attempt has been made to increase the temperatures closer to 3000°C without using flux. Working temperature of 2900°C was arrived by plotting quantity of nitrogen extracted with temperature of extraction and flattening of plot took place at 2900°C

  11. Preparation and quantification of the total phenolic products in Citrus fruit using solid-phase extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array and UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Honglian; Liu, Zhenli; Zhao, Siyu; Shu, Yisong; Song, Zhiqian; Wang, Chun; Dong, Yunzhuo; Ning, Zhangchi; He, Dan; Wang, Menglei; Lu, Cheng; Liu, Yuanyan; Lu, Aiping

    2016-10-01

    Citrus fruit is an important health-promoting food that is rich in dietary phenolic metabolites. Traditional Chinese medicines, such as Zhishi and Zhiqiao, come from young and immature fruits of Citrus cultivars. The preparation of diversified bioactive phenolic products and establishment of the corresponding quality control methodology are challenging and necessary. In the current study, four types of solid-phase extraction sorbents for the enrichment and clean-up of the phenolic matrix were evaluated. A solid-phase extraction column coated with Strata-X was finally used in the procedure. Twenty phenolic compounds were selected to evaluate the extraction performances of the sorbents using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Under the optimized conditions, good linearities were obtained with R 2 more than 0.9996 for all analytes with LODs of 0.04-1.012 μg/g. Intra- and interday relative standard deviation values were less than 3%, and the recovery was equal to or higher than 90.02%. Compared to non-solid-phase extraction process, the content of total phenolic products was elevated 35.55-68.48% with solid-phase extraction. Finally, the developed and validated method was successfully applied to the discrimination of Zhishi samples from different species as well as Zhishi and Zhiqiao samples in different development stages. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle L; Bohuski, Elizabeth A; Lorch, Jeffery M; Blehert, David S

    2016-03-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid from P. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer-based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Optimized methods for total nucleic acid extraction and quantification of the bat white-nose syndrome fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, from swab and environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verant, Michelle; Bohuski, Elizabeth A.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Blehert, David

    2016-01-01

    The continued spread of white-nose syndrome and its impacts on hibernating bat populations across North America has prompted nationwide surveillance efforts and the need for high-throughput, noninvasive diagnostic tools. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis has been increasingly used for detection of the causative fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, in both bat- and environment-associated samples and provides a tool for quantification of fungal DNA useful for research and monitoring purposes. However, precise quantification of nucleic acid fromP. destructans is dependent on effective and standardized methods for extracting nucleic acid from various relevant sample types. We describe optimized methodologies for extracting fungal nucleic acids from sediment, guano, and swab-based samples using commercial kits together with a combination of chemical, enzymatic, and mechanical modifications. Additionally, we define modifications to a previously published intergenic spacer–based qPCR test for P. destructans to refine quantification capabilities of this assay.

  14. Next Generation Solvent - Materials Compatibility With Polymer Components Within Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (Final Report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX(reg s ign)79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX(reg s ign)79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX(reg s ign)79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX(reg s ign)79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX(reg s ign)79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  15. NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT-MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY WITH POLYMER COMPONENTS WITHIN MODULAR CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT (FINAL REPORT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Peters, T.; Fink, S.

    2012-01-17

    The Office of Waste Processing, within the Office of Technology Innovation and Development, is funding the development of an enhanced solvent for deployment at the Savannah River Site for removal of cesium from High Level Waste. The technical effort is collaboration between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), and Argonne National Laboratory. The first deployment target for the technology is within the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Deployment of a new chemical within an existing facility requires verification that the chemical components are compatible with the installed equipment. In the instance of a new organic solvent, the primary focus is on compatibility of the solvent with organic polymers used in the facility. This report provides the data from exposing these polymers to the Next Generation Solvent (NGS). The test was conducted over six months. An assessment of the dimensional stability of polymers present in MCU (i.e., PEEK, Grafoil, Tefzel and Isolast) in the modified NGS (where the concentration of LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix was varied systematically) showed that LIX{reg_sign}79 selectively affected Tefzel and its different grades (by an increase in size and lowering its density). The copolymer structure of Tefzel and possibly its porosity allows for the easier diffusion of LIX{reg_sign}79. Tefzel is used as the seat material in some of the valves at MCU. Long term exposure to LIX{reg_sign}79, may make the valves hard to operate over time due to the seat material (Tefzel) increasing in size. However, since the physical changes of Tefzel in the improved solvent are comparable to the changes in the CSSX baseline solvent, no design changes are needed with respect to the Tefzel seating material. PEEK, Grafoil and Isolast were not affected by LIX{reg_sign}79 and MaxCalix within six months of exposure. The initial rapid weight gain observed in every polymer is assigned to the finite and

  16. Lithium recycling and cathode material regeneration from acid leach liquor of spent lithium-ion battery via facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Xu, Shengming; He, Yinghe

    2017-06-01

    A novel process for extracting transition metals, recovering lithium and regenerating cathode materials based on facile co-extraction and co-precipitation processes has been developed. 100% manganese, 99% cobalt and 85% nickel are co-extracted and separated from lithium by D2EHPA in kerosene. Then, Li is recovered from the raffinate as Li 2 CO 3 with the purity of 99.2% by precipitation method. Finally, organic load phase is stripped with 0.5M H 2 SO 4 , and the cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is directly regenerated from stripping liquor without separating metal individually by co-precipitation method. The regenerative cathode material LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 is miro spherical morphology without any impurities, which can meet with LiNi 1/3 Co 1/3 Mn 1/3 O 2 production standard of China and exhibits good electrochemical performance. Moreover, a waste battery management model is introduced to guarantee the material supply for spent battery recycling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Simple Paper-Based Microfluidic Device for the Determination of the Total Amino Acid Content in a Tea Leaf Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Longfei; Wu, Yunying; Xu, Chunxiu; Chen, Zefeng

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was developed to demonstrate a microfluidic device in the analytical chemistry (instrumental analysis) laboratory. Students made the paper-based microfluidic device with a wax pen and a piece of filter paper and used it to determine the total quantity of amino acids in a green tea leaf

  18. Certification of total arsenic in blood and urine standard reference materials by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, R.L.; Clay Davis, W.; Lee Yu; Murphy, K.E.; Bryan, C.E.; Vetter, T.W.; Guthrie, W.F.; Leber, D.D.; Gulchekhra Shakirova; Graylin Mitchell

    2014-01-01

    Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to measure arsenic at four levels in standard reference material (SRM) 955c Toxic Elements in Caprine Blood and at two levels in SRM 2668 Toxic Elements in Frozen Human Urine for the purpose of providing mass concentration values for certification. Samples were freeze-dried prior to analysis followed by neutron irradiation for 3 h at a fluence rate of 1 × 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . After sample dissolution in perchloric and nitric acids, arsenic was separated from the matrix either by retention on hydrated manganese dioxide (urine) or by extraction into zinc diethyldithiocarbamate in chloroform (blood). 76 As was quantified by gamma-ray spectroscopy. Differences in chemical yield and counting geometry between samples and standards were monitored by measuring the count rate of a 77 As tracer added before sample dissolution. RNAA results were combined with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry values from National Institute of Standards and Technology and collaborating laboratories to provide certified values of 10.81 ± 0.54 and 213.1 ± 0.73 μg/L for SRM 2668 Levels I and II, and certified values of 21.66 ± 0.73, 52.7 ± 1.1, and 78.8 ± 4.9 μg/L for SRM 955c Levels II-IV, respectively. Because of discrepancies between values obtained by different methods for SRM 955c Level I, an information value of <5 μg/L was assigned for this material. (author)

  19. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of cost-effective total nucleic acids extraction protocols for cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis; a comparison by PCR amplification of genes associated with drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyamfi Oti K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has made the management of tuberculosis difficult. Also, Mycobacterium species has a peculiar cell wall, made of an impermeable complex structure rich in mycolate, making the lyses of its cell difficult. In order to apply a radio-labelled-probe based detection of mutations in selected genes leading to drug resistance, we concede that the evaluation and modifications of nucleic acid extraction protocols that are less sophisticated and less prone to contamination would be useful in the management of tuberculosis in a resource-constrained setting. Findings The average amount of nucleic acids was determined for different extraction treatments. High temperature treatment only, yielded the lowest amount of nucleic acids, i.e. 15.7 ± 3.2 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with the addition of TE and triton-X100, was 133.7 ± 8.9 μg, while that obtained with the addition of TE only, and TE and SDS were 68.4 ± 22.7 μg and 70.4 ± 20.3 μg respectively. Other treatments yielded 28.8 ± 6.7 μg, 32.5 ± 2.4 μg and 36.9 ± 15.5 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with high temperature treatment in TE, and that obtained by freezing prior to high temperature treatment, successfully amplified for the genes of interest (rpoB, KatG, rrs. Conclusion We strongly recommend the use of 1× TE buffer, and freezing and heating for improved lysis of cultured M. tuberculosis, and therefore, as an effective method for the preparation of M. tuberculosis nucleic acid useful for PCR.