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Sample records for total evaporative resistance

  1. Total evaporation in thermal ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, E.L.; Cappis, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of impurities on the total evaporation method for mass spectrometric measurement of the isotope ratio of uranium. Standard samples were spiked with Na, Ca, Fe, Zr and Ba. The results indicated that only Fe, and possible Na, displayed any interference, and then only at high concentrations. One problem limiting the accuracy of the method is the determination of the relative efficiency of the collectors in the multicollector system. 3 refs., 1 tab

  2. A phylogenetic approach to total evaporative water loss in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Oufiero, Christopher E; Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Hammond, Kimberly A; Williams, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Maintaining appropriate water balance is a constant challenge for terrestrial mammals, and this problem can be exacerbated in desiccating environments. It has been proposed that natural selection has provided desert-dwelling mammals physiological mechanisms to reduce rates of total evaporative water loss. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between total evaporative water loss and body mass in mammals by using a recent phylogenetic hypothesis. We compared total evaporative water loss in 80 species of arid-zone mammals to that in 56 species that inhabit mesic regions, ranging in size from 4 g to 3,500 kg, to test the hypothesis that mammals from arid environments have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mammals from mesic environments once phylogeny is taken into account. We found that arid species had lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species when using a dichotomous variable to describe habitat (arid or mesic). We also found that total evaporative water loss was negatively correlated with the average maximum and minimum environmental temperature as well as the maximum vapor pressure deficit of the environment. Annual precipitation and the variable Q (a measure of habitat aridity) were positively correlated with total evaporative water loss. These results support the hypothesis that desert-dwelling mammals have lower rates of total evaporative water loss than mesic species after controlling for body mass and evolutionary relatedness regardless of whether categorical or continuous variables are used to describe habitat.

  3. Static, Mixed-Array Total Evaporation for Improved Quantitation of Plutonium Minor Isotopes in Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, F. E.; Byerly, Benjamin L.; Thomas, Mariam R.; Spencer, Khalil J.

    2016-06-01

    Actinide isotope measurements are a critical signature capability in the modern nuclear forensics "toolbox", especially when interrogating anthropogenic constituents in real-world scenarios. Unfortunately, established methodologies, such as traditional total evaporation via thermal ionization mass spectrometry, struggle to confidently measure low abundance isotope ratios (evaporation techniques as a straightforward means of improving plutonium minor isotope measurements, which have been resistant to enhancement in recent years because of elevated radiologic concerns. Results are presented for small sample (~20 ng) applications involving a well-known plutonium isotope reference material, CRM-126a, and compared with traditional total evaporation methods.

  4. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances for individual body segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Faming; del Ferraro, Simona; Lin, Li-Yen; Sotto Mayor, Tiago; Molinaro, Vincenzo; Ribeiro, Miguel; Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmér, Ingvar

    2012-01-01

    Evaporative resistance is an important parameter to characterise clothing thermal comfort. However, previous work has focused mainly on either total static or dynamic evaporative resistance. There is a lack of investigation of localised clothing evaporative resistance. The objective of this study was to study localised evaporative resistance using sweating thermal manikins. The individual and interaction effects of air and body movements on localised resultant evaporative resistance were examined in a strict protocol. The boundary air layer's localised evaporative resistance was investigated on nude sweating manikins at three different air velocity levels (0.18, 0.48 and 0.78 m/s) and three different walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Similarly, localised clothing evaporative resistance was measured on sweating manikins at three different air velocities (0.13, 0.48 and 0.70 m/s) and three walking speeds (0, 0.96 and 1.17 m/s). Results showed that the wind speed has distinct effects on local body segments. In contrast, walking speed brought much more effect on the limbs, such as thigh and forearm, than on body torso, such as back and waist. In addition, the combined effect of body and air movement on localised evaporative resistance demonstrated that the walking effect has more influence on the extremities than on the torso. Therefore, localised evaporative resistance values should be provided when reporting test results in order to clearly describe clothing local moisture transfer characteristics. Localised boundary air layer and clothing evaporative resistances are essential data for clothing design and assessment of thermal comfort. A comprehensive understanding of the effects of air and body movement on localised evaporative resistance is also necessary by both textile and apparel researchers and industry.

  5. Total evaporation estimates from a Renosterveld and dryland wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-07-09

    Jul 9, 2010 ... 1 CSIR Natural Resources and the Environment, PO Box 320 Stellenbosch 7599, South ... A change in land use from Renosterveld to dryland annual crops could therefore affect the soil .... Modelling total evaporation spatially: Surface Energy ..... similar, with ETo's ranging between 1.8 mm∙d-1 (on a cloudy/.

  6. Evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans Jørgen Høgaard

    1996-01-01

    Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients.......Type of evaporators. Regulation. Thermal dimensioning. Determination of pressure loss and heat transfer coefficients....

  7. Total evaporation estimates from a Renosterveld and dryland wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accurate quantification of the water balance, in particular evapotranspiration, is fundamental in managing water resources, especially in semi-arid areas. The objective of this study was to compare evaporation from endemic vegetation – Renosterveld – and a dryland wheat/fallow cropping system. The study was carried out ...

  8. Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaney, B.T.; Turner, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Evaporation has long been used as a unit operation in the manufacture of various products in the chemical-process industries. In addition, it is currently being used for the treatment of hazardous wastes such as radioactive liquids and sludges, metal-plating wastes, and other organic and inorganic wastes. Design choice is dependent on the liquid to be evaporated. The three most common types of evaporation equipment are the rising-film, falling-film, and forced-circulation evaporators. The first two rely on boiling heat transfer and the latter relies on flash vaporization. Heat exchangers, flash tanks, and ejectors are common auxiliary equipment items incorporated with evaporator bodies to complete an evaporator system. Properties of the liquid to be evaporated are critical in final selection of an appropriate evaporator system. Since operating costs are a significant factor in overall cost, heat-transfer characteristics and energy requirements are important considerations. Properties of liquids which are critical to the determination of final design include: heat capacity, heat of vaporization, density, thermal conductivity, boiling point rise, and heat-transfer coefficient. Evaporation is an expensive technology, both in terms of capital costs and operating costs. Additionally, mechanical evaporation produces a condensate and a bottoms stream, one or both of which may require further processing or disposal. 3 figs

  9. Quality control for total evaporation technique by surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Seikou; Inoue, Sinichi; Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki; Tsutaki, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    For the measurement of uranium and plutonium isotopic composition, the surface/thermal ionization mass spectrometry is widely used at the both nuclear facilities and safeguards verification laboratories. The progress of instrument specification makes higher sensitivity. The total evaporation technique is one of the latest measurement techniques by using this progress, in which all of uranium or plutonium on the filament would be evaporated by increasing the filament current. The accuracy and precision of this technique is normally checked by using the certified isotope reference materials measurement. But the fluctuation of ion beam is very different by each filament, depending on the chemical form of evaporation. So, it should be considered how to check the measurement quality of unknown samples which has no certified values. This presentation is focused on the monitoring of ion yields and pattern of isotope ratio fluctuation to attain the traceability between reference material and unknown sample as quality control approach of total evaporation technique. (author)

  10. Effect of Air Gap Entrapped in Firefighter Protective Clothing on Thermal Resistance and Evaporative Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Hualing

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heat and water vapor transfer behavior of thermal protective clothing is greatly influenced by the air gap entrapped in multilayer fabric system. In this study, a sweating hot plate method was used to investigate the effect of air gap position and size on thermal resistance and evaporative resistance of firefighter clothing under a range of ambient temperature and humidity. Results indicated that the presence of air gap in multilayer fabric system decreased heat and water vapor transfer abilities under normal wear. Moreover, the air gap position slightly influenced the thermal and evaporative performances of the firefighter clothing. In this study, the multilayer fabric system obtained the highest thermal resistance, when the air space was located at position B. Furthermore, the effect of ambient temperature on heat and water vapor transfer properties of the multilayer fabric system was also investigated in the presence of a specific air gap. It was indicated that ambient temperature did not influence the evaporative resistance of thermal protective clothing. A thermographic image was used to test the surface temperature of multilayer fabric system when an air gap was incorporated. These results suggested that a certain air gap entrapped in thermal protective clothing system could affect wear comfort.

  11. Estimating total evaporation at the field scale using the SEBS model ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimating total evaporation at the field scale using the SEBS model and data infilling ... of two infilling techniques to create a daily satellite-derived ET time series. ... and produced R2 and RMSE values of 0.33 and 2.19 mm∙d-1, respectively, ...

  12. Evaporation of multicomponent chemical spills: When is liquid phase resistance significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    When chemicals are spilled on land or water, it is important to be able to estimate evaporation rates accurately. Conventional models used to predict evaporation rates of multicomponent spills assume that the entire resistance to evaporation lies in the vapor phase. Under certain conditions, an additional liquid phase resistance may be introduced, resulting in retarded evaporation rates. Existing models may thus fail to predict spill behavior accurately. A study is described whose objective is to elucidate the significance of the liquid phase resistance. Evaporation experiments were conducted in which a thin layer of synthetic oil (mineral oil enriched with compounds such as pentane, hexane, toluene, octane, and p-xylene) was exposed to prolonged evaporation in a metal tray at controlled wind speeds. Bulk samples of the spill layer were taken at specific time intervals and their composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The results are compared to those from a theoretical model and to gas stripping experiments. The model is based on the evaporative flux equation incorporating Raoult's law; inputs are the air-oil partition coefficient for each component and the composition of the synthetic oil on a volume and mole fraction basis. The study has enabled the formation of vertical concentration profiles to be examined and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients to be estimated. The results imply that liquid-phase resistance effects are likely to be important for the most volatile components. Contaminated areas may thus continue to be hazardous, even though model predictions indicate otherwise. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Measuring the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of sleeping bags using a supine sweating fabric manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y S; Fan, Jintu

    2009-01-01

    For testing the thermal insulation of sleeping bags, standard test methods and procedures using heated manikins are provided in ASTM F1720-06 and EN 13537:2002. However, with regard to the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, no instrument or test method has so far been established to give a direct measurement. In this paper, we report on a novel supine sweating fabric manikin system for directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags. Eleven sleeping bags were tested using the manikin under the isothermal condition, namely, both the mean skin temperature of the manikin and that of the environment were controlled to be the same at 35 °C, with the wind speed and ambient relative humidity at 0.3 m s −1 and 50%, respectively. The results showed that the novel supine sweating fabric manikin is reproducible and accurate in directly measuring the evaporative resistance of sleeping bags, and the measured evaporative resistance can be combined with thermal insulation to calculate the moisture permeability index of sleeping bags

  14. Heat enhancement of radiation resistivity of evaporated CsI, KI and KBr photocathodes

    CERN Document Server

    Tremsin, A S

    2000-01-01

    The photoemissive stability of as-deposited and heat-treated CsI, KI and KBr evaporated thin films under UV radiation is examined in this paper. After the deposition, some photocathodes were annealed for several hours at 90 deg. C in vacuum and their performance was then compared to the performance of non-heated samples. We observed that the post-evaporation thermal treatment not only increases the photoyield of CsI and KI photocathodes in the spectral range of 115-190 nm, but also reduces CsI, KI and KBr photocurrent degradation that occurs after UV irradiation. KBr evaporated layers appeared to be more radiation-resistant than CsI and KI layers. Post-deposition heat treatment did not result in any significant variation of KBr UV sensitivity.

  15. The anomalous low temperature resistivity of thermally evaporated α-Mn thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampong, F.K.; Boakye, F.; Nkum, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurements have been carried out on thermally evaporated α-Mn thin film between 300 and 1.4 K using the van der Pauw four probe technique. The film was grown on a glass substrate held at a temperature of 373 K, in an ambient pressure of 5x10 -6 Torr. The results show a resistance minimum, a notable characteristic of α-Mn but at a (rather high) temperature of 194±1 K. Below the resistivity maximum which corresponds to 70 K, the resistivity drops by only 0.02 μΩm indicating a rather short range magnetic ordering. The low temperature results show a tendency towards saturation of the resistivity as the temperature approaches zero suggesting a Kondo scattering.

  16. The anomalous low temperature resistivity of thermally evaporated alpha-Mn thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ampong, F.K., E-mail: kampxx@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Boakye, F.; Nkum, R.K. [Department of Physics, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    2010-08-15

    Electrical resistivity measurements have been carried out on thermally evaporated alpha-Mn thin film between 300 and 1.4 K using the van der Pauw four probe technique. The film was grown on a glass substrate held at a temperature of 373 K, in an ambient pressure of 5x10{sup -6} Torr. The results show a resistance minimum, a notable characteristic of alpha-Mn but at a (rather high) temperature of 194+-1 K. Below the resistivity maximum which corresponds to 70 K, the resistivity drops by only 0.02 muOMEGAm indicating a rather short range magnetic ordering. The low temperature results show a tendency towards saturation of the resistivity as the temperature approaches zero suggesting a Kondo scattering.

  17. Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Lian-en

    1984-01-01

    Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water Optimal ship forms for minimum total resistance in shallow water: An attempt is made to obtain shallow-water optimal ship forms for total resistance by means of "tent" function representation under the constraints that the main dimensions of the ship and the water-line area were kept constant. The objective function in the quadratic programming is the sum of wave-making resistance calculated by Sretenski's formula and viscou...

  18. Parametrizing Evaporative Resistance for Heterogeneous Sparse Canopies through Novel Wind Tunnel Experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, B.; Ebtehaj, A. M.; Guala, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of heat and water vapor transfer from the land surface to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration (ET) is crucial for predicting the hydrologic water balance and climate forecasts used in water resources decision-making. However, the complex distribution of vegetation, soil and atmospheric conditions makes large-scale prognosis of evaporative fluxes difficult. Current ET models, such as Penman-Monteith and flux-gradient methods, are challenging to apply at the microscale due to ambiguity in determining resistance factors to momentum, heat and vapor transport for realistic landscapes. Recent research has made progress in modifying Monin-Obukhov similarity theory for dense plant canopies as well as providing clearer description of diffusive controls on evaporation at a smooth soil surface, which both aid in calculating more accurate resistance parameters. However, in nature, surfaces typically tend to be aerodynamically rough and vegetation is a mixture of sparse and dense canopies in non-uniform configurations. The goal of our work is to parameterize the resistances to evaporation based on spatial distributions of sparse plant canopies using novel wind tunnel experimentation at the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL). The state-of-the-art SAFL wind tunnel was updated with a retractable soil box test section (shown in Figure 1), complete with a high-resolution scale and soil moisture/temperature sensors for recording evaporative fluxes and drying fronts. The existing capabilities of the tunnel were used to create incoming non-neutral stability conditions and measure 2-D velocity fields as well as momentum and heat flux profiles through PIV and hotwire anemometry, respectively. Model trees (h = 5 cm) were placed in structured and random configurations based on a probabilistic spacing that was derived from aerial imagery. The novel wind tunnel dataset provides the surface energy budget, turbulence statistics and spatial soil moisture data under varying

  19. Tungsten oxide thin films grown by thermal evaporation with high resistance to leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Diogo S. [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos; Pazinato, Julia C.O.; Freitas, Mauricio A. de; Radtke, Claudio; Garcia, Irene T.S., E-mail: irene@iq.ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica; Dorneles, Lucio S. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten oxides show different stoichiometries, crystal lattices and morphologies. These characteristics are important mainly when they are used as photocatalysts. In this work tungsten oxide thin films were obtained by thermal evaporation on (100) silicon substrates covered with gold and heated at 350 and 600 °C, with different deposition times. The stoichiometry of the films, morphology, crystal structure and resistance to leaching were characterized through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and O{sup 16} (α,α')O{sup 16} resonant nuclear reaction. Films obtained at higher temperatures show well-defined spherical nanometric structure; they are composed of WO{sub 3.1} and the presence of hydrated tungsten oxide was also observed. The major crystal structure observed is the hexagonal. Thin films obtained through thermal evaporation present resistance to leaching in aqueous media and excellent performance as photocatalysts, evaluated through the degradation of the methyl orange dye. (author)

  20. Evaporated metal films as indicators of atmospheric pollution. II. Resistance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodge, Jr, J P; Frank, E R

    1962-01-01

    There appears to be a direct relationship between gross atmospheric features associated with the accumulation of substances in air that are corrosive to metals and the rate of resistance change of thin metallic films. This behavior is the most striking in aluminum. The suggested apparatus provides an inexpensive and rapid method determining total atmospheric corrosiveness. 1 reference, 10 figures.

  1. Protein-resistant polymer coatings obtained by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusen, L. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mustaciosu, C. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering - IFIN HH, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Mitu, B.; Filipescu, M.; Dinescu, M. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania); Dinca, V., E-mail: dinali@nipne.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 409 Atomistilor Street, PO Box MG-16, 077125, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    Adsorption of proteins and polysaccharides is known to facilitate microbial attachment and subsequent formation of biofilm on surfaces that ultimately results in its biofouling. Therefore, protein repellent modified surfaces are necessary to block the irreversible attachment of microorganisms. Within this context, the feasibility of using the Poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(ε-caprolactone) methyl ether (PEG-block-PCL Me) copolymer as potential protein-resistant coating was explored in this work. The films were deposited using Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation (MAPLE), a technique that allows good control of composition, thickness and homogeneity. The chemical and morphological characteristics of the films were examined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle measurements and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The FTIR data demonstrates that the functional groups in the MAPLE-deposited films remain intact, especially for fluences below 0.5 J cm{sup −2}. Optical Microscopy and AFM images show that the homogeneity and the roughness of the coatings are related to both laser parameters (fluence, number of pulses) and target composition. Protein adsorption tests were performed on the PEG-block-PCL Me copolymer coated glass and on bare glass surface as a control. The results show that the presence of copolymer as coating significantly reduces the adsorption of proteins.

  2. A resistance representation of schemes for evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered surfaces for use in atmospheric models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihailovic, D.T.; Pielke, R.A.; Rajkovic, B.; Lee, T.J.; Jeftic, M. (Novi Sad Univ. (Yugoslavia) Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins (United States) Belgrade Univ. (Yugoslavia))

    1993-06-01

    In the parameterization of land surface processes, attention must be devoted to surface evaporation, one of the main processes in the air-land energy exchange. One of the most used approaches is the resistance representation which requires the calculation of aerodynamic resistances. These resistances are calculated using K theory for different morphologies of plant communities; then, the performance of the evaporation schemes within the alpha, beta, and their combination approaches that parameterize evaporation from bare and partly plant-covered soil surfaces are discussed. Additionally, a new alpha scheme is proposed based on an assumed power dependence alpha on volumetric soil moisture content and its saturated value. Finally, the performance of the considered and the proposed schemes is tested based on time integrations using real data. The first set was for 4 June 1982, and the second for 3 June 1981 at the experimental site in Rimski Sancevi, Yugoslavia, on chernozem soil, as representative for a bare, and partly plant-covered surface, respectively. 63 refs.

  3. A modified surface-resistance approach for representing bare-soil evaporation: wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Takeda, A.; Sugita, F.

    1997-01-01

    A physically based (i.e., nonempirical) representation of surface-moisture availability is proposed, and its applicability is investigated. This method is based on the surface-resistance approaches, and it uses the depth of evaporating surface rather than the water content of the surface soil as the determining factor of surface-moisture availability. A simple energy-balance model including this representation is developed and tested against wind tunnel experiments under various atmospheric conditions. This model can estimate not only the latent heat flux but also the depth of the evaporating surface simultaneously by solving the inverse problem of energy balance at both the soil surface and the evaporating surface. It was found that the depth of the evaporating surface and the latent heat flux estimated by the model agreed well with those observed. The agreements were commonly found out under different atmospheric conditions. The only limitation of this representation is that it is not valid under conditions of drastic change in the radiation input, owing to the influence of transient phase transition of water in the dry surface layer. The main advantage of the approach proposed is that it can determine the surface moisture availability on the basis of the basic properties of soils instead of empirical fitting, although further investigations on its practical use are needed

  4. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, JB; Munoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, BI

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for

  5. Repeatability and individual correlates of basal metabolic rate and total evaporative water loss in birds : A case study in European stonechats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteegh, Maaike A.; Heim, Barbara; Dingemanse, Niels J.; Tieleman, B. Irene

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) are thought to have evolved in conjunction with life history traits and are often assumed to be characteristic features of an animal. Physiological traits can show large intraindividual variation at short and long timescales, yet

  6. Identification of Heat Transfer Resistance of Scale Deposit on theEvaporator of Radioactive Waste Management Installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus-Salimin

    2000-01-01

    Identification of heat transfer resistance of scale deposit from fixedhardness of liquid waste in the form of CaSO 4 and MgSO 4 ratio 2:1 has beendone on the evaporation system of Serpong Nuclear Facilities fordetermination of the quality of heat transfer obstruction from heating sourceto solution. Evaporation simulation of solution containing hardness withconcentration 0.5; 1; 2; and 2.5% mass were done on the stainless steelcontainer of 1 / volume with electrical heater in which a stainless-steeltube is put down on the base container. After 24, 168, 336, 504 and 672 hoursevaporation process it is obtained the thickness of scale deposit on thesurface of tube for determining the fouling factor. Heat transfer resistanceof scale deposit from 672 hours evaporation of solution 2.5% concentrationhampered heat transfer, the value of fouling factor be superior to limitsvalue of 0.000515 hours.m 2 . o C/kcal.The fouling factor from the evaporationof solution of 0.5; 1; and 2% concentration during 672 hours be inferior tolimits value. (author)

  7. Curious resistivity behaviour of vacuum evaporated Er, Dy and Gd films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, U.; Kaul, V.K.; Bist, B.M.; Srivastava, O.N.

    1976-01-01

    The thickness dependence of electrical resistivity of Er, Dy and Gd thin films at room temperature has been studied. The electrical resistivity of these films does not show the usual behaviour expected on the basis of the size affected conduction i.e. Fuchs Sondheimer theory, which always leads to an increase in the resistivity with decreasing film thickness. Instead, the observed resistivity behaviour is characterised mainly by (i) a decrease in resistivity with decreasing film thickness (between 1600-1000 deg A) for Er films and below about 500 deg A for Gd and Dy films), (ii) a thickness independent resistivity behaviour for Er films from 1000-600 deg A, (iii) increase in resistivity of Er films in the thickness region 600-200 deg A, (iv) the resistivity values in certain thickness regions, which are even less than the corresponding bulk value. Analysis reveals that those curious rho-t characteristics arise due to three effects namely, the increase resistivity due to surface scattering the suppression of resistivity due to thickness dependence of structural phase and spin disorder scattering. All the effects are dominant in thickness regions, different in different metals giving rise to the observed characteristics. (author)

  8. Standard test method for determination of uranium or plutonium isotopic composition or concentration by the total evaporation method using a thermal ionization mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This method describes the determination of the isotopic composition and/or the concentration of uranium and plutonium as nitrate solutions by the thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) total evaporation method. Purified uranium or plutonium nitrate solutions are loaded onto a degassed metal filament and placed in the mass spectrometer. Under computer control, ion currents are generated by heating of the filament(s). The ion beams are continually measured until the sample is exhausted. The measured ion currents are integrated over the course of the run, and normalized to a reference isotope ion current to yield isotopic ratios. 1.2 In principle, the total evaporation method should yield isotopic ratios that do not require mass bias correction. In practice, some samples may require this bias correction. When compared to the conventional TIMS method, the total evaporation method is approximately two times faster, improves precision from two to four fold, and utilizes smaller sample sizes. 1.3 The tot...

  9. Analysis of a resistance-energy balance method for estimating daily evaporation from wheat plots using one-time-of-day infrared temperature observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, B. J.; Idso, S. B.; Reginato, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate estimates of evaporation over field-scale or larger areas are needed in hydrologic studies, irrigation scheduling, and meteorology. Remotely sensed surface temperature might be used in a model to calculate evaporation. A resistance-energy balance model, which combines an energy balance equation, the Penman-Monteith (1981) evaporation equation, and van den Honert's (1948) equation for water extraction by plant roots, is analyzed for estimating daily evaporation from wheat using postnoon canopy temperature measurements. Additional data requirements are half-hourly averages of solar radiation, air and dew point temperatures, and wind speed, along with reasonable estimates of canopy emissivity, albedo, height, and leaf area index. Evaporation fluxes were measured in the field by precision weighing lysimeters for well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Errors in computed daily evaporation were generally less than 10 percent, while errors in cumulative evaporation for 10 clear sky days were less than 5 percent for both well-watered and water-stressed wheat. Some results from sensitivity analysis of the model are also given.

  10. A comparative study of the electrical properties of Pd/ZnO Schottky contacts fabricated using electron beam deposition and resistive/thermal evaporation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mtangi, W.; Auret, F. D.; Janse van Rensburg, P. J.; Coelho, S. M. M.; Legodi, M. J.; Nel, J. M.; Meyer, W. E.; Chawanda, A.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic investigation to check the quality of Pd Schottky contacts deposited on ZnO has been performed on electron beam (e-beam) deposited and resistively/thermally evaporated samples using current-voltage, IV, and conventional deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements. Room temperature IV measurements reveal the dominance of pure thermionic emission on the resistively evaporated contacts, while the e-beam deposited contacts show the dominance of generation recombination at low voltages, -10 A at a reverse voltage of 1.0 V whereas the e-beam deposited contacts have reverse currents of the order of 10 -6 A at 1.0 V. Average ideality factors have been determined as (1.43 ± 0.01) and (1.66 ± 0.02) for the resistively evaporated contacts and e-beam deposited contacts, respectively. The IV barrier heights have been calculated as (0.721 ± 0.002) eV and (0.624 ± 0.005) eV for the resistively evaporated and e-beam deposited contacts, respectively. Conventional DLTS measurements reveal the presence of three prominent defects in both the resistive and e-beam contacts. Two extra peaks with energy levels of 0.60 and 0.81 eV below the conduction band minimum have been observed in the e-beam deposited contacts. These have been explained as contributing to the generation recombination current that dominates at low voltages and high leakage currents. Based on the reverse current at 1.0 V, the degree of rectification, the dominant current transport mechanism and the observed defects, we conclude that the resistive evaporation technique yields better quality Schottky contacts for use in solar cells and ultraviolet detectors compared to the e-beam deposition technique. The 0.60 eV has been identified as possibly related to the unoccupied level for the doubly charged oxygen vacancy, V o 2+ .

  11. Solid-Liquid Interface Thermal Resistance Affects the Evaporation Rate of Droplets from a Surface: A Study of Perfluorohexane on Chromium Using Molecular Dynamics and Continuum Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoxue; Schlawitschek, Christiane; Katyal, Naman; Stephan, Peter; Gambaryan-Roisman, Tatiana; Leroy, Frédéric; Müller-Plathe, Florian

    2017-05-30

    We study the role of solid-liquid interface thermal resistance (Kapitza resistance) on the evaporation rate of droplets on a heated surface by using a multiscale combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and analytical continuum theory. We parametrize the nonbonded interaction potential between perfluorohexane (C 6 F 14 ) and a face-centered-cubic solid surface to reproduce the experimental wetting behavior of C 6 F 14 on black chromium through the solid-liquid work of adhesion (quantity directly related to the wetting angle). The thermal conductances between C 6 F 14 and (100) and (111) solid substrates are evaluated by a nonequilibrium molecular dynamics approach for a liquid pressure lower than 2 MPa. Finally, we examine the influence of the Kapitza resistance on evaporation of droplets in the vicinity of a three-phase contact line with continuum theory, where the thermal resistance of liquid layer is comparable with the Kapitza resistance. We determine the thermodynamic conditions under which the Kapitza resistance plays an important role in correctly predicting the evaporation heat flux.

  12. A study of oxidation resistant coating on TiAl alloys by Cr evaporation and pack cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Dong Ju; Jung, Hwan Gyo; Kim, Kyoo Young

    2002-01-01

    A Cr+Al-type composite coating is applied to improve the properties of aluminide coating layers, AiAl 3 , formed on TiAl alloys. This method is performed by Cr evaporation on the TiAl-XNb(X= 1,6at%) substrate followed by pack aluminizing. The coating layer formed by the composite coating process consists of the outer layer of Al 4 Cr and the inner layer of TiAl 3 regardless of the Nb content. however, these coating layers are transformed to Ti(Al,Cr) 3 layers with Ll 2 structures during oxidation. In particular, as Nb content increases, the grain size of the inner TiAl 3 layer becomes smaller and the diffusion rate of Cr increases after oxidation. Faster formation of a Ti(Al,Cr) 3 layer with an Ll 2 structure through Nb addition is more effective to improve cracking resistance at the beginning of oxidation of TiAl alloys. However, growth of Ti(Al,Cr) 3 formed on the coating layer becomes slower as the Nb content in the coating layer is increased. As a result, the addition of a large amount of Nb to composite coating layer is not desirable due to poor ductility of the coating layer. A Ti(Al,Cr) 3 layer with an Ll 2 structure developed during oxidation showed much better ductility compared with other coating layers

  13. Vapor pressure and evaporation rate of certain heat-resistant compounds in a vacuum at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgar, A. S.; Verkhoglyadova, T. S.; Samsonov, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    The vapor pressure and evaporation rate of borides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome; and of strontium and carbides of titanium, zirconium, and chrome, molybdenum silicide; and nitrides of titanium, niobium, and tantalum in a vacuum were studied. It is concluded that all subject compounds evaporate by molecular structures except AlB sub 12' which dissociates, losing the aluminum.

  14. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisz, Monika [Department of Environmental Microbiology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 1, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-03-15

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX{sup R}) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX{sup R} isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress.

  15. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisz, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX R ) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX R isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress

  16. Total antioxidant and oxidant status in obese children without insulin resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Doğan Demir; Ufuk Erenberk; İlker Tolga Özgen; Emin Özkaya; Aysel Vahapoğlu Türkmen; M. Ruşen Dündaröz; Özcan Erel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress in obese children may lead in adulthood serious conditions such as coronary heart diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In childhood oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance or extreme obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress status in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 38 obese children (21 male, 17 female) without insulin resistance, mean aged 9.4±3.8 years) and 51 normal weight children...

  17. Flash evaporator

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for flash evaporating a reagent includes an evaporation chamber that houses a dome on which evaporation occurs. The dome is solid and of high thermal conductivity and mass, and may be heated to a temperature sufficient to vaporize a specific reagent. The reagent is supplied from an external source to the dome through a nozzle, and may be supplied as a continuous stream, as a shower, and as discrete drops. A carrier gas may be introduced into the evaporation chamber and cre...

  18. Total evaporation estimates from a Renosterveld and dryland wheat/fallow surface at the Voëlvlei Nature Reserve (South Africa)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate quantification of the water balance, in particular evapotranspiration, is fundamental in managing water resources, especially in semi-arid areas. The objective of this study was to compare evaporation from endemic vegetation...

  19. Thickness and temperature dependence of electrical resistivity of p-type Bi0.5Sb1.5Te3 thin films prepared by flash evaporation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Xingkai; Yang Junyou; Zhu, W; Fan, X A; Bao, S Q

    2006-01-01

    P-type Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 thin films with thicknesses in the range 80-320 nm have been deposited by the flash evaporation method on glass substrates at 473 K. XRD and field emission scanning electron microscope were performed to characterize the thin films. The results show that the thin films are polycrystalline and the grain size of the thin films increases with increasing thickness of the thin films. Compositional analysis of the thin films was also carried out by energy-dispersive x-ray analysis. A near linear relationship was observed between the electrical resistivity and the inverse thickness of the annealed thin films, and it agrees with Tellier's model. Electrical resistivity of the annealed thin films was studied in the temperature range 300-350 K, and their thermal activation behaviour was characterized, the activation energy for conduction decreases with increasing thickness of the thin films

  20. Determination of total dietary fiber in selected foods containing resistant maltodextrin by a simplified enzymatic-gravimetric method and liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Boqiang; Wang, Jing; Roturier, Jean Michel; Tang, Zhiyu; Li, Huan; Wei, Guangyan

    2008-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was conducted in China to validate the modified AOAC Official Method 2001.03 for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF) in foods containing resistant maltodextrin (RMD), which will be adopted as the National Standard Method of China. The kind of buffer solution, the volume of filtrate evaporation, the volume of eluent for desalting and residual solution after evaporation, etc. were modified, which had been proved to have acceptable accuracy and precision in the routine assay. TDF contents in 3 representative foods and 2 kinds of RMD ingredient (i.e., NUTRIOSE 06 and NUTRIOSE 10) were measured using the modified method in 6 eligible laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and governmental laboratories in China. The results of the interlaboratory study indicated that the intralaboratory repeatability, interlaboratory reproducibility, and precision of the modified method are adequate for reliable analysis of TDF in food containing RMD, as well as resistant dextrin. Compared to AOAC Official Method 2001.03, the modified method is time- and cost-saving.

  1. Resistive vs. total power depositions by Alfven modes in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K.

    2004-01-01

    The power deposition of fast waves launched by a LFS located antenna in a pre-heated, strongly non-uniform low aspect ratio tokamak (START) is investigated. The rigorous computational results indicate a total power deposition by far larger than that predicted for Alfven continuum eigenmodes in cylindrical plasmas. For toroidal wave numbers |N| > 1, the resistive and total power depositions are almost equal. (author)

  2. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A phylogenetic analysis of basal metabolism, total evaporative water loss, and life-history among foxes from desert and mesic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J B; Muñoz-Garcia, A; Ostrowski, S; Tieleman, B I

    2004-01-01

    We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) of species of foxes that exist on the Arabian Peninsula, Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana) and two subspecies of Red fox (Vulpes vulpes). Combining these data with that on other canids from the literature, we searched for specialization of physiological traits among desert foxes using both conventional least squares regression and regressions based on phylogenetic independent contrasts. Further, we explored the consequences of reduced body size of foxes on life history parameters such as litter size and neonate mass. For Blanford's foxes, Red foxes from the central desert of Arabia, and Red foxes from the more mesic Asir mountains, body mass averaged 1,285 +/- 52 g, 1,967 +/- 289 g, and 3,060 +/- 482 g, respectively, whereas mean BMR, during summer, was 304.5 +/- 32.3 kJ/day, 418.0 +/- 32.4 kJ/day, and 724.1 +/- 120.2 kJ/day (+/- SD). An analysis of covariance with body mass as a covariate showed no statistical differences in BMR among foxes. Analysis of covariance indicated that Red fox from the Asir mountains had a higher TEWL than Red foxes from central Arabia or than Blanford's foxes also from the mountains. Comparisons of all species of desert and mesic foxes showed no significant differences in BMR, nor did desert foxes have a significantly lower BMR than other carnivores. TEWL of desert foxes was lower than other more mesic carnivores; deviations in TEWL ranged from -17.7% for the Fennec fox (Fennecus zerda) to -57.4% for the Kit fox (Vulpes velox). Although desert foxes have a BMR comparable to other more mesic species, it appears that desert foxes do have a smaller body mass, lowering overall energy requirements. We attribute this reduction in body size to the "resource limitation hypothesis" whereby natural selection favors smaller individuals in a resource-limited environment, especially during periods of severe food shortage. However, until common garden experiments are performed

  4. Evaporator bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoll, W.

    1977-01-01

    In order to prevent the hazard of a possible excursion in an evaporator bulb for radioactive liquids there is provided in the bottom of the vessel a recess filled with a neutron-absorbing and moderating material. The bottom drain pipe is coming out sideways and connected with a heated pipe feeding above into the vessel tangentially. (TK) [de

  5. Evaporating firewalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Raamsdonk, Mark

    2014-11-01

    In this note, we begin by presenting an argument suggesting that large AdS black holes dual to typical high-energy pure states of a single holographic CFT must have some structure at the horizon, i.e. a fuzzball/firewall, unless the procedure to probe physics behind the horizon is state-dependent. By weakly coupling the CFT to an auxiliary system, such a black hole can be made to evaporate. In a case where the auxiliary system is a second identical CFT, it is possible (for specific initial states) that the system evolves to precisely the thermofield double state as the original black hole evaporates. In this case, the dual geometry should include the "late-time" part of the eternal AdS black hole spacetime which includes smooth spacetime behind the horizon of the original black hole. Thus, if a firewall is present initially, it evaporates. This provides a specific realization of the recent ideas of Maldacena and Susskind that the existence of smooth spacetime behind the horizon of an evaporating black hole can be enabled by maximal entanglement with a Hawking radiation system (in our case the second CFT) rather than prevented by it. For initial states which are not finely-tuned to produce the thermofield double state, the question of whether a late-time infalling observer experiences a firewall translates to a question about the gravity dual of a typical high-energy state of a two-CFT system.

  6. Liquid evaporation process and evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergey, Claude; Ravenel, Jacques.

    1975-01-01

    The process described enables a liquid to be evaporated rapidly without any projection. A jet of hot gas is applied to the liquid, the power and angle of the jet being chosen so as to spin the liquid. It is particularly used in the case of radioactive products [fr

  7. Total antioxidant and oxidant status in obese children without insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Doğan Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress in obese children may lead in adulthood serious conditions such as coronary heart diseases or type 2 diabetes mellitus. In childhood oxidative stress is associated with insulin resistance or extreme obesity. In this study, we aimed to evaluate oxidative stress status in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Methods: A total of 38 obese children (21 male, 17 female without insulin resistance, mean aged 9.4±3.8 years and 51 normal weight children (25 male, 26 female as the control group, mean aged 9.3±3.9 years were enrolled to the study. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Results: The results reveal that obese children had lower TAC than normal weight children (2,27±0,28 vs. 2.76±0.35 mmol Trolox Eq./L; p<0,001. There was no statistical difference between obese and control groups regarding TOS (6,08±3,63 vs 5.25±4.16 μmol H2O2 Eq./L; p=0.333. OSI was higher in obese group (2.65±1.52 vs 1.92±1.56; p=0.029 Conclusion: Balance between oxidant and antioxidant system is disrupted due to the reduced TAC even in moderately obese children without insulin resistance. Further studies should also be performed to evaluate the beneficial effects of dietary intake of antioxidants in these children.

  8. Description of load progression and pain response during progressive resistance training early after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone R; Petersen, Annemette K; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2016-01-01

    events during the initial four weeks of training. RESULTS: The majority of patients experienced only moderate hip pain during exercise (range in median across exercises and sessions: 5-35 mm Visual Analog Scale) and mild pain at rest (median: 1-18 mm Visual Analog Scale), both of which decreased over...... time ( p training load (67%-166 % across exercises, p training sessions, short term pain response (an increase >20 mm Visual Analog Scale) occurred in 13 patients in 24 training sessions. CONCLUSION: Progressive resistance......OBJECTIVE: To describe a progressive resistance training intervention implemented shortly after total hip arthroplasty, including a detailed description of load progression, pain response and adverse events to the training. DESIGN: Secondary analyses of data from the intervention group...

  9. Evaporation of Lennard-Jones clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, C.E.; Garzon, I.L.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive molecular dynamics simulations have been done to study the evaporation of a 13-atom Lennard-Jones cluster. The survival probability and the evaporative lifetime are calculated as a function of the cluster total energy from a classical trajectory analysis. The results are interpreted in terms of the RRK theory of unimolecular dissociation. The calculation of the binding energy of the evaporated species from the evaporation rate and the average kinetic energy release is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Sample preparation for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis using resist pattern technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, K.; Yomogita, N.; Konyuba, Y.

    2018-06-01

    A circular resist pattern layer with a diameter of 9 mm was prepared on a glass substrate (26 mm × 76 mm; 1.5 mm thick) for total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis. The parallel cross pattern was designed with a wall thickness of 10 μm, an interval of 20 μm, and a height of 1.4 or 0.8 μm. This additional resist layer did not significantly increase background intensity on the XRF peaks in TXRF spectra. Dotted residue was obtained from a standard solution (10 μL) containing Ti, Cr, Ni, Pb, and Ga, each at a final concentration of 10 ppm, on a normal glass substrate with a silicone coating layer. The height of the residue was more than 100 μm, where self-absorption in the large residue affected TXRF quantification (intensity relative standard deviation (RSD): 12-20%). In contrast, from a droplet composed of a small volume of solution dropped and cast on the resist pattern structure, the obtained residue was not completely film but a film-like residue with a thickness less than 1 μm, where self-absorption was not a serious problem. In the end, this sample preparation was demonstrated to improve TXRF quantification (intensity RSD: 2-4%).

  11. Atmospheric sensitivity to land surface changes: comparing the impact of albedo, roughness, and evaporative resistance on near-surface air temperature using an idealized land model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, M. M.; Swann, A. L. S.; Bonan, G. B.

    2017-12-01

    Past studies have demonstrated how changes in vegetation can impact the atmosphere; however, it is often difficult to identify the exact physical pathway through which vegetation changes drive an atmospheric response. Surface properties (such as vegetation color, or height) control surface energy fluxes, which feed back on the atmosphere on both local and global scales by modifying temperatures, cloud cover, and energy gradients. Understanding how land surface properties influence energy fluxes is crucial for improving our understanding of how vegetation change - past, present, and future - impacts the atmosphere, global climate, and people. We explore the sensitivity of the atmosphere to perturbations of three land surface properties - albedo, roughness, and evaporative resistance - using an idealized land model coupled to an Earth System Model. We derive a relationship telling us how large a change in each surface property is required to drive a local 0.1 K change in 2m air temperature. Using this idealized framework, we are able to separate the influence on the atmosphere of each individual surface property. We demonstrate that the impact of each surface property on the atmosphere is spatially variable - that is, a similar change in vegetation can have different climate impacts if made in different locations. This analysis not only improves our understanding of how the land system can influence climate, but also provides us with a set of theoretical limits on the potential climate impact of arbitrary vegetation change (natural or anthropogenic).

  12. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajnik, C S [Diabetes Unit, KEM Hospital Research Centre, Pune (India); Yudkin, J S [Whittington Hospital, University College of London, London (United Kingdom); Shetty, P S [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Kurpad, A [St. John' s Medical College, Bangalore (India)

    1999-07-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- {alpha}); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in

  13. Total body fat, pro-inflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Yudkin, J.S.; Shetty, P.S.; Kurpad, A.

    1999-01-01

    There is a growing epidemic of insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) in Indians. We postulate that increased susceptibility of the urban Indians to insulin resistance is a result of a tendency to increased fat deposition from the time of intrauterine life (thrifty phenotype), exaggerated in the urban environment by a positive energy balance. The pro-inflammatory cytokines secreted by the inflammatory cells as well by the adipose tissue could aggravate insulin resistance and endothelial damage and therefore, increase the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease (CHD) independent of the previously proposed glucose fatty acid cycle mechanism. In a preliminary study, we propose to make detailed measurements of the proposed mechanisms in a selected population from 3 geographical locations in and near the city of Pune, India and also validate simple 'epidemiologic' measurements of body composition with 'reference' measurements. One hundred men (30 to 50y) each from the three geographical locations (rural, urban slum-dwellers and urban middle class in Pune) will be studied for: (i) Body composition: Anthropometric and bioimpedance measurement of total body fat (to be calibrated against deuterated water in 30 subjects from each location), and muscle mass by anthropometry and urinary creatinine excretion; (ii) Body fat distribution by subscapular- triceps ratio, waist-hip ratio; (iii) Metabolic: Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance variables (insulin, lipids, NEFA) and leptin; (iv) Endothelial markers: e-Selectin and von Willebrand Factor (vWF); (v) Inflammatory markers and pro-inflammatory cytokines: C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF- α); (vi) Energy Balance: Assessment of nutritional intake (calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats, n3 and n6 fatty acids) and physical activity by a questionnaire. Insulin resistance variables, endothelial markers, cytokines and obesity parameters will be compared in the 3

  14. Streamer Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suess, Steven T.; Wang, A. H.; Wu, Shi T.; Nerney, S.

    1998-01-01

    Evaporation is the consequence of slow plasma heating near the tops of streamers where the plasma is only weakly contained by the magnetic field. The form it takes is the slow opening of field lines at the top of the streamer and transient formation of new solar wind. It was discovered in polytropic model calculations, where due to the absence of other energy loss mechanisms in magnetostatic streamers, its ultimate endpoint is the complete evaporation of the streamer. This takes, for plausible heating rates, weeks to months in these models. Of course streamers do not behave this way, for more than one reason. One is that there are losses due to thermal conduction to the base of the streamer and radiation from the transition region. Another is that streamer heating must have a characteristic time constant and depend on the ambient physical conditions. We use our global Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model with thermal conduction to examine a few examples of the effect of changing the heating scale height and of making ad hoc choices for how the heating depends on ambient conditions. At the same time, we apply and extend the analytic model of streamers, which showed that streamers will be unable to contain plasma for temperatures near the cusp greater than about 2xl0(exp 6) K. Slow solar wind is observed to come from streamers through transient releases. A scenario for this that is consistent with the above physical process is that heating increases the near-cusp temperature until field lines there are forced open. The subsequent evacuation of the flux tubes by the newly forming slow wind decreases the temperature and heating until the flux tubes are able to reclose. Then, over a longer time scale, heating begins to again refill the flux tubes with plasma and increase the temperature until the cycle repeats itself. The calculations we report here are first steps towards quantitative evaluation of this scenario.

  15. Steady state operation of a copper-water LHP with a flat-oval evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.; Vershinin, S.; Sartre, V.; Laurien, E.; Bonjour, J.; Maydanik, Yu.F.

    2011-01-01

    In order to dissipate the heat generated by electronic boxes in avionic systems, a copper-water LHP with a flat-oval evaporator was fabricated and tested at steady state. The LHP consists of a flat shaped evaporator, 7 mm thick, including compensation chamber with attached heat exchanger. The condenser is cooled by forced convection of liquid. The variable parameters are the heat sink and ambient temperatures (20 and 55 o C), the orientation (-90 o to +90 o in two perpendicular planes) and the power input (0-100 W). Evaporator wall temperatures are higher when the evaporator is placed above the condenser. For heat sink and ambient temperature of 20 o C the evaporator wall temperature does not vary much with heat load for all measured elevations. But it fluctuates at heat sink and ambient temperature equal to 55 o C when the evaporator is placed below the condenser. The LHP total thermal resistance is governed by the condenser resistance. It decreases with increasing heat load, whatever the operating conditions, because the part of the condenser internal surface area used for condensation increases too. A minimum thermal resistance of 0.2 K/W was obtained. The maximum thermal resistance was 2.7 K/W.

  16. Stress-reaction during hypokinesia and its effect on total resistance of the animal body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, I.P.

    1980-01-01

    In the experiments on rats, shown has been that three-phase stress-reaction develops during the hypokinetic syndrome formation. This reaction is confirmed by specific changes of general state of the organism, body mass and by the activity of hypothalamic-hypophysial-adrenal system evaluated by oscillations of relative mass of pituitary body and adrenal glands and by karyometry of neuron of the hypothalamus arcuate nuclear and cells of zona fasciculata of adrenal glands. The hypokinetic stress affects the total resistance of the body, its sensitivity to gamma-irradiation in the dose of 800 rad. On the definite stage of development the hypokinetic stress forms the state of heightened ''cross'' stability

  17. Feasibility of Early-Initiated Progressive Resistance Training after Total Hip Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Petersen, Annemette Krintel

    during the exercises were measured at each training session. Isometric muscle strength was measured before and 4 weeks after the THR. Findings / Results: Pain during exercises and resting pain before and after each training session was unchanged or decreased during the 4 weeks of training. Averaged...... across exercises pain during training decreased from 3.6 (sd: 2.8) at the first session to 1.52 (sd: 1.8) VAS-mm at the last session, ptraining load increased progressively for all 4 exercises during the 4 weeks of training. For example: 2nd, 5th and 8th training session. Hip......Background: Muscle atrophy, reduced hip muscle strength and function are documented within the first weeks after Total Hip Replacement (THR). Purpose / Aim of Study: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of early-initiated progressive resistance training (PRT) after THR...

  18. within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high pressure flow meter (HPFM) and evaporative flux (EF) methods. In the evaporative flux method, measure- ments of transpiration flux and leaf water potential were used to calculate the total resistance to water flow using. Ohm's law analogy. Measurements of tranpiration flux (Q) relationship, plant resistance calculated ...

  19. Total and high molecular weight adiponectin have similar utility for the identification of insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguilar-Salinas Carlos A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insulin resistance (IR and related metabolic disturbances are characterized by low levels of adiponectin. High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total adiponectin. The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index for the identification of IR and related metabolic conditions. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed in a group of ambulatory subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, in Mexico City. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC curve for total, HMWA and the SA index were plotted for the identification of metabolic disturbances. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the identification of IR were calculated. Results The study included 101 men and 168 women. The areas under the ROC curve for total and HMWA for the identification of IR (0.664 vs. 0.669, P = 0.74, obesity (0.592 vs. 0.610, P = 0.32, hypertriglyceridemia (0.661 vs. 0.671, P = 0.50 and hypoalphalipoproteinemia (0.624 vs. 0.633, P = 0.58 were similar. A total adiponectin level of 8.03 μg/ml was associated with a sensitivity of 57.6%, a specificity of 65.9%, a positive predictive value of 50.0%, a negative predictive value of 72.4%, and an accuracy of 62.7% for the diagnosis of IR. The corresponding figures for a HMWA value of 4.25 μg/dl were 59.6%, 67.1%, 51.8%, 73.7% and 64.2%. The area under the ROC curve of the SA index for the identification of IR was 0.622 [95% CI 0.554-0.691], obesity 0.613 [95% CI 0.536-0.689], hypertriglyceridemia 0.616 [95% CI 0.549-0.683], and hypoalphalipoproteinemia 0.606 [95% CI 0.535-0.677]. Conclusions Total adiponectin, HMWA and the SA index had similar utility for the identification of IR and metabolic disturbances.

  20. Electrical Resistance Tomography for Visualization of Moving Objects Using a Spatiotemporal Total Variation Regularization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistance tomography (ERT has been considered as a data collection and image reconstruction method in many multi-phase flow application areas due to its advantages of high speed, low cost and being non-invasive. In order to improve the quality of the reconstructed images, the Total Variation algorithm attracts abundant attention due to its ability to solve large piecewise and discontinuous conductivity distributions. In industrial processing tomography (IPT, techniques such as ERT have been used to extract important flow measurement information. For a moving object inside a pipe, a velocity profile can be calculated from the cross correlation between signals generated from ERT sensors. Many previous studies have used two sets of 2D ERT measurements based on pixel-pixel cross correlation, which requires two ERT systems. In this paper, a method for carrying out flow velocity measurement using a single ERT system is proposed. A novel spatiotemporal total variation regularization approach is utilised to exploit sparsity both in space and time in 4D, and a voxel-voxel cross correlation method is adopted for measurement of flow profile. Result shows that the velocity profile can be calculated with a single ERT system and that the volume fraction and movement can be monitored using the proposed method. Both semi-dynamic experimental and static simulation studies verify the suitability of the proposed method. For in plane velocity profile, a 3D image based on temporal 2D images produces velocity profile with accuracy of less than 1% error and a 4D image for 3D velocity profiling shows an error of 4%.

  1. Mixed phase evaporation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus for reducing convection current heat loss in electron beam evaporator is described. A material to be evaporated (evaporant) is placed in the crucible of an electron beam evaporation source along with a porous mass formed of a powdered or finely divided solid to act as an impedance to convection currents. A feed system is employed to replenish the supply of evaporant as it is vaporized

  2. Long-term durability test of acid recovery evaporators made of Ti-5% Ta alloy and zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Masayuki; Koizumi, Tsutomu; Koyama, Tomozo

    2001-05-01

    Mock-ups of acid recovery evaporators which are made of Ti-5% Ta alloy and Zr were tested under inactive condition for forty thousands hours to improve a corrosion resistance of acid recovery evaporator in Tokai reprocessing plant (TRP). The mock-up unit was designed and produced referring to the specification of acid recovery evaporator in TRP and the evaporation performance of the mock-up was 1/27 of TRP. A long-term durability of both evaporators was demonstrated by results of operation data, evaporation performance and corrosion resistance. The mock-up unit did not suffer from any trouble during the running test and the operation data such as temperature, flow, concentrations of nitric acid and metal ions were fairly stable within standard condition. As for the corrosion resistance, cracks and local corrosion such as intergranular attack were not observed on both evaporators after the running test, and a corrosion of weld was not selective. The average corrosion rates at measuring points were less than 0.1 mm/yr, respectively, however, thickness of the Ti-5% Ta alloy evaporator was slightly reduced at all points of vapor phase region. In addition, from the result by test coupon, it is found that both materials have low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking in this environment. The destructive inspection showed that the mechanical properties of both materials were not degraded during the running test. Finally, the total running time of the mock-up unit is much more than a maximum running time of acid recovery evaporator made of stainless steel in TRP (nearly 15,000 hours). On the basis of the test results, an excellent durability of Ti-5% Ta alloy and Zr evaporators under was successfully demonstrated throughout the mock-up test from an engineering perspective. (author)

  3. Removal of total and antibiotic resistant bacteria in advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation in combination with different filtering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüddeke, Frauke; Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant Eriskirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany. To determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for its content of Escherichia coli, enterococci and staphylococci and their resistance against selected antibiotics over a period of 17 month. For enterococci, single species and their antibiotic resistances were identified. In comparison to the established flocculation filtration at Eriskirch, ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration (pilot-scale) reduced the concentrations of total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. However, antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci apparently survived ozone treatment better than antibiotic sensitive strains. Neither vancomycin resistant enterococci nor methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected. The decreased percentage of antibiotic resistant enterococci after ozonation may be explained by a different ozone sensitivity of species: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which determined the resistance-level, seemed to be more sensitive for ozone than other Enterococcus-species. Overall, ozonation followed by charcoal or sand filtration led to 0.8-1.1 log-units less total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci, as compared to the respective concentrations in treated sewage by only flocculation filtration. Thus, advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration after common sewage treatment is an effective tool for further elimination of microorganisms from sewage before discharge in surface waters. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  4. VARIABILITY OF FORCED OSCILLATION (SIEMENS SIREGNOST FD-5) MEASUREMENTS OF TOTAL RESPIRATORY RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS AND HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; VANDERWEELE, LT; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANALTENA, R

    The reproducibility of total respiratory resistance (R(rs)) measured with a simplified forced oscillatory method (Siemens Siregnost FD 5) was measured and compared with that of slow inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The former technique has the

  5. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Harms, M. P.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) decreases in thyrotoxicosis and increases in hypothyroidism. Several mechanisms may be involved, including adaptation to changes in heat production and direct non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on vascular smooth muscle cells. The aim of this

  6. Evaporator Cleaning Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    1999-01-01

    Operation of the 242-16H High Level Waste Evaporator proves crucial to liquid waste management in the H-Area Tank Farm. Recent operational history of the Evaporator showed significant solid formation in secondary lines and in the evaporator pot. Additional samples remain necessary to ensure material identity in the evaporator pot. Analysis of these future samples will provide actinide partitioning information and dissolution characteristics of the solid material from the pot to ensure safe chemical cleaning

  7. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  8. Evaporation and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1993-01-01

    In this article the influence of climate change on evaporation is discussed. The emphasis is on open water evaporation. Three methods for calculating evaporation are compared considering only changes in temperature and factors directly dependent on temperature. The Penman-method is used to

  9. Evaporational losses under different soil moisture regimes and atmospheric evaporativities using tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, P.; Chaudhary, T.N.; Mookerji, P.

    1991-01-01

    Tritium as tracer was used in a laboratory study to estimate the contribution of moisture from different soil depths towards actual soil water evaporation. Results indicated that for comparable amounts of free water evaporation (5 cm), contribution of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer towards total soil moisture loss through evaporation increased nearly 1.5 to 3 folds for soils with water table at 90 cm than without water table. Identical initial soil moistures were exposed to different atmospheric evaporativities. Similarly, for a given initial soil moisture status, upward movement of moisture from 70-80 cm soil layer under low evaporativity was nearly 8 to 12 times that of under high evaporativity at 5 cm free water evaporation value. (author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Development of corrosion testing equipment under heat transfer and irradiation conditions to evaluate corrosion resistance of materials used in acid recovery evaporator. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, Takafumi; Numata, Masami; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2002-01-01

    We have been evaluated the safety for corrosion of various metals applied to acid recovery evaporators by the mock-up tests using small scaled equipment and the reference tests in laboratories with small specimens. These tests have been conducted under-radioactive environment. The environment in practical reprocessing plants has many radioactive species. Therefore, the effect of irradiation on corrosion should be evaluated in detail. In this study, we have developed the corrosion testing equipment, which is employed to simulate environments in the acid recovery evaporators. This report describes the specification of corrosion testing equipment and the results of primary, reference and hot tests. Using the equipment, the corrosion test under heat transfer and irradiation conditions have been carried out for 930 hours in safety. It is expectable that useful corrosion test data in radioactive environment are accumulated with this equipment in future, and help the adequate choice of corrosion test condition in laboratories. (author)

  11. Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David

    We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.

  12. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  13. Sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes in total- and culturable-bacterial assemblages in South African aquatic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru eSuzuki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB are ubiquitous in the natural environment. The introduction of effluent derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs into aquatic environments is of concern in the spreading of genetic risk. This study showed the prevalence of sulfonamide and tetracycline resistance genes, sul1, sul2, sul3 and tet(M, in the total bacterial assemblage and colony forming bacterial assemblage in river and estuarine water and sewage treatment plants (STP in South Africa. There was no correlation between antibiotic concentrations and ARGs, suggesting the targeted ARGs are spread in a wide area without connection to selection pressure. Among sul genes, sul1 and sul2 were major genes in the total (over 10-2 copies/16S and colony forming bacteria assemblages (approx 10-1 copies/16S. In urban waters, the sul3 gene was mostly not detectable in total and culturable assemblages, suggesting sul3 is not abundant. tet(M was found in natural assemblages with 10-3 copies/16S level in STP, but was not detected in colony forming bacteria, suggesting the non-culturable (yet-to-be cultured bacterial community in urban surface waters and STP effluent possess the tet(M gene. Sulfamethoxazole resistant (SMXr and oxytetracycline resistant (OTCr bacterial communities in urban waters possessed not only sul1 and sul2 but also sul3 and tet(M genes. These genes are widely distributed in SMXr and OTCr bacteria. In conclusion, urban river and estuarine water and STP effluent in the Durban area were highly contaminated with ARGs, and the yet-to-be cultured bacterial community may act as a non-visible ARG reservoir in certain situations.

  14. On the link between potential evaporation and regional evaporation from a CBL perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, J. P.; Guilioni, L.

    2010-07-01

    The relationship between potential evaporation and actual evaporation was first examined by Bouchet (Proc Berkeley Calif Symp IAHS Publ, 62:134-142, 1963) who considered potential evaporation as the consequence of regional evaporation due to atmospheric feedbacks. Using a heuristic approach, he derived a complementary relationship which, despite no real theoretical background, has proven to be very useful in interpreting many experimental data under various climatic conditions. Here, the relationship between actual and potential evaporation is reinterpreted in the context of the development of the convective boundary layer (CBL): first, with a closed-box approach, where the CBL has an impermeable lid; and then with an open system, where air is exchanged between the CBL and its external environment. By applying steady forcing to these systems, it is shown that an equilibrium state is reached, where potential evaporation has a specific equilibrium formulation as a function of two parameters: one representing large-scale advection and the other the feedback effect of regional evaporation on potential evaporation, i.e. a kind of “medium-scale advection”. It is also shown that the original form of Bouchet’s complementary relationship is not verified in the equilibrium state. This analysis leads us to propose a new and more rational approach of the relationship between potential and actual evaporation through the effective surface resistance of the region.

  15. Modelling refrigerant distribution in microchannel evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke; Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian

    2009-01-01

    of the refrigerant distribution is carried out for two channels in parallel and for two different cases. In the first case maldistribution of the inlet quality into the channels is considered, and in the second case a non-uniform airflow on the secondary side is considered. In both cases the total mixed superheat...... out of the evaporator is kept constant. It is shown that the cooling capacity of the evaporator is reduced significantly, both in the case of unevenly distributed inlet quality and for the case of non-uniform airflow on the outside of the channels.......The effects of refrigerant maldistribution in parallel evaporator channels on the heat exchanger performance are investigated numerically. For this purpose a 1D steady state model of refrigerant R134a evaporating in a microchannel tube is built and validated against other evaporator models. A study...

  16. Microwave heating type evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taura, Masazumi; Nishi, Akio; Morimoto, Takashi; Izumi, Jun; Tamura, Kazuo; Morooka, Akihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporization stills against corrosion due to radioactive liquid wastes. Constitution: Microwaves are supplied from a microwave generator by way of a wave guide tube and through a microwave permeation window to the inside of an evaporatization still. A matching device is attached to the wave guide tube for transmitting the microwaves in order to match the impedance. When the microwaves are supplied to the inside of the evaporization still, radioactive liquid wastes supplied from a liquid feed port by way of a spray tower to the inside of the evaporization still is heated and evaporated by the induction heating of the microwaves. (Seki, T.)

  17. Putting evaporators to work: wiped film evaporator for high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierks, R.D.; Bonner, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    At Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, a pilot scale, wiped film evaporator was tested for concentrating high level liquid wastes from Purex-type nuclear fuel recovery processes. The concentrates produced up to 60 wt-percent total solids; and the simplicity of operation and design of the evaporator gave promise for low maintenance and high reliability

  18. Dissociated time course between peak torque and total work recovery following bench press training in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Diogo V; Gentil, Paulo; Ferreira-Junior, João B; Soares, Saulo R S; Brown, Lee E; Bottaro, Martim

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the time course of peak torque and total work recovery after a resistance training session involving the bench press exercise. Repeated measures with a within subject design. Twenty-six resistance-trained men (age: 23.7±3.7years; height: 176.0±5.7cm; mass: 79.65±7.61kg) performed one session involving eight sets of the bench press exercise performed to momentary muscle failure with 2-min rest between sets. Shoulder horizontal adductors peak torque (PT), total work (TW), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and subjective physical fitness were measured pre, immediately post, 24, 48, 72 and 96h following exercise. The exercise protocol resulted in significant pectoralis major DOMS that lasted for 72h. Immediately after exercise, the reduction in shoulder horizontal adductors TW (25%) was greater than PT (17%). TW, as a percentage of baseline values, was also less than PT at 24, 48 and 96h after exercise. Additionally, PT returned to baseline at 96h, while TW did not. Resistance trained men presented dissimilar PT and TW recovery following free weight bench press exercise. This indicates that recovery of maximal voluntary contraction does not reflect the capability to perform multiple contractions. Strength and conditioning professionals should be cautious when evaluating muscle recovery by peak torque, since it can lead to the repetition of a training session sooner than recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Evaporation rate of nucleating clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapadinsky, Evgeni

    2011-11-21

    The Becker-Döring kinetic scheme is the most frequently used approach to vapor liquid nucleation. In the present study it has been extended so that master equations for all cluster configurations are included into consideration. In the Becker-Döring kinetic scheme the nucleation rate is calculated through comparison of the balanced steady state and unbalanced steady state solutions of the set of kinetic equations. It is usually assumed that the balanced steady state produces equilibrium cluster distribution, and the evaporation rates are identical in the balanced and unbalanced steady state cases. In the present study we have shown that the evaporation rates are not identical in the equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. The evaporation rate depends on the number of clusters at the limit of the cluster definition. We have shown that the ratio of the number of n-clusters at the limit of the cluster definition to the total number of n-clusters is different in equilibrium and unbalanced steady state cases. This causes difference in evaporation rates for these cases and results in a correction factor to the nucleation rate. According to rough estimation it is 10(-1) by the order of magnitude and can be lower if carrier gas effectively equilibrates the clusters. The developed approach allows one to refine the correction factor with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamic simulations.

  20. Effect of dietary protein quality on the resistance of rats to total body radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bounous, G.; Pageau, R.

    1983-02-01

    Young rats have been fed four defined-formula diets before and after ..gamma..-irradiation (700 rd (7.0 Gy), 75 rd/min (750 mGy), 80 cm from the source, total body). Animals eating a diet containing lactalbumin hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet) exhibited less anorexia and weight loss following ..gamma..-rays than a corresponding group eating casein hydrolyzate (20 g/100 g diet).

  1. Dew Point Evaporative Comfort Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Multiple DASs were installed at Fort Carson, and the data from all the sensors were stored and partially processed on Campbell Scientific Data Loggers. The...evaporative cooling technologies would be expected to easily overcome utility- scale water withdrawal rates. As an example, an evaluation of an...Ambient pressure Outdoor Setra 276 1% of full scale Pyranometer Horizontal Campbell Scientific CS300 5% of daily total The OAT measurement has an

  2. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  3. Mobile evaporator corrosion test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeveld, A.; Chamberlain, D.B.

    1997-05-01

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted on eight candidates to select a durable and cost-effective alloy for use in mobile evaporators to process radioactive waste solutions. Based on an extensive literature survey of corrosion data, three stainless steel alloys (304L, 316L, AL-6XN), four nickel-based alloys (825, 625, 690, G-30), and titanium were selected for testing. The corrosion tests included vapor phase, liquid junction (interface), liquid immersion, and crevice corrosion tests on plain and welded samples of candidate materials. Tests were conducted at 80 degrees C for 45 days in two different test solutions: a nitric acid solution. to simulate evaporator conditions during the processing of the cesium ion-exchange eluant and a highly alkaline sodium hydroxide solution to simulate the composition of Tank 241-AW-101 during evaporation. All of the alloys exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in the alkaline test solution. Corrosion rates were very low and localized corrosion was not observed. Results from the nitric acid tests showed that only 316L stainless steel did not meet our performance criteria. The 316L welded interface and crevice specimens had rates of 22.2 mpy and 21.8 mpy, respectively, which exceeds the maximum corrosion rate of 20 mpy. The other welded samples had about the same corrosion resistance as the plain samples. None of the welded samples showed preferential weld or heat-affected zone (HAZ) attack. Vapor corrosion was negligible for all alloys. All of the alloys except 316L exhibited either open-quotes satisfactoryclose quotes (2-20 mpy) or open-quotes excellentclose quotes (<2 mpy) corrosion resistance as defined by National Association of Corrosion Engineers. However, many of the alloys experienced intergranular corrosion in the nitric acid test solution, which could indicate a susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in this environment

  4. Improvements of evaporation drag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyan; Yang Yanhua; Xu Jijun

    2004-01-01

    A special observable experiment facility has been established, and a series of experiments have been carried out on this facility by pouring one or several high-temperature particles into a water pool. The experiment has verified the evaporation drag model, which believe the non-symmetric profile of the local evaporation rate and the local density of the vapor would bring about a resultant force on the hot particle so as to resist its motion. However, in Yang's evaporation drag model, radiation heat transfer is taken as the only way to transfer heat from hot particle to the vapor-liquid interface and all of the radiation energy is deposited on the vapor-liquid interface, thus contributing to the vaporization rate and mass balance of the vapor film. So, the heat conduction and the heat convection are taken into account in improved model. At the same time, the improved model given by this paper presented calculations of the effect of hot particles temperature on the radiation absorption behavior of water

  5. Determination of total arsenic in soil and arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected ground water in Kandal Province, Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, A.; Wong, K.K.; Hasan, F.N.; Mustafa, S.; Khoo, K.S.; Sarmani, S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia has geological environments conducive to generation of high-arsenic groundwater and people are at high risk of chronic arsenic exposure. The aims of this study are to investigate the concentration of total arsenic and to isolate and identify arsenic-resistant bacteria from selected locations in Kandal Province, Cambodia. The INAA technique was used to measure the concentration of total arsenic in soils. The arsenic concentrations in soils were above permissible 5 mg/kg, ranging from 5.34 to 27.81 mg/kg. Bacteria resistant to arsenic from two arsenic-contaminated wells in Preak Russey were isolated by enrichment method in nutrient broth (NB). Colonies isolated from NB was then grown on minimal salt media (MSM) added with arsenic at increasing concentrations of 10, 20, 30, 50, 100 and 250 ppm. Two isolates that can tolerate 750 ppm of arsenic were identified as Enterobacter agglomerans and Acinetobacter lwoffii based on a series of biochemical, physiological and morphological analysis. Optimum growth of both isolates ranged from pH 6.6 to 7.0 and 30-35 deg C. E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii were able to remove 66.4 and 64.1 % of arsenic, respectively at the initial concentration of 750 ppm, within 72 h of incubation. Using energy dispersive X-ray technique, the percentage of arsenic absorbed by E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii was 0.09 and 0.15 %, respectively. This study suggested that arsenic-resistant E. agglomerans and A. lwoffii removed arsenic from media due to their ability to absorb arsenic. (author)

  6. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajnik, C.S.; Lubree, H.G.; Rege, S.S.; Bhat, D.S.; Raut, K.N.; Panchanadikar, A.S.; Joglekar, C.B.; Naik, S.S.; Shetty, P.; Yudkin, J.; Kurpad, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m 2 , 22.3 kg/m 2 and 24.3 kg/m 2 respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  7. Total body fat, proinflammatory cytokines and insulin resistance in Indian subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yajnik, C S; Lubree, H G; Rege, S S; Bhat, D S; Raut, K N; Panchanadikar, A S; Joglekar, C B; Naik, S S [Diabetest Unit, KEM Hospital Resarch Centre, Pune (India); Shetty, P [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Yudkin, J [International Health and Medical Education Centre, UCL, London (United Kingdom); Kurpad, A V [St. John' s Medical College, Bangalore (India)

    2002-07-01

    We studied cardiovascular risk factors in 30 to 50 year old Indian men in three geographical locations (rural, urban slums and urban middle class) in relation to their body fat. A total of 1,222 subjects, selected by stratified random sampling were screened: 39 reported diabetic or hypertensive. Of the remaining subjects 600 were randomly selected for further testing. This is a report 441 men studied (149 rural, 142 slums, 150 urban middle class). The mean age of these men was 38 y rural, 38 y urban slums, 41 y urban middle class, mean BMI 21.0 kg/m{sup 2}, 22.3 kg/m{sup 2} and 24.3 kg/m{sup 2} respectively, mean body fat percent by bio-impedance 20.4%, 22.5% and 30.4% and by Deuterated water was 19.9%, 21.6% and 27.2% respectively. A 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (WHO 1985) showed no diabetes in rural subjects, while 4% urban slum dwellers and 10 in urban middle class were diabetic; 9% rural men had IGT, compared to 12% in urban slums and 20% in urban middle class. Hypertension (blood pressure {>=} 140/90 mm Bg) was present in 2% rural men, 4% in urban slums and in 10% men in urban middle class. Mean plasma cholesterol concentration was 148 mg% in rural, 53 mg% in urban slums and 64 mg% in urban middle class, mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 82 mg%, 95 mg% and 108 mg% respectively. All cardiovascular risk factors were strongly related to measures of obesity (body fat % and waist hip ratio). On multivariate analysis 2h plasma glucose (OGTT) concentration and blood pressure were additionally related to geographical location (urban middle class>slums>rural). Our results suggest that urbanisation increases the risk of glucose intolerance and hypertension independent of the body fat percent or its central distribution. This suggests there may he additional environmental factors in the urban environment increasing the risk of diabetes over and above the effect of body fat. (author)

  8. Vacuum evaporation of pure metals

    OpenAIRE

    Safarian, Jafar; Engh, Thorvald Abel

    2013-01-01

    Theories on the evaporation of pure substances are reviewed and applied to study vacuum evaporation of pure metals. It is shown that there is good agreement between different theories for weak evaporation, whereas there are differences under intensive evaporation conditions. For weak evaporation, the evaporation coefficient in Hertz-Knudsen equation is 1.66. Vapor velocity as a function of the pressure is calculated applying several theories. If a condensing surface is less than one collision...

  9. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  10. Evaporation under vacuum condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuta, Satoshi; Shibata, Yuki; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Takase, Kazuyuki; Akimoto, Hajime

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear fusion reactor design, an event of water coolant ingress into its vacuum vessel is now being considered as one of the most probable accidents. In this report, the evaporation under vacuum condition is evaluated by using the evaporation model we have developed. The results show that shock-wave by the evaporation occurs whose behavior strongly depends on the initial conditions of vacuum. And in the case of lower initial pressure and temperature, the surface temp finally becomes higher than other conditions. (author)

  11. In-Situ Survey System of Resistive and Thermoelectric Properties of Either Pure or Mixed Materials in Thin Films Evaporated Under Ultra High Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechevallier, L.; Le Huerou, J.-Y.; Richon, G.; Sarrau, J.-M.; Gouault, J.

    1995-04-01

    The study of thermoelectric and resistive in situ behaviours depending on temperature for thin films of either pure or composite materials obtained under ultra-high vacuum, is very interesting, since they can be used as strain gauges or superficial resistances. However, studies become particularly difficult when the measurements generate very low-level electrical signals. Indeed, these turn out to be hardly detectable because of the perturbations brought by the experimental environment. The apparatus described below allows for the measurement of resistance with a relative uncertainty of 2×10^{-4}, resistance variation with an absolute uncertainty of 2 mΩ and thermoelectric e.m.f. of about 2 μV. Films studied in the laboratory generally exhibit resistances lower than 100 Ω and resistance variations due to temperature variations of about a few ohms. So this device has sufficient technical characteristics for our studies. It can be connected to a PC, which allows for easy data collection and treatment. L'étude des comportements résistif et thermoélectrique in situ en fonction de la température de couches minces de matériaux simples ou composites obtenus en milieu raréfié s'avére intéressante en vue d'applications comme jauge de contrainte ou résistance superficielle mais particulièrement délicate lorsque les mesures donnent naissance à des signaux électriques de très faible amplitude. Ces derniers deviennent en effet difficilement décelables en raison des perturbations apportées par l'environnement expérimental. Le système qui est décrit ici permet de mesurer des résistances avec une certitude relative de 2×10^{-4} et d'apprécier des variations de résistance de 2 mΩ et des f.e.m. thermoélectriques de l'ordre de 2 μV. Les couches étudiées au laboratoire présentent généralement des résistances inférieures à 100 Ω et des variations de résistance dues aux variations de température de l'ordre de quelques Ω. Le dispositif de mesure

  12. CAPSULE REPORT: EVAPORATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation has been an established technology in the metal finishing industry for many years. In this process, wastewaters containing reusable materials, such as copper, nickel, or chromium compounds are heated, producing a water vapor that is continuously removed and condensed....

  13. Tissue Clearance of {sup 131}I and Total Peripheral Resistance in Myocardial Infarction and Hypertension, and During Angiotensin Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, F. K.; Bors, K. J.; Long, T. E.; Lestina, J. [University of Southern California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1971-02-15

    Tissue clearance of {sup 131}I from the thigh, cardiac output and peripheral resistance was determined in 25 patients: 13 normotensive with recent myocardial infarction but not in congestive heart failure, 7 with hypertension and 5 normotensive control subjects. The effect of the synthesized pressor agent Angiotensin II on the same three measurements was also studied. The present investigation continues a previous one of ours, where a tracer dose of {sup 131}I was injected into the thigh of patients with recent myocardial infarction without signs of heart failure, and its clearance was found to be longer than that of normal subjects. This was thought to be due to increased peripheral resistance or to reduced perfusion of the capillary bed secondary to lowered cardiac output, With the 25 subjects, injection into the thigh of tracer amounts of radioactive iodine was done by Hypospray, a method with distinct advantages over needle injection. After measuring tissue clearance of the tracer, cardiac output was determined by a method which records the transit of the injected radioactive bolus through the heart. The Angiotensin was administered by intravenous infusion to four of the normotensive and one of the hypertensive patients. Calculations of cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, mean blood pressure and blood volume were made by means of standard formulae. Results of the study confirmed expectations. Those patients with myocardial infarction who had delayed tissue clearance of {sup 131}I also had reduced cardiac output. The patients with hypertension had normal tissue clearance of {sup 131}I and normal cardiac output in the presence of increased peripheral resistance. Equivalent hypertension and increased peripheral resistance induced in normotensive subjects by Angiotensin resulted in lowered cardiac output and delayed tissue clearance of {sup 131}I. An increased sensitivity to Angiotensin was noted in hypertensive patients. The tissue clearance of {sup 131}I

  14. Boilers, evaporators, and condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakac, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the boilers, evaporators and condensers that are used in power plants including nuclear power plants. Topics included are forced convection for single-phase side heat exchangers, heat exchanger fouling, industrial heat exchanger design, fossil-fuel-fired boilers, once through boilers, thermodynamic designs of fossil fuel-first boilers, evaporators and condensers in refrigeration and air conditioning systems (with respect to reducing CFC's) and nuclear steam generators

  15. No exacerbation of knee joint pain and effusion following preoperative progressive resistance training in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. OBJECTIVE: To examine if preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would 1......) exacerbate pain and knee effusion, 2) allow a progressively increased training load throughout the training period that would subsequently increase muscle strength. DESIGN: Secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. SETTING: University Hospital and a Regional Hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty patients...... OUTCOME MEASURES: Before and after each training session, knee joint pain rated on an 11-point scale, effusion assessed by measuring the knee joint circumference, and training load were recorded. The first and last training session were initiated by 1RM testing of unilateral leg press, knee extension...

  16. Effect of evaporation section and condensation section length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.

  17. The simultaneous mass and energy evaporation (SM2E) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Rehan; Klauda, Jeffery B

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the Simultaneous Mass and Energy Evaporation (SM2E) model is presented. The SM2E model is based on theoretical models for mass and energy transfer. The theoretical models systematically under or over predicted at various flow conditions: laminar, transition, and turbulent. These models were harmonized with experimental measurements to eliminate systematic under or over predictions; a total of 113 measured evaporation rates were used. The SM2E model can be used to estimate evaporation rates for pure liquids as well as liquid mixtures at laminar, transition, and turbulent flow conditions. However, due to limited availability of evaporation data, the model has so far only been tested against data for pure liquids and binary mixtures. The model can take evaporative cooling into account and when the temperature of the evaporating liquid or liquid mixture is known (e.g., isothermal evaporation), the SM2E model reduces to a mass transfer-only model.

  18. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  19. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  20. How internal drainage affects evaporation dynamics from soil surfaces ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Lehmann, P.; Sommer, M.

    2017-12-01

    Following rainfall, infiltrated water may be redistributed internally to larger depths or lost to the atmosphere by evaporation (and by plant uptake from depths at longer time scales). A large fraction of evaporative losses from terrestrial surfaces occurs during stage1 evaporation during which phase change occurs at the wet surface supplied by capillary flow from the soil. Recent studies have shown existence of a soil-dependent characteristic length below which capillary continuity is disrupted and a drastic shift to slower stage 2 evaporation ensues. Internal drainage hastens this transition and affect evaporative losses. To predict the transition to stage 2 and associated evaporative losses, we developed an analytical solution for evaporation dynamics with concurrent internal drainage. Expectedly, evaporative losses are suppressed when drainage is considered to different degrees depending on soil type and wetness. We observe that high initial water content supports rapid drainage and thus promotes the sheltering of soil water below the evaporation depth. The solution and laboratory experiments confirm nonlinear relationship between initial water content and total evaporative losses. The concept contributes to establishing bounds on regional surface evaporation considering rainfall characteristics and soil types.

  1. Accelerated evaporation of water on graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Shi, Guosheng

    2017-03-29

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water on patterned graphene oxide is faster than that on homogeneous graphene oxide. The evaporation rate of water is insensitive to variation in the oxidation degree of the oxidized regions, so long as the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. The evaporation rate drops when the water film spreads onto the unoxidized regions. Further analysis showed that varying the oxidation degree observably changed the interaction between the outmost water molecules and the solid surface, but the total interaction for the outmost water molecules only changed a very limited amount due to the correspondingly regulated water-water interaction when the water film is only distributed on the oxidized regions. When the oxidation degree is too low and some unoxidized regions are also covered by the water film, the thickness of the water film decreases, which extends the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds for the outmost water molecules and lowers the evaporation rate of the water. The insensitivity of water evaporation to the oxidation degree indicates that we only need to control the scale of the unoxidized and oxidized regions for graphene oxide to regulate the evaporation of nanoscale volumes of water.

  2. Estimating soil water evaporation using radar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ali M.; Scott, H. D.; Waite, W. P.; Asrar, G.

    1988-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to evaluate the application of radar reflectivity as compared with the shortwave reflectivity (albedo) used in the Idso-Jackson equation for the estimation of daily evaporation under overcast sky and subhumid climatic conditions. Soil water content, water potential, shortwave and radar reflectivity, and soil and air temperatures were monitored during three soil drying cycles. The data from each cycle were used to calculate daily evaporation from the Idso-Jackson equation and from two other standard methods, the modified Penman and plane of zero-flux. All three methods resulted in similar estimates of evaporation under clear sky conditions; however, under overcast sky conditions, evaporation fluxes computed from the Idso-Jackson equation were consistently lower than the other two methods. The shortwave albedo values in the Idso-Jackson equation were then replaced with radar reflectivities and a new set of total daily evaporation fluxes were calculated. This resulted in a significant improvement in computed soil evaporation fluxes from the Idso-Jackson equation, and a better agreement between the three methods under overcast sky conditions.

  3. 30 CFR 35.22 - Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test to determine effect of evaporation on... § 35.22 Test to determine effect of evaporation on flammability. (a) Purpose. The purpose of this test shall be to determine the effect of evaporation on the reduction of fire resistance of a hydraulic fluid...

  4. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software

  5. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  6. Systematics of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Beginning with rather basic principles, general relations are obtained for evaporative rate constants. These are established both as a function of energy and of temperature. In parallel with this, expressions are developed for the kinetic energy distribution of the separating species. Explicit evaluation of the rate constants in the case of 'chemical' evaporation from an entity containing n monomeric units yields as a typical result k(T)(s -1 )=3.10 13 n 2/3 exp[6/n 1/3 ]exp(-ΔE a (n)/k B T). Experimental evidence in support of this relation is cited. Applications to thermionic emission are also noted. (orig.)

  7. Performance of evaporative condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettouney, Hisham M.; El-Dessouky, Hisham T.; Bouhamra, Walid; Al-Azmi, Bader

    2001-07-01

    Experimental investigation is conducted to study the performance of evaporative condensers/coolers. The analysis includes development of correlations for the external heat transfer coefficient and the system efficiency. The evaporative condenser includes two finned-tube heat exchangers. The system is designed to allow for operation of a single condenser, two condensers in parallel, and two condensers in series. The analysis is performed as a function of the water-to-air mass flow rate ratio (L/G) and the steam temperature. Also, comparison is made between the performance of the evaporative condenser and same device as an air-cooled condenser. Analysis of the collected data shows that the system efficiency increases at lower L/G ratios and higher steam temperatures. The system efficiency for various configurations for the evaporative condenser varies between 97% and 99%. Lower efficiencies are obtained for the air-cooled condenser, with values between 88% and 92%. The highest efficiency is found for the two condensers in series, followed by two condensers in parallel and then the single condenser. The parallel condenser configuration can handle a larger amount of inlet steam and can provide the required system efficiency and degree of subcooling. The correlation for the system efficiency gives a simple tool for preliminary system design. The correlation developed for the external heat transfer coefficient is found to be consistent with the available literature data. (Author)

  8. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Forest evaporation models: Relationships between stand growth and evaporation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Maitre, David C

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between forest stand structure, growth and evaporation were analysed to determine whether forest evaporation can be estimated from stand growth data. This approach permits rapid assessment of the potential impacts of afforestation...

  10. ABOUT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PERCOLATION RATE OF MOISTURE THROUGH THE SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES AND THE STANDARD MEASUREMENTS OF THEIR PERMEABILITY OR EVAPORATIVE RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Роганков

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of test methods to estimate the water vapour transmission (WVT-rate of thin membranes do not provide, unfortunately, the reliable basis to compare the permeability of different fabrics. Their results are crucially dependent on the details and construction of experimental methodologies as well as on the accepted by the different authors conditions of measurement. In this work, we propose the universal approach and demonstrate its adequate realization to compare the transport properties of any semi-permeable membranes measured by the conventional test-methods. The purpose is to avoid any confusion in such procedure of comparison. We have analysed below the WVT-rates measured by six alternative test-methods, which have been applied step-by-step to six different fabrics. In opposite to the widespread search for a pair correlation between the above results obtained by any two methods we treat them, in total, for each fabric in terms of the reduced variables. This approach is based on the novel concept of the moisture percolation (MP-rate which combines the diffusion and convective contributions in a transport process. It leads to the well-established general estimates of the normalized WVT-rates measured by the standard test-methods. Another advantage of the developed approach is its thermodynamic consistency, which offers the appropriate fluctuation model to take into account the porosity of any semi-permeable membranes.

  11. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  12. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of

  13. Within plant resistance to water flow in tomato and sweet melons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the evaporative flux method, measurements of transpiration flux and leaf water potential were used to calculate the total resistance to water flow using Ohm's law analogy. Measurements of tranpiration flux (Q) relationship, plant resistance calculated from the slope of their relationship, ranged from 6.57x10-01 to ...

  14. Convection-enhanced water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    B. M. Weon; J. H. Je; C. Poulard

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor is lighter than air; this can enhance water evaporation by triggering vapor convection but there is little evidence. We directly visualize evaporation of nanoliter (2 to 700 nL) water droplets resting on silicon wafer in calm air using a high-resolution dual X-ray imaging method. Temporal evolutions of contact radius and contact angle reveal that evaporation rate linearly changes with surface area, indicating convective (instead of diffusive) evaporation in nanoliter water droplet...

  15. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  16. PCR detection of oxytetracycline resistance genes from diverse habitats in total community DNA and in streptomycete isolates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikolakopoulou, T.L.; Egan, S.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Guillaume, G.; Heuer, H.; Wellington, E.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.; Collard, J.M.; Smalla, K.; Karagouni, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    A range of European habitats was screened by PCR for detection of the oxytetracycline resistance genes otr(A) and otr(B), found in the oxytetracycline-producing strain Streptomyces rimosus. Primers were developed to detect these otr genes in tetracycline-resistant (TcR) streptomycete isolates from

  17. Fundamental basis and implementation of shell and tube heat exchanger project design: condenser and evaporator study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkilic, A. S.; Acikgoz, O.; Tapan, S.; Wongwises, S.

    2016-12-01

    A shell and tube heat exchanger is used as a condenser and an evaporator in this theoretical study. Parametric performance analyses for various actual refrigerants were performed using well-known correlations in open sources. Condensation and evaporation were occurred in the shell side while the water was flowing in the tube side of heat exchanger. Heat transfer rate from tube side was kept constant for condenser and evaporator design. Condensing temperatures were varied from 35 to 60 °C whereas evaporating temperatures were ranging from -15 to 10 °C for the refrigerants of R12, R22, R134a, R32, R507A, R404A, R502, R407C, R152A, R410A and R1234ZE. Variation of convective heat transfer coefficients of refrigerants, total heat transfer coefficients with Reynolds numbers and saturation temperatures were given as validation process considering not only fouling resistance and omission of it but also staggered (triangular) and line (square) arrangements. The minimum tube lengths and necessary pumping powers were calculated and given as case studies for the investigated refrigerants considering validation criteria. It was understood that refrigerant type, fouling resistance and arrangement type are one of the crucial issues regarding the determination of heat exchanger's size and energy consumption. Consequently, R32 and R152a were found to require the shortest tube length and lowest pumping power in the condenser, whereas R507 and R407C have the same advantages in the evaporator. Their heat transfer coefficients were also determined larger than others as expectedly.

  18. Water evaporation in silica colloidal deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Lefèvre, Grégory; Coudert, François-Xavier; Hurisse, Olivier

    2013-10-15

    The results of an experimental study on the evaporation and boiling of water confined in the pores of deposits made of mono-dispersed silica colloidal micro-spheres are reported. The deposits are studied using scanning electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen, and adsorption of water through attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. The evaporation is characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. Optical microscopy is used to observe the patterns on the deposits after evaporation. When heating at a constant rate and above boiling temperature, the release of water out of the deposits is a two step process. The first step is due to the evaporation and boiling of the surrounding and bulk water and the second is due to the desorption of water from the pores. Additional experiments on the evaporation of water from membranes having cylindrical pores and of heptane from silica deposits suggest that the second step is due to the morphology of the deposits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Parametric study of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Kyle L.; Barabadi, Banafsheh; Lu, Zhengmao; Zhang, TieJun; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-10-01

    The performance and lifetime of advanced electronics are often dictated by the ability to dissipate heat generated within the device. Thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes is a promising thermal management approach, which reduces the thermal transport distance across the liquid film while also providing passive capillary pumping of liquid to the evaporating interface. In this work, we investigated the dependence of thin film evaporation from nanoporous membranes on a variety of geometric parameters. Anodic aluminum oxide membranes were used as experimental templates, where pore radii of 28-75 nm, porosities of 0.1-0.35, and meniscus locations down to 1 μm within the pore were tested. We demonstrated different heat transfer regimes and observed more than an order of magnitude increase in dissipated heat flux by operating in the pore-level evaporation regime. The pore diameter had little effect on pore-level evaporation performance due to the negligible conduction resistance from the pore wall to the evaporating interface. The dissipated heat flux scaled with porosity as the evaporative area increased. Furthermore, moving the meniscus as little as 1 μm into the pore decreased the dissipated heat flux by more than a factor of two due to the added resistance to vapor escaping the pore. The experimental results elucidate thin film evaporation from nanopores and confirm findings of recent modeling efforts. This work also provides guidance for the design of future thin film evaporation devices for advanced thermal management. Furthermore, evaporation from nanopores is relevant to water purification, chemical separations, microfluidics, and natural processes such as transpiration.

  20. Evaporation and skin penetration characteristics of mosquito repellent formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifenrath, W.G.; Hawkins, G.S.; Kurtz, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    Formulations of the mosquito repellent N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (deet) in combination with a variety of additives were developed to control repellent evaporation and percutaneous penetration. Deet was also formulated with the repellent dimethyl phthalate to study the interaction of the two compounds on the skin. The evaporation and penetration processes were evaluated on whole and split-thickness pig skin using radiolabeled repellents with an in vitro apparatus. Under essentially still air and air flow conditions, one of the deet formulations resulted in significantly reduced total evaporation and percutaneous penetration of deet as compared to unformulated repellent. When deet and dimethyl phthalate were combined, neither repellent affected the total amount of evaporation and penetration of the other compound. However, initial percutaneous penetration and evaporation rates were slightly less and decayed less rapidly than when both chemicals were tested separately at the same dose. These results indicated a degree of competition of the two compounds for the same avenues of loss

  1. Thin stillage fractionation using ultrafiltration: resistance in series model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Dien, Bruce S; Belyea, Ronald L; Wang, Ping; Singh, Vijay; Tumbleson, M E; Rausch, Kent D

    2009-02-01

    The corn based dry grind process is the most widely used method in the US for fuel ethanol production. Fermentation of corn to ethanol produces whole stillage after ethanol is removed by distillation. It is centrifuged to separate thin stillage from wet grains. Thin stillage contains 5-10% solids. To concentrate solids of thin stillage, it requires evaporation of large amounts of water and maintenance of evaporators. Evaporator maintenance requires excess evaporator capacity at the facility, increasing capital expenses, requiring plant slowdowns or shut downs and results in revenue losses. Membrane filtration is one method that could lead to improved value of thin stillage and may offer an alternative to evaporation. Fractionation of thin stillage using ultrafiltration was conducted to evaluate membranes as an alternative to evaporators in the ethanol industry. Two regenerated cellulose membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 10 and 100 kDa were evaluated. Total solids (suspended and soluble) contents recovered through membrane separation process were similar to those from commercial evaporators. Permeate flux decline of thin stillage using a resistance in series model was determined. Each of the four components of total resistance was evaluated experimentally. Effects of operating variables such as transmembrane pressure and temperature on permeate flux rate and resistances were determined and optimum conditions for maximum flux rates were evaluated. Model equations were developed to evaluate the resistance components that are responsible for fouling and to predict total flux decline with respect to time. Modeling results were in agreement with experimental results (R(2) > 0.98).

  2. Characterization of lithium evaporators for LTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Perez, M.; Majeski, R.; Timberlake, J.; Lundberg, D.; Kaita, R.; Arevalo-Torres, B.

    2010-11-01

    The presence of lithium on the internal components of fusion devices has proven to be beneficial for reactor performance. The Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) will be the first experimental fusion device operating with a significant portion of its internal surface coated with lithium. One of the key capabilities in the device is the reliable production of lithium films inside the reactor. This task is accomplished with the use of lithium evaporators, specially designed for LTX using resistively heated yttria crucibles. In the present work, results from the operation of one of these evaporators on a separate test stand are presented. Deposition measurements at different power levels were performed using a quartz crystal deposition monitor, and temperature distributions in the evaporator crucible and its content were obtained using an infrared camera and a dip-in thermocouple probe. Modeling of the evaporation cloud was done with the raytracing software OptiCAD, and comparisons between the computations and the temperature and flux measurements were performed, in order to accurately predict spatial lithium deposition rates in different locations of the LTX device.

  3. Miniature electron bombardment evaporation source: evaporation rate measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nehasil, V.; Masek, K.; Matolin, V.; Moreau, O.

    1997-01-01

    Miniature electron beam evaporation sources which operate on the principle of vaporization of source material, in the form of a tip, by electron bombardment are produced by several companies specialized in UHV equipment. These sources are used primarily for materials that are normally difficult to deposit due to their high evaporation temperature. They are appropriate for special applications such as heteroepitaxial thin film growth requiring a very low and well controlled deposition rate. A simple and easily applicable method of evaporation rate control is proposed. The method is based on the measurement of ion current produced by electron bombardment of evaporated atoms. The absolute evaporation flux values were measured by means of the Bayard-Alpert ion gauge, which enabled the ion current vs evaporation flux calibration curves to be plotted. (author). 1 tab., 4 figs., 6 refs

  4. PFR evaporator leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10 -6 g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10 -7 to 10 -6 g/s equivalent water leak could be detected, i

  5. PFR evaporator leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smedley, J A

    1975-07-01

    PFR has three heat removal circuits each one having an evaporator, superheater, reheater; all separate units. The status of the system was that circuit No 3 was steaming with 10 MW thermal nuclear power; No 1 circuit was filled with sodium but with the evaporator awaiting modification to cure gas entrainment problems already reported. The leak was in No 2 circuit and was located in the evaporator unit. The evaporator is rated at 120 M thermal at full power and as such is a large unit. The circuit was filled with both sodium and water for the first time three weeks before the conference so it was recent history being reported and therefore any figures quoted should be taken as indicative only. The history of the steam generator was that it was built at works to a very high standard and underwent all the usual tests of strength, inspection of welds and helium leak testing. The steam generator is of U tube design with a tube plate to which the boiler tubes are welded, with all the welds in one of two gas spaces. The inlet and outlet sides are separated by a baffle and the salient features are illustrated in the attached figure. The unit achieved a leak tightness better than the detection limit in the helium leak test at works. This limit was assessed as being less than an equivalent leak of 10{sup -6} g/s water under steam generator service conditions. However even though all the steam generator units passed this test at works a further test was carried out when the circuits had been completed. The test was carried out during commissioning after sodium filling and with the units hot. The method was to introduce a mixture of helium/ argon at 500 pounds/square inch into the water side of the steam generators and measure the helium concentration in the sodium side gas spaces of the circuit. The test lasted many days and under these conditions the sensitivity is such that a leak equivalent to somewhere between 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -6} g/s equivalent water leak could be

  6. Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.

  7. Evaporation of inclined water droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Hwang, In Gyu; Weon, Byung Mook

    2017-01-01

    When a drop is placed on a flat substrate tilted at an inclined angle, it can be deformed by gravity and its initial contact angle divides into front and rear contact angles by inclination. Here we study on evaporation dynamics of a pure water droplet on a flat solid substrate by controlling substrate inclination and measuring mass and volume changes of an evaporating droplet with time. We find that complete evaporation time of an inclined droplet becomes longer as gravitational influence by inclination becomes stronger. The gravity itself does not change the evaporation dynamics directly, whereas the gravity-induced droplet deformation increases the difference between front and rear angles, which quickens the onset of depinning and consequently reduces the contact radius. This result makes the evaporation rate of an inclined droplet to be slow. This finding would be important to improve understanding on evaporation dynamics of inclined droplets. PMID:28205642

  8. 242-A evaporator hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the 242-A Evaporator, on the Hanford Site. Through this document the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated. The evaporator sues a conventional, forced-circulation, vacuum evaporation system to concentrate radioactive waste solutions. This concentration results in the reduction in waste volume and reduces the number of double-shelled tanks required to store the waste

  9. Turkish Undergraduates' Misconceptions of Evaporation, Evaporation Rate, and Vapour Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canpolat, Nurtac

    2006-01-01

    This study focused on students' misconceptions related to evaporation, evaporation rate, and vapour pressure. Open-ended diagnostic questions were used with 107 undergraduates in the Primary Science Teacher Training Department in a state university in Turkey. In addition, 14 students from that sample were interviewed to clarify their written…

  10. Evaporation behaviour of different organic effluents from open surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorar, B S; Malik, R S

    1993-01-01

    Production of large quantities of effluents from different industrial units and the problems of their disposal necessitated this evaporation study. The evaporation of water, sewage water, oil refinery effluent, papermill effluent and liquor distillery effluent was observed in glass beakers when placed (i) in an oven at 60 degrees C and (ii) in screen house for 30 days, by periodically weighing of the beakers. In other experiments, the effect of increasing the frequency of stirring on increasing the evaporation efficiency of the liquor distillery effluent (ELD) was examined in detail. All of the organic effluents except ELD had similar evaporation behaviours as water, but formation of a self-forming film caused the evaporation of ELD to be considerably lower. Resistance to evaporation caused by this film was found to be a decreasing function of the frequency of stirring. This study has a bearing on improving the efficiency of evaporation lagoons, and three stirrings in a day with a manually drawn stirrer in a full-scale lagoon are proposed as a practical and economically viable technique to save 44% of lagoon land in arid and semi-arid regions of the world.

  11. An investigation of total bacterial communities, culturable antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities and integrons in the river water environments of Taipei city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chu-Wen; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chao, Wei-Liang; Shiung, Iau-Iun; Lin, Han-Sheng; Chen, Hsuan; Ho, Szu-Han; Lu, Min-Jheng; Lee, Pin-Hsuan; Fan, Shao-Ning

    2014-07-30

    The intensive use of antibiotics may accelerate the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). The global geographical distribution of environmental ARB has been indicated by many studies. However, the ARB in the water environments of Taiwan has not been extensively investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the communities of ARB in Huanghsi Stream, which presents a natural acidic (pH 4) water environment. Waishuanghsi Stream provides a neutral (pH 7) water environment and was thus also monitored to allow comparison. The plate counts of culturable bacteria in eight antibiotics indicate that the numbers of culturable carbenicillin- and vancomycin-resistant bacteria in both Huanghsi and Waishuanghsi Streams are greater than the numbers of culturable bacteria resistant to the other antibiotics tested. Using a 16S rDNA sequencing approach, both the antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities (culture-based) and the total bacterial communities (metagenome-based) in Waishuanghsi Stream exhibit a higher diversity than those in Huanghsi Stream were observed. Of the three classes of integron, only class I integrons were identified in Waishuanghsi Stream. Our results suggest that an acidic (pH 4) water environment may not only affect the community composition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria but also the horizontal gene transfer mediated by integrons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Silicon anode prepared by rotary evaporation for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, D H; Cho, G B; Song, M G; Choi, Y J; Gu, H B; Kim, K W

    2007-01-01

    A rotary evaporation process was applied to improve electrical contact between acetylene black (AB) and Si electrode. Morphologies and electrochemical properties of the Si electrode were compared with those of conventionally prepared Si electrode. In the evaporated Si electrode, AB particles consisted of network-like structure surrounding the surface of Si particle, while in the conventional one, AB particles partially stuck on the Si surface. Increasing the current density from 0.1 to 0.5 C, stable cycle behavior with a slight decrease in discharge capacity was found in the evaporated electrode, while unstable cycle behavior with a significantly decreased capacity was observed in the conventional electrode. At high-current density (0.5 C rate), the discharge capacity of the evaporated Si electrode was maintained over 480 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles. The good cycle performance was attributed to the low resistance induced by the improved interfacial contact between AB and Si particles

  13. Eradication of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii in a female patient with total hip arthroplasty, with debridement and retention: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beieler Alison M

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has become a significant cause of healthcare-associated infections, but few reports have addressed Acinetobacter baumannii infections associated with orthopedic devices. The current recommended treatment for complicated infections due to orthopedic devices, including resistant gram-negative rods, consists of antimicrobial therapy with debridement and removal of implants. Case presentation The patient, a 47-year-old woman, had previously had a prior total hip arthroplasty at 16 years of age for a complex femoral neck fracture, and multiple subsequent revisions. This time, she underwent a fifth revision secondary to pain. Surgery was complicated by hypotension resulting in transfer to the intensive care unit and prolonged respiratory failure. She received peri-operative cefazolin but postoperatively developed surgical wound drainage requiring debridement of a hematoma. Cultures of this grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and Acinetobacter baumannii (sensitive only to amikacin and imipenem. The patient was started on imipenem. Removal of the total hip arthroplasty was not recommended because of the recent surgical complications, and the patient was eventually discharged home. She was seen weekly for laboratory tests and examinations and, after 4 months of therapy, the imipenem was discontinued. She did well clinically for 7 months before recurrent pain led to removal of the total hip arthroplasty. Intra-operative cultures grew ampicillin-sensitive Enterococcus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus but no multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. The patient received ampicillin for 8 weeks and had not had recurrent infection at the time of writing, 37 months after discontinuing imipenem. Conclusion We describe the successful treatment of an acute infection from multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii with debridement and retention of the total hip arthroplasty, using

  14. Flashing evaporation under different pressure levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yixiang; Lucas, Dirk; Krepper, Eckhard; Rzehak, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation based on two-fluid model for flashing boiling inside a vertical pipe. • Effect of pressure level on the maximum thermal energy available for evaporation. • Effect of presumed bubble size on the onset of flashing as well as evaporation rate. • Effect of pressure level on the critical bubble size that can start stable flashing. • Effect of pressure level on nucleation rate and mechanism. - Abstract: Flashing evaporation of water inside a vertical pipe under four pressure levels is investigated both experimentally and numerically. In the experiment depressurization is realized through a blow-off valve, and the evaporation rate is controlled by the opening rate and degree of the valve. In the CFD simulation phase change is assumed to be caused by thermal heat transfer between steam–water interface and the surrounding water. Consequently, the evaporation rate is determined by heat transfer coefficient, interfacial area density as well as liquid superheat degree. The simulated temporal course of cross-section averaged steam volume fraction is compared with the measured one. It is found that the increasing rate and maximum value of steam volume fraction is over-predicted under low-pressure conditions, which is mainly caused by the neglect of bubble growth in the mono-dispersed simulation. The agreement is notably improved by performing poly-dispersed simulations with the inhomogeneous MUSIG approach (IMUSIG). On the other hand an underestimation of the maximum steam volume fraction is observed in high-pressure cases, since the contribution of nucleation to the total steam generation rate becomes large as the system pressure increases. Reliable models for nucleation rate as well as bubble detachment size are indispensable for reliable predictions. An effect of the system pressure level on the nucleation mechanism is observed in the experiment

  15. Association of increased total antioxidant capacity and anovulation in nonobese infertile patients with clomiphene citrate-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verit, Fatma Ferda; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2007-08-01

    To investigate whether total antioxidant capacity (TAC) could predict the response to ovulation induction to clomiphene citrate (CC) in nonobese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Prospective longitudinal follow-up study. Academic hospital. Fifty-five nonobese, oligomenorrheic women with polycystic ovary syndrome and normal indices of insulin sensitivity. None. Standard clinical examinations and ultrasonographic and endocrine screening, including FSH, LH, E(2), P, total T, sex hormone-binding globulin, DHEAS, and TAC were performed before initiation of CC medication. Within the total group, 27 (49%) of the patients did not ovulate at the end of follow-up. TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume were all significantly different in CC nonresponders from those in responders. Total antioxidant capacity was found to be the best predictor in univariate analysis (odds ratio, 171.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.61-2,772.93), and it had the highest area in the receiver operating characteristics analysis (0.91). In a multivariate prediction model, TAC, free androgen index, and ovarian volume showed good predictive power, with Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test of 0.80. Total antioxidant capacity was the strongest predictor of ovarian response during CC induction of ovulation in these patients. It can be concluded that TAC can be used as a routine screening test.

  16. Isotope effects accompanying evaporation of water from leaky containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz

    2008-03-01

    Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying isotope effects associated with partial evaporation of water from leaky containers have been performed under three different settings: (i) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a dynamic mode, (ii) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a static mode, and (iii) evaporation into free laboratory atmosphere. The results demonstrate that evaporative enrichment of water stored in leaky containers can be properly described in the framework of the Craig-Gordon evaporation model. The key parameter controlling the degree of isotope enrichment is the remaining fraction of water in the leaking containers. Other factors such as temperature, relative humidity, or extent of kinetic fractionation play only minor roles. Satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted isotope enrichments for both (18)O and (2)H in experiments for the case of evaporation into dry atmosphere could be obtained only when molecular diffusivity ratios of isotope water molecules as suggested recently by Cappa et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525-4535, (2003).] were adopted. However, the observed and modelled isotope enrichments for (2)H and (18)O could be reconciled also for the ratios of molecular diffusivities obtained by Merlivat [J. Chem. Phys., 69, 2864-2871 (1978).], if non-negligible transport resistance in the viscous liquid sub-layer adjacent to the evaporating surface is considered. The evaporation experiments revealed that the loss of mass of water stored in leaky containers in the order of 1%, will lead to an increase of the heavy isotope content in this water by ca. 0.35 and 1.1 per thousand, for delta (18)O and delta (2)H, respectively.

  17. Evaporative cooling: Effective latent heat of evaporation in relation to evaporation distance from the skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Bröde, P.; Hartog, E.A. den; Kuklane, K.; Holmer, I.; Rossi, R.M.; Richards, M.; Farnworth, B.; Wang, X.

    2013-01-01

    Calculation of evaporative heat loss is essential to heat balance calculations. Despite recognition that the value for latent heat of evaporation, used in these calculations, may not always reflect the real cooling benefit to the body, only limited quantitative data on this is available, which has

  18. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  19. Estimation of Insulin Resistance in Mexican Adults by the [13C]Glucose Breath Test Corrected for Endogenous Total CO2 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Ibarra-Pastrana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the efficacy of the [13C]glucose breath test for measuring insulin resistance in Mexican adults with different glycemic states. Research Design and Methods. Fifty-eight adults underwent a [13C]glucose breath test with simultaneous measurement of total CO2 production by indirect calorimetry, at baseline and 90 minutes after the ingestion of 15 g of dextrose and 25 mg of [13C]glucose. HOMA was used as a marker of insulin resistance. Results. We found an inverse correlation between HOMA and the breath test δ13CO2 (‰, r=-0.41 (P=0.001. After adjusting for total CO2 production, correlations between HOMA and fasting glucose were less strong but remained significant. An ROC curve was constructed using δ13CO2 (‰ and HOMA values; the cut-off point was 9.99‰ δ13CO2, corresponding to a sensitivity of 80.0 (95% CI: 51.9, 95.7 and a specificity of 67.4 (95% CI: 51.5, 80.9. Conclusions. The [13C]glucose breath test is a simple noninvasive procedure but was not sufficiently robust for an accurate diagnosis of insulin resistance. Our findings suggest that the test might be helpful in identifying individuals who are not IR, which in turn may contribute to improved diabetes prevention.

  20. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; Niliot, C. Le

    2009-01-01

    Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge on the convection cells which develop inside the drop under evaporation. The evaporation of sessile drop is more complicated than it appears due to the...

  1. Interfacial Instabilities in Evaporating Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Ross; Sefiane, Khellil; Matar, Omar

    2007-11-01

    We study the effect of substrate thermal properties on the evaporation of sessile drops of various liquids. An infra-red imaging technique was used to record the interfacial temperature. This technique illustrates the non-uniformity in interfacial temperature distribution that characterises the evaporation process. Our results also demonstrate that the evaporation of methanol droplets is accompanied by the formation of wave-trains in the interfacial temperature field; similar patterns, however, were not observed in the case of water droplets. More complex patterns are observed for FC-72 refrigerant drops. The effect of substrate thermal conductivity on the structure of the complex pattern formation is also elucidated.

  2. Control of black hole evaporation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Doyeol

    2007-01-01

    Contradiction between Hawking's semi-classical arguments and the string theory on the evaporation of a black hole has been one of the most intriguing problems in fundamental physics. A final-state boundary condition inside the black hole was proposed by Horowitz and Maldacena to resolve this contradiction. We point out that the original Hawking effect can also be regarded as a separate boundary condition at the event horizon for this scenario. Here, we found that the change of the Hawking boundary condition may affect the information transfer from the initial collapsing matter to the outgoing Hawking radiation during the evaporation process and as a result the evaporation process itself, significantly

  3. Autonomous assembly of synthetic oligonucleotides built from an expanded DNA alphabet. Total synthesis of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen K. Merritt

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many synthetic biologists seek to increase the degree of autonomy in the assembly of long DNA (L-DNA constructs from short synthetic DNA fragments, which are today quite inexpensive because of automated solid-phase synthesis. However, the low information density of DNA built from just four nucleotide “letters”, the presence of strong (G:C and weak (A:T nucleobase pairs, the non-canonical folded structures that compete with Watson–Crick pairing, and other features intrinsic to natural DNA, generally prevent the autonomous assembly of short single-stranded oligonucleotides greater than a dozen or so.Results: We describe a new strategy to autonomously assemble L-DNA constructs from fragments of synthetic single-stranded DNA. This strategy uses an artificially expanded genetic information system (AEGIS that adds nucleotides to the four (G, A, C, and T found in standard DNA by shuffling hydrogen-bonding units on the nucleobases, all while retaining the overall Watson–Crick base-pairing geometry. The added information density allows larger numbers of synthetic fragments to self-assemble without off-target hybridization, hairpin formation, and non-canonical folding interactions. The AEGIS pairs are then converted into standard pairs to produce a fully natural L-DNA product. Here, we report the autonomous assembly of a gene encoding kanamycin resistance using this strategy. Synthetic fragments were built from a six-letter alphabet having two AEGIS components, 5-methyl-2’-deoxyisocytidine and 2’-deoxyisoguanosine (respectively S and B, at their overlapping ends. Gaps in the overlapped assembly were then filled in using DNA polymerases, and the nicks were sealed by ligase. The S:B pairs in the ligated construct were then converted to T:A pairs during PCR amplification. When cloned into a plasmid, the product was shown to make Escherichia coli resistant to kanamycin. A parallel study that attempted to assemble similarly sized genes

  4. Influence of surface wettability on transport mechanisms governing water droplet evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zhenhai; Weibel, Justin A; Garimella, Suresh V

    2014-08-19

    Prediction and manipulation of the evaporation of small droplets is a fundamental problem with importance in a variety of microfluidic, microfabrication, and biomedical applications. A vapor-diffusion-based model has been widely employed to predict the interfacial evaporation rate; however, its scope of applicability is limited due to incorporation of a number of simplifying assumptions of the physical behavior. Two key transport mechanisms besides vapor diffusion-evaporative cooling and natural convection in the surrounding gas-are investigated here as a function of the substrate wettability using an augmented droplet evaporation model. Three regimes are distinguished by the instantaneous contact angle (CA). In Regime I (CA ≲ 60°), the flat droplet shape results in a small thermal resistance between the liquid-vapor interface and substrate, which mitigates the effect of evaporative cooling; upward gas-phase natural convection enhances evaporation. In Regime II (60 ≲ CA ≲ 90°), evaporative cooling at the interface suppresses evaporation with increasing contact angle and counterbalances the gas-phase convection enhancement. Because effects of the evaporative cooling and gas-phase convection mechanisms largely neutralize each other, the vapor-diffusion-based model can predict the overall evaporation rates in this regime. In Regime III (CA ≳ 90°), evaporative cooling suppresses the evaporation rate significantly and reverses entirely the direction of natural convection induced by vapor concentration gradients in the gas phase. Delineation of these counteracting mechanisms reconciles previous debate (founded on single-surface experiments or models that consider only a subset of the governing transport mechanisms) regarding the applicability of the classic vapor-diffusion model. The vapor diffusion-based model cannot predict the local evaporation flux along the interface for high contact angle (CA ≥ 90°) when evaporative cooling is strong and the

  5. Introducing ultrasonic falling film evaporator for moderate temperature evaporation enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehbani, Maryam; Rahimi, Masoud

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, Ultrasonic Falling Film (USFF), as a novel technique has been proposed to increase the evaporation rate of moderate temperature liquid film. It is a proper method for some applications which cannot be performed at high temperature, such as foodstuff industry, due to their sensitivity to high temperatures. Evaporation rate of sodium chloride solution from an USFF on an inclined flat plate compared to that for Falling Film without ultrasonic irradiation (FF) at various temperatures was investigated. The results revealed that produced cavitation bubbles have different effects on evaporation rate at different temperatures. At lower temperatures, size fluctuation and collapse of bubbles and in consequence induced physical effects of cavitation bubbles resulted in more turbulency and evaporation rate enhancement. At higher temperatures, the behavior was different. Numerous created bubbles joined together and cover the plate surface, so not only decreased the ultrasound vibrations but also reduced the evaporation rate in comparison with FF. The highest evaporation rate enhancement of 353% was obtained at 40 °C at the lowest Reynolds number of 250. In addition, the results reveal that at temperature of 40 °C, USFF has the highest efficiency compared to FF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaporation from rain-wetted forest in relation to canopy wetness, canopy cover, and net radiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Evaporation from wet canopies is commonly calculated using E-PM, the Penman-Monteith equation with zero surface resistance. However, several observations show a lower evaporation from rain-wetted forest. Possible causes for the difference between E-PM and experiments are evaluated to provide rules

  7. Evaporation and condensation heat transfer with a noncondensable gas present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Fujii, T.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the system pressure of an external water wall type containment vessel, which is one of the passive systems for containment cooling, the evaporation and condensation behavior under a noncondensable gas presence has been experimentally examined. In the system, steam evaporated from the suppression pool surface into the wetwell, filled with noncondensable gas, and condensed on the containment vessel wall. The system pressure was the sum of the noncondensable gas pressure and saturated steam pressure in the wetwell. The wetwell temperature was, however, lower than the suppression pool temperature and depended on the thermal resistance on the suppression pool surface. The evaporation and condensation heat transfer coefficients in the presence of air as noncondensable gas were measured and expressed by functions of steam/air mass ratio. The evaporation heat transfer coefficients were one order higher than the condensation heat transfer coefficients because the local noncondensable gas pressure was much lower on the evaporating pool surface than on the condensing liquid surface. Using logal properties of the heat transfer surfaces, there was a similar trend between evaporation and condensation even with a noncondensable gas present. (orig.)

  8. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  9. The evaporative vector: Homogeneous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klots, C.E.

    1987-05-01

    Molecular beams of van der Waals molecules are the subject of much current research. Among the methods used to form these beams, three-sputtering, laser ablation, and the sonic nozzle expansion of neat gases - yield what are now recognized to be ''warm clusters.'' They contain enough internal energy to undergo a number of first-order processes, in particular that of evaporation. Because of this evaporation and its attendant cooling, the properties of such clusters are time-dependent. The states of matter which can be arrived at via an evaporative vector on a typical laboratory time-scale are discussed. Topics include the (1) temperatures, (2) metastability, (3) phase transitions, (4) kinetic energies of fragmentation, and (5) the expression of magical properties, all for evaporating homogeneous clusters

  10. Stick-Jump (SJ) Evaporation of Strongly Pinned Nanoliter Volume Sessile Water Droplets on Quick Drying, Micropatterned Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debuisson, Damien; Merlen, Alain; Senez, Vincent; Arscott, Steve

    2016-03-22

    We present an experimental study of stick-jump (SJ) evaporation of strongly pinned nanoliter volume sessile water droplets drying on micropatterned surfaces. The evaporation is studied on surfaces composed of photolithographically micropatterned negative photoresist (SU-8). The micropatterning of the SU-8 enables circular, smooth, trough-like features to be formed which causes a very strong pinning of the three phase (liquid-vapor-solid) contact line of an evaporating droplet. This is ideal for studying SJ evaporation as it contains sequential constant contact radius (CCR) evaporation phases during droplet evaporation. The evaporation was studied in nonconfined conditions, and forced convection was not used. Micropatterned concentric circles were defined having an initial radius of 1000 μm decreasing by a spacing ranging from 500 to 50 μm. The droplet evaporates, successively pinning and depinning from circle to circle. For each pinning radius, the droplet contact angle and volume are observed to decrease quasi-linearly with time. The experimental average evaporation rates were found to decrease with decreasing pining radii. In contrast, the experimental average evaporation flux is found to increase with decreasing droplet radii. The data also demonstrate the influence of the initial contact angle on evaporation rate and flux. The data indicate that the total evaporation time of a droplet depends on the specific micropattern spacing and that the total evaporation time on micropatterned surfaces is always less than on flat, homogeneous surfaces. Although the surface patterning is observed to have little effect on the average droplet flux-indicating that the underlying evaporation physics is not significantly changed by the patterning-the total evaporation time is considerably modified by patterning, up to a factor or almost 2 compared to evaporation on a flat, homogeneous surface. The closely spaced concentric circle pinning maintains a large droplet radius and

  11. Evaporation components of a boreal forest: variations during the growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelle, A.; Lundberg, A.; Lindroth, A.; Morén, A.-S.; Cienciala, E.

    1997-10-01

    To improve the understanding of interactions between the boreal forest and the climate system as a key issue for global climate change, the water budget of a mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden was estimated by measurements of the water flux components and the total evaporation flux during the period 16 May-31 October 1995. Total evaporation was measured using eddy correlation and the components were obtained using measurements of precipitation, throughfall, tree transpiration, and forest floor evaporation. On a daily basis, tree transpiration was the dominant evaporation component during the vegetation period. However, it could be efficiently blocked by a wet canopy associated with large interception evaporation. The accumulated total evaporation was 399 mm, transpiration was 243 mm, forest floor evaporation was 56 mm and interception evaporation was 74 mm. The accumulated sum of interception, transpiration, and floor evaporation was 51 mm larger than the actual measured total evaporation. This difference was mainly attributed to the fact that transpiration was measured in a rather dense 50-year-old stand while total evaporation represented the average conditions of older, roughly 100-year-old stands. To compare eddy-correlation measurements with small-scale measurements of evaporation components, a source area analysis was made to select the flux data that give the best representation of the investigated stand. Especially under stable atmospheric conditions the requirements for surface homogeneity were very high and extreme care had to be taken to be aware of the flux source areas. Canopy water storage was determined by two methods: by the water balance of the canopy, which gave a result of 3.3 mm; and by the so-called minimum method based on plots of throughfall versus precipitation, which gave a much lower value of 1.5 mm. Seasonal interception evaporation constituted 30% of the precipitation.

  12. Exercise order affects the total training volume and the ratings of perceived exertion in response to a super-set resistance training session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balsamo S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sandor Balsamo1–3, Ramires Alsamir Tibana1,2,4, Dahan da Cunha Nascimento1,2, Gleyverton Landim de Farias1,2, Zeno Petruccelli1,2, Frederico dos Santos de Santana1,2, Otávio Vanni Martins1,2, Fernando de Aguiar1,2, Guilherme Borges Pereira4, Jéssica Cardoso de Souza4, Jonato Prestes41Department of Physical Education, Centro Universitário UNIEURO, Brasília, 2GEPEEFS (Resistance training and Health Research Group, Brasília/DF, 3Graduate Program in Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Universidade de Brasília (UnB, Brasília, 4Graduation Program in Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasilia (UCB, Brasília/DF, BrazilAbstract: The super-set is a widely used resistance training method consisting of exercises for agonist and antagonist muscles with limited or no rest interval between them – for example, bench press followed by bent-over rows. In this sense, the aim of the present study was to compare the effects of different super-set exercise sequences on the total training volume. A secondary aim was to evaluate the ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue index in response to different exercise order. On separate testing days, twelve resistance-trained men, aged 23.0 ± 4.3 years, height 174.8 ± 6.75 cm, body mass 77.8 ± 13.27 kg, body fat 12.0% ± 4.7%, were submitted to a super-set method by using two different exercise orders: quadriceps (leg extension + hamstrings (leg curl (QH or hamstrings (leg curl + quadriceps (leg extension (HQ. Sessions consisted of three sets with a ten-repetition maximum load with 90 seconds rest between sets. Results revealed that the total training volume was higher for the HQ exercise order (P = 0.02 with lower perceived exertion than the inverse order (P = 0.04. These results suggest that HQ exercise order involving lower limbs may benefit practitioners interested in reaching a higher total training volume with lower ratings of perceived exertion compared with the leg extension plus leg curl

  13. Designing a new highly active liquid evaporator - 16075

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, Paul; Candy, Emma

    2009-01-01

    The Highly Active Liquid Effluent Storage (HALES) plant stores, concentrates and conditions Highly Active Liquor (HAL) in evaporators for buffer storage in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HAST). Highly Active (HA) evaporators play a pivotal role in the delivery of reprocessing, historic clean up and hazard reduction missions across the Sellafield site. In addition to the engineering projects implemented to extend the life expectation of the current evaporator fleet, the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Agency (NDA) is sponsoring the construction of a new HA evaporator (Evaporator D) on the Sellafield site. The design and operation of the new HA evaporator is based on existing/recent HA evaporator technology but learning from past operational experience. Operational experience has been a key area where the existing plant operators have influenced both the new design itself and the requirements for commissioning and training. Many of the learning experiences require relatively simple engineering design modifications such as a new internal washing provision and transfer line blockage recovery systems, they are never-the-less expected to significantly improve the flexibility and operational capability of the new evaporator. Issues that the project delivery team has addressed as part of the development of the design and construction have included: - Minimising interruptions and/or changes to the normal operations of interfacing plants during construction, commissioning and operation of the new facility. - Modularization of the plant, enabling fabrication of the majority of the plant equipment off-site within a workshop (as opposed to on-site) environment improving Quality Assurance and reducing on-Site testing needs. - Drawing out the balance between operational and corrosion resistance improvements with actual design and delivery needs. - Provision of a new facility reliant on the infrastructure of an existing and ageing facility and the competing demands of the related safety

  14. Evaporative water loss, relative water economy and evaporative partitioning of a heterothermic marsupial, the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Philip C; Cooper, Christine E; Nespolo, Roberto F

    2012-08-15

    We examine here evaporative water loss, economy and partitioning at ambient temperatures from 14 to 33°C for the monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides), a microbiotheriid marsupial found only in temperate rainforests of Chile. The monito's standard evaporative water loss (2.58 mg g(-1) h(-1) at 30°C) was typical for a marsupial of its body mass and phylogenetic position. Evaporative water loss was independent of air temperature below thermoneutrality, but enhanced evaporative water loss and hyperthermia were the primary thermal responses above the thermoneutral zone. Non-invasive partitioning of total evaporative water loss indicated that respiratory loss accounted for 59-77% of the total, with no change in respiratory loss with ambient temperature, but a small change in cutaneous loss below thermoneutrality and an increase in cutaneous loss in and above thermoneutrality. Relative water economy (metabolic water production/evaporative water loss) increased at low ambient temperatures, with a point of relative water economy of 15.4°C. Thermolability had little effect on relative water economy, but conferred substantial energy savings at low ambient temperatures. Torpor reduced total evaporative water loss to as little as 21% of normothermic values, but relative water economy during torpor was poor even at low ambient temperatures because of the relatively greater reduction in metabolic water production than in evaporative water loss. The poor water economy of the monito during torpor suggests that negative water balance may explain why hibernators periodically arouse to normothermia, to obtain water by drinking or via an improved water economy.

  15. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  16. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T.; Murase, M.

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35 o C ~ 65 o C. Cold air was approximately 25 o C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  17. Evaporation heat transfer of hot water from horizontal free service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Y.; Ebihara, Y.; Hirota, T. [Shinshu Univ., Ueda, Nagano (Japan); Murase, M. [INSS, Mihama-cho, Fukui (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Evaporation heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow in a horizontal duct was examined. Hot water was in the range of 35{sup o}C ~ 65{sup o}C. Cold air was approximately 25{sup o}C. The air velocity was varied from 0.0656 m/s ~ 1.41 m/s. The heat transfer rate from the water flow to the air flow became large with an increase in the air velocity. The higher the water temperature was, the larger the heat transfer rate was. When the total heat flux from water to the air flow is divided into two terms; the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term, the evaporation term dominate main part and that is about 90 ~ 80 % of the total heat flux. The measured values of the evaporation term and the forced flow convection term were larger than the predicted because of the effect of the diffusion of evaporated vapor. The correlation to predict the heat transfer from the hot water flow to the cold air flow with the evaporation was developed by modifying the laminar flow mass transfer correlation and the laminar forced convection heat transfer correlation. Good results were obtained. (author)

  18. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  19. Characterization of multiple antibiotic resistance of culturable microorganisms and metagenomic analysis of total microbial diversity of marine fish sold in retail shops in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Onkar A; Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Rath, Devashish; Bandekar, Jayant R; Rath, Archana

    2018-03-01

    Marine fish species were analyzed for culturable and total metagenomic microbial diversity, antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern, and horizontal gene transfer in culturable microorganisms. We observed a high AR microbial load of 3 to 4 log CFU g -1 . Many fish pathogens like Providencia, Staphylococcus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter, Vagococcus, and Aeromonas veronii were isolated. Photobacterium and Vibrio were two major fish and human pathogens which were identified in the fish metagenome. Other pathogens that were identified were Shewanella, Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter, and Flavobacterium. Most of these pathogens were resistant to multiple antibiotics such as erythromycin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, penicillin, cefotaxime, bacitracin, rifampicin, trimethoprim, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline with a high multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.54-0.77. The fish microflora showed high prevalence of AR genes like bla TEM , Class I integron, tetA, aph(3')-IIIa, ermB, aadA, and sul1. Nineteen of 26 AR isolates harbored Class I integrons showing high co-resistance to trimethoprim, kanamycin, doxycycline, and cefotaxime. Mobile R-plasmids from 6 of the 12 AR pathogens were transferred to recipient E. coli after conjugation. The transconjugants harbored the same R-plasmid carrying bla CTX-M , dfr1, tetA, bla TEM , and cat genes. This study confirms that fish is a potential carrier of AR pathogens which can enter the human gut via food chain. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the Indian subcontinent reporting a direct evidence of spread of AR pathogens to humans from specific marine fish consumption.

  20. Thermal management optimization of a thermoelectric-integrated methanol evaporator using a compact CFD modeling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Gao; Chen, Min; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    exchange structure. The structure transfers the fuel cell exhaust heat to the evaporation chamber to evaporate the methanol, where TE modules are installed in between to facilitate the heat regulation. In this work, firstly, a numerical study is conducted to determine the working currents and working modes......To better manage the magnitude and the direction of the heat flux in an exchanger-based methanol evaporator of a fuel cell system, thermoelectric (TE) modules can be deployed as TE heat flux regulators (TERs). The performance of the TE-integrated evaporator is strongly influenced by its heat......, and uses a different material property acquisition method based on module manufacturers’ datasheets. Secondly, a simulation study is carried out on the novel evaporator to minimize its thermal resistance and to assess the evaporator pressure drop. The factors studied include: type of the fins of the heat...

  1. Hollow-Fiber Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant; Trevino, Luis; Tsioulos, Gus; Mitchell, Keith; Settles, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The hollow-fiber spacesuit water membrane evaporator (HoFi SWME) is being developed to perform the thermal control function for advanced spacesuits and spacecraft to take advantage of recent advances in micropore membrane technology in providing a robust, heat-rejection device that is less sensitive to contamination than is the sublimator. After recent contamination tests, a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) micro porous hollow-fiber membrane was selected for prototype development as the most suitable candidate among commercial hollow-fiber evaporator alternatives. An innovative design that grouped the fiber layers into stacks, which were separated by small spaces and packaged into a cylindrical shape, was developed into a full-scale prototype for the spacesuit application. Vacuum chamber testing has been performed to characterize heat rejection as a function of inlet water temperature and water vapor back-pressure, and to show contamination resistance to the constituents expected to be found in potable water produced by the wastewater reclamation distillation processes. Other tests showed tolerance to freezing and suitability to reject heat in a Mars pressure environment. In summary, HoFi SWME is a lightweight, compact evaporator for heat rejection in the spacesuit that is robust, contamination- insensitive, freeze-tolerant, and able to reject the required heat of spacewalks in microgravity, lunar, and Martian environments. The HoFi is packaged to reject 810 W of heat through 800 hours of use in a vacuum environment, and 370 W in a Mars environment. The device also eliminates free gas and dissolved gas from the coolant loop.

  2. Evaporation of Nanosuspensions on Substrates with Different Hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Lionel; Pajor-Swierzy, Anna; Magdassi, Shlomo; Kamyshny, Alexander; Ortega, Francisco; Rubio, Ramón G

    2018-01-24

    Liquid drop evaporation on surfaces is present in many industrial and medical applications, e.g., printed electronics, spraying of pesticides, DNA mapping, etc. Despite this strong interest, a theoretical description of the dynamic of the evaporation of complex liquid mixtures and nanosuspensions is still lacking. Indeed, one of the aspects that have not been included in the current theoretical descriptions is the competition between the kinetics of evaporation and the adsorption of surfactants and/or particles at the liquid/vapor and liquid/solid interfaces. Materials formed by an electrically isolating solid on which a patterned conducting layer was formed by the deposits left after drop evaporation have been considered as very promising for building electrical circuits on flexible plastic substrates. In this work, we have done an exhaustive study of the evaporation of nanosuspensions of latex and hydrophobized silver nanoparticles on four substrates of different hydrophobicity. The advancing and receding contact angles as well as the time dependence of the volume of the droplets have been measured over a broad range of particle concentrations. Also, mixtures of silver particles and a surfactant, commonly used in industrial printing, have been examined. Furthermore, the adsorption kinetics at both the air/liquid and solid/liquid interfaces have been measured. Whereas the latex particles do not adsorb at the solid/liquid and only slightly reduce the surface tension, the silver particles strongly adsorb at both interfaces. The experimental results of the evaporation process were compared with the predictions of the theory of Semenov et al. (Evaporation of Sessile Water Droplets: Universal Behavior in the Presence of Contact Angle Hysteresis. Colloids Surf. Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2011, 391 (1-3), 135-144) and showed surprisingly good agreement despite that the theory was developed for pure liquids. The morphology of the deposits left by the droplets after total

  3. Influence of the evaporation rate and the evaporation mode on the hydrogen sorption kinetics of air-exposed magnesium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, A.; Knystautas, E.J.; Huot, J.; Schulz, R.

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that the hydrogen sorption properties of air-exposed magnesium films are influenced by the deposition parameters such as the evaporation rate or the evaporation mode used during their preparation. As the evaporation rate increases, the structure of the film tends to be highly oriented along the [002] direction and the kinetics of hydrogen absorption and desorption are faster. Moreover, the hydrogen sorption kinetics of magnesium films prepared with an electron beam source under a high vacuum are faster by almost a factor of two compared to those prepared using resistive heating under low vacuum. These two parameters reduce drastically the activation and the incubation period during hydrogen absorption and desorption, respectively

  4. Evaporative cycles - in theory and in practise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, P.M.

    2000-08-01

    operation in three reversible steps: 1. Simple open gas turbine cycle; 2. Recuperative gas turbine cycle; 3. Evaporative gas turbine cycle. The braked efficiency of the gas turbine engine increased from 22% for the simple cycle to 35% for the evaporative cycle. The NO{sub x} was reduced by about 90% for the evaporative cycle compared to the simple cycle. Single digit NO{sub x} emission levels were measured in the normal operation interval using a simple diffusion flame combustion chamber operating on natural gas. However, the pilot plant has been optimised neither for best performance nor for best emissions values; instead the main goal was just to show an operable evaporative gas turbine unit and to verify performance calculations. During the work, a spin-off idea, the HAM-concept (Humid Air Motor), was introduced. In the HAM-concept, a turbo-charged reciprocate combustion engine is equipped with a humidification tower situated between the turbo-charger and the engine. This action reduces NO{sub x} emissions and raises the efficiency of the engine, and at the same time, operates as an online cleaning device of the engine. Today this concept has been demonstrated in a full scale marine retrofit application with good results. In fact, the HAM-concept is presently on the brink of being commercialised. In the struggle to find a good cogeneration solution of the evaporative cycles and at the same time to close the water loop completely, one new idea further arose. This new concept is presented for the first time in this thesis. The concept is called the 'The TRIGENERATION Technology' due to its possibility of offering three benefits from one cycle. These cycles will have the possibility of reaching higher than 100% total efficiency even if the performance calculations are based on the higher heating value of the fuel. Due to the stable and thermodynamically favourable way the pressurised humidification tower operates in evaporative cycles, its compactness, combined

  5. Preliminary application of a novel algorithm to monitor changes in pre-flight total peripheral resistance for prediction of post-flight orthostatic intolerance in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tatsuya; Lee, Kichang; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.; Meck, Janice V.; Cohen, Richard J.

    2011-04-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a significant challenge for astronauts after long-duration spaceflight. Depending on flight duration, 20-80% of astronauts suffer from post-flight OI, which is associated with reduced vascular resistance. This paper introduces a novel algorithm for continuously monitoring changes in total peripheral resistance (TPR) by processing the peripheral arterial blood pressure (ABP). To validate, we applied our novel mathematical algorithm to the pre-flight ABP data previously recorded from twelve astronauts ten days before launch. The TPR changes were calculated by our algorithm and compared with the TPR value estimated using cardiac output/heart rate before and after phenylephrine administration. The astronauts in the post-flight presyncopal group had lower pre-flight TPR changes (1.66 times) than those in the non-presyncopal group (2.15 times). The trend in TPR changes calculated with our algorithm agreed with the TPR trend calculated using measured cardiac output in the previous study. Further data collection and algorithm refinement are needed for pre-flight detection of OI and monitoring of continuous TPR by analysis of peripheral arterial blood pressure.

  6. Higher Total Protein Intake and Change in Total Protein Intake Affect Body Composition but Not Metabolic Syndrome Indexes in Middle-Aged Overweight and Obese Adults Who Perform Resistance and Aerobic Exercise for 36 Weeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Wayne W; Kim, Jung Eun; Amankwaah, Akua F; Gordon, Susannah L; Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M

    2015-09-01

    Studies assessing the effects of protein supplementation on changes in body composition (BC) and health rarely consider the impact of total protein intake (TPro) or the change in TPro (CTPro) from participants' usual diets. This secondary data analysis assessed the impact of TPro and CTPro on changes in BC and metabolic syndrome (MetS) indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults who participated in an exercise training program. Men and women [n = 117; age: 50 ± 0.7 y, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 30.1 ± 0.3; means ± SEs] performed resistance exercise 2 d/wk and aerobic exercise 1 d/wk and consumed an unrestricted diet along with 200-kcal supplements (0, 10, 20, or 30 g whey protein) twice daily for 36 wk. Protein intake was assessed via 4-d food records. Multiple linear regression model and stratified analysis were applied for data analyses. Among all subjects, TPro and CTPro were inversely associated (P exercise training, higher TPro promoted positive changes in BC but not in MetS indexes in overweight and obese middle-aged adults. Changes in TPro from before to during the intervention also influenced BC responses and should be considered in future research when different TPro is achieved via diet or supplements. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00812409. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Validation of anthropometry and foot-to-foot bioelectrical resistance against a three-component model to assess total body fat in children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammann, K; Huybrechts, I; Vicente-Rodriguez, G; Easton, C; De Vriendt, T; Marild, S; Mesana, M I; Peeters, M W; Reilly, J J; Sioen, I; Tubic, B; Wawro, N; Wells, J C; Westerterp, K; Pitsiladis, Y; Moreno, L A

    2013-04-01

    To compare different field methods for estimating body fat mass with a reference value derived by a three-component (3C) model in pre-school and school children across Europe. Multicentre validation study. Seventy-eight preschool/school children aged 4-10 years from four different European countries. A standard measurement protocol was carried out in all children by trained field workers. A 3C model was used as the reference method. The field methods included height and weight measurement, circumferences measured at four sites, skinfold measured at two-six sites and foot-to-foot bioelectrical resistance (BIA) via TANITA scales. With the exception of height and neck circumference, all single measurements were able to explain at least 74% of the fat-mass variance in the sample. In combination, circumference models were superior to skinfold models and height-weight models. The best predictions were given by trunk models (combining skinfold and circumference measurements) that explained 91% of the observed fat-mass variance. The optimal data-driven model for our sample includes hip circumference, triceps skinfold and total body mass minus resistance index, and explains 94% of the fat-mass variance with 2.44 kg fat mass limits of agreement. In all investigated models, prediction errors were associated with fat mass, although to a lesser degree in the investigated skinfold models, arm models and the data-driven models. When studying total body fat in childhood populations, anthropometric measurements will give biased estimations as compared to gold standard measurements. Nevertheless, our study shows that when combining circumference and skinfold measurements, estimations of fat mass can be obtained with a limit of agreement of 1.91 kg in normal weight children and of 2.94 kg in overweight or obese children.

  8. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  9. Validation of a simple evaporation-transpiration scheme (SETS) to estimate evaporation using micro-lysimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfari, Sadegh; Pande, Saket; Savenije, Hubert

    2014-05-01

    Several methods exist to estimate E and T. The Penman-Montieth or Priestly-Taylor methods along with the Jarvis scheme for estimating vegetation resistance are commonly used to estimate these fluxes as a function of land cover, atmospheric forcing and soil moisture content. In this study, a simple evaporation transpiration method is developed based on MOSAIC Land Surface Model that explicitly accounts for soil moisture. Soil evaporation and transpiration estimated by SETS is validated on a single column of soil profile with measured evaporation data from three micro-lysimeters located at Ferdowsi University of Mashhad synoptic station, Iran, for the year 2005. SETS is run using both implicit and explicit computational schemes. Results show that the implicit scheme estimates the vapor flux close to that by the explicit scheme. The mean difference between the implicit and explicit scheme is -0.03 mm/day. The paired T-test of mean difference (p-Value = 0.042 and t-Value = 2.04) shows that there is no significant difference between the two methods. The sum of soil evaporation and transpiration from SETS is also compared with P-M equation and micro-lysimeters measurements. The SETS predicts the actual evaporation with a lower bias (= 1.24mm/day) than P-M (= 1.82 mm/day) and with R2 value of 0.82.

  10. The sustainability of LNG evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Van der Kooi, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) import terminals are under construction to fulfil the growing demand for energy carriers. After storage in tanks, the LNG needs to be heated and evaporated, also called ‘regasified’, to the natural gas needed in households and industry. Several options exist for

  11. Evaporation in relation to hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wartena, L.; Keijman, J.Q.; Bruijn, H.A.R. de; Bakel, P.J.T. van; Stricker, J.N.M.; Velds, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    In meteorology some topics enjoy particular interest from other disciplines. The interest of hydrologists for the evaporation of water is a case in point, understandably and rightly so. In fact, over the last few decades, hydrology has clearly done more than using meteorological knowledge thus

  12. Micro-evaporation electrolyte concentrator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    The sensitivity of miniaturized chemical analysis systems depends most of the time on the obtainable detection limit. Concentrating the analyte prior to the detection system can enhance the detection limit. In this writing an analyte concentrator is presented that makes use of evaporation to

  13. Calculation of vapor pressures of oxide fuels up to 5,000 K for equilibrium and nonequilibrium evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitung, W.

    1975-06-01

    In the first part of this work the evaporation kinetics of multicomponent systems is studied with UO 2 as the example. The evaporation, which is generally incongruent, implies that two opposing types of steady-state evaporation must be distinguished: equilibrium evaporation and 'forced congruent' evaporation. The two types of evaporation indicated entail different vapor pressures. In some prompt critical reactor incidents forced congruent evaporation must be anticipated. The second part of this work contains the calculation of the vapor pressures of UOsub(2+-x) and (U,Pu)Osub(2+-x) for both types of evaporation up to temperature of 5,000 K. The calculating procedures are based on the method of Rand and Markin (1967) incorporating the recent thermodynamic data. The agreement between the measured and calculated total pressures is good for the ranges of temperature and stoichiometry for which experimental results are available. This supports the results calculated for higher temperature ranges. (orig./UA) [de

  14. A combined methodology using electrical resistivity tomography, ordinary kriging and porosimetry for quantifying total C trapped in carbonate formations associated with natural analogues for CO2 leakage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado-Pérez, A. J.; Aracil, E.; Pérez del Villar, L.

    2014-06-01

    Currently, carbon deep geological storage is one of the most accepted methods for CO2 sequestration, being the long-term behaviour assessment of these artificial systems absolutely essential to guarantee the safety of the CO2 storage. In this sense, hydrogeochemical modelling is being used for evaluating any artificial CO2 deep geological storage as a potential CO2 sinkhole and to assess the leakage processes that are usually associated with these engineered systems. Carbonate precipitation, as travertines or speleothems, is a common feature in the CO2 leakage scenarios and, therefore, is of the utmost importance to quantify the total C content trapped as a stable mineral phase in these carbonate formations. A methodology combining three classical techniques such as: electrical resistivity tomography, geostatistical analysis and mercury porosimetry is described in this work, which was developed for calculating the total amount of C trapped as CaCO3 associated with the CO2 leakages in Alicún de las Torres natural analogue (Granada, Spain). The proposed methodology has allowed estimating the amount of C trapped as calcite, as more than 1.7 Mt. This last parameter, focussed on an artificial CO2 deep geological storage, is essential for hydrogeochemical modellers when evaluating whether CO2 storages constitute or not CO2 sinkholes. This finding is extremely important when assessing the long-term behaviour and safety of any artificial CO2 deep geological storage.

  15. Water-evaporation reduction by duplex films: application to the human tear film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Ho, Nghia H; Radke, C J

    2013-09-01

    Water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films is especially important to understand the physiology of the human tear film. Secreted lipids, called meibum, form a duplex film that coats the aqueous tear film and purportedly reduces tear evaporation. Lipid-layer deficiency is correlated with the occurrence of dry-eye disease; however, in-vitro experiments fail to show water-evaporation reduction by tear-lipid duplex films. We review the available literature on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films and outline the theoretical underpinnings of spreading and evaporation kinetics that govern behavior of these systems. A dissolution-diffusion model unifies the data reported in the literature and identifies dewetting of duplex films into lenses as a key challenge to obtaining significant evaporation reduction. We develop an improved apparatus for measuring evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films including simultaneous assessment of film coverage, stability, and temperature, all under controlled external mass transfer. New data reported in this study fit into the larger body of work conducted on water-evaporation reduction by duplex-oil films. Duplex-oil films of oxidized mineral oil/mucin (MOx/BSM), human meibum (HM), and bovine meibum (BM) reduce water evaporation by a dissolution-diffusion mechanism, as confirmed by agreement between measurement and theory. The water permeability of oxidized-mineral-oil duplex films agrees with those reported in the literature, after correction for the presence of mucin. We find that duplex-oil films of bovine and human meibum at physiologic temperature reduce water evaporation only 6-8% for a 100-nm film thickness pertinent to the human tear film. Comparison to in-vivo human tear-evaporation measurements is inconclusive because evaporation from a clean-water surface is not measured and because the mass-transfer resistance is not characterized. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantifying Evaporation in a Permeable Pavement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies quantifying evaporation from permeable pavement systems are limited to a few laboratory studies and one field application. This research quantifies evaporation for a larger-scale field application by measuring the water balance from lined permeable pavement sections. Th...

  17. Fundamentals of evaporation and condensation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, Z.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fundamental relationships governing evaporation and condensation processes are reviewed. The terrace-ledge-kink (TLK) model is discussed in terms of atomic steps comprising growth and evaporation of crystals. Recent results in the field are described

  18. An evaporation source pellet or slug feeding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, K.B.; O'Donnell, J.

    1979-01-01

    The development of two material feeding systems for resistive evaporation sources for an ion plating system is reported. A vertical magazine system is used for films up to 15 μm in thickness and a carousel type for films up to 25 μm. Both feed systems are compact and may be used in 12 in. ion plating systems. The vertical magazine system is easily automated. (UK)

  19. Testing of corrosion resistant materials for evaporation plants for waste water from wet scrubbing of flue gas from power plants; Erprobung korrosionsbestaendiger Werkstoffe fuer Eindampfanlagen fuer Abwasser aus der Rauchgasreinigung von Grossfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedel, G. [Institut fuer Korrosionsschutz GmbH, Dresden (Germany); Stenner, F.; Brill, U. [Krupp-VDM GmbH, Werdohl (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    High alloyed superaustenitic steels and NiCrMo alloys are recommended in consequence of the results of extensive laboratory corrosion experiments under the strong corrosive conditions with up to 360 g chloride content at temperatures up to 85 C. Because results of laboratory corrosion tests are only of limited relevance to the behaviour in practice, field tests were carried out with immersion of welded materials and of heat exchanger tubes under operating conditions of an evaporation plant for waste water from flue gas desulphurization of a coal-fired power plant. Different kinds of high alloy superaustenitic steels and NiCrMo alloys were studied as TIG-welded specimens in immersion tests. (orig.) [German] Hochlegierte Sonderedelstaehle und NiCrMo-Legierungen empfehlen sich aufgrund der Ergebnisse umfassender Laboruntersuchungen unter den stark korrosiven Bedingungen fuer Eindampfanlagen fuer Abwasser aus der Nassreinigung von Rauchgasen von Grossfeuerungsanlagen mit bis zu 360 g/l Chloridgehalt und Temperaturen bis zu 85 C. Weil aber Ergebnisse von Laborpruefungen nur begrenzte Aussagefaehigkeit fuer das Verhalten unter Praxisbedingungen haben, wurden Feldversuche mit der Auslagerung geschweisster Werkstoffe und von Waermetauscherrohren unter Betriebsbedingungen einer Eindampfanlage fuer Abwasser aus der Rauchgasentschwefelung eines kohlebefeuerten Kraftwerks durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  20. Evaporative lithographic patterning of binary colloidal films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel J; Conrad, Jacinta C; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2009-12-28

    Evaporative lithography offers a promising new route for patterning a broad array of soft materials. In this approach, a mask is placed above a drying film to create regions of free and hindered evaporation, which drive fluid convection and entrained particles to regions of highest evaporative flux. We show that binary colloidal films exhibit remarkable pattern formation when subjected to a periodic evaporative landscape during drying.

  1. Evaporative cooling in polymer electrolyte fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimotori, S; Sonai, A [Toshiba Corp. Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    The concept of the evaporative cooling for the internally humidified PEFC was confirmed by the experiment. The evaporative cooling rates at the anode and the cathode were mastered under the various temperatures and air utilizations. At a high temperature the proportion of the evaporative cooling rate to the heat generation rate got higher, the possibility of the evaporative cooling was demonstrated. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Evaporation and condensation at a liquid surface. II. Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuhiro; Yasuoka, Kenji; Kataoka, Yosuke

    1994-11-01

    The rates of evaporation and condensation of methanol under the vapor-liquid equilibrium condition at the temperature of 300 and 350 K are investigated with a molecular dynamics computer simulation. Compared with the argon system (reported in part I), the ratio of self-reflection is similar (˜10%), but the ratio of molecule exchange is several times larger than the argon, which suggests that the conventional assumption of condensation as a unimolecular process completely fails for associating fluids. The resulting total condensation coefficient is 20%-25%, and has a quantitative agreement with a recent experiment. The temperature dependence of the evaporation-condensation behavior is not significant.

  3. New models for droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Gusev, Ivan G.; Xie, Jianfei; Shishkova, Irina N.; Cao, Bingyang; Snegirev, Alexander Yu.; Heikal, Morgan Raymond

    2013-01-01

    and evaporation, taking into account the effects of the moving boundary due to evaporation, hydrodynamic models of multi-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking and not taking into account the effects of the moving boundary, new kinetic models of mono

  4. Evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.S. Nichols; J.M. Brown

    1980-01-01

    Peat cores, 45 cm in diameter, were collected from a sphagnum bog in northern Minnesota, and used to measure the effects of different temperatures and water levels on evaporation from a sphagnum moss surface in a growth chamber. Under all conditions, evaporation from the moss surface was greater than that from a free-water surface. Evaporation from the moss increased...

  5. Thermogravimetric analysis of fuel film evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zongjie; LI Liguang; YU Shui

    2006-01-01

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was compared with the petrochemical distillation measurement method to better understand the characteristics of fuel film evaporation at different wall tem- peratures. The film evaporation characteristics of 90# gasoline, 93# gasoline and 0# diesel with different initial thicknesses were investigated at different environmental fluxes and heating rates. The influences of heating rate, film thickness and environmental flux on fuel film evaporation for these fuels were found. The results showed that the environmental conditions in TGA were similar to those for fuel films in the internal combustion engines, so data from TGA were suitable for the analysis of fuel film evaporation. TGA could simulate the key influencing factors for fuel film evaporation and could investigate the basic quantificational effect of heating rate and film thickness. To get a rapid and sufficient fuel film evaporation, sufficiently high wall temperature is necessary. Evaporation time decreases at a high heating rate and thin film thickness, and intense gas flow is important to promoting fuel film evaporation. Data from TGA at a heating rate of 100℃/min are fit to analyze the diesel film evaporation during cold-start and warming-up. Due to the tense molecular interactions, the evaporation sequence could not be strictly divided according to the boiling points of each component for multicomponent dissolved mixture during the quick evaporation process, and the heavier components could vaporize before reaching their boiling points. The 0# diesel film would fully evaporate when the wall temperature is beyond 250℃.

  6. An evaporation driven pump for microfluidics applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Mandamparambil, R.; Frijns, A.J.H.; den Toonder, J.M.J.; Tadrist, L.; Graur, I.

    2014-01-01

    We present an evaporation driven micro-pump for micro fluidic applications on a foil. In such a device, the evaporation rate is controlled by the geometry of the channel outlet and its temperature. The evaporation is also influenced by environmental parameters such as air humidity and temperature.

  7. Multi-site evaluation of terrestrial evaporation models using FLUXNET data

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Chaney, Nathaniel W.; Wood, Eric F.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of four commonly applied land surface evaporation models using a high-quality dataset of selected FLUXNET towers. The models that were examined include an energy balance approach (Surface Energy Balance System; SEBS), a combination-type technique (single-source Penman-Monteith; PM), a complementary method (advection-aridity; AA) and a radiation based approach (modified Priestley-Taylor; PT-JPL). Twenty FLUXNET towers were selected based upon satisfying stringent forcing data requirements and representing a wide range of biomes. These towers encompassed a number of grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest sites. Based on the mean value of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and the root mean squared difference (RMSD), the order of overall performance of the models from best to worst were: ensemble mean of models (0.61, 64), PT-JPL (0.59, 66), SEBS (0.42, 84), PM (0.26, 105) and AA (0.18, 105) [statistics stated as (NSE, RMSD in Wm-2)]. Although PT-JPL uses a relatively simple and largely empirical formulation of the evaporative process, the technique showed improved performance compared to PM, possibly due to its partitioning of total evaporation (canopy transpiration, soil evaporation, wet canopy evaporation) and lower uncertainties in the required forcing data. The SEBS model showed low performance over tall and heterogeneous canopies, which was likely a consequence of the effects of the roughness sub-layer parameterization employed in this scheme. However, SEBS performed well overall. Relative to PT-JPL and SEBS, the PM and AA showed low performance over the majority of sites, due to their sensitivity to the parameterization of resistances. Importantly, it should be noted that no single model was consistently best across all biomes. Indeed, this outcome highlights the need for further evaluation of each model's structure and parameterizations to identify sensitivities and their

  8. Multi-site evaluation of terrestrial evaporation models using FLUXNET data

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the performance of four commonly applied land surface evaporation models using a high-quality dataset of selected FLUXNET towers. The models that were examined include an energy balance approach (Surface Energy Balance System; SEBS), a combination-type technique (single-source Penman-Monteith; PM), a complementary method (advection-aridity; AA) and a radiation based approach (modified Priestley-Taylor; PT-JPL). Twenty FLUXNET towers were selected based upon satisfying stringent forcing data requirements and representing a wide range of biomes. These towers encompassed a number of grassland, cropland, shrubland, evergreen needleleaf forest and deciduous broadleaf forest sites. Based on the mean value of the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and the root mean squared difference (RMSD), the order of overall performance of the models from best to worst were: ensemble mean of models (0.61, 64), PT-JPL (0.59, 66), SEBS (0.42, 84), PM (0.26, 105) and AA (0.18, 105) [statistics stated as (NSE, RMSD in Wm-2)]. Although PT-JPL uses a relatively simple and largely empirical formulation of the evaporative process, the technique showed improved performance compared to PM, possibly due to its partitioning of total evaporation (canopy transpiration, soil evaporation, wet canopy evaporation) and lower uncertainties in the required forcing data. The SEBS model showed low performance over tall and heterogeneous canopies, which was likely a consequence of the effects of the roughness sub-layer parameterization employed in this scheme. However, SEBS performed well overall. Relative to PT-JPL and SEBS, the PM and AA showed low performance over the majority of sites, due to their sensitivity to the parameterization of resistances. Importantly, it should be noted that no single model was consistently best across all biomes. Indeed, this outcome highlights the need for further evaluation of each model\\'s structure and parameterizations to identify sensitivities and their

  9. Water Evaporation in Swimming Baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgård, Carl-Erik

    This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which are repres......This paper is publishing measuring results from models and full-scale baths of the evaporation in swimming baths, both public baths and retraining baths. Moreover, the heat balance of the basin water is measured. In addition the full-scale measurements have given many experiences which...... are represented in instructions for carrying out and running swimming baths. If you follow the instructions you can achieve less investments, less heat consumption and a better comfort to the bathers....

  10. Black hole evaporation: a paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Bojowald, Martin

    2005-01-01

    A paradigm describing black hole evaporation in non-perturbative quantum gravity is developed by combining two sets of detailed results: (i) resolution of the Schwarzschild singularity using quantum geometry methods and (ii) time evolution of black holes in the trapping and dynamical horizon frameworks. Quantum geometry effects introduce a major modification in the traditional spacetime diagram of black hole evaporation, providing a possible mechanism for recovery of information that is classically lost in the process of black hole formation. The paradigm is developed directly in the Lorentzian regime and necessary conditions for its viability are discussed. If these conditions are met, much of the tension between expectations based on spacetime geometry and structure of quantum theory would be resolved

  11. Duplex Tear Film Evaporation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapf, M R; Braun, R J; King-Smith, P E

    2017-12-01

    Tear film thinning, hyperosmolarity, and breakup can cause irritation and damage to the human eye, and these form an area of active investigation for dry eye syndrome research. Recent research demonstrates that deficiencies in the lipid layer may cause locally increased evaporation, inducing conditions for breakup. In this paper, we explore the conditions for tear film breakup by considering a model for tear film dynamics with two mobile fluid layers, the aqueous and lipid layers. In addition, we include the effects of osmosis, evaporation as modified by the lipid, and the polar portion of the lipid layer. We solve the system numerically for reasonable parameter values and initial conditions and analyze how shifts in these cause changes to the system's dynamics.

  12. Power balance equation in electron beam evaporation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenfeld, L.; Soubbaramayer.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to solve the equation giving the total power of the gun, used in the electron beam evaporation process, in terms of the power used to generated the vapor stream and the three main power losses due to three parasite phenomena: turbulent thermal convection in the molten pool, electron back scattering and heat radiation from the vapor emitting surface. Scaling laws are first reviewed and results are given with the example of the evaporation of aluminium with a 5 kW axisymmetric gun working in steady state mode. The influence of an applied magnetic field on the evaporation rate is also examined. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Changes in the Composition of Aromatherapeutic Citrus Oils during Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Francis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition of some commercial Citrus oils, lemon, sweet orange, and tangerine, designated for aromatherapy, was examined before and after partial evaporation in a stream of nitrogen. The intact oils contained the expected mixtures of mono- and sesquiterpenes, with hydrocarbons dominating and lesser amounts of oxygenated analogues making up the remainder. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to follow alterations in the relative amounts of the various components present as evaporation proceeded. Changes were marked, and in particular more volatile components present in the intact oils rapidly disappeared. Thus the balance of content was shifted away from monoterpene hydrocarbons towards the analogous alcohols and carbonyl compounds. The results of this differential evaporation are discussed and possible consequences for aromatherapy use are noted. The case of lemon oil was especially interesting as the relative amount of citral, a known sensitizer, remaining as time elapsed represented an increasing percentage of the total oil.

  14. Influence of electron evaporative cooling on ultracold plasma expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Truman; Chen, Wei-Ting; Roberts, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The expansion of ultracold neutral plasmas (UCP) is driven primarily by the thermal pressure of the electron component and is therefore sensitive to the electron temperature. For typical UCP spatial extents, evaporative cooling has a significant influence on the UCP expansion rate at lower densities (less than 10 8 /cm 3 ). We studied the effect of electron evaporation in this density range. Owing to the low density, the effects of three-body recombination were negligible. We modeled the expansion by taking into account the change in electron temperature owing to evaporation as well as adiabatic expansion and found good agreement with our data. We also developed a simple model for initial evaporation over a range of ultracold plasma densities, sizes, and electron temperatures to determine over what parameter range electron evaporation is expected to have a significant effect. We also report on a signal calibration technique, which relates the signal at our detector to the total number of ions and electrons in the ultracold plasma

  15. Experimental results on evaporation waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana Otero, Jose; Parra Fabian, Ignacio

    2010-11-01

    A liquid contained in a vertical glass tube is suddenly depressurized from a high initial pressure down to one for which the stable state is vapour, so vaporization sets off at the free surface. For large enough evaporation rates, the planar vapour-liquid interface is Darrieus-Landau unstable [1], leading to the interface surface rippling close to the instability threshold. Further increasing the initial to final pressure ratio brings about evaporation waves [2,3], in which a highly corrugated front propagates downwards into the liquid. A new experimental method is presented as well as some experimental results obtained by tracking the evolution of the front with a high speed camera. In addition, a number of new phenomena related to the dynamics of bubbles growth at the walls has been uncovered. In particular, a new mode of propagation of the evaporation front is found. In this mode the front originates from below the interface, so the propagation is upwards against gravity with a curved but smooth front.[4pt] [1] F. J. Higuera, Phys. Fluids, V. 30, 679 (1987).[0pt] [2] J.E.Shepherd and B.Sturtevant, J.Fluid Mech., V.121,379 (1982).[0pt] [3] P.Reinke and G.Yadigaroglu, Int.J.Multiph. Flow, V.27,1487 (2001).

  16. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    . To prevent wet discomfort, the T-shirt was made of a polyester material having a water-repellent silicon coating on the inner surface. The chest, front upper arms, and nape of the neck were adopted as the cooling areas of the human body. We conducted human subject experiments in an office with air......We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  17. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  18. No Exacerbation of Knee Joint Pain and Effusion Following Preoperative Progressive Resistance Training in Patients Scheduled for Total Knee Arthroplasty: Secondary Analyses From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoffer, Birgit; Dalgas, Ulrik; Maribo, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld; Mechlenburg, Inger

    2017-11-09

    Preoperative progressive resistance training (PRT) is controversial in patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty (TKA), because of the concern that it may exacerbate knee joint pain and effusion. To examine whether preoperative PRT initiated 5 weeks prior to TKA would exacerbate pain and knee effusion, and would allow a progressively increased training load throughout the training period that would subsequently increase muscle strength. Secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial. University Hospital and a Regional Hospital. A total of 30 patients who were scheduled for TKA due to osteoarthritis and assigned as the intervention group. Patients underwent unilateral PRT (3 sessions per week). Exercise loading was 12 repetitions maximum (RM) with progression toward 8 RM. The training program consisted of 6 exercises performed unilaterally. Before and after each training session, knee joint pain was rated on an 11-point scale, effusion was assessed by measuring the knee joint circumference, and training load was recorded. The first and last training sessions were initiated by 1 RM testing of unilateral leg press, unilateral knee extension, and unilateral knee flexion. The median pain change score from before to after each training session was 0 at all training sessions. The average increase in knee joint effusion across the 12 training sessions was a mean 0.16 cm ± 0.23 cm. No consistent increase in knee joint effusion after training sessions during the training period was found (P = .21). Training load generally increased, and maximal muscle strength improved as follows: unilateral leg press: 18% ± 30% (P = .03); unilateral knee extension: 81% ± 156% (P knee flexion: 53% ± 57% (P knee joint pain and effusion, despite a substantial progression in loading and increased muscle strength. Concerns for side effects such as pain and effusion after PRT seem unfounded. To be determined. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Role of rs1501299 variant in the adiponectin gene on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Izaola, Olatz; Primo, David; Aller, Rocio

    2017-11-14

    Several adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPS) have been related with adiponectin levels and risk for obesity. Our aim was to analyze the effects of rs1501299 ADIPOQ gene polymorphism on total adiponectin levels, insulin resistance and weight loss after a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. A Caucasian population of 82 obese patients was analyzed, before and after 3 months on a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet. Before and after 3 months on a hypocaloric diet, an anthropometric evaluation, an assessment of nutritional intake and a biochemical analysis were performed. After dietary treatment and in wild type group, weight, BMI, fat mass, leptin levels, systolic blood pressure and waist circumference decreases were similar to the mutant type group. In wild type group, the decrease in total cholesterol was -28.1±15.3 mg/dl (mutant group: -12.6±16.7 mg/dl:p=0.009), LDL- cholesterol was -31.8±20.5 mg/dl (-12.2±11.5 mg/dl:p=0.006), fasting glucose plasma -4.8±2.5 mg/dL (-0.5±0.1 mg/dL:p=0.02), insulin -3.6±1.5 mUI/L (+0.6±1.1 mUI/L:p=0.02) and HOMA-IR -1.2±0.9 (-0.1±1.1:p=0.03). The present study suggests that T allele of ADIPO (rs1501299) could be a predictor of a lack of response of HOMA-IR, insulin, fasting glucose and LDL cholesterol secondary to a Mediterranean hypocaloric diet in obese subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Electrical transport properties of thermally evaporated phthalocyanine (H 2Pc) thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nahass, M. M.; Farid, A. M.; Attia, A. A.; Ali, H. A. M.

    2006-08-01

    Thin films of H 2Pc of various thicknesses have been deposited onto glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique at room temperature. The dark electrical resistivity measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the range 298-473 K. An estimation of mean free path ( lo) of charge carriers in H 2Pc thin films was attempted. Measurements of thermoelectric power confirm that H 2Pc thin films behave as a p-type semiconductor. The current density-voltage characteristics of Au/H 2Pc/Au at room temperature showed ohmic conduction mechanism at low voltages. At higher voltages the space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) accompanied by an exponential trap distribution was dominant. The temperature dependence of current density allows the determination of some essential parameters such as the hole mobility ( μh), the total trap concentration ( Nt), the characteristic temperature ( Tt) and the trap density P( E).

  1. Heat and mass transfer analogies for evaporation models at high evaporation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Trontin , P.; Villedieu , P.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In the framework of anti and deicing applications, heated liquid films can appear above the ice thickness, or directly above the wall. Then, evaporation plays a major role in the Messinger balance and evaporated mass has to be predicted accurately. Unfortunately, it appears that existing models under-estimate evaporation at high temperature. In this study, different evaporation models at high evaporation rates are studied. The different hypothesis on which these models...

  2. Operational characteristics of miniature loop heat pipe with flat evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gai, Dongxing; Liu, Zhichun; Liu, Wei; Yang, Jinguo [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2009-12-15

    Loop heat pipes are heat transfer devices whose operating principle is based on the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid, and which use the capillary pumping forces to ensure the fluid circulation. A series of tests have been carried out with a miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) with flat evaporator and fin-and-tube type condenser. The loop is made of pure copper with stainless mesh wick and methanol as the working fluid. Detailed study is conducted on the start-up reliability of the mLHP at high as well as low heat loads. During the testing of mLHP under step power cycles, the thermal response presented by the loop to achieve steady state is very short. At low heat loads, temperature oscillations are observed throughout the loop. The amplitudes and frequencies of these fluctuations are large at evaporator wall and evaporator inlet. It is expected that the extent and nature of the oscillations occurrence is dependent on the thermal and hydrodynamic conditions inside the compensation chamber. The thermal resistance of the mLHP lies between 0.29 and 3.2 C/W. The effects of different liquid charging ratios and the tilt angles to the start-up and the temperature oscillation are studied in detail. (orig.)

  3. Does evaporation paradox exist in China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. T. Cong

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available One expected consequence of global warming is the increase in evaporation. However, lots of observations show that the rate of evaporation from open pans of water has been steadily decreasing all over the world in the past 50 years. The contrast between expectation and observation is called "evaporation paradox". Based on data from 317 weather stations in China from 1956 to 2005, the trends of pan evaporation and air temperature were obtained and evaporation paradox was analyzed. The conclusions include: (1 From 1956 to 2005, pan evaporation paradox existed in China as a whole while pan evaporation kept decreasing and air temperature became warmer and warmer, but it does not apply to Northeast and Southeast China; (2 From 1956 to 1985, pan evaporation paradox existed narrowly as a whole with unobvious climate warming trend, but it does not apply to Northeast China; (3 From 1986 to 2005, in the past 20 years, pan evaporation paradox did not exist for the whole period while pan evaporation kept increasing, although it existed in South China. Furthermore, the trend of other weather factors including sunshine duration, windspeed, humidity and vapor pressure deficit, and their relations with pan evaporation are discussed. As a result, it can be concluded that pan evaporation decreasing is caused by the decreasing in radiation and wind speed before 1985 and pan evaporation increasing is caused by the decreasing in vapor pressure deficit due to strong warming after 1986. With the Budyko curve, it can be concluded that the actual evaporation decreased in the former 30 years and increased in the latter 20 year for the whole China.

  4. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  5. Twenty Percent of Patients May Remain Colonized With Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Despite a Decolonization Protocol in Patients Undergoing Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratz, Michael D; Hallmark, Ruth; Odum, Susan M; Springer, Bryan D

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly isolated organism in periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) are on the rise, and many programs have instituted decolonization protocols. There are limited data on the success of S aureus nasal decolonization programs and their impact on PJI. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the proportion of patients successfully decolonized using a 2-week protocol; (2) compare infection risks between our surveillance and decolonization protocol group against a historical control cohort to evaluate changes in proportions of S aureus infections; and (3) assess infection risk based on carrier type, comparing S aureus carriers with noncarrier controls. We retrospectively evaluated a group of 3434 patients who underwent elective primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty over a 2-year period; each patient in the treatment group underwent a surveillance protocol, and a therapeutic regimen of mupurocin and chlorhexidine was instituted when colonization criteria were met. A 2009 to 2010 comparative historical cohort was chosen as the control group. We compared risks of infection between our treatment group and the historical control cohort. Furthermore, in patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs), we compared the proportions of each S aureus type between the two cohorts. Finally, we compared infection rates based on carrier status. Surveillance for infection was carried out by the hospital infection control coordinator using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. During the time period of this study, the CDC defined hospital-acquired infection related to a surgical procedure as any infection diagnosed within 1 year of the procedure. With the numbers available, we had 41% power to detect a difference of 0.3% in infection rate between the treatment and control groups. To achieve 80% power, a total of 72,033 patients would be

  6. Assessment of temporal dynamics of evaporation in the Itumbiara reservoir, GO, using remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Antônio Lorenzzetti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this work was to study the dynamics of evaporation in the Itumbiara reservoir, located in Central Brazil, using MODIS-derived water surface temperature (product MOD11A1 and meteorological data acquired over the water surface. The evaporation rates were derived from latent heat flux, estimated through a mass transfer model. The estimates were carried out for the period between 1/1/2010 and 31/12/2010. The results showed that evaporation rate tends to increase from January to September and then decrease from September to December. The evaporation rate reached values near 20 mm day-1 in Itumbiara reservoir during the dry season in 2010. The mean evaporation rate for the wet season was 3.66 mm day-1 and 8.25 mm day-1 for the dry season. The total water volume evaporated from Itumbiara reservoir during 2010 was estimated at about 1.7 billion m³ (2,300 mm which represents 10% of total reservoir volume. The results suggest that advection is the main transport mechanism which drives the evaporation in Itumbiara. The convective processes contribute secondarily to evaporation in Itumbiara reservoir.

  7. The effects of feeding resistant starch on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, faecal characteristics and faecal fermentative end-products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Alexander, Lucille G; Buff, Preston R; Swanson, Kelly S

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of whole grain consumption have been studied in human subjects, but little research exists on their effects in dogs. The objective of the present study was to test the effects of resistant starch (RS) in the diet of healthy adult dogs. Twelve adult Miniature Schnauzer dogs (eight males, four females; mean age: 3·3 (1·6) years; mean body weight: 8·4 (1·2) kg; mean body condition score: D/ideal) were randomly allotted to one of three treatment groups, which consisted of different amounts of RS supplied in a biscuit format. Dogs received either 0, 10 or 20 g biscuits per d (estimated to be 0, 2·5 or 5 g RS per d) that were fed within their daily energetic allowance. A balanced Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 21 d (days 0-17 adaptation; days 18-21 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed the same diet to maintain body weight throughout the study. Dogs fed 5 g RS per d had lower (P = 0·03) fat digestibility than dogs fed 0 gRS per d, but DM, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were not affected. Faecal fermentative end-products, including SCFA and branched-chain fatty acids, ammonia, phenols and indoles, and microbial populations were not affected. The minor changes observed in the present study suggest the RS doses provided to the dogs were too low. Further work is required to assess the dose of RS required to affect gut health.

  8. Evaporation From Soil Containers With Irregular Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Narkis, Kfir

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from bare soils under laboratory conditions is generally studied using containers of regular shapes where the vertical edges are parallel to the flow lines in the drying domain. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of irregular container shapes, for which the flow lines either converge or diverge toward the surface. Evaporation from initially saturated sand and sandy loam soils packed in cones and inverted cones was compared to evaporation from corresponding cylindrical columns. The initial evaporation rate was higher in the cones, and close to potential evaporation. At the end of the experiment, the cumulative evaporation depth in the sand cone was equal to that in the column but higher than in the inverted cone, while in the sandy loam, the order was cone > column > inverted cone. By comparison to the column, stage 1 evaporation was longer in the cones, and practically similar in the inverted cones. Stage 2 evaporation rate decreased with the increase of the evaporating surface area. These results were more pronounced in the sandy loam. For the sand column, the transition between stage 1 and stage 2 evaporation occurred when the depth of the saturation front was approximately equal to the characteristic length of the soil. However, for the cone and the inverted cone, it occurred for a shallower depth of the saturation front. It seems therefore that the concept of the characteristic length derived from the soil hydraulic properties is related to drying systems of regular shapes.

  9. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  10. Vacuum evaporation of KCl-NaCl salts. Part 2: Vaporization-rate model and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.; Hampel, F.G.; Steele, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Separation of chloride salts from the actinide residue by vacuum evaporation is a promising method of treating wastes from the pyrochemical plutonium processes. A model based on the Hertz-Langmuir relation is used to describe how evaporation rates of the binary KCl-NaCl system change with time. The effective evaporation coefficient (α), which is a ratio of the actual evaporation rate to the theoretical maximum, was obtained for the KCl-NaCl system using this model. In the temperature range of 640 C to 760 C, the effective evaporation coefficient ranges from ∼0.4 to 0.1 for evaporation experiments conducted at 0.13 Pa. At temperatures below the melting point, the lower evaporation coefficients are suggested to result from the more complex path that a molecule needs to follow before escaping to the gas phase. At the higher liquid temperatures, the decreasing evaporation coefficients result from a combination of the increasing vapor-flow resistances and the heat-transfer effects at the evaporation surface and the condensate layer. The microanalysis of the condensate verified that composition of the condensate changes with time, consistent with the model calculation. The microstructural examination revealed that the vaporate may have condensed as a single solution phase, which upon cooling forms fine lamellar structures of the equilibrium KCl and NaCl phases. In conclusion, the optimum design of the evaporation process and equipment must take the mass and heat transfer factors and equipment materials issues into consideration

  11. Quantized evaporation from liquid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, M. J.; Hope, F. R.; Wyatt, A. F. G.

    1983-07-01

    The atomic-level kinetics of evaporation from a liquid surface are investigated experimentally for the case of liquid He-4. A pulse of phonons was injected by a submerged thin-film heater into purified He-4 (cooled to less than about 0.1 K) and collimated into a beam directed at the liquid surface; the atoms liberated at the surface were detected by a bolometer. The energy of the incident phonon and the kinetic energy of the liberated atom were calculated by determining the group velocity (from the minimum time elapsed between the beginning of the heater pulse and the arrival of the leading edge of the signal) and combining it with neutron-measured excitation dispersion data. Measurements were also made with a mixture of He-3 and He-4. The results are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions of the phonon-induced quantum evaporation of surface atoms: the energy of the phonon is divided between the kinetic energy of the liberated atom and the energy required to overcome the binding forces.

  12. Evaporator modeling - A hybrid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Xudong; Cai Wenjian; Jia Lei; Wen Changyun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid modeling approach is proposed to model two-phase flow evaporators. The main procedures for hybrid modeling includes: (1) Based on the energy and material balance, and thermodynamic principles to formulate the process fundamental governing equations; (2) Select input/output (I/O) variables responsible to the system performance which can be measured and controlled; (3) Represent those variables existing in the original equations but are not measurable as simple functions of selected I/Os or constants; (4) Obtaining a single equation which can correlate system inputs and outputs; and (5) Identify unknown parameters by linear or nonlinear least-squares methods. The method takes advantages of both physical and empirical modeling approaches and can accurately predict performance in wide operating range and in real-time, which can significantly reduce the computational burden and increase the prediction accuracy. The model is verified with the experimental data taken from a testing system. The testing results show that the proposed model can predict accurately the performance of the real-time operating evaporator with the maximum error of ±8%. The developed models will have wide applications in operational optimization, performance assessment, fault detection and diagnosis

  13. Mercuric iodide crystals obtained by solvent evaporation using ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugucioni, J.C.; Ghilardi Netto, T.; Mulato, M.

    2010-01-01

    Millimeter-sized mercuric iodide crystals were fabricated by the solvent evaporation technique using pure ethanol as a solvent. Three different conditions for solution evaporation were tested: (i) in the dark at room temperature; (ii) in the presence of light at room temperature and (iii) in an oven at 40 deg. C. Morphology, structure, optical and electrical properties were investigated using several techniques. Crystals fabricated in the dark show better properties and stability than others, possibly because the larger the energy of the system, the larger the number of induced growth defects. The crystals fabricated in the dark have adequate structure for higher resistivity and activation energy close to half the optical band-gap, as desired. With proper encapsulation these crystals might be good candidates for the development of ionizing radiation sensors.

  14. Novel evaporation experiment to determine soil hydraulic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel experimental approach to determine soil hydraulic material properties for the dry and very dry range is presented. Evaporation from the surface of a soil column is controlled by a constant flux of preconditioned air and the resulting vapour flux is measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. The data are inverted under the assumptions that (i the simultaneous movement of water in the liquid and vapour is represented by Richards' equation with an effective hydraulic conductivity and that (ii the coupling between the soil and the well-mixed atmosphere can be modelled by a boundary layer with a constant transfer resistance. The optimised model fits the data exceptionally well. Remaining deviations during the initial phase of an experiment are thought to be well-understood and are attributed to the onset of the heat flow through the column which compensates the latent heat of evaporation.

  15. New models for droplet heating and evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.

    2013-02-01

    A brief summary of new models for droplet heating and evaporation, developed mainly at the Sir Harry Ricardo Laboratory of the University of Brighton during 2011-2012, is presented. These are hydrodynamic models for mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking into account the effects of the moving boundary due to evaporation, hydrodynamic models of multi-component droplet heating and evaporation, taking and not taking into account the effects of the moving boundary, new kinetic models of mono-component droplet heating and evaporation, and a model for mono-component droplet evaporation, based on molecular dynamics simulation. The results, predicted by the new models are compared with experimental data and the prehctions of the previously developed models where possible. © 2013 Asian Network for Scientific Information.

  16. Wetting and evaporation of binary mixture drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefiane, Khellil; David, Samuel; Shanahan, Martin E R

    2008-09-11

    Experimental results on the wetting behavior of water, methanol, and binary mixture sessile drops on a smooth, polymer-coated substrate are reported. The wetting behavior of evaporating water/methanol drops was also studied in a water-saturated environment. Drop parameters (contact angle, shape, and volume) were monitored in time. The effects of the initial relative concentrations on subsequent evaporation and wetting dynamics were investigated. Physical mechanisms responsible for the various types of wetting behavior during different stages are proposed and discussed. Competition between evaporation and hydrodynamic flow are evoked. Using an environment saturated with water vapor allowed further exploration of the controlling mechanisms and underlying processes. Wetting stages attributed to differential evaporation of methanol were identified. Methanol, the more volatile component, evaporates predominantly in the initial stage. The data, however, suggest that a small proportion of methanol remained in the drop after the first stage of evaporation. This residual methanol within the drop seems to influence subsequent wetting behavior strongly.

  17. Is evaporative colling important for shallow clouds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentine, P.; Park, S. B.; Davini, P.; D'Andrea, F.

    2017-12-01

    We here investigate and test using large-eddy simulations the hypothesis that evaporative cooling might not be crucial for shallow clouds. Results from various Shallow convection and stratocumulus LES experiments show that the influence of evaporative cooling is secondary compared to turbulent mixing, which dominates the buoyancy reversal. In shallow cumulus subising shells are not due to evaporative cooling but rather reflect a vortical structure, with a postive buoyancy anomaly in the core due to condensation. Disabling evaporative cooling has negligible impact on this vortical structure and on buoyancy reversal. Similarly in non-precipitating stratocumuli evaporative cooling is negeligible copmared to other factors, especially turbulent mixing and pressure effects. These results emphasize that it may not be critical to icnlude evaporative cooling in parameterizations of shallow clouds and that it does not alter entrainment.

  18. Sessile Drop Evaporation and Leidenfrost Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mozumder; M. R. Ullah; A. Hossain; M. A. Islam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Quenching and cooling are important process in manufacturing industry for controlling the mechanical properties of materials, where evaporation is a vital mode of heat transfer. Approach: This study experimentally investigated the evaporation of sessile drop for four different heated surfaces of Aluminum, Brass, Copper and Mild steel with a combination of four different liquids as Methanol, Ethanol, Water and NaCl solution. The time of evaporation for the droplet on the hot...

  19. Evaporation from a central Siberian pine forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, F. M.; Lloyd, J.; Arneth, A.; Byers, J. N.; McSeveny, T. M.; Milukova, I.; Grigoriev, S.; Panfyorov, M.; Sogatchev, A.; Varlargin, A.; Ziegler, W.; Bauer, G.; Schulze, E.-D.

    1998-03-01

    Total forest evaporation, E, understorey evaporation, Eu, and environmental variables were measured for 18 consecutive mid-summer days during July 1996 in a 215-year-old stand of Pinus sylvestris L. trees located 40 km southwest of the village of Zotino in central siberia, Russia (61°N, 89°E, 160 m asl). Tree and lichen ( Cladonia and Cladina spp.) understorey one-sided leaf and surface-area indices were 1.5 and 6.0, respectively. Daily E, measured by eddy covariance, was 0.8-2.3 mm day -1 which accounted for 15-67% of the available energy, Ra. Following 12 mm rainfall, daily E reached a maximum on the second day (the first clear day) but declined rapidly thereafter to reach minimum rates within one week. The sandy soil had a range of water content equivalent to only 4 mm water per 100 mm depth of soil. It was estimated that 38% of soil water was utilised before water deficit began to limit E. Eu, also measured by eddy covariance and by lysimeters, was 0.5 to 1.6 mm day -1 or 33-92% of E. Eu was proportional to Ra, but in response to soil drying, the slope of this linear relation declined by a factor of three to a minimum value only three days after the rainfall. Based on the measurements and climatological data, including average annual precipitation of 600 mm year -1 with half as rain during the nominal growing season (1 May to 30 September), water balance calculations suggested E was 265 mm per growing season.

  20. Enhancement of Water Evaporation on Solid Surfaces with Nanoscale Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Rongzheng; Wang, Chunlei; Lei, Xiaoling; Zhou, Guoquan; Fang, Haiping

    2015-11-06

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the evaporation of nanoscale water on hydrophobic-hydrophilic patterned surfaces is unexpectedly faster than that on any surfaces with uniform wettability. The key to this phenomenon is that, on the patterned surface, the evaporation rate from the hydrophilic region only slightly decreases due to the correspondingly increased water thickness; meanwhile, a considerable number of water molecules evaporate from the hydrophobic region despite the lack of water film. Most of the evaporated water from the hydrophobic region originates from the hydrophilic region by diffusing across the contact lines. Further analysis shows that the evaporation rate from the hydrophobic region is approximately proportional to the total length of the contact lines.

  1. Study on heat transfer from hot water to air with evaporation. 2nd report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Tatsuya; Hirota, Tatsuya; Koizumi, Yasuo; Murase, Michio

    2013-01-01

    Heat transfer from hot water flow to cold air flow was examined. In the present study, the air flow was in turbulent flow condition. When the heat flux from the water flow to the air flow is divides into two terms of an evaporation term and a convection term, the evaporation term is much higher than the convection term; approximately 80 ∼ 60% of the total heat flux since latent heat is taken into the air flow by evaporating vapor. The convection term was approximately two times of the single-phase heat transfer rate with no evaporation. By making use of the analogy between the mass transfer and the heat transfer, and the single-phase heat transfer correlation, the predicting method of the heat transfer rate with the evaporation was developed. (author)

  2. Portable brine evaporator unit, process, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Paul John; Miller, Bruce G.; Wincek, Ronald T.; Decker, Glenn E.; Johnson, David K.

    2009-04-07

    The present invention discloses a comprehensive, efficient, and cost effective portable evaporator unit, method, and system for the treatment of brine. The evaporator unit, method, and system require a pretreatment process that removes heavy metals, crude oil, and other contaminates in preparation for the evaporator unit. The pretreatment and the evaporator unit, method, and system process metals and brine at the site where they are generated (the well site). Thus, saving significant money to producers who can avoid present and future increases in transportation costs.

  3. Intake of total dietary sugar and fibre is associated with insulin resistance among Danish 8-10- and 14-16-year-old girls but not boys. European Youth Heart Studies I and II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kynde, Iben; Johnsen, Nina Føns; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the dietary intake of total sugar, added sugar, non-added sugar and starch as well as dietary fibre and glycaemic index (GI) and their respective associations with insulin resistance. Design: Mixed linear models were used to study both cross-sectional and prospective...... associations between carbohydrate components and insulin resistance separately in girls and boys. Diet was assessed by a single 24 h recall interview and insulin resistance was calculated using the homoestasis model assessment (HOMA). Setting: The Danish part of the European Youth Heart Studies (EYHS) I and II....... Subjects: Girls and boys at 8–10 and 14–16 years from EYHS I (n 651) and 8–10-year olds from baseline followed up 6 years later in EYHS II (n 233). Results: Among girls, a difference in dietary total sugar of 43 g/MJ was associated with a 1 SD difference of HOMA and a difference in dietary fibre of 28g...

  4. Molecular characterization and volatility evolution of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA during isothermal evaporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambro, E.; Schobesberger, S.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Shilling, J. E.; Lee, B. H.; Thornton, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    α-Pinene (C10H16), the most abundantly emitted monoterpene, is a large contributor to global biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budgets due to its high SOA yields upon oxidation. We probe the volatility and evaporation behavior upon dilution of α-pinene SOA to further our understanding of the nascent volatility distribution, viscosity, and how these evolve in time absent photochemical oxidation. We present molecular composition measurements of the gas and particle phases of α-pinene ozonolysis SOA formed at 0% and 50% relative humidity (RH), followed by room-temperature evaporation in ultra-high purity N2 humidified to 20-90% RH. Experiments were performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 10.6 m3 and the University of Washington 0.7 m3 environmental chambers utilizing a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO) coupled to a high-resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer utilizing iodide adduct ionization. We present novel insights into the total mass that evaporates as a function of time from 10 min to 24 hours without heating, the molecular speciation of the evaporate, as well as the effective volatility and composition of the SOA mass remaining. Consistent with previous studies, we find two stages of evaporation: a rapid loss of a large portion of the total signal over the course of ≤3 hours, followed by a stage of much slower evaporation over the proceeding 21 hours. Varying the RH of formation effects evaporation rate on timescales ≤3 hours, however the mass fraction remaining after 24 hours converges to 30-50% under all formation and evaporation RHs. We simulate the evaporation behavior and remaining fractions desorbed via temperature programmed thermal desorption to derive effective saturation vapor concentrations, mass accommodation coefficients, and rates of chemical evolution producing both higher and lower volatility components during the evaporation time period.

  5. Ion evaporation from the surface of a Taylor cone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera, F J

    2003-07-01

    An analysis is carried out of the electric field-induced evaporation of ions from the surface of a polar liquid that is being electrosprayed in a vacuum. The high-field cone-to-jet transition region of the electrospray, where ion evaporation occurs, is studied taking advantage of its small size and neglecting the inertia of the liquid and the space charge around the liquid. Evaporated ions and charged drops coexist in a range of flow rates, which is investigated numerically. The structure of the cone-to-jet transition comprises: a hydrodynamic region where the nearly equipotential surface of the liquid departs from a Taylor cone and becomes a jet; a slender region where the radius of the jet decreases and the electric field increases while the pressure and the viscous stress balance the electric stress at the surface; the ion evaporation region of high, nearly constant field; and a charged, continuously strained jet that will eventually break into drops. Estimates of the ion and drop contributions to the total, conduction-limited current show that the first of these contributions dominates for small flow rates, while most of the mass is still carried by the drops.

  6. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  7. Organic evaporator steam valve failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Technical has requested an analysis of the capacity of the Organic Evaporator (OE) condenser (OEC) be performed to determine its capability in the case where the OE steam flow control valve fails open. Calculations of the OE boilup and the OEC heat transfer coefficient indicate the OEC will have more than enough capacity to remove the heat at maximum OE boilup. In fact, the Salt Cell Vent Condenser (SCVC) should also have sufficient capacity to handle the maximum OE boilup. Therefore, it would require simultaneous loss of OEC and/or SCVC condensing capacity for the steam valve failure to cause high benzene in the Process Vessel Vent System (PVVS)

  8. Evaporation thermal anslysis of Swallow-tailed Axial-grooved Heat Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renping

    2018-03-01

    A detailed mathematical model that describes evaporating characteristics through thin liquid film at the evaporator section of swallow-tailed axial-grooved heat pipe was developed. The numerical simulation results about thin film profile, liquid-vapour interface temperature, evaporating rate and heat flux at the evaporating thin film region were given by the current investigation and the effect of superheat on the liquid-vapour interface temperature, evaporating mass rate and heat flux was discussed. Meanwhile, thermal model of the meniscus region at the evaporating section was developed to calculate the rate of heat transfer. The ratio of the heat conduction in the evaporating thin liquid film region and total heat rate were also discussed. It is indicated that the thickness of thin liquid film rises in a nearly linear fashion. The disjoining pressure can be neglected with increasing the liquid film thickness, tends to be negligibly small. The heat transfer rate at the intrinsic meniscus cannot be compared with that of the evaporating liquid film region.

  9. Dynamics of soil water evaporation during soil drying: laboratory experiment and numerical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68 cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71 cm during stage 3.

  10. Dynamics of Soil Water Evaporation during Soil Drying: Laboratory Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiangbo; Zhou, Zhifang

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of soil water evaporation during a continuous drying event. Simulated soil water contents and temperatures by the calibrated model well reproduced measured values at different depths. Results show that the evaporative drying process could be divided into three stages, beginning with a relatively high evaporation rate during stage 1, followed by a lower rate during transient stage and stage 2, and finally maintaining a very low and constant rate during stage 3. The condensation zone was located immediately below the evaporation zone in the profile. Both peaks of evaporation and condensation rate increased rapidly during stage 1 and transition stage, decreased during stage 2, and maintained constant during stage 3. The width of evaporation zone kept a continuous increase during stages 1 and 2 and maintained a nearly constant value of 0.68 cm during stage 3. When the evaporation zone totally moved into the subsurface, a dry surface layer (DSL) formed above the evaporation zone at the end of stage 2. The width of DSL also presented a continuous increase during stage 2 and kept a constant value of 0.71 cm during stage 3. PMID:24489492

  11. Performance investigation of advanced adsorption desalination cycle with condenser-evaporator heat recovery scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-01-01

    Energy or heat recovery schemes are keys for the performance improvement of any heat-activated cycles such as the absorption and adsorption cycles. We present two innovative heat recovery schemes between the condensing and evaporating units of an adsorption desalination (AD) cycle. By recovering the latent heat of condenser and dumping it into the evaporative process of the evaporator, it elevates the evaporating temperature and hence the adsorption pressure seen by the adsorbent. From isotherms, this has an effect of increasing the vapour uptake. In the proposed configurations, one approach is simply to have a run-about water circuit between the condenser and the evaporator and a pump is used to achieve the water circulation. This run-around circuit is a practical method for retrofitting purposes. The second method is targeted towards a new AD cycle where an encapsulated condenser-evaporator unit is employed. The heat transfer between the condensing and evaporative vapour is almost immediate and the processes occur in a fully integrated vessel, thereby minimizing the heat transfer resistances of heat exchangers. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  12. Evaporation from Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona, March 2010 through February 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Swancar, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Evaporation from Lake Mead was measured using the eddy-covariance method for the 2-year period starting March 2010 and ending February 2012. When corrected for energy imbalances, annual eddy-covariance evaporation was 2,074 and 1,881 millimeters (81.65 and 74.07 inches), within the range of previous estimates. There was a 9-percent decrease in the evaporation rate and a 10-percent increase in the lake surface area during the second year of the study compared to the first. These offsetting factors resulted in a nearly identical 720 million cubic meters (584,000 acre feet) evaporation volume for both years. Monthly evaporation rates were best correlated with wind speed, vapor pressure difference, and atmospheric stability. Differences between individual monthly evaporation and mean monthly evaporation were as much as 20 percent. Net radiation provided most of the energy available for evaporative processes; however, advected heat from the Colorado River was an important energy source during the second year of the study. Peak evaporation lagged peak net radiation by 2 months because a larger proportion of the net radiation that reaches the lake goes to heating up the water column during the spring and summer months. As most of this stored energy is released, higher evaporation rates are sustained during fall months even though net radiation declines. The release of stored heat also fueled nighttime evaporation, which accounted for 37 percent of total evaporation. The annual energy-balance ratio was 0.90 on average and varied only 0.01 between the 2 years, thus implying that 90 percent of estimated available energy was accounted for by turbulent energy measured using the eddy-covariance method. More than 90 percent of the turbulent-flux source area represented the open-water surface, and 94 percent of 30-minute turbulent-flux measurements originated from wind directions where the fetch ranged from 2,000 to 16,000 meters. Evaporation uncertainties were estimated to be 5

  13. Sequence crystallization during isotherm evaporation of southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Southern Algerian's natural brine sampled from chott Baghdad may be a source of mineral salts with a high economic value. These salts are recoverable by simple solar evaporation. Indeed, during isothermal solar evaporation, it is possible to recover mineral salts and to determine the precipitation sequences of different ...

  14. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willers, H.C.; Hobbs, P.J.; Ogink, N.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in

  15. 21 CFR 131.130 - Evaporated milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaporated milk. 131.130 Section 131.130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.130 Evaporated milk. (a...

  16. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  17. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  18. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30–250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  19. 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is written for the 242-A evaporator vacuum condenser system (VCS), describing its purpose and operation within the evaporator. The document establishes the operating parameters specifying pressure, temperature, flow rates, interlock safety features and interfacing sub-systems to support its operation

  20. Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A. [and others

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program {open_quotes}Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.{close_quotes} The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report.

  1. Shadow mask evaporation through monolayer modified nanostencils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2002-01-01

    Gradual clogging of the apertures of nanostencils used as miniature shadow masks in metal evaporations can be reduced by coating the stencil with self-assembled monolayers (SAM). This is quantified by the dimensions (height and volume) of gold features obtained by nanostencil evaporation as measured

  2. Advanced evaporator technology progress report FY 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, D.; Hutter, J.C.; Leonard, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the work that was completed in FY 1992 on the program open-quotes Technology Development for Concentrating Process Streams.close quotes The purpose of this program is to evaluate and develop evaporator technology for concentrating radioactive waste and product streams such as those generated by the TRUEX process. Concentrating these streams and minimizing the volume of waste generated can significantly reduce disposal costs; however, equipment to concentrate the streams and recycle the decontaminated condensates must be installed. LICON, Inc., is developing an evaporator that shows a great deal of potential for this application. In this report, concepts that need to be incorporated into the design of an evaporator operated in a radioactive environment are discussed. These concepts include criticality safety, remote operation and maintenance, and materials of construction. Both solubility and vapor-liquid equilibrium data are needed to design an effective process for concentrating process streams. Therefore, literature surveys were completed and are summarized in this report. A model that is being developed to predict vapor phase compositions is described. A laboratory-scale evaporator was purchased and installed to study the evaporation process and to collect additional data. This unit is described in detail. Two new LICON evaporators are being designed for installation at Argonne-East in FY 1993 to process low-level radioactive waste generated throughout the laboratory. They will also provide operating data from a full-sized evaporator processing radioactive solutions. Details on these evaporators are included in this report

  3. Floating convection barrier for evaporation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A floating matrix of titanium in an uranium evaporation source, melted by an electron beam, serves as a barrier for preventing cooler material from reaching the evaporation area. This construction allows a big volume of melted uranium to be present and new uranium to be furnished in regulated intervals without manual intervention

  4. Structuring of polymer solutions upon solvent evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaefer, C.; van der Schoot, P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/102140618; Michels, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    The morphology of solution-cast, phase-separated polymers becomes finer with increasing solvent evaporation rate. We address this observation theoretically for a model polymer where demixing is induced by steady solvent evaporation. In contrast to what is the case for a classical, thermal quench

  5. Evaporation experiments and modelling for glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been developed to measure evaporation rates of different volatile components from commercial and model glass compositions. In the set-up the furnace atmosphere, temperature level, gas velocity and batch composition are controlled. Evaporation rates have been measured

  6. Drop evaporation and triple line dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobac, Benjamin; Brutin, David; Gavillet, Jerome; Université de Provence Team; Cea Liten Team

    2011-03-01

    Sessile drop evaporation is a phenomenon commonly came across in nature or in industry with cooling, paintings or DNA mapping. However, the evaporation of a drop deposited on a substrate is not completely understood due to the complexity of the problem. Here we investigate, with several nano-coating of the substrate (PTFE, SiOx, SiOc and CF), the influence of the dynamic of the triple line on the evaporation process. The experiment consists in analyzing simultaneously the motion of the triple line, the kinetics of evaporation, the internal thermal motion and the heat and mass transfer. Measurements of temperature, heat-flux and visualizations with visible and infrared cameras are performed. The dynamics of the evaporative heat flux appears clearly different depending of the motion of the triple line

  7. Water evaporation on highly viscoelastic polymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Gang; Severtson, Steven J

    2012-07-03

    Results are reported for a study on the evaporation of water droplets from a highly viscoelastic acrylic polymer surface. These are contrasted with those collected for the same measurements carried out on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). For PDMS, the evaporation process involves the expected multistep process including constant drop area, constant contact angle, and finally a combination of these steps until the liquid is gone. In contrast, water evaporation from the acrylic polymer shows a constant drop area mode throughout. Furthermore, during the evaporation process, the drop area actually expands on the acrylic polymer. The single mode evaporation process is consistent with formation of wetting structures, which cannot be propagated by the capillary forces. Expansion of the drop area is attributed to the influence of the drop capillary pressure. Furthermore, the rate of drop area expansion is shown to be dependent on the thickness of the polymer film.

  8. Controlling water evaporation through self-assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kevin; Liebi, Marianne; Heimdal, Jimmy; Pham, Quoc Dat; Sparr, Emma

    2016-09-13

    Water evaporation concerns all land-living organisms, as ambient air is dryer than their corresponding equilibrium humidity. Contrarily to plants, mammals are covered with a skin that not only hinders evaporation but also maintains its rate at a nearly constant value, independently of air humidity. Here, we show that simple amphiphiles/water systems reproduce this behavior, which suggests a common underlying mechanism originating from responding self-assembly structures. The composition and structure gradients arising from the evaporation process were characterized using optical microscopy, infrared microscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering. We observed a thin and dry outer phase that responds to changes in air humidity by increasing its thickness as the air becomes dryer, which decreases its permeability to water, thus counterbalancing the increase in the evaporation driving force. This thin and dry outer phase therefore shields the systems from humidity variations. Such a feedback loop achieves a homeostatic regulation of water evaporation.

  9. Sodium evaporation into a forced argon flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, Toshiaki; Kasahara, Fumio; Ishiguro, Ryoji

    1975-01-01

    Evaporation from a rectangular sodium free surface into an argon flow was measured. Tests were carried out with varying sodium temperature, argon velocity and argon temperature respectively under conditions of fog formation being possible. In order to clarify the enhancement of evaporation by fog formation, convection heat transfer from a plate of the same geometry into an air flow was also measured. The evaporation rate and Sherwood number were compared with those predicted by both the heat transfer experiment and the theory proposed by Hill and Szekely, and also a comparison was run with the previously reported experimental results of sodium evaporation. As a result it was shown that the sodium evaporation rate in this experiment is at least four times as large as that predicted by the heat transfer experiment and varies almost linearly with the heat transfer rate and the sodium vapour pressure. (auth.)

  10. On the design criteria for the evaporated water flow rate in a wet air cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourillot, C.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses Poppe's formulation used for the modelling of heat exchangers between air and water, in Electricite de France's TEFERI numerical wet atmospheric cooler model: heat transfer laws in unsaturated and saturated air, Bosnjakivic's formula, evaporation coefficient. The theorical results show good agreement with the measurements taken on Neurath's cooler C in West Germany, whatever the ambient temperature (evaporated water flow rate, condensate content of warm air). The author then demonstrates the inadequacy of Merkel's method for calculating evaporated water flow rates, and estimates the influence of the assumptions made on the total error [fr

  11. Evaporation of Water Droplets on “Lock-and-Key” Structures with Nanoscale Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Chi; Liu, Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    Highly ordered poly(dimethylsiloxane) microbowl arrays (MBAs) and microcap arrays (MCAs) with “lock-and-key” properties are successfully fabricated by self-assembly and electrochemical deposition. The wetting properties and evaporation dynamics of water droplets for both cases have been...... investigated. For the MBAs case, the wetting radius of the droplets remains unchanged until the portion of the droplet completely dries out at the end of the evaporation process. The pinning state extends for more than 99.5% of the total evaporation time, and the pinning–shrinking transition is essentially...

  12. Energy dependence of fusion evaporation-residue cross sections in the 28Si+28Si reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Rosner, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Ikezoe, H.; Kuhn, W.; Kolata, J.J.; Hinnefeld, J.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.

    1990-01-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 28 Si reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 174, 215, 240, 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and total cross sections were extracted at all six bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with lower energy data and the predictions of existing models

  13. Surfactant-Enhanced Benard Convection on an Evaporating Drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van X.; Stebe, Kathleen J.

    2001-11-01

    Surfactant effects on an evaporating drop are studied experimentally. Using a fluorescent probe, the distribution and surface phase of the surfactant is directly imaged throughout the evaporation process. From these experiments, we identify conditions in which surfactants promote surface tension-driven Benard instabilities in aqueous systems. The drops under study contain finely divided particles, which act as tracers in the flow, and form well-defined patterns after the drop evaporates. Two flow fields have been reported in this system. The first occurs because the contact line becomes pinned by solid particles at the contact line region. In order for the contact line to remain fixed, an outward flow toward the ring results, driving further accumulation at the contact ring. A ‘coffee ring’ of particles is left as residue after the drop evaporates[1]. The second flow is Benard convection, driven by surface tension gradients on the drop[2,3]. In our experiments, an insoluble monolayer of pentadecanoic acid is spread at the interface of a pendant drop. The surface tension is recorded, and the drop is deposited on a well-defined solid substrate. Fluorescent images of the surface phase of the surfactant are recorded as the drop evaporates. The surfactant monolayer assumes a variety of surface states as a function of the area per molecule at the interface: surface gaseous, surface liquid expanded, and surface liquid condensed phases[4]. Depending upon the surface state of the surfactant as the drop evaporates, transitions of residue patterns left by the particles occur, from the coffee ring pattern to Benard cells to irregular patterns, suggesting a strong resistance to outward flow are observed. The occurrence of Benard cells on a surfactant-rich interface occurs when the interface is in LE-LC coexistence. Prior research concerning surfactant effects on this instability predict that surfactants are strongly stabilizing[5]. The mechanisms for this change in behavior

  14. Examination of evaporative fraction diurnal behaviour using a soil-vegetation model coupled with a mixed-layer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhomme

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In many experimental conditions, the evaporative fraction, defined as the ratio between evaporation and available energy, has been found stable during daylight hours. This constancy is investigated over fully covering vegetation by means of a land surface scheme coupled with a mixed-layer model, which accounts for entrainment of overlying air. The evaporation rate follows the Penman-Monteith equation and the surface resistance is given by a Jarvis type parameterization involving solar radiation, saturation deficit and leaf water potential. The diurnal course of the evaporative fraction is examined, together with the influence of environmental factors (soil water availability, solar radiation input, wind velocity, saturation deficit above the well-mixed layer. In conditions of fair weather, the curves representing the diurnal course of the evaporative fraction have a typical concave-up shape. Around midday (solar time these curves appear as relatively constant, but always lower that the daytime mean value. Evaporative fraction decreases when soil water decreases or when solar energy increases. An increment of saturation deficit above the mixed-layer provokes only a slight increase of evaporative fraction, and wind velocity has almost no effect. The possibility of estimation daytime evaporation from daytime available energy multiplied by the evaporative fraction at a single time of the day is also investigated. It appears that it is possible to obtain fairly good estimates of daytime evaporation by choosing adequately the time of the measurement of the evaporative fraction. The central hours of the day, and preferably about 3 hr before or after noon, are the most appropriate to provide good estimates. The estimation appears also to be much better when soil water availability (or evaporation is high than when it is low.

  15. Evaporation from Pinus caribaea plantations on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions.

    OpenAIRE

    Waterloo, M.J.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vugts, H.F.; Rawaqa, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Wet canopy and dry canopy evaporation from young and mature plantations of Pinus caribaea on former grassland soils under maritime tropical conditions in southwestern Viti Levu, Fiji, were determined using micrometeorological and hydrological techniques. Modeled annual evaporation totals (ET) of 1926 and 1717 mm were derived for the 6- and the 15-year-old stands, respectively. Transpiration made up 72% and 70% of annual ET, and modeled rainfall interception by the trees and litter layer was 2...

  16. Heat loss of heat pipelines in insulation moisture conditions with the evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovnikov Vyacheslav Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of numerical simulation of heat and mass transfer in a wet fibroporous material in conditions of evaporation and steam diffusion were obtained. Values of heat and mass fluxes were established. The contribution of evaporation effect to total heat flux and need to consider volume fractions of water and steam into the structure of fibroporous material in calculation of effective thermal conductivity were shown. Nonstationarity of heat and mass transfer in conditions of considered problem can be ignored.

  17. The evaporation of the charged and uncharged water drops

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Drop evaporation; ventilation coefficient; evaporation-effect of electrical forces. ... to study the effect of ventilation on the rate of evaporation of the millimeter sized ... a ventilated drop to reach its equilibrium temperature increases with the drop ...

  18. In-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for the metallization of silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mader, Christoph Paul

    2012-07-11

    This work focuses on the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum for contacting rear sides of silicon solar cells. The substrate temperature during the deposition process, the wafer bow after deposition, and the electrical properties of evaporated contacts are investigated. Furthermore, this work demonstrates for the first time the formation of aluminum-doped silicon regions by the in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum without any further temperature treatment. The temperature of silicon wafers during in-line high-rate evaporation of aluminum is investigated in this work. The temperatures are found to depend on the wafer thickness W, the aluminum layer thickness d, and on the wafer emissivity {epsilon}. Two-dimensional finite-element simulations reproduce the measured peak temperatures with an accuracy of 97%. This work also investigates the wafer bow after in-line high-rate evaporation and shows that the elastic theory overestimates the wafer bow of planar Si wafers. The lower bow is explained with plastic deformation in the Al layer. Due to the plastic deformation only the first 79 K in temperature decrease result in a bow formation. Furthermore the electrical properties of evaporated point contacts are examined in this work. Parameterizations for the measured saturation currents of contacted p-type Si wafers and of contacted boron-diffused p{sup +}-type layers are presented. The contact resistivity of the deposited Al layers to silicon for various deposition processes and silicon surface concentrations are presented and the activation energy of the contact formation is determined. The measured saturation current densities and contact resistivities of the evaporated contacts are used in one-dimensional numerical Simulations and the impact on energy conversion efficiency of replacing a screen-printed rear side by an evaporated rear side is presented. For the first time the formation of aluminum-doped p{sup +}-type (Al-p{sup +}) silicon regions by the in

  19. Evaporation of nanofluid droplet on heated surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Chan Kim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an experiment on the evaporation of nanofluid sessile droplet on a heated surface was conducted. A nanofluid of 0.5% volumetric concentration mixed with 80-nm-sized CuO powder and pure water were used for experiment. Droplet was applied to the heated surface, and images of the evaporation process were obtained. The recorded images were analyzed to find the volume, diameter, and contact angle of the droplet. In addition, the evaporative heat transfer coefficient was calculated from experimental result. The results of this study are summarized as follows: the base diameter of the droplet was maintained stably during the evaporation. The measured temperature of the droplet was increased rapidly for a very short time, then maintained constantly. The nanofluid droplet was evaporated faster than the pure water droplet under the experimental conditions of the same initial volume and temperature, and the average evaporative heat transfer coefficient of the nanofluid droplet was higher than that of pure water. We can consider the effects of the initial contact angle and thermal conductivity of nanofluid as the reason for this experimental result. However, the effect of surface roughness on the evaporative heat transfer of nanofluid droplet appeared unclear.

  20. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR

  1. 242-A evaporator safety analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL, T.A.

    1999-05-17

    This report provides a revised safety analysis for the upgraded 242-A Evaporator (the Evaporator). This safety analysis report (SAR) supports the operation of the Evaporator following life extension upgrades and other facility and operations upgrades (e.g., Project B-534) that were undertaken to enhance the capabilities of the Evaporator. The Evaporator has been classified as a moderate-hazard facility (Johnson 1990). The information contained in this SAR is based on information provided by 242-A Evaporator Operations, Westinghouse Hanford Company, site maintenance and operations contractor from June 1987 to October 1996, and the existing operating contractor, Waste Management Hanford (WMH) policies. Where appropriate, a discussion address the US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders applicable to a topic is provided. Operation of the facility will be compared to the operating contractor procedures using appropriate audits and appraisals. The following subsections provide introductory and background information, including a general description of the Evaporator facility and process, a description of the scope of this SAR revision,a nd a description of the basic changes made to the original SAR.

  2. The Major Mobilization of the Unconscious and the Total Removal of Resistance in Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy Part I: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Davanloo's Intensive Short-term Dynamic Psychotherapy has been the subject of various reviews. Davanloo has published extensively on his early work, but there have been no publications on his most recent work-most notably his Montreal Closed-circuit training program. This program focuses on his most recent discoveries and techniques and is a unique, videotaped supervisory program. It focuses on self-assessment and peer-assessment. It is also a unique format in which to review Davanloo's theoretical conceptions of resistance and the transference component of the resistance. This paper will review the early work of Davanloo as well as his most recent research findings. A case from the Montreal Closed-circuit training program will be reviewed in detail to highlight these findings.

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  4. Theory of evapotranspiration. 2. Soil and intercepted water evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Budagovskyi, Anatolij Ivanovič; Novák, Viliam

    2011-01-01

    Evaporation of water from the soil is described and quantified. Formation of the soil dry surface layer is quantitatively described, as a process resulting from the difference between the evaporation and upward soil water flux to the soil evaporating level. The results of evaporation analysis are generalized even for the case of water evaporation from the soil under canopy and interaction between evaporation rate and canopy transpiration is accounted for. Relationships describing evapotranspi...

  5. Low-temperature field evaporation of Nb3Sn compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksenofontov, V.A.; Kul'ko, V.B.; Kutsenko, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation results on field evaporation of superconducting Nb 3 Sn compound wth A15 lattice are presented. Compound evaporation is shown to proceed in two stages. Evaporation field and ionic composition of evaporating material are determined. It is found out that in strong electric fields compound surface represents niobium skeleton, wich does not form regular image. Comparison of ion-microscopic and calculated images formed by low-temperature field evaporation indicates to possibility of sample surface reconstruction after preferable tin evaporation

  6. Century Scale Evaporation Trend: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounoui, Lahouari

    2012-01-01

    Several climate models with different complexity indicate that under increased CO2 forcing, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency between models and observations suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We have analyzed century-scale observed annual runoff and precipitation time-series over several United States Geological Survey hydrological units covering large forested regions of the Eastern United States not affected by irrigation. Both time-series exhibit a positive long-term trend; however, in contrast to model results, these historic data records show that the rate of precipitation increases at roughly double the rate of runoff increase. We considered several hydrological processes to close the water budget and found that none of these processes acting alone could account for the total water excess generated by the observed difference between precipitation and runoff. We conclude that evaporation has increased over the period of observations and show that the increasing trend in precipitation minus runoff is correlated to observed increase in vegetation density based on the longest available global satellite record. The increase in vegetation density has important implications for climate; it slows but does not alleviate the projected warming associated with greenhouse gases emission.

  7. Enhanced Evaporation and Condensation in Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroshi

    A state-of-the-art review of enhanced evaporation and condensation in horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels that are used for air-conditioning and refrigeration applications is presented. The review covers the effects of flow pattern and geometrical parameters of the tubes on the heat transfer performance. Attention is paid to the effect of surface tension which leads to enhanced evaporation and condensation in the microfin tubes and micro-channels. A review of prior efforts to develop empirical correlations of the heat transfer coefficient and theoretical models for evaporation and condensation in the horizontal microfin tubes and micro-channels is also presented.

  8. WTP Pilot-Scale Evaporation Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QURESHI, ZAFAR

    2004-01-01

    This report documents the design, assembly, and operation of a Pilot-Scale Evaporator built and operated by SRTC in support of Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) Project at the DOE's Hanford Site. The WTP employs three identical evaporators, two for the Waste Feed and one for the Treated LAW. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator was designed to test simulants for both of these waste streams. The Pilot-Scale Evaporator is 1/76th scale in terms of evaporation rates. The basic configuration of forced circulation vacuum evaporator was employed. A detailed scaling analysis was performed to preserve key operating parameters such as basic loop configuration, system vacuum, boiling temperature, recirculation rates, vertical distances between important hardware pieces, reboiler heat transfer characteristics, vapor flux, configuration of demisters and water spray rings. Three evaporation test campaigns were completed. The first evaporation run used water in order to shake down the system. The water runs were important in identifying a design flaw that inhibited mixing in the evaporator vessel, thus resulting in unstable boiling operation. As a result the loop configuration was modified and the remaining runs were completed successfully. Two simulant runs followed the water runs. Test 1: Simulated Ultrafiltration Recycles with HLW SBS, and Test 2: Treated AN102 with Envelop C LAW. Several liquid and offgas samples were drawn from the evaporator facility for regulatory and non-regulatory analyses. During Test 2, the feed and the concentrate were spiked with organics to determine organic partitioning. The decontamination factor (DF) for Test 1 was measured to be 110,000 (more than the expected value of 100,000). Dow Corning Q2-3183A antifoam agent was tested during both Tests 1 and 2. It was determined that 500 ppm of this antifoam agent was sufficient to control the foaminess to less than 5 per cent of the liquid height. The long-term testing (around 100 hours of operation) did not show any

  9. Towards a rational definition of potential evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P. Lhommel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of potential evaporation is defined on the basis of the following criteria: (i it must establish an upper limit to the evaporation process in a given environment (the term 'environment' including meteorological and surface conditions, and (ii this upper limit must be readily calculated from measured input data. It is shown that this upper limit is perfectly defined and is given by the Penman equation, applied with the corresponding meteorological data (incoming radiation and air characteristics measured at a reference height and the appropriate surface characteristics (albedo, roughness length, soil heat flux. Since each surface has its own potential evaporation, a function of its own surface characteristics, it is useful to define a reference potential evaporation as a short green grass completely shading the ground. Although the potential evaporation from a given surface is readily calculated from the Penman equation, its physical significance or interpretation is not so straightforward, because it represents only an idealized situation, not a real one. Potential evaporation is the evaporation from this surface, when saturated and extensive enough to obviate any effect of local advection, under the same meteorological conditions. Due to the feedback effects of evaporation on air characteristics, it does not represent the 'real' evaporation (i.e. the evaporation which could be physically observed in the real world from such an extensive saturated surface in these given meteorological conditions (if this saturated surface were substituted for an unsaturated one previously existing. From a rigorous standpoint, this calculated potential evaporation is not physically observable. Nevertheless, an approximate representation can be given by the evaporation from a limited saturated area, the dimension of which depends on the height of measurement of the air characteristics used as input in the Penman equation. If they are taken at a height

  10. Thermocapillary flow about an evaporating meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Chung, T. J.

    1992-01-01

    The steady motion and thermal behavior of an evaporating superheated liquid in a small cavity bounded by isothermal sidewalls is examined. Scaling analyses and a two-dimensional finite element model are used to investigate the influence of thermocapillarity, buoyancy, and temperature-dependent mass flux on flowfield, interfacial heat transfer, and meniscus morphology. Numerical investigations indicate the existence of two counter-rotating cells symmetric about the cavity center. Results also show that evaporation tends to counteract this circulation by directing flow toward the hotter sidewalls. Although thermocapillarity and evaporation yield different flowfield distributions, both effects tend to increase interfacial temperature and heat transfer.

  11. Olive mill wastewater sludge from evaporation ponds: evolution of physico-chemical parameters during storage and composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, N; Aloui, F; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-02-01

    The evolution of analytical parameters of olive mill waste water sludge stored in evaporation ponds was investigated after one year and two years of storage. It was observed that some of the phenolic monomer compounds resisted removal and the fraction of water soluble phenols was only slightly polymerised. Co-composting of the sludge was carried out with yard trimming as bulking agent ratio and poultry manure to balance the C/N. Three turned piles with three proportions of 35%, 65% and 80% of olive mill waste water sludge were prepared. Co-composting of the sludge was possible in all the cases. Best results were obtained, however, at a proportion of 35% which permitted a shorter composting time, a higher degree of nitrification and a higher rate of total phenols decreasing. A high polymerisation of the fraction of water soluble phenols was observed at the end of composting in all the piles.

  12. Increase in the amount of evaporator concentrate from nuclear power plants in cemented products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Bruna S.; Tello, Clédola C.O.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear power plants, research centers and other nuclear facilities are sources of radioactive liquid waste generation. These wastes can come from cooling of the primary reactor system, cleaning spent pool of fuel, washing contaminated clothing, among others. One of the most used methods for the treatment of these aqueous flows is the evaporation, which generates the concentrate of the evaporator, waste classified as low and medium level of radiation. Norms determine that radioactive waste must be minimized, and that to be accepted in repositories, they must be solidified. The work sought to reduce the volume of the evaporated concentrate waste and its subsequent solidification in cement. In order to carry out the tests, the evaporator concentrate (CE) simulation solution was prepared and then dried in an oven. Subsequently, cementation of the dry material was made using cement, fluidizer, NaOH and water. After a curing time of 28 days, the compressive strength tests were made for all specimens obtained, and for the samples that obtained resistance above that required by the norm, which is 10MPa, the percentages of reject incorporated and volume reduction. The results showed that, by drying the evaporator concentrate, it was possible to reduce the volume of the waste generated by up to 27% in relation to the waste without drying, which shows that drying is an effective way to increase the incorporation of the evaporator concentrate in packaged waste

  13. Content on Film Evaporation Rate, Morphology, and Electrical Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Soriano-Corral

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanocomposites of poly(methyl methacrylate-b-butyl acrylate/multiwalled carbon nanotubes were prepared from different copolymers synthesized by RITP technique using iodine functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate as macrochain transfer agent to obtain block copolymers with butyl acrylate as comonomer in a sequential copolymerization. Poly(butyl acrylate contents of 7, 20, and 30 wt% were attained in each copolymer. These copolymers were used to prepare nanostructured films by casting process, using chloroform as solvent, and carboxyl functionalized MWCNT at 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 wt%. During the film preparation, the absolute drying rate (N was calculated with respect to the poly(butyl acrylate and MWCNT composition. For copolymers containing 7 and 20 wt% of poly(butyl acrylate the N values slightly decrease with the MWCNT concentration, while for the suspension prepared with the copolymer at 30 wt% of poly(butyl acrylate the N values decrease drastically down to 50% approximately. The MWCNT content at the percolation threshold point was found to be 0.8 wt%, for all nanostructured films. The dispersion of MWCNT within the polymer matrix decreased with increasing the poly(butyl acrylate composition, but it did not affect the electrical properties, which is assumed to be due to induction of the bridging effect and the MWCNT preference to locate into the poly(methyl methacrylate phase.

  14. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brustein, Ram [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University,Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Medved, A.J.M. [Department of Physics & Electronics, Rhodes University,Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); National Institute for Theoretical Physics (NITheP),Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)

    2016-10-06

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  15. Teleporting entanglement during black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The unitary evaporation of a black hole (BH) in an initially pure state must lead to the eventual purification of the emitted radiation. It follows that the late radiation has to be entangled with the early radiation and, as a consequence, the entanglement among the Hawking pair partners has to decrease continuously from maximal to vanishing during the BH’s life span. Starting from the basic premise that both the horizon radius and the center of mass of a finite-mass BH are fluctuating quantum mechanically, we show how this process is realized. First, it is shown that the horizon fluctuations induce a small amount of variance in the total linear momentum of each created pair. This is in contrast to the case of an infinitely massive BH, for which the total momentum of the produced pair vanishes exactly on account of momentum conservation. This variance leads to a random recoil of the BH during each emission and, as a result, the center of mass of the BH undergoes a quantum random walk. Consequently, the uncertainty in its momentum grows as the square root of the number of emissions. We then show that this uncertainty controls the amount of deviation from maximal entanglement of the produced pairs and that this deviation is determined by the ratio of the cumulative number of emitted particles to the initial BH entropy. Thus, the interplay between the horizon and center-of-mass fluctuations provides a mechanism for teleporting entanglement from the pair partners to the BH and the emitted radiation.

  16. Transhorizon Radiowave Propagation due to Evaporation Dueting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from the meteorological perspective, evaporation ducts have far reaching implications on radio communications ... Background Theory ... It is in this context that the tropo- .... eters that are representative of the ongoing physical processes at.

  17. Influence of Evaporation on Soap Film Rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champougny, Lorène; Miguet, Jonas; Henaff, Robin; Restagno, Frédéric; Boulogne, François; Rio, Emmanuelle

    2018-03-13

    Although soap films are prone to evaporate due to their large surface to volume ratio, the effect of evaporation on macroscopic film features has often been disregarded in the literature. In this work, we experimentally investigate the influence of environmental humidity on soap film stability. An original experiment allows to measure both the maximum length of a film pulled at constant velocity and its thinning dynamics in a controlled atmosphere for various values of the relative humidity [Formula: see text]. At first order, the environmental humidity seems to have almost no impact on most of the film thinning dynamics. However, we find that the film length at rupture increases continuously with [Formula: see text]. To rationalize our observations, we propose that film bursting occurs when the thinning due to evaporation becomes comparable to the thinning due to liquid drainage. This rupture criterion turns out to be in reasonable agreement with an estimation of the evaporation rate in our experiment.

  18. Evaporation analysis for Tank SX-104

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, C.A.

    1994-10-01

    Decreases in historical interstitial liquid level measurements in tank SX-104 were compared to predictions of a numerical model based upon diffusion of water through a porous crust. The analysis showed that observed level decreases could be explained by evaporation

  19. Denton E-beam Evaporator #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 2This is an electron gun evaporator for the deposition of metals and dielectrics thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al, Au,...

  20. Denton E-beam Evaporator #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: E-Beam Evap 1This is a dual e-beam/thermal evaporator for the deposition of metal and dielectric thin films. Materials available are: Ag, Al,...

  1. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo; Vella, Dominic; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is

  2. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of droplet evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2014-09-04

    © the Partner Organisations 2014. We study the utility and validity of lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations to explore droplet evaporation driven by a concentration gradient. Using a binary-fluid lattice-Boltzmann algorithm based on Cahn-Hilliard dynamics, we study the evaporation of planar films and 3D sessile droplets from smooth solid surfaces. Our results show that LB simulations accurately reproduce the classical regime of quasi-static dynamics. Beyond this limit, we show that the algorithm can be used to explore regimes where the evaporative and diffusive timescales are not widely separated, and to include the effect of boundaries of prescribed driving concentration. We illustrate the method by considering the evaporation of a droplet from a solid surface that is chemically patterned with hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes. This journal is

  3. Vapor-based interferometric measurement of local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature of evaporating droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaeck, Sam; Rednikov, Alexey; Colinet, Pierre

    2014-03-04

    The local evaporation rate and interfacial temperature are two quintessential characteristics for the study of evaporating droplets. Here, it is shown how one can extract these quantities by measuring the vapor concentration field around the droplet with digital holographic interferometry. As a concrete example, an evaporating freely receding pending droplet of 3M Novec HFE-7000 is analyzed at ambient conditions. The measured vapor cloud is shown to deviate significantly from a pure-diffusion regime calculation, but it compares favorably to a new boundary-layer theory accounting for a buoyancy-induced convection in the gas and the influence upon it of a thermal Marangoni flow. By integration of the measured local evaporation rate over the interface, the global evaporation rate is obtained and validated by a side-view measurement of the droplet shape. Advective effects are found to boost the global evaporation rate by a factor of 4 as compared to the diffusion-limited theory.

  4. Evaporation of Lennard-Jones fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shengfeng; Lechman, Jeremy B; Plimpton, Steven J; Grest, Gary S

    2011-06-14

    Evaporation and condensation at a liquid/vapor interface are ubiquitous interphase mass and energy transfer phenomena that are still not well understood. We have carried out large scale molecular dynamics simulations of Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluids composed of monomers, dimers, or trimers to investigate these processes with molecular detail. For LJ monomers in contact with a vacuum, the evaporation rate is found to be very high with significant evaporative cooling and an accompanying density gradient in the liquid domain near the liquid/vapor interface. Increasing the chain length to just dimers significantly reduces the evaporation rate. We confirm that mechanical equilibrium plays a key role in determining the evaporation rate and the density and temperature profiles across the liquid/vapor interface. The velocity distributions of evaporated molecules and the evaporation and condensation coefficients are measured and compared to the predictions of an existing model based on kinetic theory of gases. Our results indicate that for both monatomic and polyatomic molecules, the evaporation and condensation coefficients are equal when systems are not far from equilibrium and smaller than one, and decrease with increasing temperature. For the same reduced temperature T/T(c), where T(c) is the critical temperature, these two coefficients are higher for LJ dimers and trimers than for monomers, in contrast to the traditional viewpoint that they are close to unity for monatomic molecules and decrease for polyatomic molecules. Furthermore, data for the two coefficients collapse onto a master curve when plotted against a translational length ratio between the liquid and vapor phase.

  5. Rate control for electron gun evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schellingerhout, A.J.G.; Janocko, M.A.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for obtaining high-quality rate control for electron gun evaporation are discussed. The design criteria for rate controllers are derived from this analysis. Results are presented which have been obtained with e-guns whose evaporation rate is controlled by a Wehnelt electrode or by sweeping of the electron beam. Further improvements of rate stability can be obtained by improved design of e-guns and power supplies

  6. Semiclassical Approach to Black Hole Evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lowe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two dimensional black hole models. The first is the original CGHS model, the second is another two dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are fou...

  7. Towards a rational definition of potential evaporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    1997-01-01

    International audience; The concept of potential evaporation is defined on the basis of the following criteria: (i) it must establish an upper limit to the evaporation process in a given environment (the term "environment" including meteorological and surface conditions), and (ii) this upper limit must be readily calculated from measured input data. It is shown that this upper limit is perfectly defined and is given by the Penman equation, applied with the corresponding meteorological data (i...

  8. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distribution of Serum Total Homocysteine and Its Association with Diabetes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome in Mexican American Men: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillum Richard

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data have been published on the association of variables of the insulin resistance syndrome and serum total homocysteine (tHcy, a putative risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity, in representative samples of total populations or in Hispanic Americans. Methods To describe the distributions of serum tHcy concentration and variables associated with insulin resistance in Mexican American men and to assess their association, data from a cross-sectional survey of a large national sample, the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. Analyses were restricted to Mexican American men aged 40–74 years with data on glycated hemoglobin (%, body mass index (BMI, body fat distribution, HDL cholesterol, fasting serum insulin, serum triglycerides and serum tHcy concentrations. Results Cumulative distributions of serum tHcy shifted to the right with increasing age. Log serum tHcy was not associated with prevalence of diagnosed diabetes mellitus or glycated hemoglobin percent or other risk factors other than age. Log serum tHcy concentration showed borderline significant (p = 0.049 positive association with fasting serum insulin concentration independent of age and BMI, only in men aged 60–74. Conclusion No consistent association of tHcy with diabetes prevalence or variables of the insulin resistance syndrome were found in Mexican American men aged 40–74 years. Further research is needed on the associations of serum tHcy concentration with insulin resistance and other components of the insulin resistance syndrome in persons of varying ethnicity.

  10. Treatment of liquid radioactive waste: Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, R.

    1982-01-01

    About 10.000 m 3 of low active liquid waste (LLW) arise in the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Chemical contents of this liquid waste are generally not declared. Resulting from experiments carried out in the Center during the early sixties, the evaporator facility was built in 1968 for decontamination of LLW. The evaporators use vapor compression and concentrate recirculation in the evaporator sump by pumps. Since 1971 the medium active liquid waste (MLW) from the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) was decontaminated in this evaporator facility, too. By this time the amount of low liquid waste (LLW) had been decontaminated without mentionable interruptions. Afterwards a lot of interruptions of operations occurred, mainly due to leakages of pumps, valves and pipes. There was also a very high radiation level for the operating personnel. As a consequence of this experience a new evaporator facility for decontamination of medium active liquid waste was built in 1974. This facility started operation in 1976. The evaporator has natural circulation and is heated by steam through a heat exchanger. (orig./RW)

  11. Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions

  12. Water droplet evaporation from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonchan; Kim, Wuseok; Lee, Sanghee; Baek, Seunghyeon; Yong, Kijung; Jeon, Sangmin

    2017-07-01

    The evaporation dynamics of water from sticky superhydrophobic surfaces was investigated using a quartz crystal microresonator and an optical microscope. Anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) layers with different pore sizes were directly fabricated onto quartz crystal substrates and hydrophobized via chemical modification. The resulting AAO layers exhibited hydrophobic or superhydrophobic characteristics with strong adhesion to water due to the presence of sealed air pockets inside the nanopores. After placing a water droplet on the AAO membranes, variations in the resonance frequency and Q-factor were measured throughout the evaporation process, which were related to changes in mass and viscous damping, respectively. It was found that droplet evaporation from a sticky superhydrophobic surface followed a constant contact radius (CCR) mode in the early stage of evaporation and a combination of CCR and constant contact angle modes without a Cassie-Wenzel transition in the final stage. Furthermore, AAO membranes with larger pore sizes exhibited longer evaporation times, which were attributed to evaporative cooling at the droplet interface.

  13. Microdroplet evaporation in closed digital microfluidic biochips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Ali; Buat, Matthew D; Hoorfar, Mina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, microdroplet evaporation in the closed digital microfluidic systems is studied for hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The contact angle and contact radius are measured by an enhanced automated polynomial fitting approach. It is observed that the contact angle for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces remains constant during the evaporation process. However, a higher evaporation rate is observed for hydrophilic droplets compared to the hydrophobic droplets. Since no contact line pinning is observed, first, an analytical model based on the uniform vapor mass flux along the liquid–vapor interface is proposed. Interestingly, it is observed that in the hydrophobic case, the analytical model gives a higher evaporation rate, whereas for the hydrophilic case, the analytical model gives a lower evaporation rate. The discrepancy between the results of the analytical modeling and the experimental values is hypothesized to be due the constant flux assumption. To verify the hypothesis, a finite volume-based numerical model is developed to find the local flux along the liquid–vapor interface. The numerical modeling results confirm that for hydrophilic droplets, the evaporation flux increases very close to the three-phase contact line. In the case of the hydrophobic droplets, on the other hand, the flux decreases close to the contact line due to vapor saturation; as a result the uniform flux assumption overestimates the mass loss. (paper)

  14. Snap evaporation of droplets on smooth topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Gary G; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Le Lirzin, Youen; Nourry, Anthony; Orme, Bethany V; Pradas, Marc; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2018-04-11

    Droplet evaporation on solid surfaces is important in many applications including printing, micro-patterning and cooling. While seemingly simple, the configuration of evaporating droplets on solids is difficult to predict and control. This is because evaporation typically proceeds as a "stick-slip" sequence-a combination of pinning and de-pinning events dominated by static friction or "pinning", caused by microscopic surface roughness. Here we show how smooth, pinning-free, solid surfaces of non-planar topography promote a different process called snap evaporation. During snap evaporation a droplet follows a reproducible sequence of configurations, consisting of a quasi-static phase-change controlled by mass diffusion interrupted by out-of-equilibrium snaps. Snaps are triggered by bifurcations of the equilibrium droplet shape mediated by the underlying non-planar solid. Because the evolution of droplets during snap evaporation is controlled by a smooth topography, and not by surface roughness, our ideas can inspire programmable surfaces that manage liquids in heat- and mass-transfer applications.

  15. Experimental and numerical study of an evaporatively-cooled condenser of air-conditioning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.R.; Jahangeer, K.A.; Chua, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of an air-conditioning unit with evaporately-cooled condenser coil is studied experimentally and numerically. An experimental setup is fabricated by retrofitting a commercially available air-conditioning unit and installing comprehensive measuring sensors and controllers. Experimental result shows that the COP (Coefficient of Performance) of the evaporately-cooled air-conditioning unit increases by about 28% compared to the conventional air cooled air-conditioning unit. To analyze the heat and mass transfer processes involved in the evaporately-cooled condenser, a detailed theoretical model has been developed based on the fluid flow characteristics of the falling film and the thermodynamic aspect of the evaporation process. Simulated results agree well with experimental data. The numerical model provides new insights into the intrinsic links between operating variables and heat transfer characteristics of water film in evaluating the performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser system. Two heat transfer coefficients, namely, wall to bulk and bulk to interface are introduced and computed from the simulation results under different operating conditions. Finally, the overall heat transfer coefficient for the water film is computed and presented as a function of dimensionless variables which can conveniently be employed by engineers to design and analyze high performance evaporatively-cooled heat exchangers. - Highlights: • Performance of evaporatively-cooled condenser is investigated. • Local convective heat transfer coefficients of water film are determined. • Thermal resistance of water film is negligible. • Heat transfer with evaporated vapor plays significant role on performance. • Better condenser performance translates to an improvement in COP

  16. Evaporation — a key mechanism for the thaumasite form of sulfate attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittermayr, Florian; Baldermann, Andre; Kurta, Christoph; Rinder, Thomas; Klammer, Dietmar; Leis, Albrecht; Tritthart, Josef; Dietzel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms leading to chemical attack on concrete is crucial in order to prevent damage of concrete structures. To date, most studies on sulfate attack and thaumasite formation are based on empirical approaches, as the identification of associated reaction mechanisms and paths is known to be highly complex. In this study, sulfate damaged concrete from Austrian tunnels was investigated by mineralogical, chemical and isotope methods to identify the reactions which caused intense concrete alteration. Major, minor and trace elemental contents as well as isotope ratios of local ground water (GW), drainage water (DW) and interstitial solutions (IS), extracted from damaged concrete material, were analyzed. Locally occurring GW contained 3 to 545 mg L −1 of SO 4 and is thus regarded as slightly aggressive to concrete in accordance to standard specifications (e.g. DIN EN 206-1). The concrete linings and drainage systems of the studied tunnels, however, have partly suffered from intensive sulfate attack. Heavily damaged concrete consisted mainly of thaumasite, secondary calcite, gypsum, and relicts of aggregates. Surprisingly, the concentrations of dissolved ions were extremely enriched in the IS with up to 30,000 and 12,000 mg L −1 of SO 4 and Cl, respectively. Analyses of aqueous ions with a highly conservative behavior, e.g. K, Rb and Li, as well as 2 H/H and 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios of H 2 O of the IS showed an intensive accumulation of ions and discrimination of the light isotopes vs. the GW. These isotope signals of the IS clearly revealed evaporation at distinct relative humidities. From ion accumulation and isotope fractionation individual total and current evaporation degrees were estimated. Our combined elemental and isotopic approach verified wetting–drying cycles within a highly dynamic concrete-solution-atmosphere system. Based on these boundary conditions, key factors controlling thaumasite formation are discussed regarding the

  17. EVAPORATION FORM OF ICE CRYSTALS IN SUBSATURATED AIR AND THEIR EVAPORATION MECHANISM

    OpenAIRE

    ゴンダ, タケヒコ; セイ, タダノリ; Takehiko, GONDA; Tadanori, SEI

    1987-01-01

    The evaporation form and the evaporation mechanism of dendritic ice crystals grown in air of 1.0×(10)^5 Pa and at water saturation and polyhedral ice crystals grown in air of 4.0×10 Pa and at relatively low supersaturation are studied. In the case of dendritic ice crystals, the evaporation preferentially occurs in the convex parts of the crystal surfaces and in minute secondary branches. On the other hand, in the case of polyhedral ice crystals, the evaporation preferentially occurs in the pa...

  18. Non-equilibrium ionization around clouds evaporating in the interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, J.; Luciani, J.F.; Mora, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is of prime importance for global models of the interstellar medium to know whether dense clouds do or do not evaporate in the hot coronal gas. The rate of mass exchanges between phases depends very much on that. McKee and Ostriker's model, for instance, assumes that evaporation is important enough to control the expansion of supernova remnants, and that mass loss obeys the law derived by Cowie and McKee. In fact, the geometry of the magnetic field is nearly unknown, and it might totally inhibit evaporation, if the clouds are not regularly connected to the hot gas. Up to now, the only test of the theory is the U.V. observation (by the Copernicus and IUE satellites) of absorption lines of ions such as OVI or NV, that exist at temperatures of a few 100,000 K typical of transition layers around evaporating clouds. Other means of testing the theory are discussed

  19. Latent heat transport and microlayer evaporation in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawurek, H.H.

    1977-08-01

    Part 1 of this work provides a broad overview and, where possible, a quantitative assessment of the complex physical processes which together constitute the mechanism of nucleate boiling heat transfer. It is shown that under a wide range of conditions the primary surface-to-liquid heat flows within an area of bubble influence are so redistributed as to manifest themselves predominantly as latent heat transport, that is, as vaporisation into attached bubbles. Part 2 deals in greater detail with one of the component processes of latent heat transport, namely microlayer evaporation. A literature review reveals the need for synchronised records of microlayer geometry versus time and of normal bubble growth and departure. An apparatus developed to provide such records is described. High-speed cine interference photography from beneath and through a transparent heating surface provided details of microlayer geometry and an image reflection system synchronised these records with the bubble profile views. Results are given for methanol and ethanol boiling at sub-atmospheric pressures and at various heat fluxes and bulk subcoolings. In all cases it is found that microlayers were of sub-micron thickness, that microlayer thinning was restricted to the inner layer edge (with the thickness elsewhere remaining constant or increasing with time) and that the contribution of this visible evaporation to the total vapour flow into bubbles was negligible. The observation of thickening towards the outer microlayer edge, however, demonstrates that a liquid replenishment flow occurred simultaneously with the evaporation process

  20. Total hip prosthesis complication, periprosthetic infection with external fistulizing due to Enterobacter cloacae complex multiple drugs resistance: A clinical case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Amorese

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The patient was hospitalized in our facility and 2 months later she underwent another operation to remove the antibiotic spacer and to place a new total hip arthroprosthesis. Multiple swabs showed the complete healing from the infection, which was confirmed a couple of months later.

  1. Evaluation of cost-effective total nucleic acids extraction protocols for cultured Mycobacterium tuberculosis; a comparison by PCR amplification of genes associated with drug resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyamfi Oti K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex has made the management of tuberculosis difficult. Also, Mycobacterium species has a peculiar cell wall, made of an impermeable complex structure rich in mycolate, making the lyses of its cell difficult. In order to apply a radio-labelled-probe based detection of mutations in selected genes leading to drug resistance, we concede that the evaluation and modifications of nucleic acid extraction protocols that are less sophisticated and less prone to contamination would be useful in the management of tuberculosis in a resource-constrained setting. Findings The average amount of nucleic acids was determined for different extraction treatments. High temperature treatment only, yielded the lowest amount of nucleic acids, i.e. 15.7 ± 3.2 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with the addition of TE and triton-X100, was 133.7 ± 8.9 μg, while that obtained with the addition of TE only, and TE and SDS were 68.4 ± 22.7 μg and 70.4 ± 20.3 μg respectively. Other treatments yielded 28.8 ± 6.7 μg, 32.5 ± 2.4 μg and 36.9 ± 15.5 μg. The average amount of nucleic acids obtained with high temperature treatment in TE, and that obtained by freezing prior to high temperature treatment, successfully amplified for the genes of interest (rpoB, KatG, rrs. Conclusion We strongly recommend the use of 1× TE buffer, and freezing and heating for improved lysis of cultured M. tuberculosis, and therefore, as an effective method for the preparation of M. tuberculosis nucleic acid useful for PCR.

  2. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  3. Simultaneous spreading and evaporation: recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Sergey; Trybala, Anna; Rubio, Ramon G; Kovalchuk, Nina; Starov, Victor; Velarde, Manuel G

    2014-04-01

    The recent progress in theoretical and experimental studies of simultaneous spreading and evaporation of liquid droplets on solid substrates is discussed for pure liquids including nanodroplets, nanosuspensions of inorganic particles (nanofluids) and surfactant solutions. Evaporation of both complete wetting and partial wetting liquids into a nonsaturated vapour atmosphere are considered. However, the main attention is paid to the case of partial wetting when the hysteresis of static contact angle takes place. In the case of complete wetting the spreading/evaporation process proceeds in two stages. A theory was suggested for this case and a good agreement with available experimental data was achieved. In the case of partial wetting the spreading/evaporation of a sessile droplet of pure liquid goes through four subsequent stages: (i) the initial stage, spreading, is relatively short (1-2 min) and therefore evaporation can be neglected during this stage; during the initial stage the contact angle reaches the value of advancing contact angle and the radius of the droplet base reaches its maximum value, (ii) the first stage of evaporation is characterised by the constant value of the radius of the droplet base; the value of the contact angle during the first stage decreases from static advancing to static receding contact angle; (iii) during the second stage of evaporation the contact angle remains constant and equal to its receding value, while the radius of the droplet base decreases; and (iv) at the third stage of evaporation both the contact angle and the radius of the droplet base decrease until the drop completely disappears. It has been shown theoretically and confirmed experimentally that during the first and second stages of evaporation the volume of droplet to power 2/3 decreases linearly with time. The universal dependence of the contact angle during the first stage and of the radius of the droplet base during the second stage on the reduced time has been

  4. A remote sensing method for estimating regional reservoir area and evaporative loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Gorelick, Steven M.; Zimba, Paul V.; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Evaporation from the water surface of a reservoir can significantly affect its function of ensuring the availability and temporal stability of water supply. Current estimations of reservoir evaporative loss are dependent on water area derived from a reservoir storage-area curve. Such curves are unavailable if the reservoir is located in a data-sparse region or questionable if long-term sedimentation has changed the original elevation-area relationship. We propose a remote sensing framework to estimate reservoir evaporative loss at the regional scale. This framework uses a multispectral water index to extract reservoir area from Landsat imagery and estimate monthly evaporation volume based on pan-derived evaporative rates. The optimal index threshold is determined based on local observations and extended to unobserved locations and periods. Built on the cloud computing capacity of the Google Earth Engine, this framework can efficiently analyze satellite images at large spatiotemporal scales, where such analysis is infeasible with a single computer. Our study involves 200 major reservoirs in Texas, captured in 17,811 Landsat images over a 32-year period. The results show that these reservoirs contribute to an annual evaporative loss of 8.0 billion cubic meters, equivalent to 20% of their total active storage or 53% of total annual water use in Texas. At five coastal basins, reservoir evaporative losses exceed the minimum freshwater inflows required to sustain ecosystem health and fishery productivity of the receiving estuaries. Reservoir evaporative loss can be significant enough to counterbalance the positive effects of impounding water and to offset the contribution of water conservation and reuse practices. Our results also reveal the spatially variable performance of the multispectral water index and indicate the limitation of using scene-level cloud cover to screen satellite images. This study demonstrates the advantage of combining satellite remote sensing and

  5. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance/sensitivity, lipid profile and total antioxidant capacity in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: A randomized double blind placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabhani, Zohoor; Hezaveh, Seyed Jamal Ghaemmaghami; Razmpoosh, Elham; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Gargari, Bahram Pourghassem

    2018-04-01

    The role of gut microbiota in the management of diabetes is shown. In this randomized clinical trial we assessed the effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin, lipid profile and antioxidative status among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ninety pregnant women with GDM were randomly assigned into two groups to receive either a daily synbiotic capsule - consisting of L. acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, L. gasseri (1.5-7.0 × 10 9-10  CFU/g) - with fructooligosaccharide (38.5 mg), or placebo for 6 weeks. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), high- and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DSP) were assessed before and after the intervention. No significant changes in FPG, insulin resistance/sensitivity, lipid profile and TAC indices were seen in synbiotic group compared to the placebo one (p > 0.05). Significant within group increases for HDL-C and TAC levels in synbiotic group were observed (p insulin resistance/sensitivity indices. Lipid profile and TAC status may be affected by synbiotic supplementation. Synbiotic is effective in reducing of blood pressure in women with GDM. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid H.; Zwijnenburg, Arie; Kruithof, Joop C.; Flemming, Hans Curt

    2013-01-01

    resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric

  7. Sensitivity and rapidity of the evaporation method for the measurement of the radioactivity of residual water; Sensibilite et rapidite de la methode d'evaporation pour la mesure de la radioactivite d'une eau residuaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, P; Reiffsteck, A; Wormser, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    The authors have used the evaporation method for counting the radioactivity of water polluted to the tolerance limit by Sr{sup 90}. Total duration of the manipulation is 2 hours. (author) [French] Les auteurs ont utilise la methode d'evaporation pour le comptage de la radioactivite d'une eau polluee, a la limite de tolerance, par du {sup 90}Sr. La duree de la manipulation totale est de 2 h. (auteur)

  8. Evaporative water loss from welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, G.R.; Turner, J.R. Jr.

    1980-04-01

    Welded tuff is one of the many candidate rocks presently being considered as a host medium for the disposal of radioactive waste. In the case where the disposal site lies above the water table, the host rock will in general be only partially saturated. This condition leads to a number of mass transfer processes of interest, including evaporative drying, two-phase water flow due to pressure gradients, capillary movement, plus others. Although these processes have all been known about for decades, it is not clear at this time what the relative importance of each is with regard to geologic media in a waste disposal environment. In particular, there seems to be no data available for tuff that would allow an investigator to sort out mechanisms. This work is intended to be a start in that direction. This paper reports the measurement of water loss rate for welded tuff at various temperatures due to the action of evaporative drying. The initial saturation was unknown, but the average initial water content was found to be 7% by weight. The resulting data show that the water loss rate declines monotonically with time at a given temperature and increases with increasing temperature as expected. Somewhat surprising, however, is the fact that over 90% of the water from a sample was lost by evaporation at room temperature within 72 hours. All the water loss data, including that taken at temperatures as high as 150 0 C, are explained to within a factor of two by a simple evaporation front model. The latter assumes the water is lost by the molecular diffusion of water vapor from a receding evaporation front. The motion of the evaporation front seems to depend on mass balance rather than energy balance. Capillary forces and the resulting liquid diffusion are evidently not strong enough to wash out the evaporation front, since the front model seems to fit the data well

  9. Ethanol Dehydration by Evaporation and Diffusion in an Inert Gas Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In-Sick, Chung; Kyu-Min, Song [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of); Won-Hi, Hong; Ho-Nam, Chang [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    Ethanol dehydration of azeotropic mixture was performed by using diffusion distillation apparatus consisting of a wetted-wall column with two concentric tubes. Ethanol-water mixtures evaporated below the boiling point was separated during the diffusion through the gap filled with an inert gas. As the temperature difference between evaporation part and condensation part was increased, the total flux increased but the selectivity decreased. The effect of the annular width on the selectivity was not significant but the total flux was decreased with decreases in the annular width. Inert gas has an effect on the diffusivity of evaporated gas components. The total flux in case of helium as inert gas was larger than that in case of air but the selectivity in case of using helium was lower. (author). 14 refs. 1 tab. 12 figs.

  10. Low Dose Total Body Irradiation Combined With Recombinant CD19-Ligand × Soluble TRAIL Fusion Protein is Highly Effective Against Radiation-resistant B-precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih M. Uckun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In high-risk remission B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BPL patients, relapse rates have remained high post-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT even after the use of very intensive total body irradiation (TBI-based conditioning regimens, especially in patients with a high “minimal residual disease” (MRD burden. New agents capable of killing radiation-resistant BPL cells and selectively augmenting their radiation sensitivity are therefore urgently needed. We report preclinical proof-of-principle that the potency of radiation therapy against BPL can be augmented by combining radiation with recombinant human CD19-Ligand × soluble TRAIL (“CD19L–sTRAIL” fusion protein. CD19L–sTRAIL consistently killed radiation-resistant primary leukemia cells from BPL patients as well as BPL xenograft cells and their leukemia-initiating in vivo clonogenic fraction. Low dose total body irradiation (TBI combined with CD19L–sTRAIL was highly effective against (1 xenografted CD19+ radiochemotherapy-resistant human BPL in NOD/SCID (NS mice challenged with an otherwise invariably fatal dose of xenograft cells derived from relapsed BPL patients as well as (2 radiation-resistant advanced stage CD19+ murine BPL with lymphomatous features in CD22ΔE12xBCR-ABL double transgenic mice. We hypothesize that the incorporation of CD19L–sTRAIL into the pre-transplant TBI regimens of patients with very high-risk BPL will improve their survival outcome after HSCT.

  11. Evaporation equipment with electron beam heating for the evaporation of metals and other conducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment for the evaporation of metals and other conducting materials by electron beam heating is to be improved by surrou nding the evaporation equipment with a grid, which has a negative voltage compared to the cathode. This achieves the state where the cathode is hit and damaged less by the ions formed, so that its life period is prolonged. (UWI) [de

  12. Evaporation-triggered microdroplet nucleation and the four life phases of an evaporating Ouzo droplet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.; Diddens, C.; Lv, P.; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Zhang, X.; Lohse, D.

    2016-01-01

    Evaporating liquid droplets are omnipresent in nature and technology, such as in inkjet printing, coating, deposition of materials, medical diagnostics, agriculture, the food industry, cosmetics, or spills of liquids. Whereas the evaporation of pure liquids, liquids with dispersed particles, or even

  13. Evaporation-triggered microdroplet nucleation and the four life phases of an evaporating Ouzo drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Huanshu; Diddens, Christian; Lv, Pengyu; Kuerten, J.G.M.; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Evaporating liquid droplets are omnipresent in nature and technology, such as in inkjet printing, coating, deposition of materials, medical diagnostics, agriculture, the food industry, cosmetics, or spills of liquids. Whereas the evaporation of pure liquids, liquids with dispersed particles, or even

  14. Artificial weathering of oils by rotary evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fieldhouse, B.; Hollebone, B.P.; Singh, N.R.; Tong, T.S.; Mullin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil weathering has a considerable affect on the behaviour, impact and ultimate fate of an oil spill. As such, efforts have been made to study weathering as a whole using bench-scale procedures. The studies are generally divided into individual processes where the effect of other major processes are introduce as an amended sample input rather than a concurrent process. The weathering process that has the greatest effect immediately following an oil spill is evaporation, particularly for lighter oils. The rotary evaporator apparatus offers a convenient means of producing artificially weathered oil for laboratory studies. This paper reported on a study that examined the representativeness of samples obtained by this method compared to pan evaporation and the impact of changes to the apparatus or method parameters on sample chemistry. Experiments were performed on Alberta Sweet Mixed Blend no. 5 in a rotary evaporator under varying conditions of temperature and air flow at ambient pressure using 2 apparatus. The rate of mass loss increased with temperature and air flow rate as expected, but the quantitative relationships could not be defined from the data due to contributions by other uncontrolled factors. It was concluded that the rotary evaporator is not suited for evaporation rate studies, but rather for producing samples suitable for use in other studies. Chemical analysis showed that the relative abundance distributions of target n-alkane hydrocarbons varied with the degree of weathering of an oil in a consistent manner at ambient pressure, regardless of the temperature, rate of air exchange or other factors related to the apparatus and procedure. The composition of the artificially weathered oil was also consistent with that from an open pan simulation of a weathered oil slick. Loss of water content varied with the conditions of evaporation because of the differential rates of evaporation due to relative humidity considerations. It was concluded that weathering

  15. KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, James E. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Wu, Yanqin, E-mail: jowen@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: wu@astro.utoronto.ca [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ∼0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R{sub ⊕}. Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ∼0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above

  16. KEPLER PLANETS: A TALE OF EVAPORATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, James E.; Wu, Yanqin

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the Kepler mission's planet discoveries, we consider the thermal contraction of planets close to their parent star, under the influence of evaporation. The mass-loss rates are based on hydrodynamic models of evaporation that include both X-ray and EUV irradiation. We find that only low mass planets with hydrogen envelopes are significantly affected by evaporation, with evaporation being able to remove massive hydrogen envelopes inward of ∼0.1 AU for Neptune-mass objects, while evaporation is negligible for Jupiter-mass objects. Moreover, most of the evaporation occurs in the first 100 Myr of stars' lives when they are more chromospherically active. We construct a theoretical population of planets with varying core masses, envelope masses, orbital separations, and stellar spectral types, and compare this population with the sizes and densities measured for low-mass planets, both in the Kepler mission and from radial velocity surveys. This exercise leads us to conclude that evaporation is the driving force of evolution for close-in Kepler planets. In fact, some 50% of the Kepler planet candidates may have been significantly eroded. Evaporation explains two striking correlations observed in these objects: a lack of large radius/low density planets close to the stars and a possible bimodal distribution in planet sizes with a deficit of planets around 2 R ⊕ . Planets that have experienced high X-ray exposures are generally smaller than this size, and those with lower X-ray exposures are typically larger. A bimodal planet size distribution is naturally predicted by the evaporation model, where, depending on their X-ray exposure, close-in planets can either hold on to hydrogen envelopes ∼0.5%-1% in mass or be stripped entirely. To quantitatively reproduce the observed features, we argue that not only do low-mass Kepler planets need to be made of rocky cores surrounded with hydrogen envelopes, but few of them should have initial masses above 20 M ⊕ and

  17. Socioeconomic and hygienic aspects of nutrition correction and water supply in order to improve total resistance and reduce the risk of radiation carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knizhnikov, V.A.; Shandala, N.K.; Komleva, V.A.; Tutel'yan, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have experimentally demonstrated that selenium deficit in the dies of the population the Russian Federation increases the risk of cancer similarly as total irradiation dose equal to 200 sZv, that is, much more than the doses of irradiation of the population after the Chernobyl power plant accident. Artificial enrichment of diets for selenium helps reduce the risk of death from leukemia and cancer by 5 up to times. Combinations of trace elements and vitamins may bring about a still better effect. The authors discuss nutrition correction and its economic and social validity. 6 refs.; 3 tabs

  18. Freezing of Water Droplet due to Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Isao; Fushinobu, Kazuyoshi; Hashimoto, Yu

    In this study, the feasibility of cooling/freezing of phase change.. materials(PCMs) due to evaporation for cold storage systems was experimentally examined. A pure water was used as the test PCM, since the latent heat due to evaporation of water is about 7 times larger than that due to freezing. A water droplet, the diameter of which was 1-4 mm, was suspended in a test cell by a fine metal wire (O. D.= 100μm),and the cell was suddenly evacuated up to the pressure lower than the triple-point pressure of water, so as to enhance the evaporation from the water surface. Temperature of the droplet was measured by a thermocouple, and the cooling/freezing behavior and the temperature profile of the droplet surface were captured by using a video camera and an IR thermo-camera, respectively. The obtained results showed that the water droplet in the evacuated cell is effectively cooled by the evaporation of water itself, and is frozen within a few seconds through remarkable supercooling state. When the initial temperature of the droplet is slightly higher than the room temperature, boiling phenomena occur in the droplet simultaneously with the freezing due to evaporation. Under such conditions, it was shown that the degree of supercooling of the droplet is reduced by the bubbles generated in the droplet.

  19. Mathematical modeling of wiped-film evaporators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, J.T.

    1976-05-01

    A mathematical model and associated computer program were developed to simulate the steady-state operation of wiped-film evaporators for the concentration of typical waste solutions produced at the Savannah River Plant. In this model, which treats either a horizontal or a vertical wiped-film evaporator as a plug-flow device with no backmixing, three fundamental phenomena are described: sensible heating of the waste solution, vaporization of water, and crystallization of solids from solution. Physical property data were coded into the computer program, which performs the calculations of this model. Physical properties of typical waste solutions and of the heating steam, generally as analytical functions of temperature, were obtained from published data or derived by regression analysis of tabulated or graphical data. Preliminary results from tests of the Savannah River Laboratory semiworks wiped-film evaporators were used to select a correlation for the inside film heat transfer coefficient. This model should be a useful aid in the specification, operation, and control of the full-scale wiped-film evaporators proposed for application under plant conditions. In particular, it should be of value in the development and analysis of feed-forward control schemes for the plant units. Also, this model can be readily adapted, with only minor changes, to simulate the operation of wiped-film evaporators for other conceivable applications, such as the concentration of acid wastes

  20. Uranium concentration monitor manual, secondary intermediate evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Slice, R.W.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1985-08-01

    This manual describes the design, operation, and measurement control procedures for the automated uranium concentration monitor on the secondary intermediate evaporator at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The nonintrusive monitor provides a near-real time readout of uranium concentration in the return loop of time recirculating evaporator for purposes of process monitoring and control. A detector installed near the bottom of the return loop is used to acquire spectra of gamma rays from the evaporator solutions during operation. Pulse height analysis of each spectrum gives the information required to deduce the concentration of uranium in the evaporator solution in near-real time. The visual readout of concentration is updated at the end of every assay cycle. The readout includes an alphanumeric display of uranium concentration and an illuminated, colored LED (in an array of colored LEDs) indicating whether the measured concentration is within (or above or below) the desired range. An alphanumeric display of evaporator solution acid molarity is also available to the operator. 9 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Optimal control of evaporator and washer plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    Tests with radioactive tracers were used for experimental analysis of a multiple-effect evaporator plant. The residence time distribution of the liquor in each evaporator was described by one or two perfect mixers with time delay and by-pass flow terms. The theoretical model of a single evaporator unit was set up on the basis of its instantaneous heat and mass balances and such models were fitted to the test data. The results were interpreted in terms of physical structures of the evaporators. Further model parameters were evaluated by conventional step tests and by measurements of process variables at one or more steady states. Computer simulation and comparison with the experimental results showed that the model produces a satisfactory response to solids concentration input and could be extended to cover the steam feed and liquor flow inputs. An optimal feedforward control algorithm was developed for a two unit, co-current evaporator plant. The control criterion comprised the deviations of the final solids content of liquor and the consumption of fresh steam, from their optimal steady-state values. In order to apply the algorithm, the model of the solids in liquor was reduced to two nonlinear differential equations. (author)

  2. Evaporation rate of water in hydrophobic confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sumit; Debenedetti, Pablo G

    2012-03-20

    The drying of hydrophobic cavities is believed to play an important role in biophysical phenomena such as the folding of globular proteins, the opening and closing of ligand-gated ion channels, and ligand binding to hydrophobic pockets. We use forward flux sampling, a molecular simulation technique, to compute the rate of capillary evaporation of water confined between two hydrophobic surfaces separated by nanoscopic gaps, as a function of gap, surface size, and temperature. Over the range of conditions investigated (gaps between 9 and 14 Å and surface areas between 1 and 9 nm(2)), the free energy barrier to evaporation scales linearly with the gap between hydrophobic surfaces, suggesting that line tension makes the predominant contribution to the free energy barrier. The exponential dependence of the evaporation rate on the gap between confining surfaces causes a 10 order-of-magnitude decrease in the rate when the gap increases from 9 to 14 Å. The computed free energy barriers are of the order of 50 kT and are predominantly enthalpic. Evaporation rates per unit area are found to be two orders of magnitude faster in confinement by the larger (9 nm(2)) than by the smaller (1 nm(2)) surfaces considered here, at otherwise identical conditions. We show that this rate enhancement is a consequence of the dependence of hydrophobic hydration on the size of solvated objects. For sufficiently large surfaces, the critical nucleus for the evaporation process is a gap-spanning vapor tube.

  3. Effect of Nd:YAG laser on the solvent evaporation of adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Graziela Ribeiro; Barcellos, Daphne Câmara; Rocha Gomes Torres, Carlos; Damião, Álvaro José; de Oliveira, Hueder Paulo Moisés; de Paiva Gonçalves, Sérgio Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of Nd:YAG laser on the evaporation degree (ED) of the solvent components in total-etch and self-etch adhesives. The ED of Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) one-step self-etch adhesive, and Adper Single Bond 2 (3M ESPE), and XP Bond (Dentsply) total-etch adhesives was determined by weight alterations using two techniques: Control--spontaneous evaporation of the solvent for 5 min; Experimental--Nd:YAG laser irradiation for 1 min, followed by spontaneous evaporation for 4 min. The weight loss due to evaporation of the volatile components was measured at baseline and after 10 s, 20 s, 30 s, 40 s, 50 s, 60 s, 70 s, 80 s, 90 s, 100 s, 110 s, 2 min, 3 min, 4 min, and 5 min. Evaporation of solvent components significantly increased with Nd:YAG laser irradiation for all adhesives investigated. Gluma Comfort Bond showed significantly higher evaporation of solvent components than Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond. All the adhesives lost weight quickly during the first min of Nd:YAG laser irradiation. The application of Nd:YAG laser on adhesives before light curing had a significant effect on the evaporation of the solvent components, and the ED of Gluma Comfort Bond one-step self-etch adhesive was significantly higher than with Adper Single Bond 2 and XP Bond total-etch adhesives. The use of the Nd:YAG laser on the uncured adhesive technique can promote a greater ED of solvents, optimizing the longevity of the adhesive restorations.

  4. Evaporation at microscopic scale and at high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, V.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis theoretically investigates the transport processes in the vicinity of the triple gas-liquid-solid contact line and its impact on macroscopic evaporation. In the first part of the thesis, the hydrodynamics close to the contact line at partial wetting is studied. Specifically, evaporation into the atmosphere of pure vapor driven by heating of the substrate is considered. The question of singularity relaxation is addressed. The main finding of the thesis is that the Kelvin effect (dependence of saturation temperature on pressure) is sufficient by itself to relax the hydrodynamic contact line singularity. The proposed microregion (the contact line vicinity) model for small interface slopes is solved numerically. Asymptotic solutions are found for some specific cases. The governing length scales of the problem are identified and the multi-scale nature of the phenomenon is addressed. Parametric studies revealing the role of the thermal resistance of vapor-liquid interface, slip length, thermo-capillary term, the vapor recoil and surface forces are also performed. An extension of the lubrication approximation for high slopes of the gas-liquid interface at evaporation is discussed. In the second part of the thesis, the previously established microregion model is coupled to a simplified single vapor bubble growth numerical simulation. The bubble departure from the heater at boiling is also studied. It was proposed in the thesis, that under high heat loads, the increase of the apparent contact angle causes the vapor bubble to spread over the heated substrate. Such a behavior may cause the heater dry-out that occurs during the boiling crisis. (author) [fr

  5. Y-Ba-Cu-O superconducting thin films by simultaneous or sequential evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Hunt, B.D.; Turner, L.G.; Burrell, M.C.; Balz, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting thin films of Y-Ba-Cu-O near the 1:2:3 stoichiometry were produced by simultaneous (coevaporation) and sequential (multilayer) evaporation in the same evaporator. The best film obtained on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) had a superconducting onset temperature of 104 K, a midpoint T/sub c/ of 92 K, and zero resistance at T≤74 K. Stoichiometry was deduced by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy, and elemental depth profiles were obtained by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Film stoichiometry changes only near the film/substrate boundary for films on YSZ. Films on Si/SiO 2 were not superconducting; depth profiling shows severe changes of film composition with depth. A major theme of this work is process reproducibility, which was found to be poor for coevaporation but improved considerably for sequential evaporation

  6. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  7. Isotopic fractionation of soil water during evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leopoldo, P R [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas e Biologicas de Botucatu (Brazil); Salati, E; Matsui, E [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    1974-07-01

    The study of the variation of D/H relation in soil water during evaporation is studied. The isotopic fractionation of soil water has been observed in two soils of light and heavy texture. Soil columns were utilized. Soil water was extracted in a system operated under low pressure and the gaseous hydrogen was obtained by decomposition of the water and was analyzed in a GD-150 mass spectrometer for deuterium content. The variation of the delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ value during evaporation showed that for water held at potentials below 15 atm, the deuterium content of soil water stays practically constant. For water held at potentials higher than 15 atm, corresponding to the third stage of evaporation, there is a strong tendency of a constant increase of delta sub(eta) /sup 0///sub 00/ of the remaining water.

  8. Field evaporation test of uranium tailings solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, B.L.; Shepard, T.A.; Stewart, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    A field experiment was performed to observe the effect on evaporation rate of a uranium tailings impoundment pond water as salt concentration of the water increased. The duration of the experiment was long enough to cause maximum salt concentration of the water to be attained. The solution used in the experiment was tailings pond water from an inactive uranium tailings disposal site in the initial stages of reclamation. The solution was not neutralized. The initial pH was about 1.0 decreasing to a salt gel at the end of the test. The results of the field experiment show a gradual and slight decrease in evaporation efficiency. This resulted as salt concentrations increased and verified the practical effectiveness of evaporation as a water removal method. In addition, the physical and chemical nature of the residual salts suggest that no long-term stability problem would likely result due to their presence in the impoundment during or after reclamation

  9. Method of suppressing evaporation loss of ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muromura, Tadazumi; Sato, Tadashi.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent evaporation loss of ruthenium from liquid wastes by adding an aluminum compound upon applying evaporating and drying to solid treatment to reprocessing liquid wastes for spent fuels. Method: An aluminum compound such as aluminum nitrate or aluminum hydroxide to reprocessing liquid wastes of spent fuels such that aluminum/ruthenium mixing ratio corresponds to 1.3 - 70.0 by g/atom ratio (0.34 - 187 by weight ratio), and the liquid mixture is heated to a temperature of about 130 deg C to be evaporated and dried to solidness. This enables to recover ruthenium without settling and depositing insoluble matters in the liquid wastes and without decomposing nitric acid. (Yoshino, Y.)

  10. Evaporation of boric acid from sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gast, J A; Thompson, T G

    1959-01-01

    Previous investigators have shown that the boron-chlorinity ratios of rain waters are many times greater than the boron-chlorinity ratio of sea water. The presence of boron in the atmosphere has been attributed to sea spray, volcanic activity, accumulation in dust, evaporation from plants, and industrial pollution. In this paper data are presented to demonstrate that boric acid in sea water has a vapor pressure at ordinary temperatures of the sea and, when sea water evaporates, boric acid occurs in the condensate of the water vapor. It is postulated that, while some of the boron in the atmosphere can be attributed to the sources mentioned above, most of the boric acid results from evaporation from the sea.

  11. Solubility of plutonium and waste evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical processing of irradiated reactor elements at the Savannah River Site separates uranium, plutonium and fission products; fission products and process-added chemicals are mixed with an excess of NaOH and discharged as a basic slurry into large underground tanks for temporary storage. The slurry is composed of base-insoluble solids that settle to the bottom of the tank; the liquid supemate contains a mixture of base-soluble chemicals--nitrates, nitrites aluminate, sulfate, etc. To conserve space in the waste tanks, the supemate is concentrated by evaporation. As the evaporation proceeds, the solubilities of some components are exceeded, and these species crystallize from solution. Normally, these components are soluble in the hot solution discharged from the waste tank evaporator and do not crystallize until the solution cools. However, concern was aroused at West Valley over the possibility that plutonium would precipitate and accumulate in the evaporator, conceivably to the point that a nuclear accident was possible. There is also a concern at SRS from evaporation of sludge washes, which arise from washing the base-insoluble solids (open-quote sludge close-quote) with ca. 1M NaOH to reduce the Al and S0 4 -2 content. The sludge washes of necessity extract a low level of Pu from the sludge and are evaporated to reduce their volume, presenting the possibility of precipitating Pu. Measurements of the solubility of Pu in synthetic solutions of similar composition to waste supernate and sludge washes are described in this report

  12. Measurements of evaporation from a mine void lake and testing of modelling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McJannet, David; Hawdon, Aaron; Van Niel, Tom; Boadle, Dave; Baker, Brett; Trefry, Mike; Rea, Iain

    2017-12-01

    Pit lakes often form in the void that remains after open cut mining operations cease. As pit lakes fill, hydrological and geochemical processes interact and these need to be understood for appropriate management actions to be implemented. Evaporation is important in the evolution of pit lakes as it acts to concentrate various constituents, controls water level and changes the thermal characteristics of the water body. Despite its importance, evaporation from pit lakes is poorly understood. To address this, we used an automated floating evaporation pan and undertook measurements at a pit lake over a 12 month period. We also developed a new procedure for correcting floating pan evaporation estimates to lake evaporation estimates based on surface temperature differences. Total annual evaporation was 2690 mm and reflected the strong radiation inputs, high temperatures and low humidity experienced in this region. Measurements were used to test the performance of evaporation estimates derived using both pan coefficient and aerodynamic modelling techniques. Daily and monthly evaporation estimates were poorly reproduced using pan coefficient techniques and their use is not recommended for such environments. Aerodynamic modelling was undertaken using a range of input datasets that may be available to those who manage pit lake systems. Excellent model performance was achieved using over-water or local over-land meteorological observations, particularly when the sheltering effects of the pit were considered. Model performance was reduced when off-site data were utilised and differences between local and off-site vapor pressure and wind speed were found to be the major cause.

  13. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Rachwał, Lesław [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433 Shanghai (China); Modesto, Leonardo [Department of Physics, Southern University of Science and Technology, 1088 Xueyuan Road, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Porey, Shiladitya, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: lmodesto@sustc.edu.cn, E-mail: shilp@iitk.ac.in, E-mail: rachwal@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, 208016 Kanpur (India)

    2017-09-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  14. Evaporative cooling enhanced cold storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, P.

    1991-10-15

    The invention provides an evaporatively enhanced cold storage system wherein a warm air stream is cooled and the cooled air stream is thereafter passed into contact with a cold storage unit. Moisture is added to the cooled air stream prior to or during contact of the cooled air stream with the cold storage unit to effect enhanced cooling of the cold storage unit due to evaporation of all or a portion of the added moisture. Preferably at least a portion of the added moisture comprises water condensed during the cooling of the warm air stream. 3 figures.

  15. Sea water desalination by horizontal tubes evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, H.K.; Mohit, M.

    1986-01-01

    Desalinated water supplies are one of the problems of the nuclear power plants located by the seas. This paper explains saline water desalination by a Horizontal Tube Evaporator (HTE) and compares it with flash evaporation. A thermo compressor research project using HTE method has been designed, constructed, and operated at the Esfahan Nuclear Technology Center ENTC. The poject's ultimate goal is to obtain empirical formulae based on data gathered during operation of the unit and its subsequent development towards design and construction of desalination plants on an industrial scale

  16. Evaporative Cooling of Antiprotons to Cryogenic Temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A; Hydomako, R; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Menary, S; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; So, C; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wilding, D; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2010-01-01

    We report the application of evaporative cooling to clouds of trapped antiprotons, resulting in plasmas with measured temperature as low as 9~K. We have modeled the evaporation process for charged particles using appropriate rate equations. Good agreement between experiment and theory is observed, permitting prediction of cooling efficiency in future experiments. The technique opens up new possibilities for cooling of trapped ions and is of particular interest in antiproton physics, where a precise CPT test on trapped antihydrogen is a long-standing goal.

  17. Semiclassical approach to black hole evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Black hole evaporation may lead to massive or massless remnants, or naked singularities. This paper investigates this process in the context of two quite different two-dimensional black hole models. The first is the original Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) model, the second is another two-dimensional dilaton-gravity model, but with properties much closer to physics in the real, four-dimensional, world. Numerical simulations are performed of the formation and subsequent evaporation of black holes and the results are found to agree qualitatively with the exactly solved modified CGHS models, namely, that the semiclassical approximation breaks down just before a naked singularity appears

  18. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  19. Experiments on Evaporative Emissions in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    In many new buildings the indoor air quality is affected by emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from building materials. The emission process may be controlled either by diffusion inside the material or evaporation from the surface but it always involves mass transfer across the boundary...... layer at the surface-air-interface. Experiments at different velocity levels were performed in a full-scale ventilated chamber to investigate the influence of local airflow on the evaporative emission from a surface. The experiments included velocity measurements in the flow over the surface...

  20. Evaporation-induced assembly of biomimetic polypeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, Joseph; Junkin, Michael; Cappello, Joseph; Wu Xiaoyi; Wong, Pak Kin

    2008-01-01

    We report an evaporation assisted plasma lithography (EAPL) process for guided self-assembly of a biomimetic silk-elastinlike protein (SELP). We demonstrate the formation of SELP structures from millimeter to submicrometer range on plasma-treatment surface templates during an evaporation-induced self-assembly process. The self-assembly processes at different humidities and droplet volumes were investigated. The process occurs efficiently in a window of optimized operating conditions found to be at 70% relative humidity and 8 μl volume of SELP solution. The EAPL approach provides a useful technique for the realization of functional devices and systems using these biomimetic materials

  1. Application of the Generalized Nonlinear Complementary Relationship for Estimating Evaporation in North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, M.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    As an important part of the coupled Eco-Hydrological processes, evaporation is the bond for exchange of energy and heat between the surface and the atmosphere. However, the estimation of evaporation remains a challenge compared with other main hydrological factors in water cycle. The complementary relationship which proposed by Bouchet (1963) has laid the foundation for various approaches to estimate evaporation from land surfaces, the essence of the principle is a relationship between three types of evaporation in the environment. It can simply implemented with routine meteorological data without the need for resistance parameters of the vegetation and bare land, which are difficult to observed and complicated to estimate in most surface flux models. On this basis the generalized nonlinear formulation was proposed by Brutsaert (2015). The daily evaporation can be estimated once the potential evaporation (Epo) and apparent potential evaporation (Epa) are known. The new formulation has a strong physical basis and can be expected to perform better under natural water stress conditions, nevertheless, the model has not been widely validated over different climate types and underlying surface patterns. In this study, we attempted to apply the generalized nonlinear complementary relationship in North China, three flux stations in North China are used for testing the universality and accuracy of this model against observed evaporation over different vegetation types, including Guantao Site, Miyun Site and Huailai Site. Guantao Site has double-cropping systems and crop rotations with summer maize and winter wheat; the other two sites are dominated by spring maize. Detailed measurements of meteorological factors at certain heights above ground surface from automatic weather stations offered necessary parameters for daily evaporation estimation. Using the Bowen ratio, the surface energy measured by the eddy covariance systems at the flux stations is adjusted on a daily scale

  2. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae

  3. Resistance to mycobacteria in mice treated with fractionated total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) and in mice reconstituted with allogeneic bone marrow cells following radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mor, N.; Lutsky, I.; Weiss, L.; Morecki, S.; Slavin, S.

    1985-01-01

    The increased clinical use of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) as an immunosuppressive adjunct in transplantation suggested the need for determining the effects of TLI on the in vivo susceptibility of animals to infections controlled by cell-mediated immunity. TLI-treated, TLI-treated and splenectomized, and chimeric mice prepared with TLI were inoculated in the hind foot pad with Mycobacterium marinum or Mycobacterium leprae. Although M. marinum organisms multiplied in greater numbers in the TLI mice, ultimately they were destroyed as effectively in TLI mice as in the non-irradiated control mice. M. leprae multiplied at the same rate and to the same maximum in TLI mice as in controls. Mice previously challenged with M. marinum in one hind foot pad, and challenged subsequently with the same organism in the opposite hind foot pad, showed a solid immunity against this reinfection. It appears that upon recovery from the immediate effects of radiotherapy TLI-treated mice are able to mount an effective immune response to experimental infection with M. marinum and M. leprae.

  4. To the generalization of experimental data on heat and mass transfer in evaporation and condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Similarity equations for heat-and-mass transfer in binary gas or steam-gas layers in the processes of liquid evaporation, condensation and desublimation of vapours, desorption and absorption and porous body cooling are considered. It is accepted that steam-gas components obey to the equation of ideal gas state and that evaporation and condensation condititons permit to neglect the influence of compressability of gas (steam-gas) mixture, non-isothermality of boundary layer and interphase kinetic resistance to mass transfer onto the interfaces. It is concluded that the results of considered experimental and theoretical investigations of the above processes are in a satisfactory agreement and show insignificance of the effect of hydrodynamic conditions determining the regime of main steam-gas mixture flow on relative heat-and-mass transfer coefficients. According to the theoretical calculation results with increase of the factor of M steam-gas mixture non-uniformity mass transfer intensity in evaporation decreases, while in condensation it grows, but M effect on the mass transfer coefficient is rather small and sowhat increases in the case of a turbulent boundary layer evaporation. In condensation it is less than in evaporation

  5. Literature Review On Impact Of Glycolate On The 2H Evaporator And The Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-01-01

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations (le) 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  6. LITERATURE REVIEW ON IMPACT OF GLYCOLATE ON THE 2H EVAPORATOR AND THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-05-10

    Glycolic acid (GA) is being studied as an alternate reductant in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed preparation process. It will either be a total or partial replacement for the formic acid that is currently used. A literature review has been conducted on the impact of glycolate on two post-DWPF downstream systems - the 2H Evaporator system and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The DWPF recycle stream serves as a portion of the feed to the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate enters the evaporator system from the glycolate in the recycle stream. The overhead (i.e., condensed phase) from the 2H Evaporator serves as a portion of the feed to the ETF. The literature search revealed that virtually no impact is anticipated for the 2H Evaporator. Glycolate may help reduce scale formation in the evaporator due to its high complexing ability. The drawback of the solubilizing ability is the potential impact on the criticality analysis of the 2H Evaporator system. It is recommended that at least a theoretical evaluation to confirm the finding that no self-propagating violent reactions with nitrate/nitrites will occur should be performed. Similarly, identification of sources of ignition relevant to glycolate and/or update of the composite flammability analysis to reflect the effects from the glycolate additions for the 2H Evaporator system are in order. An evaluation of the 2H Evaporator criticality analysis is also needed. A determination of the amount or fraction of the glycolate in the evaporator overhead is critical to more accurately assess its impact on the ETF. Hence, use of predictive models like OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI/ESP) and/or testing are recommended for the determination of the glycolate concentration in the overhead. The impact on the ETF depends on the concentration of glycolate in the ETF feed. The impact is classified as minor for feed glycolate concentrations {le} 33 mg/L or 0.44 mM. The ETF unit operations that will have

  7. The evaporation of crude oil and petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of oil and petroleum evaporation was studied by means of an experimental apparatus. The evaporation was determined by weight loss and recorded on a computer. Examination of the data showed that most oil and petroleum products (those with seven to ten components) evaporate at a logarithmic rate with respect to time, while other petroleum products (those with fewer chemical components) evaporate at a rate which is square root with respect to time. Evaporation of oil and petroleum was not strictly boundary-layer regulated because the typical oil evaporation rate rates do not exceed that of molecular diffusion and thus turbulent diffusion does not increase the evaporation rates. Overall, boundary layer regulation can be ignored in the prediction of oil and petroleum evaporation. The simple equation relating only the logarithm of time (or the square root of time in the case of narrow-cut products) and temperature are sufficient to accurately describe oil evaporation. refs., figs

  8. Evaporative and Convective Instabilities for the Evaporation of a Binary Mixture in a Bilayer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Weidong; Narayanan, Ranga

    2006-11-01

    Evaporative convection in binary mixtures arises in a variety of industrial processes, such as drying of paint and coating technology. There have been theories devoted to this problem either by assuming a passive vapor layer or by isolating the vapor fluid dynamics. Previous work on evaporative and convective instabilities in a single component bilayer system suggests that active vapor layers play a major role in determining the instability of the interface. We have investigated the evaporation convection in binary mixtures taking into account the fluid dynamics of both phases. The liquid mixture and its vapor are assumed to be confined between two horizontal plates with a base state of zero evaporation but with linear vertical temperature profile. When the vertical temperature gradient reaches a critical value, the evaporative instability, Rayleigh and Marangoni convection set in. The effects of vapor and liquid depth, various wave numbers and initial composition of the mixture on the evaporative and convective instability are determined. The physics of the instability are explained and detailed comparison is made between the Rayleigh, Marangoni and evaporative convection in pure component and those in binary mixtures.

  9. Effect of water treatment on the comparative costs of evaporative and dry cooled power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, H.; Goldstein, D.J.; Yung, D.

    1976-07-01

    The report presents the results of a study on the relative cost of energy from a nominal 1000 Mwe nuclear steam electric generating plant using either dry or evaporative cooling at four sites in the United States: Rochester, New York; Sheridan, Wyoming; Gallup, New Mexico and Dallas, Texas. Previous studies have shown that because of lower efficiencies the total annual evaluated costs for dry cooling systems exceeds the total annual evaluated costs of evaporative cooling systems, not including the cost of water. The cost of water comprises the cost of supplying the makeup water, the cost of treatment of the makeup and/or the circulating water in the tower, and the cost of treatment and disposal of the blowdown in an environmentally acceptable manner. The purpose of the study is to show the effect of water costs on the comparative costs of dry and evaporative cooled towers

  10. Wear resistant performance of highly cross-linked and annealed ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene against ceramic heads in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Taishi; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Akiyama, Mio; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Mawatari, Taro; Itokawa, Takashi; Ohishi, Masanobu; Motomura, Goro; Hirata, Masanobu; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ceramic femoral head material, size, and implantation periods on the wear of annealed, cross-linked ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) (XLPE) in total hip arthroplasty compared to non-cross-linked conventional UHMWPE (CPE). XLPE was fabricated by cross-linking with 60 kGy irradiation and annealing. Femoral heads made from zirconia and alumina ceramics and cobalt-chrome (CoCr) of 22 or 26 mm diameter were used. In this retrospective cohort study, the femoral head penetration into the cup was measured digitally on radiographs of 367 hips with XLPE and 64 hips with CPE. The average follow-up periods were 6.3 and 11.9 years, respectively. Both XLPE creep and wear rates were significantly lower than those of CPE (0.19 mm vs. 0.44 mm, 0.0001 mm/year vs. 0.09 mm/year, respectively). Zirconia displayed increased wear rates compared to alumina in CPE; however, there was no difference among head materials in XLPE (0.0008, 0.00007, and -0.009 mm/year for zirconia, alumina, and CoCr, respectively). Neither head size or implantation period impacted XLPE wear. In contrast to CPE, XLPE displayed low wear rates surpassing the effects of varying femoral head material, size, implantation period, and patient demographics. Further follow-up is required to determine the long-term clinical performance of the annealed XLPE. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  11. Increasing Resistance of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Total Hip Arthroplasty Infections: 278 THA-Revisions due to Infection Reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register from 1993 to 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olav Lutro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated bacterial findings from intraoperative tissue samples taken during revision due to infection after total hip arthroplasty (THA. The aim was to investigate whether the susceptibility patterns changed during the period from 1993 through 2007. Reported revisions due to infection in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register (NAR were identified, and 10 representative hospitals in Norway were visited. All relevant information on patients reported to the NAR for a revision due to infection, including bacteriological findings, was collected from the medical records. A total of 278 revision surgeries with bacterial growth in more than 2 samples were identified and included. Differences between three 5-year time periods were tested by the chi-square test for linear trend. The most frequent isolates were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS (41%, 113/278 and Staphylococcus aureus (19%, 53/278. The proportion of CoNS resistant to the methicillin-group increased from 57% (16/28 in the first period, 1993–1997, to 84% (52/62 in the last period, 2003–2007 (P = 0.003. There was also significant increase in resistance for CoNS to cotrimoxazole, quinolones, clindamycin, and macrolides. All S. aureus isolates were sensitive to both the methicillin-group and the aminoglycosides. For the other bacteria identified no changes in susceptibility patterns were found.

  12. On the kinetics of body versus end evaporation and addition of supramolecular polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nitin S; van der Schoot, Paul

    2017-06-01

    The kinetics of the self-assembly of supramolecular polymers is dictated by how monomers, dimers, trimers etc., attach to and detach from each other. It is for this reasons that researchers have proposed a plethora of pathways to explain the kinetics of various self-assembling supramolecules, including sulfur, linear micelles, living polymers and protein fibrils. Recent observations hint at the importance of a hitherto ignored molecular aggregation pathway that we refer to as "body evaporation and addition". In this pathway, monomers can enter at or dissociate from any point along the backbone of the polymer. In this paper, we compare predictions for the well-established end evaporation and addition pathway with those that we obtained for the newly proposed body evaporation and addition model. We quantify the lag time, characteristic of nucleated reversible polymerisation, in terms of the time it takes to obtain half of the steady-state polymerised fraction and the apparent growth rate at that point, and obtain power laws for both as a function of the total monomer concentration. We find, perhaps not entirely unexpectedly, that the body evaporation and addition pathway speeds up the relaxation of the polymerised monomeric mass relative to that of the end evaporation and addition. However, the presence of the body evaporation and addition pathway does not affect the dependence of the lag time on the total monomer concentration and it remains the same as that for the case of end evaporation and addition. The scaling of the lag time with the forward rate is different for the two models, suggesting that they may be distinguished experimentally.

  13. Measurements of the evaporation rate upon evaporation of thin layer at different heating modes

    OpenAIRE

    Gatapova E.Ya.; Korbanova E.G.

    2017-01-01

    Technique for measurements of the evaporation rate of a heated liquid layer is presented. The local minimum is observed which is associated with the point of equilibrium of the liquid–gas interface. It is shown when no heat is applied to the heating element temperature in gas phase is larger than in liquid, and evaporation occurs with the rate of 0.014–0.018 μl/s. Then evaporation rate is decreasing with increasing the heater temperature until the equilibrium point is reached at the liquid–ga...

  14. Long Duration Testing of a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice; Cox, Marlon; Watts, Carly; Campbell, Colin; Vogel, Matthew; Colunga, Aaron; Conger, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is a heat-rejection device that is being developed to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. Cooling is achieved by circulating water from the liquid cooling garment (LCG) through hollow fibers (HoFi s), which are small hydrophobic tubes. Liquid water remains within the hydrophobic tubes, but water vapor is exhausted to space, thereby removing heat. A SWME test article was tested over the course of a year, for a total of 600 cumulative hours. In order to evaluate SWME tolerance to contamination due to constituents caused by distillation processes, these constituents were allowed to accumulate in the water as evaporation occurred. A test article was tested over the course of a year for a total of 600 cumulative hours. The heat rejection performance of the SWME degraded significantly--below 700 W, attributable to the accumulation of rust in the circulating loop and biofilm growth. Bubble elimination capability, a feature that was previously proven with SWME, was compromised during the test, most likely due to loss of hydrophobic properties of the hollow fibers. The utilization of water for heat rejection was shown not to be dependent on test article, life cycle, heat rejection rate, or freezing of the membranes.

  15. Rapid heating evaporation of Pb(NO3)2. Evidence for heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radus, T.P.; Udseth, H.R.; Friedman, L.

    1979-01-01

    A mass spectrometric investigation of the lead nitrate system is reported in which the lead nitrate was evaporated from a probe filament that was heated as rapidly as 5000 0 C/s. Both electron impact (EI) and chemical ionization (CI) source techniques were used in this study. Fragment ions and decomposition products were observed under EI conditions. Under CI conditions solvated fragment ions and protonated solvated molecular ions were detected. Temperature measurements of rates of evaporation were made by monitoring the resistance of the probe filament as it was heated. Activation energies calculated by using these temperature coefficients of evaporation rates indicate that evaporations under CI conditions are assisted by heterogeneous ion-molecule reactions

  16. Serum total and bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activities for the assessment of bone fracture healing in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sousa

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o padrão de variação da atividade sérica da fosfatase alcalina total (tALP, da isoenzima óssea da fosfatase alcalina (BALP e da fosfatase ácida resistente ao tartarato (TRAP, assim como a variação da concentração dos minerais séricos durante o processo de cicatrização de fraturas ósseas no cão. A variação sérica destes marcadores do metabolismo ósseo foi avaliada em nove cães com fraturas diafisárias fechadas de ossos longos, submetidas a tratamento cirúrgico para osteosíntese. Durante o período pós-operatório, sete animais evoluíram no sentido de uma normal união óssea, sendo que dois deles desenvolveram um processo de não união óssea. Foram observados, relativamente à BALP, valores de actividade sérica mais elevados e com diferença estatística (P<0,05 no grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido de uma normal união óssea, comparativamente ao grupo de animais que evoluiu no sentido do processo de não união. No grupo de animais que evoluiu para a completa união óssea foram, adicionalmente, observados valores diminuidos (P<0,05 da atividade sérica da TRAP, até ao dia 60 do período pós-operatório seguido de uma elevação estatisticamente significativa após este período. Em conclusão, os biomarcadores do metabolismo ósseo poderão vir a constituir um método auxiliar de diagnóstico na monitorização do processo de cicatrização de fracturas ósseas, possibilitando, a detecção precoce de complicações pós-operatórias.

  17. Abrogation of bone marrow allograft resistance in mice by increased total body irradiation correlates with eradication of host clonable T cells and alloreactive cytotoxic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, E.; Lapidot, T.; Gozes, D.; Singer, T.S.; Reisner, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Host-vs-graft activity presents a major obstacle for transplantation of T cell-depleted bone marrow in HLA-mismatched patients. In a primate model, conditioned exactly like leukemia patients, it was shown that residual host clonable T cells, as well as alloreactive cytotoxic precursors, were present in peripheral blood and spleen after completion of cytoreduction. We have now extended this study in a mouse model for allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. C 3 H/HeJ mice were treated by 9 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and 24 hr later their spleen cells were cultured in the presence of T cell growth factor and phytohemagglutinin according to the limit dilution procedure. After 7 days of culture the average frequency of clonable cells was 2.5 X 10(-3) compared with 37 X 10(-3) in the spleens of normal mice. The T cell derivation of the growing cells was ascertained by complement-mediated cytotoxicity with anti-Thy-1 as well as with anti-Lyt-2 and anti-Ly-3T4. In parallel, we found that the initial engraftment rate of bone marrow allograft in mice given 9 Gy TBI was lower than that found in recipients of syngeneic marrow. The initial engraftment rate was measured by the number of colony-forming units in the spleen and by splenic uptake of 125 IUdR. A slight increase in TBI from 9 Gy to 11 Gy markedly reduced the difference in the number of spleen colony-forming units or the IUdR uptake between recipients of allogeneic and syngeneic bone marrow. This increase in TBI also coincided with eradication of detectable clonable T cells. Moreover, in mice transplanted with T cell-depleted bone marrow after 9 Gy TBI, we also demonstrate that cytotoxicity against donor-type target cells is present in the spleen 10 to 14 days posttransplantation, whereas in mice treated by 11 Gy TBI such alloreactivity could not be detected

  18. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, Jonas K.; Rothuizen, Erasmus D.; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Three concepts of cooling hydrogen were identified. • A numerical heat transfer model of a coaxial-tube evaporator was built. • The cost of exergy destruction and capital investment cost was evaluated for a range of feasible solution. • The exergoeconomic optimum design for all three concepts was identified. • Cooling with a two-stage evaporator reduces total cost 45% compared to a one-stage evaporator. - Abstract: Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to −40 °C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three different concepts of hydrogen cooling, one one-stage and two two-stage processes. An exergoeconomic optimization is imposed to all three concepts to minimize the total cost. A numerical heat transfer model is developed in Engineer Equation Solver, using heat transfer and pressure drop correlations from the open literature. With this model the optimal choice of tube sizes and circuit numbers are found for all three concepts. The results show that cooling with a two-stage evaporator after the pressure reduction valve yields the lowest total cost, 45% lower than the highest, which is with a one-stage evaporator. The main contribution to the total cost was the cost associated with exergy destruction, the capital investment cost contributed with 5–14%. The main contribution to the exergy destruction was found to be thermally driven. The pressure driven exergy destruction accounted for 3–9%

  19. Slow evaporation method and enhancement in photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nescence (PL) properties and decay time of phosphors were studied at room temperature. The YPO4 ... Keywords. Slow evaporation method; YPO4 : Eu3+, Bi3+; quenching effect; optical material. 1. ... intensity of Eu3+-doped compounds such as CaMoO4 : Bi3+, .... Figure 4 shows FESEM images of YPO4 : Eu3+ and Bi3+.

  20. Spin coating of an evaporating polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Münch, Andreas; Please, Colin P.; Wagner, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    and centrifugal forces and evaporation of the solvent. In the model both the diffusivity of the solvent in the polymer and the viscosity of the mixture are very rapidly varying functions of the solvent mass fraction. Guided by numerical solutions an asymptotic

  1. Soil water evaporation and crop residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crop residues have value when left in the field and also when removed from the field and sold as a commodity. Reducing soil water evaporation (E) is one of the benefits of leaving crop residues in place. E was measured beneath a corn canopy at the soil suface with nearly full coverage by corn stover...

  2. Rate Control in Dual Source Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, T.; Gruisinga, W.; Leeuwis, H.; Lodder, J.C.; van Weers, J.F.; Wilmans, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Two-component thin films are deposited in a high-vacuum system from two close sources, heated by an electron beam which is deflected between them. By using quartz-crystal monitors the evaporation rates are measured seperately, which is usually considered to be problematical. One rate signal is used

  3. Evaporative Lithography in Open Microfluidic Channel Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2017-02-24

    We demonstrate a direct capillary-driven method based on wetting and evaporation of various suspensions to fabricate regular two-dimensional wires in an open microfluidic channel through continuous deposition of micro- or nanoparticles under evaporative lithography, akin to the coffee-ring effect. The suspension is gently placed in a loading reservoir connected to the main open microchannel groove on a PDMS substrate. Hydrophilic conditions ensure rapid spreading of the suspension from the loading reservoir to fill the entire channel length. Evaporation during the spreading and after the channel is full increases the particle concentration toward the end of the channel. This evaporation-induced convective transport brings particles from the loading reservoir toward the channel end where this flow deposits a continuous multilayered particle structure. The particle deposition front propagates backward over the entire channel length. The final dry deposit of the particles is thereby much thicker than the initial volume fraction of the suspension. The deposition depth is characterized using a 3D imaging profiler, whereas the deposition topography is revealed using a scanning electron microscope. The patterning technology described here is robust and passive and hence operates without an external field. This work may well become a launching pad to construct low-cost and large-scale thin optoelectronic films with variable thicknesses and interspacing distances.

  4. Droplet bubbling evaporatively cools a blowfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Guilherme; Köberle, Roland; Von Zuben, Claudio J; Andrade, Denis V

    2018-04-19

    Terrestrial animals often use evaporative cooling to lower body temperature. Evaporation can occur from humid body surfaces or from fluids interfaced to the environment through a number of different mechanisms, such as sweating or panting. In Diptera, some flies move tidally a droplet of fluid out and then back in the buccopharyngeal cavity for a repeated number of cycles before eventually ingesting it. This is referred to as the bubbling behaviour. The droplet fluid consists of a mix of liquids from the ingested food, enzymes from the salivary glands, and antimicrobials, associated to the crop organ system, with evidence pointing to a role in liquid meal dehydration. Herein, we demonstrate that the bubbling behaviour also serves as an effective thermoregulatory mechanism to lower body temperature by means of evaporative cooling. In the blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala, infrared imaging revealed that as the droplet is extruded, evaporation lowers the fluid´s temperature, which, upon its re-ingestion, lowers the blowfly's body temperature. This effect is most prominent at the cephalic region, less in the thorax, and then in the abdomen. Bubbling frequency increases with ambient temperature, while its cooling efficiency decreases at high air humidities. Heat transfer calculations show that droplet cooling depends on a special heat-exchange dynamic, which result in the exponential activation of the cooling effect.

  5. BLEVE blast by expansion-controlled evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, A.C. van den; Voort, M.M. van der; Weerheijm, J.; Versloot, N.H.A.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a new method to calculate the blast effects originating from an exploding vessel of liquefied gas. Adequate blast calculation requires full knowledge of the blast source characteristics, that is, the release and subsequent evaporation rate of the flashing liquid. Because the

  6. Evaporation of liquids on chemically patterned surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vieyra Salas, J.A.; Darhuber, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    We studied evaporation rates of volatile liquids deposited onto chemically patterned surfaces by means of experiments and numerical simulations. We quantified the influence of the droplet geometry, in particular circular, triangular, rectangular and square shapes, as well as the influence of contact

  7. Spacesuit Evaporator-Absorber-Radiator (SEAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Ed; Izenson, Mike; Chan, Weibo; Bue, Grant C.

    2012-01-01

    For decades advanced spacesuit developers have pursued a regenerable, robust nonventing system for heat rejection. Toward this end, this paper investigates linking together two previously developed technologies, namely NASA s Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), and Creare s Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator (LCAR). Heat from a liquid cooled garment is transported to SWME that provides cooling through evaporation. This water vapor is then captured by solid LiCl in the LCAR with a high enthalpy of absorption, resulting in sufficient temperature lift to reject heat to space by radiation. After the sortie, the LCAR would be heated up and dried in a regenerator to drive off and recover the absorbed evaporant. A engineering development prototype was built and tested in vacuum conditions at a sink temperature of 250 K. The LCAR was able to stably reject 75 W over a 7-hour period. A conceptual design of a full-scale radiator is proposed. Excess heat rejection above 240 W would be accomplished through venting of the evaporant. Loop closure rates were predicted for various exploration environment scenarios.

  8. 242-A evaporator dangerous waste permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is a waste management unit within the Hanford Facility that consists of process vessels and support systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing double-shell tank (DST) waste generated by Hanford Site operations. Operation of the 242-A Evaporator serves to reduce the volume of waste solutions within the DSTs that do not self-boil, while separating inorganic and radionuclide constituents from organic constituents. This operation reduces the number of underground DSTs required for waste storage and also makes the mixed waste more suitable for future treatment and disposal (i.e., grouting and vitrification). The 242-A Evaporator receives mixed-waste streams from the DSTs that contain organic and inorganic constituents and radionuclides. The waste is a dangerous waste (DW) because of corrosivity, reactivity, and toxicity characteristics, and is an extremely hazardous waste (EHW) as a result of toxicity (state criteria only), carcinogenicity, and persistence under the state mixture rule. The waste also contains spent nonhalogenated solvents

  9. Steady parallel flow in an evaporating fluid heated from sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Kausik S.

    2009-01-01

    Evaporation is ubiquitous in nature, but very few attempts have been made in the past to couple the effects of evaporation with fluid flow behavior. In this theoretical paper we have discussed the effects of evaporation on the dynamics of steady state thermocapillary convection in a two-dimensional rectangular container. The liquid is heated by differentially heated sidewalls and mass loss from the interface due to evaporation is compensated by the liquid entering into the container through a lower inlet, thus keeping the thickness of the liquid layer constant. We show that for an evaporating liquid one can obtain a plane parallel base state profile which depends on the evaporative mass flux.

  10. High temperature evaporation of titanium, zirconium and hafnium carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.; Rempel', A.A.

    1991-01-01

    Evaporation of cubic nonstoichiometric carbides of titanium, zirconium and hafnium in a comparatively low-temperature interval (1800-2700) with detailed crystallochemical sample certification is studied. Titanium carbide is characterized by the maximum evaporation rate: at T>2300 K it loses 3% of sample mass during an hour and at T>2400 K titanium carbide evaporation becomes extremely rapid. Zirconium and hafnium carbide evaporation rates are several times lower than titanium carbide evaporation rates at similar temperatures. Partial pressures of metals and carbon over the carbides studied are calculated on the base of evaporation rates

  11. Isotope Fractionation of Water During Evaporation Without Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappa, Christopher D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Smith, Jared D.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic events engendering liquid water evaporation have received much attention over the last century, but remain incompletely understood. We present measurements of isotope fractionation occurring during free molecular evaporation from liquid microjets and show that the isotope ratios of evaporating molecules exhibit dramatic differences from equilibrium vapor values, strong variations with the solution deuterium mole fraction, and a clear temperature dependence. These results indicate the existence of an energetic barrier to evaporation and that the evaporation coefficient of water is less than unity. These new insights into water evaporation promise to advance our understanding of the processes that control the formation and lifetime of clouds in the atmosphere.

  12. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling through a fan-based heat sink. Successful heat pipe operation and experimental performances are determined for seven heating configurations, considering active bottom, middle and top sections, and four orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). For all heating sections active, the heat pipe oriented vertically in an evaporator-down mode and a power input of 150 W, the overall thermal resistance was 0.014 K/W at a thermal gradient of 2.1 K and an average operating temperature of 50.7 °C. Vertical operation showed best results, as can be expected; horizontally the heat pipe could not be tested up to the power limit and dry-out occurred between 20 and 80 W depending on the heating configuration. Heating configurations without the bottom section active demonstrated a dynamic start-up effect, caused by heat conduction towards the liquid pool and thereafter batch-wise introducing the working fluid into the two-phase cycle. By analysing the heat pipe limitations for the intended operating conditions, a suitable heat pipe geometry was chosen. To predict the thermal performance a thermal model using a resistance network was created. The model compares well with the measurement data, especially for higher input powers. Finally, the thermal model is used for the design of a 1 kW planar system-level electronics cooling infrastructure featuring six 1 m heat pipes in parallel having a long ( 75%) evaporator section.

  13. Total spectral distributions from Hawking radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broda, Boguslaw [University of Lodz, Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, Lodz (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    Taking into account the time dependence of the Hawking temperature and finite evaporation time of the black hole, the total spectral distributions of the radiant energy and of the number of particles have been explicitly calculated and compared to their temporary (initial) blackbody counterparts (spectral exitances). (orig.)

  14. A new top boundary condition for modeling surface diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer: theoretical analysis and application to soil evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new top boundary condition (TBC for representing the air–soil diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer. This new TBC (1 accounts for the multi-phase flow of a generic tracer; (2 accounts for effects of soil temperature, pH, solubility, sorption, and desorption processes; (3 enables a smooth transition between wet and dry soil conditions; (4 is compatible with the conductance formulation for modeling air–water volatile tracer exchange; and (5 is applicable to site, regional, and global land models.

    Based on the new TBC, we developed new formulations for bare-soil resistance and corresponding soil evaporation efficiency. The new soil resistance is predicted as the reciprocal of the harmonic sum of two resistances: (1 gaseous and aqueous molecular diffusion and (2 liquid mass flow resulting from the hydraulic pressure gradient between the soil surface and center of the topsoil control volume. We compared the predicted soil evaporation efficiency with those from several field and laboratory soil evaporation measurements and found good agreement with the typically observed two-stage soil evaporation curves. Comparison with the soil evaporation efficiency equation of Lee and Pielke (1992; hereafter LP92 indicates that their equation can overestimate soil evaporation when the atmospheric resistance is low and underestimate soil evaporation when the soil is dry. Using a synthetic inversion experiment, we demonstrated that using inverted soil resistance data from field measurements to derive empirical soil resistance formulations resulted in large uncertainty because (1 the inverted soil resistance data are always severely impacted by measurement error and (2 the derived empirical equation is very sensitive to the number of data points and the assumed functional form of the resistance.

    We expect the application of our new TBC in land models will provide a consistent representation for the diffusive tracer

  15. Exhaust and evaporative emissions from motorcycles fueled with ethanol gasoline blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei; Yuan, Wanli

    2015-01-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and E10 (90% gasoline and 10% ethanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED) including regulated and unregulated emissions. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions including carbonyls and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and Tenax TA, respectively. The experimental results showed that the emission factors of total hydrocarbons (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) from E10 fueling motorcycles decreased by 26%-45% and 63%-73%, while the emission factor of NOx increased by 36%-54% compared with those from gasoline fueling motorcycles. For unregulated emissions, the emission amount of VOCs from motorcycles fueled with E10 decreased by 18%-31% while total carbonyls were 2.6-4.5 times higher than those for gasoline. For evaporative emissions of THC and VOCs, for gasoline or E10, the diurnal breathing loss (DBL) was higher than hot soak loss (HSL). Using E10 as a fuel does not make much difference in the amount of evaporative THC, while resulted in a slightly growth of 14%-17% for evaporative BETX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  17. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel; Houborg, Rasmus; McCabe, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  18. Evaluating the hydrological consistency of evaporation products

    KAUST Repository

    Lopez Valencia, Oliver Miguel

    2017-01-18

    Advances in space-based observations have provided the capacity to develop regional- to global-scale estimates of evaporation, offering insights into this key component of the hydrological cycle. However, the evaluation of large-scale evaporation retrievals is not a straightforward task. While a number of studies have intercompared a range of these evaporation products by examining the variance amongst them, or by comparison of pixel-scale retrievals against ground-based observations, there is a need to explore more appropriate techniques to comprehensively evaluate remote-sensing-based estimates. One possible approach is to establish the level of product agreement between related hydrological components: for instance, how well do evaporation patterns and response match with precipitation or water storage changes? To assess the suitability of this "consistency"-based approach for evaluating evaporation products, we focused our investigation on four globally distributed basins in arid and semi-arid environments, comprising the Colorado River basin, Niger River basin, Aral Sea basin, and Lake Eyre basin. In an effort to assess retrieval quality, three satellite-based global evaporation products based on different methodologies and input data, including CSIRO-PML, the MODIS Global Evapotranspiration product (MOD16), and Global Land Evaporation: the Amsterdam Methodology (GLEAM), were evaluated against rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) along with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) water storage anomalies. To ensure a fair comparison, we evaluated consistency using a degree correlation approach after transforming both evaporation and precipitation data into spherical harmonics. Overall we found no persistent hydrological consistency in these dryland environments. Indeed, the degree correlation showed oscillating values between periods of low and high water storage changes, with a phase difference of about 2–3 months

  19. Molecular simulation of steady-state evaporation and condensation in the presence of a non-condensable gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi; Keblinski, Pawel

    2018-02-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we study evaporation and condensation of fluid Ar in the presence of a non-condensable Ne gas in a nanochannel. The evaporation and condensation are driven by the temperature difference, ΔTL, between the evaporating and condensing liquid surfaces. The steady-state evaporation and condensation fluxes (JMD) are also affected by the Ne concentration, ρNe, and the nanochannel length. We find that across a wide range of ΔTL and ρNe, JMD is in good agreement with the prediction from Stefan's law and from Schrage relationships. Furthermore, for ΔTL less than ˜20% of the absolute average temperature, we find that both steady-state heat and mass fluxes are proportional to ΔTL. This allows us to determine the interfacial resistance to the heat and mass transfer and compare it with the corresponding resistances in the gas phase. In this context, we derive an analytical expression for the effective thermal conductivity of the gas region in the nanochannel and the mass transport interfacial resistance equivalent length, i.e., the length of the nanochannel for which the resistance to the mass flow is the same as the interfacial resistance to the mass flow.

  20. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  1. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro, E-mail: okamoto@nrips.go.jp [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan); Hiramatsu, Muneyuki [Yamanashi Prefectural Police H.Q., 312-4 Kubonakajima, Isawa-cho, Usui, Yamanashi 406-0036 (Japan); Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma [Metropolitan Police Department, 2-1-1 Kasumigaseki, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-8929 (Japan); Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi [National Research Institute of Police Science, 6-3-1 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-0882 (Japan)

    2015-04-28

    Highlights: • We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the molar mass of gasoline. • We proposed an evaporation model assuming a 2-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE. • We predicted the change in the vapor pressure of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation. • The vapor pressures were measured and compared as a means of verifying the model. • We presented the method for predicting flash points of the ETBE-blended gasoline. - Abstract: To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were

  2. Tank 26F-2F Evaporator Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K.

    2012-12-19

    Tank 26F supernate sample was sent by Savannah River Remediation to Savannah River National Laboratory for evaporation test to help understand the underlying cause of the recent gravity drain line (GDL) pluggage during operation of the 2F Evaporator system. The supernate sample was characterized prior to the evaporation test. The evaporation test involved boiling the supernate in an open beaker until the density of the concentrate (evaporation product) was between 1.4 to 1.5 g/mL. It was followed by filtering and washing of the precipitated solids with deionized water. The concentrate supernate (or concentrate filtrate), the damp unwashed precipitated solids, and the wash filtrates were characterized. All the precipitated solids dissolved during water washing. A semi-quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the unwashed precipitated solids revealed their composition. All the compounds with the exception of silica (silicon oxide) are known to be readily soluble in water. Hence, their dissolution during water washing is not unexpected. Even though silica is a sparingly water-soluble compound, its dissolution is also not surprising. This stems from its small fraction in the solids as a whole and also its relative freshness. Assuming similar supernate characteristics, flushing the GDL with water (preferably warm) should facilitate dissolution and removal of future pluggage events as long as build up/aging of the sparingly soluble constituent (silica) is limited. On the other hand, since the amount of silica formed is relatively small, it is quite possible dissolution of the more soluble larger fraction will cause disintegration or fragmentation of the sparingly soluble smaller fraction (that may be embedded in the larger soluble solid mass) and allow its removal via suspension in the flushing water.

  3. Adiabatic burst evaporation from bicontinuous nanoporous membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichilmann, Sachar; Rücker, Kerstin; Haase, Markus; Enke, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation of volatile liquids from nanoporous media with bicontinuous morphology and pore diameters of a few 10 nm is an ubiquitous process. For example, such drying processes occur during syntheses of nanoporous materials by sol–gel chemistry or by spinodal decomposition in the presence of solvents as well as during solution impregnation of nanoporous hosts with functional guests. It is commonly assumed that drying is endothermic and driven by non-equilibrium partial pressures of the evaporating species in the gas phase. We show that nearly half of the liquid evaporates in an adiabatic mode involving burst-like liquid-to-gas conversions. During single adiabatic burst evaporation events liquid volumes of up to 107 μm3 are converted to gas. The adiabatic liquid-to-gas conversions occur if air invasion fronts get unstable because of the built-up of high capillary pressures. Adiabatic evaporation bursts propagate avalanche-like through the nanopore systems until the air invasion fronts have reached new stable configurations. Adiabatic cavitation bursts thus compete with Haines jumps involving air invasion front relaxation by local liquid flow without enhanced mass transport out of the nanoporous medium and prevail if the mean pore diameter is in the range of a few 10 nm. The results reported here may help optimize membrane preparation via solvent-based approaches, solution-loading of nanopore systems with guest materials as well as routine use of nanoporous membranes with bicontinuous morphology and may contribute to better understanding of adsorption/desorption processes in nanoporous media. PMID:25926406

  4. THE USE OF POROUS CERAMICS FOR EVAPORATIVE AND EVAPORATIVE – VAPOR –COMPRESSION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheban D.N.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural evaporative cooling is one of technical solutions of problem of energy efficiency in air conditioning systems. The use of evaporative cooling in the first combined cooling stage allows reducing the load on the condenser of the cooling machine due to reducing of the condensing temperature. This combination allows the use of this type of system in any climatic conditions, including regions with small water resources. Multi-porous ceramic structure is used in evaporative air coolers and water coolers in this case. The objective of this paper is to show advantages of the using of porous ceramic as a working attachment, and to show advantages of the proposed scheme of compression-evaporation systems in comparison with standard vapor compression systems. Experimental research proved the fact, that in the film mode cooling efficiency of air flow is between EA=0,6÷0,7 and is slightly dependent of water flow. For countries with hot and dry climate where reserves of water are limited, it is recommended to use cyclical regime with EA≈0,65 value, or to use channel regime with a value of EA≈0,55. This leads to considerable energy savings. It has been determined, that combined air conditioning system is completely closed on the consumption of water at the parameters of the outside air equal to tA =32ºC and XA>13g/kg (in system with direct evaporative cooling machine, and tA=32ºC and XA>12g/kg (in system with indirect evaporative cooling machine. With these parameters, the cost of water in evaporative cooling stage can be fully compensated by condensate from the evaporator chiller.

  5. The Choice Method of Selected Material has influence single evaporation flash method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunaryo, Geni Rina; Sumijanto; Nurul L, Siti

    2000-01-01

    The final objective of this research is to design the mini scale of desalination installation. It has been started from 1997/1998 and has been doing for this 3 years. Where the study on the assessment of various desalination system has been done in the first year and thermodynamic in the second year. In this third year, literatully study on material resistance from outside pressure has been done. The number of pressure for single evaporator flashing method is mainly depend on the temperature that applied in that system. In this paper, the configuration stage, the choice method of selecting material for main evaporator vessel, tube, tube plates, water boxes, pipework, and valves for multistage flash distillation will be described. The choice of selecting material for MSF is base on economical consideration, cheap, high resistance and easy to be maintained

  6. Adaptation of metabolism and evaporative water loss along an aridity gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB; Bloomer, P

    2003-01-01

    Broad-scale comparisons of birds indicate the possibility of adaptive modification of basal metabolic rate (BMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) in species from desert environments, but these might be confounded by phylogeny or phenotypic plasticity. This study relates variation in avian BMR

  7. Measurement and modeling of bryophyte evaporation in a boreal forest chronosequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Gower, Stith T.; Amiro, Brian; Ewers, Brent

    2011-01-19

    The effects of changing climate and disturbance on forest water cycling are not well understood. In particular bryophytes contribute significantly to forest evapotranspiration (ET) in poorly-drained boreal forests, but few studies have directly measured this flux and how it changes with stand age and soil drainage. We used large chambers to measure bryophyte evaporation (E) in Canadian Picea mariana forests of varying ages and soil drainages, as well under controlled laboratory conditions, and modeled daily E using site-specific meteorological data to drive a Penman-Monteith-based model. Field measurements of E averaged 0.37 mm day-1, and ranged from 0.03 (Pleurozium schreberii in a 77-year-old dry stand) to 1.43 mm day-1 (Sphagnum riparium in a 43-year-old bog). canopy resistance ranged from ~0 (at 25 °C, some values were <0) to ~1500 s m-1 for dry, cold (5 °C) mosses. In the laboratory, moss canopy resistance was constant until a moss water content of ~6 g g-1 and then climbed sharply with further drying; no difference was observed between the three moss groups (feather mosses, hollow mosses, and hummock mosses) tested. Modeled annual E fluxes from bryophytes ranged from 0.4 mm day-1, in the well-drained stands, to ~1 mm day-1 in the 43-year-old bog, during the growing season. Eddy covariance data imply that bryophytes contributed 18-31% and 49-69% to the total ET flux, at the well- and poorly-drained stands respectively. Bryophyte E was greater in bogs than in upland stands, was driven by low-lying mosses, and did not vary with stand age; this suggests that shifts in forest age due to increasing fire will have little effect on the bryophyte contribution to ET.

  8. Edge-to-Stem Variability in Wet-Canopy Evaporation From an Urban Tree Row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stan, John T.; Norman, Zachary; Meghoo, Adrian; Friesen, Jan; Hildebrandt, Anke; Côté, Jean-François; Underwood, S. Jeffrey; Maldonado, Gustavo

    2017-11-01

    Evaporation from wet-canopy (E_C) and stem (E_S) surfaces during rainfall represents a significant portion of municipal-to-global scale hydrologic cycles. For urban ecosystems, E_C and E_S dynamics play valuable roles in stormwater management. Despite this, canopy-interception loss studies typically ignore crown-scale variability in E_C and assume (with few indirect data) that E_S is generally {<}2% of total wet-canopy evaporation. We test these common assumptions for the first time with a spatially-distributed network of in-canopy meteorological monitoring and 45 surface temperature sensors in an urban Pinus elliottii tree row to estimate E_C and E_S under the assumption that crown surfaces behave as "wet bulbs". From December 2015 through July 2016, 33 saturated crown periods (195 h of 5-min observations) were isolated from storms for determination of 5-min evaporation rates ranging from negligible to 0.67 mm h^{-1}. Mean E_S (0.10 mm h^{-1}) was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than mean E_C (0.16 mm h^{-1}). But, E_S values often equalled E_C and, when scaled to trunk area using terrestrial lidar, accounted for 8-13% (inter-quartile range) of total wet-crown evaporation (E_S+E_C scaled to surface area). E_S contributions to total wet-crown evaporation maximized at 33%, showing a general underestimate (by 2-17 times) of this quantity in the literature. Moreover, results suggest wet-crown evaporation from urban tree rows can be adequately estimated by simply assuming saturated tree surfaces behave as wet bulbs, avoiding problematic assumptions associated with other physically-based methods.

  9. Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurement of grassland evaporation using a surface-layer scintillometer. ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... of soil heat flux and net irradiance, evaporation rates were calculated as a residual of the ...

  10. Raman Thermometry Measurements of Free Evaporation from Liquid Water Droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Jared D.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Drisdell, Walter S.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies of evaporation have suggested that on average, molecules in the higher-energy tail of the Boltzmann distribution are more readily transferred into the vapor during evaporation. To test these conclusions, the evaporative cooling rates of a droplet train of liquid water injected into vacuum have been studied via Raman thermometry. The resulting cooling rates are fit to an evaporative cooling model based on Knudsen's maximum rate of evaporation, in which we explicitly account for surface cooling. We have determined that the value of the evaporation coefficient (γ e ) of liquid water is 0.62 ± 0.09, confirming that a rate-limiting barrier impedes the evaporation rate. Such insight will facilitate the formulation of a microscopic mechanism for the evaporation of liquid water

  11. Clustered field evaporation of metallic glasses in atom probe tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemp, J.; Gerstl, S.S.A.; Löffler, J.F.; Schönfeld, B.

    2016-01-01

    Field evaporation of metallic glasses is a stochastic process combined with spatially and temporally correlated events, which are referred to as clustered evaporation (CE). This phenomenon is investigated by studying the distance between consecutive detector hits. CE is found to be a strongly localized phenomenon (up to 3 nm in range) which also depends on the type of evaporating ions. While a similar effect in crystals is attributed to the evaporation of crystalline layers, CE of metallic glasses presumably has a different – as yet unknown – physical origin. The present work provides new perspectives on quantification methods for atom probe tomography of metallic glasses. - Highlights: • Field evaporation of metallic glasses is heterogeneous on a scale of up to 3 nm. • Amount of clustered evaporation depends on ion species and temperature. • Length scales of clustered evaporation and correlative evaporation are similar.

  12. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    of black hole evaporation, we find that, in order to make the total entropy of the whole system increase along an evaporation process, a remnant should remain after the evaporation of black hole without respect to the size of the nonequilibrium region around the black hole. This implies that the information loss problem may disappear due to the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow

  13. Niobium tunnel junction fabrication using e-gun evaporation and SNAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortlandt, J.; van der Zant, H. S. J.; Schellingerhout, A. J. G.; Mooij, J. E.

    1990-11-01

    We have fabricated high quality small area Nb-Al-Al 2O 3-Nb junctions with SNAP, making use of e-beam evaporation in a 10 -5 Pa diffusion pumped vacuum system. Nominal dimensions of the junctions are 8x8, 4x4 and 2x2 μm 2. We obtain typical current densities of 5-6 × 10 +2A/cm 2 and (critical current) x (subgap resistance) products of 40 mV.

  14. Hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops (APS 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Brutin, D.; Rigollet, F.; LeNiliot, C.

    2009-01-01

    This fluid dynamics video was submitted to the Gallery of Fluid Motion for the 2009 APS Division of Fluid Dynamics Meeting in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Drop evaporation is a simple phenomena but still unclear concerning the mechanisms of evaporation. A common agreement of the scientific community based on experimental and numerical work evidences that most of the evaporation occurs at the triple line. However, the rate of evaporation is still empirically predicted due to the lack of knowledge o...

  15. Exergoeconomic optimization of coaxial tube evaporators for cooling of high pressure gaseous hydrogen during vehicle fuelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous hydrogen as an automotive fuel is reaching the point of commercial introduction. Development of hydrogen fuelling stations considering an acceptable fuelling time by cooling the hydrogen to -40 C has started. This paper presents a design study of coaxial tube ammonia evaporators for three......-stage evaporator. The main contribution to the total cost was the cost associated with exergy destruction, the capital investment cost contributed with 5-14 %. The main contribution to the exergy destruction was found to be thermally driven. The pressure driven exergy destruction accounted for 3-9 %....

  16. Assessment of evaporative water loss from Dutch cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.M.J.; Elbers, J.A.; Brolsma, R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Moors, E.J.; Rodríguez-CarreteroMárquez, M.T.; Hove, van B.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable estimates of evaporative water loss are required to assess the urban water budget in support of division of water resources among various needs, including heat mitigation measures in cities relying on evaporative cooling. We report on urban evaporative water loss from Arnhem and Rotterdam

  17. Quantum Evaporation from Liquid 4He by Rotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, F. R.; Baird, M. J.; Wyatt, A. F. G.

    1984-04-01

    We have shown that rotons as well as phonons can evaporate 4He atoms in a single-quantum process. Measurements of the time of flight and the angular distribution of the evaporated atoms clearly distinguish between evaporation by phonons and rotons. The results indicate that energy and the parallel component of momentum are conserved at the free liquid surface.

  18. Modelling evaporation from a drained and rewetted peatland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieksma, J F M; Moors, EJ; Dolman, A J; Schouwenaars, J M

    1997-01-01

    Evaporation from a cutover raised bog in The Netherlands was modelled using a detailed, physically based evaporation model for heterogeneous vegetation and unsaturated soil water how ''SWAPS''. The model enables a quantification of the role of heterogeneity on evaporation. Micro-meteorological

  19. PREDICTING EVAPORATION RATES AND TIMES FOR SPILLS OF CHEMICAL MIXTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreadsheet and short-cut methods have been developed for predicting evaporation rates and evaporation times for spills (and constrained baths) of chemical mixtures. Steady-state and time-varying predictions of evaporation rates can be made for six-component mixtures, includ...

  20. Evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shingo; Vandendriessche, Stefaan; Koeckelberghs, Guy; Verbiest, Thierry; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-03-09

    We demonstrate the evaporation rate-based selection of supramolecular chirality for the first time. P-type aggregates prepared by fast evaporation, and M-type aggregates prepared by slow evaporation are kinetic and thermodynamic products under dynamic reaction conditions, respectively. These findings provide a novel solution reaction chemistry under the dynamic reaction conditions.

  1. Trends in evaporation of a large subtropical lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Cheng; Wang, Yongwei; Wang, Wei; Liu, Shoudong; Piao, Meihua; Xiao, Wei; Lee, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    How rising temperature and changing solar radiation affect evaporation of natural water bodies remains poor understood. In this study, evaporation from Lake Taihu, a large (area 2400 km2) freshwater lake in the Yangtze River Delta, China, was simulated by the CLM4-LISSS offline lake model and estimated with pan evaporation data. Both methods were calibrated against lake evaporation measured directly with eddy covariance in 2012. Results show a significant increasing trend of annual lake evaporation from 1979 to 2013, at a rate of 29.6 mm decade-1 according to the lake model and 25.4 mm decade-1 according to the pan method. The mean annual evaporation during this period shows good agreement between these two methods (977 mm according to the model and 1007 mm according to the pan method). A stepwise linear regression reveals that downward shortwave radiation was the most significant contributor to the modeled evaporation trend, while air temperature was the most significant contributor to the pan evaporation trend. Wind speed had little impact on the modeled lake evaporation but had a negative contribution to the pan evaporation trend offsetting some of the temperature effect. Reference evaporation was not a good proxy for the lake evaporation because it was on average 20.6 % too high and its increasing trend was too large (56.5 mm decade-1).

  2. A kinetic model of droplet heating and evaporation: Effects of inelastic collisions and a non-unity evaporation coefficient

    KAUST Repository

    Sazhin, Sergei S.; Xie, Jianfei; Shishkova, Irina N.; Elwardani, Ahmed Elsaid; Heikal, Morgan Raymond

    2013-01-01

    The previously developed kinetic model for droplet heating and evaporation into a high pressure air is generalised to take into account the combined effects of inelastic collisions between molecules in the kinetic region, a non-unity evaporation

  3. Thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation water recovery technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebelen, G. J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; Dehner, G. F.

    1982-01-01

    The recently developed Thermoelectric Integrated Membrane Evaporation Subsystem (TIMES) offers a highly competitive approach to water recovery from waste fluids for future on-orbit stations such as the Space Operations Center. Low power, compactness and gravity insensitive operation are featured in this vacuum distillation subsystem that combines a hollow fiber membrane evaporator with a thermoelectric heat pump. The hollow fiber elements provide positive liquid/gas phase control with no moving parts other than pumps and an accumulator, thus solving problems inherent in other reclamation subsystem designs. In an extensive test program, over 850 hours of operation were accumulated during which time high quality product water was recovered from both urine and wash water at an average steady state production rate of 2.2 pounds per hour.

  4. Mathematical model of compact type evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovička, Martin; Hyhlík, Tomáš

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, development of the mathematical model for evaporator used in heat pump circuits is covered, with focus on air dehumidification application. Main target of this ad-hoc numerical model is to simulate heat and mass transfer in evaporator for prescribed inlet conditions and different geometrical parameters. Simplified 2D mathematical model is developed in MATLAB SW. Solvers for multiple heat and mass transfer problems - plate surface temperature, condensate film temperature, local heat and mass transfer coefficients, refrigerant temperature distribution, humid air enthalpy change are included as subprocedures of this model. An automatic procedure of data transfer is developed in order to use results of MATLAB model in more complex simulation within commercial CFD code. In the end, Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) method is introduced and implemented into MATLAB model.

  5. EVAPORATIVE COOLING - CONCEPTUAL DESIGN FOR ATLAS SCT

    CERN Document Server

    Niinikoski, T O

    1998-01-01

    The conceptual design of an evaporative two-phase flow cooling system for the ATLAS SCT detector is described, using perfluorinated propane (C3F8) as a coolant. Comparison with perfluorinated butane (C4F10) is made, although the detailed design is presented only for C3F8. The two-phase pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient are calculated in order to determine the dimensions of the cooling pipes and module contacts for the Barrel SCT. The region in which the flow is homogeneous is determined. The cooling cycle, pipework, compressor, heat exchangers and other main elements of the system are calculated in order to be able to discuss the system control, safety and reliability. Evaporative cooling appears to be substantially better than the binary ice system from the point of view of safety, reliability, detector thickness, heat transfer coefficient, cost and simplicity.

  6. Thermodynamic Modeling of Savannah River Evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-08-02

    A thermodynamic model based on the code SOLGASMIX is developed to calculate phase equilibrium in evaporators and related tank wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). This model uses the Pitzer method to calculate activity coefficients, and many of the required Pitzer parameters have been determined in the course of this work. Principal chemical species in standard SRS simulant solutions are included, and the temperature range for most parameters has been extended above 100 C. The SOLGASMIX model and calculations using the code Geochemists Workbench are compared to actual solubility data including silicate, aluminate, and aluminosilicate solutions. In addition, SOLGASMIX model calculations are also compared to transient solubility data involving SRS simulant solutions. These comparisons indicate that the SOLGASMIX predictions closely match reliable data over the range of temperature and solution composition expected in the SRS evaporator and related tanks. Predictions using the Geochemists Workbench may be unreliable, due primarily to the use of an inaccurate activity coefficient model.

  7. Evaporative cooling in ATLAS - present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Viehhauser, G; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    The ATLAS Inner Detector cooling system is the largest evaporative cooling system used in High Energy Physics today. During the installation and commissioning of this system many lessons had to be learned, but the system is now operating reliably, although it does not achieve all original design specifications in all its circuits. We have re-evaluated the requirements for the cooling system, in particular for the evaporation temperature, over the full ATLAS operational lifetime. We find that the critical requirement is for thermal stability at the end of the operation in the high-radiation environment. To predict this we have developed a simple thermal model of the detector modules which yields analytical expressions to evaluate the results of changes in the operating conditions. After a comparison of the revised requirements and the actual present cooling system performance we will discuss various modifications to the system which will be required for future operation. In parallel we are developing a cooling...

  8. Structure of Non-evaporating diesel sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, M.R.; Baluch, A.H.; Tahir, Z.R.

    2008-01-01

    Need is always felt of some rational experimental information on fuel spray jet formation, its development and dispersion in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. The latest study uses computational fluid dynamics for the modeling of engine flows. The original experimental work of the present author on non-evaporating sprays produced by a single-hole orifice type nozzle using a distribution type commercial fuel injection pump forms the basis to derive correlations for penetration rates, break up times and lengths of non-evaporating diesel sprays. The correlations derived can be used to do CFD modeling of sprays under variable conditions of injector nozzle hole diameter, fuel injection pressure and combustion chamber pressure. (author)

  9. Waste Treatment Plant LAW Evaporation: Antifoam Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BAICH, MARKA

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the work performed to determine the performance and fate of several commercial antifoams during evaporation of various simulants of Envelope A, B, and C mixed with simulated River Protection Project Waste Treatment Plant (RPP-WTP) recycle streams. Chemical and radiation stability of selected antifoams was also investigated.Contributors to this effort include: Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), DOW Corning Analytical, and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)

  10. Evaporation-triggered microdroplet nucleation and the four life phases of an evaporating Ouzo drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huanshu; Diddens, Christian; Lv, Pengyu; Kuerten, J. G. M.; Zhang, Xuehua; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    Evaporating liquid droplets are omnipresent in nature and technology, such as in inkjet printing, coating, deposition of materials, medical diagnostics, agriculture, the food industry, cosmetics, or spills of liquids. Whereas the evaporation of pure liquids, liquids with dispersed particles, or even liquid mixtures has intensively been studied over the past two decades, the evaporation of ternary mixtures of liquids with different volatilities and mutual solubilities has not yet been explored. Here we show that the evaporation of such ternary mixtures can trigger a phase transition and the nucleation of microdroplets of one of the components of the mixture. As a model system, we pick a sessile Ouzo droplet (as known from daily life—a transparent mixture of water, ethanol, and anise oil) and reveal and theoretically explain its four life phases: In phase I, the spherical cap-shaped droplet remains transparent while the more volatile ethanol is evaporating, preferentially at the rim of the drop because of the singularity there. This leads to a local ethanol concentration reduction and correspondingly to oil droplet nucleation there. This is the beginning of phase II, in which oil microdroplets quickly nucleate in the whole drop, leading to its milky color that typifies the so-called “Ouzo effect.” Once all ethanol has evaporated, the drop, which now has a characteristic nonspherical cap shape, has become clear again, with a water drop sitting on an oil ring (phase III), finalizing the phase inversion. Finally, in phase IV, all water has evaporated, leaving behind a tiny spherical cap-shaped oil drop. PMID:27418601

  11. Experimental investigation of a novel configuration of desiccant based evaporative air conditioning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uçkan, İrfan; Yılmaz, Tuncay; Hürdoğan, Ertaç; Büyükalaca, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel desiccant based evaporative cooling system is developed and tested. ► Cooling capacity, COP and energy consumption of the system are evaluated. ► Indoor air conditions are in the range of thermal comfort zone and expanded comfort zone. ► Designing of the system have considerable effect on the energy consumption. - Abstract: A novel configuration of desiccant based evaporative cooling system for air conditioning application is developed and tested. At the beginning of the design stage of the system, an analysis is carried out in order to maximize the performance of the system. It is found based on configuration that outdoor air must be used for regeneration to increase performance of the system and so three air channels are used. Experiments are carried out to investigate the total performance of the system and performance of the components used during summer season in a hot and humid climate. Effectiveness values for both heat exchangers and evaporative coolers are calculated through this work. In addition to the cooling capacity, coefficient of performance (COP) and energy consumption of the system are also evaluated. Results show that the effectiveness for the heat exchangers and evaporative coolers are very high under different outdoor conditions. It is also shown from the results that indoor air conditions are in the range of thermal comfort zone defined by ASHRAE and expanded comfort zone for evaporative air conditioning applications.

  12. Formation of Particulate Matter from the Oxidation of Evaporated Wastewater from Hydraulic Fracturing Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt Ruiz, L.; Bean, J. K.; Bilotto, A.

    2017-12-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing for production of petroleum and natural gas has increased dramatically in the last decade, but the environmental impacts of this technology remain unclear. Experiments were conducted to quantify airborne emissions from twelve samples of hydraulic fracturing flowback wastewater collected in the Permian Basin, as well as the photochemical processing of these emissions leading to the formation of particulate matter. The concentration of total volatile carbon (TVC, hydrocarbons evaporating at room temperature) averaged 29 milligrams of carbon per liter (mgC/L) and the TVC evaporation rate averaged 1357 mgC/L-m2-min. After photochemical oxidation under high NOx conditions the amount of organic particulate matter formed per milliliter of wastewater evaporated averaged 24 micrograms (µg); the amount of ammonium nitrate formed averaged 262 µg. In the state of Texas, the potential formation of PM from evaporated flowback wastewater is similar to the estimated PM emissions from diesel engines used in oil rigs, emphasizing the need to quantify wastewater evaporation and atmospheric processing of these emissions.

  13. Spin coating of an evaporating polymer solution

    KAUST Repository

    Münch, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of spin coating of a single polymer blended in a solvent. The model describes the one-dimensional development of a thin layer of the mixture as the layer thins due to flow created by a balance of viscous forces and centrifugal forces and evaporation of the solvent. In the model both the diffusivity of the solvent in the polymer and the viscosity of the mixture are very rapidly varying functions of the solvent mass fraction. Guided by numerical solutions an asymptotic analysis reveals a number of different possible behaviours of the thinning layer dependent on the nondimensional parameters describing the system. The main practical interest is in controlling the appearance and development of a "skin" on the polymer where the solvent concentration reduces rapidly on the outer surface leaving the bulk of the layer still with high concentrations of solvent. In practice, a fast and uniform drying of the film is required. The critical parameters controlling this behaviour are found to be the ratio of the diffusion to advection time scales ε, the ratio of the evaporation to advection time scales δ and the ratio of the diffusivity of the pure polymer and the initial mixture exp(-1/γ). In particular, our analysis shows that for very small evaporation with δ

  14. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, Rajesh; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ross, P.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilgen, John B.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  15. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density

  16. [Effect of biochar addition on soil evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Niu, Wen Quan; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Li, Yuan; Lyu, Wang; Li, Kang-Yong; Zou, Xiao-Yang; Liang, Bo-Hui

    2016-11-18

    In order to determine the rational amount of biochar application and its effect on soil hydrological processes in arid area, soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory using three biochar additions (5%, 10% and 15%) and four different biochar types (devaporation. The results showed that the addition of biochar could change the phreatic water recharge, soil water-holding capacity, capillary water upward movement and soil evaporation obviously. But the effects were different depending on the type of biochar raw material and the size of particle. The phreatic water recharge increased with the increasing amount of biochar addition. The addition of biochar could obviously enlarge the soil water-holding capacity and promote the capillary water upward movement rate. This effect was greater when using the material of bamboo charcoal compared with using wood charcoal, while biochar with small particle size had greater impact than that with big particle size. The biochar could effectively restrain the soil evaporation at a low addition amount (5%). But it definitely promoted the soil evaporation if the addition amount was very high. In arid area, biochar addition in appropriate amount could improve soil water retention capacity.

  17. Enhancing Water Evaporation with Floating Synthetic Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boreyko, Jonathan; Vieitez, Joshua; Berrier, Austin; Roseveare, Matthew; Shi, Weiwei

    2017-11-01

    When a wetted nanoporous medium is exposed to a subsaturated ambient environment, the water menisci assume a concave curvature to achieve a negative pressure. This negative water pressure is required to balance the mismatch in water activity across the water-air interface to achieve local equilibrium. Here, we show that the diffusive evaporation rate of water can be greatly modulated by floating a nanoporous synthetic leaf at the water's free interface. For high ambient humidities, adding the leaf serves to enhance the evaporation rate, presumably by virtue of the menisci enhancing the effective liquid-vapor surface area. For low humidities, the menisci cannot achieve a local equilibrium and retreat partway into the leaf, which increases the local humidity directly above the menisci. In light of these two effects, we find the surprising result that leaves exposed to an ambient humidity of 90 percent can evaporate water at the same rate as leaves exposed to only 50 percent humidity. These findings have implications for using synthetic trees to enhance steam generation or water harvesting. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1653631).

  18. Ion assisted deposition of thermally evaporated Ag and Al films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwangbo, C.K.; Lingg, L.J.; Lehan, J.P.; Macleod, H.A.; Makous, J.L.; Kim, S.Y.; University of Arizona, Physics Department, Tucson, Arizona 85721; Aju University, Physics Department, Suwon, Korea)

    1989-01-01

    Optical, electrical, and microstructural effects of Ar ion bombardment and Ar incorporation on thermally evaporated Ag and Al thin films are investigated. The results show that as the momentum supplied to the growing films by the bombarding ions per arriving metal atom increases, the refractive index at 632.8 nm increases and the extinction coefficient decreases, lattice spacing expands, grain size decreases, electrical resistivity increases, and trapped Ar increases slightly. In Ag films, stress reverses from tensile to compressive and in Al films compressive stress increases. In the Al films the change in optical constants can be explained by the variation in void volume. The reversal of stress from tensile to compressive in Ag films requires a threshold level of momentum. The increase in electrical resistivity is related to the decrease in grain size and increase in trapped Ar in both types of film. Many of these properties correlate well with the momentum transferred, suggesting that the momentum is an important physical parameter in describing the influence of ion beam on growing thin films and determining the characteristics of thin metal films prepared by ion assisted deposition

  19. Characterization of Uranium in Archived 2H Evaporator Scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUFF, MC

    2004-01-01

    This research was conducted to improve our fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of U accumulation with NAS in the evaporators and in other process areas at the SRS that may concentrate U in the presence of silicates, aluminum and NAS. Our study uses information gained from the characterization of solids formed in laboratory tests under similar HLW evaporator conditions to aid our interpretation of characterization data of an actual archived 2H Evaporator scale sample. These basic scientific studies will help support the basis for the continued safe operation of SRS evaporators and this fundamental information will be used to help mitigate U accumulation during evaporator operation

  20. Safety mechanism for evaporations apparatus for radioactive liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The apparatus works as two step evaporator preferably using evaporation by expansion. The vapor coming from the first evaporation step is condensed in a mixed condenser which is fed over a circulating pump with a part of the liquid of the second step. The resulting mixture is then led to the second evaporation step. According to the invention between the first step vapor pipe and the mixed condensor there is arranged a flow regulator which causes a drop in pressure corresponding to the pressure difference between the first and second evaporation step, if the vapor flow is above normal operation but still admissible. (P.K.)

  1. Design and operation of evaporators for radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamomoto, Y.

    1968-01-01

    A manual dealing with the application of evaporators to the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes. This book is the second of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three on the three principal techniques for concentrating radioactive wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion-exchange. Informations on different types of evaporators and related equipment and their operational procedures are given in this document. It also gives different means of disposal of evaporator condensates and concentrates and a rough estimate of costs of radioactive waste evaporator plant and its operation. 58 refs, 43 figs, 5 tabs

  2. Design and operation of evaporators for radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamomoto, Y [comp.; Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1968-05-01

    A manual dealing with the application of evaporators to the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes. This book is the second of three commissioned by the IAEA on the three on the three principal techniques for concentrating radioactive wastes, namely chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion-exchange. Informations on different types of evaporators and related equipment and their operational procedures are given in this document. It also gives different means of disposal of evaporator condensates and concentrates and a rough estimate of costs of radioactive waste evaporator plant and its operation. 58 refs, 43 figs, 5 tabs.

  3. The experience of liquid radwaste evaporator performance improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S. H.

    1997-01-01

    Ulchin NPP has only one monobloc evaporation column which treated all radwaste liquid for two units. Since commercial operation in 1988 the evaporator performance is very poor. I think that the bad condition of evaporator is because of the bad quality of liquid radwaste, the large volume of liquid radwaste to treated, the poor skill of operation and some mistake in equipment design. Because of above conditions the average released activity by liquid radwaste is 35.153mCi/year in last eight years(1988∼1995). So it is necessary that we have to improve the evaporator performance and to reduce the liquid radwaste volume to evaporate

  4. Film flow analysis for a vertical evaporating tube with inner evaporation and outer condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Il Seouk

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study for the flow, heat and mass transfer characteristics of the evaporating tube with the films flowing down on both the inside and outside tube walls has been carried out. The condensation occurs along the outside wall while the evaporation occurs at the free surface of the inside film. The transport equations for momentum and energy are parabolized by the boundary-layer approximation and solved by using the marching technique. The calculation domain of 2 film flow regions (evaporating and condensation films at the inside and outside tube wall respectively) and tube wall is solved simultaneously. The coupling technique for the problem with the 3 different regions and the 2 interfaces of them has been developed to calculated the temperature field. The velocity and temperature fields and the amount of the condensed and evaporated mass as well as the position where the evaporating film is completely dried out are successfully predicted for various inside pressures and inside film inlet flow rates

  5. Evaporation Kinetics of Polyol Droplets: Determination of Evaporation Coefficients and Diffusion Constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yong-Yang; Marsh, Aleksandra; Haddrell, Allen E.; Li, Zhi-Ming; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2017-11-01

    In order to quantify the kinetics of mass transfer between the gas and condensed phases in aerosol, physicochemical properties of the gas and condensed phases and kinetic parameters (mass/thermal accommodation coefficients) are crucial for estimating mass fluxes over a wide size range from the free molecule to continuum regimes. In this study, we report measurements of the evaporation kinetics of droplets of 1-butanol, ethylene glycol (EG), diethylene glycol (DEG), and glycerol under well-controlled conditions (gas flow rates and temperature) using the previously developed cylindrical electrode electrodynamic balance technique. Measurements are compared with a model that captures the heat and mass transfer occurring at the evaporating droplet surface. The aim of these measurements is to clarify the discrepancy in the reported values of mass accommodation coefficient (αM, equals to evaporation coefficient based on microscopic reversibility) for 1-butanol, EG, and DEG and improve the accuracy of the value of the diffusion coefficient for glycerol in gaseous nitrogen. The uncertainties in the thermophysical and experimental parameters are carefully assessed, the literature values of the vapor pressures of these components are evaluated, and the plausible ranges of the evaporation coefficients for 1-butanol, EG, and DEG as well as uncertainty in diffusion coefficient for glycerol are reported. Results show that αM should be greater than 0.4, 0.2, and 0.4 for EG, DEG, and 1-butanol, respectively. The refined values are helpful for accurate prediction of the evaporation/condensation rates.

  6. Coating of evaporation concentrates with bitumen. Progress Report No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodier, J.; Lefillatre, G.; Rodi, L.; Cudel, Y.

    1968-01-01

    Laboratory tests have been carried out on the coating by bitumen of evaporation concentrates having a free nitric acidity of 1 N or 2.5 N, and a high mineralization (400 gm/litre). In order to neutralize the free acidity and to trap the radio-elements, these concentrates have been subjected before coating to various treatments designed to decrease the solubility. As a result of these treatments, sludges were obtained which could be coated directly with the bitumen. By measuring the radioactive diffusion factors of the bitumen coated products immersed both in ordinary and sea water, it was possible to compare the efficiency of the processes developed and of the various types of bitumen used. On the whole the radioactive diffusion tests were satisfactory and the process using successive co-precipitations (hydroxides, nickel ferrocyanide, barium sulphate) was chosen. From the bitumens tried out, a straight - asphalt, Mexphalt 40/50 was selected for low and medium activity concentrates as it ensures good isolation of the radio-elements; an air-blowing asphalt, Mexphalte R 90/40, was chosen for concentrates of high activity because of its higher resistance to irradiation. As a result of this work, a simple coating technology was evolved and pilot experiments will soon begin. Briefly, it appears that although a method for coating evaporation concentrates with bitumen has been defined, it will inevitably be necessary to devise a specific decontamination process each time that a new type of concentrate is encountered (composition, nature of the salts, radio-element distribution). (author) [fr

  7. Modeling Evaporation and Particle Assembly in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2017-06-13

    Evaporation-induced assembly of nanoparticles in a drying droplet is of great importance in many engineering applications, including printing, coating, and thin film processing. The investigation of particle dynamics in evaporating droplets can provide fundamental hydrodynamic insight for revealing the processing-structure relationship in the particle self-organization induced by solvent evaporation. We develop a free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method coupled with Brownian dynamics to simulate evaporating colloidal droplets on solid substrates with specified wetting properties. The influence of interface-bound nanoparticles on the surface tension and evaporation of a flat liquid-vapor interface is first quantified. The results indicate that the particles at the interface reduce surface tension and enhance evaporation flux. For evaporating particle-covered droplets on substrates with different wetting properties, we characterize the increase of evaporate rate via measuring droplet volume. We find that droplet evaporation is determined by the number density and circumferential distribution of interfacial particles. We further correlate particle dynamics and assembly to the evaporation-induced convection in the bulk and on the surface of droplet. Finally, we observe distinct final deposits from evaporating colloidal droplets with bulk-dispersed and interface-bound particles. In addition, the deposit pattern is also influenced by the equilibrium contact angle of droplet.

  8. Exploring the correlation between annual precipitation and potential evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X.; Buchberger, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    The interdependence between precipitation and potential evaporation is closely related to the classic Budyko framework. In this study, a systematic investigation of the correlation between precipitation and potential evaporation at the annual time step is conducted at both point scale and watershed scale. The point scale precipitation and potential evaporation data over the period of 1984-2015 are collected from 259 weather stations across the United States. The watershed scale precipitation data of 203 watersheds across the United States are obtained from the Model Parameter Estimation Experiment (MOPEX) dataset from 1983 to 2002; and potential evaporation data of these 203 watersheds in the same period are obtained from a remote-sensing algorithm. The results show that majority of the weather stations (77%) and watersheds (79%) exhibit a statistically significant negative correlation between annual precipitation and annual potential evaporation. The aggregated data cloud of precipitation versus potential evaporation follows a curve based on the combination of the Budyko-type equation and Bouchet's complementary relationship. Our result suggests that annual precipitation and potential evaporation are not independent when both Budyko's hypothesis and Bouchet's hypothesis are valid. Furthermore, we find that the wet surface evaporation, which is controlled primarily by short wave radiation as defined in Bouchet's hypothesis, exhibits less dependence on precipitation than the potential evaporation. As a result, we suggest that wet surface evaporation is a better representation of energy supply than potential evaporation in the Budyko framework.

  9. Water evaporation from substrate tooth surface during dentin treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusunoki, Mizuho; Itoh, Kazuo; Gokan, Yuka; Nagai, Yoshitaka; Tani, Chihiro; Hisamitsu, Hisashi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in the quantity of water evaporation from tooth surfaces. The amount of water evaporation was measured using Multi probe adapter MPA5 and Tewameter TM300 (Courage+Khazaka Electric GmbH, Köln, Germany) after acid etching and GM priming of enamel; and after EDTA conditioning and GM priming of dentin. The results indicated that the amount of water evaporation from the enamel surface was significantly less than that from the dentin. Acid etching did not affect the water evaporation from enamel, though GM priming significantly decreased the evaporation (83.48 ± 15.14% of that before priming). The evaporation from dentin was significantly increased by EDTA conditioning (131.38 ± 42.08% of that before conditioning) and significantly reduced by GM priming (80.26 ± 7.43% of that before priming). It was concluded that dentin priming reduced water evaporation from the dentin surface.

  10. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  11. CFD Analysis of Evaporation-Condensation Phenomenon In an Evaporation Chamber of Natural Vacuum Solar Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Ronowikarto, A. D.; Siregar, R. E. T.; Setyawan, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    Desalination technologies is one of solutions for water scarcity. With using renewable energy, like solar energy, wind energy, and geothermal energy, expected will reduce the energy demand. This required study on the modeling and transport parameters determination of natural vacuum solar desalination by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method to simulate the model. A three-dimensional case, two-phase model was developed for evaporation-condensation phenomenon in natural vacuum solar desalination. The CFD simulation results were compared with the avalaible experimental data. The simulation results shows inthat there is a phenomenon of evaporation-condensation in an evaporation chamber. From the simulation, the fresh water productivity is 2.21 litre, and from the experimental is 2.1 litre. This study shows there’s an error of magnitude 0.4%. The CFD results also show that, vacuum pressure will degrade the saturation temperature of sea water.

  12. Evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Katsuhiro; Hiramatsu, Muneyuki; Hino, Tomonori; Otake, Takuma; Okamoto, Takashi; Miyamoto, Hiroki; Honma, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Norimichi

    2015-04-28

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which contribute to global warming, production of gasoline blended with ethyl tert-buthyl ether (ETBE) is increasing annually. The flash point of ETBE is higher than that of gasoline, and blending ETBE into gasoline will change the flash point and the vapor pressure. Therefore, it is expected that the fire hazard caused by ETBE-blended gasoline would differ from that caused by normal gasoline. The aim of this study was to acquire the knowledge required for estimating the fire hazard of ETBE-blended gasoline. Supposing that ETBE-blended gasoline was a two-component mixture of gasoline and ETBE, we developed a prediction model that describes the vapor pressure and flash point of ETBE-blended gasoline in an arbitrary ETBE blending ratio. We chose 8-component hydrocarbon mixture as a model gasoline, and defined the relation between molar mass of gasoline and mass loss fraction. We measured the changes in the vapor pressure and flash point of gasoline by blending ETBE and evaporation, and compared the predicted values with the measured values in order to verify the prediction model. The calculated values of vapor pressures and flash points corresponded well to the measured values. Thus, we confirmed that the change in the evaporation characteristics of ETBE-blended gasoline by evaporation could be predicted by the proposed model. Furthermore, the vapor pressure constants of ETBE-blended gasoline were obtained by the model, and then the distillation curves were developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights into Evaporative Droplet Dynamics in the High-Wind Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, T.; Richter, D. H.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-spray droplets ejected into the air-sea boundary layer take part in a series of complex transport processes. To model the air-sea exchange of heat and moisture under high-wind conditions, it is important yet challenging to understand influences of evaporative droplets in the atmospheric boundary layer. We implement a high-resolution Eulerian-Lagrangian algorithm with droplets laden in a turbulent open-channel flow to reveal the dynamic and thermodynamic characteristics of evaporating sea spray. Our past numerical simulations demonstrated an overall weak modification to the total heat flux by evaporative droplets. This is due to redistributed sensible and latent heat fluxes from relatively small droplets that respond rapidly to the ambient environment or the limited residence time of larger droplets. However, droplets with a slower thermodynamic response to the environment indicate a potential to enhance the total heat flux, but this is dependent on concentration and suspension time. In the current study, we focus on correlations between the residence time and thermodynamic statistics of droplets in order to better understand how best to parameterize in large-scale models. In addition, we focus in detail on the different scales of turbulence to further characterize the range of influence that evaporating droplets have on the surrounding fluid.

  14. Entropy evaporated by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the entropy of the radiation evaporated by an uncharged, nonrotating black hole into vacuum in the course of its lifetime is approximately (4/3) times the initial entropy of this black hole. Also considered is a thermodynamically reversible process in which an increase of black-hole entropy is equal to the decrease of the entropy of its surroundings. Implications of these results for the generalized second law of thermodynamics and for the interpretation of black-hole entropy are pointed out

  15. Diffusion and evaporation of a liquid droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, K. N.

    1980-06-01

    The process of evaporation and diffusion of a spherical liquid droplet in an atmosphere of noncondensable gas is studied theoretically. An equation for the shrinkage of the radius of the droplet is derived on the basis of continuity and momentum equations. Further, a conjugate problem consisting of the energy and mass balance for the gaseous environment is formulated. An approximation of thin thermal and diffusion boundary-layers is introduced to simplify the analysis. Results are presented for methanol-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, and sodium-argon systems. It has been observed that the droplet of highly viscous fluid exhibits rapid contraction.

  16. From field evaporation to focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This paper report various items of recent progress in the theory of field evaporation and the theory of the liquid-metal ion source. The research has, in part, been driven by a desire to find out how to reduce the beam-spot size in a focused ion beam machine, which is developing as a significant tool of nanotechnology. A major factor in determining beam spot size seems to be the behavior of the liquid-metal ion source (LMIS), and one route might be to reduce the minimum emission current of a LMIS, if this is possible. Theories of LMIS minimum emission current have been re-examined. Some progress has been made, but development of more accurate theory has been constrained by several factors, include the long-known limitations of the present theory of field evaporation (FEV). This, in turn, has stimulated a wider re-examination of FEV theory. As part of some general theoretical remarks, the following items of recent progress will be covered. Various results concerning the prediction of the field F e at which the activation energy Q for field evaporation is zero, including calculations in which vacuum electrostatic energy changes are taken into account, and another look at the views of Kingham and Tsong concerning escape charge-state. Some years ago, the following approximate formula was derived for the dependence of FEV activation energy on field F: Q=B(F e /F - 1) 2 . It has recently been possible to show that the parameter B can be estimated as B= βYΩ/8, where Y is Young's modulus, Ω is the atomic volume, and β is a correction factor of order. In the framework of the charge-draining mechanism, another look at how the activation-energy hump can be modelled, in order to predict/explain the conditions under which FEV becomes dominated by ion tunnelling rather than field evaporation. A review of the changes in LMIS theory that result from applying the equation of continuity to the metal/vacuum interface, including modifications to the theory of minimum

  17. Advanced multi-evaporator loop thermosyphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mameli, M.; Mangini, D.; Vanoli, G.F.T.; Araneo, L.; Filippeschi, S.; Marengo, M.

    2016-01-01

    A novel prototype of multi-evaporator closed loop thermosyphon is designed and tested at different heaters position, inclinations and heat input levels, in order to prove that a peculiar arrangement of multiple heaters may be used in order to enhance the flow motion and consequently the thermal performance. The device consists in an aluminum tube (Inner/Outer tube diameter 3.0 mm/5.0 mm), bent into a planar serpentine with five U-turns and partially filled with FC-72, 50% vol. The evaporator zone is equipped with five heated patches (one for each U-turn) in series with respect to the flow path. In the first arrangement, heaters are wrapped on each bend symmetrically, while in the second layout heaters are located on the branch just above the U-turn, non-symmetrical with respect to the gravity direction, in order to promote the fluid circulation in a preferential direction. The condenser zone is cooled by forced air and equipped with a 50 mm transparent section for the flow pattern visualization. The non-symmetrical heater arrangement effectively promotes a stable fluid circulation and a reliable operation for a wider range of heat input levels and orientations with respect to the symmetrical case. In vertical position, the heat flux dissipation exceeds the pool boiling heat transfer limit for FC-72 by 75% and the tube wall temperatures in the evaporator zone are kept lower than 80 °C. Furthermore, the heat flux capability is up to five times larger with respect to the other existing wickless heat pipe technologies demonstrating the attractiveness of the new concept for electronic cooling thermal management. - Highlights: • A novel passive heat transfer device named Multi-Evaporator Loop Thermosyphon is tested. • The loop is investigated at different heating patterns, inclinations and heat power levels. • The non-symmetrical heating configuration promotes the fluid circulation within the loop. • The performance in terms of maximum heat flux exceeds the

  18. A physical model of the evaporating meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirzamoghadam, A.; Catton, I.

    1985-01-01

    Transport phenomena associated with the heating of a saturated stationary fluid near saturation by an inclined, partially submerged copper plate was studied analytically. Under steady state evaporation, the meniscus profile was derived using an appropriate liquid film velocity and temperature distribution in an integral approach. The solution was then back-substituted in order to identify regions of influence of various physical phenomena given the fluid properties, wall superheat and plate tilt. The degree of superheat and wall tilt were seen to control instability in the meniscus. This instability, connected to the experimental observation of meniscus oscillation, was credited to contributions by liquid inertia and Marangoni convection

  19. Evaporation Controlled Emission in Ventilated Rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topp, Claus; Nielsen, Peter V.; Heiselberg, Per

    -scale ventilated room when the emission is fully or partly evaporation controlled. The objective of the present research work has been to investigate the change of emission rates from small-scale experiments to full-scale ventilated rooms and to investigate the influence of the local air velocity field near......Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from materials is traditionally determined from tests carried out in small-scale test chambers. However, a difference in scale may lead to a difference in the measured emission rate in a small-scale test chamber and the actual emission rate in a full...

  20. Precipitation and Evaporation Trends in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. W.

    2009-05-01

    Texas is a large land area with at least three different climate types. As such it is expected that the results of climate change will not be homogenous. This paper presents results of a study of long trends in Texas precipitation and evaporation using data from the US Historical Climatology Network and the Texas Water Development Board. It shows that the long term trends of these variables is not homogenous and exhibits great variability in both spatial extent and magnitude. This variability must be considered in planning for future water supply or other mitigation projects.

  1. Modeling soil evaporation efficiency in a range of soil and atmospheric conditions using a meta-analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin , O; Stefan , V ,; Amazirh , A; Chanzy , A; Ceschia , E; Er-Raki , S; Gentine , P; Tallec , T; Ezzahar , J; Bircher , S; Beringer , J; Khabba , S

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A meta-analysis data-driven approach is developed to represent the soil evaporative efficiency (SEE) defined as the ratio of actual to potential soil evaporation. The new model is tested across a bare soil database composed of more than 30 sites around the world, a clay fraction range of 0.02-0.56, a sand fraction range of 0.05-0.92, and about 30,000 acquisition times. SEE is modeled using a soil resistance ($r_{ss}$) formulation based on surface soil moisture ($\\theta...

  2. Fusion evaporation-residue cross sections for 28Si+40Ca at E(28Si)=309, 397, and 452 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vineyard, M.F.; Bauer, J.S.; Crum, J.F.; Gosdin, C.H.; Trotter, R.S.; Kovar, D.G.; Beck, C.; Henderson, D.J.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Wilkins, B.D.; Maguire, C.F.; Mateja, J.F.; Prosser, F.W.; Stephans, G.S.F.

    1992-01-01

    Velocity distributions of mass-identified evaporation residues produced in the 28 Si+ 40 Ca reaction have been measured at bombarding energies of 309, 397, and 452 MeV using time-of-flight techniques. These distributions were used to identify evaporation residues and to separate the complete-fusion and incomplete-fusion components. Angular distributions and upper limits for the total evaporation-residue and complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections were extracted at all three bombarding energies. The complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross sections and the deduced critical angular momenta are compared with earlier measurements and the predictions of existing models. The ratios of the complete-fusion evaporation-residue cross section to the total evaporation-residue cross section, along with those measured for the 28 Si+ 12 C and 28 Si+ 28 Si systems at the same energies, support the entrance-channel mass-asymmetry dependence of the incomplete-fusion evaporation-residue process reported earlier

  3. The continuous similarity model of bulk soil-water evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    The continuous similarity model of evaporation is described. In it, evaporation is conceptualized as a two stage process. For an initially moist soil, evaporation is first climate limited, but later it becomes soil limited. During the latter stage, the evaporation rate is termed evaporability, and mathematically it is inversely proportional to the evaporation deficit. A functional approximation of the moisture distribution within the soil column is also included in the model. The model was tested using data from four experiments conducted near Phoenix, Arizona; and there was excellent agreement between the simulated and observed evaporation. The model also predicted the time of transition to the soil limited stage reasonably well. For one of the experiments, a third stage of evaporation, when vapor diffusion predominates, was observed. The occurrence of this stage was related to the decrease in moisture at the surface of the soil. The continuous similarity model does not account for vapor flow. The results show that climate, through the potential evaporation rate, has a strong influence on the time of transition to the soil limited stage. After this transition, however, bulk evaporation is independent of climate until the effects of vapor flow within the soil predominate.

  4. Electronic and optical properties of CdS films deposited by evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.; Wei, Z.L.; Zhang, F.M.; Wu, X.S., E-mail: xswu@nju.edu.cn

    2015-11-05

    CdS films grown by thermal evaporation on glass substrate under ultra-high vacuum are prepared with varying the growth temperature and atmosphere environment. The minimum resistivity of the films is as low as 2.0 Ω·cm, and the carrier density even reaches 1.6 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3}, which is much less than that prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The transmittance and band gap increase with the set the argon atmosphere and the growth temperature in the optimum value. Our results indicate the CdS films grown by evaporation at high vacuum may be more suitable for the application in optoelectronic devices, such as the solar cell materials. - Highlights: • CdS films are grown by the ultra-high vacuum evaporation. • CdS film here with the high carrier density reaches to 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} is obtained. • The film has low resistivity, which is as low as 2 Ω∙ cm. • The optical band gap become wider from 2.42 eV to 2.54 eV.

  5. Dew-point hygrometry system for measurement of evaporative water loss in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariagno, R L; Glotzbach, S F; Baldwin, R B; Rector, D M; Bowley, S M; Moffat, R J

    1997-03-01

    Evaporation of water from the skin is an important mechanism in thermal homeostasis. Resistance hygrometry, in which the water vapor pressure gradient above the skin surface is calculated, has been the measurement method of choice in the majority of pediatric investigations. However, resistance hygrometry is influenced by changes in ambient conditions such as relative humidity, surface temperature, and convection currents. We have developed a ventilated capsule method that minimized these potential sources of measurement error and that allowed second-by-second, long-term, continuous measurements of evaporative water loss in sleeping infants. Air with a controlled reference humidity (dew-point temperature = 0 degree C) is delivered to a small, lightweight skin capsule and mixed with the vapor on the surface of the skin. The dew point of the resulting mixture is measured by using a chilled mirror dew-point hygrometer. The system indicates leaks, is mobile, and is accurate within 2%, as determined by gravimetric calibration. Examples from a recording of a 13-wk-old full-term infant obtained by using the system give evaporative water loss rates of approximately 0.02 mgH2O.cm-2.min-1 for normothermic baseline conditions and values up to 0.4 mgH2O.cm-2. min-1 when the subject was being warmed. The system is effective for clinical investigations that require dynamic measurements of water loss.

  6. Purification of Drug Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles Prepared by Emulsification Solvent Evaporation Using Stirred Cell Ultrafiltration Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paswan, Suresh K; Saini, T R

    2017-12-01

    The emulsifiers in an exceedingly higher level are used in the preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This creates great problem to the formulator due to their serious toxicities when it is to be administered by parenteral route. The final product is therefore required to be freed from the used surfactants by the conventional purification techniques which is a cumbersome job. The solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration unit (Millipore) was used in this study using polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane (Biomax®) having pore size of NMWL 300 KDa as the membrane filter. The purification efficiency of this technique was compared with the conventional centrifugation technique. The flow rate of ultrafiltration was optimized for removal of surfactant (polyvinyl alcohol) impurities to the acceptable levels in 1-3.5 h from the nanoparticle dispersion of tamoxifen prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. The present investigations demonstrate the application of solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration technique for removal of toxic impurities of surfactant (PVA) from the polymeric drug nanoparticles (tamoxifen) prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This technique offers added benefit of producing more concentrated nanoparticles dispersion without causing significant particle size growth which is observed in other purification techniques, e.g., centrifugation and ultracentrifugation.

  7. Effect of gasoline/methanol blends on motorcycle emissions: Exhaust and evaporative emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Ge, Yunshan; Wang, Mingda; Li, Jiaqiang; Peng, Zihang; Song, Yanan; Zhang, Liwei

    2015-02-01

    The emission characteristics of motorcycles using gasoline and M15 (consisting of 85% gasoline and 15% methanol by volume) were investigated in this article. Exhaust and evaporative emissions, including regulated and unregulated emissions, of three motorcycles were investigated on the chassis dynamometer over the Urban Driving Cycle (UDC) and in the Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination (SHED), respectively. The regulated emissions were detected by an exhaust gas analyzer directly. The unregulated emissions, including carbonyls, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and methanol, were sampled through battery-operated air pumps using tubes coated with 2,4-dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH), Tenax TA and silica gel, respectively. The experimental results showed that, for exhaust emission, compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, the concentration of total hydrocarbons (THC) and CO from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 11%-34.5% and 63%-84% respectively, while the concentration of NOx increased by 76.9%-107.7%. Compared with those from gasoline fueled motorcycles, BTEX from motorcycles fueled with M15 decreased by 16%-60% while formaldehyde increased by 16.4%-52.5%. For evaporative emission, diurnal losses were more than hot soak losses and turned out to be dominated in evaporative emissions. In addition, compared with gasoline fueling motorcycles, the evaporative emissions of THC, carbonyls and VOCs from motorcycles fueled with M15 increased by 11.7%-37%, 38%-45% and 16%-42%, respectively. It should be noted that the growth rate of methanol was as high as 297%-1429%. It is important to reduce the evaporative emissions of methanol fueling motorcycles.

  8. Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Matthew J; Wolf, Blair O; McKechnie, Andrew E

    2016-03-01

    Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ∼ 47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10 °C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow-weavers were exposed to a ramped profile of progressively higher Ta between 30 and 52 °C to elicit maximum evaporative cooling capacity (N=10 per site per season); the maximum Ta birds tolerated before the onset of severe hyperthermia (Tb ≈ 44 °C) was considered to be their hyperthermia threshold Ta (Ta,HT). Our data reveal significant seasonal acclimatisation of heat tolerance, with a desert population of sparrow-weavers reaching significantly higher Ta in summer (49.5 ± 1.4 °C, i.e. higher Ta,HT) than in winter (46.8 ± 0.9 °C), reflecting enhanced evaporative cooling during summer. Moreover, desert sparrow-weavers had significantly higher heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity during summer compared with populations from more mesic sites (Ta,HT=47.3 ± 1.5 and 47.6 ± 1.3 °C). A better understanding of the contributions of local adaptation versus phenotypic plasticity to intraspecific variation in avian heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity is needed for modelling species' responses to changing climates. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Estimation of evaporative losses during storage of crude oil and petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Storage of crude oil and petroleum products inevitably leads to evaporative losses. Those losses are important for the industrial plants mass balances, as well as for the environmental protection. In this paper, estimation of evaporative losses was performed using software program TANKS 409d which was developed by the Agency for Environmental Protection of the United States - US EPA. Emissions were estimated for the following types of storage tanks: fixed conical roof tank, fixed dome roof tank, external floating roof tank, internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank. Obtained results show quantities of evaporated losses per tone of stored liquid. Crude oil fixed roof storage tank losses are cca 0.5 kg per tone of crude oil. For floating roof, crude oil losses are 0.001 kg/t. Fuel oil (diesel fuel and heating oil have the smallest evaporation losses, which are in order of magnitude 10-3 kg/tone. Liquids with higher Reid Vapour Pressure have very high evaporative losses for tanks with fixed roof, up to 2.07 kg/tone. In case of external floating roof tank, losses are 0.32 kg/tone. The smallest losses are for internal floating roof tank and domed external floating roof tank: 0.072 and 0.044, respectively. Finally, it can be concluded that the liquid with low volatility of low BTEX amount can be stored in tanks with fixed roof. In this case, the prevailing economic aspect, because the total amount of evaporative loss does not significantly affect the environment. On the other hand, storage of volatile derivatives with high levels of BTEX is not justified from the economic point of view or from the standpoint of the environment protection.

  10. Land-total and Ocean-total Precipitation and Evaporation from a Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Perturbed Parameter Ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Covey, Curt [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, Donald D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Trenberth, Kevin E. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2016-03-02

    This document presents the large scale water budget statistics of a perturbed input-parameter ensemble of atmospheric model runs. The model is Version 5.1.02 of the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). These runs are the “C-Ensemble” described by Qian et al., “Parametric Sensitivity Analysis of Precipitation at Global and Local Scales in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5” (Journal of Advances in Modeling the Earth System, 2015). As noted by Qian et al., the simulations are “AMIP type” with temperature and sea ice boundary conditions chosen to match surface observations for the five year period 2000-2004. There are 1100 ensemble members in addition to one run with default inputparameter values.

  11. Modelling water evaporation during frying with an evaporation dependent heat transfer coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerten, van K.N.; Somsen, D.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a cylindrical crust-core frying model was developed including an evaporation rate dependent heat transfer coefficient. For this, we applied a Nusselt relation for cylindrical bodies and view the release of vapour bubbles during the frying process as a reversed fluidised bed. The

  12. Maldistribution in airewater heat pump evaporators. Part 1: Effects on evaporator, heat pump and system level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mader, Gunda; Palm, Björn; Elmegaard, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to quantify the effect of evaporator maldistribution onoperating costs of air-water heat pumps. In the proposed simulation model maldistributionis induced by two parameters describing refrigerant phase and air flow distribution.Annual operating costs are calculated...

  13. Partitioning evaporation and transpiration in a maize field with heat-pulse sensors used for evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaporation (E) and transpiration (T) occur simultaneously in many systems with varying levels of importance, yet terms are typically lumped as evapotranspiration (ET) due to difficulty with distinguishing component fluxes. Few studies have measured all three terms (ET, E, and T), and in the few cas...

  14. Naphtha evaporation from oil sands tailings ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperski, K.; Munoz, V.; Mikula, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CANMET Western Research Centre

    2010-07-01

    The environmental impacts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil sands tailings ponds must be considered when evaluating new oil sands mining and extraction operations. Studies have suggested that only 40 percent of the solvent sent to tailings ponds is available to the environment, while the rest is irreversibly trapped. The recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands froth process water is low. This PowerPoint presentation discussed a method of distinguishing between water and hydrocarbons at low temperatures. Samples were heated to 246 degrees C at 15 degrees C and held for 10 minutes. Heating was then resumed at 750 degrees C and held for 10 minutes in a pyrolysis phase, then cooled and reheated with an oxygen addition. The method demonstrated that the diluent distribution between the solids and water phases is misinterpreted as diluent that will evaporate, and diluent that will not evaporate. The study concluded by suggesting that the definition of recoverable and unrecoverable hydrocarbon should be re-termed as easily recoverable, and difficult to recover. tabs., figs.

  15. Theoretical and computational analyses of LNG evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Jo, Yang Myung; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical and numerical analysis on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside a LNG evaporator is conducted in this work. Methane is used instead of LNG as the operating fluid. This is because; methane constitutes over 80% of natural gas. The analytical calculations are performed using simple mass and energy balance equations. The analytical calculations are made to assess the pressure and temperature variations in the steam tube. Multiphase numerical simulations are performed by solving the governing equations (basic flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations) in a portion of the evaporator domain consisting of a single steam pipe. The flow equations are solved along with equations of species transport. Multiphase modeling is incorporated using VOF method. Liquid methane is the primary phase. It vaporizes into the secondary phase gaseous methane. Steam is another secondary phase which flows through the heating coils. Turbulence is modeled by a two equation turbulence model. Both the theoretical and numerical predictions are seen to match well with each other. Further parametric studies are planned based on the current research.

  16. Synthesis and characterisation of co-evaporated tin sulphide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteeswara Reddy, N.; Ramesh, K.; Ganesan, R.; Ramakrishna Reddy, K. T.; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Gopal, E. S. R.

    2006-04-01

    Tin sulphide films were grown at different substrate temperatures by a thermal co-evaporation technique. The crystallinity of the films was evaluated from X-ray diffraction studies. Single-phase SnS films showed a strong (040) orientation with an orthorhombic crystal structure and a grain size of 0.12 μm. The films showed an electrical resistivity of 6.1 Ω cm with an activation energy of 0.26 eV. These films exhibited an optical band gap of 1.37 eV and had a high optical absorption coefficient (>104 cm-1) above the band-gap energy. The results obtained were analysed to evaluate the potentiality of the co-evaporated SnS films as an absorber layer in solar photovoltaic devices.

  17. Universal evaporation dynamics of a confined sessile droplet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Lalit; Hatte, Sandeep; Basu, Saptarshi; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-01

    Droplet evaporation under confinement is ubiquitous to multitude of applications such as microfluidics, surface patterning, and ink-jet printing. However, the rich physics governing the universality in the underlying dynamics remains grossly elusive. Here, we bring out hitherto unexplored universal features of the evaporation dynamics of a sessile droplet entrapped in a 3D confined fluidic environment. We show, through extensive set of experiments and theoretical formulations, that the evaporation timescale for such a droplet can be represented by a unique function of the initial conditions. Moreover, using same theoretical considerations, we are able to trace and universally merge the volume evolution history of the droplets along with evaporation lifetimes, irrespective of the extent of confinement. We also showcase the internal flow transitions caused by spatio-temporal variation of evaporation flux due to confinement. These findings may be of profound importance in designing functionalized droplet evaporation devices for emerging engineering and biomedical applications.

  18. Evaporation effect on two-dimensional wicking in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Eric M; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2018-03-15

    We analyze the effect of evaporation on expanding capillary flow for losses normal to the plane of a two-dimensional porous medium using the potential flow theory formulation of the Lucas-Washburn method. Evaporation induces a finite steady state liquid flux on capillary flows into fan-shaped domains which is significantly greater than the flux into media of constant cross section. We introduce the evaporation-capillary number, a new dimensionless quantity, which governs the frontal motion when multiplied by the scaled time. This governing product divides the wicking behavior into simple regimes of capillary dominated flow and evaporative steady state, as well as the intermediate regime of evaporation influenced capillary driven motion. We also show flow dimensionality and evaporation reduce the propagation rate of the wet front relative to the Lucas-Washburn law. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaporation rate and vapor pressure of selected polymeric lubricating oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardos, M. N.

    1973-01-01

    A recently developed ultrahigh-vacuum quartz spring mass sorption microbalance has been utilized to measure the evaporation rates of several low-volatility polymeric lubricating oils at various temperatures. The evaporation rates are used to calculate the vapor pressures by the Langmuir equation. A method is presented to accurately estimate extended temperature range evaporation rate and vapor pressure data for polymeric oils, incorporating appropriate corrections for the increases in molecular weight and the change in volatility of the progressively evaporating polymer fractions. The logarithms of the calculated data appear to follow linear relationships within the test temperature ranges, when plotted versus 1000/T. These functions and the observed effusion characteristics of the fluids on progressive volatilization are useful in estimating evaporation rate and vapor pressure changes on evaporative depletion.

  20. Numerical simulation of droplet evaporation between two circular plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bam, Hang Jin; Son, Gi Hun

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation is performed for droplet evaporation between two circular plates. The flow and thermal characteristics of the droplet evaporation are numerically investigated by solving the conservation equations of mass, momentum, energy and mass fraction in the liquid and gas phases. The liquid-gas interface is tracked by a sharp-interface level-set method which is modified to include the effects of evaporation at the liquid-gas interface and contact angle hysteresis at the liquid-gas-solid contact line. An analytical model to predict the droplet evaporation is also developed by simplifying the mass and vapor fraction equations in the gas phase. The numerical results demonstrate that the 1-D analytical prediction is not applicable to the high rate evaporation process. The effects of plate gap and receding contact angle on the droplet evaporation are also quantified.

  1. An automated tunnel evaporation measurement system for confined spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salve, Rohit

    2002-04-01

    An automated tunnel evaporation-rate measurement system (TEMS) has been designed to measure automatically the evaporation from a cylinder 0·30 m in diameter and 0·10 m tall. This cylinder continuously maintains a constant height of water, with losses to evaporation replenished from a stilling cylinder connected to a water reservoir. The evaporation rate is measured by a transducer located at the bottom of the stilling well. The TEMS was tested over a period of 3 months in an underground research facility with relatively strong wind effects, changing temperature, and changing humidity. During this period, the TEMS continued to function uninterrupted, automatically measuring the evaporation amounts along a tunnel and an enclosed niche. These observations suggest that this tool can be useful for investigations of evaporation processes both in enclosed and ventilated environments. Published in 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Investigating performance of microchannel evaporators with different manifold structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Junye; Qu, Xiaohua; Qi, Zhaogang; Chen, Jiangping [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, No. 800, Dongchuan Rd, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, the performances of microchannel evaporators with different manifold structures are experimentally investigated. Eight evaporator samples with 7 different designs of the I/O manifold and 5 different designs of the return manifold are made for this study. The performances of the evaporator samples are tested on a psychometric calorimeter test bench with the refrigerant 134A at a real automotive AC condition. The results on the variations of the cooling capacity and air temperature distribution of the evaporator due to the deflector designs in the I/O manifold and flow hole arrangements in the return manifold are presented and analyzed. By studying the KPI's for the performance of an evaporator, the design trade-off for an evaporator designer is summarized and discussed. (author)

  3. Process Control Plan for 242-A Evaporator Campaign January 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LE, E.Q.

    2001-01-01

    Wastewater stored in 104-AW that was generated during the terminal cleanout of the PUREX facility is the primary feed to be processed during the 242-A Evaporator Campaign 01-01, Approximately 801,600 gallons of 104-AW waste was transferred to feed tank 102-AW at the end of January 2001, in preparation for the campaign. The total feed volume that will be processed during Campaign 01-01 is 8 15,200 gallons, which includes the waste from 104-AW and residual waste from the previous evaporator campaign, 00-01, Additional feed will be generated during the pre-campaign cold run and processed during campaign 01-01. Based on characterization data from 104-AW feed waste 'and the evaluation of waste processability presented in Section 5 of this PCP, Campaign 01-01 does not pose any unacceptable risks to the facility, safety, environmental, human health offsite, or onsite personnel. Evaporator Campaign 01-01 is essential in supporting the River Protection Project (RPP) to maintaining its critical mission schedule and regulator commitments for tank waste systems. Several of RPP critical activities requiring completion of Campaign 01-01 by April 1, 2001 are highlighted below. Availability of DST space: Additional tank space that will be made available by this campaign is needed to support the continued interim stabilization of Single-Shell Tanks (SSTs). This additional space will also be used to move waste among Double-Shell Tanks (DSTs) to support the demonstrations of SST waste retrieval. DST life extension: An electrical outage in the AW Tank Farm is scheduled to begin following completion of the Campaign 01-01. This outage is a critical step in identifying and completing life extension upgrades to the DST systems. DST upgrades: Project W-314 plans significant upgrades to the AW Tank Farm to retrieve and supply waste feed to the Waste Treatment (Vitrification) Plant using a system that complies with current environmental requirements. These upgrades will commence on

  4. Heat transfer during phase change. Evaporation. Application to cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merigoux, J.

    1973-01-01

    Evaporation near a water sheet, without convection, is considered. The displacement of water molecules in the gaseous phase, due to concentration gradients, is especially studied. This displacement governs the development of evaporation. The calculation is made to derive the velocity of water evaporation as a function of the partial pressure of the surrounding air, the temperature and physical properties of the air and steam. Diffusion laws are used. The calculation is applied to cooling towers, according to Merkel theory [fr

  5. New principle of feeding for flash evaporation MOCVD devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, A.R.; Seleznev, B.V.

    1993-01-01

    A novel scheme of flash evaporation feeding for MOCVD processes of multi-component oxide films deposition is proposed. The scheme comprises 1) microdozage of organic solution of solid volatile precursors on the glass fiber belt, 2) evaporation of the solvent and 3) flash evaporation of MOC microdoses from the belt. The functioning of the designed feeder is described and the features of proposed scheme in comparison to existing feeding principles are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Observation of melt surface depressions during electron beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hironori; Shibata, Takemasa

    2000-08-01

    Depths of depressed surface of liquid gadolinium, cerium and copper during electron beam evaporation were measured by triangulation method using a CCD camera. The depression depths estimated from the balance of the vapor pressure and the hydrostatic pressure at the evaporation surface agreed with the measured values. The periodic fluctuation of atomic beam was observed when the depression of 3∼4 mm in depth was formed at the evaporation spot. (author)

  7. Simple flash evaporator for making thin films of compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanadhan, M.; Bapanayya, Ch.; Agarwal, S. C. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208016 (India)

    2010-07-15

    A simple and compact arrangement for flash evaporation is described. It uses a cell phone vibrator for powder dispensing that can be incorporated into a vacuum deposition chamber without any major alterations. The performance of the flash evaporation system is checked by making thin films of the optical memory chalcogenide glass Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis shows that the flash evaporation preserves the stoichiometry in thin films.

  8. A new stationary droplet evaporation model and its validation

    OpenAIRE

    Fang WANG; Jie YAO; Shaofeng YANG; Rui LIU; Jie JIN

    2017-01-01

    The liquid droplet evaporation character is important for not only combustion chamber design process but also high-accuracy spray combustion simulation. In this paper, the suspended droplets’ evaporation character was measured in a quiescent high-temperature environment by micro high-speed camera system. The gasoline and kerosene experimental results are consistent with the reference data. Methanol, common kerosene and aviation kerosene droplet evaporation characteristics, as well as their ev...

  9. Evaporation rate in containers used for storing radioactive tracer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascon, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    In radiochemical analysis, the storage of a tracer solution is an important issue to bear in mind. The evaporation of the tracer solution depends on the type of container used for storing. Evaporation rate in four kinds of containers, i.e., flame-sealed glass ampoule, sealed glass flask, flame-sealed polyethylene ampoule and screw glass vial was studied. It is concluded that the evaporation rate depends on the system of closing. (author)

  10. Nonlinear Superheat and Evaporation Temperature Control of a Refrigeration Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Thybo, Claus; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes novel control of the superheat of the evaporator in a refrigeration system. A new model of the evaporator is developed and based on this model the superheat is transferred to a referred variable. It is shown that control of this variable leads to a linear system independent...... of the working point. The model also gives a method for control of the evaporation temperature. The proposed method is validated by experimental results....

  11. Surface water leakage, sedimentation and evaporation in arid regions: A case study of the Gargar dam, Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen Benfetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to assess the total capacity loss in Gargar dam, third-largest in Algeria, due to the mudding of the reservoir, intense evaporation and water leaks. We analysed the variation in leakage as a function of the reservoir level, and quantify losses due to leaks, sedimentation and evaporation. We relied on site visits and data obtained from the Algerian Agency for Dams and Transfers to assess the leakage volume; reservoir level; sedimentation and evaporation levels for the period 1988–2015. We present an updated report of this problem through the dam. We estimated total average losses of 23 million m3·year−1 for the period 1988–2015, made up of leakage (0.3 million m3·year−1, evaporation (18 million m3·year−1 and dead storage for 4.6 million m3·year−1. However, total losses for 2004 were estimated at 113.9 million m3, which increased to the alarming value of 166.8 million m3 in 2015. We suggest improving the waterproofness by a concrete screen, and reducing mudding and evaporation by reforestation, to increase the storage capacity of the dam.

  12. Constraining model parameters on remotely sensed evaporation: justification for distribution in ungauged basins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Winsemius

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, land surface related parameter distributions of a conceptual semi-distributed hydrological model are constrained by employing time series of satellite-based evaporation estimates during the dry season as explanatory information. The approach has been applied to the ungauged Luangwa river basin (150 000 (km2 in Zambia. The information contained in these evaporation estimates imposes compliance of the model with the largest outgoing water balance term, evaporation, and a spatially and temporally realistic depletion of soil moisture within the dry season. The model results in turn provide a better understanding of the information density of remotely sensed evaporation. Model parameters to which evaporation is sensitive, have been spatially distributed on the basis of dominant land cover characteristics. Consequently, their values were conditioned by means of Monte-Carlo sampling and evaluation on satellite evaporation estimates. The results show that behavioural parameter sets for model units with similar land cover are indeed clustered. The clustering reveals hydrologically meaningful signatures in the parameter response surface: wetland-dominated areas (also called dambos show optimal parameter ranges that reflect vegetation with a relatively small unsaturated zone (due to the shallow rooting depth of the vegetation which is easily moisture stressed. The forested areas and highlands show parameter ranges that indicate a much deeper root zone which is more drought resistent. Clustering was consequently used to formulate fuzzy membership functions that can be used to constrain parameter realizations in further calibration. Unrealistic parameter ranges, found for instance in the high unsaturated soil zone values in the highlands may indicate either overestimation of satellite-based evaporation or model structural deficiencies. We believe that in these areas, groundwater uptake into the root zone and lateral movement of

  13. Recent progress in design of evaporators and condensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeria, R.

    1981-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients for boilers and condensors have been improved very much during the two last decades. Particularly, for sea water desalination plants, the falling liquid film evaporator and the horizontal tube evaporator were improved for having good performances with small temperature differences. A discussion follows of research undertaken at C.E.N. Grenoble (France) which leads to heat transfer enhancement in evaporators or in condensors. Principles are investigated such as role of interfaces and effect of a good nucleation in boiling. Examples of improved techniques are given; namely: - evaporators: falling film, fluted tubes, specific liquids, - condensors: fluted tubes, special materials such as titanium, droplet condensation [fr

  14. Evaporative cooling of antiprotons for the production of trappable antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, D. M.; Cesar, C. L. [Instituto de Fisica - Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Andresen, G. B.; Bowe, P. D.; Hangst, J. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Ashkezari, M. D.; Hayden, M. E. [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Chapman, S.; Fajans, J.; Povilus, A.; So, C.; Wurtele, J. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 (United States); Bertsche, W. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, M13 9PL Manchester (United Kingdom) and Cockroft Institute, WA4 4AD Warrington (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Charlton, M.; Madsen, N.; Werf, D. P. van der [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Friesen, T.; Hydomako, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); and others

    2013-03-19

    We describe the implementation of evaporative cooling of charged particles in the ALPHA apparatus. Forced evaporation has been applied to cold samples of antiprotons held in Malmberg-Penning traps. Temperatures on the order of 10 K were obtained, while retaining a significant fraction of the initial number of particles. We have developed a model for the evaporation process based on simple rate equations and applied it succesfully to the experimental data. We have also observed radial re-distribution of the clouds following evaporation, explained by simple conservation laws. We discuss the relevance of this technique for the recent demonstration of magnetic trapping of antihydrogen.

  15. Electron beam assisted field evaporation of insulating nanowires/tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, N. P., E-mail: nicholas.blanchard@univ-lyon1.fr; Niguès, A.; Choueib, M.; Perisanu, S.; Ayari, A.; Poncharal, P.; Purcell, S. T.; Siria, A.; Vincent, P. [Institut Lumière Matière, UMR5306 Université Lyon 1-CNRS, Université de Lyon, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2015-05-11

    We demonstrate field evaporation of insulating materials, specifically BN nanotubes and undoped Si nanowires, assisted by a convergent electron beam. Electron irradiation leads to positive charging at the nano-object's apex and to an important increase of the local electric field thus inducing field evaporation. Experiments performed both in a transmission electron microscope and in a scanning electron microscope are presented. This technique permits the selective evaporation of individual nanowires in complex materials. Electron assisted field evaporation could be an interesting alternative or complementary to laser induced field desorption used in atom probe tomography of insulating materials.

  16. A new stationary droplet evaporation model and its validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang WANG

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The liquid droplet evaporation character is important for not only combustion chamber design process but also high-accuracy spray combustion simulation. In this paper, the suspended droplets’ evaporation character was measured in a quiescent high-temperature environment by micro high-speed camera system. The gasoline and kerosene experimental results are consistent with the reference data. Methanol, common kerosene and aviation kerosene droplet evaporation characteristics, as well as their evaporation rate changing with temperature, were obtained. The evaporation rate experimental data were compared with the prediction result of Ranz-Marshall boiling temperature model (RMB, Ranz-Marshall low-temperature model (RML, drift flux model (DFM, mass analogy model (MAM, and stagnant film model (SFM. The disparity between the experimental data and the model prediction results was mainly caused by the neglect of the natural convection effect, which was never introduced into the droplet evaporation concept. A new droplet evaporation model with consideration of natural convection buoyancy force effect was proposed in this paper. Under the experimental conditions in this paper, the calculation results of the new droplet evaporation model were agreed with the experimental data for kerosene, methanol and other fuels, with less than 20% relative deviations. The relative deviations between the new evaporation model predictions for kerosene and the experimental data from the references were within 10%.

  17. A model for C-14 tracer evaporative rate analysis (ERA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Verghese, K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple model has been derived and tested for the C-14 tracer evaporative rate analysis (ERA) method. It allows the accurate determination of the evaporative rate coefficient of the C-14 tracer detector in the presence of variable evaporation rates of the detector solvent and variable background counting rates. The evaporation rate coefficient should be the most fundamental parameter available in this analysis method and, therefore, its measurements with the proposed model should allow the most direct correlations to be made with the system properties of interest such as surface cleanliness. (author)

  18. STUDI EKSPERIMENTAL FALLING FILM EVAPORATOR PADA EVAPORASI NIRA KENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medya Ayunda Fitri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Falling film evaporator is a constructed equipment for concentrating dilute solution that are sensitive to heat flowing form a thin film. This research aims to study the evaporation of cane juice concentrated with air flow on falling film evaporator and knowing evaporation rate occured in falling film evaporator used. In the process, cane juice from plant pumped to the falling film evaporator that used in this experiment. This research used concentrated cane juice and air flow rate for variables of this experiment. Cane juice flow from top of evaporator through distributor to form thin film and air flow from the bottom of evaporator. After that, temperatur of pipe wall, inlet and outlet temperature of cane juice and air were measured. This experiment concluded that the highest concentration of outlet solution is 59 brix for liquid flow rate 154 l/h and air flow rate 10 m3/h, and the other hand inlet solution concentration 51 brix. Optimum evaporation rate is 35 kg/m2.h for 51 brix and air flow rate 10 m3/h.

  19. Decomposition of thermally unstable substances in film evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matz, G

    1982-10-01

    It is widely known that film evaporators are considered to permit really gentle evaporation of heat-sensitive substances. Nevertheless, decomposition of such substance still occurs to an extent depending upon the design and operation of the evaporator. In the following a distinction is made between evaporators with films not generated mechanically, namely the long tube evaporator (lTE) or climbing film evaporator, the falling film evaporator (FFE) and the multiple phase helical tube (MPT) or helical coil evaporators (TFE). Figs 1 and 2 illustrate the mode of operation. A theory of the decomposition of thermally unstable substances in these evaporators is briefly outlined and compared with measurements. Such a theory cannot be developed without any experimental checks; on the other hand, meausrements urgently need a theoretical basis if only to establish what actually has to be measured. All experiments are made with a system of readily adjustable decomposability, namely with aqueous solutions of saccharose; the thermal inversion of this compound can be controlled by addition of various amounts or concentrations of hydrochloric acid. In the absence of any catalysis by hydrochloric acid, the decomposition rates within in the temperature interval studied (60-130/sup 0/C) are so low that the experiments would take much too long and determination of the concentration differences (generally by polarimetric methods) would be very complicated. Such slight effects would also be very unfavourable for comparison with theory. (orig.)

  20. Evaporation of Sunscreen Films: How the UV Protection Properties Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Brown, Jonathan; Fletcher, Paul D I; Johnson, Andrew J; Marinopoulos, Ioannis; Crowther, Jonathan M; Thompson, Michael A

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of thin sunscreen films and how the light absorption and the derived sun protection factor (SPF) change. For films consisting of solutions of common UV filters in propylene glycol (PG) as solvent, we show how evaporation generally causes three effects. First, the film area can decrease by dewetting leading to a transient increase in the average film thickness. Second, the film thins by evaporative loss of the solvent. Third, precipitation of the UV filter occurs when solvent loss causes the solubility limit to be reached. These evaporation-induced changes cause the UV absorbance of the film to decrease with resultant loss of SPF over the time scale of the evaporation. We derive an approximate model which accounts semiquantitatively for the variation of SPF with evaporation. Experimental results for solutions of different UV filters on quartz, different skin mimicking substrates, films with added nanoparticles, films with an added polymer and films with fast-evaporating decane as solvent (instead of slow evaporating PG) are discussed and compared with model calculations. Addition of either nanoparticles or polymer suppress film dewetting. Overall, it is hoped that the understanding gained about the mechanisms whereby film evaporation affects the SPF will provide useful guidance for the formulation of more effective sunscreens.

  1. Optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment: Small scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoucef, Fatima; Makan, Abdelhadi; El Ghmari, Abderrahman; Ouatmane, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment. For this purpose and in order to study the feasibility and measure the effectiveness of the forced evaporation, three cuboidal steel tubs were designed and implemented. The first control-tub was installed at the ground level to monitor natural evaporation. Similarly, the second and the third tub, models under investigation, were installed respectively at the ground level (equipped-tub 1) and out of the ground level (equipped-tub 2), and provided with special equipment to accelerate the evaporation process. The obtained results showed that the evaporation rate at the equipped-tubs was much accelerated with respect to the control-tub. It was accelerated five times in the winter period, where the evaporation rate was increased from a value of 0.37 mm/day to reach a value of 1.50 mm/day. In the summer period, the evaporation rate was accelerated more than three times and it increased from a value of 3.06 mm/day to reach a value of 10.25 mm/day. Overall, the optimized evaporation technique can be applied effectively either under electric or solar energy supply, and will accelerate the evaporation rate from three to five times whatever the season temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The evolution of 17O-excess in surface water of the arid environment during recharge and evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surma, J; Assonov, S; Herwartz, D; Voigt, C; Staubwasser, M

    2018-03-21

    This study demonstrates the potential of triple O-isotopes to quantify evaporation with recharge on a salt lake from the Atacama Desert, Chile. An evaporative gradient was found in shallow ponds along a subsurface flow-path from a groundwater source. Total dissolved solids (TDS) increased by 177 g/l along with an increase in δ 18 O by 16.2‰ and in δD by 65‰. 17 O-excess decreased by 79 per meg, d-excess by 55‰. Relative humidity (h), evaporation over inflow (E/I), the isotopic composition of vapor ( * R V ) and of inflowing water ( * R WI ) determine the isotope distribution in 17 O-excess over δ 18 O along a well-defined evaporation curve as the classic Craig-Gordon model predicts. A complementary on-site simple (pan) evaporation experiment over a change in TDS, δ 18 O, and 17 O-excess by 392 g/l, 25.0‰, and -130 per meg, respectively, was used to determine the effects of sluggish brine evaporation and of wind turbulence. These effects translate to uncertainty in E/I rather than h. The local composition of * R V relative to * R WI pre-determines the general ability to resolve changes in h. The triple O-isotope system is useful for quantitative hydrological balancing of lakes and for paleo-humidity reconstruction, particularly if complemented by D/H analysis.

  3. Fire Resistant, Moisture Barrier Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A waterproof and breathable, fire-resistant laminate is provided for use in tents, garments, shoes, and covers, especially in industrial, military and emergency situations. The laminate permits water vapor evaporation while simultaneously preventing liquid water penetration. Further, the laminate is fire-resistant and significantly reduces the danger of toxic compound production when exposed to flame or other high heat source. The laminate may be applied to a variety of substrates and is comprised of a silicone rubber and plurality of fire-resistant, inherently thermally-stable polyimide particles.

  4. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator; An Enhanced Evaporative Cooling Systems for the Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit Portable Life Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bue, Grant C.; Makinen, Janice V.; Miller, Sean.; Campbell, Colin; Lynch, Bill; Vogel, Matt; Craft, Jesse; Petty, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator - Baseline heat rejection technology for the Portable Life Support System of the Advanced EMU center dot Replaces sublimator in the current EMU center dot Contamination insensitive center dot Can work with Lithium Chloride Absorber Radiator in Spacesuit Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to reject heat and reuse evaporated water The Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) is being developed to replace the sublimator for future generation spacesuits. Water in LCVG absorbs body heat while circulating center dot Warm water pumped through SWME center dot SWME evaporates water vapor, while maintaining liquid water - Cools water center dot Cooled water is then recirculated through LCVG. center dot LCVG water lost due to evaporation (cooling) is replaced from feedwater The Independent TCV Manifold reduces design complexity and manufacturing difficulty of the SWME End Cap. center dot The offset motor for the new BPV reduces the volume profile of the SWME by laying the motor flat on the End Cap alongside the TCV.

  5. Treatment of concentrates from wastewater evaporation in the pulp and paper industry; Metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesien haihduttamokonsentraattien jatkokaesittely - KLT 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    Different organic and inorganic compounds are dissolved in process waters in paper production processes. When closing water cycles this dissolved material is enriched in circulation waters. One alternative for removing this harmful material is evaporation. The aim of the project was to characterise concentrates and condensates formed in the evaporation of different waste waters and circulation waters in the pulp and paper industry, and to survey alternatives for their further treatment and utilisation. Furthermore, one aim was to study precipitation of material and contamination of heat transfer surfaces during evaporation. In the work, TMP and CTMP filtrates, debarking waters as well as concentrates from pilot and demonstration evaporation plants were used as samples. The water samples were evaporated, and the concentrates were evaporated further to higher dry solids contents. Waste water parameters and the compositions of feed, condensate and concentrate samples were measured. An analysis scheme was developed for the organic matter in CTMP filtrates and their concentrates. Primarily low-molecular acids and alcohols are evaporated with the water from TMP and CTMP filtrates and from debarking waters. The other substances were concentrated in the residues. The proportion of organic matter in the concentrates of TMP filtrates was about a half, while the concentrates of debarking water consisted nearly totally of organic matter. Fuel properties were determined and preliminary heat treatment experiments were carried out for the concentrates. The ash and sodium contents of the TMP and CTMP filtrates were high. The project was terminated in spring 1998. The research work will be continued in a new project within the CACTUS Programme under the title `Overall solution for water circulation based on evaporation` (KLT 01). The research plan of this project is presented elsewhere in this yearbook. (orig.)

  6. Treatment of concentrates from wastewater evaporation in the pulp and paper industry; Metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesien haihduttamokonsentraattien jatkokaesittely - KLT 03

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagernaes, L. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Different organic and inorganic compounds are dissolved in process waters in paper production processes. When closing water cycles this dissolved material is enriched in circulation waters. One alternative for removing this harmful material is evaporation. The aim of the project was to characterise concentrates and condensates formed in the evaporation of different waste waters and circulation waters in the pulp and paper industry, and to survey alternatives for their further treatment and utilisation. Furthermore, one aim was to study precipitation of material and contamination of heat transfer surfaces during evaporation. In the work, TMP and CTMP filtrates, debarking waters as well as concentrates from pilot and demonstration evaporation plants were used as samples. The water samples were evaporated, and the concentrates were evaporated further to higher dry solids contents. Waste water parameters and the compositions of feed, condensate and concentrate samples were measured. An analysis scheme was developed for the organic matter in CTMP filtrates and their concentrates. Primarily low-molecular acids and alcohols are evaporated with the water from TMP and CTMP filtrates and from debarking waters. The other substances were concentrated in the residues. The proportion of organic matter in the concentrates of TMP filtrates was about a half, while the concentrates of debarking water consisted nearly totally of organic matter. Fuel properties were determined and preliminary heat treatment experiments were carried out for the concentrates. The ash and sodium contents of the TMP and CTMP filtrates were high. The project was terminated in spring 1998. The research work will be continued in a new project within the CACTUS Programme under the title `Overall solution for water circulation based on evaporation` (KLT 01). The research plan of this project is presented elsewhere in this yearbook. (orig.)

  7. An investigation of process sensitivity for electron beam evaporation of beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egert, C.M.; Schmoyer, D.D.; Nordin, C.W.; Berry, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the process sensitivity of a beryllium coating process investigated using a statistical design of experiments approach. Process sensitivity is a measure of the variation in a given quality characteristic of the coating as a function of the evaporation process parameters. Manufacturing processes which maximize quality while simultaneously minimizing variability are most desirable. Three evaporation process parameters were included in this study: deposition rate, substrate temperature, and run time. A central composite experimental design employing a total of 18 coating runs was used to produce beryllium coatings on aluminum, silicon, fused silica, and beryllium substrates. The quality of the resulting coatings was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, IR spectrophotometry, stylus profilometry, and weight gain (thickness). Analysis of these results allowed the development of functional relationship between the quality characteristics (thickness, reflectance, etc.) and the evaporation process parameters. Process sensitivity for each response was then determined by calculating the gradient of each quality characteristic with respect to all three process parameters. Three dimensional plots were developed of the quality characteristic and its process sensitivity as a function of process parameters. Both quality characteristic and process sensitivity plots will be presented and discussed. For many of the quality characteristics, temperature during deposition was found to be the most sensitive process parameter for the beryllium c-beam evaporation process

  8. An Improved Multi-Evaporator Adsorption Desalination Cycle for GCC Countries

    KAUST Repository

    Shahzad, Muhammad Wakil

    2017-03-29

    In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, cogeneration based desalination processes consume almost 25% of the total annual energy and it is increasing at 2.2% annually. The high fresh water demand is attributed to high gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, 24%, and the high water languishes, more than 10%. Over the past two decades, GCC countries have spent tens of billion dollars to expand their present and planned desalination capacities. It is foreseeable that with business-as-usual scenario, the domestic oil consumption of Saudi Arabia may exceed its production capacity by 2040. Innovative and sustainable water production solutions are needed urgently for future water supplies without environment impact. In this paper, a hybrid desalination cycle is proposed by integrating multi cascaded-evaporators (CE) with an adsorption cycle (AD). In this new innovative cycle, AD desorbed vapors are supplied to the CE to exploit the latent condensation energy within the evaporators arranged in both pressures-temperatures cascaded manner to improves the performance ratio (PR) of the cycle. Hybrid cycle shows more than 10 folds water production improvement as compared to conventional AD cycle due to synergetic effect. This concept is demonstrated in a laboratory pilot plant using a 3 cascaded evaporators pilot and simulation of 8 evaporators hybrid cycle.

  9. Determination of the radionuclide release factor for an evaporator process using nondestructive assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.

    1998-01-01

    The 242-A Evaporator is the primary waste evaporator for the Hanford Site radioactive liquid waste stored in underground double-shell tanks. Low pressure evaporation is used to remove water from the waste, thus reducing the amount of tank space required for storage. The process produces a concentrated slurry, a process condensate, and an offgas. The offgas exhausts through two stages of high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters before being discharged to the atmosphere 40 CFR 61 Subpart H requires assessment of the unfiltered exhaust to determine if continuous compliant sampling is required. Because potential (unfiltered) emissions are not measured, methods have been developed to estimate these emissions. One of the methods accepted by the Environmental Protection Agency is the measurement of the accumulation of radionuclides on the HEPA filters. Nondestructive assay (NDA) was selected for determining the accumulation on the HEPA filters. NDA was performed on the HEPA filters before and after a campaign in 1997. NDA results indicate that 2.1 E+4 becquerels of cesium-137 were accumulated on the primary HEPA 1700 filter during the campaign. The feed material processed in the campaign contained a total of 1.4 E+l6 Bq of cesium-137. The release factor for the evaporator process is 1.5 E-12. Based on this release factor, continuous compliant sampling is not required

  10. A study on heat transfer through the fin-wick structure mounted in the evaporator for a plate loop heat pipe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Xuan Hung; Sung, Byung Ho; Choi, Jee Hoon; Kim, Chul Ju; Yoo, Jung Hyung; Seo, Min Whan

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the plate loop heat pipe system with an evaporator mounted with fin-wick structure to dissipate effectively the heat generated by the electronic components. The heat transfer formulation is modeled and predicted through thermal resistance analysis of the fin-wick structure in the evaporator. The experimental approach measures the thermal resistances and the operating characteristics. These results gathered in this investigation have been used to the objective of the information to improve the LHP system design so as to apply as the future cooling devices of the electronic components

  11. Indirect evaporative coolers with enhanced heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozubal, Eric; Woods, Jason; Judkoff, Ron

    2015-09-22

    A separator plate assembly for use in an indirect evaporative cooler (IEC) with an air-to-air heat exchanger. The assembly includes a separator plate with a first surface defining a dry channel and a second surface defining a wet channel. The assembly includes heat transfer enhancements provided on the first surface for increasing heat transfer rates. The heat transfer enhancements may include slit fins with bodies extending outward from the first surface of separator plate or may take other forms including vortex generators, offset strip fins, and wavy fins. In slit fin implementations, the separator plate has holes proximate to each of the slit fins, and the separator plate assembly may include a sealing layer applied to the second surface of the separator plate to block air flow through the holes. The sealing layer can be a thickness of adhesive, and a layer of wicking material is applied to the adhesive.

  12. Refractory material crucibles evaluation for U evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiao, A.J.; Vasconcelos, G.; Silveira, C.A.B.; Rodrigues, N.A.S. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados

    1996-12-31

    In studies that involve small amounts of U vapor generation, such as spectroscopy or thin films, most of the E-gun power is delivered to the cooling system. Normally crucibles are used as container and thermal insulator. Since liquid U is extremely reactive at evaporation temperatures, the crucibles are seriously attacked, decreasing the insulation efficiency and adding contaminants to the U vapor. There is no complete solution for the problem, however, with a careful choice of materials, one can design crucibles with extended lifetime and reduced contamination. This work reports some preliminary results we have obtained in the assessing of crucible materials and design, such as, graphite, Si C, vitreous carbon and Al{sub 2} O{sub 3}. (author) 1 refs., 3 figs.,2 tabs.

  13. Plasma Ion Source with an Internal Evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turek, M.; Drozdziel, A.; Pyszniak, K.; Prucnal, S.; Maczka, D.

    2011-01-01

    A new construction of a hollow cathode ion source equipped with an internal evaporator heated by a spiral cathode filament and arc discharge is presented. The source is especially suitable for production of ions from solids. The proximity of arc discharge region and extraction opening enables production of intense ion beams even for very low discharge current (I a = 1.2 A). The currents of 50 μA (Al + ) and 70 μA (Bi + ) were obtained using the extraction voltage of 25 kV. The source is able to work for several tens of hours without maintenance breaks, giving possibility of high dose implantations. The paper presents the detailed description of the ion source as well as its experimental characteristics like dependences of extracted currents and anode voltage on anode and cathode currents. (author)

  14. Thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear waste management application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Rajani; Singh, A K; Rana, D S [Waste Management Projects Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Nuclear plant equipment are associated with radioactive material which needs to be safely contained under all conditions of operation. Because of large radioactivity associated with the operations of nuclear waste management plants, the equipment are not accessible to human intervention. Hence, the design of the equipment needs to incorporate features for high reliability and safety so as to avoid unnecessary outage. As far as possible the equipment must be maintenance free. Wherever maintenance is inevitable, it has to be designed to be carried out without exposure of personnel to radiation, preventing spread of radiation or contamination. This paper outlines the design features of a thermosyphon evaporator for nuclear application. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Modelling refrigerant distribution in minichannel evaporators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Wiebke

    of the liquid and vapour in the inlet manifold. Combining non-uniform airflow and non-uniform liquid and vapour distribution shows that a non-uniform airflow distribution to some degree can be compensated by a suitable liquid and vapour distribution. Controlling the superheat out of the individual channels...... to be equal, results in a cooling capacity very close to the optimum. A sensitivity study considering parameter changes shows that the course of the pressure gradient in the channel is significant, considering the magnitude of the capacity reductions due to non-uniform liquid and vapour distribution and non......This thesis is concerned with numerical modelling of flow distribution in a minichannel evaporator for air-conditioning. The study investigates the impact of non-uniform airflow and non-uniform distribution of the liquid and vapour phases in the inlet manifold on the refrigerant mass flow...

  16. Refractory material crucibles evaluation for U evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiao, A.J.; Vasconcelos, G.; Silveira, C.A.B.; Rodrigues, N.A.S.

    1996-01-01

    In studies that involve small amounts of U vapor generation, such as spectroscopy or thin films, most of the E-gun power is delivered to the cooling system. Normally crucibles are used as container and thermal insulator. Since liquid U is extremely reactive at evaporation temperatures, the crucibles are seriously attacked, decreasing the insulation efficiency and adding contaminants to the U vapor. There is no complete solution for the problem, however, with a careful choice of materials, one can design crucibles with extended lifetime and reduced contamination. This work reports some preliminary results we have obtained in the assessing of crucible materials and design, such as, graphite, Si C, vitreous carbon and Al 2 O 3 . (author)

  17. Evaporation Rates of Brine on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Chittenden, J.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    While Mars is now largely a dry and barren place, recent data have indicated that water has flowed at specific locations within the last approx. 10(exp 6) y. This had led to a resurgence of interest in theoretical and experimental work aimed at understanding the behavior of water on Mars. There are several means whereby the stability of liquid water on Mars could be increased, one being the presence solutes that would depress the freezing point. Salt water on Earth is about 0.5M NaCl, but laboratory experiments suggest that martian salt water is quite different. We recently began a program of laboratory measurements of the stability of liquid water, ice and ice-dust mixtures under martian conditions and here report measurements of the evaporation rate of 0.25M brine.

  18. Towards prediction of heatwaves based on the complementary relationship between actual and potential evaporation - energy partitioning and hydrologic attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Or, D.; Aminzadeh, M.; Roderick, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of extreme climate events such as heatwaves that are characterized by prolonged periods of high air temperatures (accompanied by low precipitation and high radiation) provides an opportunity to potentially mitigate the associated environmental, social and economic impacts. Vegetation may respond to these extreme conditions by reducing evaporative flux either due to soil water depletion or inability to meet the atmospheric evaporative demand (high canopy resistance). We implement a newly generalized Complementary Relationship (CR) for spatially heterogeneous land surfaces to predict the actual evaporation from drying landscapes covered by different vegetation types (i.e., grassland and forest). A strong correlation between air temperature and sensible heat flux anomalies identified from FLUXNET network data suggests that abrupt changes in sensible heat flux above climatological means can serve as indicators for predicting the onset of a heatwave. We thus capitalize on the inherent coupling between evaporative and sensible heat fluxes linked to moisture availability within the CR framework to predict rapid increase in regional sensible heat flux associated with soil drying (low precipitation) or with extreme evaporative demand (high radiation) while soil moisture is not limiting. The proposed approach evaluated using FLUXNET datasets provides an energy constraint framework based on the CR concept to obtain new insights into the onset of heatwaves and climate extremes such as regional droughts.

  19. Steady Method for the Analysis of Evaporation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günay, A Alperen; Sett, Soumyadip; Oh, Junho; Miljkovic, Nenad

    2017-10-31

    Droplet evaporation is an important phenomenon governing many man-made and natural processes. Characterizing the rate of evaporation with high accuracy has attracted the attention of numerous scientists over the past century. Traditionally, researchers have studied evaporation by observing the change in the droplet size in a given time interval. However, the transient nature coupled with the significant mass-transfer-governed gas dynamics occurring at the droplet three-phase contact line makes the classical method crude. Furthermore, the intricate balance played by the internal and external flows, evaporation kinetics, thermocapillarity, binary-mixture dynamics, curvature, and moving contact lines makes the decoupling of these processes impossible with classical transient methods. Here, we present a method to measure the rate of evaporation of spatially and temporally steady droplets. By utilizing a piezoelectric dispenser to feed microscale droplets (R ≈ 9 μm) to a larger evaporating droplet at a prescribed frequency, we can both create variable-sized droplets on any surface and study their evaporation rate by modulating the piezoelectric droplet addition frequency. Using our steady technique, we studied water evaporation of droplets having base radii ranging from 20 to 250 μm on surfaces of different functionalities (45° ≤ θ a,app ≤ 162°, where θ a,app is the apparent advancing contact angle). We benchmarked our technique with the classical unsteady method, showing an improvement of 140% in evaporation rate measurement accuracy. Our work not only characterizes the evaporation dynamics on functional surfaces but also provides an experimental platform to finally enable the decoupling of the complex physics governing the ubiquitous droplet evaporation process.

  20. Evaporative cooling of highly charged ions in EBIT [Electron Beam Ion Trap]: An experimental realization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, M.B.; Levine, M.A.; Bennett, C.L.; Henderson, J.R.; Knapp, D.A.; Marrs, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Both the total number and trapping lifetime of near-neon-like gold ions held in an electron beam ion trap have been greatly increased by a process of 'evaporative cooling'. A continuous flow of low-charge-state ions into the trap cools the high-charge-state ions in the trap. Preliminary experimental results using titanium ions as a coolant are presented. 8 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs