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Sample records for total equivalent temperature

  1. Dose equivalent distributions in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, B.J.; Bailey, G.M.; McGregor, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    The incident neutron dose equivalent in the AAEC total body nitrogen facility is measured by a calibrated remmeter. Dose equivalent rates and distributions are calculated by Monte Carlo techniques which take account of the secondary neutron flux from the collimator. Experiment and calculation are found to be in satisfactory agreement. The effective dose equivalent per exposure is determined by weighting organ doses, and the potential detriment per exposure is calculated from ICRP risk factors

  2. Total effective dose equivalent associated with fixed uranium surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogard, J.S.; Hamm, R.N.; Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; England, C.A.; Swenson, D.E.; Brown, K.S.

    1997-04-01

    This report provides the technical basis for establishing a uranium fixed-contamination action level, a fixed uranium surface contamination level exceeding the total radioactivity values of Appendix D of Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, part 835 (10CFR835), but below which the monitoring, posting, and control requirements for Radiological Areas are not required for the area of the contamination. An area of fixed uranium contamination between 1,000 dpm/100 cm 2 and that level corresponding to an annual total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) of 100 mrem requires only routine monitoring, posting to alert personnel of the contamination, and administrative control. The more extensive requirements for monitoring, posting, and control designated by 10CFR835 for Radiological Areas do not have to be applied for these intermediate fixed-contamination levels

  3. Total free radical species and oxidation equivalent in polluted air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoying; Jia, Shiming; Niu, Xiuli; Tian, Haoqi; Liu, Yanrong; Chen, Xuefu; Li, Lan; Zhang, Yuanhang; Shi, Gaofeng

    2017-12-31

    Free radicals are the most important chemical intermediate or agent of the atmosphere and influenced by thousands of reactants. The free radicals determine the oxidizing power of the polluted air. Various gases present in smog or haze are oxidants and induce organ and cellular damage via generation of free radical species. At present, however, the high variability of total free radicals in polluted air has prevented the detection of possible trends or distributions in the concentration of those species. The total free radicals are a kind of contaminants with colorless, tasteless characteristics, and almost imperceptible by human body. Here we present total free radical detection and distribution characteristics, and analyze the effects of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. We find that the total free radical values can be described by not only a linear dependence on ozone at higher temperature period, but also a linear delay dependence on particulate matter at lower temperature period throughout the measurement period. The total free radical species distribution is decrease from west to east in Lanzhou, which closely related to the distribution of the air pollutants. The total free radical oxidation capacity in polluted air roughly matches the effects of tobacco smoke produced by the incomplete combustion of a controlled amount of tobacco in a smoke chamber. A relatively unsophisticated chromatographic fingerprint similarity is used for indicating preliminarily the effect of total free radicals in polluted air on human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-temperature equivalence in Martensite tempering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackenberg, Robert E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thomas, Grant A. [CSM; Speer, John G. [CSM; Matlock, David K. [CSM; Krauss, George [CSM

    2008-06-16

    The relationship between time and temperature is of great consequence in many materials-related processes including the tempering of martensite. In 1945, Hollomon and Jaffe quantified the 'degree of tempering' as a function of both tempering time, t, and tempering temperature, T, using the expression, T(log t + c). Here, c is thought to be a material constant and appears to decrease linearly with increasing carbon content. The Hollomon-Jaffe tempering parameter is frequently cited in the literature. This work reviews the original derivation of the tempering parameter concept, and presents the use of the characteristics diffusion distance as an alternative time-temperature relationship during martensite tempering. During the tempering of martensite, interstitial carbon atoms diffuse to form carbides. In addition, austenite decomposes, dislocations and grain boundaries rearrange, associated with iron self diffusion. Since these are all diffusional processes, it is reasonable to expect the degree of tempering to relate to the extent of diffusion.

  5. Supersymmetric QED at finite temperature and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinett, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Unbroken supersymmetric QED is examined at finite temperature and it is shown that the scalar and spinor members of a chiral superfield acquire different temperature-dependent inertial masses. By considering the renormalization of the energy-momentum tensor it is also shown that the T-dependent scalar-spinor gravitational masses are also no longer degenerate and, moreover, are different from their T-dependent inertial mass shifts implying a violation of the equivalence principle. The temperature-dependent corrections to the spinor (g-2) are also calculated and found not to vanish

  6. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  7. Equivalent Circulation Density Analysis of Geothermal Well by Coupling Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuhua Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The accurate control of the wellbore pressure not only prevents lost circulation/blowout and fracturing formation by managing the density of the drilling fluid, but also improves productivity by mitigating reservoir damage. Calculating the geothermal pressure of a geothermal well by constant parameters would easily bring big errors, as the changes of physical, rheological and thermal properties of drilling fluids with temperature are neglected. This paper researched the wellbore pressure coupling by calculating the temperature distribution with the existing model, fitting the rule of density of the drilling fluid with the temperature and establishing mathematical models to simulate the wellbore pressures, which are expressed as the variation of Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD under different conditions. With this method, the temperature and ECDs in the wellbore of the first medium-deep geothermal well, ZK212 Yangyi Geothermal Field in Tibet, were determined, and the sensitivity analysis was simulated by assumed parameters, i.e., the circulating time, flow rate, geothermal gradient, diameters of the wellbore, rheological models and regimes. The results indicated that the geothermal gradient and flow rate were the most influential parameters on the temperature and ECD distribution, and additives added in the drilling fluid should be added carefully as they change the properties of the drilling fluid and induce the redistribution of temperature. To ensure the safe drilling and velocity of pipes tripping into the hole, the depth and diameter of the wellbore are considered to control the surge pressure.

  8. Ambiguity of the equivalence principle and Hawking's temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1984-01-01

    There are two inequivalent ways in which the laws of physics in a gravitational field can be related to the laws in an inertial frame, when quantum mechanical effects are taken into account. This leads to an ambiguity in the derivation of Hawking's radiation temperature for a black hole: it could be

  9. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon

    2015-11-02

    Effects of temperature, pressure and global equivalence ratio on total ignition delay time in a constant volume spray combustion chamber were investigated for diesel fuel along with the primary reference fuels (PRFs) of n-heptane and iso-octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel pump. A gradient method was adopted in determining the start of ignition in order to compensate pressure increase induced by low temperature heat release. Comparison of this method with other existing methods was discussed. Ignition delay times were measured at various equivalence ratios (0.5-1.7) with the temperatures of initial charge air in the range from 698 to 860 K and the pressures in the range of 1.5 to 2.1 MPa, pertinent to low temperature combustion (LTC) conditions. An attempt to scale the effect of pressure on total ignition delay was undertaken and the equivalence ratio exponent and activation energy in the Arrhenius expression of total ignition delay were determined. Ignition delay results indicated that there were strong correlations of pressure, temperature, and equivalence ratio under most conditions studied except at relatively low pressures. Diesel (DCN 52.5) and n-heptane (DCN 54) fuels exhibited reasonably similar ignition delay characteristics, while iso-octane showed a distinct behavior under low temperature regime having a two-stage ignition, which substantiate the adoption of the gradient method in determining ignition delay.

  10. Criterion 6, indicator 28 : total and per capita consumption of wood and wood products in round wood equivalents

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Howard; Rebecca Westby; Kenneth E. Skog

    2010-01-01

    Total consumption of wood and paper products and fuelwood, in roundwood equivalents, increased between 1965 and 1988 from 13.2 to 18.9 billion cubic feet. Since 1988, it has been about 20 billion cubic feet per year. Total per capita consumption increased between 1965 and 1987, from 68 to 83 ft3 per year. Since 1987 through 2006, per capita...

  11. TORREFACTION OF CELLULOSE: VALIDITY AND LIMITATION OF THE TEMPERATURE/DURATION EQUIVALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Lv , Pin; Almeida , Giana; Perré , Patrick

    2012-01-01

    During torrefaction of biomass, equivalence between temperature and residence time is often reported, either in terms of the loss of mass or the alternation of properties. The present work proposes a rigorous investigation of this equivalence. Cellulose, as the main lignocellulosic biomass component, was treated under mild pyrolysis for 48 hours. Several couples of T-D (temperature-duration) points were selected from TGA curves to obtain mass losses of 11.6%, 25%, 50%, 74.4%, and 86.7%. The c...

  12. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  13. TORREFACTION OF CELLULOSE: VALIDITY AND LIMITATION OF THE TEMPERATURE/DURATION EQUIVALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Lv,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available During torrefaction of biomass, equivalence between temperature and residence time is often reported, either in terms of the loss of mass or the alternation of properties. The present work proposes a rigorous investigation of this equivalence. Cellulose, as the main lignocellulosic biomass component, was treated under mild pyrolysis for 48 hours. Several couples of T-D (temperature-duration points were selected from TGA curves to obtain mass losses of 11.6%, 25%, 50%, 74.4%, and 86.7%. The corresponding residues were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for analysis. According to the FTIR results, a suitably accurate match to global T-D equivalence is exhibited up to 50% mass loss: in this domain, mass loss is well correlated to the treatment intensity (molecular composition of the residue except for slight differences in the production of C=C and C=O. For mass loss levels of 74.4% and 86.7%, distinct degradation mechanisms take place at different combinations of temperature and duration, and the correlation fails. Compared to the mass loss at 220°C and 250°C, the equivalent molecular composition can be achieved through treatment at 280°C with shorter treatment time and less depolymerization and oxidation. The main conclusion drawn is that mass loss can be used as a synthetic indicator of the treatment intensity in the temperature range of 220°C to 280°C up to a mass loss of 50%.

  14. Peaking cladding temperature and break equivalent size of intermediate break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    2012-01-01

    The analysis results of intermediate break loss of coolant accident for the nuclear power plant of million kw level showed to be as following: (1) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown with L(X)P. it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 20 cm and 849℃. (2) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop. the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 10 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 10.5 cm and 921℃. (3) At the bur up of 31 GWd/t(EOC1). the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop, the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 20 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 8 cm and 1145℃. The above analysis results showed that the peaking cladding temperature of intermediate break loss of coolant accident is not only related with the break equivalent size and core bur up, and is closely related with the stop time of coolant pumps because the coolant pumps would drive the coolant from safety system to produce the seal loop in break loop and affect the core coolant flow, results in the fuel cladding temperature increasing or damaging. Therefore, the break spectrum, burn up spectrum, the stop time of coolant pumps and operator action time will need to detail analysis and provide appropriate operating procedure, otherwise the peaking cladding temperature will exceed 1204℃ and threaten the safety of the reactor core when the intermediate break loss of coolant accident occur in some break equivalent size, burn up, stop pumps time and operator action not appropriate. The pressurizer pressure low signal simultaneity containment pressure higher signal were used as the operator manual close the signal of reactor coolant pumps after reactor shutdown of 20 minutes. have successful solved the operator intervention time from 10 minutes

  15. Application of combined TLD and CR-39 PNTD method for measurement of total dose and dose equivalent on ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benton, E.R.; Deme, S.; Apathy, I.

    2006-01-01

    To date, no single passive detector has been found that measures dose equivalent from ionizing radiation exposure in low-Earth orbit. We have developed the I.S.S. Passive Dosimetry System (P.D.S.), utilizing a combination of TLD in the form of the self-contained Pille TLD system and stacks of CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (P.N.T.D.) oriented in three mutually orthogonal directions, to measure total dose and dose equivalent aboard the International Space Station (I.S.S.). The Pille TLD system, consisting on an on board reader and a large number of Ca 2 SO 4 :Dy TLD cells, is used to measure absorbed dose. The Pille TLD cells are read out and annealed by the I.S.S. crew on orbit, such that dose information for any time period or condition, e.g. for E.V.A. or following a solar particle event, is immediately available. Near-tissue equivalent CR-39 P.N.T.D. provides Let spectrum, dose, and dose equivalent from charged particles of LET ∞ H 2 O ≥ 10 keV/μm, including the secondaries produced in interactions with high-energy neutrons. Dose information from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is used to correct the absorbed dose component ≥ 10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose. Dose equivalent from CR-39 P.N.T.D. is combined with the dose component <10 keV/μm measured in TLD to obtain total dose equivalent. Dose rates ranging from 165 to 250 μGy/day and dose equivalent rates ranging from 340 to 450 μSv/day were measured aboard I.S.S. during the Expedition 2 mission in 2001. Results from the P.D.S. are consistent with those from other passive detectors tested as part of the ground-based I.C.C.H.I.B.A.N. intercomparison of space radiation dosimeters. (authors)

  16. Total Dose Effects on Bipolar Integrated Circuits at Low Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2012-01-01

    Total dose damage in bipolar integrated circuits is investigated at low temperature, along with the temperature dependence of the electrical parameters of internal transistors. Bandgap narrowing causes the gain of npn transistors to decrease far more at low temperature compared to pnp transistors, due to the large difference in emitter doping concentration. When irradiations are done at temperatures of -140 deg C, no damage occurs until devices are warmed to temperatures above -50 deg C. After warm-up, subsequent cooling shows that damage is then present at low temperature. This can be explained by the very strong temperature dependence of dispersive transport in the continuous-time-random-walk model for hole transport. For linear integrated circuits, low temperature operation is affected by the strong temperature dependence of npn transistors along with the higher sensitivity of lateral and substrate pnp transistors to radiation damage.

  17. Total Ambient Dose Equivalent Buildup Factor Determination for Nbs04 Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckic, Paulina; Hayes, Robert B

    2018-06-01

    Buildup factors are dimensionless multiplicative factors required by the point kernel method to account for scattered radiation through a shielding material. The accuracy of the point kernel method is strongly affected by the correspondence of analyzed parameters to experimental configurations, which is attempted to be simplified here. The point kernel method has not been found to have widespread practical use for neutron shielding calculations due to the complex neutron transport behavior through shielding materials (i.e. the variety of interaction mechanisms that neutrons may undergo while traversing the shield) as well as non-linear neutron total cross section energy dependence. In this work, total ambient dose buildup factors for NBS04 concrete are calculated in terms of neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors. The neutron and secondary gamma ray transmission factors are calculated using MCNP6™ code with updated cross sections. Both transmission factors and buildup factors are given in a tabulated form. Practical use of neutron transmission and buildup factors warrants rigorously calculated results with all associated uncertainties. In this work, sensitivity analysis of neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors with varying water content has been conducted. The analysis showed significant impact of varying water content in concrete on both neutron transmission factors and total buildup factors. Finally, support vector regression, a machine learning technique, has been engaged to make a model based on the calculated data for calculation of the buildup factors. The developed model can predict most of the data with 20% relative error.

  18. Effect of Temperature, Pressure and Equivalence Ratio on Ignition Delay in Ignition Quality Tester (IQT): Diesel,n-Heptane, andiso-Octane Fuels under Low Temperature Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Seung Yeon; Naser, Nimal; Chung, Suk-Ho; Cha, Junepyo

    2015-01-01

    -octane in relatively low temperature conditions to simulate unsteady spray ignition behavior. A KAUST Research ignition quality tester (KR-IQT) was utilized, which has a feature of varying temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio using a variable displacement fuel

  19. Creep behavior of bone cement: a method for time extrapolation using time-temperature equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, R L; Farrar, D F; Rose, J; Forster, H; Morgan, I

    2003-04-01

    The clinical lifetime of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement is considerably longer than the time over which it is convenient to perform creep testing. Consequently, it is desirable to be able to predict the long term creep behavior of bone cement from the results of short term testing. A simple method is described for prediction of long term creep using the principle of time-temperature equivalence in polymers. The use of the method is illustrated using a commercial acrylic bone cement. A creep strain of approximately 0.6% is predicted after 400 days under a constant flexural stress of 2 MPa. The temperature range and stress levels over which it is appropriate to perform testing are described. Finally, the effects of physical aging on the accuracy of the method are discussed and creep data from aged cement are reported.

  20. Multi-temperature state-dependent equivalent circuit discharge model for lithium-sulfur batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Propp, Karsten; Marinescu, Monica; Auger, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are described extensively in the literature, but existing computational models aimed at scientific understanding are too complex for use in applications such as battery management. Computationally simple models are vital for exploitation. This paper proposes a non......-linear state-of-charge dependent Li-S equivalent circuit network (ECN) model for a Li-S cell under discharge. Li-S batteries are fundamentally different to Li-ion batteries, and require chemistry-specific models. A new Li-S model is obtained using a ‘behavioural’ interpretation of the ECN model; as Li...... pulse profile at four temperatures from 10 °C to 50 °C, giving linearized ECN parameters for a range of states-of-charge, currents and temperatures. These are used to create a nonlinear polynomial-based battery model suitable for use in a battery management system. When the model is used to predict...

  1. Displacement rate and temperature equivalence in stochastic cluster dynamics simulations of irradiated pure α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332 GA (United States); Muntifering, Brittany [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, 60208 IL (United States); Dingreville, Rémi; Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent, E-mail: laurent@lanl.gov [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332 GA (United States); Material Science and Technology Division, MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Charged particle irradiation is a frequently used experimental tool to study damage accumulation in metals expected during neutron irradiation. Understanding the correspondence between displacement rate and temperature during such studies is one of several factors that must be taken into account in order to design experiments that produce equivalent damage accumulation to neutron damage conditions. In this study, spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics (SRSCD) is used to simulate damage evolution in α-Fe and find displacement rate/temperature pairs under ‘target’ and ‘proxy’ conditions for which the local distribution of vacancies and vacancy clusters is the same as a function of displacement damage. The SRSCD methodology is chosen for this study due to its computational efficiency and ability to simulate damage accumulation in spatially inhomogeneous materials such as thin films. Results are presented for Frenkel pair irradiation and displacement cascade damage in thin films and bulk α-Fe. Holding all other material and irradiation conditions constant, temperature adjustments are shown to successfully make up for changes in displacement rate such that defect concentrations and cluster sizes remain relatively constant. The methodology presented in this study allows for a first-order prediction of the temperature at which ion irradiation experiments (‘proxy’ conditions) should take place in order to approximate neutron irradiation (‘target’ conditions).

  2. Temperature dependence of HU values for various water equivalent phantom materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homolka, P.; Nowotny, R.; Gahleitner, A.

    2002-01-01

    The temperature dependence of water equivalent phantom materials used in radiotherapy and diagnostic imaging has been investigated. Samples of phantom materials based on epoxy resin, polyethylene, a polystyrene-polypropylene mixture and commercially available phantom materials (Solid Water TM , Gammex RMI and Plastic Water TM , Nuclear Associates) were scanned at temperatures from 15 to 40 deg. C and HU values determined. At a reference temperature of 20 deg. C materials optimized for CT applications give HU values close to zero while the commercial materials show an offset of 119.77 HU (Plastic Water) and 27.69 HU (Solid Water). Temperature dependence was lowest for epoxy-based materials (EPX-W: -0.23 HU deg. C -1 ; Solid Water: -0.25 HU deg. C -1 ) and highest for a polyethylene-based material (X0: -0.72 HU deg. C -1 ). A material based on a mixture of polystyrene and polypropylene (PSPP1: -0.27 HU deg. C -1 ) is comparable to epoxy-based materials and water (-0.29 HU deg. C -1 ). (author)

  3. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  4. Assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET in Transitional Spaces of a High-Rise Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooriati Taib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One passive approach that can significantly reduce energy usage in high-rise buildings is through the creation of non-air conditioned spaces such as transitional spaces. Optimizing passive design would reduce wastage associated with the building’s energy consumption. The study measures the thermal comfort of three types of transitional spaces (sky court, balcony, and rooftop in a high-rise office building. Based on the assessment of Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET, the outcome showed significant differences in PET in all locations in both wet and dry season. The effectiveness of such area can be improved with the contributions of landscape, maximizing natural ventilation and day lighting where possible.

  5. Equivalent electrical network model approach applied to a double acting low temperature differential Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formosa, Fabien; Badel, Adrien; Lottin, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An equivalent electrical network modeling of Stirling engine is proposed. • This model is applied to a membrane low temperate double acting Stirling engine. • The operating conditions (self-startup and steady state behavior) are defined. • An experimental engine is presented and tested. • The model is validated against experimental results. - Abstract: This work presents a network model to simulate the periodic behavior of a double acting free piston type Stirling engine. Each component of the engine is considered independently and its equivalent electrical circuit derived. When assembled in a global electrical network, a global model of the engine is established. Its steady behavior can be obtained by the analysis of the transfer function for one phase from the piston to the expansion chamber. It is then possible to simulate the dynamic (steady state stroke and operation frequency) as well as the thermodynamic performances (output power and efficiency) for given mean pressure, heat source and heat sink temperatures. The motion amplitude especially can be determined by the spring-mass properties of the moving parts and the main nonlinear effects which are taken into account in the model. The thermodynamic features of the model have then been validated using the classical isothermal Schmidt analysis for a given stroke. A three-phase low temperature differential double acting free membrane architecture has been built and tested. The experimental results are compared with the model and a satisfactory agreement is obtained. The stroke and operating frequency are predicted with less than 2% error whereas the output power discrepancy is of about 30%. Finally, some optimization routes are suggested to improve the design and maximize the performances aiming at waste heat recovery applications

  6. Equivalent Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram for the Study of Ejector Refrigeration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Khennich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Carnot factor versus enthalpy variation (heat diagram has been used extensively for the second law analysis of heat transfer processes. With enthalpy variation (heat as the abscissa and the Carnot factor as the ordinate the area between the curves representing the heat exchanging media on this diagram illustrates the exergy losses due to the transfer. It is also possible to draw the paths of working fluids in steady-state, steady-flow thermodynamic cycles on this diagram using the definition of “the equivalent temperature” as the ratio between the variations of enthalpy and entropy in an analyzed process. Despite the usefulness of this approach two important shortcomings should be emphasized. First, the approach is not applicable for the processes of expansion and compression particularly for the isenthalpic processes taking place in expansion valves. Second, from the point of view of rigorous thermodynamics, the proposed ratio gives the temperature dimension for the isobaric processes only. The present paper proposes to overcome these shortcomings by replacing the actual processes of expansion and compression by combinations of two thermodynamic paths: isentropic and isobaric. As a result the actual (not ideal refrigeration and power cycles can be presented on equivalent temperature versus enthalpy variation diagrams. All the exergy losses, taking place in different equipments like pumps, turbines, compressors, expansion valves, condensers and evaporators are then clearly visualized. Moreover the exergies consumed and produced in each component of these cycles are also presented. The latter give the opportunity to also analyze the exergy efficiencies of the components. The proposed diagram is finally applied for the second law analysis of an ejector based refrigeration system.

  7. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interactive short-term effects of equivalent temperature and air pollution on human mortality in Berlin and Lisbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, Katrin; Canário, Paulo; Breitner, Susanne; Schneider, Alexandra; Scherber, Katharina; Andrade, Henrique; Alcoforado, Maria João; Endlicher, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that both temperature and air pollution are predictors of mortality. Thus far, few studies have focused on the potential interactive effects between the thermal environment and different measures of air pollution. Such interactions, however, are biologically plausible, as (extreme) temperature or increased air pollution might make individuals more susceptible to the effects of each respective predictor. This study investigated the interactive effects between equivalent temperature and air pollution (ozone and particulate matter) in Berlin (Germany) and Lisbon (Portugal) using different types of Poisson regression models. The findings suggest that interactive effects exist between air pollutants and equivalent temperature. Bivariate response surface models and generalised additive models (GAMs) including interaction terms showed an increased risk of mortality during periods of elevated equivalent temperatures and air pollution. Cold effects were mostly unaffected by air pollution. The study underscores the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat effects. -- Highlights: • Interactive effects between air pollution and equivalent temperature result in augmented excess mortality. • High levels of ozone and particulate matter increase adverse heat effects on human mortality. • Cold effects are mostly unaffected by air pollution. • Findings underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating heat-related mortality. -- Interactive effects between air pollution and elevated (equivalent) temperatures underscore the importance of air pollution control in mitigating the adverse effects of heat

  9. Equivalent network for resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance versus temperature and composition of thick resistive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusy, A.

    1987-01-01

    Two types of elementary resistances in thick resistive films have been considered: (i) constriction resistance R/sub C/ determined by the bulk properties of conducting material and by the geometry of constriction, and (ii) barrier resistance R/sub B/ determined by the parameters of a thermally activated type of tunneling process and by the geometry of the metal-insulator-metal unit. On this basis a resistance network composed of a large number of the two types of resistances has been defined. The network has been considered as being equivalent to thick resistive film (TRF) from the point of view of the resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). The parameters of this network have been evaluated by the computer-aided approximation of the experimental data found for RuO 2 -based TRFs. On the basis of the equations derived for the network as well as the results of the approximation process, it can be concluded that the small values of the network TCR result from the superposition of the TCR of the conducting component β/sub C/ and of the temperature coefficient of barrier resistance α/sub B/. In this superposition β/sub C/ is attenuated (by 1--2 orders of magnitude), while α/sub B/ is attenuated by only few percentages. The network has been found to be strongly barrier dominated

  10. The justification for the use of table of equivalent squares with respect to reference depth total scatter factor, and phantom scatter factor, for cobalt-60 teletherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afari, F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of equivalent squares is of great value and importance when determining output and depth dose data for rectangular fields. The variation with field shape of collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S c,p ) were studied using measurements on GWGP 80 cobalt - 60 teletherapy machine at the National Centre of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine in the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital. Measurements of the collimator scatter factors (S c ), phantom scatter factors (S p ) and total scatter factors (S c, p) were made at the depth of 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm in full scatter water phantom for square field side and rectangular fields of varying dimensions. The measurements were done using the source - axis distance (Sad) technique. The values of total scatter factor (S c,p ), phantom scatter factor and collimator scatter factor (S c ) obtained were used to estimate equivalent squares for the rectangular fields at the various depths. The equivalent squares were computed using the method of interpolation which is based on the scatter analysis of these scatter factors and these estimated equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent squares were then compared with equivalent square fields from BJR (supplement 21) tables of equivalent squares. The research revealed that there were average deviation of 1.5% for smaller rectangular field sizes and 8.8% for elongated rectangular field sizes between the estimated square field sizes and the equivalent square field from BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent square fields. The 8.8% for the elongated rectangular fields is not accepted, though such fields are rarely used in our Hospitals. It was found that the values of the equivalent square at the various depth were very consistent and do not vary with reference depth. These findings confirm that the clinical use of the BJR (supplement 21) Table of equivalent squares for total scatter factors and phantom scatter related quantities of rectangular fields is

  11. Human local and total heat losses in different temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Yin, Hui; Di, Yuhui; Liu, Yanfeng; Liu, Jiaping

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the effects of operative temperature on the local and total heat losses, and the relationship between the heat loss and thermal sensation. 10 local parts of head, neck, chest, abdomen, upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, leg and foot are selected. In all these parts, convection, radiation, evaporation, respiration, conduction and diffusion heat losses are analyzed when operative temperature is 23, 28, 33 and 37 °C. The local heat losses show that the radiation and convection heat losses are mainly affected by the area of local body, and the heat loss of the thigh is the most in the ten parts. The evaporation heat loss is mainly affected by the distribution of sweat gland, and the heat loss of the chest is the most. The total heat loss of the local body shows that in low temperature, the thigh, leg and chest have much heat loss, while in high temperature, the chest, abdomen, thigh and head have great heat loss, which are useful for clothing design. The heat losses of the whole body show that as the operative temperature increases, the radiation and convection heat losses decrease, the heat losses of conduction, respiration, and diffusion are almost constant, and the evaporation heat loss increases. By comparison, the heat loss ratios of the radiation, convection and sweat evaporation, are in agreement with the previous researches. At last, the formula about the heat loss ratio of convection and radiation is derived. It's useful for thermal comfort evaluation and HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of sky view factor on outdoor thermal environment and physiological equivalent temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaodong; Miao, Shiguang; Shen, Shuanghe; Li, Ju; Zhang, Benzhi; Zhang, Ziyue; Chen, Xiujie

    2015-03-01

    Sky view factor (SVF), which is an indicator of urban canyon geometry, affects the surface energy balance, local air circulation, and outdoor thermal comfort. This study focused on a continuous and long-term meteorological observation system to investigate the effects of SVF on outdoor thermal conditions and physiological equivalent temperature (PET) in the central business district (CBD) of Beijing (which is located within Chaoyang District), specifically addressed current knowledge gaps for SVF-PET relationships in cities with typical continental/microthermal climates. An urban sub-domain scale model and the RayMan model were used to diagnose wind fields and to calculate SVF and long-term PET, respectively. Analytical results show that the extent of shading contributes to variations in thermal perception distribution. Highly shaded areas (SVF 0.5), and vice versa. Because Beijing has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate with hot summers and long, cold, windy, and dry winters, a design project that ideally provides moderate shading should be planned to balance hot discomfort in summer and cold discomfort in winter, which effectively prolongs the comfort periods in outdoor spaces throughout the entire year. This research indicate that climate zone characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and thermal comfort requirements of residents must be accounted for in local-scale scientific planning and design, i.e., for urban canyon streets and residential estates.

  13. Global distribution of total ozone and lower stratospheric temperature variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Steinbrecht

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an overview of interannual variations of total ozone and 50 hPa temperature. It is based on newer and longer records from the 1979 to 2001 Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer (TOMS and Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SBUV instruments, and on US National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP reanalyses. Multiple linear least squares regression is used to attribute variations to various natural and anthropogenic explanatory variables. Usually, maps of total ozone and 50 hPa temperature variations look very similar, reflecting a very close coupling between the two. As a rule of thumb, a 10 Dobson Unit (DU change in total ozone corresponds to a 1 K change of 50 hPa temperature. Large variations come from the linear trend term, up to -30 DU or -1.5 K/decade, from terms related to polar vortex strength, up to 50 DU or 5 K (typical, minimum to maximum, from tropospheric meteorology, up to 30 DU or 3 K, or from the Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO, up to 25 DU or 2.5 K. The 11-year solar cycle, up to 25 DU or 2.5 K, or El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO, up to 10 DU or 1 K, are contributing smaller variations. Stratospheric aerosol after the 1991 Pinatubo eruption lead to warming up to 3 K at low latitudes and to ozone depletion up to 40 DU at high latitudes. Variations attributed to QBO, polar vortex strength, and to a lesser degree to ENSO, exhibit an inverse correlation between low latitudes and higher latitudes. Variations related to the solar cycle or 400 hPa temperature, however, have the same sign over most of the globe. Variations are usually zonally symmetric at low and mid-latitudes, but asymmetric at high latitudes. There, position and strength of the stratospheric anti-cyclones over the Aleutians and south of Australia appear to vary with the phases of solar cycle, QBO or ENSO.

  14. Large-strain time-temperature equivalence in high density polyethylene for prediction of extreme deformation and damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray G.T.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Time-temperature equivalence is a widely recognized property of many time-dependent material systems, where there is a clear predictive link relating the deformation response at a nominal temperature and a high strain-rate to an equivalent response at a depressed temperature and nominal strain-rate. It has been found that high-density polyethylene (HDPE obeys a linear empirical formulation relating test temperature and strain-rate. This observation was extended to continuous stress-strain curves, such that material response measured in a load frame at large strains and low strain-rates (at depressed temperatures could be translated into a temperature-dependent response at high strain-rates and validated against Taylor impact results. Time-temperature equivalence was used in conjuction with jump-rate compression tests to investigate isothermal response at high strain-rate while exluding adiabatic heating. The validated constitutive response was then applied to the analysis of Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion of HDPE, a tensile analog to Taylor impact developed at LANL. The Dyn-Ten-Ext test results and FEA found that HDPE deformed smoothly after exiting the die, and after substantial drawing appeared to undergo a pressure-dependent shear damage mechanism at intermediate velocities, while it fragmented at high velocities. Dynamic-Tensile-Extrusion, properly coupled with a validated constitutive model, can successfully probe extreme tensile deformation and damage of polymers.

  15. Replacement of unsteady heat transfer coefficient by equivalent steady-state one when calculating temperature oscillations in a thermal layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supel'nyak, M. I.

    2017-11-01

    Features of calculation of temperature oscillations which are damped in a surface layer of a solid and which are having a small range in comparison with range of temperature of the fluid medium surrounding the solid at heat transfer coefficient changing in time under the periodic law are considered. For the specified case the equations for approximate definition of constant and oscillating components of temperature field of a solid are received. The possibility of use of appropriately chosen steady-state coefficient when calculating the temperature oscillations instead of unsteady heat-transfer coefficient is investigated. Dependence for definition of such equivalent constant heat-transfer coefficient is determined. With its help the research of temperature oscillations of solids with canonical form for some specific conditions of heat transfer is undertaken. Comparison of the obtained data with results of exact solutions of a problem of heat conductivity by which the limits to applicability of the offered approach are defined is carried out.

  16. Equivalent Coil Model for Computing Levitation Forces Between Permanent Magnets and High Temperatures Superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavia Santos, S.; Garcia-Tabares, L.

    1998-05-01

    A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)

  17. On equivalence of high temperature series expansion and coupling parameter series expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sai Venkata Ramana, A.

    2014-01-01

    The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids

  18. Mathematical model to predict temperature profile and air–fuel equivalence ratio of a downdraft gasification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaojaruek, Kitipong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A mathematical model based on finite computation analysis was developed. • Model covers all zones of gasification process which will be useful to improve gasifier design. • Model can predict temperature profile, feedstock consumption rate and reaction equivalent ratio (ϕ). • Model-predicted parameters fitted well with experimental values. - Abstract: A mathematical model for the entire length of a downdraft gasifier was developed using thermochemical principles to derive energy and mass conversion equations. Analysis of heat transfer (conduction, convection and radiation) and chemical kinetic technique were applied to predict the temperature profile, feedstock consumption rate (FCR) and reaction equivalence ratio (RER). The model will be useful for designing gasifiers, estimating output gas composition and gas production rate (GPR). Implicit finite difference method solved the equations on the considered reactor length (50 cm) and diameter (20 cm). Conversion criteria for calculation of temperature and feedstock consumption rate were 1 × 10 −6 °C and 1 × 10 −6 kg/h, respectively. Experimental validation showed that model outputs fitted well with experimental data. Maximum deviation between model and experimental data of temperature, FCR and RER were 52 °C at combustion temperature 663 °C, 0.7 kg/h at the rate 8.1 kg/h and 0.03 at the RER 0.42, respectively. Experimental uncertainty of temperature, FCR and RER were 24.4 °C, 0.71 kg/h and 0.04, respectively, on confidence level of 95%

  19. A comprehensive analysis of physiologically equivalent temperature changes of Iranian selected stations for the last half century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Kovács, Attila; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    As a preliminary and major step for land use planning of the coming years, the study of variability of the past decades' climatic conditions with comprehensive indicators is of high importance. Given the fact that one of the affected areas by climatic change includes variability of thermal comfort, this study uses the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) to identify and evaluate bioclimatic conditions of 40 meteorological stations in Iran. In this study, PET changes for the period of 1960 to 2010 are analyzed, with the use of Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and Pearson parametric method. The study focuses particularly on the diversity in spatio-temporal distribution of Iran's bioclimatic conditions. The findings show that the mean frequency percentage of days with comfort is 12.9 % according to the total number of selected stations. The maximum and minimum frequency percentage with values of 17.4 and 10.3 belong to Kerman and Chabahar stations, respectively. The findings of long-term trend analysis for the period of 1960-2010 show that 55 % of the stations have significant increasing trend in terms of thermal comfort class based on the Pearson method, while it is 40 % based on Mann-Kendall test. The results indicate that the highest frequency of days with thermal comfort in the southern coasts of Iran relates to the end of autumn and winter, nevertheless, such ideal conditions for the coastal cities of Caspian Sea and even central stations of Iran relate to mid-spring and mid-autumn. Late summer and early autumn along with late spring can be identified as the most ideal times in the west and northwest part of Iran. In addition, the most important inhibiting factors of thermal comfort prove to be different across the regions of Iran. For instance, in the southern coasts, warm to very hot bioclimatic events and in the west and northwest regions, cold to very cold conditions turn out to be the most important inhibiting factors. When considering the variations

  20. Investigation of the Equivalence of National Dew-Point Temperature Realizations in the -50 °C to + 20 °C Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Martti; Anagnostou, Miltiadis; Bell, Stephanie; Stevens, Mark; Benyon, Robert; Bergerud, Reidun Anita; Bojkovski, Jovan; Bosma, Rien; Nielsen, Jan; Böse, Norbert; Cromwell, Plunkett; Kartal Dogan, Aliye; Aytekin, Seda; Uytun, Ali; Fernicola, Vito; Flakiewicz, Krzysztof; Blanquart, Bertrand; Hudoklin, Domen; Jacobson, Per; Kentved, Anders; Lóio, Isabel; Mamontov, George; Masarykova, Alexandra; Mitter, Helmut; Mnguni, Regina; Otych, Jan; Steiner, Anton; Szilágyi Zsófia, Nagyné; Zvizdic, Davor

    2012-09-01

    In the field of humidity quantities, the first CIPM key comparison, CCT-K6 is at its end. The corresponding European regional key comparison, EUROMET.T-K6, was completed in early 2008, about 4 years after the starting initial measurements in the project. In total, 24 NMIs from different countries took part in the comparison. This number includes 22 EURAMET countries, and Russia and South Africa. The comparison covered the dew-point temperature range from -50 °C to +20 °C. It was carried out in three parallel loops, each with two chilled mirror hygrometers as transfer standards in each loop. The comparison scheme was designed to ensure high quality results with evenly spread workload for the participants. It is shown that the standard uncertainty due to the long-term instability was smaller than 0.008 °C in all loops. The standard uncertainties due to links between the loops were found to be smaller than 0.025 °C at -50 °C and 0.010 °C elsewhere. Conclusions on the equivalence of the dew-point temperature standards are drawn on the basis of calculated bilateral degrees of equivalence and deviations from the EURAMET comparison reference values (ERV). Taking into account 16 different primary dew-point realizations and 8 secondary realizations, the results demonstrate the equivalence of a large number of laboratories at an uncertainty level that is better than achieved in other multilateral comparisons so far in the humidity field.

  1. Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) using the RayMan Model in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshvar, Mohammad Reza Mansouri; Bagherzadeh, Ali; Tavousi, Taghi

    2013-03-01

    In this study thermal comfort conditions are analyzed to determine possible thermal perceptions during different months in Iran through the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). The monthly PET values produced using the RayMan Model ranged from -7.6°C to 46.8°C. Over the winter months the thermal comfort condition (18-23°C) were concentrated in southern coastal areas along the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. Most of the country experienced comfort conditions during the spring months, in particular in April, while during the summer months of July and August no thermal comfort conditions were observed. In November coastal areas of the Caspian Sea had the same physiological stress level of thermal comfort as April. The map produced showing mean annual PET conditions demonstrated the greatest spatial distribution of comfortable levels in the elevation range from 1000 to 2000 meter a.s.l., with annual temperatures of 12-20°C and annual precipitation of under 200 mm. The statistical relationship between PET conditions and each controlling parameter revealed a significant correlation in areas above 2000 meter, annual temperature over 20°C and annual precipitation of 200-400 mm with a correlation coefficient ( R 2) of 0.91, 0.97 and 0.96, respectively.

  2. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  3. Oral tranexamic acid is equivalent to topical tranexamic acid without drainage in primary total hip arthroplasty: A double-blind randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ze-Yu; Wang, Duan; Meng, Wei-Kun; Wang, Hao-Yang; Pan, Hui; Pei, Fu-Xing; Zhou, Zong-Ke

    2018-05-01

    To compare the efficacy of multiple doses of oral tranexamic acid (TXA) with topical TXA administration in reducing blood loss following total hip arthroplasty (THA). In this double-blinded trial, 117 patients undergoing primary THA were randomized to receive 2 g TXA orally 2 h preoperatively, and two doses of 1 g TXA postoperatively (oral group) or 3 g of TXA topical administration in the operating room (topical group). The primary outcome was a reduction in hemoglobin concentration. Other outcomes-such as blood loss, TXA-related cost (¥), length of hospital stay (days), complications such as pulmonary thromboembolism (PE), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and infection, blood coagulation and fibrinolysis, and hip function-were recorded. The mean reduction in hemoglobin level was similar between the oral and topical groups (3.07 g/dL compared with 3.12 g/dL; p = 0.85). Similarly, there was no significant difference in the mean total blood loss between oral and topical administration (863 mL compared with 902 mL; p = 0.62). Three patients received an allogeneic blood transfusion, including one patient in the oral group and two patients in the topical group (p = 0.55). The oral group had a significantly lower TXA-related cost than the topical group: ¥944 and ¥4359, respectively (p = 0.01). No PE, DVT, cardiac infarction or renal failure occurred during the 90-day follow-up. The coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters were similar between the two groups. Oral TXA is equivalent to topical TXA administration in the reduction of blood loss in the setting of primary THA without drainage. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. On the influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varonov, Albert; Shopov, Yavor

    2014-01-01

    Using statistical analysis, correlation between the variations of the total solar irradiance and of the annual-mean land temperatures was found. An unknown time lag between both data sets was expected to be present due to the complexity of the Earth’s climate system leading to a delayed response to changes in influencing factors. We found the best correlation with coefficient over 90% for a 14-year shift of the annual mean land temperature record ahead with data until 1970, while the same comparison with data until 2006 yields 61% correlation. These results show substantially higher influence of total solar irradiance on global land temperatures until 1970. The decline of this influence during the last 40 years could be attributed to the increasing concentration of anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. Key words: total solar irradiance, solar variations, solar forcing, climate change

  5. Equivalent Lagrangians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.

    1982-01-01

    We present a review of the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations, emphasizing the ambiguities which appear due to the existence of equivalent Lagrangians for a given classical system. In particular, we analyze the properties of equivalent Lagrangians in the multidimensional case, we study the conditions for the existence of a variational principle for (second as well as first order) equations of motion and their solutions, we consider the inverse problem of the Calculus of Variations for singular systems, we state the ambiguities which emerge in the relationship between symmetries and conserved quantities in the case of equivalent Lagrangians, we discuss the problems which appear in trying to quantize classical systems which have different equivalent Lagrangians, we describe the situation which arises in the study of equivalent Lagrangians in field theory and finally, we present some unsolved problems and discussion topics related to the content of this article. (author)

  6. Integrated Equivalent Circuit and Thermal Model for Simulation of Temperature-Dependent LiFePO4 Battery in Actual Embedded Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuchang Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational efficient battery pack model with thermal consideration is essential for simulation prototyping before real-time embedded implementation. The proposed model provides a coupled equivalent circuit and convective thermal model to determine the state-of-charge (SOC and temperature of the LiFePO4 battery working in a real environment. A cell balancing strategy applied to the proposed temperature-dependent battery model balanced the SOC of each cell to increase the lifespan of the battery. The simulation outputs are validated by a set of independent experimental data at a different temperature to ensure the model validity and reliability. The results show a root mean square (RMS error of 1.5609 × 10−5 for the terminal voltage and the comparison between the simulation and experiment at various temperatures (from 5 °C to 45 °C shows a maximum RMS error of 7.2078 × 10−5.

  7. Total hemispherical emittance measured at high temperatures by the calorimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiFilippo, F.; Mirtich, M.J.; Banks, B.A.; Stidham, C.; Kussmaul, M.

    1994-01-01

    A calorimetric vacuum emissometer (CVE) capable of measuring total hemispherical emittance of surfaces at elevated temperatures was designed, built, and tested. Several materials with a wide range of emittances were measured in the CVE between 773 to 923 K. These results were compared to values calculated from spectral emittance curves measured in a room temperature Hohlraum reflectometer and in an open-air elevated temperature emissometer. The results differed by as much as 0.2 for some materials but were in closer agreement for the more highly-emitting, diffuse-reflecting samples. The differences were attributed to temperature, atmospheric, and directional effects, and errors in the Hohlraum and emissometer measurements (± 5 percent). The probable error of the CVE measurements was typically less than 1 percent

  8. Application of the high-temperature ratio method for evaluation of the depth distribution of dose equivalent in a water-filled phantom on board space station Mir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Schoener, W.; Fugger, M.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.; Kartashov, D.

    2002-01-01

    A water-filled tissue equivalent phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems, Moscow, Russia. It contains four channels perpendicular to each other, where dosemeters can be exposed at different depths. Between May 1997 and February 1999 the phantom was installed at three different locations on board the Mir space station. Thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed at various depths inside the phantom either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) method was used for the evaluation of the TLDs. The method was developed at the Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities, Vienna, Austria, and has already been used for measurements in mixed radiation fields on earth and in space with great success. It uses the changes of peak height ratios in LiF:Mg,Ti glow curves in dependence on the linear energy transfer (LET), and therefore allows determination of an 'averaged' LET as well as measurement of the absorbed dose. A mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent can be calculated according to the Q(LET ( ) relationship proposed by the ICRP. The small size of the LiF dosemeters means that the HTR method can be used to determine the gradient of absorbed dose and dose equivalent inside the tissue equivalent body. (author)

  9. Total external dose equivalent and effective dose derived to the Piedmont population in the period 30 Apr 1986 - 22 Sep 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortissone, C.; Giacomelli, R.; Spezzano, P.; Porzio, L.

    1988-01-01

    Some dosimetric evaluations concerning the population of the Piemonte Region, obtained after the measurements made following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The individual effective mean dose equivalent derived from the exposure and intake in the period April 30, 1986 - September 22, 1987, is about 0.50 mSv

  10. Determination of total carbonates in soil archaeometry using a new pressure method with temperature compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barouchas, Pantelis; Koulos, Vasilios; Melfos, Vasilios

    2017-04-01

    For the determination of total carbonates in soil archaeometry a new technique was applied using a multi-sensor philosophy, which combines simultaneous measurement of pressure and temperature. This technology is innovative and complies with EN ISO 10693:2013, ASTM D4373-02(2007) and Soil Science Society of America standard test methods for calcium carbonate content in soils and sediments. The total carbonates analysis is based on a pressure method that utilizes the FOGII Digital Soil CalcimeterTM, which is a portable apparatus. The total carbonate content determined by treating a 1.000 g (+/- 0.001 g) dried sample specimens with 6N hydrochloric acid (HCL) reagent grade, in an enclosed reaction vessel. Carbon dioxide gas evolved during the reaction between the acid and carbonate fraction of the specimen, was measured by the resulting pressure generated, taking in account the temperature conditions during the reaction. Prior to analysis the procedure was validated with Sand/Soil mixtures from BIPEA proficiency testing program with soils of different origins. For applying this new method in archaeometry a total number of ten samples were used from various rocks which are related with cultural constructions and implements in Greece. They represent a large range of periods since the Neolithic times, and were selected because there was an uncertainty about their accurate mineralogical composition especially regarding the presence of carbonate minerals. The results were compared to the results from ELTRA CS580 inorganic carbon analyzer using an infrared cell. The determination of total carbonates for 10 samples from different ancient sites indicated a very good correlation (R2 >0.97) between the pressure method with temperature compensation and the infrared method. The proposed method is quickly and accurate in archaeometry and can replace easily other techniques for total carbonates testing. The FOGII Digital Soil CalcimeterTM is portable and easily can be carried for

  11. Mass flow discharge and total temperature characterisation of a pyrotechnic gas generator formulation for airbag systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neutz, Jochen; Koenig, Andreas [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Chemische Technologie ICT, Pfinztal (Germany); Knauss, Helmut; Jordan, Sebastian; Roediger, Tim; Smorodsky, Boris [Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany). Institut fuer Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik; Bluemcke, Erich Walter [AUDI AG, Department I/EK-523, Ingolstadt (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    The mass flow characteristics of gas generators for airbag applications have to comply with a number of requirements for an optimal deployment of the airbag itself. Up to now, the mass flow was determined from pressure time histories of so-called can tests. This procedure suffers from the missing knowledge on the temperature of the generated gas entering the can. A new test setup described in this paper could overcome this problem by providing highly time resolved information on the gas's total temperature and the mass flow of the generator. The test setup consisted of a combustion chamber with a specially designed Laval nozzle in combination with a temperature sensor of high time resolution. The results showed a high time resolved temperature signal, which was disturbed by the formation of a slag layer on the sensor. Plausibility considerations with experimentally and thermodynamically determined combustion temperatures led to satisfying results for the overall temperature as characteristic parameter of airbag inflating gases flows from pyrotechnics. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. The total hemispheric emissivity of painted aluminum honeycomb at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, J.; Canavan, E.; DiPirro, M.; Li, X. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 552 Greenbelt, Maryland, 20771 (United States); Knollenberg, P. [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    NASA uses high-emissivity surfaces on deep-space radiators and thermal radiation absorbers in test chambers. Aluminum honeycomb core material, when coated with a high-emissivity paint, provides a lightweight, mechanically robust, and relatively inexpensive black surface that retains its high emissivity down to low temperatures. At temperatures below about 100 Kelvin, this material performs much better than the paint itself. We measured the total hemispheric emissivity of various painted honeycomb configurations using an adaptation of an innovative technique developed for characterizing thin black coatings. These measurements were performed from room temperature down to 30 Kelvin. We describe the measurement technique and compare the results with predictions from a detailed thermal model of each honeycomb configuration.

  13. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  14. High Total Ionizing Dose and Temperature Effects on Micro- and Nano-electronic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillardin, M.; Martinez, M.; Paillet, P.; Leray, J.L.; Marcandella, C.; Duhamel, O.; Raine, M.; Richard, N.; Girard, S.; Ouerdane, Y.; Boukenter, A.; Goiffon, V.; Magnan, P.; Andrieu, F.; Barraud, S.; Faynot, O.

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates the vulnerability of several micro- and nano-electronic technologies to a mixed harsh environment including high total ionizing dose at MGy levels and high temperature. Such operating conditions have been revealed recently for several applications like new security systems in existing or future nuclear power plants, fusion experiments, or deep space missions. In this work, the competing effects already reported in literature of ionizing radiations and temperature are characterized in elementary devices made of MOS transistors from several technologies. First, devices are irradiated using a radiation laboratory X-ray source up to MGy dose levels at room temperature. Devices are grounded during irradiation to simulate a circuit which waits for a wake up signal, representing most of the lifetime of an integrated circuit operating in a harsh environment. Devices are then annealed at several temperatures to discuss the post-irradiation behavior and to determine whether an elevated temperature is an issue or not for circuit function in mixed harsh environments. (authors)

  15. A study on the equivalence of olive oil and the EU official substitute test media for migration testing at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnafouri, A J; Franz, R

    1999-10-01

    As a consequence of an increasing awareness and findings about the technical and analytical difficulties related to the employment of triglycerides as fatty food simulants in migration testing, EU Directive 82/711/EEC on the basic rules of migration has been amended for the second time and adapted with the recent Commission Directive 97/48/EC. The major merit of this important amendment is to authorize alternative tests such as extraction tests and to allow substitute tests for the fat test with concrete indication of corresponding test conditions to be applied. As a novelty in food law compliance testing it authorizes a modified polyphenylene oxide (MPPO), well-known as Tenax, a thermostable and highly adsorptive porous polymer, as a 'solid' matrix to substitute fat simulant D at temperatures equal to or higher than 100 degrees C. In the study presented here, comparative migration testing--overall and specific--was carried out between fat simulants olive oil and 14C-labelled HB 307 and the substitute test media iso-octane, 95% ethanol and MPPO using polypropylene materials as examples at test temperatures of 100 degrees C to 120 degrees C and prescribed corresponding substitute test conditions. As a consequence, a number of conclusions were drawn which are relevant for overall and/or specific migration testing under the investigated test conditions. One of the major findings was that MPPO was generally more equivalent to the fat test than the other two substitute test media. The presence of volatile hydrocarbons in the test samples was found to play a crucial role with respect to the equivalence of the iso-octane-based substitute test. At high volatile concentrations in the test sample the iso-octane test underestimated the olive oil benchmark whereas low volatile concentrations led to satisfying equivalence. It is therefore recommended that the procedure is modified and GC-FID screening of the isooctane extract is carried out. As a logical consequence, the

  16. Interactive effects between total SO2 , ethanol and storage temperature against Brettanomyces bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C G; Oswald, T A

    2018-01-01

    Although Brettanomyces bruxellensis continues to be a problem during red winemaking due to formation of off-odours and flavours, few interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic conditions that would limit spoilage have been identified. Using a commercially prepared Merlot wine, a 3 × 2 × 2 complete factorial design was implemented with total SO 2 (0, 60 or 100 mg l -1 ), ethanol (13% or 14·5% v v -1 ) and storage temperature (15° or 18°C) as variables. Populations of two strains of B. bruxellensis isolated from Washington wines (I1a and F3) were monitored for 100 days before concentrations of 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and volatile acidity were measured. In wines with 13% v v -1 ethanol and stored at 15°C, addition of 100 mg l -1 total SO 2 resulted in much longer lag phases (>40 days) compared with wines without sulphites. At 14·5% v v -1 ethanol, culturability did not recover from wines with 100 mg l -1 total SO 2 regardless of the storage temperature (15° or 18°C). A few significant interactions were noted between these parameters which also affected synthesis of metabolites. Thus, SO 2 , ethanol concentration and storage temperature should be together used as means to reduce infections by B. bruxellensis. The potential for utilizing SO 2 along with the ethanol and storage temperature was studied to inhibit the spoilage yeast, Brettanomyces bruxellensis, during cellar ageing of red wines. This report is the first to identify the existence of interactions between these parameters that affect growth and/or metabolism of the yeast (i.e., synthesis of 4-ethylphenol, 4-ethylguaiacol and volatile acidity). Based on current and past findings, recommendations are presented related to the use of potential antimicrobial synergies between SO 2 , ethanol concentration and storage temperatures. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. The three-dimensional distributions of tangential velocity and total- temperature in vortex tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linderstrøm-Lang, C.U.

    1971-01-01

    The axial and radial gradients of the tangential velocity distribution are calculated from prescribed secondary flow functions on the basis of a zero-order approximation to the momentum equations developed by Lewellen. It is shown that secondary flow functions may be devised which meet pertinent...... physical requirements and which at the same time lead to realistic tangential velocity gradients. The total-temperature distribution in both the axial and radial directions is calculated from such secondary flow functions and corresponding tangential velocity results on the basis of an approximate...

  18. Soil respiration at mean annual temperature predicts annual total across vegetation types and biomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bahn

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (SR constitutes the largest flux of CO2 from terrestrial ecosystems to the atmosphere. However, there still exist considerable uncertainties as to its actual magnitude, as well as its spatial and interannual variability. Based on a reanalysis and synthesis of 80 site-years for 57 forests, plantations, savannas, shrublands and grasslands from boreal to tropical climates we present evidence that total annual SR is closely related to SR at mean annual soil temperature (SRMAT, irrespective of the type of ecosystem and biome. This is theoretically expected for non water-limited ecosystems within most of the globally occurring range of annual temperature variability and sensitivity (Q10. We further show that for seasonally dry sites where annual precipitation (P is lower than potential evapotranspiration (PET, annual SR can be predicted from wet season SRMAT corrected for a factor related to P/PET. Our finding indicates that it can be sufficient to measure SRMAT for obtaining a well constrained estimate of its annual total. This should substantially increase our capacity for assessing the spatial distribution of soil CO2 emissions across ecosystems, landscapes and regions, and thereby contribute to improving the spatial resolution of a major component of the global carbon cycle.

  19. Gyrokinetic equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, Felix I; Catto, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    We compare two different derivations of the gyrokinetic equation: the Hamiltonian approach in Dubin D H E et al (1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3524) and the recursive methodology in Parra F I and Catto P J (2008 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 065014). We prove that both approaches yield the same result at least to second order in a Larmor radius over macroscopic length expansion. There are subtle differences in the definitions of some of the functions that need to be taken into account to prove the equivalence.

  20. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module

  1. Abnormal Signal Analysis for a Change of the R-C Passive Elements in a Equivalent Circuit Modeling under a High Temperature Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Kil-Mo; Song, Yong-Mann; Ahan, Kwang-Il; Ha, Jea-Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4 - 20mA for most instruments as an industrial process control standard. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTISim code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (abnormal signal simulation analyzer) module.

  2. The potential of a modified physiologically equivalent temperature (mPET) based on local thermal comfort perception in hot and humid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Yang, Shing-Ru; Chen, Yung-Chang; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) is a thermal index that is widely used in the field of human biometeorology and urban bioclimate. However, it has several limitations, including its poor ability to predict thermo-physiological parameters and its weak response to both clothing insulation and humid conditions. A modified PET (mPET) was therefore developed to address these shortcomings. To determine whether the application of mPET in hot-humid regions is more appropriate than the PET, an analysis of a thermal comfort survey database, containing 2071 questionnaires collected from participants in hot-humid Taiwan, was conducted. The results indicate that the thermal comfort range is similar (26-30 °C) when the mPET and PET are applied as thermal indices to the database. The sensitivity test for vapor pressure and clothing insulation also show that the mPET responds well to the behavior and perceptions of local people in a subtropical climate.

  3. Effect of milk temperature during irradiation on total bacterial count and keeping quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbour, M.M.; Dawod, A.H.; Newigy, N.A.; Wahab, G.A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Cows' and buffaloes' milk samples were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100, 200 and 300 Kr) at 10 and 30°C. Irradiation of milk at 10°C caused more reduction in total bacterial count than that occurred at 30°C. The rate of microbial destruction due to irradiation at 10°C was higher than that occurred at 30°C. The keeping quality was determined daily for 15 days by clot-on-boiling test for samples kept at room temperature and in a refrigerator. The keeping quality recorded for cows' and buffaloes' milk samples in the refrigerator was 4 days, while it was only 1 day at room temperature. Irradiation of milk at 10°C was more effective than irradiation at 30°C, to increase the keeping quality of irradiated milk kept at refrigeration. Irradiation of milk samples at 10°C by 200 Kr increased the keeping quality for two weeks in the refrigerator, i.e. such a treatment increased the keeping quality by 4 folds

  4. Influence of different maceration time and temperatures on total phenols, colour and sensory properties of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şener, Hasan; Yildirim, Hatice Kalkan

    2013-12-01

    Maceration and fermentation time and temperatures are important factors affecting wine quality. In this study different maceration times (3 and 6 days) and temperatures (15  and 25 ) during production of red wine (Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon) were investigated. In all wines standard wine chemical parameters and some specific parameters as total phenols, tartaric esters, total flavonols and colour parameters (CD, CI, T, dA%, %Y, %R, %B, CIELAB values) were determined. Sensory evaluation was performed by descriptive sensory analysis. The results demonstrated not only the importance of skin contact time and temperature during maceration but also the effects of transition temperatures (different maceration and fermentation temperatures) on wine quality as a whole. The results of sensory descriptive analyses revealed that the temperature significantly affected the aroma and flavour attributes of wines. The highest scores for 'cassis', 'clove', 'fresh fruity' and 'rose' characters were obtained in wines produced at low temperature (15 ) of maceration (6 days) and fermentation.

  5. Relationships of physiologically equivalent temperature and hospital admissions due to I30-I51 other forms of heart disease in Germany in 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiue, Ivy; Perkins, David R; Bearman, Nick

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to understand relationships of the weather as biometeorological and hospital admissions due to other forms of heart disease by subtypes, which have been paid less attention, in a national setting in recent years. This is an ecological study. Ten percent of daily hospital admissions of the included hospitals (n = 1618) across Germany that were available between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2011 (n = 5,235,600) were extracted from Statistisches Bundesamt, Germany. We identified I30-I51 other forms of heart disease by the International Classification of Diseases version 10 as the study outcomes. Daily weather data from 64 weather stations that have covered 13 German states, including air temperature, humidity, wind speed, cloud cover, radiation flux and vapour pressure, were obtained and generated into physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). Admissions due to other diseases of pericardium, nonrheumatic mitral valve disorders, nonrheumatic aortic valve disorders, cardiomyopathy, atrioventricular and left bundle-branch block, other conduction disorders, atrial fibrillation and flutter, and other cardiac arrhythmias peaked when PET was between 0 and 10 °C. Complications and ill-defined descriptions of heart disease admissions peaked at PET 0 °C. Cardiac arrest and heart failure admissions peaked when PET was between 0 and -10 °C while the rest did not vary significantly. A common drop of admissions was found when PET was above 10 °C. More medical resources could have been needed for heart health on days when PETs were public would seem to be imperative.

  6. Total emissivity and spectral emissivity of high-temperature materials; Gesamtemissionsgrad und spektraler Emissionsgrad von Hochtemperaturmaterialien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuer, G.; Pohlmann, P.; Schreiber, E.

    1998-05-01

    A new emissivity measurement device with inductive sample heating is described. The disc shaped samples can be measured between 800 C and 2000 C in vacuum or in each available gas atmosphere. Two kinds of surface temperature measurement methods are described, one by measuring in a blackbody hole and one by measuring at the surface without additional measures to correct emissivity. Total normal and spectral emissivity at wavelengths between 0,5 {mu}m and 8,3 {mu}m of various high temperature materials like platinum and Pt-Rh-alloys, siliconcarbide and molybdenum disilicide have been measured. From the investigated materials a few have been selected as reference samples for comparative emissivity measurements fullfilling the requirement of stability on air up to 400 C to 1000 C in order to ensure reproducibility of the results at different measurement conditions in air and in vacuum. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Aufbau einer neuen Messapparatur fuer Emissionsgradmessungen bei Temperaturen zwischen 1000 C und 2000 C wird beschrieben. Die scheibenfoermigen Proben werden induktiv beheizt, und die Messungen koennen entweder in Vakuum oder einer beliebigen Gasatmosphaere durchgefuehrt werden. Es werden zwei verschiedene Verfahren zur Bestimmung der Oberflaechentemperatur bechrieben, wobei entweder in einer oder direkt an der Oberflaeche ohne zusaetzliche Massnahmen zur Emissionsgradkorrektur gemessen wird. An verschiedenen Hochtemperaturwerkstoffen wie Platin und Platin-Rhodium-Legierungen, Siliziumkarbid mit unterschiedlichen Herstellungsarten und Molybdaen-Disilizid wurden der Gesamtemissionsgrad und der spektrale Emissionsgrad bei Wellenlaengen von 0,5 {mu}m bis 8,3 {mu}m senkrecht zur Oberflaeche gemessen. Aus den untersuchten Materialien wurden solche als Referenzmaterialien fuer vergleichende Emissionsgradmessungen ausgewaehlt, die sowohl im Vakuum als auch in Luft und bei Temperaturen von 1400 C bis 1600 C unter verschiedenen Messbedingungen reproduzierbare Ergebnisse

  7. Simultaneous Effects of Total Solids Content, Milk Base, Heat Treatment Temperature and Sample Temperature on the Rheological Properties of Plain Stirred Yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attilio Converti

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology was used to establish a relationship between total solids content, milk base, heat treatment temperature, and sample temperature, and consistency index, flow behaviour index, and apparent viscosity of plain stirred yogurts. Statistical treatments resulted in developments of mathematical models. All samples presented shear thinning fluid behaviour. The increase of the content of total solids (9.3–22.7 % and milk base heat treatment temperature (81.6–98.4 °C resulted in a significant increase in consistency index and a decrease in flow behaviour index. Increase in the sample temperature (1.6–18.4 °C caused a decrease in consistency index and increase in flow behaviour index. Apparent viscosity was directly related to the content of total solids. Rheological properties of yogurt were highly dependent on the content of total solids in milk.

  8. naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna; Roethig, Till; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Saderne, Vincent; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2018-01-01

    The coral structural framework is crucial for maintaining reef ecosystem function and services. Rising seawater temperatures impair the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms on a global scale, but in the Red Sea total alkalinity is naturally high and beneficial to reef growth. It is currently unknown how beneficial and detrimental factors affect the balance between calcification and erosion, and thereby overall reef growth, in the Red Sea. To provide estimates of present-day carbonate budgets and reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured in situ net-accretion and net-erosion rates (Gnet) by deployment of limestone blocks to estimate census-based carbonate budgets (Gbudget) in four reef sites along a cross-shelf gradient (25 km). In addition, we assessed abiotic (i.e., temperature, inorganic nutrients, and carbonate system variables) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and bioeroder abundances) variables. Our data show that aragonite saturation states (Ω = 3.65–4.20) were in the upper range compared to the chemistry of other tropical reef sites. Further, Gnet and Gbudget encompassed positive (offshore) and negative (midshore-lagoon and exposed nearshore site) carbonate budgets. Notably, Gbudget maxima were lower compared to reef growth from undisturbed Indian Ocean reefs, but erosive forces for Red Sea reefs were not as strong as observed elsewhere. In line with this, a comparison with recent historical data from the northern Red Sea suggests that overall reef growth in the Red Sea has remained similar since 1995. When assessing reef sites across the shelf gradient, AT correlated well and positive with reef growth (ρ = 0.9), while temperature (ρ = −0.7), pH variation (ρ = −0.8), and pCO2 (ρ = −0.8) were weaker negative correlates. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic sea was the positive effect of PO43− (ρ = 0.7) on reef growth. In the best-fitting distance-based linear model, AT explained about 64 % of Gbudget. Interestingly

  9. naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Roik, Anna Krystyna

    2018-02-28

    The coral structural framework is crucial for maintaining reef ecosystem function and services. Rising seawater temperatures impair the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms on a global scale, but in the Red Sea total alkalinity is naturally high and beneficial to reef growth. It is currently unknown how beneficial and detrimental factors affect the balance between calcification and erosion, and thereby overall reef growth, in the Red Sea. To provide estimates of present-day carbonate budgets and reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured in situ net-accretion and net-erosion rates (Gnet) by deployment of limestone blocks to estimate census-based carbonate budgets (Gbudget) in four reef sites along a cross-shelf gradient (25 km). In addition, we assessed abiotic (i.e., temperature, inorganic nutrients, and carbonate system variables) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and bioeroder abundances) variables. Our data show that aragonite saturation states (Ω = 3.65–4.20) were in the upper range compared to the chemistry of other tropical reef sites. Further, Gnet and Gbudget encompassed positive (offshore) and negative (midshore-lagoon and exposed nearshore site) carbonate budgets. Notably, Gbudget maxima were lower compared to reef growth from undisturbed Indian Ocean reefs, but erosive forces for Red Sea reefs were not as strong as observed elsewhere. In line with this, a comparison with recent historical data from the northern Red Sea suggests that overall reef growth in the Red Sea has remained similar since 1995. When assessing reef sites across the shelf gradient, AT correlated well and positive with reef growth (ρ = 0.9), while temperature (ρ = −0.7), pH variation (ρ = −0.8), and pCO2 (ρ = −0.8) were weaker negative correlates. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic sea was the positive effect of PO43− (ρ = 0.7) on reef growth. In the best-fitting distance-based linear model, AT explained about 64 % of Gbudget. Interestingly

  10. Global relationships of total alkalinity with salinity and temperature in surface waters of the world's oceans. (NCEI Accession 0157795)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Total Alkalinity fields were estimated from five regional TA relationships presented in Lee et al. 2006, using monthly mean sea surface temperature and...

  11. Intestinal intraluminal injection of glutamine increases trolox total equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion Injeção na luz intestinal de glutamina aumenta a capacidade anti-oxidante total em equivalência ao trolox (TEAC na isquemia-reperfusão hepática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bicudo Salomão

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of intraluminal injection of glutamine on the serum trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion of the liver observing the applicability of modifications on the original assay method. METHODS: Thirty Wistar rats underwent laparotomy to perform a 20 cm blind sac of small bowel and occlusion of the hepatic hilo for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 5 minutes. Into the gut sac it was injected glutamine (glutamine group, n=10 or distilled water (control group, n=10. Ten other animals (sham group underwent laparotomy without artery occlusion. Blood samples were collected for trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays in different temperature conditions, reagent quantities and time for spectrophotometer readings. RESULTS: Total antioxidant capacity was significantly greater in glutamine group than in both control group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,44[1,27-1,53] and sham group (1,60[1,55-1,77] vs 1,48[1,45-1,59]. CONCLUSION: Glutamine enhanced serum antioxidant capacity. The assay technique consistently reflected the changes in the antioxidant defenses in this experimental model.OBJETIVO: Avaliar em um modelo experimental de isquemia-reperfusão hepática os efeitos da injeção intraluminal de glutamina na capacidade anti-oxidante total em equivalência ao trolox (TEAC do plasma, verificando a aplicabilidade de modificações ao método original de dosagem. MÉTODOS: Trinta ratos Wistar foram submetidos a laparotomia e confecção de uma alça fechada de 20 cm de comprimento envolvendo o intestinal delgado distal seguido do clampeamento do hilo hepático por 30 minutos e reperfusão por 5 minutos. Na alça fechada foi injetada glutamina (grupo glutamina; n=10 ou água destilada (grupo controle; n=10. Em dez animais (grupo sham não foi realizado clampeamento hilar. Coletou-se sangue para dosagem da capacidade antioxidante total em equivalência ao trolox em condições modificadas

  12. Equivalent nozzle in thermomechanical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.

    1977-01-01

    When analyzing nuclear vessels, it is most important to study the behavior of the nozzle cylinder-cylinder intersection. For the elastic field, this analysis in three dimensions is quite easy using the method of finite elements. The same analysis in the non-linear field becomes difficult for designs in 3-D. It is therefore necessary to resolve a nozzle in two dimensions equivalent to a 3-D nozzle. The purpose of the present work is to find an equivalent nozzle both with a mechanical and thermal load. This has been achieved by the analysis in three dimensions of a nozzle and a nozzle cylinder-sphere intersection, of a different radius. The equivalent nozzle will be a nozzle with a sphere radius in a given ratio to the radius of a cylinder; thus, the maximum equivalent stress is the same in both 2-D and 3-D. The nozzle examined derived from the intersection of a cylindrical vessel of radius R=191.4 mm and thickness T=6.7 mm with a cylindrical nozzle of radius r=24.675 mm and thickness t=1.350 mm, for which the experimental results for an internal pressure load are known. The structure was subdivided into 96 finite, three-dimensional and isoparametric elements with 60 degrees of freedom and 661 total nodes. Both the analysis with a mechanical load as well as the analysis with a thermal load were carried out on this structure according to the Bersafe system. The thermal load consisted of a transient typical of an accident occurring in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, with a peak of the temperature (540 0 C) for the sodium inside the vessel with an insulating argon temperature constant at 525 0 C. The maximum value of the equivalent tension was found in the internal area at the union towards the vessel side. The analysis of the nozzle in 2-D consists in schematizing the structure as a cylinder-sphere intersection, where the sphere has a given relation to the

  13. An experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine

    OpenAIRE

    Machrafi, Hatim; Cavadias

    2008-01-01

    In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured, The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 degrees C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels t...

  14. Can Arthroplasty Stem INfluence Outcome? (CASINO): a randomized controlled equivalence trial of 125 mm versus 150 mm Exeter V40 stems in total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David F; Ohly, Nicholas E; Gaston, Paul

    2018-04-16

    The use of shorter length femoral stems during total hip arthroplasty has been suggested to accommodate wider patient femoral geometry and offer maximal bone preservation. However, cemented short-stem designs may increase the risk of varus stem malalignment and influence patient outcomes. CASINO is a multi-centre randomised equivalence trial that will recruit 220 patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty for osteoarthritis at two NHS hospitals in Scotland. Patients will be aged 45-80, undergoing unilateral primary hip arthroplasty, with no plan for contralateral procedure within the study timeframe, and able to comply with the protocol. Participants will be randomised to receive either a short (125 mm) or a standard (150 mm) Exeter V40 stem. The Contemporary acetabular component will be used in all cases. All implants will be cemented. Patient pain, function and satisfaction will be assessed using change from baseline measurement in Oxford Hip Score, Forgotten Joint Score, EQ-5D, pain numerical rating scores, and patient satisfaction questionnaire at baseline and at 1 and 2 years following surgery. Radiographic assessment will evaluate stem position and will be appraised by independent reviewers. Patients will be blind to implant allocation. Stem length may be associated with outcome; however, we can find no randomised trial in which researchers investigated the effect of stem length on patient outcome following cemented total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this trial is to determine if the use of short cemented stems offers equivalent patient outcomes to those achieved following surgery with standard length stems. International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number, ISRCTN13154542 , Registered on 30 June 2017.

  15. Effect of temperature, time, and milling process on yield, flavonoid, and total phenolic content of Zingiber officinale water extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriyani, R.; Kosasih, W.; Ningrum, D. R.; Pudjiraharti, S.

    2017-03-01

    Several parameters such as temperature, time of extraction, and size of simplicia play significant role in medicinal herb extraction. This study aimed to investigate the effect of those parameters on yield extract, flavonoid, and total phenolic content in water extract of Zingiber officinale. The temperatures used were 50, 70 and 90°C and the extraction times were 30, 60 and 90 min. Z. officinale in the form of powder and chips were used to study the effect of milling treatment. The correlation among those variables was analysed using ANOVA two-way factors without replication. The result showed that time and temperature did not influence the yield of extract of Powder simplicia. However, time of extraction influenced the extract of simplicia treated without milling process. On the other hand, flavonoid and total phenolic content were not influenced by temperature, time, and milling treatment.

  16. Biogenic Methane Generation Potential in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan: Effect of Reaction Temperature and Total Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, T. T.; Fujii, T.; Amo, M.; Suzuki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding potential of methane flux from the Pleistocene fore-arc basin filled turbiditic sedimentary formation along the eastern Nankai Trough is important in the quantitative assessment of gas hydrate resources. We considered generated methane could exist in sedimentary basin in the forms of three major components, and those are methane in methane hydrate, free gas and methane dissolved in water. Generation of biomethane strongly depends on microbe activity and microbes in turn survive in diverse range of temperature, salinity and pH. This study aims to understand effect of reaction temperature and total organic carbon on generation of biomethane and its components. Biomarker analysis and cultural experiment results of the core samples from the eastern Nankai Trough reveal that methane generation rate gets peak at various temperature ranging12.5°to 35°. Simulation study of biomethane generation was made using commercial basin scale simulator, PetroMod, with different reaction temperature and total organic carbon to predict how these effect on generation of biomethane. Reaction model is set by Gaussian distribution with constant hydrogen index and standard deviation of 1. Series of simulation cases with peak reaction temperature ranging 12.5°to 35° and total organic carbon of 0.6% to 3% were conducted and analyzed. Simulation results show that linear decrease in generation potential while increasing reaction temperature. But decreasing amount becomes larger in the model with higher total organic carbon. At higher reaction temperatures, >30°, extremely low generation potential was found. This is due to the fact that the source formation modeled is less than 1 km in thickness and most of formation do not reach temperature more than 30°. In terms of the components, methane in methane hydrate and free methane increase with increasing TOC. Drastic increase in free methane was observed in the model with 3% of TOC. Methane amount dissolved in water shows almost

  17. Accuracy assessment of a net radiation and temperature index snowmelt model using ground observations of snow water equivalent in an alpine basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molotch, N. P.; Painter, T. H.; Bales, R. C.; Dozier, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this study, an accumulated net radiation / accumulated degree-day index snowmelt model was coupled with remotely sensed snow covered area (SCA) data to simulate snow cover depletion and reconstruct maximum snow water equivalent (SWE) in the 19.1-km2 Tokopah Basin of the Sierra Nevada, California. Simple net radiation snowmelt models are attractive for operational snowmelt runoff forecasts as they are computationally inexpensive and have low input requirements relative to physically based energy balance models. The objective of this research was to assess the accuracy of a simple net radiation snowmelt model in a topographically heterogeneous alpine environment. Previous applications of net radiation / temperature index snowmelt models have not been evaluated in alpine terrain with intensive field observations of SWE. Solar radiation data from two meteorological stations were distributed using the topographic radiation model TOPORAD. Relative humidity and temperature data were distributed based on the lapse rate calculated between three meteorological stations within the basin. Fractional SCA data from the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (5 acquisitions) and the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) (2 acquisitions) were used to derive daily SCA using a linear regression between acquisition dates. Grain size data from AVIRIS (4 acquisitions) were used to infer snow surface albedo and interpolated linearly with time to derive daily albedo values. Modeled daily snowmelt rates for each 30-m pixel were scaled by the SCA and integrated over the snowmelt season to obtain estimates of maximum SWE accumulation. Snow surveys consisting of an average of 335 depth measurements and 53 density measurements during April, May and June, 1997 were interpolated using a regression tree / co-krig model, with independent variables of average incoming solar radiation, elevation, slope and maximum upwind slope. The basin was clustered into 7 elevation / average

  18. Analysis of temperature difference on the total of energy expenditure during static bicycle exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono

    2016-04-01

    How to manage energy expenditure for cyclist is very crucial part to achieve a good performance. As the tropical situation, the differences of temperature level might be contributed in energy expenditure and durability. The aim of the paper is to estimate and to analysis the configuration of energy expenditure for static cycling activity based on heart rate value in room with air conditioning (AC)/no AC treatment. The research is started with study literatures of climate factors, temperature impact on human body, and definition of energy expenditure. The next step is design the experiment for 5 participants in 2 difference models for 26.80C - 74% relative humidity (room no AC) and 23,80C - 54.8% relative humidity (room with AC). The participants’ heart rate and blood pressure are measured in rest condition and in cycling condition to know the impact of difference temperature in energy expenditure profile. According to the experiment results, the reducing of the temperature has significantly impact on the decreasing of energy expenditure at average 0.3 Kcal/minute for all 5 performers. Finally, the research shows that climate condition (temperature and relative humidity) are very important factors to manage and to reach a higher performance of cycling sport.

  19. Reference test methods for total water in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration and low temperature distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a study of comparability of total water contents (%) of conditioned cottons by Karl Fischer Titration (KFT) and Low Temperature Distillation (LTD) reference methods, we demonstrated a match of averaged results based on a large number of replications and weighing the test specimens at the same tim...

  20. Probing the Subtle Structure Modifications of Thermoelectric Materials by Variable Temperature Total Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    The complex host-guest structure of Type-I inorganic clathrates has been studied fervently within the CMC based on their low thermal conductivity and promising thermoelectric Figure of Merit (zT). We have recently been focused on understanding unusual features in the high temperature diffraction...... data collected over a number of years on Ba8Ga16Ge30 (BGG), where numerous samples have been prepared in-house using various synthesis methods. This led to a comprehensive thermal stability study of clathrate powders, where PXRD revealed amorphous components in the samples treated at high temperature...... in air. PDF measurements were performed on data collected from ex situ annealed BGG samples. This ex situ study (to be submitted), reveals that the seemingly subtle change in the clathrate structure and the emergence of a significant amorphous phase observed from PXRD data is likely to be the result...

  1. Thermodynamics of the living organisms. Allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy, chemical energy and body temperature in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2017-11-01

    The study present relationship between the total metabolic energy (ETME(c), J) derived as a function of body chemical energy (Gchem, J) and absolute temperature (Tb, K) in mammals: ETME(c) =Gchem (Tb/Tn). In formula the temperature Tn =2.73K appears normalization temperature. The calculated total metabolic energy ETME(c) differs negligible from the total metabolic energy ETME(J), received as a product between the basal metabolic rate (Pm, J/s) and the lifespan (Tls, s) of mammals: ETME = Pm×Tls. The physical nature and biological mean of the normalization temperature (Tn, K) is unclear. It is made the hypothesis that the kTn energy (where k= 1.3806×10-23 J/K -Boltzmann constant) presents energy of excitation states (modes) in biomolecules and body structures that could be in equilibrium with chemical energy accumulated in body. This means that the accumulated chemical energy allows trough all body molecules and structures to propagate excitations states with kTn energy with wavelength in the rage of width of biological membranes. The accumulated in biomolecules chemical energy maintains spread of the excited states through biomolecules without loss of energy.

  2. Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) Performance Analysis of High Temperature Energy Storage Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    The 1982 milestones and lessons learned; performance in 1983; a typical day's operation; collector field performance and thermal losses; and formal testing are highlighted. An initial test that involves characterizing the high temperature storage (hts) subsystem is emphasized. The primary element is on 11,000 gallon storage tank that provides energy to the steam generator during transient solar conditions or extends operating time. Overnight, thermal losses were analyzed. The length of time the system is operated at various levels of cogeneration using stored energy is reviewed.

  3. Assessing the Total Mortality Caused by Two Species of Trichogramma on Its Natural Host Plutella xylostella (L.) at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, C A; Krechemer, F S; Foerster, L A

    2015-06-01

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogramma atopovirilia Oatman & Platner are natural enemies of Plutella xylostella (L.) in Southern Brazil. Laboratory studies to evaluate parasitoids performance under different conditions, such as temperature regimes, are necessary to assess their potential as biocontrol agents of P. xylostella. In most studies involving Trichogramma, parasitism rate is the main parameter used to evaluate parasitoid performance, ignoring that parasitoids can cause egg mortality by feeding on the host content and/or to multiple drilling without laying eggs. This study was conducted to investigate three main issues: how temperature affects T. pretiosum and T.atopovirilia development on eggs of P. xylostella, whether or not these species respond differently to temperature, and how important is the mortality they cause besides parasitism on P. xylostella. Temperature effects (from 10 to 30°C) on development, survival, parasitism rate, mortality, and total mortality caused by T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia on eggs of P. xylostella were evaluated. Temperature affected the development time, female longevity, parasitism rate, mortality not directly related to parasitoid larval development, and total mortality caused on the host. No significant differences were recorded for the estimated thermal requirements for T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia. However, the higher mortality caused by T. pretiosum indicates that this parasitoid is the most suitable to be used against P. xylostella. Also, the results suggest that the use of parasitism rate as the only parameter to evaluate the performance of T. pretiosum and T. atopovirilia may underestimate the potential of these parasitoids in regulating pest populations.

  4. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime and a st......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  5. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22: Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1986-01-01

    Using the dynamo theory method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  6. A dynamo theory prediction for solar cycle 22 - Sunspot number, radio flux, exospheric temperature, and total density at 400 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, K. H.; Hedin, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Using the 'dynamo theory' method to predict solar activity, a value for the smoothed sunspot number of 109 + or - 20 is obtained for solar cycle 22. The predicted cycle is expected to peak near December, 1990 + or - 1 year. Concommitantly, F(10.7) radio flux is expected to reach a smoothed value of 158 + or - 18 flux units. Global mean exospheric temperature is expected to reach 1060 + or - 50 K and global total average total thermospheric density at 400 km is expected to reach 4.3 x 10 to the -15th gm/cu cm + or - 25 percent.

  7. The total neutron cross-section of Nb at different temperatures for neutrons with energies below 1 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Fayek, M.; Mostafa, M.; Hamouda, I.

    1981-09-01

    Total neutron cross-section measurements have been performed for natural Nb at liquid nitrogen, room and 425 0 K temperatures in the energy range from 2 MeV - 1 eV. The measurements were performed using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels. The neutron diffraction pattern of Nb, at room temperature, was obtained using a double axis crystal spectrometer installed also at the ET-RR-1 reactor. The obtained total neutron cross-sections were analyzed using the single level Breit-Wigner formula. The coherent scattering amplitude was determined from the Bragg reflections observed in the total neutron cross-section of Nb and the analysis of its neutron diffraction pattern. The incoherent and thermal inelastic scattering cross-sections of Nb were determined from the analysis of the total cross-section of Nb beyond the cut-off wavelength. The following results have been obtained: sigmasub(t) = (6.30+-0.20)b; sigmasub(coh) = (6.0+-0.3)b; sigmasub(incoh) = (2.0+-1.0)b; bsub(coh) = (6.91+-0.08)fm

  8. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  9. An experimental and numerical analysis of the influence of the inlet temperature, equivalence ratio and compression ratio on the HCCI auto-ignition process of Primary Reference Fuels in an engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim [UPMC Universite Paris 06, LGPPTS, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert (France); Cavadiasa, Simeon [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Institut Jean Le Rond D' Alembert (France)

    2008-11-15

    In order to understand better the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine, the influence of some important parameters on the auto-ignition is investigated. The inlet temperature, the equivalence ratio and the compression ratio were varied and their influence on the pressure, the heat release and the ignition delays were measured. The inlet temperature was changed from 25 to 70 C and the equivalence ratio from 0.18 to 0.41, while the compression ratio varied from 6 to 13.5. The fuels that were investigated were PRF40 and n-heptane. These three parameters appeared to decrease the ignition delays, with the inlet temperature having the least influence and the compression ratio the most. A previously experimentally validated reduced surrogate mechanism, for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene, has been used to explain observations of the auto-ignition process. The same kinetic mechanism is used to better understand the underlying chemical and physical phenomena that make the influence of a certain parameter change according to the operating conditions. This can be useful for the control of the auto-ignition process in an HCCI engine. (author)

  10. Lake Chad Total Surface Water Area as Derived from Land Surface Temperature and Radar Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Policelli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake Chad, located in the middle of the African Sahel belt, underwent dramatic decreases in the 1970s and 1980s leaving less than ten percent of its 1960s surface water extent as open water. In this paper, we present an extended record (dry seasons 1988–2016 of the total surface water area of the lake (including both open water and flooded vegetation derived using Land Surface Temperature (LST data (dry seasons 2000–2016 from the NASA Terra MODIS sensor and EUMETSAT Meteosat-based LST measurements (dry seasons 1988–2001 from an earlier study. We also examine the total surface water area for Lake Chad using radar data (dry seasons 2015–2016 from the ESA Sentinel-1a mission. For the limited number of radar data sets available to us (18 data sets, we find on average a close match between the estimates from these data and the corresponding estimates from LST, though we find spatial differences in the estimates using the two types of data. We use these spatial differences to adjust the record (dry seasons 2000–2016 from MODIS LST. Then we use the adjusted record to remove the bias of the existing LST record (dry seasons 1988–2001 derived from Meteosat measurements and combine the two records. From this composite, extended record, we plot the total surface water area of the lake for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 through 2016–2017. We find for the dry seasons of 1988–1989 to 2016–2017 that the maximum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 16,800 sq. km (February and May, 2000, the minimum total surface water area of the lake was approximately 6400 sq. km (November, 1990, and the average was approximately 12,700 sq. km. Further, we find the total surface water area of the lake to be highly variable during this period, with an average rate of increase of approximately 143 km2 per year.

  11. Silica Supported Platinum Catalysts for Total Oxidation of the Polyaromatic Hydrocarbon Naphthalene: An Investigation of Metal Loading and Calcination Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Sellick

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A range of catalysts comprising of platinum supported on silica, prepared by an impregnation method, have been studied for the total oxidation of naphthalene, which is a representative Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon. The influence of platinum loading and calcination temperature on oxidation activity was evaluated. Increasing the platinum loading up to 2.5 wt.% increased the catalyst activity, whilst a 5.0 wt.% catalyst was slightly less active. The catalyst containing the optimum 2.5 wt.% loading was most active after calcination in air at 550 °C. Characterisation by carbon monoxide chemisorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that low platinum dispersion to form large platinum particles, in combination with platinum in metallic and oxidised states was important for high catalyst activity. Catalyst performance improved after initial use in repeat cycles, whilst there was slight deactivation after prolonged time-on-stream.

  12. Individual carotenoid content of SRM 1548 total diet and influence of storage temperature, lyophilization, and irradiation on dietary carotenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, N.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    A modified version of the AOAC procedure for the extraction of carotenoids from mixed feeds was coupled with an isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method to measure individual carotenoids in SRM 1548 total diet and in a high-carotenoid mixed diet (HCMD). The major carotenoids identified in SRM 1548 were lycopene, beta-carotene, lutein, alpha-carotene, and zeaxanthin in descending order of concentration. The concentration of all carotenoids in SRM 1548 decreased as storage temperature increased. Significant differences in carotenoid concentrations occurred between -80 and 4 degrees C storage temperatures. Lyophilization of the HCMD significantly decreased beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations and produced an apparent increase in xanthophyll concentrations. Exposure to gamma-irradiation significantly decreased alpha-carotene and beta-carotene concentrations and led to an apparent increase in P-cryptoxanthin. SRM 1548 was found to be unsuitable for use as a reference material for carotenoid measurements, while HCMD has greater potential as a reference material

  13. Effects of Focal vs Total Cryotherapy and Minimum Tumor Temperature on Patient-reported Quality of Life Compared With Active Surveillance in Patients With Prostate Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneburg, Glenn T; Kongnyuy, Michael; Halpern, Daniel M; Salcedo, Jose M; Chen, Connie; LeSueur, Amanda; Kosinski, Kaitlin E; Schiff, Jeffrey T; Corcoran, Anthony T; Katz, Aaron E

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effects of focal (hemiablation) or total cryotherapy and minimum tumor temperature on patient-reported quality of life (QoL) in patients with prostate cancer. An Institutional Review Board-approved database was reviewed for patients who underwent cryotherapy or active surveillance (AS). QoL questionnaire responses were collected and scores were analyzed for differences between focal and total cryotherapy and between very cold (total of 197 patients responded to a total of 547 questionnaires. Focal and total cryotherapy patients had initially lower sexual function scores relative to AS (year 1 mean difference focal: -31.7, P total: -48.1, P total cryotherapy sexual function scores were not statistically significantly different from the AS cohort by postprocedural year 4. Very cold and moderate-cold temperatures led to initially lower sexual function scores relative to AS (year 1 very cold: -38.1, P total cryotherapy and between very cold and moderate-cold temperature groups. Focal cryotherapy and moderate-cold (≥-76°C) temperature were associated with favorable sexual function relative to total cryotherapy and very cold temperature, respectively. No significant differences in urinary function or bowel habits were observed between groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of a "Super-child" Approach to Assess the Vitamin A Equivalence of Moringa oleifera Leaves, Develop a Compartmental Model for Vitamin A Kinetics, and Estimate Vitamin A Total Body Stores in Young Mexican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Teros, Veronica; Ford, Jennifer Lynn; Green, Michael H; Tang, Guangwen; Grusak, Michael A; Quihui-Cota, Luis; Muzhingi, Tawanda; Paz-Cassini, Mariela; Astiazaran-Garcia, Humberto

    2017-12-01

    Background: Worldwide, an estimated 250 million children children. Methods: β-Carotene was intrinsically labeled by growing MO plants in a 2 H 2 O nutrient solution. Fifteen well-nourished children (17-35 mo old) consumed puréed MO leaves (1 mg β-carotene) and a reference dose of [ 13 C 10 ]retinyl acetate (1 mg) in oil. Blood (2 samples/child) was collected 10 times (2 or 3 children each time) over 35 d. The bioefficacy of MO leaves was calculated from areas under the composite "super-child" plasma isotope response curves, and MO VA equivalence was estimated through the use of these values; a compartmental model was developed to predict VA TBS and retinol kinetics through the use of composite plasma [ 13 C 10 ]retinol data. TBS were also estimated with isotope dilution. Results: The relative bioefficacy of β-carotene retinol activity equivalents from MO was 28%; VA equivalence was 3.3:1 by weight (0.56 μmol retinol:1 μmol β-carotene). Kinetics of plasma retinol indicate more rapid plasma appearance and turnover and more extensive recycling in these children than are observed in adults. Model-predicted mean TBS (823 μmol) was similar to values predicted using a retinol isotope dilution equation applied to data from 3 to 6 d after dosing (mean ± SD: 832 ± 176 μmol; n = 7). Conclusions: The super-child approach can be used to estimate population carotenoid bioefficacy and VA equivalence, VA status, and parameters of retinol metabolism from a composite data set. Our results provide initial estimates of retinol kinetics in well-nourished young children with adequate VA stores and demonstrate that MO leaves may be an important source of VA. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Equivalence of donor and acceptor fits of temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data: Case of ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochen, Stéphane; Feuillet, Guy; Pernot, Julien

    2014-01-01

    In this work, statistical formulations of the temperature dependence of ionized and neutral impurity concentrations in a semiconductor, needed in the charge balance equation and for carrier scattering calculations, have been developed. These formulations have been used in order to elucidate a confusing situation, appearing when compensating acceptor (donor) levels are located sufficiently close to the conduction (valence) band to be thermally ionized and thereby to emit (capture) an electron to (from) the conduction (valence) band. In this work, the temperature dependent Hall carrier density and Hall mobility data adjustments are performed in an attempt to distinguish the presence of a deep acceptor or a deep donor level, coexisting with a shallower donor level and located near the conduction band. Unfortunately, the present statistical developments, applied to an n-type hydrothermal ZnO sample, lead in both cases to consistent descriptions of experimental Hall carrier density and mobility data and thus do not allow to determine the nature, donor or acceptor, of the deep level. This demonstration shows that the emission of an electron in the conduction band, generally assigned to a (0/+1) donor transition from a donor level cannot be applied systematically and could also be attributed to a (−1/0) donor transition from an acceptor level. More generally, this result can be extended for any semiconductor and also for deep donor levels located close to the valence band (acceptor transition)

  16. Targeted Temperature Management at 33°C or 36°C Produces Equivalent Neuroprotective Effects in the Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ho; Lim, Jisoo; Chung, Yong Eun; Chung, Sung Phil; Park, Incheol; Kim, Chul Hoon; You, Je Sung

    2018-01-15

    Targeted temperature management (TTM, 32°C to 36°C) is one of the most successful achievements in modern resuscitation medicine. It has become standard treatment for survivors of sudden cardiac arrest to minimize secondary brain damage. TTM at 36°C is just as effective as TTM at 33°C and is actually preferred because it reduces adverse TTM-associated effects. TTM also likely has direct neuroprotective effects in ischemic brains in danger of stroke. It remains unclear, however, whether higher temperature TTM is equally effective in protecting the brain from the effects of stroke. Here, we asked whether TTM at 36°C is as effective as TTM at 33°C in improving outcomes in a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke. After dividing rats randomly into MCAO, MCAO+33°C TTM, MCAO+36°C TTM and sham groups, we subjected all of them except for the sham group to MCAO for 3 h (for the behavioral tests) or 4 h (for all other biochemical analyses). We found TTM protocols at both 33°C and 36°C produce comparable reductions of infarct volumes in the MCAO territory and equally attenuate the extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in post-ischemic brains. Both TTM conditions prevent the mRNA induction of a major pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, in the ischemic penumbra region. Finally, both TTM protocols produce similar improvements in neurological outcomes in rats, as measured by a battery of behavior tests 21 h after the start of reperfusion. These data acquired in a rat MCAO model suggest TTM at 36°C has excellent therapeutic potential for improving clinical outcomes for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  17. Effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huyskens, C.J.; Passchier, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    The effective dose equivalent is a quantity which is used in the daily practice of radiation protection as well as in the radiation hygienic rules as measure for the health risks. In this contribution it is worked out upon which assumptions this quantity is based and in which cases the effective dose equivalent can be used more or less well. (H.W.)

  18. Characterization of revenue equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, B.; Müller, R.; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, R.

    2009-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called revenue equivalence. We give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The characterization holds

  19. Characterization of Revenue Equivalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydenreich, Birgit; Müller, Rudolf; Uetz, Marc Jochen; Vohra, Rakesh

    2008-01-01

    The property of an allocation rule to be implementable in dominant strategies by a unique payment scheme is called \\emph{revenue equivalence}. In this paper we give a characterization of revenue equivalence based on a graph theoretic interpretation of the incentive compatibility constraints. The

  20. On the operator equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenet, G.; Kibler, M.

    1978-06-01

    A closed polynomial formula for the qth component of the diagonal operator equivalent of order k is derived in terms of angular momentum operators. The interest in various fields of molecular and solid state physics of using such a formula in connection with symmetry adapted operator equivalents is outlined

  1. Output signal analysis for a variation of the R-C passive elements in a 4-2 mA R-L-C equivalent circuit modeling under a high temperature accident condition in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kil-Mo, Koo; Sang-Baik, Kim; Hee-Dong, Kim; Gyu-Tae, Kim

    2007-01-01

    An electrical signal should be checked to see whether it lies within its expected electrical range when there is a doubtful condition. The normal signal level for pressure, flow, level and resistance temperature detector sensors is 4-20 mA in most industrial process controls. In the case of an abnormal signal level from an instrument under a severe accident condition, it is necessary to obtain a more accurate signal validation to operate a system in a control room in NPPs. Diagnostics and analysis for some abnormal signals have been performed through an important equivalent circuits modeling for passive elements under severe accident conditions. Unlike the design basis accidents, there are some inherent uncertainties for the instrumentation capabilities under severe accident conditions. In this paper, to implement a diagnostic analysis for an equivalent circuits modeling, a kind of linked LabVIEW program for each PSpice and MULTI-SIM code is introduced as a one body order system, which can obtain some abnormal signal patterns by a special function such as an advanced simulation tool for each PSpice and Multi-SIM code as a means of a function for a PC based ASSA (Abnormal Signal Simulation Analyzer) module. The output signal can be analyzed by a comparative analysis of each PSpice and Multi-SIM code for a 4-20 mA circuit modeling which is by a composition of an R-L-C passive circuit as an alternating range of the elements for the temperature accident condition. In this simulation, a new simulator through an analysis of the important equivalent circuits modeling has been designed, the designed simulator is composed of the LabVIEW code as a main tool and the out-put file of each PSpice code and a Multi-SIM engine code as an engine tool is exported to the in-put file of the LabVIEW code. There are 3 main function units of the ASSA module, the first one is individual PSpice and Multi-SIM engine code units to comprise an equivalent circuit element, the second one is the

  2. Effect of temperature and pH on dehalogenation of total organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusallout, Ibrahim; Rahman, Shamimur; Hua, Guanghui

    2017-11-01

    Disinfection byproduct (DBP) concentrations in drinking water distribution systems and indoor water uses depend on competitive formation and degradation reactions. This study investigated the dehalogenation kinetics of total organic chlorine (TOCl), bromine (TOBr) and iodine (TOI) produced by fulvic acid under different pH and temperature conditions, and total organic halogen (TOX) variations in a treated drinking water under simulated distribution system and heating scenarios. TOX dehalogenation rates were generally in the order of TOI ≅ TOCl(NH 2 Cl) > TOBr > TOCl(Cl 2 ). The half-lives of different groups of TOX compounds formed by fulvic acid varied between 27 and 139 days during incubation at 20 °C and 0.98-2.17 days during heating at 55 °C. Base-catalyzed reactions played a major role in TOX degradation as evidenced by enhanced dehalogenation under high pH conditions. The results of heating of a treated water in the presence of residuals showed that TOX concentrations of chlorinated samples increased rapidly when chlorine residuals were present and then gradually decreased after chlorine residuals were exhausted. The final TOX concentrations of chlorinated samples after heating showed moderate decreases with increasing ambient water ages. Chloraminated samples with different ambient water ages exhibited similar final TOX concentrations during simulated distribution system and heating experiments. This study reinforces the importance of understanding DBP variations in indoor water uses as wells as in distribution systems to provide more accurate DBP information for exposure assessment and regulatory determination. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effect of input data variability on estimations of the equivalent constant temperature time for microbial inactivation by HTST and retort thermal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Diana; Torres, J Antonio; Welti-Chanes, Jorge; Velazquez, Gonzalo

    2011-08-01

    Consumer demand for food safety and quality improvements, combined with new regulations, requires determining the processor's confidence level that processes lowering safety risks while retaining quality will meet consumer expectations and regulatory requirements. Monte Carlo calculation procedures incorporate input data variability to obtain the statistical distribution of the output of prediction models. This advantage was used to analyze the survival risk of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. paratuberculosis) and Clostridium botulinum spores in high-temperature short-time (HTST) milk and canned mushrooms, respectively. The results showed an estimated 68.4% probability that the 15 sec HTST process would not achieve at least 5 decimal reductions in M. paratuberculosis counts. Although estimates of the raw milk load of this pathogen are not available to estimate the probability of finding it in pasteurized milk, the wide range of the estimated decimal reductions, reflecting the variability of the experimental data available, should be a concern to dairy processors. Knowledge of the C. botulinum initial load and decimal thermal time variability was used to estimate an 8.5 min thermal process time at 110 °C for canned mushrooms reducing the risk to 10⁻⁹ spores/container with a 95% confidence. This value was substantially higher than the one estimated using average values (6.0 min) with an unacceptable 68.6% probability of missing the desired processing objective. Finally, the benefit of reducing the variability in initial load and decimal thermal time was confirmed, achieving a 26.3% reduction in processing time when standard deviation values were lowered by 90%. In spite of novel technologies, commercialized or under development, thermal processing continues to be the most reliable and cost-effective alternative to deliver safe foods. However, the severity of the process should be assessed to avoid under- and over

  4. Variability and trend of diurnal temperature range in China and their relationship to total cloud cover and sunshine duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, X. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). LAGEO

    2013-07-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of total cloud cover (TCC) and sunshine duration (SSD) in the variation of diurnal temperature range (DTR) in China during 1954-2009. As expected, the inter-annual variation of DTR was mainly determined by TCC. Analysis of trends of 30- year moving windows of DTR and TCC time series showed that TCC changes could account for that of DTR in some cases. However, TCC decreased during 1954-2009, which did not support DTR reduction across China. DTRs under sky conditions such as clear, cloudy and overcast showed nearly the same decreasing rate that completely accounted for the overall DTR reduction. Nevertheless, correlation between SSD and DTR was weak and not significant under clear sky conditions in which aerosol direct radiative effect should be dominant. Furthermore, 30-60% of DTR reduction was associated with DTR decrease under overcast conditions in south China. This implies that aerosol direct radiative effect appears not to be one of the main factors determining long-term changes in DTR in China. (orig.)

  5. Equivalent Dynamic Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter C M

    2017-01-01

    Equivalences of two classes of dynamic models for weakly stationary multivariate time series are discussed: dynamic factor models and autoregressive models. It is shown that exploratory dynamic factor models can be rotated, yielding an infinite set of equivalent solutions for any observed series. It also is shown that dynamic factor models with lagged factor loadings are not equivalent to the currently popular state-space models, and that restriction of attention to the latter type of models may yield invalid results. The known equivalent vector autoregressive model types, standard and structural, are given a new interpretation in which they are conceived of as the extremes of an innovating type of hybrid vector autoregressive models. It is shown that consideration of hybrid models solves many problems, in particular with Granger causality testing.

  6. Effects of temperature and fertilization on total vs. active bacterial communities exposed to crude and diesel oil pollution in NW Mediterranean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Arturo; Antoine, Virginie [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Pelletier, Emilien [Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski (ISMER), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 310 allee des Ursulines, Rimouski, Canada G5L 3A1 (Canada); Delille, Daniel [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); Ghiglione, Jean-Francois, E-mail: ghiglione@obs-banyuls.f [UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire ARAGO, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France); CNRS, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d' Oceanographie Biologique de Banyuls, Avenue Fontaule, BP44, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer (France)

    2010-03-15

    The dynamics of total and active microbial communities were studied in seawater microcosms amended with crude or diesel oil at different temperatures (25, 10 and 4 deg. C) in the presence/absence of organic fertilization (Inipol EAP 22). Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbes were enumerated by fluorescence microscopy and Most Probable Number (MPN) method, respectively. Total (16S rDNA-based) vs. active (16S rRNA) bacterial community structure was monitored by Capillary-Electrophoresis Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (CE-SSCP) fingerprinting. Hydrocarbons were analyzed after 12 weeks of incubation by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial counts were highly influenced by fertilization while no important differences were observed between temperatures. Higher biodegradation levels were observed in fertilized microcosms. Temperature and fertilization induced changes in structure of total bacterial communities. However, fertilization showed a more important effect on active bacterial structure. The calculation of Simpson's diversity index showed similar trends among temperatures whereas fertilization reduced diversity index of both total and active bacterial communities. - Nutrient availability was the most important factor influencing microbial oil biodegradation in coastal waters of the North-western Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  8. Assessment of a Technique for Estimating Total Column Water Vapor Using Measurements of the Infrared Sky Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merceret, Francis J.; Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2014-01-01

    A method for estimating the integrated precipitable water (IPW) content of the atmosphere using measurements of indicated infrared zenith sky temperature was validated over east-central Florida. The method uses inexpensive, commercial off the shelf, hand-held infrared thermometers (IRT). Two such IRTs were obtained from a commercial vendor, calibrated against several laboratory reference sources at KSC, and used to make IR zenith sky temperature measurements in the vicinity of KSC and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The calibration and comparison data showed that these inexpensive IRTs provided reliable, stable IR temperature measurements that were well correlated with the NOAA IPW observations.

  9. Two-way effect modifications of air pollution and air temperature on total natural and cardiovascular mortality in eight European urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kai; Wolf, Kathrin; Breitner, Susanne; Gasparrini, Antonio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Samoli, Evangelia; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bero-Bedada, Getahun; Bellander, Tom; Hennig, Frauke; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Pekkanen, Juha; Hampel, Regina; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette; Schneider, Alexandra

    2018-07-01

    Although epidemiological studies have reported associations between mortality and both ambient air pollution and air temperature, it remains uncertain whether the mortality effects of air pollution are modified by temperature and vice versa. Moreover, little is known on the interactions between ultrafine particles (diameter ≤ 100 nm, UFP) and temperature. We investigated whether the short-term associations of particle number concentration (PNC in the ultrafine range (≤100 nm) or total PNC ≤ 3000 nm, as a proxy for UFP), particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤ 10 μm (PM 10 ), and ozone with daily total natural and cardiovascular mortality were modified by air temperature and whether air pollution levels affected the temperature-mortality associations in eight European urban areas during 1999-2013. We first analyzed air temperature-stratified associations between air pollution and total natural (nonaccidental) and cardiovascular mortality as well as air pollution-stratified temperature-mortality associations using city-specific over-dispersed Poisson additive models with a distributed lag nonlinear temperature term in each city. All models were adjusted for long-term and seasonal trend, day of the week, influenza epidemics, and population dynamics due to summer vacation and holidays. City-specific effect estimates were then pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled associations between air pollutants and total and cardiovascular mortality were overall positive and generally stronger at high relatively compared to low air temperatures. For example, on days with high air temperatures (>75th percentile), an increase of 10,000 particles/cm 3 in PNC corresponded to a 2.51% (95% CI: 0.39%, 4.67%) increase in cardiovascular mortality, which was significantly higher than that on days with low air temperatures (air pollution (>50th percentile), both heat- and cold-related mortality risks increased. Our findings showed that

  10. The principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnikrishnan, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    Principle of equivalence was the fundamental guiding principle in the formulation of the general theory of relativity. What are its key elements? What are the empirical observations which establish it? What is its relevance to some new experiments? These questions are discussed in this article. (author). 11 refs., 5 figs

  11. Radioactive waste equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlowski, S.; Schaller, K.H.

    1990-01-01

    The report reviews, for the Member States of the European Community, possible situations in which an equivalence concept for radioactive waste may be used, analyses the various factors involved, and suggests guidelines for the implementation of such a concept. Only safety and technical aspects are covered. Other aspects such as commercial ones are excluded. Situations where the need for an equivalence concept has been identified are processes where impurities are added as a consequence of the treatment and conditioning process, the substitution of wastes from similar waste streams due to the treatment process, and exchange of waste belonging to different waste categories. The analysis of factors involved and possible ways for equivalence evaluation, taking into account in particular the chemical, physical and radiological characteristics of the waste package, and the potential risks of the waste form, shows that no simple all-encompassing equivalence formula may be derived. Consequently, a step-by-step approach is suggested, which avoids complex evaluations in the case of simple exchanges

  12. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  13. THE CHANGE OF TOTAL PROTEIN FRACTION OF MUSCLE TISSUE OF PORK WITH BIO- AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL SPECIFIC IN THE PROCESS OF COOKING AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Shalimova

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The character of changes in total protein fraction of muscle tissue of pork with PSE defects in the process of cooking at temperatures ranging from 40 to 72 g.C in steps of 2 g.C is investigated. Our studies have revealed differences in the change of state the total fraction of muscle proteins with defects PSE pork during cooking.

  14. Correspondences. Equivalence relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouligand, G.M.

    1978-03-01

    We comment on sections paragraph 3 'Correspondences' and paragraph 6 'Equivalence Relations' in chapter II of 'Elements de mathematique' by N. Bourbaki in order to simplify their comprehension. Paragraph 3 exposes the ideas of a graph, correspondence and map or of function, and their composition laws. We draw attention to the following points: 1) Adopting the convention of writting from left to right, the composition law for two correspondences (A,F,B), (U,G,V) of graphs F, G is written in full generality (A,F,B)o(U,G,V) = (A,FoG,V). It is not therefore assumed that the co-domain B of the first correspondence is identical to the domain U of the second (EII.13 D.7), (1970). 2) The axiom of choice consists of creating the Hilbert terms from the only relations admitting a graph. 3) The statement of the existence theorem of a function h such that f = goh, where f and g are two given maps having the same domain (of definition), is completed if h is more precisely an injection. Paragraph 6 considers the generalisation of equality: First, by 'the equivalence relation associated with a map f of a set E identical to (x is a member of the set E and y is a member of the set E and x:f = y:f). Consequently, every relation R(x,y) which is equivalent to this is an equivalence relation in E (symmetrical, transitive, reflexive); then R admits a graph included in E x E, etc. Secondly, by means of the Hilbert term of a relation R submitted to the equivalence. In this last case, if R(x,y) is separately collectivizing in x and y, theta(x) is not the class of objects equivalent to x for R (EII.47.9), (1970). The interest of bringing together these two subjects, apart from this logical order, resides also in the fact that the theorem mentioned in 3) can be expressed by means of the equivalence relations associated with the functions f and g. The solutions of the examples proposed reveal their simplicity [fr

  15. Needle age and season influence photosynthetic temperature response and total annual carbon uptake in mature Picea mariana trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anna M.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Hanson, Paul J.; Childs, Joanne; Wullschleger, Stan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The carbon (C) balance of boreal terrestrial ecosystems is sensitive to increasing temperature, but the direction and thresholds of responses are uncertain. Annual C uptake in Picea and other evergreen boreal conifers is dependent on seasonal- and cohort-specific photosynthetic and respiratory temperature response functions, so this study examined the physiological significance of maintaining multiple foliar cohorts for Picea mariana trees within an ombrotrophic bog ecosystem in Minnesota, USA. Methods Measurements were taken on multiple cohorts of needles for photosynthetic capacity, foliar respiration (Rd) and leaf biochemistry and morphology of mature trees from April to October over 4 years. The results were applied to a simple model of canopy photosynthesis in order to simulate annual C uptake by cohort age under ambient and elevated temperature scenarios. Key Results Temperature responses of key photosynthetic parameters [i.e. light-saturated rate of CO2 assimilation (Asat), rate of Rubisco carboxylation (Vcmax) and electron transport rate (Jmax)] were dependent on season and generally less responsive in the developing current-year (Y0) needles compared with 1-year-old (Y1) or 2-year-old (Y2) foliage. Temperature optimums ranged from 18·7 to 23·7, 31·3 to 38·3 and 28·7 to 36·7 °C for Asat, Vcmax and Jmax, respectively. Foliar cohorts differed in their morphology and photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in 64 % of modelled annual stand C uptake from Y1&2 cohorts (LAI 0·67 m2 m−2) and just 36 % from Y0 cohorts (LAI 0·52 m2 m−2). Under warmer climate change scenarios, the contribution of Y0 cohorts was even less; e.g. 31 % of annual C uptake for a modelled 9 °C rise in mean summer temperatures. Results suggest that net annual C uptake by P. mariana could increase under elevated temperature, and become more dependent on older foliar cohorts. Conclusions Collectively, this study illustrates the physiological and

  16. The equivalence theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltman, H.

    1990-01-01

    The equivalence theorem states that, at an energy E much larger than the vector-boson mass M, the leading order of the amplitude with longitudinally polarized vector bosons on mass shell is given by the amplitude in which these vector bosons are replaced by the corresponding Higgs ghosts. We prove the equivalence theorem and show its validity in every order in perturbation theory. We first derive the renormalized Ward identities by using the diagrammatic method. Only the Feynman-- 't Hooft gauge is discussed. The last step of the proof includes the power-counting method evaluated in the large-Higgs-boson-mass limit, needed to estimate the leading energy behavior of the amplitudes involved. We derive expressions for the amplitudes involving longitudinally polarized vector bosons for all orders in perturbation theory. The fermion mass has not been neglected and everything is evaluated in the region m f ∼M much-lt E much-lt m Higgs

  17. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    -I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure.......e., by measuring both the Bragg and diffuse scattering from a sample. This method has rarely been exploited by the non-oxide thermoelectrics community. , , Treating total scattering data by the Pair Distribution Function method is a logical approach to understanding defects, disorder and amorphous components...... to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type...

  18. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  19. Effects of elevated root zone CO2 and air temperature on photosynthetic gas exchange, nitrate uptake, and total reduced nitrogen content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jie; Austin, Paul T; Lee, Sing Kong

    2010-09-01

    Effects of elevated root zone (RZ) CO(2) and air temperature on photosynthesis, productivity, nitrate (NO(3)(-)), and total reduced nitrogen (N) content in aeroponically grown lettuce plants were studied. Three weeks after transplanting, four different RZ [CO(2)] concentrations [ambient (360 ppm) and elevated concentrations of 2000, 10,000, and 50,000 ppm] were imposed on plants grown at two air temperature regimes of 28 degrees C/22 degrees C (day/night) and 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. Photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) increased with increasing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). When grown at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C, all plants accumulated more biomass than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. When measured under a PAR >or=600 micromol m(-2) s(-1), elevated RZ [CO(2)] resulted in significantly higher A, lower g(s), and higher midday leaf relative water content in all plants. Under elevated RZ [CO(2)], the increase of biomass was greater in roots than in shoots, causing a lower shoot/root ratio. The percentage increase in growth under elevated RZ [CO(2)] was greater at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C although the total biomass was higher at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations of shoot and root were significantly higher in all plants under elevated RZ [CO(2)] than under ambient RZ [CO(2)] of 360 ppm at both temperature regimes. At each RZ [CO(2)], NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentration of shoots were greater at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C than at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C. At all RZ [CO(2)], roots of plants at 36 degrees C/30 degrees C had significantly higher NO(3)(-) and total reduced N concentrations than at 28 degrees C/22 degrees C. Since increased RZ [CO(2)] caused partial stomatal closure, maximal A and maximal g(s) were negatively correlated, with a unique relationship for each air temperature. However, across all RZ [CO(2)] and temperature treatments, there was a close correlation between

  20. Measurements of the total neutron cross-sections of U and UO2 below 2 eV at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adib, M.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Ashry, A.; Abbas, Y.; Abu-Zahra, A.; Hamouda, I.

    1982-11-01

    The total neutron cross-sections of natural uranium and its oxide are measured using two time of flight spectrometers, installed in front of two of the ET-RR-1 reactor horizontal channels, and also by a neutron diffraction spectrometer. The measurements were carried out at room temperature in the energy range from 2 eV-0.002 eV and at 210 deg. C, for neutron energies below 0.005 eV. The coherent scattering cross-section of U was deduced both from the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behaviour of the total neutron cross-section of both U and UO 2 at cold neutron energies and the neutron diffraction pattern obtained at room temperature. (author)

  1. Effects of combustion temperature on air emissions and support fuel consumption in full scale fluidized bed sludge incineration: with particular focus on nitrogen oxides and total organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löschau, Margit

    2018-04-01

    This article describes a pilot test at a sewage sludge incineration plant and shows its results considering the impacts of reducing the minimum combustion temperature from 850°C to 800°C. The lowering leads to an actual reduction of the average combustion temperature by 25 K and a significant reduction in the fuel oil consumption for support firing. The test shall be used for providing evidence that the changed combustion conditions do not result in higher air pollutant emissions. The analysis focusses on the effects of the combustion temperature on nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and total organic carbon emissions. The evaluation of all continuously monitored emissions shows reduced emission levels compared to the previous years, especially for NO x .

  2. Waste Determination Equivalency - 12172

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Rebecca D. [Savannah River Remediation (United States)

    2012-07-01

    by the Secretary of Energy in January of 2006 based on proposed processing techniques with the expectation that it could be revised as new processing capabilities became viable. Once signed, however, it became evident that any changes would require lengthy review and another determination signed by the Secretary of Energy. With the maturation of additional salt removal technologies and the extension of the SWPF start-up date, it becomes necessary to define 'equivalency' to the processes laid out in the original determination. For the purposes of SRS, any waste not processed through Interim Salt Processing must be processed through SWPF or an equivalent process, and therefore a clear statement of the requirements for a process to be equivalent to SWPF becomes necessary. (authors)

  3. Tissue equivalence in neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutton, D.H.; Harris, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the essential features of neutron tissue equivalence for radiotherapy and gives the results of a computation of relative absorbed dose for 14 MeV neutrons, using various tissue models. It is concluded that for the Bragg-Gray equation for ionometric dosimetry it is not sufficient to define the value of W to high accuracy and that it is essential that, for dosimetric measurements to be applicable to real body tissue to an accuracy of better than several per cent, a correction to the total absorbed dose must be made according to the test and tissue atomic composition, although variations in patient anatomy and other radiotherapy parameters will often limit the benefits of such detailed dosimetry. (U.K.)

  4. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  5. Quantification of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    Quantitative relationships illustrate Einstein's equivalence principle, relating it to Newton's ''fictitious'' forces arising from the use of noninertial frames, and to the form of the relativistic time dilatation in local Lorentz frames. The equivalence principle can be interpreted as the equivalence of general covariance to local Lorentz covariance, in a manner which is characteristic of Riemannian and pseudo-Riemannian geometries

  6. Comparação entre a correção cilíndrica total e o equivalente esférico na realização da perimetria computadorizada Comparison between the full cylindrical correction and the spherical equivalent in the execution of automated perimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Leonardi Filho

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a existência de diferença estatisticamente significativa entre exames de campimetria computadorizada, realizados com a utilização da correção total e do equivalente esférico, em pacientes com ametropia cilíndrica de valores iguais ou maiores que 1,50 dioptrias. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes (35 olhos foram submetidos a exame de campo visual, perimetria computadorizada Humphrey - estratégia SITA 24-2, usando em um exame a correção total e em outro o equivalente esférico. Foram utilizados como parâmetros de comparação os valores de Mean Deviation, Pattern Standard Deviation, perdas de fixação, falso-positivos, falso-negativos e duração dos exames. RESULTADOS: Os parâmetros Mean Deviation, Standard Pattern Deviation, falso-positivos, falso-negativos e duração do exame não apresentaram diferença estatisticamente significativa. A perda de fixação foi maior no grupo usando correção cilíndrica total, dado estatisticamente significante. CONCLUSÃO: Exames de campo visual realizados com equivalente esférico não mostram diferença na sensibilidade retínica quando comparados com o uso de correção cilíndrica total, dentro dos padrões adotados neste estudo.PURPOSE: To compare the results in subjects undergoing visual field testing using the full cylindrical correction and the spherical equivalent. METHODS: Twenty patients (35 eyes underwent visual field testing with Humphrey (SITA 24-2 perimetry using the full cylindrical correction and the spherical equivalent at a random sequence. Mean Deviation, Standard Pattern Deviation, fixation loss, false positive and false negative results and test duration were compared. RESULTS: No difference was found regarding Mean Deviation, Standard Pattern Deviation, false positive and false negative results and test duration. Fixation loss was significantly higher with the full cylindrical correction. CONCLUSION: Visual fields performed with the spherical equivalent show no

  7. Corrosion of graphitic high temperature reactor materials in steam/helium mixtures at total pessures of 3-55 bar and temperatures of 900-1150 C (1173-1423K)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, H.K.; Loenissen, K.J.; Katscher, W.; Moormann, R.

    1993-03-01

    In course of accident examination for (HTR), experiments on the corrosion behavior of graphitic reactor materials in steam have been performed a total pressures of 3-55bar and temperatures of 900-1150 C (1173-1423K); these experiments and their evaluation are documented here. Reactor materials examined are the structure graphite V483T2 and the fuel element matrices A3-27 and A3-3. In all experiments, the steam partial pressure was 474mbar (inert gas helium). The dependence of reaction rates and density profiles on burn-off, total pressure and temperature has been examined. Experimental reaction rates depending on burn-off are fitted by theoretical curves, a procedure, which allows rate comparison for a well defined burn-off. Comparing rates as a function of total pressure, V483T2 shows a linear dependence on 1√p total , whereas for matrix materials a pressure independent rate was found for p total 4mm for A3-3. (orig.) [de

  8. New recommendations for dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1985-01-01

    In its report 39, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU), has defined four new quantities for the determination of dose equivalents from external sources: the ambient dose equivalent, the directional dose equivalent, the individual dose equivalent, penetrating and the individual dose equivalent, superficial. The rationale behind these concepts and their practical application are discussed. Reference is made to numerical values of these quantities which will be the subject of a coming publication from the International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP. (Author)

  9. System equivalent model mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Steven W. B.; van der Seijs, Maarten V.; de Klerk, Dennis

    2018-05-01

    This paper introduces SEMM: a method based on Frequency Based Substructuring (FBS) techniques that enables the construction of hybrid dynamic models. With System Equivalent Model Mixing (SEMM) frequency based models, either of numerical or experimental nature, can be mixed to form a hybrid model. This model follows the dynamic behaviour of a predefined weighted master model. A large variety of applications can be thought of, such as the DoF-space expansion of relatively small experimental models using numerical models, or the blending of different models in the frequency spectrum. SEMM is outlined, both mathematically and conceptually, based on a notation commonly used in FBS. A critical physical interpretation of the theory is provided next, along with a comparison to similar techniques; namely DoF expansion techniques. SEMM's concept is further illustrated by means of a numerical example. It will become apparent that the basic method of SEMM has some shortcomings which warrant a few extensions to the method. One of the main applications is tested in a practical case, performed on a validated benchmark structure; it will emphasize the practicality of the method.

  10. The equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorodinskij, Ya.A.

    1980-01-01

    The prerelativistic history of the equivalence principle (EP) is presented briefly. Its role in history of the general relativity theory (G.R.T.) discovery is elucidated. A modern idea states that the ratio of inert and gravitational masses does not differ from 1 at least up to the 12 sign after comma. Attention is paid to the difference of the gravitational field from electromagnetic one. The difference is as follows, the energy of the gravitational field distributed in space is the source of the field. These fields always interact at superposition. Electromagnetic fields from different sources are put together. On the basis of EP it is established the Sun field interact with the Earth gravitational energy in the same way as with any other one. The latter proves the existence of gravitation of the very gravitational field to a heavy body. A problem on gyroscope movement in the Earth gravitational field is presented as a paradox. The calculation has shown that gyroscope at satellite makes a positive precession, and its axis turns in an angle equal to α during a turn of the satellite round the Earth, but because of the space curvature - into the angle two times larger than α. A resulting turn is equal to 3α. It is shown on the EP basis that the polarization plane in any coordinate system does not turn when the ray of light passes in the gravitational field. Together with the historical value of EP noted is the necessity to take into account the requirements claimed by the EP at description of the physical world

  11. Effect of Storage Temperature on Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, UPLC Phenolic Acid Profile and Antioxidant Capacity of Eleven Potato (Solanum tuberosum Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Hubert Yamdeu Galani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Storage of potato tubers at low temperature affects their metabolism and may alter their phytochemical properties. There is a need to elucidate the changes in antioxidant compounds, activity and enzymes during storage of tubers. Eleven Indian potato varieties were evaluated for antioxidant parameters, after 0, 30, 60 and 90 days of storage at room temperature, 15 °C and 4 °C. Total phenolics (0.0786–0.1546 mg gallic acid equivalents⋅g−1 FW and vitamin C content (0.0828–0.2416 mg⋅g−1 FW varied among the varieties and were different with storage temperature; their levels fluctuated during storage but remained above the initial level until the last day of observation. Phenolic acid profiling by UPLC identified 12 compounds among which the most abundant was chlorogenic acid followed by gallic acid, sinapic acid and ellagic acid. Except para-coumaric acid which decreased at 4 °C, all the phenolic acids increased with storage. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and gallic acid mostly correlated with total phenolic content (r = 0.456, 0.482, 0.588 and 0.620, respectively. Antioxidant activity against both DPPH and ABTS radicals increased during the initial days of storage and then dropped to a level comparable or lower than the original value, irrespective of the storage temperature. Correlation study revealed that chlorogenic acid, gallic acid and ferulic acid mostly contributed to antioxidant activity. Activity of both antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase, increased initially but then decreased to values lower than the initial level and were not influenced by storage temperature. Correlation with antioxidant activity indicated that the enhancement of reactive oxygen scavenging species in cold stored tubers could result mainly from ascorbate peroxidase activity. Our results demonstrate that storage temperature adversely influences the metabolism and the content of

  12. Water equivalence of polymer gel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellakumar, P.; James Jebaseelan Samuel, E.; Supe, Sanjay S.

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the water equivalence and radiation transport properties of polymer gel dosimeters over the wide range of photon and electron energies 14 different types of polymer gels were considered. Their water equivalence was evaluated in terms of effective atomic number (Z eff ), electron density (ρ e ), photon mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), photon mass energy absorption coefficient (μ en /ρ) and total stopping power (S/ρ) tot of electrons using the XCOM and the ESTAR database. The study showed that the effective atomic number of polymer gels were very close ( en /ρ for all polymer gels were in close agreement ( tot of electrons in polymer gel dosimeters were within 1% agreement with that of water. From the study we conclude that at lower energy (<80keV) the polymer gel dosimeters cannot be considered water equivalent and study has to be carried out before using the polymer gel for clinical application

  13. Logically automorphically equivalent knowledge bases

    OpenAIRE

    Aladova, Elena; Plotkin, Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge bases theory provide an important example of the field where applications of universal algebra and algebraic logic look very natural, and their interaction with practical problems arising in computer science might be very productive. In this paper we study the equivalence problem for knowledge bases. Our interest is to find out how the informational equivalence is related to the logical description of knowledge. Studying various equivalences of knowledge bases allows us to compare d...

  14. Testing statistical hypotheses of equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Wellek, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Equivalence testing has grown significantly in importance over the last two decades, especially as its relevance to a variety of applications has become understood. Yet published work on the general methodology remains scattered in specialists' journals, and for the most part, it focuses on the relatively narrow topic of bioequivalence assessment.With a far broader perspective, Testing Statistical Hypotheses of Equivalence provides the first comprehensive treatment of statistical equivalence testing. The author addresses a spectrum of specific, two-sided equivalence testing problems, from the

  15. Equivalent Coil Model for Computing Levitation Forces Between Permanent Magnets and High Temperatures Superconductors; Modelo de Espira Equivalente para el Calculo de Fuerzas de Levitacion Magnetica entre Imanes Permanentes y Superconductores de Alta Temperatura Critica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavia Santos, S; Garcia-Tabares, L

    1998-05-01

    A new simple theory has been developed for the study of levitation forces between a permanent magnet and a HTc superconductor. This theory is based on the assumption that both, the magnet and the superconductor, can be modelled by an equivalent coil placed on their surface. While the current flowing through the permanent magnet is constant, the equivalent current through the superconductor can be iether corresponding to screen the overall flux or a constant current corresponding to critical current density when the superconductor is saturated. A test facility has been designed and built for measuring levitation forces at variable approaching speeds. Comparison between theoretical and experimental measurements are presented in the report as well as a general description of the test facility. (Author)

  16. SAPONIFICATION EQUIVALENT OF DASAMULA TAILA

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, R. B.

    1994-01-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  17. Saponification equivalent of dasamula taila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, R B

    1994-07-01

    Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are very useful for the technical and analytical work. It gives the mean molecular weight of the glycerides and acids present in Dasamula Taila. Saponification equivalent values of Dasamula taila are reported in different packings.

  18. A study on lead equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Guanxin

    1991-01-01

    A study on the rules in which the lead equivalent of lead glass changes with the energy of X rays or γ ray is described. The reason of this change is discussed and a new testing method of lead equivalent is suggested

  19. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  20. Room temperature trapping of stibine and bismuthine onto quartz substrates coated with nanostructured palladium for total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Vanesa; Costas-Mora, Isabel; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos, E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a novel method for determining Sb and Bi based on the trapping of their covalent hydrides onto quartz reflectors coated with immobilized palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) followed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis is proposed. Pd NPs were synthesized by chemical reduction of the metal precursor using a mixture of water:ethanol as mild reducing agent. Silanization using 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) was performed for the immobilization of Pd NPs onto the quartz substrates. Volatile hydrides (stibine and bismuthine) generated by means of a continuous flow system were flushed onto the immobilized Pd NPs and retained by catalytic decomposition. As a result of the high catalytic activity of the nanostructured film, trapping can be performed at ambient temperature with good efficiency. Limits of detection (LODs) were 2.3 and 0.70 μg L{sup −1} for Sb and Bi, respectively. Enrichment factors of 534 and 192 were obtained for Sb and Bi, respectively. The new method was applied for the analysis of several matrices (milk, soil, sediment, cutaneous powder). Recoveries were in the range of 98.4–101% for both elements with a relative standard deviation of 2.5% (N = 5). - Highlights: • A novel method for trapping covalent hydrides of antimony and bismuth is proposed. • Emphasis is placed on the application of Pd nanoparticles as trapping surface. • The nanostructured surface provides high catalytic activity at ambient temperature. • Analysis by total reflection X-ray fluorescence is performed. • Determination of Bi and Sb in different matrices is carried out.

  1. Determination of dose equivalent with tissue-equivalent proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, G.; Schuhmacher, H.; Menzel, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Low pressure tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) are instruments based on the cavity chamber principle and provide spectral information on the energy loss of single charged particles crossing the cavity. Hence such detectors measure absorbed dose or kerma and are able to provide estimates on radiation quality. During recent years TEPC based instruments have been developed for radiation protection applications in photon and neutron fields. This was mainly based on the expectation that the energy dependence of their dose equivalent response is smaller than that of other instruments in use. Recently, such instruments have been investigated by intercomparison measurements in various neutron and photon fields. Although their principles of measurements are more closely related to the definition of dose equivalent quantities than those of other existing dosemeters, there are distinct differences and limitations with respect to the irradiation geometry and the determination of the quality factor. The application of such instruments for measuring ambient dose equivalent is discussed. (author)

  2. What is correct: equivalent dose or dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franic, Z.

    1994-01-01

    In Croatian language some physical quantities in radiation protection dosimetry have not precise names. Consequently, in practice either terms in English or mathematical formulas are used. The situation is even worse since the Croatian language only a limited number of textbooks, reference books and other papers are available. This paper compares the concept of ''dose equivalent'' as outlined in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations No. 26 and newest, conceptually different concept of ''equivalent dose'' which is introduced in ICRP 60. It was found out that Croatian terminology is both not uniform and unprecise. For the term ''dose equivalent'' was, under influence of Russian and Serbian languages, often used as term ''equivalent dose'' even from the point of view of ICRP 26 recommendations, which was not justified. Unfortunately, even now, in Croatia the legal unit still ''dose equivalent'' defined as in ICRP 26, but the term used for it is ''equivalent dose''. Therefore, in Croatian legislation a modified set of quantities introduced in ICRP 60, should be incorporated as soon as possible

  3. CARS Measurement of Vibrational/Rotational Temperatures with Total Radiation Visualization behind Strong Shock Waves of 5-7 km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Bindu, V. Hima; Niinomi, S.; Ota, M.; Maeno, K.

    2011-05-01

    In the development of aerospace technology the design of space vehicles is important in phase of reentry flight. The space vehicles reenter into the atmosphere with range of 6-8 km/s. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. The experimental data for re-entry analyses, however, have remained in classical level. Recent development of optical instruments enables us to have novel approach of diagnostics to the re-entry problems. We employ the CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) method for measurement of real gas temperatures of N2 with radiation of the strong shock wave. The CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area behind the strong shock waves. In addition, we try to use the CCD camera to obtain 2D images of total radiation simultaneously. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles is experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas.

  4. Temporal Change of Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein, and Skin Temperature after Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Triclosan-Coated Sutures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Jie Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of surgical site infections (SSIs after total knee arthroplasty (TKA can never be eliminated. Antimicrobial sutures containing triclosan have been used to decrease SSIs, but whether triclosan-coated sutures are effective with TKA is unclear. Between 2011 and 2012, 102 patients randomly assigned to a triclosan or a control group were prospectively assessed. The incidence of SSI within 3 months of surgery, length of hospital stay, pain scale, functional scores, wound condition, and serum inflammatory markers during hospitalization and within 3 months postoperatively were compared. At the final follow-up, there were 2 patients with superficial infections (3.9% in the control group but none in the triclosan group. Lower serum IL-6 was detected in the triclosan group at 4 weeks and 3 months. The local skin temperature of the knees—recorded at 3 months using infrared thermography—was lower in the triclosan group than in the control group. More precise analytical measurements are needed to investigate local and systemic complications, especially in the early subclinical stage. This prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial is in the public registry: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02533492.

  5. Symmetries of dynamically equivalent theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Lebedev Physics Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-15

    A natural and very important development of constrained system theory is a detail study of the relation between the constraint structure in the Hamiltonian formulation with specific features of the theory in the Lagrangian formulation, especially the relation between the constraint structure with the symmetries of the Lagrangian action. An important preliminary step in this direction is a strict demonstration, and this is the aim of the present article, that the symmetry structures of the Hamiltonian action and of the Lagrangian action are the same. This proved, it is sufficient to consider the symmetry structure of the Hamiltonian action. The latter problem is, in some sense, simpler because the Hamiltonian action is a first-order action. At the same time, the study of the symmetry of the Hamiltonian action naturally involves Hamiltonian constraints as basic objects. One can see that the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian actions are dynamically equivalent. This is why, in the present article, we consider from the very beginning a more general problem: how the symmetry structures of dynamically equivalent actions are related. First, we present some necessary notions and relations concerning infinitesimal symmetries in general, as well as a strict definition of dynamically equivalent actions. Finally, we demonstrate that there exists an isomorphism between classes of equivalent symmetries of dynamically equivalent actions. (author)

  6. Matching of equivalent field regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen; Rengarajan, S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In aperture problems, integral equations for equivalent currents are often found by enforcing matching of equivalent fields. The enforcement is made in the aperture surface region adjoining the two volumes on each side of the aperture. In the case of an aperture in a planar perfectly conducting...... screen, having the same homogeneous medium on both sides and an impressed current on one aide, an alternative procedure is relevant. We make use of the fact that in the aperture the tangential component of the magnetic field due to the induced currents in the screen is zero. The use of such a procedure...... shows that equivalent currents can be found by a consideration of only one of the two volumes into which the aperture plane divides the space. Furthermore, from a consideration of an automatic matching at the aperture, additional information about tangential as well as normal field components...

  7. Teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, P. A.; Vásquez, Yerko

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing interest in modified gravity theories based on torsion, as these theories exhibit interesting cosmological implications. In this work inspired by the teleparallel formulation of general relativity, we present its extension to Lovelock gravity known as the most natural extension of general relativity in higher-dimensional space-times. First, we review the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity and Gauss-Bonnet gravity, and then we construct the teleparallel equivalent of Lovelock gravity. In order to achieve this goal, we use the vielbein and the connection without imposing the Weitzenböck connection. Then, we extract the teleparallel formulation of the theory by setting the curvature to null.

  8. Attainment of radiation equivalency principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmelev, A.N.; Apseh, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Problems connected with the prospects for long-term development of the nuclear energetics are discussed. Basic principles of the future large-scale nuclear energetics are listed, primary attention is the safety of radioactive waste management of nuclear energetics. The radiation equivalence principle means close of fuel cycle and management of nuclear materials transportation with low losses on spent fuel and waste processing. Two aspects are considered: radiation equivalence in global and local aspects. The necessity of looking for other strategies of fuel cycle management in full-scale nuclear energy on radioactive waste management is supported [ru

  9. Predictive models for the effect of storage temperature on Vibrio parahaemolyticus viability and counts of total viable bacteria in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Piquer, Judith; Bowman, John P; Ross, Tom; Tamplin, Mark L

    2011-12-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an indigenous bacterium of marine environments. It accumulates in oysters and may reach levels that cause human illness when postharvest temperatures are not properly controlled and oysters are consumed raw or undercooked. Predictive models were produced by injecting Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) with a cocktail of V. parahaemolyticus strains, measuring viability rates at storage temperatures from 3.6 to 30.4°C, and fitting the data to a model to obtain parameter estimates. The models were evaluated with Pacific and Sydney Rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) containing natural populations of V. parahaemolyticus. V. parahaemolyticus viability was measured by direct plating samples on thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar for injected oysters and by most probable number (MPN)-PCR for oysters containing natural populations. In parallel, total viable bacterial counts (TVC) were measured by direct plating on marine agar. Growth/inactivation rates for V. parahaemolyticus were -0.006, -0.004, -0.005, -0.003, 0.030, 0.075, 0.095, and 0.282 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.6, 12.6, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. The growth rates for TVC were 0.015, 0.023, 0.016, 0.048, 0.055, 0.071, 0.133, and 0.135 log₁₀ CFU/h at 3.6, 6.2, 9.3, 14.9, 18.4, 20.0, 25.7, and 30.4°C, respectively. Square root and Arrhenius-type secondary models were generated for V. parahaemolyticus growth and inactivation kinetic data, respectively. A square root model was produced for TVC growth. Evaluation studies showed that predictive growth for V. parahaemolyticus and TVC were "fail safe." The models can assist oyster companies and regulators in implementing management strategies to minimize V. parahaemolyticus risk and enhancing product quality in supply chains.

  10. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  11. Comments on field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed Out that often-used arguments based on a short-circuit concept in presentations of field equivalence principles are not correct. An alternative presentation based on the uniqueness theorem is given. It does not contradict the results obtained by using the short-circuit concept...

  12. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  13. Estimativa do total de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base através das medidas diárias da temperatura do ar Number of hours below any base temperature estimated by daily measurements of air temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz B. Angelocci

    1979-01-01

    Full Text Available São propostas equações matemáticas para estimar o total diário de horas abaixo de determinada temperatura-base, em certo período, utilizando-se somente dos valores diários das temperaturas máxima, mínima e das 21 horas (hora local. A comparação entre os totais diários e mensais de "horas de frio" estimados pelas equações propostas e os observados através de termogramas, para várias localidades do Estado de São Paulo, mostrou boa concordância entre os métodos de cálculo. O modelo proposto dispensa o uso de registros contínuos de temperatura. As vantagens de tal estimativa residem na maior disponibilidade de registros de temperaturas máximas, mínimas e das 21 horas, permitindo maior densidade de pontos em trabalhos de zoneamento agroclimático e de cartografia, além da eliminação do processo de cotação de termogramas.Mathematical equations are proposed to estimate the daily number of hours in which the air temperature remains below a determined treshold value. The equations require only daily values of maximum, minimum and 9 p.m. local time temperature, measured inside the meteorological shelter. This technique is suitable for machine computation thus avoiding the tremendous task of quantifying a large number of thermograms. This fact permits the utilization of a greater number of stations in studies of crop zonation and cartography. Good correlations were obtained between estimated and observed data of the daily and monthly total number of hours below 7°C, 13°C and 17°C, for five stations in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, showing relative accuracy of the proposed equations.

  14. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  15. EQUIVALENCE VERSUS NON-EQUIVALENCE IN ECONOMIC TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Chifane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at highlighting the fact that “equivalence” represents a concept worth revisiting and detailing upon when tackling the translation process of economic texts both from English into Romanian and from Romanian into English. Far from being exhaustive, our analysis will focus upon the problems arising from the lack of equivalence at the word level. Consequently, relevant examples from the economic field will be provided to account for the following types of non-equivalence at word level: culturespecific concepts; the source language concept is not lexicalised in the target language; the source language word is semantically complex; differences in physical and interpersonal perspective; differences in expressive meaning; differences in form; differences in frequency and purpose of using specific forms and the use of loan words in the source text. Likewise, we shall illustrate a number of translation strategies necessary to deal with the afore-mentioned cases of non-equivalence: translation by a more general word (superordinate; translation by a more neutral/less expressive word; translation by cultural substitution; translation using a loan word or loan word plus explanation; translation by paraphrase using a related word; translation by paraphrase using unrelated words; translation by omission and translation by illustration.

  16. Investigation of radio frequency heating of dental implants made of titanium in 1.5 tesla and 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance procedure. Measurement of the temperature by using tissue-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ideta, Takahiro; Yamazaki, Masaru; Kudou, Sadahiro; Higashida, Mitsuji; Nakazawa, Masami; Mori, Shintarou; Kaneda, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) implants are increasingly being used for dental parts. There is no problem with the attraction of a static magnetic field for Ti in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), since Ti is paramagnetic. However, there is a risk of radio frequency (RF) heat generation within Ti. 3.0 T-MRI scanners are becoming increasingly common. The specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI is quadruple that of SAR compared with 1.5 T-MRI due to its being proportional to the square of the strength of a static magnetic field. The effect of heat generation in 3.0 T-MRI can thus be greater than in 1.5 T-MRI. So, using 1.5 T and 3.0 T-MRI scanners, we measured the temperature of several Ti implants using the same scanning parameters during MRI scanning. Our measurements showed the rise in temperature of the Ti implants to be a maximum of 0.4degC. In this study, however, Ti in a human mouth was not directly measured, so we need to attempt to perform MRI carefully on patients with Ti implants. (author)

  17. The Source Equivalence Acceleration Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, Matthew S.; Forget, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new acceleration method, the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method. • SEAM forms an equivalent coarse group problem for any spatial method. • Equivalence is also formed across different spatial methods and angular quadratures. • Testing is conducted using OpenMOC and performance is compared with CMFD. • Results show that SEAM is preferable for very expensive transport calculations. - Abstract: Fine-group whole-core reactor analysis remains one of the long sought goals of the reactor physics community. Such a detailed analysis is typically too computationally expensive to be realized on anything except the largest of supercomputers. Recondensation using the Discrete Generalized Multigroup (DGM) method, though, offers a relatively cheap alternative to solving the fine group transport problem. DGM, however, suffered from inconsistencies when applied to high-order spatial methods. While an exact spatial recondensation method was developed and provided full spatial consistency with the fine group problem, this approach substantially increased memory requirements for realistic problems. The method described in this paper, called the Source Equivalence Acceleration Method (SEAM), forms a coarse-group problem which preserves the fine-group problem even when using higher order spatial methods. SEAM allows recondensation to converge to the fine-group solution with minimal memory requirements and little additional overhead. This method also provides for consistency when using different spatial methods and angular quadratures between the coarse group and fine group problems. SEAM was implemented in OpenMOC, a 2D MOC code developed at MIT, and its performance tested against Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration on the C5G7 benchmark problem and on a 361 group version of the problem. For extremely expensive transport calculations, SEAM was able to outperform CMFD, resulting in speed-ups of 20–45 relative to the normal power

  18. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  19. 21 CFR 26.9 - Equivalence determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equivalence determination. 26.9 Section 26.9 Food... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.9 Equivalence determination... document insufficient evidence of equivalence, lack of opportunity to assess equivalence or a determination...

  20. Information Leakage from Logically Equivalent Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Shlomi; McKenzie, Craig R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Framing effects are said to occur when equivalent frames lead to different choices. However, the equivalence in question has been incompletely conceptualized. In a new normative analysis of framing effects, we complete the conceptualization by introducing the notion of information equivalence. Information equivalence obtains when no…

  1. Wijsman Orlicz Asymptotically Ideal -Statistical Equivalent Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipan Hazarika

    2013-01-01

    in Wijsman sense and present some definitions which are the natural combination of the definition of asymptotic equivalence, statistical equivalent, -statistical equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense. Finally, we introduce the notion of Cesaro Orlicz asymptotically -equivalent sequences in Wijsman sense and establish their relationship with other classes.

  2. Equivalence relations of AF-algebra extensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we consider equivalence relations of *-algebra extensions and describe the relationship between the isomorphism equivalence and the unitary equivalence. We also show that a certain group homomorphism is the obstruction for these equivalence relations to be the same.

  3. Investigation of radiofrequency heating for a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body in 1.5 tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 3.0 tesla MR imaging. Measurement of temperature by use of human body-equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Higashida, Mitsuji; Kudo, Sadahiro; Ideta, Takahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2012-01-01

    Thermal injuries have been sometimes reported due to a closed conducting loop formed in a part of the patient's body during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In recent years, 3.0 T-MRI scanner has been widely used. However, it is considered that the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3.0 T-MRI can affect the heat of the loop because its own SAR becomes approximately 4 times as much as that of the 1.5 T-MRI scanner. With this, the change in temperature was measured with human body-equivalent loop phantom in both 1.5 T-MRI and 3.0 T-MRI. In the two scanners, the temperature during 20 min of scanning time was measured with three types of sequences such as field echo (FE), spin echo (SE), and turbo SE (TSE) set up with the same scanning condition. It was found from the result that rise in temperature depended on SAR of the scanning condition irrespective of static magnetic field intensity and any pulse sequences. Furthermore, the increase of SAR and rise in temperature were not only in proportion to each other but also were indicated to have good correlation. However, even low SAR can occasionally induce serious thermal injuries. It was found from result that we had to attempt not to form a closed conducting loop with in a part of the patient's body during MRI. (author)

  4. Estimating water equivalent snow depth from related meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steyaert, L.T.; LeDuc, S.K.; Strommen, N.D.; Nicodemus, M.L.; Guttman, N.B.

    1980-05-01

    Engineering design must take into consideration natural loads and stresses caused by meteorological elements, such as, wind, snow, precipitation and temperature. The purpose of this study was to determine a relationship of water equivalent snow depth measurements to meteorological variables. Several predictor models were evaluated for use in estimating water equivalent values. These models include linear regression, principal component regression, and non-linear regression models. Linear, non-linear and Scandanavian models are used to generate annual water equivalent estimates for approximately 1100 cooperative data stations where predictor variables are available, but which have no water equivalent measurements. These estimates are used to develop probability estimates of snow load for each station. Map analyses for 3 probability levels are presented

  5. Mixed field dose equivalent measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; McDonald, J.C.; Endres, G.W.R.; Quam, W.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, separate instruments have been used to monitor dose equivalent from neutrons and gamma rays. It has been demonstrated that it is now possible to measure simultaneously neutron and gamma dose with a single instrument, the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC). With appropriate algorithms dose equivalent can also be determined from the TEPC. A simple ''pocket rem meter'' for measuring neutron dose equivalent has already been developed. Improved algorithms for determining dose equivalent for mixed fields are presented. (author)

  6. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  7. Effective prefiltration of X-ray tube assemblies and its specification in aluminium equivalents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiler, J.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the Al equivalent of the prefiltration of an X-ray tube assembly varies significantly with the tube voltage, and hence the usual quotation of only one value without further specifications cannot suffice for the definition of the Al equivalent. The knowledge of the tube voltage, with which the equivalent was determined, is also important. The equivalent relationships can then be indicated for the total tube voltage range which is of interest. (orig.) [de

  8. Performance of broiler chickens offered nutritionally-equivalent diets based on two red grain sorghums with quantified kafirin concentrations as intact pellets or re-ground mash following steam-pelleting at 65 or 97°C conditioning temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha H. Truong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Liverpool Plains is a fertile agricultural region in New South Wales, Australia. Two sorghums from the 2009 Liverpool Plains harvest, sorghums #3 and #5, were extensively characterised which included concentrations of kafirin and phenolic compounds plus rapid visco-analysis (RVA starch pasting profiles. Diets based on these two sorghums were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic and were offered to male Ross 308 broiler chicks from 7 to 28 days post--hatch as either intact pellets or reground mash following steam-pelleting at conditioning temperatures of either 65 or 97°C. Thus the feeding study consisted of a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial array of dietary treatments: two sorghum varieties, two feed forms and two conditioning temperatures. Each of the eight treatments was replicated six times with six birds per replicate cage. Assessed parameters included growth performance, nutrient utilisation, apparent starch and protein (N digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates from the distal jejunum and distal ileum. Intact pellets supported higher (P < 0.001 feed intakes and weight gains by 9.83 and 9.08%, respectively, than reground mash diets. Feed conversion ratios of broilers offered diets steam-conditioned at 97°C were 2.46% inferior (P < 0.001 in comparison to 65°C diets and both apparent metabolizable energy (AME and N-corrected AME (AMEn were compromised. Broilers offered sorghum #3-based diets significantly (P < 0.001 outperformed their sorghum #5 counterparts in terms of weight gain by 3.75% (1,334 versus 1,223 g/bird, FCR by 4.81% (1.524 versus 1.601, AME by 1.06 MJ (13.61 versus 12.55 MJ/kg, ME:GE ratio (ME:GE by 4.81% (0.806 versus 0.769 and AMEn by 1.03 MJ (12.38 versus 11.35 MJ/kg. The inferiority of sorghum #5 appeared to be associated with higher concentrations of kafirin (61.5 versus 50.7 g/kg and conjugated phenolic acids, including ferulic acid (31.1 versus 25.6 µg/g. There were no significant differences in

  9. Mathematical simulation of biologically equivalent doses for LDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slosarek, K.; Zajusz, A.

    1996-01-01

    Based on the LQ model examples of biologically equivalent doses LDR, HDR and external beams were calculated. The biologically equivalent doses for LDR were calculated by appending to the LQ model the corrector for the time of repair of radiation sublethal damages. For radiation continuously delivered at a low dose rate the influence of sublethal damage repair time changes on biologically equivalent doses were analysed. For fractionated treatment with high dose rate the biologically equivalent doses were calculated by adding to the LQ model the formula of accelerated repopulation. For total biologically equivalent dose calculation for combine LDR-HDR-Tele irradiation examples are presented with the use of different parameters of the time of repair of sublethal damages and accelerated repopulation. The calculations performed show, that the same biologically equivalent doses can be obtained for different parameters of cell kinetics changes during radiation treatment. It also shows, that during biologically equivalent dose calculations for different radiotherapy schedules, ignorance of cell kinetics parameters can lead to relevant errors

  10. DRYING TEMPERATURE EFFECT OF GRANULE CONTAINING OIL COMBINATION OF LEMONGRASS-KAFFIR LIME LEAVES ON TOTAL LOSS OF OIL AND LARVICIDE ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Granules of lemongrass and kaffir lime oil are reported to have larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with LC50 of 38.30ppm and 39.58ppm, while LC90 of 51.57ppm and 79.43ppm respectively. During the manufacture of granules, loss of oil are reported by 64.20% to 65.91% for lemongrass and kaffir lime oil. This research aims to make granules combination from lemongrass and kaffir lime oils by varying the temperature of the drying granules and testing its larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti. Oil combination is selected by using analysis simplex lattice design, and the combination chosen is made of granules, in drying room temperature for 24h, a temperature of 50°C for 2h 30min and a temperature of 70°C for 1h. Larvicidal activity testing against larvae of Ae. aegypti is done by using the third instar larvae 20 for each granule solution made in 5 series of concentration, and left exposed for 24h. The number of deaths of larvae is calculated and analyzed by modified probit analysis Finney to determine LC50 and LC90. The results showed the combination lemongrass-kaffir lime oil is selected ratio of 9:1, and drying the granules with a temperature of 70°C for 1h produces the greatest larvicidal activity with 63.17ppm LC50 and LC90 of 85.04ppm.

  11. Derived equivalences for group rings

    CERN Document Server

    König, Steffen

    1998-01-01

    A self-contained introduction is given to J. Rickard's Morita theory for derived module categories and its recent applications in representation theory of finite groups. In particular, Broué's conjecture is discussed, giving a structural explanation for relations between the p-modular character table of a finite group and that of its "p-local structure". The book is addressed to researchers or graduate students and can serve as material for a seminar. It surveys the current state of the field, and it also provides a "user's guide" to derived equivalences and tilting complexes. Results and proofs are presented in the generality needed for group theoretic applications.

  12. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1987-11-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. Critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 [1] methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed. The effective dose equivalent determined using ICRP-26 methods is significantly smaller than the dose equivalent determined by traditional methods. No existing personnel dosimeter or health physics instrument can determine effective dose equivalent. At the present time, the conversion of dosimeter response to dose equivalent is based on calculations for maximal or ''cap'' values using homogeneous spherical or cylindrical phantoms. The evaluated dose equivalent is, therefore, a poor approximation of the effective dose equivalent as defined by ICRP Publication 26. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Total C and N Pools and fluxes vary with time, soil temperature, and moisture along an elevation, precipitation, and vegetation gradient in southern Appalachian Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; Craig R. See; James M. Vose; Chelcy F. Miniat; James S. Clark

    2018-01-01

    The interactions of terrestrial C pools and fluxes with spatial and temporal variation in climate are not well understood. We conducted this study in the southern Appalachian Mountains where complex topography provides variability in temperature, precipitation, and forest communities. In 1990, we established five large plots across an elevation gradient...

  14. Editorial: New operational dose equivalent quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The ICRU Report 39 entitled ''Determination of Dose Equivalents Resulting from External Radiation Sources'' is briefly discussed. Four new operational dose equivalent quantities have been recommended in ICRU 39. The 'ambient dose equivalent' and the 'directional dose equivalent' are applicable to environmental monitoring and the 'individual dose equivalent, penetrating' and the 'individual dose equivalent, superficial' are applicable to individual monitoring. The quantities should meet the needs of day-to-day operational practice, while being acceptable to those concerned with metrological precision, and at the same time be used to give effective control consistent with current perceptions of the risks associated with exposure to ionizing radiations. (U.K.)

  15. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  16. Foreword: Biomonitoring Equivalents special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, M E; Sonawane, B; Becker, R A

    2008-08-01

    The challenge of interpreting results of biomonitoring for environmental chemicals in humans is highlighted in this Foreword to the Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) special issue of Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. There is a pressing need to develop risk-based tools in order to empower scientists and health professionals to interpret and communicate the significance of human biomonitoring data. The BE approach, which integrates dosimetry and risk assessment methods, represents an important advancement on the path toward achieving this objective. The articles in this issue, developed as a result of an expert panel meeting, present guidelines for derivation of BEs, guidelines for communication using BEs and several case studies illustrating application of the BE approach for specific substances.

  17. Radiological equivalent of chemical pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, V.O.

    1982-01-01

    The development of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy has caused continued effort toward public safety through radiation health protection measures and nuclear management practices. However, concern has not been focused on the development specifically in the operation of chemical pestrochemical industries as well as other industrial processes brought about by technological advancements. This article presents the comparison of the risk of radiation and chemicals. The methods used for comparing the risks of late effects of radiation and chemicals are considered at three levels. (a) as a frame of reference to give an impression of resolving power of biological tests; (b) as methods to quantify risks; (c) as instruments for an epidemiological survey of human populations. There are marked dissimilarities between chemicals and radiation and efforts to interpret chemical activity may not be achieved. Applicability of the concept of rad equivalence has many restrictions and as pointed out this approach is not an established one. (RTD)

  18. Expanding the Interaction Equivalency Theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Cecilia Padilla Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although interaction is recognised as a key element for learning, its incorporation in online courses can be challenging. The interaction equivalency theorem provides guidelines: Meaningful learning can be supported as long as one of three types of interactions (learner-content, learner-teacher and learner-learner is present at a high level. This study sought to apply this theorem to the corporate sector, and to expand it to include other indicators of course effectiveness: satisfaction, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations. A large Mexican organisation participated in this research, with 146 learners, 30 teachers and 3 academic assistants. Three versions of an online course were designed, each emphasising a different type of interaction. Data were collected through surveys, exams, observations, activity logs, think aloud protocols and sales records. All course versions yielded high levels of effectiveness, in terms of satisfaction, learning and return on expectations. Yet, course design did not dictate the types of interactions in which students engaged within the courses. Findings suggest that the interaction equivalency theorem can be reformulated as follows: In corporate settings, an online course can be effective in terms of satisfaction, learning, knowledge transfer, business results and return on expectations, as long as (a at least one of three types of interaction (learner-content, learner-teacher or learner-learner features prominently in the design of the course, and (b course delivery is consistent with the chosen type of interaction. Focusing on only one type of interaction carries a high risk of confusion, disengagement or missed learning opportunities, which can be managed by incorporating other forms of interactions.

  19. Equivalent damage of loads on pavements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Prozzi, JA

    2009-05-26

    Full Text Available This report describes a new methodology for the determination of Equivalent Damage Factors (EDFs) of vehicles with multiple axle and wheel configurations on pavements. The basic premise of this new procedure is that "equivalent pavement response...

  20. Investigation of Equivalent Circuit for PEMFC Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myong, Kwang Jae

    2011-01-01

    Chemical reactions occurring in a PEMFC are dominated by the physical conditions and interface properties, and the reactions are expressed in terms of impedance. The performance of a PEMFC can be simply diagnosed by examining the impedance because impedance characteristics can be expressed by an equivalent electrical circuit. In this study, the characteristics of a PEMFC are assessed using the AC impedance and various equivalent circuits such as a simple equivalent circuit, equivalent circuit with a CPE, equivalent circuit with two RCs, and equivalent circuit with two CPEs. It was found in this study that the characteristics of a PEMFC could be assessed using impedance and an equivalent circuit, and the accuracy was highest for an equivalent circuit with two CPEs

  1. 46 CFR 175.540 - Equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Management (ISM) Code (IMO Resolution A.741(18)) for the purpose of determining that an equivalent... Organization (IMO) “Code of Safety for High Speed Craft” as an equivalent to compliance with applicable...

  2. Some spectral equivalences between Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, C; Hibberd, K E; Links, J

    2008-01-01

    Spectral equivalences of the quasi-exactly solvable sectors of two classes of Schroedinger operators are established, using Gaudin-type Bethe ansatz equations. In some instances the results can be extended leading to full isospectrality. In this manner we obtain equivalences between PT-symmetric problems and Hermitian problems. We also find equivalences between some classes of Hermitian operators

  3. The definition of the individual dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, Margarete

    1986-01-01

    A brief note examines the choice of the present definition of the individual dose equivalent, the new operational dosimetry quantity for external exposure. The consequences of the use of the individual dose equivalent and the danger facing the individual dose equivalent, as currently defined, are briefly discussed. (UK)

  4. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  5. The conceptual flowsheet of effluent treatment during total gelation of uranium process for preparing ceramic UO2 particles of high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ying; Chen Xiaotong; Wang Yang; Liu Bing; Tang Yaping; Tang Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more people pay attention to the environmental protection and ecological environment. Along with the development of nuclear industry, many radioactive effluents may be discharged into environment, which can lead to the pollutions of water, atmosphere and soil. So radioactive effluents including low-activity and medium-level wastes solution treatments have been becoming one of significant subjects. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) is one of advanced nuclear reactors owing to its reliability, security and broad application in which the fabrication of spherical fuel element is a key technology. During the production of spherical fuel elements, the radioactive effluent treatment is necessary. Referring to the current treatment technologies and methods, the conceptual flowsheet of low-level radioactive effluent treatment during preparing spherical fuel elements was summarized which met the 'Zero Emission' demand. (authors)

  6. Air-cooling mathematical analysis as inferred from the air-temperature observation during the 1st total occultation of the Sun of the 21st century at Lusaka, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza-Murillo, Marcos A.; Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2015-04-01

    We analyze mathematically air temperature measurements made near the ground by the Williams College expedition to observe the first total occultation of the Sun [TOS (commonly known as a total solar eclipse)] of the 21st century in Lusaka, Zambia, in the afternoon of June 21, 2001. To do so, we have revisited some earlier and contemporary methods to test their usefulness for this analysis. Two of these methods, based on a radiative scheme for solar radiation modeling and that has been originally applied to a morning occultation, have successfully been combined to obtain the delay function for an afternoon occultation, via derivation of the so-called instantaneous temperature profiles. For this purpose, we have followed the suggestion given by the third of these previously applied methods to calculate this function, although by itself it failed to do so at least for this occultation. The analysis has taken into account the limb-darkening, occultation and obscuration functions. The delay function obtained describes quite fairly the lag between the solar radiation variation and the delayed air temperature measured. Also, in this investigation, a statistical study has been carried out to get information on the convection activity produced during this event. For that purpose, the fluctuations generated by turbulence has been studied by analyzing variance and residuals. The results, indicating an irreversible steady decrease of this activity, are consistent with those published by other studies. Finally, the air temperature drop due to this event is well estimated by applying the empirical scheme given by the fourth of the previously applied methods, based on the daily temperature amplitude and the standardized middle time of the occultation. It is demonstrated then that by using a simple set of air temperature measurements obtained during solar occultations, along with some supplementary data, a simple mathematical analysis can be achieved by applying of the four

  7. Pocket total dose meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1984-10-01

    Laboratory measurements have demonstrated that it is possible to simultaneously measure absorbed dose and dose equivalent using a single tissue equivalent proportional counter. Small, pocket sized instruments are being developed to determine dose equivalent as the worker is exposed to mixed field radiation. This paper describes the electronic circuitry and computer algorithms used to determine dose equivalent in these devices

  8. The Complexity of Identifying Large Equivalence Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyum, Sven; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    1999-01-01

    We prove that at least 3k−4/k(2k−3)(n/2) – O(k)equivalence tests and no more than 2/k (n/2) + O(n) equivalence tests are needed in the worst case to identify the equivalence classes with at least k members in set of n elements. The upper bound is an improvement by a factor 2 compared to known res...

  9. Equivalent Simplification Method of Micro-Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Cai Changchun; Cao Xiangqin

    2013-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the equivalent simplification method for the micro-grid system connection into distributed network. The equivalent simplification method proposed for interaction study between micro-grid and distributed network. Micro-grid network, composite load, gas turbine synchronous generation, wind generation are equivalent simplification and parallel connect into the point of common coupling. A micro-grid system is built and three phase and single phase grounded faults are per...

  10. Calculation methods for determining dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endres, G.W.R.; Tanner, J.E.; Scherpelz, R.I.; Hadlock, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    A series of calculations of neutron fluence as a function of energy in an anthropomorphic phantom was performed to develop a system for determining effective dose equivalent for external radiation sources. critical organ dose equivalents are calculated and effective dose equivalents are determined using ICRP-26 methods. Quality factors based on both present definitions and ICRP-40 definitions are used in the analysis. The results of these calculations are presented and discussed

  11. Equivalences of real submanifolds in complex space.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAITSEV, DMITRI

    2001-01-01

    PUBLISHED We show that for any real-analytic submanifold M in CN there is a proper real-analytic subvariety V contained in M such that for any p ? M \\ V , any real-analytic submanifold M? in CN, and any p? ? M?, the germs of the submanifolds M and M? at p and p? respectively are formally equivalent if and only if they are biholomorphically equivalent. More general results for k-equivalences are also stated and proved.

  12. Relations of equivalence of conditioned radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumer, L.; Szeless, A.; Oszuszky, F.

    1982-01-01

    A compensation for the wastes remaining with the operator of a waste management center, to be given by the agent having caused the waste, may be assured by effecting a financial valuation (equivalence) of wastes. Technically and logically, this equivalence between wastes (or specifically between different waste categories) and financial valuation has been established as reasonable. In this paper, the possibility of establishing such equivalences are developed, and their suitability for waste management concepts is quantitatively expressed

  13. Behavioural equivalence for infinite systems - Partially decidable!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Kim; Nielsen, Mogens

    1996-01-01

    languages with two generalizations based on traditional approaches capturing non-interleaving behaviour, pomsets representing global causal dependency, and locality representing spatial distribution of events. We first study equivalences on Basic Parallel Processes, BPP, a process calculus equivalent...... of processes between BPP and TCSP, not only are the two equivalences different, but one (locality) is decidable whereas the other (pomsets) is not. The decidability result for locality is proved by a reduction to the reachability problem for Petri nets....

  14. Equivalence in Bilingual Lexicography: Criticism and Suggestions*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Ernst Wiegand

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: A reminder of general problems in the formation of terminology, as illustrated by theGerman Äquivalence (Eng. equivalence and äquivalent (Eng. equivalent, is followed by a critical discussionof the concept of equivalence in contrastive lexicology. It is shown that especially the conceptof partial equivalence is contradictory in its different manifestations. Consequently attemptsare made to give a more precise indication of the concept of equivalence in the metalexicography,with regard to the domain of the nominal lexicon. The problems of especially the metalexicographicconcept of partial equivalence as well as that of divergence are fundamentally expounded.In conclusion the direction is indicated to find more appropriate metalexicographic versions of theconcept of equivalence.

    Keywords: EQUIVALENCE, LEXICOGRAPHIC EQUIVALENT, PARTIAL EQUIVALENCE,CONGRUENCE, DIVERGENCE, CONVERGENCE, POLYDIVERGENCE, SYNTAGM-EQUIVALENCE,ZERO EQUIVALENCE, CORRESPONDENCE

    Abstrakt: Äquivalenz in der zweisprachigen Lexikographie: Kritik und Vorschläge.Nachdem an allgemeine Probleme der Begriffsbildung am Beispiel von dt. Äquivalenzund dt. äquivalent erinnert wurde, wird zunächst auf Äquivalenzbegriffe in der kontrastiven Lexikologiekritisch eingegangen. Es wird gezeigt, dass insbesondere der Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenzin seinen verschiedenen Ausprägungen widersprüchlich ist. Sodann werden Präzisierungenzu den Äquivalenzbegriffen in der Metalexikographie versucht, die sich auf den Bereich der Nennlexikbeziehen. Insbesondere der metalexikographische Begriff der partiellen Äquivalenz sowie derder Divergenz werden grundsätzlich problematisiert. In welche Richtung man gehen kann, umangemessenere metalexikographische Fassungen des Äquivalenzbegriffs zu finden, wird abschließendangedeutet.

    Stichwörter: ÄQUIVALENZ, LEXIKOGRAPHISCHES ÄQUIVALENT, PARTIELLE ÄQUIVALENZ,KONGRUENZ, DIVERGENZ, KONVERGENZ, POLYDIVERGENZ

  15. Tracer Equivalent Latitude: A Diagnostic Tool for Isentropic Transport Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Douglas R.; Nakamura, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Area equivalent latitude based on potential vorticity (PV) is a widely used diagnostic for isentropic transport in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Here, an alternate method for calculating equivalent latitude is explored, namely, a numerical synthesis of a PV-like tracer from a long-term integration of the advection-diffusion equation on isentropic surfaces. It is found that the tracer equivalent latitude (TrEL) behaves much like the traditional PV equivalent latitude (PVEL) despite the simplified governing physics; this is evidenced by examining the kinematics of the Arctic lower stratospheric vortex. Yet in some cases TrEL performs markedly better as a coordinate for long-lived trace species such as ozone. These instances include analysis of lower stratospheric ozone during the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and three-dimensional reconstruction of total column ozone during November-December 1999 from fitted ozone-equivalent latitude relationship. It is argued that the improvement is due to the tracer being free from the diagnostic errors and certain diabatic processes that affect PV. The sensitivity of TrEL to spatial and temporal resolution, advection scheme, and driving winds is also examined.

  16. Higher-order gravity and the classical equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accioly, Antonio; Herdy, Wallace

    2017-11-01

    As is well known, the deflection of any particle by a gravitational field within the context of Einstein’s general relativity — which is a geometrical theory — is, of course, nondispersive. Nevertheless, as we shall show in this paper, the mentioned result will change totally if the bending is analyzed — at the tree level — in the framework of higher-order gravity. Indeed, to first order, the deflection angle corresponding to the scattering of different quantum particles by the gravitational field mentioned above is not only spin dependent, it is also dispersive (energy-dependent). Consequently, it violates the classical equivalence principle (universality of free fall, or equality of inertial and gravitational masses) which is a nonlocal principle. However, contrary to popular belief, it is in agreement with the weak equivalence principle which is nothing but a statement about purely local effects. It is worthy of note that the weak equivalence principle encompasses the classical equivalence principle locally. We also show that the claim that there exists an incompatibility between quantum mechanics and the weak equivalence principle, is incorrect.

  17. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of a Rotary Piezoelectric Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El, Ghouti N.; Helbo, Jan

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced equivalent circuit model of a rotary traveling wave piezoelectric ultrasonic motor "shinsei type USR60" is derived. The modeling is performed on the basis of an empirical approach combined with the electrical network method and some simplification assumptions about...... of the temperature on the mechanical resonance frequency is considered and thereby integrated in the final model for long term operations....

  18. Equivalent Sensor Radiance Generation and Remote Sensing from Model Parameters. Part 1; Equivalent Sensor Radiance Formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Galina; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Norris, Peter M.; Platnick, Steven E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a general procedure for calculating equivalent sensor radiances from variables output from a global atmospheric forecast model. In order to take proper account of the discrepancies between model resolution and sensor footprint the algorithm takes explicit account of the model subgrid variability, in particular its description of the probably density function of total water (vapor and cloud condensate.) The equivalent sensor radiances are then substituted into an operational remote sensing algorithm processing chain to produce a variety of remote sensing products that would normally be produced from actual sensor output. This output can then be used for a wide variety of purposes such as model parameter verification, remote sensing algorithm validation, testing of new retrieval methods and future sensor studies. We show a specific implementation using the GEOS-5 model, the MODIS instrument and the MODIS Adaptive Processing System (MODAPS) Data Collection 5.1 operational remote sensing cloud algorithm processing chain (including the cloud mask, cloud top properties and cloud optical and microphysical properties products.) We focus on clouds and cloud/aerosol interactions, because they are very important to model development and improvement.

  19. Testing the equivalence principle on a trampoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.; Phillips, James D.

    2001-07-01

    We are developing a Galilean test of the equivalence principle in which two pairs of test mass assemblies (TMA) are in free fall in a comoving vacuum chamber for about 0.9 s. The TMA are tossed upward, and the process repeats at 1.2 s intervals. Each TMA carries a solid quartz retroreflector and a payload mass of about one-third of the total TMA mass. The relative vertical motion of the TMA of each pair is monitored by a laser gauge working in an optical cavity formed by the retroreflectors. Single-toss precision of the relative acceleration of a single pair of TMA is 3.5×10-12 g. The project goal of Δg/g = 10-13 can be reached in a single night's run, but repetition with altered configurations will be required to ensure the correction of systematic error to the nominal accuracy level. Because the measurements can be made quickly, we plan to study several pairs of materials.

  20. Equivalent drawbead performance in deep drawing simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meinders, Vincent T.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han

    1999-01-01

    Drawbeads are applied in the deep drawing process to improve the control of the material flow during the forming operation. In simulations of the deep drawing process these drawbeads can be replaced by an equivalent drawbead model. In this paper the usage of an equivalent drawbead model in the

  1. On uncertainties in definition of dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The author has entertained always the doubt that in a neutron field, if the measured value of the absorbed dose with a tissue equivalent ionization chamber is 1.02±0.01 mGy, may the dose equivalent be taken as 10.2±0.1 mSv. Should it be 10.2 or 11, but the author considers it is 10 or 20. Even if effort is exerted for the precision measurement of absorbed dose, if the coefficient being multiplied to it is not precise, it is meaningless. [Absorbed dose] x [Radiation quality fctor] = [Dose equivalent] seems peculiar. How accurately can dose equivalent be evaluated ? The descriptions related to uncertainties in the publications of ICRU and ICRP are introduced, which are related to radiation quality factor, the accuracy of measuring dose equivalent and so on. Dose equivalent shows the criterion for the degree of risk, or it is considered only as a controlling quantity. The description in the ICRU report 1973 related to dose equivalent and its unit is cited. It was concluded that dose equivalent can be considered only as the absorbed dose being multiplied by a dimensionless factor. The author presented the questions. (K.I.)

  2. Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino

    2008-01-01

    The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...

  3. 7 CFR 1005.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1005.54 Section 1005.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1005.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  4. 7 CFR 1126.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1126.54 Section 1126.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1126.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  5. 7 CFR 1001.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1001.54 Section 1001.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1001.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  6. 7 CFR 1032.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1032.54 Section 1032.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1032.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  7. 7 CFR 1124.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1124.54 Section 1124.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Class Prices § 1124.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  8. 7 CFR 1030.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1030.54 Section 1030.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1030.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. ...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1033.54 Section 1033.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1033.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Producer Price Differential ...

  10. 7 CFR 1131.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1131.54 Section 1131.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1131.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  11. 7 CFR 1006.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1006.54 Section 1006.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1006.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  12. 7 CFR 1007.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1007.54 Section 1007.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Handling Class Prices § 1007.54 Equivalent price. See § 1000.54. Uniform Prices ...

  13. 7 CFR 1000.54 - Equivalent price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equivalent price. 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Agriculture... Prices § 1000.54 Equivalent price. If for any reason a price or pricing constituent required for computing the prices described in § 1000.50 is not available, the market administrator shall use a price or...

  14. Finding small equivalent decision trees is hard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Bodlaender, H.L.

    2000-01-01

    Two decision trees are called decision equivalent if they represent the same function, i.e., they yield the same result for every possible input. We prove that given a decision tree and a number, to decide if there is a decision equivalent decision tree of size at most that number is NPcomplete. As

  15. What is Metaphysical Equivalence? | Miller | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Theories are metaphysically equivalent just if there is no fact of the matter that could render one theory true and the other false. In this paper I argue that if we are judiciously to resolve disputes about whether theories are equivalent or not, we need to develop testable criteria that will give us epistemic access to the obtaining ...

  16. EQUIVALENT MODELS IN COVARIANCE STRUCTURE-ANALYSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUIJBEN, TCW

    1991-01-01

    Defining equivalent models as those that reproduce the same set of covariance matrices, necessary and sufficient conditions are stated for the local equivalence of two expanded identified models M1 and M2 when fitting the more restricted model M0. Assuming several regularity conditions, the rank

  17. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  18. Equivalence in Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max; Walker, Iain; Logue, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    We ventilate buildings to provide acceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Ventilation standards (such as American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Enginners [ASHRAE] Standard 62) specify minimum ventilation rates without taking into account the impact of those rates on IAQ. Innovative ventilation management is often a desirable element of reducing energy consumption or improving IAQ or comfort. Variable ventilation is one innovative strategy. To use variable ventilation in a way that meets standards, it is necessary to have a method for determining equivalence in terms of either ventilation or indoor air quality. This study develops methods to calculate either equivalent ventilation or equivalent IAQ. We demonstrate that equivalent ventilation can be used as the basis for dynamic ventilation control, reducing peak load and infiltration of outdoor contaminants. We also show that equivalent IAQ could allow some contaminants to exceed current standards if other contaminants are more stringently controlled.

  19. Beyond Language Equivalence on Visibly Pushdown Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srba, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    We study (bi)simulation-like preorder/equivalence checking on the class of visibly pushdown automata and its natural subclasses visibly BPA (Basic Process Algebra) and visibly one-counter automata. We describe generic methods for proving complexity upper and lower bounds for a number of studied...... preorders and equivalences like simulation, completed simulation, ready simulation, 2-nested simulation preorders/equivalences and bisimulation equivalence. Our main results are that all the mentioned equivalences and preorders are EXPTIME-complete on visibly pushdown automata, PSPACE-complete on visibly...... one-counter automata and P-complete on visibly BPA. Our PSPACE lower bound for visibly one-counter automata improves also the previously known DP-hardness results for ordinary one-counter automata and one-counter nets. Finally, we study regularity checking problems for visibly pushdown automata...

  20. Total dose meter development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brackenbush, L.W.

    1986-09-01

    This report describes an alarming ''pocket'' monitor/dosimeter, based on a tissue-equivalent proportional counter, that measure both neutron and gamma dose and determines dose equivalent for the mixed radiation field. This report details the operation of the device and provides information on: the necessity for a device to measure dose equivalent in mixed radiation fields; the mathematical theory required to determine dose equivalent from tissue equivalent proportional; the detailed electronic circuits required; the algorithms required in the microprocessor used to calculate dose equivalent; the features of the instrument; program accomplishments and future plans

  1. 10 CFR 835.203 - Combining internal and external equivalent doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combining internal and external equivalent doses. 835.203 Section 835.203 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Standards for Internal and External Exposure § 835.203 Combining internal and external equivalent doses. (a) The total effective dose...

  2. 78 FR 67360 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Methods: Designation of Five New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Office of Research and Development; Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of the designation of five new equivalent methods for...) has designated, in accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, five new equivalent methods, one for measuring...

  3. 77 FR 60985 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of the designation of three new equivalent methods for monitoring ambient air quality. SUMMARY... equivalent methods, one for measuring concentrations of PM 2.5 , one for measuring concentrations of PM 10...

  4. Analytical and numerical construction of equivalent cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, K A; Rosenberg, J R; Tucker, G

    2003-08-01

    The mathematical complexity experienced when applying cable theory to arbitrarily branched dendrites has lead to the development of a simple representation of any branched dendrite called the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is an unbranched model of a dendrite and a one-to-one mapping of potentials and currents on the branched model to those on the unbranched model, and vice versa. The piecewise uniform cable, with a symmetrised tri-diagonal system matrix, is shown to represent the canonical form for an equivalent cable. Through a novel application of the Laplace transform it is demonstrated that an arbitrary branched model of a dendrite can be transformed to the canonical form of an equivalent cable. The characteristic properties of the equivalent cable are extracted from the matrix for the transformed branched model. The one-to-one mapping follows automatically from the construction of the equivalent cable. The equivalent cable is used to provide a new procedure for characterising the location of synaptic contacts on spinal interneurons.

  5. Bi-layer graphene structure with non-equivalent planes: Magnetic properties study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhirech, A.; Aouini, S.; Alaoui-Ismaili, A.; Bahmad, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the magnetic properties of a ferromagnetic bi-layer graphene structure with non-equivalent planes. The geometry of the studied system is formed by two layers (A) and (B) consisting of the spins σ = 1 / 2 and S = 1 . For this purpose, the influence of the coupling exchange interactions, the external magnetic and the crystal fields are investigated and presented as well as the ground state phase diagrams. The Monte Carlo simulations have been used to examine the behavior of the partial and the total magnetizations as a function of the system parameters. These effects on the compensation and critical temperatures behavior are also presented in different phase diagrams, for the studied system.

  6. Geometry of the local equivalence of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-12-09

    We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)

  7. Physical equivalence of the point and instant forms of relativistic dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolov, S N [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij

    1975-01-01

    As a proof of total physical equivalence of point and instantaneous forms of dynamics, a unitary transformation is derived which connects these forms of dynamics without changing the scattering matrix.

  8. Quantum equivalence principle without mass superselection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Coronado, H.; Okon, E.

    2013-01-01

    The standard argument for the validity of Einstein's equivalence principle in a non-relativistic quantum context involves the application of a mass superselection rule. The objective of this work is to show that, contrary to widespread opinion, the compatibility between the equivalence principle and quantum mechanics does not depend on the introduction of such a restriction. For this purpose, we develop a formalism based on the extended Galileo group, which allows for a consistent handling of superpositions of different masses, and show that, within such scheme, mass superpositions behave as they should in order to obey the equivalence principle. - Highlights: • We propose a formalism for consistently handling, within a non-relativistic quantum context, superpositions of states with different masses. • The formalism utilizes the extended Galileo group, in which mass is a generator. • The proposed formalism allows for the equivalence principle to be satisfied without the need of imposing a mass superselection rule

  9. On the equivalence of chaos control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaofan

    2003-01-01

    For a given chaotic system, different control systems can be constructed depending on which parameter is tuned or where the external input is added. We prove that two different feedback control systems are qualitatively equivalent if they are feedback linearizable

  10. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  11. REFractions: The Representing Equivalent Fractions Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.

    2014-01-01

    Stephen Tucker presents a fractions game that addresses a range of fraction concepts including equivalence and computation. The REFractions game also improves students' fluency with representing, comparing and adding fractions.

  12. ON THE EQUIVALENCE OF THE ABEL EQUATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article uses the reflecting function of Mironenko to study some complicated differential equations which are equivalent to the Abel equation. The results are applied to discuss the behavior of solutions of these complicated differential equations.

  13. interpratation: of equivalences and cultural untranslatability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jgmweri

    translatability in cultural diversity in terms equivalences such as –Vocabulary or lexical ..... A KSL interpreter who does not understand this English idiom may literally interpret it .... Nida, E.A. (1958) Analysis of meaning and dictionary making.

  14. Equivalence Principle, Higgs Boson and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Francaviglia

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss here possible tests for Palatini f(R-theories together with their implications for different formulations of the Equivalence Principle. We shall show that Palatini f(R-theories obey the Weak Equivalence Principle and violate the Strong Equivalence Principle. The violations of the Strong Equivalence Principle vanish in vacuum (and purely electromagnetic solutions as well as on short time scales with respect to the age of the universe. However, we suggest that a framework based on Palatini f(R-theories is more general than standard General Relativity (GR and it sheds light on the interpretation of data and results in a way which is more model independent than standard GR itself.

  15. The gauge principle vs. the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, S.J. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Within the context of field theory, it is argued that the role of the equivalence principle may be replaced by the principle of gauge invariance to provide a logical framework for theories of gravitation

  16. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  17. S-equivalents lagrangians in generalized mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negri, L.J.; Silva, Edna G. da.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of s-equivalent lagrangians is considered in the realm of generalized mechanics. Some results corresponding to the ordinary (non-generalized) mechanics are extended to the generalized case. A theorem for the reduction of the higher order lagrangian description to the usual order is found to be useful for the analysis of generalized mechanical systems and leads to a new class of equivalence between lagrangian functions. Some new perspectives are pointed out. (Author) [pt

  18. Near total magnetic moment compensation with high Curie temperature in Mn2V0.5Co0.5Z (Z  =  Ga,Al) Heusler alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midhunlal, P. V.; Arout Chelvane, J.; Arjun Krishnan, U. M.; Prabhu, D.; Gopalan, R.; Kumar, N. Harish

    2018-02-01

    Mn2V1-x Co x Z (Z  =  Ga,Al and x  =  0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) Heusler alloys have been synthesized to investigate the effect of Co substitution at the V site on the magnetic moment and Curie temperature of half-metallic ferrimagnets Mn2VGa and Mn2VAl. Near total magnetic moment compensation was achieved with high Curie temperature for x  =  0.5 composition. The Co substituted alloys show a non linear decrease in lattice parameter without altering the crystal structure of the parent alloys. The end members Mn2VGa and Mn2CoGa have the saturation magnetization of 1.80 µ B/f.u. and 2.05 µ B/f.u. respectively whereas for the Mn2V0.5Co0.5Ga alloy, a near total magnetic moment compensation (0.10 µ B/f.u.) was observed due to the ferrimagnetic coupling of Mn with parallelly aligned V and Co. The Co substituted Mn2VAl has also shown a similar trend with compensated magnetic moment value of 0.06 µ B/f.u. for x  =  0.5. The Curie temperatures of the alloys including the x  =  0.5 composition are well above the room temperature (more than 650 K) which is in sharp contrast to the earlier reported values of 171 K for the (MnCo)VGa and 105 K for the (MnCo)VAl (substitution at the Mn site). The observed T C values are highest among the Mn2V based fully compensated ferrimagnets. The magnetic moment compensation without significant reduction in T C indicates that the V site substitution of Co does not weaken the magnetic interaction in Mn2VZ (Z  =  Ga,Al) alloys which is contrary to the earlier experimental reports on Mn site substitution.

  19. A measurable Lawson criterion and hydro-equivalent curves for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, C. D.; Betti, R.

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that the ignition condition (Lawson criterion) for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) can be cast in a form dependent on the only two parameters of the compressed fuel assembly that can be measured with existing techniques: the hot spot ion temperature (T i h ) and the total areal density (ρR tot ), which includes the cold shell contribution. A marginal ignition curve is derived in the ρR tot , T i h plane and current implosion experiments are compared with the ignition curve. On this plane, hydrodynamic equivalent curves show how a given implosion would perform with respect to the ignition condition when scaled up in the laser-driver energy. For 3 i h > n i h > n 2.6 · tot > n >50 keV 2.6 · g/cm 2 , where tot > n and i h > n are the burn-averaged total areal density and hot spot ion temperature, respectively. Both quantities are calculated without accounting for the alpha-particle energy deposition. Such a criterion can be used to determine how surrogate D 2 and subignited DT target implosions perform with respect to the one-dimensional ignition threshold.

  20. The principle of equivalence reconsidered: assessing the relevance of the principle of equivalence in prison medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand, Fabrice; Wangmo, Tenzin

    2014-01-01

    In this article we critically examine the principle of equivalence of care in prison medicine. First, we provide an overview of how the principle of equivalence is utilized in various national and international guidelines on health care provision to prisoners. Second, we outline some of the problems associated with its applications, and argue that the principle of equivalence should go beyond equivalence to access and include equivalence of outcomes. However, because of the particular context of the prison environment, third, we contend that the concept of "health" in equivalence of health outcomes needs conceptual clarity; otherwise, it fails to provide a threshold for healthy states among inmates. We accomplish this by examining common understandings of the concepts of health and disease. We conclude our article by showing why the conceptualization of diseases as clinical problems provides a helpful approach in the delivery of health care in prison.

  1. Equivalence of Szegedy's and coined quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Thomas G.

    2017-09-01

    Szegedy's quantum walk is a quantization of a classical random walk or Markov chain, where the walk occurs on the edges of the bipartite double cover of the original graph. To search, one can simply quantize a Markov chain with absorbing vertices. Recently, Santos proposed two alternative search algorithms that instead utilize the sign-flip oracle in Grover's algorithm rather than absorbing vertices. In this paper, we show that these two algorithms are exactly equivalent to two algorithms involving coined quantum walks, which are walks on the vertices of the original graph with an internal degree of freedom. The first scheme is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with one walk step per query of Grover's oracle, and the second is equivalent to a coined quantum walk with two walk steps per query of Grover's oracle. These equivalences lie outside the previously known equivalence of Szegedy's quantum walk with absorbing vertices and the coined quantum walk with the negative identity operator as the coin for marked vertices, whose precise relationships we also investigate.

  2. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  3. Influence of thermoluminescence trapping parameter from abundant quartz powder on equivalent dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiuyue; Wei Mingjian; Song Bo; Pan Baolin; Zhou Rui

    2014-01-01

    Glow curves of abundant quartz powder were obtained with the RGD-3B thermoluminescence (TL) reader. TL peaks with 448, 551, 654, 756 K were identified at the heating rate of 5 K/s. The activation energy, frequency factor and lifetime of trapped charge were evaluated at ambient temperature for four peaks by the method of various heating rates. Within a certain range of activation energy, the equivalent dose increases exponentially with the activation energy. The equivalent dose increases from 54 Gy to 485 Gy with the temperature from 548 K to 608 K, and it fluctuates around 531 Gy with the temperature from 608 K to 748 K. (authors)

  4. Quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P C W

    2004-01-01

    A quantum particle moving in a gravitational field may penetrate the classically forbidden region of the gravitational potential. This raises the question of whether the time of flight of a quantum particle in a gravitational field might deviate systematically from that of a classical particle due to tunnelling delay, representing a violation of the weak equivalence principle. I investigate this using a model quantum clock to measure the time of flight of a quantum particle in a uniform gravitational field, and show that a violation of the equivalence principle does not occur when the measurement is made far from the turning point of the classical trajectory. The results are then confirmed using the so-called dwell time definition of quantum tunnelling. I conclude with some remarks about the strong equivalence principle in quantum mechanics

  5. Using frequency equivalency in stability calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, I.A.; Temirbulatov, R.A.; Tereshko, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology for calculating oscillatory instability that involves using frequency equivalency is employed in carrying out the following proceedures: dividing an electric power system into subgroups; determining the adjustments to the automatic excitation control in each subsystem; simplifying the mathematical definition of the separate subsystems by using frequency equivalency; gradually re-tuning the automatic excitation control in the separate subsystems to account for neighboring subsystems by using their equivalent frequency characteristics. The methodology is to be used with a computer program to determine the gain in the stabilization channels of the automatic excitation control unit in which static stability of the entire aggregate of normal and post-breakdown conditions acceptable damping of transient processes are provided. The possibility of reducing the equation series to apply to chosen regions of the existing range of frequencies is demonstrated. The use of the methodology is illustrated in a sample study on stability in a Siberian unified power system.

  6. The equivalent energy method: an engineering approach to fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1981-01-01

    The equivalent energy method for elastic-plastic fracture evaluations was developed around 1970 for determining realistic engineering estimates for the maximum load-displacement or stress-strain conditions for fracture of flawed structures. The basis principles were summarized but the supporting experimental data, most of which were obtained after the method was proposed, have never been collated. This paper restates the original bases more explicitly and presents the validating data in graphical form. Extensive references are given. The volumetric energy ratio, a modelling parameter encompassing both size and temperature, is the fundamental parameter of the equivalent energy method. It is demonstrated that, in an engineering sense, the volumetric energy ratio is a unique material characteristic for a steel, much like a material property except size must be taken into account. With this as a proposition, the basic formula of the equivalent energy method is derived. Sufficient information is presented so that investigators and analysts may judge the viability and applicability of the method to their areas of interest. (author)

  7. The equivalence problem for LL- and LR-regular grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Gecsec, F.

    It will be shown that the equivalence problem for LL-regular grammars is decidable. Apart from extending the known result for LL(k) grammar equivalence to LLregular grammar equivalence, we obtain an alternative proof of the decidability of LL(k) equivalence. The equivalence prob]em for LL-regular

  8. Fiscal adjustments in Europe and Ricardian equivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. DE BONIS

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available According to the ‘Ricardian’ equivalence hypothesis, consumption is dependent on permanent disposable income and current deficits are equivalent to future tax payments. This hypothesis is tested on 14 European countries in the 1990s. The relationships between private sector savings and general government deficit, and the GDP growth rate and the unemployment rate are determined. The results show the change in consumers' behaviour with respect to government deficit, and that expectations of an increase in future wealth are no longer associated with a decrease in deficit.

  9. Equivalent circuit analysis of terahertz metamaterial filters

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xueqian

    2011-01-01

    An equivalent circuit model for the analysis and design of terahertz (THz) metamaterial filters is presented. The proposed model, derived based on LMC equivalent circuits, takes into account the detailed geometrical parameters and the presence of a dielectric substrate with the existing analytic expressions for self-inductance, mutual inductance, and capacitance. The model is in good agreement with the experimental measurements and full-wave simulations. Exploiting the circuit model has made it possible to predict accurately the resonance frequency of the proposed structures and thus, quick and accurate process of designing THz device from artificial metamaterials is offered. ©2011 Chinese Optics Letters.

  10. Topological equivalence of nonlinear autonomous dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Huynh Phan; Tran Van Nhung

    1995-12-01

    We show in this paper that the autonomous nonlinear dynamical system Σ(A,B,F): x' = Ax+Bu+F(x) is topologically equivalent to the linear dynamical system Σ(A,B,O): x' = Ax+Bu if the projection of A on the complement in R n of the controllable vectorial subspace is hyperbolic and if lipschitz constant of F is sufficiently small ( * ) and F(x) = 0 when parallel x parallel is sufficiently large ( ** ). In particular, if Σ(A,B,O) is controllable, it is topologically equivalent to Σ(A,B,F) when it is only that F satisfy ( ** ). (author). 18 refs

  11. A neutron dose equivalent meter at CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Shihai; Lu Yan; Wang Heyi; Yuan Yonggang; Chen Xu

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of neutron dose equivalent has been a widespread need in industry and research. In this paper, aimed at improving the accuracy of neutron dose equivalent meter: a neutron dose counter is simulated with MCNP5, and the energy response curve is optimized. The results show that the energy response factor is from 0.2 to 1.8 for neutrons in the energy range of 2.53×10 -8 MeV to 10 MeV Compared with other related meters, it turns that the design of this meter is right. (authors)

  12. Measurements of the personal dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.; Scarisoreanu, A.; Badita, E.; Oane, M.; Mitru, E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The paper presents the results of measurements related to the personal dose equivalent in the rooms adjacent to NILPRP 7 MeV linear accelerator, by means of the secondary standard chamber T34035 Hp(10). The chamber was calibrated by PTB at S- 137 Cs (E av = 661.6 keV, T 1/2 11050 days) and has N H = 3.17x10 6 Sv/C calibration factor for the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), at a depth of 10 mm in climatic reference conditions. The measurements were made for the two operation mode of the 7 MeV linac: electrons and bremsstrahlung

  13. Martensitic transformation in SUS304 steels with the same Ni equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, T.; Okino, Y.; Takahashi, S.; Echigoya, J.; Kamada, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of martensitic transformation due to plastic deformation at room temperature was investigated in SUS304 austenitic stainless steels with the same nickel equivalent. The absolute volume of the martensitic phase was obtained by saturation magnetization. We discuss the shapes of the martensitic phase caused by different values of coercive force. Martensitic transformation depends on the applied stress but is independent of nickel content with same nickel equivalent. We investigated applications to nondestructive testing on the basis of the present study. (author)

  14. 77 FR 32632 - Ambient Air Monitoring Reference and Equivalent Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Methods: Designation of Three New Equivalent Methods AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION... accordance with 40 CFR Part 53, three new equivalent methods: One for measuring concentrations of nitrogen... INFORMATION: In accordance with regulations at 40 CFR Part 53, the EPA evaluates various methods for...

  15. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the advantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  16. Free Fall and the Equivalence Principle Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Free fall is commonly discussed as an example of the equivalence principle, in the context of a homogeneous gravitational field, which is a reasonable approximation for small test masses falling moderate distances. Newton's law of gravity provides a generalisation to larger distances, and also brings in an inhomogeneity in the gravitational field.…

  17. Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of Toxicity Equivalent Concentration (TEQ) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from Idu Ekpeye playground and University of Port ... Effective soil remediation and detoxification method like Dispersion by chemical reaction technology should be deployed to clean-up sites to avoid soil toxicity ...

  18. Chemical equivalence assessment of three brands of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assay for content of active ingredients is a critical test of drug quality; failure to meet up the standard for content of active ingredients will result to sub therapeutic quantities. Three brands (A, B and C) of carbamazepine were assayed to determine their chemical equivalence as well as their anticonvulsant activities. This was ...

  19. On Behavioral Equivalence of Rational Representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, JC; Hara, S; Ohta, Y; Fujioka, H

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems In general. the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel representations and image representations Two kernel

  20. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis , including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning paradigm. After cuttlefish reached the learning criteria, a series of discrimination tasks were conducted. In the visual equivalence experiment, several transformed versions of the training images, such as images reduced in size, images reduced in contrast, sketches of the images, the contours of the images, and silhouettes of the images, were used. In the amodal completion experiment, partially occluded views of the original images were used. The results showed that cuttlefish were able to treat the training images of reduced size and sketches as the visual equivalence. Cuttlefish were also capable of recognizing partially occluded versions of the training image. Furthermore, individual differences in performance suggest that some cuttlefish may be able to recognize objects when visual information was partly removed. These findings support the hypothesis that the visual perception of cuttlefish involves both visual equivalence and amodal completion. The results from this research also provide insights into the visual processing mechanisms used by cephalopods.

  1. Possibility and necessity measures and integral equivalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, T.; Mesiar, Radko; Li, J.; Stupňanová, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 86, č. 1 (2017), s. 62-72 ISSN 0888-613X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Integral equivalence * Necessity measure * Possibility measure * Survival function * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Statistics and probability Impact factor: 2.845, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/mesiar-0477092.pdf

  2. Fuel Cell Equivalent Electric Circuit Parameter Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Christian; Zhou, Fan; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    In this work a simple model for a fuel cell is investigated for diagnostic purpose. The fuel cell is characterized, with respect to the electrical impedance of the fuel cell at non-faulty conditions and under variations in load current. Based on this the equivalent electrical circuit parameters can...

  3. Weak equivalence classes of complex vector bundles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Le, Hong-Van

    LXXVII, č. 1 (2008), s. 23-30 ISSN 0862-9544 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : chern classes * complex Grassmannians weak equivalence Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  4. Violation of Equivalence Principle and Solar Neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gago, A.M.; Nunokawa, H.; Zukanovich Funchal, R.

    2001-01-01

    We have updated the analysis for the solution to the solar neutrino problem by the long-wavelength neutrino oscillations induced by a tiny breakdown of the weak equivalence principle of general relativity, and obtained a very good fit to all the solar neutrino data

  5. Bilingual Dictionaries and Communicative Equivalence for a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This implies that a bilingual dictionary becomes a poly functional instrument, presenting more information than just translation equivalents. ... With the emphasis on the user perspective, metalexicographical criteria are used to investigate problems regarding the access structure and the addressing procedures in Afrikaans ...

  6. Equivalent operator preconditioning for elliptic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe; Karátson, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2009), s. 297-380 ISSN 1017-1398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Elliptic problem * Conjugate gradient method * preconditioning * equivalent operators * compact operators Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2009 http://en.scientificcommons.org/42514649

  7. Superstring field theory equivalence: Ramond sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroyter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the finite gauge transformation of the Ramond sector of the modified cubic superstring field theory is ill-defined due to collisions of picture changing operators. Despite this problem we study to what extent could a bijective classical correspondence between this theory and the (presumably consistent) non-polynomial theory exist. We find that the classical equivalence between these two theories can almost be extended to the Ramond sector: We construct mappings between the string fields (NS and Ramond, including Chan-Paton factors and the various GSO sectors) of the two theories that send solutions to solutions in a way that respects the linearized gauge symmetries in both sides and keeps the action of the solutions invariant. The perturbative spectrum around equivalent solutions is also isomorphic. The problem with the cubic theory implies that the correspondence of the linearized gauge symmetries cannot be extended to a correspondence of the finite gauge symmetries. Hence, our equivalence is only formal, since it relates a consistent theory to an inconsistent one. Nonetheless, we believe that the fact that the equivalence formally works suggests that a consistent modification of the cubic theory exists. We construct a theory that can be considered as a first step towards a consistent RNS cubic theory.

  8. Equivalence Scales for the Former West Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charlier, E.

    1997-01-01

    Equivalence scales provide answers to questions like how much a household with four children needs to spend compared to a household with two children or how much a childless couple needs to spend compared to a single person household to attain the same welfare level. These are important questions

  9. Confluence Modulo Equivalence in Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Kirkeby, Maja Hanne

    2014-01-01

    Previous results on confluence for Constraint Handling Rules, CHR, are generalized to take into account user-defined state equivalence relations. This allows a much larger class of programs to enjoy the ad- vantages of confluence, which include various optimization techniques and simplified...

  10. Equivalence of rational representations of behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottimukkala, Sasanka; Fiaz, Shaik; Trentelman, H.L.

    This article deals with the equivalence of representations of behaviors of linear differential systems. In general, the behavior of a given linear differential system has many different representations. In this paper we restrict ourselves to kernel and image representations. Two kernel

  11. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Dezhong; He Bin

    2003-01-01

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping

  12. Equivalent physical models and formulation of equivalent source layer in high-resolution EEG imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Dezhong [School of Life Science and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu City, 610054, Sichuan Province (China); He Bin [The University of Illinois at Chicago, IL (United States)

    2003-11-07

    In high-resolution EEG imaging, both equivalent dipole layer (EDL) and equivalent charge layer (ECL) assumed to be located just above the cortical surface have been proposed as high-resolution imaging modalities or as intermediate steps to estimate the epicortical potential. Presented here are the equivalent physical models of these two equivalent source layers (ESL) which show that the strength of EDL is proportional to the surface potential of the layer when the outside of the layer is filled with an insulator, and that the strength of ECL is the normal current of the layer when the outside is filled with a perfect conductor. Based on these equivalent physical models, closed solutions of ECL and EDL corresponding to a dipole enclosed by a spherical layer are given. These results provide the theoretical basis of ESL applications in high-resolution EEG mapping.

  13. Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders Pharmaceutical equivalence of gabapentin tablets with various extragranular binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWATI C. JAGDALE

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Gabapentin is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-epilepticagent. Due to high crystalline and has poor compaction properties it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product Neurontin (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation by keeping intragranular binder as well as its concentration constant and by changing with various extragranular binders with its concentration (A = PVPK 30, B = HPMC 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA 64, D =Klucel EXF.The tablet having no weight, thickness and hardness variation and having appropriate, friability as well as disintegration profile were coated with a 3% film coating solution .Seven formulations F1 (A in lower concentration F2 (A in higher concentration, F3 (B in lower concentration and F4 (B in higher concentration, F5 (C in lower concentration, F6 (C in higher concentration, F7 (D in lower concentration were formulated. Among them F6 demonstrated adequate hardness, friability, disintegration, uniformity of content, and total drug dissolution after 45minutes. The dissimilarity factor (f1 is 5.93 and the similarity factor (f2 is 67.85. So F6 was found to be equivalent to Neurontin.Gabapentin is widely used as an oral anti-epileptic agent. However, owing to its high crystallinity and poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets of this drug by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop gabapentin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the brand-name pioneer product Neurontin® (marketed in USA. Gabapentin 800mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with a constant concentration of intragranular binder and a varying concentration of extragranular binders (A = polyvinylpyrrolidone K30, B = hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 15 cps, C = Kollidon VA64, D =Klucel EXF. The tablets that did not vary in weight, thickness or hardness and had

  14. Cross-Ethnic Measurement Equivalence of the RCMAS in Latino and Caucasian Youth with Anxiety Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pina, Armando A.; Little, Michelle; Knight, George P.; Silverman, Wendy K.

    2009-01-01

    The measurement equivalence of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS) was examined in a sample of 667 Caucasian and Latino youth referred to an anxiety disorders specialty clinic. Findings supported the factorial invariance of the Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, and Social Concerns/Concentration subscales as well as the construct validity equivalence of the Total Anxiety scale. These findings suggest that the RCMAS can be used with Latino youth in cross-ethnic res...

  15. Effects of cryogenic irradiation on temperature sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courts, S.S.; Holmes, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Several types of commercially available cryogenic temperature sensors were calibrated, irradiated at 4.2 K by a gamma or neutron source, and recalibrated in-situ to determine their suitability for thermometry in radiation environments. Comparisons were made between pre- and post-irradiation calibrations with the equivalent temperature shift calculated for each sensor at various temperature in the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Four post-irradiation calibrations were performed with annealing steps performed at 20 K, 80 K, and 330 K. Temperature sensors which were gamma irradiated were given a total dose of 10,000 Gy. Temperature sensors which were neutron irradiated were irradiated to a total fluence of 2 x 10 12 n/cm 2 . In general, for gamma radiation environments, diodes are unsuitable for use. Both carbon glass and germanium resistance sensors performed well at lower temperature, while platinum resistance sensors performed best above 30 K. Thin-film rhodium and Cernox trademark resistance sensors both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range. Only thin-film rhodium and Cernox trademark resistance temperature sensors were neutron irradiated and they both performed well over the 4.2 K to 330 K range

  16. On the equivalence of GPD representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Dieter; Semenov-Tian-Shansky, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    Phenomenological representations of generalized parton distributions (GPDs) implementing the non-trivial field theoretical requirements are employed in the present day strategies for extracting of hadron structure information encoded in GPDs from the observables of hard exclusive reactions. Showing out the equivalence of various GPD representations can help to get more insight into GPD properties and allow to build up flexible GPD models capable of satisfactory description of the whole set of available experimental data. Below we review the mathematical aspects of establishing equivalence between the the double partial wave expansion of GPDs in the conformal partial waves and in the t-channel SO(3) partial waves and the double distribution representation of GPDs

  17. Developing equivalent circuits for radial distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada, Ricardo; Coelho, Agnelo; Rodrigues, Anselmo [Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: prada@ele.puc-rio.br, agnelo@ele.puc-rio.br, nebulok_99@yahoo.com; Silva, Maria da Guia da [Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luiz, MA (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating External Equivalent in Electric Distribution Networks (EDN).The proposed method has as its main objectives the reduction of the computational costs in distribution network reconfiguration, investigation of the optimal allocation of banks of capacitors, investigation of the allocation of distributed generation, etc. In these sorts of problems a large number of alternative projects must be assessed in order to identify the optimal solution. The optimal solution comes up with the voltage level in the load points within specified limits. Consequently, the EDN must retain the external network load points but without major increasing in the dimension of the equivalent circuit. The proposed method has been tested and validated in a substation of the Electricity Utility of Maranhao - CEMAR, in Brazil. (author)

  18. Thermoluminescence dosemeter for personal dose equivalent assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, T.A. da; Rosa, L.A.R. da; Campos, L.L.

    1995-01-01

    The possibility was investigated of utilising a Brazilian thermoluminescence individual dosemeter, usually calibrated in terms of photon dose equivalent, for the assessment of the personal dose equivalent, H p (d), at depths of 0.07 and 10 mm. The dosemeter uses four CaSO 4 :Dy thermoluminescent detectors, between different filters, as the sensitive materials. It was calibrated in gamma and X radiation fields in the energy range from 17 to 1250 keV. Linear combinations of the responses of three detectors, in this energy range, allow the evaluation of H p (0.07) and H p (10), for radiation incidence angles varying from 0 to 60 degrees, with an accuracy better than 35%. The method is not applicable to mixed photon-beta fields. (author)

  19. Thevenin Equivalent Method for Dynamic Contingency Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    A method that exploits Thevenin equivalent representation for obtaining post-contingency steady-state nodal voltages is integrated with a method of detecting post-contingency aperiodic small-signal instability. The task of integrating stability assessment with contingency assessment is challenged...... by the cases of unstable post-contingency conditions. For unstable postcontingency conditions there exists no credible steady-state which can be used for basis of a stability assessment. This paper demonstrates how Thevenin Equivalent methods can be applied in algebraic representation of such bifurcation...... points which may be used in assessment of post-contingency aperiodic small-signal stability. The assessment method is introduced with a numeric example....

  20. The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....

  1. On equivalent resistance of electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    While the standard (introductory physics) way of computing the equivalent resistance of nontrivial electrical circuits is based on Kirchhoff's rules, there is a mathematically and conceptually simpler approach, called the method of nodal potentials, whose basic variables are the values of the electric potential at the circuit's nodes. In this paper, we review the method of nodal potentials and illustrate it using the Wheatstone bridge as an example. We then derive a closed-form expression for the equivalent resistance of a generic circuit, which we apply to a few sample circuits. The result unveils a curious interplay between electrical circuits, matrix algebra, and graph theory and its applications to computer science. The paper is written at a level accessible by undergraduate students who are familiar with matrix arithmetic. Additional proofs and technical details are provided in appendices.

  2. Symmetry adaptation, operator equivalents and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibler, M.; Chatterjee, R.

    1977-12-01

    Basic quantities for symmetry adaptation are discussed in connection with molecular and solid state physics. This gives rise to a formalism whose the central elements are operator equivalents adapted to a point group. Such symmetry adapted operator equivalents are defined in terms of Schwinger operators so that they cover the off-diagonal and diagonal cases. Special emphasis is put on the applications of the formalism to magnetic resonance. More specifically, it is shown how to apply the formalism to the construction, the study of the transformation properties, and the determination of the eigenstates of a generalized spin hamiltonian. Numerous examples are given as well as key tables relative to the chain SO(3) for making easy the application of the formalism to electron paramagnetic resonance [fr

  3. A Logical Characterisation of Static Equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Pedersen, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    -order logic for frames with quantification over environment knowledge which, under certain general conditions, characterizes static equivalence and is amenable to construction of characteristic formulae. The logic can be used to reason about environment knowledge and can be adapted to a particular application...... by defining a suitable signature and associated equational theory. The logic can furthermore be extended with modalities to yield a modal logic for e.g. the Applied Pi calculus....

  4. Global equivalent magnetization of the oceanic lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyment, J.; Choi, Y.; Hamoudi, M.; Lesur, V.; Thebault, E.

    2015-11-01

    As a by-product of the construction of a new World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map over oceanic areas, we use an original approach based on the global forward modeling of seafloor spreading magnetic anomalies and their comparison to the available marine magnetic data to derive the first map of the equivalent magnetization over the World's ocean. This map reveals consistent patterns related to the age of the oceanic lithosphere, the spreading rate at which it was formed, and the presence of mantle thermal anomalies which affects seafloor spreading and the resulting lithosphere. As for the age, the equivalent magnetization decreases significantly during the first 10-15 Myr after its formation, probably due to the alteration of crustal magnetic minerals under pervasive hydrothermal alteration, then increases regularly between 20 and 70 Ma, reflecting variations in the field strength or source effects such as the acquisition of a secondary magnetization. As for the spreading rate, the equivalent magnetization is twice as strong in areas formed at fast rate than in those formed at slow rate, with a threshold at ∼40 km/Myr, in agreement with an independent global analysis of the amplitude of Anomaly 25. This result, combined with those from the study of the anomalous skewness of marine magnetic anomalies, allows building a unified model for the magnetic structure of normal oceanic lithosphere as a function of spreading rate. Finally, specific areas affected by thermal mantle anomalies at the time of their formation exhibit peculiar equivalent magnetization signatures, such as the cold Australian-Antarctic Discordance, marked by a lower magnetization, and several hotspots, marked by a high magnetization.

  5. Visual Equivalence and Amodal Completion in Cuttlefish

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Rong; Chiao, Chuan-Chin

    2017-01-01

    Modern cephalopods are notably the most intelligent invertebrates and this is accompanied by keen vision. Despite extensive studies investigating the visual systems of cephalopods, little is known about their visual perception and object recognition. In the present study, we investigated the visual processing of the cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis, including visual equivalence and amodal completion. Cuttlefish were trained to discriminate images of shrimp and fish using the operant conditioning pa...

  6. Canonizing certain Borel equivalences for Silver forcing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doucha, Michal

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 13 (2012), s. 2973-2979 ISSN 0166-8641. [Prague Symposium on General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra /11./. Prague, 07.08.2011-12.08.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Borel equivalence relations * silver ideal * canonical Ramsey theorem Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.562, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166864112002180#

  7. Quantum mechanics from an equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    The authors show that requiring diffeomorphic equivalence for one-dimensional stationary states implies that the reduced action S 0 satisfies the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the Planck constant playing the role of a covariantizing parameter. The construction shows the existence of a fundamental initial condition which is strictly related to the Moebius symmetry of the Legendre transform and to its involutive character. The universal nature of the initial condition implies the Schroedinger equation in any dimension

  8. Equivalency of two-dimensional algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Gildemar Carneiro dos; Pomponet Filho, Balbino Jose S.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Let us consider a vector z = xi + yj over the field of real numbers, whose basis (i,j) satisfy a given algebra. Any property of this algebra will be reflected in any function of z, so we can state that the knowledge of the properties of an algebra leads to more general conclusions than the knowledge of the properties of a function. However structural properties of an algebra do not change when this algebra suffers a linear transformation, though the structural constants defining this algebra do change. We say that two algebras are equivalent to each other whenever they are related by a linear transformation. In this case, we have found that some relations between the structural constants are sufficient to recognize whether or not an algebra is equivalent to another. In spite that the basis transform linearly, the structural constants change like a third order tensor, but some combinations of these tensors result in a linear transformation, allowing to write the entries of the transformation matrix as function of the structural constants. Eventually, a systematic way to find the transformation matrix between these equivalent algebras is obtained. In this sense, we have performed the thorough classification of associative commutative two-dimensional algebras, and find that even non-division algebra may be helpful in solving non-linear dynamic systems. The Mandelbrot set was used to have a pictorial view of each algebra, since equivalent algebras result in the same pattern. Presently we have succeeded in classifying some non-associative two-dimensional algebras, a task more difficult than for associative one. (author)

  9. Cryogenic test of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worden, P.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The weak equivalence principle is the hypothesis that the ratio of internal and passive gravitational mass is the same for all bodies. A greatly improved test of this principle is possible in an orbiting satellite. The most promising experiments for an orbital test are adaptations of the Galilean free-fall experiment and the Eotvos balance. Sensitivity to gravity gradient noise, both from the earth and from the spacecraft, defines a limit to the sensitivity in each case. This limit is generally much worse for an Eotvos balance than for a properly designed free-fall experiment. The difference is related to the difficulty of making a balance sufficiently isoinertial. Cryogenic technology is desirable to take full advantage of the potential sensitivity, but tides in the liquid helium refrigerant may produce a gravity gradient that seriously degrades the ultimate sensitivity. The Eotvos balance appears to have a limiting sensitivity to relative difference of rate of fall of about 2 x 10 -14 in orbit. The free-fall experiment is limited by helium tide to about 10 -15 ; if the tide can be controlled or eliminated the limit may approach 10 -18 . Other limitations to equivalence principle experiments are discussed. An experimental test of some of the concepts involved in the orbital free-fall experiment is continuing. The experiment consists in comparing the motions of test masses levitated in a superconducting magnetic bearing, and is itself a sensitive test of the equivalence principle. At present the levitation magnets, position monitors and control coils have been tested and major noise sources identified. A measurement of the equivalence principle is postponed pending development of a system for digitizing data. The experiment and preliminary results are described

  10. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems.\\ud For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  11. Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme

  12. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  13. The short-circuit concept used in field equivalence principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appel-Hansen, Jørgen

    1990-01-01

    In field equivalence principles, electric and magnetic surface currents are specified and considered as impressed currents. Often the currents are placed on perfect conductors. It is shown that these currents can be treated through two approaches. The first approach is decomposition of the total...... field into partial fields caused by the individual impressed currents. When this approach is used, it is shown that, on a perfect electric (magnetic) conductor, impressed electric (magnetic) surface currents are short-circuited. The second approach is to note that, since Maxwell's equations...... and the boundary conditions are satisfied, none of the impressed currents is short-circuited and no currents are induced on the perfect conductors. Since all currents and field quantities are considered at the same time, this approach is referred to as the total-field approach. The partial-field approach leads...

  14. Monetary and social macroeconomic impact of equivalent energy production strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, Robert; Thiriet, Lucien

    1981-01-01

    This current report updates a previous report (February 1979) and brings to light many new factors; a comparative analysis of global impacts is presented, particular emphasis being given to large scale equilibria, and equivalent, but different energy strategies and policies. The way in which different energy strategies might reduce externally imposed constraints is examined in detail, i.e. enabling higher economic growth to be achieved, and unemployment to be reduced without increasing or even with a decrease in the external balance-of-payments deficit. A reference electricity generating program (realized with coal, oil or uranium) similar to the medium and long term French nuclear program was retained. Attention was given to ensure that the ratio between the amount of electricity generated and the total electricity requirements remained realistic. This was also true for the ratio between the amount of nuclear origin generated electricity and the total amount of electricity generated [fr

  15. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  16. Gauge equivalence of the Gross Pitaevskii equation and the equivalent Heisenberg spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Kumar, V. Ramesh

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we construct an equivalent spin chain for the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with quadratic potential and exponentially varying scattering lengths using gauge equivalence. We have then generated the soliton solutions for the spin components S3 and S-. We find that the spin solitons for S3 and S- can be compressed for exponentially growing eigenvalues while they broaden out for decaying eigenvalues.

  17. Equivalent models of wind farms by using aggregated wind turbines and equivalent winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A.; Saenz, J.R.; Jurado, F.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the increasing wind farms penetration on power systems, the wind farms begin to influence power system, and therefore the modeling of wind farms has become an interesting research topic. In this paper, new equivalent models of wind farms equipped with wind turbines based on squirrel-cage induction generators and doubly-fed induction generators are proposed to represent the collective behavior on large power systems simulations, instead of using a complete model of wind farms where all the wind turbines are modeled. The models proposed here are based on aggregating wind turbines into an equivalent wind turbine which receives an equivalent wind of the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines. The equivalent wind turbine presents re-scaled power capacity and the same complete model as the individual wind turbines, which supposes the main feature of the present equivalent models. Two equivalent winds are evaluated in this work: (1) the average wind from the ones incident on the aggregated wind turbines with similar winds, and (2) an equivalent incoming wind derived from the power curve and the wind incident on each wind turbine. The effectiveness of the equivalent models to represent the collective response of the wind farm at the point of common coupling to grid is demonstrated by comparison with the wind farm response obtained from the detailed model during power system dynamic simulations, such as wind fluctuations and a grid disturbance. The present models can be used for grid integration studies of large power system with an important reduction of the model order and the computation time

  18. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  19. Generating carbyne equivalents with photoredox catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaofeng; Herraiz, Ana G.; Del Hoyo, Ana M.; Suero, Marcos G.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon has the unique ability to bind four atoms and form stable tetravalent structures that are prevalent in nature. The lack of one or two valences leads to a set of species—carbocations, carbanions, radicals and carbenes—that is fundamental to our understanding of chemical reactivity. In contrast, the carbyne—a monovalent carbon with three non-bonded electrons—is a relatively unexplored reactive intermediate; the design of reactions involving a carbyne is limited by challenges associated with controlling its extreme reactivity and the lack of efficient sources. Given the innate ability of carbynes to form three new covalent bonds sequentially, we anticipated that a catalytic method of generating carbynes or related stabilized species would allow what we term an ‘assembly point’ disconnection approach for the construction of chiral centres. Here we describe a catalytic strategy that generates diazomethyl radicals as direct equivalents of carbyne species using visible-light photoredox catalysis. The ability of these carbyne equivalents to induce site-selective carbon-hydrogen bond cleavage in aromatic rings enables a useful diazomethylation reaction, which underpins sequencing control for the late-stage assembly-point functionalization of medically relevant agents. Our strategy provides an efficient route to libraries of potentially bioactive molecules through the installation of tailored chiral centres at carbon-hydrogen bonds, while complementing current translational late-stage functionalization processes. Furthermore, we exploit the dual radical and carbene character of the generated carbyne equivalent in the direct transformation of abundant chemical feedstocks into valuable chiral molecules.

  20. Equivalent conserved currents and generalized Noether's theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized Noether theorem is presented, relating symmetries and equivalence classes of local) conservation laws in classical field theories; this is contrasted with the standard theorem. The concept of a ''Noether'' field theory is introduced, being a theory for which the generalized theorem applies; not only does this include the cases of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian field theories, these structures are ''derived'' from the Noether property in a natural way. The generalized theorem applies to currents and symmetries that contain derivatives of the fields up to an arbitrarily high order

  1. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  2. European Equivalencies in Legal Interpreting and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corsellis, Ann; Hertog, Erik; Martinsen, Bodil

    2002-01-01

    Within Europe there is increasing freedom of movement between countries and increasing inward migration. As a result, equivalent standards of legl interpreting and translation are required to allow reliable communication for judicial cooperation between member states, for criminal and civil matters...... which cross national borders and for the needs of multilingual populations. The European Convention of Human Rights (article 6, paragrph 3) is one of the main planks of relevant legislation. This international, two year project has been funded by the EU Grotius programme to set out what is required...

  3. Testing efficiency transfer codes for equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, T.; Celik, N.; Cornejo Diaz, N.; Dlabac, A.; Ewa, I.O.B.; Carrazana Gonzalez, J.A.; Hult, M.; Jovanovic, S.; Lepy, M.-C.; Mihaljevic, N.; Sima, O.; Tzika, F.; Jurado Vargas, M.; Vasilopoulou, T.; Vidmar, G.

    2010-01-01

    Four general Monte Carlo codes (GEANT3, PENELOPE, MCNP and EGS4) and five dedicated packages for efficiency determination in gamma-ray spectrometry (ANGLE, DETEFF, GESPECOR, ETNA and EFFTRAN) were checked for equivalence by applying them to the calculation of efficiency transfer (ET) factors for a set of well-defined sample parameters, detector parameters and energies typically encountered in environmental radioactivity measurements. The differences between the results of the different codes never exceeded a few percent and were lower than 2% in the majority of cases.

  4. The equivalence principle in a quantum world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N. Emil J.; Donoghue, John F.; El-Menoufi, Basem Kamal

    2015-01-01

    the energy is small, we now have the tools to address this conflict explicitly. Despite the violation of some classical concepts, the EP continues to provide the core of the quantum gravity framework through the symmetry - general coordinate invariance - that is used to organize the effective field theory......We show how modern methods can be applied to quantum gravity at low energy. We test how quantum corrections challenge the classical framework behind the equivalence principle (EP), for instance through introduction of nonlocality from quantum physics, embodied in the uncertainty principle. When...

  5. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  6. Money and bonds: an equivalence theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Narayana R. Kocherlakota

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers four models in which immortal agents face idiosyncratic shocks and trade only a single risk-free asset over time. The four models specify this single asset to be private bonds, public bonds, public money, or private money respectively. I prove that, given an equilibrium in one of these economies, it is possible to pick the exogenous elements in the other three economies so that there is an outcome-equivalent equilibrium in each of them. (The term ?exogenous variables? ref...

  7. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  8. Energy response of detectors to alpha/beta particles and compatibility of the equivalent factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bingxing; Li Guangxian; Lin Lixiong

    2011-01-01

    By measuring detect efficiency and equivalent factors of alpha/beta radiation with different energies on three types of detectors, this paper compares compatibility of their equivalent factors and discusses applicability of detectors to measuring total alpha/beta radiation. The result shows the relationship between efficiency of alpha/beta radiation and their energies on 3 types of detectors, such as scintillation and proportional and semiconductor counters, are overall identical. Alpha count efficiency display exponential relation with alpha-particle energy. While beta count efficiency display logarithm relation with beta-particle energy, but the curves appears deflection at low energy. Comparison test of energy response also shows that alpha and beta equivalent factors of scintillation and proportional counters have a good compatibility, and alpha equivalent factors of the semiconductor counters are in good agreement with those of the above two types of counters, but beta equivalent factors have obvious difference, or equivalent factors of low energy beta-particle are lower than those of other detectors. So, the semiconductor counter can not be used for measuring total radioactivity or for the measurements for the purpose of food safety. (authors)

  9. Pharmaceutical equivalence of metformin tablets with various binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Block

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Metformin hydrochloride is a high-dose drug widely used as an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent. As it is highly crystalline and has poor compaction properties, it is difficult to form tablets by direct compression. The aim of this study was to develop adequate metformin tablets, pharmaceutically equivalent to the reference product, Glucophage® (marketed as Glifage® in Brazil. Metformin 500mg tablets were produced by wet granulation with various binders (A = starch, B = starch 1500®, C = PVP K30®, D = PVP K90®. The tablets were analyzed for their hardness, friability, disintegration, dissolution, content uniformity and dissolution profile (basket apparatus at 50 rpm, pH 6.8 phosphate buffer. The 4 formulations, F1 (5% A and 5% C, F2 (5% B and 5% C, F3 (10% C and F4 (5% D, demonstrated adequate uniformity of content, hardness, friability, disintegration and total drug dissolution after 30 minutes (F1, F2 and F4, and after 60 minutes (F3. The drug release time profiles fitted a Higuchi model (F1, F2 and F3, similarly to the pharmaceutical reference, or a zero order model (F4. The dissolution efficiency for all the formulations was 75%, except for F3 (45%. F1 and F2 were thus equivalent to Glifage®. Keywords: dissolution; metformin; tablet; binder; pharmaceutical equivalence

  10. Analysis of time series and size of equivalent sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, Nestor; Molina, Alicia; Pabon, Daniel; Martinez, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    In a meteorological context, a first approach to the modeling of time series is to use models of autoregressive type. This allows one to take into account the meteorological persistence or temporal behavior, thereby identifying the memory of the analyzed process. This article seeks to pre-sent the concept of the size of an equivalent sample, which helps to identify in the data series sub periods with a similar structure. Moreover, in this article we examine the alternative of adjusting the variance of the series, keeping in mind its temporal structure, as well as an adjustment to the covariance of two time series. This article presents two examples, the first one corresponding to seven simulated series with autoregressive structure of first order, and the second corresponding to seven meteorological series of anomalies of the air temperature at the surface in two Colombian regions

  11. Integrable topological billiards and equivalent dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedyushkina, V. V.; Fomenko, A. T.

    2017-08-01

    We consider several topological integrable billiards and prove that they are Liouville equivalent to many systems of rigid body dynamics. The proof uses the Fomenko-Zieschang theory of invariants of integrable systems. We study billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and their generalizations, generalized billiards, where the motion occurs on a locally planar surface obtained by gluing several planar domains isometrically along their boundaries, which are arcs of confocal quadrics. We describe two new classes of integrable billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics, namely, non-compact billiards and generalized billiards obtained by gluing planar billiards along non-convex parts of their boundaries. We completely classify non-compact billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics and study their topology using the Fomenko invariants that describe the bifurcations of singular leaves of the additional integral. We study the topology of isoenergy surfaces for some non-convex generalized billiards. It turns out that they possess exotic Liouville foliations: the integral trajectories of the billiard that lie on some singular leaves admit no continuous extension. Such billiards appear to be leafwise equivalent to billiards bounded by arcs of confocal quadrics in the Minkowski metric.

  12. Twisted conformal field theories and Morita equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno and Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Compl. universitario M. Sant' Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: adelenaddeo@yahoo.it

    2009-04-01

    The Morita equivalence for field theories on noncommutative two-tori is analysed in detail for rational values of the noncommutativity parameter {theta} (in appropriate units): an isomorphism is established between an Abelian noncommutative field theory (NCFT) and a non-Abelian theory of twisted fields on ordinary space. We focus on a particular conformal field theory (CFT), the one obtained by means of the m-reduction procedure [V. Marotta, J. Phys. A 26 (1993) 3481; V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 853; V. Marotta, Nucl. Phys. B 527 (1998) 717; V. Marotta, A. Sciarrino, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 13 (1998) 2863], and show that it is the Morita equivalent of a NCFT. Finally, the whole m-reduction procedure is shown to be the image in the ordinary space of the Morita duality. An application to the physics of a quantum Hall fluid at Jain fillings {nu}=m/(2pm+1) is explicitly discussed in order to further elucidate such a correspondence and to clarify its role in the physics of strongly correlated systems. A new picture emerges, which is very different from the existing relationships between noncommutativity and many body systems [A.P. Polychronakos, arXiv: 0706.1095].

  13. Planck Constant Determination from Power Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, David B.

    2000-04-01

    Equating mechanical to electrical power links the kilogram, the meter, and the second to the practical realizations of the ohm and the volt derived from the quantum Hall and the Josephson effects, yielding an SI determination of the Planck constant. The NIST watt balance uses this power equivalence principle, and in 1998 measured the Planck constant with a combined relative standard uncertainty of 8.7 x 10-8, the most accurate determination to date. The next generation of the NIST watt balance is now being assembled. Modification to the experimental facilities have been made to reduce the uncertainty components from vibrations and electromagnetic interference. A vacuum chamber has been installed to reduce the uncertainty components associated with performing the experiment in air. Most of the apparatus is in place and diagnostic testing of the balance should begin this year. Once a combined relative standard uncertainty of one part in 10-8 has been reached, the power equivalence principle can be used to monitor the possible drift in the artifact mass standard, the kilogram, and provide an accurate alternative definition of mass in terms of fundamental constants. *Electricity Division, Electronics and Electrical Engineering Laboratory, Technology Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce. Contribution of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, not subject to copyright in the U.S.

  14. Equivalence Testing as a Tool for Fatigue Risk Management in Aviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lora J; Gander, Philippa H; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh

    2018-04-01

    Many civilian aviation regulators favor evidence-based strategies that go beyond hours-of-service approaches for managing fatigue risk. Several countries now allow operations to be flown outside of flight and duty hour limitations, provided airlines demonstrate an alternative method of compliance that yields safety levels "at least equivalent to" the prescriptive regulations. Here we discuss equivalence testing in occupational fatigue risk management. We present suggested ratios/margins of practical equivalence when comparing operations inside and outside of prescriptive regulations for two common aviation safety performance indicators: total in-flight sleep duration and psychomotor vigilance task reaction speed. Suggested levels of practical equivalence, based on expertise coupled with evidence from field and laboratory studies, are ≤ 30 min in-flight sleep and ± 15% of reference response speed. Equivalence testing is illustrated in analyses of a within-subjects field study during an out-and-back long-range trip. During both sectors of their trip, 41 pilots were monitored via actigraphy, sleep diary, and top of descent psychomotor vigilance task. Pilots were assigned to take rest breaks in a standard lie-flat bunk on one sector and in a bunk tapered 9 from hip to foot on the other sector. Total in-flight sleep duration (134 ± 53 vs. 135 ± 55 min) and mean reaction speed at top of descent (3.94 ± 0.58 vs. 3.77 ± 0.58) were equivalent after rest in the full vs. tapered bunk. Equivalence testing is a complimentary statistical approach to difference testing when comparing levels of fatigue and performance in occupational settings and can be applied in transportation policy decision making.Wu LJ, Gander PH, van den Berg M, Signal TL. Equivalence testing as a tool for fatigue risk management in aviation. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):383-388.

  15. Non-LTE equivalent widths for Si II, III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.R.; Butler, K.

    1990-01-01

    Equivalent widths for a set of Si II, III and IV lines reliable for the determination of temperatures in the B star parameter range are given. They are calculated on a fine grid of LTE line blanketed model atmospheres and lie in the wavelength region from 4070 A to 5070 A

  16. Borel equivalence relations structure and classification

    CERN Document Server

    Kanovei, Vladimir

    2008-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the theory of Borel equivalence relations and related topics have been very active areas of research in set theory and have important interactions with other fields of mathematics, like ergodic theory and topological dynamics, group theory, combinatorics, functional analysis, and model theory. The book presents, for the first time in mathematical literature, all major aspects of this theory and its applications. This book should be of interest to a wide spectrum of mathematicians working in set theory as well as the other areas mentioned. It provides a systematic exposition of results that so far have been only available in journals or are even unpublished. The book presents unified and in some cases significantly streamlined proofs of several difficult results, especially dichotomy theorems. It has rather minimal overlap with other books published in this subject.

  17. Characterization of Destrins with Different Dextrose Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglei Li

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Dextrins are widely used for their functional properties and prepared by partial hydrolysis of starch using acid, enzymes, or combinations of both. The physiochemical properties of dextrins are dependent on their molecular distribution and oligosaccharide profiles. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffractometry (XRD, rapid viscoanalysis (RVA, high-performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and gel permeation chromatography (GPC were used to characterize dextrins prepared by common neutral and thermostable α-amylase hydrolysis. The dextrin granules displayed irregular surfaces and were badly damaged by the enzyme treatment. They displayed A-type X-ray diffraction patterns with a decrease of intensity of the characteristic diffraction peaks. The RVA profiles showed that the viscosity of dextrin decreased with the increase of its Dextrose Equivalent (DE value. According to HPLC analysis, the molecular weight, degree of polymerization and the composition of oligosaccharides in dextrins were different.

  18. Multiplicities of states od equivalent fermion shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukinas, A.Yu.; Glembotskij, I.I.

    1980-01-01

    Classification of states of three or four equivalent fermions has been studied, i.e. possible terms and their multiplicities have been determined. For this purpose either the group theory or evident expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients have been used. In the first approach the formulas obtained by other authors for the multiplicities of terms through the characters of the transformation matrices of bond moments have been used. This approach happens to be more general as compared with the second one, as expressions for the fractional-parentage coefficients in many cases are not known. The multiplicities of separate terms have been determined. It has been shown that the number of terms of any multiplicity becomes constant when l or j is increased [ru

  19. Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan

    2018-06-17

    With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Equivalence principle and the baryon acoustic peak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Tobias; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Simonović, Marko; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-08-01

    We study the dominant effect of a long wavelength density perturbation δ (λL) on short distance physics. In the nonrelativistic limit, the result is a uniform acceleration, fixed by the equivalence principle, and typically has no effect on statistical averages due to translational invariance. This same reasoning has been formalized to obtain a "consistency condition" on the cosmological correlation functions. In the presence of a feature, such as the acoustic peak at ℓBAO, this naive expectation breaks down for λLexplicitly applied to the one-loop calculation of the power spectrum. Finally, the success of baryon acoustic oscillation reconstruction schemes is argued to be another empirical evidence for the validity of the results.

  1. Development of air equivalent gamma dose monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Mary; Bhattacharya, Sadhana; Karpagam, R.; Prasad, D.N.; Jakati, R.K.; Mukhopadhyay, P.K.; Patil, R.K.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes design and development of air equivalent gamma absorbed dose monitor. The monitor has gamma sensitivity of 84 pA/R/h for 60 Co source. The characterization of the monitor has been done to get energy dependence on gamma sensitivity and response to gamma radiation field from 1 R/hr to 5000 R/hr. The gamma sensitivity in the energy range of 0.06 to 1.25MeV relative to 137 Cs nuclide was within 2.5%. The linearity of the monitor response as a function of gamma field from 10 R/h to 3.8 kR/h was within 6%. The monitor has been designed for its application in harsh environment. It has been successfully qualified to meet environmental requirements of shock. (author)

  2. Quantifying the Combined Effect of Radiation Therapy and Hyperthermia in Terms of Equivalent Dose Distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, H. Petra; Crezee, Johannes; Franken, Nicolaas A.P.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Barendsen, Gerrit W.; Bel, Arjan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to quantify the therapeutic effect of radiosensitization by hyperthermia; to this end, a numerical method was proposed to convert radiation therapy dose distributions with hyperthermia to equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia. Methods and Materials: Clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created for 15 prostate cancer cases. To simulate a clinically relevant heterogeneous temperature distribution, hyperthermia treatment planning was performed for heating with the AMC-8 system. The temperature-dependent parameters α (Gy −1 ) and β (Gy −2 ) of the linear–quadratic model for prostate cancer were estimated from the literature. No thermal enhancement was assumed for normal tissue. The intensity modulated radiation therapy plans and temperature distributions were exported to our in-house-developed radiation therapy treatment planning system, APlan, and equivalent dose distributions without hyperthermia were calculated voxel by voxel using the linear–quadratic model. Results: The planned average tumor temperatures T90, T50, and T10 in the planning target volume were 40.5°C, 41.6°C, and 42.4°C, respectively. The planned minimum, mean, and maximum radiation therapy doses were 62.9 Gy, 76.0 Gy, and 81.0 Gy, respectively. Adding hyperthermia yielded an equivalent dose distribution with an extended 95% isodose level. The equivalent minimum, mean, and maximum doses reflecting the radiosensitization by hyperthermia were 70.3 Gy, 86.3 Gy, and 93.6 Gy, respectively, for a linear increase of α with temperature. This can be considered similar to a dose escalation with a substantial increase in tumor control probability for high-risk prostate carcinoma. Conclusion: A model to quantify the effect of combined radiation therapy and hyperthermia in terms of equivalent dose distributions was presented. This model is particularly instructive to estimate the potential effects of interaction from different treatment

  3. A new concept of equivalent homogenization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Pogoskekyan, Leonid; Kim, Young Il; Ju, Hyung Kook; Chang, Moon Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    A new concept of equivalent homogenization is proposed. The concept employs new set of homogenized parameters: homogenized cross sections (XS) and interface matrix (IM), which relates partial currents at the cell interfaces. The idea of interface matrix generalizes the idea of discontinuity factors (DFs), proposed and developed by K. Koebke and K. Smith. The offered concept covers both those of K. Koebke and K. Smith; both of them can be simulated within framework of new concept. Also, the offered concept covers Siemens KWU approach for baffle/reflector simulation, where the equivalent homogenized reflector XS are derived from the conservation of response matrix at the interface in 1D simi-infinite slab geometry. The IM and XS of new concept satisfy the same assumption about response matrix conservation in 1D semi-infinite slab geometry. It is expected that the new concept provides more accurate approximation of heterogeneous cell, especially in case of the steep flux gradients at the cell interfaces. The attractive shapes of new concept are: improved accuracy, simplicity of incorporation in the existing codes, equal numerical expenses in comparison to the K. Smith`s approach. The new concept is useful for: (a) explicit reflector/baffle simulation; (b) control blades simulation; (c) mixed UO{sub 2}/MOX core simulation. The offered model has been incorporated in the finite difference code and in the nodal code PANDOX. The numerical results show good accuracy of core calculations and insensitivity of homogenized parameters with respect to in-core conditions. 9 figs., 7 refs. (Author).

  4. Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.

    2009-01-01

    Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in

  5. temperature overspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Two different finite difference schemes for solving the two-dimensional parabolic inverse problem with temperature overspecification are considered. These schemes are developed for indentifying the control parameter which produces, at any given time, a desired temperature distribution at a given point in the spatial domain. The numerical methods discussed, are based on the (3,3 alternating direction implicit (ADI finite difference scheme and the (3,9 alternating direction implicit formula. These schemes are unconditionally stable. The basis of analysis of the finite difference equation considered here is the modified equivalent partial differential equation approach, developed from the 1974 work of Warming and Hyett [17]. This allows direct and simple comparison of the errors associated with the equations as well as providing a means to develop more accurate finite difference schemes. These schemes use less central processor times than the fully implicit schemes for two-dimensional diffusion with temperature overspecification. The alternating direction implicit schemes developed in this report use more CPU times than the fully explicit finite difference schemes, but their unconditional stability is significant. The results of numerical experiments are presented, and accuracy and the Central Processor (CPU times needed for each of the methods are discussed. We also give error estimates in the maximum norm for each of these methods.

  6. Oceanographic temperature, salinity, oxygen, phosphate, total phosphorus, silicate, nitrite, pH, alkalinity measurements collected using bottle on multiple platforms in the Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, Mediterranean from 1910 to 1982 (NODC Accession 0038350)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature, salinity, nutrients, oxygen, and other measurements found in dataset OSD taken from the AGASSIZ; A., ALBACORE and other platforms in the Coastal N...

  7. NCEI ocean heat content, temperature anomalies, salinity anomalies, thermosteric sea level anomalies, halosteric sea level anomalies, and total steric sea level anomalies from 1955 to present calculated from in situ oceanographic subsurface profile data (NCEI Accession 0164586)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains ocean heat content change, oceanic temperature and salinity changes, and steric sea level change (change in volume without change in mass),...

  8. 49 CFR 391.33 - Equivalent of road test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equivalent of road test. 391.33 Section 391.33... AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Tests § 391.33 Equivalent of road test. (a) In place of, and as equivalent to, the road test required by § 391.31, a person who seeks to drive a...

  9. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for Von Neumann algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M. Brouwer (Rachel)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ``Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if and only if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are

  10. Problems of Equivalence in Shona- English Bilingual Dictionaries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Page 1 ... translation equivalents in Shona-English dictionaries where lexicographers will be dealing with divergent languages and cultures, traditional practices of lexicography and the absence of reliable ... ideal in translation is to achieve structural and semantic equivalence. Absolute equivalence between any two ...

  11. The equivalence principle in classical mechanics and quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Mannheim, Philip D.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss our understanding of the equivalence principle in both classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. We show that not only does the equivalence principle hold for the trajectories of quantum particles in a background gravitational field, but also that it is only because of this that the equivalence principle is even to be expected to hold for classical particles at all.

  12. Modeling of a Pouch Lithium Ion Battery Using a Distributed Parameter Equivalent Circuit for Internal Non-Uniformity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafen Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.

  13. Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, John [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Newhauser, Wayne, E-mail: newhauser@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Homann, Kenneth; Howell, Rebecca [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Schneider, Christopher [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809 (United States); Durante, Marco; Bert, Christoph [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects.

  14. Experimental and computational investigation of temperature effects on soot mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaojie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of initial ambient temperatures on combustion and soot emission characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated through experiment conducted in optical constant volume chamber and simulation using phenomenological soot model. There are four difference initial ambient temperatures adopted in our research: 1000 K, 900 K, 800 K and 700 K. In order to obtain a better prediction of soot behavior, phenomenological soot model was revised to take into account the soot oxidation feedback on soot number density and good agreement was observed in the comparison of soot measurement and prediction. Results indicated that ignition delay prolonged with the decrease of initial ambient temperature. The heat release rate demonstrated the transition from mixing controlled combustion at high ambient temperature to premixed combustion mode at low ambient temperature. At lower ambient temperature, soot formation and oxidation mechanism were both suppressed. But finally soot mass concentration reduced with decreasing initial ambient temperature. Although the drop in ambient temperature did not cool the mean in-cylinder temperature during the combustion, it did shrink the total area of local high equivalence ratio, in which soot usually generated fast. At 700 K initial ambient temperature, soot emissions were almost negligible, which indicates that sootless combustion might be achieved at super low initial temperature operation conditions.

  15. Conductivity studies on commercially available proton-conducting membranes with different equivalent weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J; Buechi, F N; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Two perfluorosulfonic acid membranes, Nafion{sup R} 105 and Nafion{sup R} 115 with the same thickness but different equivalent weights (EW = 1000 g/eq. resp. 1100 g/eq.) were characterised by conductivity measurements at different water vapour activities in the temperature range of 25-70{sup o}C. The results demonstrate that a lower membrane equivalent weight opens the possibility to obtain the needed proton conductivity at lower water vapour activity. This is especially important for those fuel cell applications, in which the cell is operated without external humidification of the fuel gases. (author) 5 figs., 5 refs.

  16. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  17. 78 FR 8066 - Method for the Determination of Lead in Total Suspended Particulate Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... jurisdiction that is a government of a city, county, town, school district or special district with a... maintaining a temperature of 80[deg]C; VWR Model 750HT, 240W, or equivalent. Ultrasonic bath must meet the... temperature of 95[deg]C, or equivalent. 6.4 Materials and Supplies Argon gas supply, 99.99 percent purity or...

  18. The one-dimensional normalised generalised equivalence theory (NGET) for generating equivalent diffusion theory group constants for PWR reflector regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.Z.

    1991-01-01

    An equivalent diffusion theory PWR reflector model is presented, which has as its basis Smith's generalisation of Koebke's Equivalent Theory. This method is an adaptation, in one-dimensional slab geometry, of the Generalised Equivalence Theory (GET). Since the method involves the renormalisation of the GET discontinuity factors at nodal interfaces, it is called the Normalised Generalised Equivalence Theory (NGET) method. The advantages of the NGET method for modelling the ex-core nodes of a PWR are summarized. 23 refs

  19. A bicategorical approach to Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, R. M.

    2003-01-01

    We relate Morita equivalence for von Neumann algebras to the ''Connes fusion'' tensor product between correspondences. In the purely algebraic setting, it is well known that rings are Morita equivalent if they are equivalent objects in a bicategory whose 1-cells are bimodules. We present a similar result for von Neumann algebras. We show that von Neumann algebras form a bicategory, having Connes's correspondences as 1-morphisms, and (bounded) intertwiners as 2-morphisms. Further, we prove that two von Neumann algebras are Morita equivalent iff they are equivalent objects in the bicategory. The proofs make extensive use of the Tomita-Takesaki modular theory

  20. Theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault

    2012-01-01

    We review several theoretical aspects of the equivalence principle (EP). We emphasize the unsatisfactory fact that the EP maintains the absolute character of the coupling constants of physics, while general relativity and its generalizations (Kaluza–Klein, …, string theory) suggest that all absolute structures should be replaced by dynamical entities. We discuss the EP-violation phenomenology of dilaton-like models, which is likely to be dominated by the linear superposition of two effects: a signal proportional to the nuclear Coulomb energy, related to the variation of the fine-structure constant, and a signal proportional to the surface nuclear binding energy, related to the variation of the light quark masses. We recall various theoretical arguments (including a recently proposed anthropic argument) suggesting that the EP be violated at a small, but not unmeasurably small level. This motivates the need for improved tests of the EP. These tests are probing new territories in physics that are related to deep, and mysterious, issues in fundamental physics. (paper)

  1. Biomonitoring Equivalents for interpretation of urinary fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, L L; Hays, S M; Vezina, A; Deveau, M; St-Amand, A; Nong, A

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to fluoride is widespread due to its natural occurrence in the environment and addition to drinking water and dental products for the prevention of dental caries. The potential health risks of excess fluoride exposure include aesthetically unacceptable dental fluorosis (tooth mottling) and increased skeletal fragility. Numerous organizations have conducted risk assessments and set guidance values to represent maximum recommended exposure levels as well as recommended adequate intake levels based on potential public health benefits of fluoride exposure. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are estimates of the average biomarker concentrations corresponding to such exposure guidance values. The literature on daily urinary fluoride excretion rates as a function of daily fluoride exposure was reviewed and BE values corresponding to the available US and Canadian exposure guidance values were derived for fluoride in urine. The derived BE values range from 1.1 to 2.1mg/L (1.2-2.5μg/g creatinine). Concentrations of fluoride in single urinary spot samples from individuals, even under exposure conditions consistent with the exposure guidance values, may vary from the predicted average concentrations by several-fold due to within- and across-individual variation in urinary flow and creatinine excretion rates and due to the rapid elimination kinetics of fluoride. Thus, the BE values are most appropriately applied to screen population central tendency estimates for biomarker concentrations rather than interpretation of individual spot sample concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. VERSE - Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yang; Martin, Bryan J.; Villaume, Nathaniel

    2005-01-01

    Distributed real-time simulations provide important timing validation and hardware in the- loop results for the spacecraft flight software development cycle. Occasionally, the need for higher fidelity modeling and more comprehensive debugging capabilities - combined with a limited amount of computational resources - calls for a non real-time simulation environment that mimics the real-time environment. By creating a non real-time environment that accommodates simulations and flight software designed for a multi-CPU real-time system, we can save development time, cut mission costs, and reduce the likelihood of errors. This paper presents such a solution: Virtual Equivalent Real-time Simulation Environment (VERSE). VERSE turns the real-time operating system RTAI (Real-time Application Interface) into an event driven simulator that runs in virtual real time. Designed to keep the original RTAI architecture as intact as possible, and therefore inheriting RTAI's many capabilities, VERSE was implemented with remarkably little change to the RTAI source code. This small footprint together with use of the same API allows users to easily run the same application in both real-time and virtual time environments. VERSE has been used to build a workstation testbed for NASA's Space Interferometry Mission (SIM PlanetQuest) instrument flight software. With its flexible simulation controls and inexpensive setup and replication costs, VERSE will become an invaluable tool in future mission development.

  3. Challenging a culture of racial equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Miri

    2014-03-01

    We live at a time when our understandings and conceptualizations of 'racism' are often highly imprecise, broad, and used to describe a wide range of racialized phenomena. In this article, I raise some important questions about how the term racism is used and understood in contemporary British society by drawing on some recent cases of alleged racism in football and politics, many of which have been played out via new media technologies. A broader understanding of racism, through the use of the term 'racialization', has been helpful in articulating a more nuanced and complex understanding of racial incidents, especially of people's (often ambivalent) beliefs and behaviours. However, the growing emphasis upon 'racialization' has led to a conceptualization of racism which increasingly involves multiple perpetrators, victims, and practices without enough consideration of how and why particular interactions and practices constitute racism as such. The trend toward a growing culture of racial equivalence is worrying, as it denudes the idea of racism of its historical basis, severity and power. These frequent and commonplace assertions of racism in the public sphere paradoxically end up trivializing and homogenizing quite different forms of racialized interactions. I conclude that we need to retain the term 'racism', but we need to differentiate more clearly between 'racism' (as an historical and structured system of domination) from the broader notion of 'racialization'. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  4. Testing the equivalence principle on cosmological scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvin, Camille; Fleury, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    The equivalence principle, that is one of the main pillars of general relativity, is very well tested in the Solar system; however, its validity is more uncertain on cosmological scales, or when dark matter is concerned. This article shows that relativistic effects in the large-scale structure can be used to directly test whether dark matter satisfies Euler's equation, i.e. whether its free fall is characterised by geodesic motion, just like baryons and light. After having proposed a general parametrisation for deviations from Euler's equation, we perform Fisher-matrix forecasts for future surveys like DESI and the SKA, and show that such deviations can be constrained with a precision of order 10%. Deviations from Euler's equation cannot be tested directly with standard methods like redshift-space distortions and gravitational lensing, since these observables are not sensitive to the time component of the metric. Our analysis shows therefore that relativistic effects bring new and complementary constraints to alternative theories of gravity.

  5. A Bayesian equivalency test for two independent binomial proportions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yohei; Shimokawa, Asanao; Yamada, Hiroshi; Miyaoka, Etsuo

    2016-01-01

    In clinical trials, it is often necessary to perform an equivalence study. The equivalence study requires actively denoting equivalence between two different drugs or treatments. Since it is not possible to assert equivalence that is not rejected by a superiority test, statistical methods known as equivalency tests have been suggested. These methods for equivalency tests are based on the frequency framework; however, there are few such methods in the Bayesian framework. Hence, this article proposes a new index that suggests the equivalency of binomial proportions, which is constructed based on the Bayesian framework. In this study, we provide two methods for calculating the index and compare the probabilities that have been calculated by these two calculation methods. Moreover, we apply this index to the results of actual clinical trials to demonstrate the utility of the index.

  6. A study on pre-heat conditions in equivalent-dose estimation of holocene loess using single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yaofeng; Huang Chunchang; Pang Jiangli; Lu Xinwei; Zhang Xu

    2007-01-01

    Through various arrangements of pre-heat and cut-heat temperatures in the equivalent-dose estimation of Holocene loess using a Double-SAR dating protocol, the paper estimated the equivalent-doses from several loess samples by application of IRSL and Post-IR OSL signals, respectively. The measured results present that the equivalent-dose depends on the heat temperature, especially depends on the cut-heat temperature, showing the equivalent-dose increases with the cut-heat temperature; a plateau of equivalent-dose appears at the 200-300 degree C preheat temperatures and the 200-240 degree C cut-heat temperatures, furthermore, the equivalent-doses estimated by IRSL and Post-IR OSL signals respectively are close to each other, which resulted from the similar sensitivity change directions of optical stimulated signals and their smaller change ranges in the measurement cycles using the various temperatures of pre-heat and cut-heat. This suggests that the 200-300 degree C pre-heat temperatures and the 200-240 degree C cut-heat temperatures are fit for dating young Holocene loess samples. (authors)

  7. Generic patches containing fentanyl: In vitro equivalence and abuse deterrent evaluation according to EMA and FDA guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Cristina; Pescina, Silvia; Nicoli, Sara; Santi, Patrizia

    2018-02-15

    The aim of this work was to characterize in vitro and ex vivo the performances of Durogesic and of two bioequivalent generic products, by evaluating: (a) fentanyl release; (b) fentanyl permeation across porcine skin and (c) fentanyl ease of extraction. Additional characteristics studied are the effect of temperature and skin integrity, applied individually or combined, to check a possible synergism. The two generic patches resulted equivalent to the originator according to the new Guideline. Nevertheless, the same data reported in a different way, i.e. considering the total amount of drug permeated from the whole patch over the application time, highlight differences among the patches. The additional tests performed showed that skin integrity does not represent a barrier for fentanyl permeation across the skin, regardless of the type and complexity of the patch. The effect of temperature resulted critical for two out of three patches, probably due to the different composition and to the different structure. The combination of skin damage and elevated temperature did not produce a synergistic effect. Fentanyl extraction was different for the different products and variable according to the conditions used. The results reported in the present work underline the influence of patch composition and complexity on fentanyl extraction, release and skin permeation, in particular in conditions that can be critical, such as elevated temperature. In particular, the effect of critical variables, such as skin integrity and temperature, should be addressed to in the development of a new or new generic patch and new discriminant tests should be developed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  9. The effective dose equivalent from external and internal radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren

    1989-01-01

    The various sources of low-level ionizing radiation are discussed and compared in terms of mean effective dose equivalent to man. For the most nonoccupationally exposed individuals, natural sources given the dominating contribution to the effective dose equivalent. The size of this contribution is strongly dependent on human activities. Natural sources contribution on average 2.4 mSV per year, of which half is due to irradiation of lungs and airways from short lived radon daughters present in indoor air. In Sweden this radon daughter contribution is considerably higher and contributes a mean of 3 mSv per year, thus giving a total contribution from natural radiation of about 4 mSV per year. In extreme cases, radon daughter contributions of several hundreds of mSv per year may be reached. Medical exposure, mainly diagnostic X-rays, contributes 0.4-1 mSv per year both in Sweden and as a world average. The testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere has given 1-2 mSv to each person in the world as a mean. The contribution from the routine operation of nuclear reactors is insignificant. The reactor accident in Chernobyl resulted in widely varying exposures of the European population. The average for Sweden is estimated to be 0.1 mSv during the first year and about 1 mSv during a 50-year period. For groups of Swedes who eat a considerable amount of game this contribution will be 10 times higher, and for the Lapps who breed reindeer in the most contaminated areas, typical values of 20-70 mSv and extreme values of about 1 Sv may be reached in 50 years. This means that the Chernobyl reactor accident for several years will be their dominating source of irradiation

  10. An equivalent condition for stability properties of Lotka-Volterra systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Tianguang

    2007-01-01

    We give a solvable Lie algebraic condition for the equivalence of four typical stability notions (asymptotic stability, D-stability, total stability, and Volterra-Lyapunov stability) concerning Lotka-Volterra systems. Our approach makes use of the decomposition of the interaction matrix into symmetric and skew-symmetric parts, which may be related to the cooperative and competitive interaction pattern of a Lotka-Volterra system. The present result covers a known condition and can yield a larger set of interaction matrices for equivalence of the stability properties

  11. Radiation equivalency: For the radiation recall phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.H.; Cole, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experimental and clinico-epidemiological investigations have unequivocally established the risk of an offspring in later years developing cancer after experiencing an in utero carcinogenic insult. The present studies have focused upon identifying whether the biological effects of iodine-131 and the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) when administered during pregnancy in the Fischer F344 inbred rat are remembered in the offsprings at a later age. The investigations have been based upon the premise that after exposure to a carcinogen ''foreign-like'' tumor cells develop which result in the host mounting active antitumor immune responses. The authors have now measured at 2 to 3 months post-exposure, the antitumor cell-mediated immunity (CMI) induced by intraperitoneal administration of the radionuclide or chemical at 16-18 days of gestation. Their findings indicate a positive sex relationship existing in those offsprings exposed to the radioiodine with the female being much less sensitive. In contrast, no such difference was observed between responsiveness of the males and females born from dams exposed to the DMH. Significantly, the dams exposed to either the radionuclide or DMH expressed no measurable CMI suggesting that either the fetus acted as a carcinogen trap or else the state of pregnancy altered the mother's immune system in such a fashion to no longer respond to the insult. A Radiation Equivalency value has now been determined for the transplacental DMH exposures with the calculations suggesting the fetus is significantly more sensitive (over 10 times) than the adult animals. The results of this study now demonstrate that carcinogenic memory remains for exposures to both the iodine-131 and DMH in the first offspring generation and suggest that the effects may be recalled at a later age with the expected overt results being the development of cancer

  12. Biomonitoring Equivalents for bisphenol A (BPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Kannan; Gagné, Michelle; Nong, Andy; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M

    2010-10-01

    Recent efforts worldwide have resulted in a growing database of measured concentrations of chemicals in blood and urine samples taken from the general population. However, few tools exist to assist in the interpretation of the measured values in a health risk context. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) are defined as the concentration or range of concentrations of a chemical or its metabolite in a biological medium (blood, urine, or other medium) that is consistent with an existing health-based exposure guideline. BE values are derived by integrating available data on pharmacokinetics with existing chemical risk assessments. This study reviews available health-based exposure guidance values for bisphenol A (BPA) from Health Canada, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). BE values were derived based on data on BPA urinary excretion in humans. The BE value corresponding to the oral provisional tolerable daily intake (pTDI) of 25 microg/kg-d from Health Canada is 1mg/L (1.3mg/g creatinine); value corresponding to the US EPA reference dose (RfD) and EFSA tolerable daily intake (TDI) estimates (both of which are equal to 50 microg/kg-d) is 2mg/L (2.6 mg/g creatinine). These values are estimates of the 24-h average urinary BPA concentrations that are consistent with steady-state exposure at the respective exposure guidance values. These BE values may be used as screening tools for evaluation of central tendency measures of population biomonitoring data for BPA in a risk assessment context and can assist in prioritization of the potential need for additional risk assessment efforts for BPA relative to other chemicals. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Applicability of ambient dose equivalent H*(d) in mixed radiation fields - a critical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Vana, N.

    2004-01-01

    For purposes of routine radiation protection, it is desirable to characterize the potential irradiation of individuals in terms of a single dose equivalent quantity that would exist in a phantom approximating the human body. The phantom of choice is the ICRU sphere made of 30 cm diameter tissue-equivalent plastic with a density of 1 g.cm-3 and a mass composition of 76.2 % O, 11.1 % C, 10.1 % H and 2.6 % N. Ambient dose equivalent, H*(d), was defined in ICRU report 51 as the dose equivalent that would be produced by an expanded and aligned radiation field at a depth d in the ICRU sphere. The recommended reference depths are 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation and 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating radiation, respectively. As an operational quantity in radiation protection, H*(d) shall serve as a conservative and directly measurable estimate of protection quantities, e.g. effective dose E, which in turn are intended to give an indication of the risk associated with radiation exposure. The situation attains increased complexity in radiation environments being composed of a variety of charged and uncharged particles in a broad energetic spectrum. Radiation fields of similarly complex nature are, for example, encountered onboard aircraft and in space. Dose equivalent was assessed as a function of depth in quasi tissue-equivalent spheres by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluated according to the high-temperature ratio (HTR) method. The presented experiments were performed both onboard aircraft and the Russian space station Mir. As a result of interaction processes within the phantom body, the incident primary spectrum may be significantly modified with increasing depth. For the radiation field at aviation altitudes we found the maximum of dose equivalent in a depth of 60 mm which conflicts with the 10 mm value recommended by ICRU. Contrary, for the space radiation environment the maximum dose equivalent was found at the surface of the sphere. This suggests that

  14. Applicability of Ambient Dose Equivalent H (d) in Mixed Radiation Fields - A Critical Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vana, R.; Hajek, M.; Bergerm, T.

    2004-01-01

    For purposes of routine radiation protection, it is desirable to characterize the potential irradiation of individuals in terms of a single dose equivalent quantity that would exist in a phantom approximating the human body. The phantom of choice is the ICRU sphere made of 30 cm diameter tissue-equivalent plastic with a density of 1 g/cm3 and a mass composition of 76.2% O, 11.1% C, 10.1% H and 2.6% N. Ambient dose equivalent, H(d), was defined in ICRU report 51 as the dose equivalent that would be produced by an expanded and aligned radiation field at a depth d in the ICRU sphere. The recommended reference depths are 10 mm for strongly penetrating radiation and 0.07 mm for weakly penetrating radiation, respectively. As an operational quantity in radiation protection, H(d) shall serve as a conservative and directly measurable estimate of protection quantities, e.g. effective dose E, which in turn are intended to give an indication of the risk associated with radiation exposure. The situation attains increased complexity in radiation environments being composed of a variety of charged and uncharged particles in a broad energetic spectrum. Radiation fields of similarly complex nature are, for example, encountered onboard aircraft and in space. Dose equivalent was assessed as a function of depth in quasi tissue-equivalent spheres by means of thermoluminescent dosemeters evaluated according to the high-temperature ratio (HTR) method. The presented experiments were performed both onboard aircraft and the Russian space station Mir. As a result of interaction processes within the phantom body, the incident primary spectrum may be significantly modified with increasing depth. For the radiation field at aviation altitudes we found the maximum of dose equivalent in a depth of 60 mm which conflicts with the 10 mm value recommended by ICRU. Contrary, for the space radiation environment the maximum dose equivalent was found at the surface of the sphere. This suggests that skin

  15. The equivalent thermal conductivity of lattice core sandwich structure: A predictive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiangmeng; Wei, Kai; He, Rujie; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A predictive model of the equivalent thermal conductivity was established. • Both the heat conduction and radiation were considered. • The predictive results were in good agreement with experiment and FEM. • Some methods for improving the thermal protection performance were proposed. - Abstract: The equivalent thermal conductivity of lattice core sandwich structure was predicted using a novel model. The predictive results were in good agreement with experimental and Finite Element Method results. The thermal conductivity of the lattice core sandwich structure was attributed to both core conduction and radiation. The core conduction caused thermal conductivity only relied on the relative density of the structure. And the radiation caused thermal conductivity increased linearly with the thickness of the core. It was found that the equivalent thermal conductivity of the lattice core sandwich structure showed a highly dependent relationship on temperature. At low temperatures, the structure exhibited a nearly thermal insulated behavior. With the temperature increasing, the thermal conductivity of the structure increased owing to radiation. Therefore, some attempts, such as reducing the emissivity of the core or designing multilayered structure, are believe to be of benefit for improving the thermal protection performance of the structure at high temperatures.

  16. General Dynamic Equivalent Modeling of Microgrid Based on Physical Background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changchun Cai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Microgrid is a new power system concept consisting of small-scale distributed energy resources; storage devices and loads. It is necessary to employ a simplified model of microgrid in the simulation of a distribution network integrating large-scale microgrids. Based on the detailed model of the components, an equivalent model of microgrid is proposed in this paper. The equivalent model comprises two parts: namely, equivalent machine component and equivalent static component. Equivalent machine component describes the dynamics of synchronous generator, asynchronous wind turbine and induction motor, equivalent static component describes the dynamics of photovoltaic, storage and static load. The trajectory sensitivities of the equivalent model parameters with respect to the output variables are analyzed. The key parameters that play important roles in the dynamics of the output variables of the equivalent model are identified and included in further parameter estimation. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO is improved for the parameter estimation of the equivalent model. Simulations are performed in different microgrid operation conditions to evaluate the effectiveness of the equivalent model of microgrid.

  17. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected cool water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL3_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL3_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of up to 76...

  18. Five-minute grid of the total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected neutral water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL2_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL2_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of up to 76...

  19. An Equivalent cross-section Framework for improving computational efficiency in Distributed Hydrologic Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Urooj; Tuteja, Narendra; Ajami, Hoori; Sharma, Ashish

    2014-05-01

    While the potential uses and benefits of distributed catchment simulation models is undeniable, their practical usage is often hindered by the computational resources they demand. To reduce the computational time/effort in distributed hydrological modelling, a new approach of modelling over an equivalent cross-section is investigated where topographical and physiographic properties of first-order sub-basins are aggregated to constitute modelling elements. To formulate an equivalent cross-section, a homogenization test is conducted to assess the loss in accuracy when averaging topographic and physiographic variables, i.e. length, slope, soil depth and soil type. The homogenization test indicates that the accuracy lost in weighting the soil type is greatest, therefore it needs to be weighted in a systematic manner to formulate equivalent cross-sections. If the soil type remains the same within the sub-basin, a single equivalent cross-section is formulated for the entire sub-basin. If the soil type follows a specific pattern, i.e. different soil types near the centre of the river, middle of hillslope and ridge line, three equivalent cross-sections (left bank, right bank and head water) are required. If the soil types are complex and do not follow any specific pattern, multiple equivalent cross-sections are required based on the number of soil types. The equivalent cross-sections are formulated for a series of first order sub-basins by implementing different weighting methods of topographic and physiographic variables of landforms within the entire or part of a hillslope. The formulated equivalent cross-sections are then simulated using a 2-dimensional, Richards' equation based distributed hydrological model. The simulated fluxes are multiplied by the weighted area of each equivalent cross-section to calculate the total fluxes from the sub-basins. The simulated fluxes include horizontal flow, transpiration, soil evaporation, deep drainage and soil moisture. To assess

  20. The study on pre-heat conditions in the equivalent-dose estimation of holocene loess using the single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Yaofeng; Huang Chunchang; Pang Jiangli; Lu Xinwei; Zhang Xu

    2008-01-01

    The thermal treatment in the equivalent-dose estimation often is carried in the OSL dating, and pre-heat is a main thermal treatment. Due to which will originate the problems of thermal transfer and thermal activation, the thermal treatment and the setup of their conditions are key problems influencing the accuracy of OSL dating. The paper combined the temperature of pre-heat and cut-heat used in the routine measurement of IRSL and Post-IR OSL, and then estimated the equivalent-dose of several loess samples. The estimated result presents that the equivalent-dose depends on the heat temperature, especially depends on the cut-heat temperature, which is to say that the equivalent-dose increases with the cut-heat temperature; a plateau of equivalent-dose appears when using the 200-240 degree C cut-heat in the range of 200-300 degree C pre-heat, and the equivalent-doses estimated by IRSL and Post-IR OSL respectively are close to each other, which resulted from the similar sensitivity change direction of optical stimulated signals and its smaller change range in the measurement cycles using the combined temperature of pre- heat and cut-heat, and the incomplete calibration of sensitivity change of optical stimulated signals in the whole measurement cycles caused the variation of estimated equivalent-dose corresponding to the cut-heat temperature. (authors)

  1. Dose sculpting with generalized equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qiuwen; Djajaputra, David; Liu, Helen H.; Dong Lei; Mohan, Radhe; Wu, Yan

    2005-01-01

    With intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), a variety of user-defined dose distribution can be produced using inverse planning. The generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) has been used in IMRT optimization as an alternative objective function to the conventional dose-volume-based criteria. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of gEUD optimization to fine tune the dose distributions of IMRT plans. We analyzed the effect of gEUD-based optimization parameters on plan quality. The objective was to determine whether dose distribution to selected structures could be improved using gEUD optimization without adversely altering the doses delivered to other structures, as in sculpting. We hypothesized that by carefully defining gEUD parameters (EUD 0 and n) based on the current dose distributions, the optimization system could be instructed to search for alternative solutions in the neighborhood, and we could maintain the dose distributions for structures already satisfactory and improve dose for structures that need enhancement. We started with an already acceptable IMRT plan optimized with any objective function. The dose distribution was analyzed first. For structures that dose should not be changed, a higher value of n was used and EUD 0 was set slightly higher/lower than the EUD value at the current dose distribution for critical structures/targets. For structures that needed improvement in dose, a higher to medium value of n was used, and EUD 0 was set to the EUD value or slightly lower/higher for the critical structure/target at the current dose distribution. We evaluated this method in one clinical case each of head and neck, lung and prostate cancer. Dose volume histograms, isodose distributions, and relevant tolerance doses for critical structures were used for the assessment. We found that by adjusting gEUD optimization parameters, the dose distribution could be improved with only a few iterations. A larger value of n could lead to

  2. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  3. The radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy: Are ''photon-equivalent'' doses really photon-equivalent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coderre, J.A.; Diaz, A.Z.; Ma, R.

    2001-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) produces a mixture of radiation dose components. The high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles are more damaging in tissue than equal doses of low-LET radiation. Each of the high-LET components can multiplied by an experimentally determined factor to adjust for the increased biological effectiveness and the resulting sum expressed in photon-equivalent units (Gy-Eq). BNCT doses in photon-equivalent units are based on a number of assumptions. It may be possible to test the validity of these assumptions and the accuracy of the calculated BNCT doses by 1) comparing the effects of BNCT in other animal or biological models where the effects of photon radiation are known, or 2) if there are endpoints reached in the BNCT dose escalation clinical trials that can be related to the known response to photons of the tissue in question. The calculated Gy-Eq BNCT doses delivered to dogs and to humans with BPA and the epithermal neutron beam of the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor were compared to expected responses to photon irradiation. The data indicate that Gy-Eq doses in brain may be underestimated. Doses to skin are consistent with the expected response to photons. Gy-Eq doses to tumor are significantly overestimated. A model system of cells in culture irradiated at various depths in a lucite phantom using the epithermal beam is under development. Preliminary data indicate that this approach can be used to detect differences in the relative biological effectiveness of the beam. The rat 9L gliosarcoma cell survival data was converted to photon-equivalent doses using the same factors assumed in the clinical studies. The results superimposed on the survival curve derived from irradiation with Cs-137 photons indicating the potential utility of this model system. (author)

  4. Dynamic equivalence relation on the fuzzy measure algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ghasemkhani

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the present paper is to extend classical results from the measure theory and dynamical systems to the fuzzy subset setting. In this paper, the notion of  dynamic equivalence relation is introduced and then it is proved that this relation is an equivalence relation. Also, a new metric on the collection of all equivalence classes is introduced and it is proved that this metric is complete.

  5. Electro-optical equivalent calibration technology for high-energy laser energy meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ji Feng, E-mail: wjfcom2000@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Graduate School of China Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Chang, Yan; Zhang, Kai; Hu, Xiao Yang; Zhang, Wei [Institute of Applied Electronics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Key Laboratory of Laser Science and Technology, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, Li Qun [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instrument, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Electro-optical equivalent calibration with high calibration power and high equivalence is particularly well-suited to the calibration of high-energy laser energy meters. A large amount of energy is reserved during this process, however, which continues to radiate after power-off. This study measured the radiation efficiency of a halogen tungsten lamp during power-on and after power-off in order to calculate the total energy irradiated by a lamp until the high-energy laser energy meter reaches thermal equilibrium. A calibration system was designed based on the measurement results, and the calibration equivalence of the system was analyzed in detail. Results show that measurement precision is significantly affected by the absorption factor of the absorption chamber and by heat loss in the energy meter. Calibration precision is successfully improved by enhancing the equivalent power and reducing power-on time. The electro-optical equivalent calibration system, measurement uncertainty of which was evaluated as 2.4% (k = 2), was used to calibrate a graphite-cone-absorption-cavity absolute energy meter, yielding a calibration coefficient of 1.009 and measurement uncertainty of 3.5% (k = 2). A water-absorption-type high-energy laser energy meter with measurement uncertainty of 4.8% (k = 2) was considered the reference standard, and compared to the energy meter calibrated in this study, yielded a correction factor of 0.995 (standard deviation of 1.4%).

  6. Numerical fluid solutions for nonlocal electron transport in hot plasmas: Equivalent diffusion versus nonlocal source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombant, Denis; Manheimer, Wallace

    2010-01-01

    Flux limitation and preheat are important processes in electron transport occurring in laser produced plasmas. The proper calculation of both of these has been a subject receiving much attention over the entire lifetime of the laser fusion project. Where nonlocal transport (instead of simple single flux limit) has been modeled, it has always been with what we denote the equivalent diffusion solution, namely treating the transport as only a diffusion process. We introduce here a new approach called the nonlocal source solution and show it is numerically viable for laser produced plasmas. It turns out that the equivalent diffusion solution generally underestimates preheat. Furthermore, the advance of the temperature front, and especially the preheat, can be held up by artificial 'thermal barriers'. The nonlocal source method of solution, on the other hand more accurately describes preheat and can stably calculate the solution for the temperature even if the heat flux is up the gradient.

  7. Equivalence principle violations and couplings of a light dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Donoghue, John F.

    2010-01-01

    We consider possible violations of the equivalence principle through the exchange of a light 'dilaton-like' scalar field. Using recent work on the quark-mass dependence of nuclear binding, we find that the dilaton-quark-mass coupling induces significant equivalence-principle-violating effects varying like the inverse cubic root of the atomic number - A -1/3 . We provide a general parametrization of the scalar couplings, but argue that two parameters are likely to dominate the equivalence-principle phenomenology. We indicate the implications of this framework for comparing the sensitivities of current and planned experimental tests of the equivalence principle.

  8. Semantic equivalences in Romanian medical terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Lungu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to underline some aspects concerning the presence of synonymy semantic relationship in specialized medical terminology, having as object of study Romanian medical terms. For this study we use a descriptive, conceptual and lexical semantic research method to provide the understanding of different couples, groups or synonymic series where medical terms have several variations: specialized/common terms, syntagms and patronyms of French or different origin. We propose a classification scheme of synonyms of medical lexicon, terms or synonymic syntagms, total and partial, in order to meet the accessibility needs in scientific communication.

  9. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  10. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  11. Technique of total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    It is essential to define the various surgical procedures that are carried out for carcinoma of the thyroid gland. They are thyroid gland, subtotal lobectomy, total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy

  12. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  13. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  14. Equivalent Energy Density concept: A preliminary reexamination of a technique for equating thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.

    1992-08-01

    Historical and projected inventories of spent fuel from commercial light-water nuclear reactors exhibit diverse decay characteristics and ages. This report summarizes a preliminary reexamination of a method for determining equivalent thermal loads for the range of spent fuel expected at a potential underground repository. The method, known at the Equivalent Energy Density (EED) concept, bases its equivalence criteria on the assumption that a given waste will produce worst-case thermomechanical effects equal to worst-case thermomechanical effects produced by a baseline waste, provided that the thermal energy deposited in the host rock over a specified deposition period is the same for both waste descriptions. To test this assumption, temperature histories at representative locations within the host rock were calculated using layouts defined by the EED concept and four deposition periods (20, 50, 100, and 300 years). It was found that the peak temperatures at near-field locations were best matched by the shorter deposition periods of 20 and 50 years. However, due to the sensitivity of the near-field environment to short-term canister-to-canister interactions, caution,should be used when choosing a near-field deposition period. At the location chosen to represent the far-field, a 300-year deposition period provided reasonable correspondence of peak temperature responses for all waste descriptions examined

  15. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R.; Geske, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides 90 Sr/ 90 Y, 137 Cs, 147 Pm and 204 Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author)

  16. Equivalence of quantum states under local unitary transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei Shaoming; Jing Naihuan

    2005-01-01

    In terms of the analysis of fixed point subgroup and tensor decomposability of certain matrices, we study the equivalence of quantum bipartite mixed states under local unitary transformations. For non-degenerate case an operational criterion for the equivalence of two such mixed bipartite states under local unitary transformations is presented

  17. 40 CFR 133.105 - Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment. 133.105 Section 133.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.105 Treatment equivalent to secondary treatment...

  18. Microcystin-LR equivalent concentrations in fish tissue during a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of a decomposing cyanobacteria bloom on water quality and the accumulation of microcystin-LR equivalent toxin in fish at Loskop Dam were studied in May 2012. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] was used to confirm the presence of microcystin-LR equivalent in the water and to determine the ...

  19. Decompositional equivalence: A fundamental symmetry underlying quantum theory

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Decompositional equivalence is the principle that there is no preferred decomposition of the universe into subsystems. It is shown here, by using simple thought experiments, that quantum theory follows from decompositional equivalence together with Landauer's principle. This demonstration raises within physics a question previously left to psychology: how do human - or any - observers agree about what constitutes a "system of interest"?

  20. Preparation of A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saion, E.B.; Shaari, A.H.; Watt, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic is widely used as a wall material for tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCS) used in experimental microdosimetry. The objective of this note is to give a technical account of how A-150 TE plastic film can be fabricated in the laboratory from commercially available A-150 TE plastic. (author)

  1. Equivalence of several Chern-Simons matter models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.; Itoi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Chern-Simons (CS) coupling characterizes not only statistics, but also spin and scaling dimension of matter fields. We demonstrate spin transmutation in relativistic CS matter theory, and moreover show equivalence of several models. We study the CS vector model in some detail, which provides a consistent check to the assertion of the equivalence

  2. 29 CFR 4.170 - Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. 4.170 Section 4... Standards Compliance with Compensation Standards § 4.170 Furnishing fringe benefits or equivalents. (a) General. Fringe benefits required under the Act shall be furnished, separate from and in addition to the...

  3. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalized...

  4. Theory of Covariance Equivalent ARMAV Models of Civil Engineering Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    In this paper the theoretical background for using covariance equivalent ARMAV models in modal analysis is discussed. It is shown how to obtain a covariance equivalent ARMA model for a univariate linear second order continuous-time system excited by Gaussian white noise. This result is generalize...

  5. Graphene-based THz modulator analyzed by equivalent circuit model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Chen, Jing; Xie, Zhiyi

    2016-01-01

    A terahertz (THz) modulator based on graphene is proposed and analysed by use of equivalent transmission line of a homogeneous mediumand the local anisotropic model of the graphene conductivity. The result calculated by the equivalent circuit is consistent with that obtained byFresnel transfer...

  6. The lexicographical handling of grammatical equivalence: the case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lexicographers compiling translating dictionaries are not exclusively concerned with semantic equivalence when selecting translating equivalents for lemmata, but often include also grammatical information in illustrative examples when the lexical item to be translated does not have an exact grammatical counterpart in the ...

  7. 30 CFR 90.206 - Approved sampling devices; equivalent concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved sampling devices; equivalent... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.206 Approved sampling devices; equivalent...

  8. Teaching Brain-Behavior Relations Economically with Stimulus Equivalence Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fienup, Daniel M.; Covey, Daniel P.; Critchfield, Thomas S.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional interventions based on stimulus equivalence provide learners with the opportunity to acquire skills that are not directly taught, thereby improving the efficiency of instructional efforts. The present report describes a study in which equivalence-based instruction was used to teach college students facts regarding brain anatomy and…

  9. Foundations of gravitation theory: the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    A new framework is presented within which to discuss the principle of equivalence and its experimental tests. The framework incorporates a special structure imposed on the equivalence principle by the principle of energy conservation. This structure includes relations among the conceptual components of the equivalence principle as well as quantitative relations among the outcomes of its experimental tests. One of the most striking new results obtained through use of this framework is a connection between the breakdown of local Lorentz invariance and the breakdown of the principle that all bodies fall with the same acceleration in a gravitational field. An extensive discussion of experimental tests of the equivalence principle and their significance is also presented. Within the above framework, theory-independent analyses of a broad range of equivalence principle tests are possible. Gravitational redshift experiments. Doppler-shift experiments, the Turner-Hill and Hughes-Drever experiments, and a number of solar-system tests of gravitation theories are analyzed. Application of the techniques of theoretical nuclear physics to the quantitative interpretation of equivalence principle tests using laboratory materials of different composition yields a number of important results. It is found that current Eotvos experiments significantly demonstrate the compatibility of the weak interactions with the equivalence principle. It is also shown that the Hughes-Drever experiment is the most precise test of local Lorentz invariance yet performed. The work leads to a strong, tightly knit empirical basis for the principle of equivalence, the central pillar of the foundations of gravitation theory

  10. Calculation simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for dispersion nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Wei; Zhao Yunmei; Gong Xin; Ding Shurong; Huo Yongzhong

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion nuclear fuel was regarded as a kind of special particle composites. Assuming that the fuel particles are periodically distributed in the dispersion nuclear fuel meat, the finite element model to calculate its equivalent irradiation swelling was developed with the method of computational micro-mechanics. Considering irradiation swelling in the fuel particles and the irradiation hardening effect in the metal matrix, the stress update algorithms were established respectively for the fuel particles and metal matrix. The corresponding user subroutines were programmed, and the finite element simulation of equivalent irradiation swelling for the fuel meat was performed in Abaqus. The effects of the particle size and volume fraction on the equivalent irradiation swelling were investigated, and the fitting formula of equivalent irradiation swelling was obtained. The results indicate that the main factors to influence equivalent irradiation swelling of the fuel meat are the irradiation swelling and volume fraction of fuel particles. (authors)

  11. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, James; Matsekh, Anna M.

    2010-04-01

    A family of subtraction-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQbased anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and special cases of it are equivalent to canonical correlation analysis and optimized covariance equalization. What whitened TLSQ offers is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  12. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  13. Metoprolol Dose Equivalence in Adult Men and Women Based on Gender Differences: Pharmacokinetic Modeling and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy R. Eugene

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent meta-analyses and publications over the past 15 years have provided evidence showing there are considerable gender differences in the pharmacokinetics of metoprolol. Throughout this time, there have not been any research articles proposing a gender stratified dose-adjustment resulting in an equivalent total drug exposure. Metoprolol pharmacokinetic data was obtained from a previous publication. Data was modeled using nonlinear mixed effect modeling using the MONOLIX software package to quantify metoprolol concentration–time data. Gender-stratified dosing simulations were conducted to identify equivalent total drug exposure based on a 100 mg dose in adults. Based on the pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations, a 50 mg dose in adult women provides an approximately similar metoprolol drug exposure to a 100 mg dose in adult men.

  14. The performance of low pressure tissue-equivalent chambers and a new method for parameterising the dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisen, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of Rossi-type spherical tissue-equivalent chambers with equivalent diameters between 0.5 μm and 2 μm was tested experimentally using monoenergetic and polyenergetic neutron sources in the energy region of 10 keV to 14.5 MeV. In agreement with theoretical predictions both chambers failed to provide LET information at low neutron energies. A dose equivalent algorithm was derived that utilises the event distribution but does not attempt to correlate event size with LET. The algorithm was predicted theoretically and confirmed by experiment. The algorithm that was developed determines the neutron dose equivalent, from the data of the 0.5 μm chamber, to better than +-20% over the energy range of 30 keV to 14.5 MeV. The same algorithm also determines the dose equivalent from the data of the 2 μm chamber to better than +-20% over the energy range of 60 keV to 14.5 MeV. The efficiency of the chambers is 33 counts per μSv, or equivalently about 10 counts s -1 per mSv.h -1 . This efficiency enables the measurement of dose equivalent rates above 1 mSv.h -1 for an integration period of 3 s. Integrated dose equivalents can be measured as low as 1 μSv. (author)

  15. Potential Effect of Physical Activity Calorie Equivalent (PACE) Labeling on Adult Fast Food Ordering and Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Antonelli, Ray; Viera, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numeric calorie content labels show limited efficacy in reducing the number of calories ordered from fast food meals. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) labels are an alternative that may reduce the number of calories ordered in fast food meals while encouraging patrons to exercise. Methods A total of 1000 adults from 47 US states were randomly assigned via internet survey to one of four generic fast food menus: no label, calories only, calories + minutes, or calories + ...

  16. Calculation of Equivalent Resistance for Ground Wires Twined with Armor Rods in Contact Terminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground wire breakage accidents can destroy the stable operation of overhead lines. The excessive temperature increase arising from the contact resistance between the ground wire and armor rod in the contact terminal is one of the main reasons causing the breakage of ground wires. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the equivalent resistance for ground wires twined with armor rods in contact terminals. According to the actual distribution characteristics of the contact points in the contact terminal, a three-dimensional electromagnetic field simulation model of the contact terminal was established. Based on the model, the current distribution in the contact terminal was obtained. Subsequently, the equivalent resistance of a ground wire twined with the armor rod in the contact terminal was calculated. The effects of the factors influencing the equivalent resistance were also discussed. The corresponding verification experiments were conducted on a real ground wire on a contact terminal. The measurement results of the equivalent resistance for the armor rod segment showed good agreement with the electromagnetic modeling results.

  17. Total Quality Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    More than 750 NASA, government, contractor, and academic representatives attended the Seventh Annual NASA/Contractors Conference on Quality and Productivity. The panel presentations and Keynote speeches revolving around the theme of total quality leadership provided a solid base of understanding of the importance, benefits, and principles of total quality management (TQM). The presentations from the conference are summarized.

  18. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...

  19. Determination of equivalent copper thickness of patient equivalent phantoms in terms of attenuation, used in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.Th.M.; Suliman, I.I.; Zoetelief, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the radiation protection research programme of the European Union, as part of the DIMOND concerted action, constancy check protocols for fluoroscopic systems have been developed. For practical reasons copper filters are preferred to patients and tissue equivalent, water or PMMA, phantoms. The objectives are to derive patient entrance surface dose rates and the dose rate at the image intensifier input. The protocol states that copper sheets of either 1 mm or 1.5 mm thick may be used. The present study investigates the equivalent thickness of copper filters compared to PMMA phantoms in terms of attenuation for both geometries and different tube voltage and filter combinations. The geometry to determine the patient entrance surface dose is with the copper filter close to the image intensifier. The ionisation chamber is placed on the side of the copper sheet nearest to the X-ray tube. The inverse square law is used to correct for differences in position. Measurements are performed with different settings and with and without the use of an anti-scatter grid. The geometry to determine the air kerma rate at the image intensifier is with the copper filter attached to the X-ray tube diaphragm. The ionisation chamber is placed on the surface of the image intensifier housing. Again measurements are performed with different settings and with and without anti-scatter grid. If necessary, the inverse square law correction is applied. Two different radiation beam sizes are used, i.e., a small beam with a diameter of 0.10 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus and a large beam with a diameter of 0.23 m at a distance of 1.00 m from the focus. The applied tube voltages and PMMA phantom thickness combinations are 60 kV, 13 cm; 80 kV, 14 cm; 100 kV, 16 cm; 120 kV, 17 cm; 150 kV, 18 cm; 150 kV, 20 cm and 150 kV, 30 cm. The spectra for the different tube voltages are generated with the IPEM Report 78 software at an anode angle of 16 degree, 0% ripple and 2.5 mm added

  20. Modelling of dynamic equivalents in electric power grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craciun, Diana Iuliana

    2010-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis proposes a description of the context and new constraints of electric grids: architecture, decentralized production with the impact of distributed energy resource systems, dynamic simulation, and interest of equivalent models. Then, the author discusses the modelling of the different components of electric grids: synchronous and asynchronous machines, distributed energy resource with power electronic interface, loading models. She addresses the techniques of reduction of electric grid models: conventional reduction methods, dynamic equivalence methods using non linear approaches or evolutionary algorithm-based methods of assessment of parameters. This last approach is then developed and implemented, and a new method of computation of dynamic equivalents is described

  1. Asymptotically double lacunry equivalent sequences defined by Orlicz functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Esi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the following definition which is natural combition of the definition for asymptotically equivalent and Orlicz function. The two nonnegative double sequences x=(x_{k,l} and y=(y_{k,l} are said to be M-asymptotically double equivalent to multiple L provided that for every ε>0, P-lim_{k,l}M(((|((x_{k,l}/(y_{k,l}-L|/ρ=0, for some ρ>0, (denoted by x∽y and simply M-asymptotically double equivalent if L=1. Also we give some new concepts related to this definition and some inclusion theorems.

  2. Calculation of committed dose equivalent from intake of tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, D.V.

    1978-08-01

    A new computerized method of calculating the committed dose equivalent from the intake of tritiated water at Harwell is described in this report. The computer program has been designed to deal with a variety of intake patterns and urine sampling schemes, as well as to produce committed dose equivalents corresponding to any periods for which individual monitoring for external radiation is undertaken. Details of retrospective doses are added semi-automatically to the Radiation Dose Records and committed dose equivalents are retained on a separate file. (author)

  3. The Application of Equivalence Theory to Advertising Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张颖

    2017-01-01

    Through analyzing equivalence theory, the author tries to find a solution to the problems arising in the process of ad?vertising translation. These problems include cultural diversity, language diversity and special requirement of advertisement. The author declares that Nida''s functional equivalence is one of the most appropriate theories to deal with these problems. In this pa?per, the author introduces the principles of advertising translation and culture divergences in advertising translation, and then gives some advertising translation practices to explain and analyze how to create good advertising translation by using functional equivalence. At last, the author introduces some strategies in advertising translation.

  4. Spaces of homotopy self-equivalences a survey

    CERN Document Server

    Rutter, John W

    1997-01-01

    This survey covers groups of homotopy self-equivalence classes of topological spaces, and the homotopy type of spaces of homotopy self-equivalences. For manifolds, the full group of equivalences and the mapping class group are compared, as are the corresponding spaces. Included are methods of calculation, numerous calculations, finite generation results, Whitehead torsion and other areas. Some 330 references are given. The book assumes familiarity with cell complexes, homology and homotopy. Graduate students and established researchers can use it for learning, for reference, and to determine the current state of knowledge.

  5. Apparent violation of the principle of equivalence and Killing horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.L.; Farhoosh, H.; Oregon Univ., Eugene

    1980-01-01

    By means of the principle of equivalence it is deduced that the qualitative behavior of the Schwarzschild horizon about a uniformly accelerating particle. This result is confirmed for an exact solution of a uniformly accelerating object in the limit of small accelerations. For large accelerations the Schwarzschild horizon appears to violate the qualitative behavior established via the principle of equivalence. When similar arguments are extended to an observable such as the red shift between two observers, there is no departure from the results expected from the principle of equivalence. The resolution of the paradox is brought about by a compensating effect due to the Rindler horizon. (author)

  6. Measurements of thorium-B (212Pb) in the outdoor environment and evaluation of equivalent dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.; El-Hussein, A.; Ali, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    The activity size distribution of unattached as well as attached 212 Pb to aerosol particles was measured in the open air of El-Minia City, Egypt. The samples were collected using a wire screen diffusion battery technique and a low pressure cascade impactor. The mean activity median thermodynamic diameter (AMTD) of unattached 212 Pb was determined to be 1.4 nm with a relative mean geometric standard deviation (σ g ) of 1.55. A mean unattached fraction (f p ) of 0.03±0.007 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 32x10 3 cm -3 . Sometimes the f p values were less than the detection limit of 0.008. The mean concentration of activity of 212 Pb was found to be 9.6±1.1 mBq m -3 . The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) of the accumulation mode of attached 212 Pb was determined to be 360 nm with a mean (σ g ) of 2.7. The mean value of specific air activity concentration of 212 Pb associated with that mode was determined to be 303±12 mBq m -3 . With a dosimetric model calculation (International Commission on Radiological Protection. Human respiratory tract model for radiological protection. Oxford: Pergamon Press, ICRP Publication 66, 1994) the total deposition fractions as well as total equivalent and effective dose have been evaluated considering the obtained parameters of the activity size distributions. At a total deposition fraction of about 97% for unattached activities the total equivalent and effective doses to the lung were determined to be about 0.18 and 0.02 μSv, respectively, while total equivalent and effective doses of about 0.45 and 0.05 μ Sv, respectively, were determined at a total deposition fraction of about 23% for the attached activities

  7. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  8. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  9. Low dimensional equivalence of core neutronics model and its application to transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Hongbing; Zhao Fuyu

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics reactor analysis is time consuming and occupies huge memory. A one-dimensional model is preferable than the three one in nuclear system analysis, control system design and load following. In this paper, a corewide three dimensional to one dimensional equivalent method has been developed. On the basis of this method 1D axial few groups constants were obtained. The equivalent cross sections were calculated by general spatial homogenization while the transverse buckling was computed through an equivalence based on the 3D flux conservation. Three steady test cases were performed on one dimensional finite difference code ODTAC and the results were compared with TRIVAC-5. The comparison shows that the one dimensional axial power distribution computed by ODTAC correlates well with the three dimensional results calculated by TRIVAC-5. In this study, DRAGON-4 was used to generate the few-group constants of fuel assemblies and the reflector few-group parameters were calculated by WIMS-D4. These collapsed few-group constants were tabulated in a database sorted in ascending order of fuel temperature, coolant temperature and concentration of boric acid. Trilinear interpolation was adopted in cross sections feedback during the transient analysis. In this paper, G1 rod drop accident (RDA) and G1 rod ejection accident (REA) were performed on ODTAC and the computation results were consistent of the physical rules. (author)

  10. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-06-01

    The present discussion is limited to a presentation of the most recent total photonuclear absorption experiments performed with real photons at intermediate energy, and more precisely in the region of nucleon resonances. The main sources of real photons are briefly reviewed and the experimental procedures used for total photonuclear absorption cross section measurements. The main results obtained below 140 MeV photon energy as well as above 2 GeV are recalled. The experimental study of total photonuclear absorption in the nuclear resonance region (140 MeV< E<2 GeV) is still at its beginning and some results are presented

  11. [Total artificial heart].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antretter, H; Dumfarth, J; Höfer, D

    2015-09-01

    To date the CardioWest™ total artificial heart is the only clinically available implantable biventricular mechanical replacement for irreversible cardiac failure. This article presents the indications, contraindications, implantation procedere and postoperative treatment. In addition to a overview of the applications of the total artificial heart this article gives a brief presentation of the two patients treated in our department with the CardioWest™. The clinical course, postoperative rehabilitation, device-related complications and control mechanisms are presented. The total artificial heart is a reliable implant for treating critically ill patients with irreversible cardiogenic shock. A bridge to transplantation is feasible with excellent results.

  12. Thermal radiation analysis for small satellites with single-node model using techniques of equivalent linearization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anh, N.D.; Hieu, N.N.; Chung, P.N.; Anh, N.T.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Linearization criteria are presented for a single-node model of satellite thermal. • A nonlinear algebraic system for linearization coefficients is obtained. • The temperature evolutions obtained from different methods are explored. • The temperature mean and amplitudes versus the heat capacity are discussed. • The dual criterion approach yields smaller errors than other approximate methods. - Abstract: In this paper, the method of equivalent linearization is extended to the thermal analysis of satellite using both conventional and dual criteria of linearization. These criteria are applied to a differential nonlinear equation of single-node model of the heat transfer of a small satellite in the Low Earth Orbit. A system of nonlinear algebraic equations for linearization coefficients is obtained in the closed form and then solved by the iteration method. The temperature evolution, average values and amplitudes versus the heat capacity obtained by various approaches including Runge–Kutta algorithm, conventional and dual criteria of equivalent linearization, and Grande's approach are compared together. Numerical results reveal that temperature responses obtained from the method of linearization and Grande's approach are quite close to those obtained from the Runge–Kutta method. The dual criterion yields smaller errors than those of the remaining methods when the nonlinearity of the system increases, namely, when the heat capacity varies in the range [1.0, 3.0] × 10 4  J K −1 .

  13. Total 2004 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  14. Total synthesis of ciguatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Akinari; Isobe, Minoru

    2009-01-01

    Something fishy: Ciguatoxin (see structure) is one of the principal toxins involved in ciguatera poisoning and the target of a total synthesis involving the coupling of three segments. The key transformations in this synthesis feature acetylene-dicobalthexacarbonyl complexation.

  15. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  16. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty....

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat......The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty...... rehabilitation. Since hospital stay duration has decreased considerably, the need for post-discharge physiotherapy may also have changed. Thus, the indication for and types of rehabilitation programmes need to be studied within the context of fast-track knee arthroplasty. Udgivelsesdato: 2009-Feb-23...

  18. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    There has been a decline in the rate of hysterectomies in Denmark in general over the last thirteen years, together with a rise in the number of supravaginal operations over the last two years. The literature concerning the relative merits of the supravaginal and the total abdominal operation is ...... indicate a reduced frequency of orgasm after the total hysterectomy compared with the supravaginal operation. When there are technical problems peroperatively with an increased urologic risk the supravaginal operation is recommended....

  19. Deciding Type Equivalence in a Language with Singleton Kinds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stone, Christopher

    1999-01-01

    ...: S(A) is the kind of all types provably equivalent to the type A. Singletons are interesting because they provide a very general form of definitions for type variables and allow fine-grained control of type computations...

  20. Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Huo-Jun; Wang, Yang; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets is an important area in the study of fractal geometry. It is known that two dust-like self-similar sets with the same contraction ratios are always Lipschitz equivalent. However, when self-similar sets have touching structures the problem of Lipschitz equivalence becomes much more challenging and intriguing at the same time. So far, all the known results only cover self-similar sets in R with no more than three branches. In this study we establish results for the Lipschitz equivalence of self-similar sets with touching structures in R with arbitrarily many branches. Key to our study is the introduction of a geometric condition for self-similar sets called substitutable. (paper)

  1. Approved Drug Products with Therapuetic Equivalence Evaluations (Orange Book)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The publication Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations (the List, commonly known as the Orange Book) identifies drug products approved on...

  2. ESA GlobSnow Snow Water Equivalent (SWE)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The European Space Agency (ESA) Global Snow Monitoring for Climate Research (GlobSnow) snow water equivalent (SWE) v2.0 data record contains snow information derived...

  3. Bisimulation Meet PCTL Equivalences for Probabilistic Automata (Journal Version)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun; Godskesen, Jens Christian

    2013-01-01

    Probabilistic automata (PA) have been successfully applied in the formal verification of concurrent and stochastic systems. Efficient model checking algorithms have been studied, where the most often used logics for expressing properties are based on PCTL and its extension PCTL*. Various behavioral...... equivalences are proposed for PAs, as a powerful tool for abstraction and compositional minimization for PAs. Unfortunately, the behavioral equivalences are well-known to be strictly stronger than the logical equivalences induced by PCTL or PCTL*. This paper introduces novel notions of strong bisimulation...... relations, which characterizes PCTL and PCTL* exactly. We also extend weak bisimulations characterizing PCTL and PCTL* without next operator, respectively. Thus, our paper bridges the gap between logical and behavioral equivalences in this setting....

  4. Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.; Schupp, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)

  5. Noncommutative Yang-Mills from equivalence of star products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, B. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mathematik, Bonn (Germany); Schupp, P. [Sektion Physik, Universitaet Muenchen, Theresienstrasse 37, 80333 Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    It is shown that the transformation between ordinary and noncommutative Yang-Mills theory as formulated by Seiberg and Witten is due to the equivalence of certain star products on the D-brane world-volume. (orig.)

  6. Existence and equivalence of twisted products on a symplectic manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichnerowicz, A.

    1979-01-01

    The twisted products play an important role in Quantum Mechanics. A distinction is introduced between Vey *sub(γ) products and strong Vey *sub(γ) products and it is proved that each *sub(γ) product is equivalent to a Vey *sub(γ) product. If b 3 (W) = 0, the symplectic manifold (W,F) admits strong Vey *sub(Gn) products. If b 2 (W) = 0, all *sub(γ) products are equivalent as well as the Vey Lie algebras. In the general case the formal Lie algebras are characterized which are generated by a *sub(γ) product and it proved that the existance of a *sub(γ)-product is equivalent to the existance of a formal Lie algebra infinitesimally equivalent to a Vey Lie algebra at the first order. (Auth.)

  7. On conjugate points and the Leitmann equivalent problem approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagener, F.O.O.

    2009-01-01

    This article extends the Leitmann equivalence method to a class of problems featuring conjugate points. The class is characterised by the requirement that the set of indifference points of a given problem forms a finite stratification.

  8. Thévenin equivalent based static contingency assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    of the determined present state of the power system and determining a first representation of the network based on the determined Thevenin equivalents, determining a modified representation of the network, wherein the modified representation is a representation of the network having at least one contingency......, wherein at least one Thevenin equivalent of at least one voltage controlled node is modified due to the at least one contingency, the modified network representation being determined on the basis of the modified Thevenin equivalents, calculating voltage angles of the modified Thevenin equivalents......, and evaluating the voltage angles to determine whether the network having at least one contingency admit a steady state. Also a method of providing information on a real time static security assessment of a power system is disclosed....

  9. Evaluation of pharmaceutical and chemical equivalence of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    Evaluation of Pharmaceutical and Chemical Equivalence of Selected Brands of Diclofenac Sodium .... strength- friability. /disintegration time ratio. (CSFR/DT). Drug content. % w/w ... Table 3: Parameters obtained from Kitazawa analysis. Brand.

  10. Do positrons and antiprotons respect the weak equivalence principle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    We resolve the difficulties which Morrison identified with energy conservation and the gravitational red-shift when particles of antimatter, such as the positron and antiproton, do not respect the weak equivalence principle. 13 refs

  11. Characteristics of natural background external radiation and effective dose equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1989-01-01

    The two sources of natural radiation - cosmic rays and primordial radionuclides - are described. The factors affecting radiation doses received from natural radiation and the calculation of effective dose equivalent due to natural radiation are discussed. 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. The principle of equivalence and the Trojan asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, R.; Vucetich, H.

    1986-05-01

    An analysis of the Trojan asteroids motion has been carried out in order to set limits to possible violations to the principle of equivalence. Preliminary results, in agreement with general relativity, are reported. (author)

  13. Einstein's equivalence principle instead of the inertia forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herreros Mateos, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this article I intend to show that Einstein's equivalence principle substitutes advantageously the inertia forces in the study and resolution of problems in which non-inertial systems appear. (Author) 13 refs

  14. Equivalence ratio and constriction effects on RBCC thrust augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koupriyanov, M.; Etele, J.

    2011-06-01

    A theoretical analysis of a variable area rocket based combined cycle engine with and without simultaneous mixing and combustion is presented. The flowfield is solved using a steady, quasi-one-dimensional, inviscid control volume formulation with combustion effects included via a generalized equilibrium calculation. Compression augmentation is shown to be sensitive to the equivalence ratio within the primary rocket chamber, where ejector section performance is greatest at both low and high equivalence ratios but near a minimum at stoichiometric conditions. The thrust generated by the RBCC engine compared to that generated by the same rocket in isolation can be increased by as much as 12% at constriction ratios of between 45% and 50%. Thrust augmentation is also shown to vary with equivalence ratio, where for a fixed geometry the maximum thrust is generated at equivalence ratios slightly below unity.

  15. Establishment of an equivalence acceptance criterion for accelerated stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Richard K; Sidor, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the use of statistical equivalence testing for providing evidence of process comparability in an accelerated stability study is advocated over the use of a test of differences. The objective of such a study is to demonstrate comparability by showing that the stability profiles under nonrecommended storage conditions of two processes are equivalent. Because it is difficult at accelerated conditions to find a direct link to product specifications, and hence product safety and efficacy, an equivalence acceptance criterion is proposed that is based on the statistical concept of effect size. As with all statistical tests of equivalence, it is important to collect input from appropriate subject-matter experts when defining the acceptance criterion.

  16. Analysis of equivalent antenna based on FDTD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-xing Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An equivalent microstrip antenna used in radio proximity fuse is presented. The design of this antenna is based on multilayer multi-permittivity dielectric substrate which is analyzed by finite difference time domain (FDTD method. Equivalent iterative formula is modified in the condition of cylindrical coordinate system. The mixed substrate which contains two kinds of media (one of them is airtakes the place of original single substrate. The results of equivalent antenna simulation show that the resonant frequency of equivalent antenna is similar to that of the original antenna. The validity of analysis can be validated by means of antenna resonant frequency formula. Two antennas have same radiation pattern and similar gain. This method can be used to reduce the weight of antenna, which is significant to the design of missile-borne antenna.

  17. - Synonymy in the Translation Equivalent Paradigms of a Standard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    directional dictionaries". ... Examples from Groot Woordeboek / Major Dictionary, ... Examples of such divergence which may require labelling (or even more ..... Selection and Presentation of Ready Equivalents in a Translation Dictionary.

  18. On the equivalence of different definitions of R-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzyn, P.

    1989-01-01

    Three well-known definitions of R-operation in the BPHZ formalism are presented. The equivalence between the Zimmermann's forest formula and the factorized version of R-operation is proved. 11 refs. (author)

  19. Total lymphoid irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen

  20. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2017-11-22

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  1. Totally optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Moshkov, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Optimality of decision rules (patterns) can be measured in many ways. One of these is referred to as length. Length signifies the number of terms in a decision rule and is optimally minimized. Another, coverage represents the width of a rule’s applicability and generality. As such, it is desirable to maximize coverage. A totally optimal decision rule is a decision rule that has the minimum possible length and the maximum possible coverage. This paper presents a method for determining the presence of totally optimal decision rules for “complete” decision tables (representations of total functions in which different variables can have domains of differing values). Depending on the cardinalities of the domains, we can either guarantee for each tuple of values of the function that totally optimal rules exist for each row of the table (as in the case of total Boolean functions where the cardinalities are equal to 2) or, for each row, we can find a tuple of values of the function for which totally optimal rules do not exist for this row.

  2. Development of solid water-equivalent radioactive certified reference materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finke, E.; Greupner, H.; Groche, K.; Rittwag, R. (Office for Standardization, Metrology and Quality Control (ASMW), Berlin (Germany, F.R.)); Geske, G. (Jena Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the development of solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials. These certified reference materials were prepared for the beta fission nuclides {sup 90}Sr/{sup 90}Y, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 147}Pm and {sup 204}Tl. Comparative measurements of liquid and solid water-equivalent beta volume radioactive certified reference materials are discussed. (author).

  3. Annual average equivalent dose of workers form health area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daltro, T.F.L.; Campos, L.L.

    1992-01-01

    The data of personnel monitoring during 1985 and 1991 of personnel that work in health area were studied, obtaining a general overview of the value change of annual average equivalent dose. Two different aspects were presented: the analysis of annual average equivalent dose in the different sectors of a hospital and the comparison of these doses in the same sectors in different hospitals. (C.G.C.)

  4. Equivalence between quantum simultaneous games and quantum sequential games

    OpenAIRE

    Kobayashi, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    A framework for discussing relationships between different types of games is proposed. Within the framework, quantum simultaneous games, finite quantum simultaneous games, quantum sequential games, and finite quantum sequential games are defined. In addition, a notion of equivalence between two games is defined. Finally, the following three theorems are shown: (1) For any quantum simultaneous game G, there exists a quantum sequential game equivalent to G. (2) For any finite quantum simultaneo...

  5. An equivalence between momentum and charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, J.H.; Horowitz, G.T.; Steif, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that for a translationally invariant solution to string theory, spacetime duality interchanges the momentum in the symmetry direction and the axion charge per unit length. As one application, we show explicitly that charged black strings are equivalent to boosted (uncharged) black strings. The extremal black strings (which correspond to the field outside of a fundamental macroscopic string) are equivalent to plane-fronted waves describing strings moving at the speed of light

  6. Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2014-01-01

    Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.

  7. Feedback equivalence of convolutional codes over finite rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DeCastro-García Noemí

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach to convolutional codes from the linear systems point of view provides us with effective tools in order to construct convolutional codes with adequate properties that let us use them in many applications. In this work, we have generalized feedback equivalence between families of convolutional codes and linear systems over certain rings, and we show that every locally Brunovsky linear system may be considered as a representation of a code under feedback convolutional equivalence.

  8. An Algebraic Approach to Knowledge Bases Informational Equivalence

    OpenAIRE

    Plotkin, B.; Plotkin, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study the notion of knowledge from the positions of universal algebra and algebraic logic. We consider first order knowledge which is based on first order logic. We define categories of knowledge and knowledge bases. These notions are defined for the fixed subject of knowledge. The key notion of informational equivalence of two knowledge bases is introduced. We use the idea of equivalence of categories in this definition. We prove that for finite models there is a clear way t...

  9. Exact equivalent straight waveguide model for bent and twisted waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shyroki, Dzmitry

    2008-01-01

    Exact equivalent straight waveguide representation is given for a waveguide of arbitrary curvature and torsion. No assumptions regarding refractive index contrast, isotropy of materials, or particular morphology in the waveguide cross section are made. This enables rigorous full-vector modeling...... of in-plane curved or helically wound waveguides with use of available simulators for straight waveguides without the restrictions of the known approximate equivalent-index formulas....

  10. Multi-channel phase-equivalent transformation and supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Shirokov, A. M.; Sidorenko, V. N.

    2000-01-01

    Phase-equivalent transformation of local interaction is generalized to the multi-channel case. Generally, the transformation does not change the number of the bound states in the system and their energies. However, with a special choice of the parameters, the transformation removes one of the bound states and is equivalent to the multi-channel supersymmetry transformation recently suggested by Sparenberg and Baye. Using the transformation, it is also possible to add a bound state to the discr...

  11. Equivalence groups of (2+1) dimensional diffusion equation

    OpenAIRE

    Özer, Saadet

    2017-01-01

    If a given set of differential equations contain somearbitrary functions, parameters, we have in fact a family of sets of equationsof the same structure. Almost all field equations of classical physichs havethis property, representing different materials with various paramaters.  Equivalence groups are defined as the groupof transformations which leave a given family of differential equationsinvariant. Therefore, equivalence group of family of differential equations isan important area within...

  12. Gap sequence, Lipschitz equivalence and box dimension of fractal sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Hui; Yang Yamin; Ruan Huojun

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a notion of gap sequences for compact sets E subset of R d , which is a generalization of the gap sequences of compact sets on the real line. We show that if the gap sequences of two fractal sets are not equivalent, then these two sets cannot be Lipschitz equivalent, where the latter fact is usually very hard to verify. Finally, we show that for some typical fractal sets, the gap sequences characterize the upper box dimension

  13. Extended Equivalence Principle: Implications for Gravity, Geometry and Thermodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaram, C.; Arun, Kenath

    2012-01-01

    The equivalence principle was formulated by Einstein in an attempt to extend the concept of inertial frames to accelerated frames, thereby bringing in gravity. In recent decades, it has been realised that gravity is linked not only with geometry of space-time but also with thermodynamics especially in connection with black hole horizons, vacuum fluctuations, dark energy, etc. In this work we look at how the equivalence principle manifests itself in these different situations where we have str...

  14. The Equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin Spectral Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Podkopaev, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    This thesis establishes the equivalence of Grayson and Friedlander-Suslin spectral sequences, that was previously only known for the respective E_2-terms. We develop the necessary techniques regarding K_0-presheaves of spectra, building on the work of M. Walker and construct certain filtrations on the K-theory presheaf of spectra that we use as intermediate steps in obtaining the equivalence of the filtrations.

  15. The transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, William F; Fidalgo, Adriana P; Kovac, Roberta; Nico, Yara C

    2015-05-01

    Derived relational responding is affected by contextual stimuli (Cfunc) that select specific stimulus functions. The present study investigated the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations by evaluating both (a) the maintenance of Cfunc contextual control after the expansion of a relational network, and (b) the establishment of novel contextual stimuli by the transfer of Cfunc contextual control through equivalence relations. Initially, equivalence relations were established and contingencies were arranged so that colors functioned as Cfunc stimuli controlling participants' key-pressing responses in the presence of any stimulus from a three-member equivalence network. To investigate the first research question, the three-member equivalence relations were expanded to five members and the novel members were presented with the Cfunc stimuli in the key-pressing task. To address the second goal of this study, the colors (Cfunc) were established as equivalent to certain line patterns. The transfer of contextual cue function (Cfunc) was tested replacing the colored backgrounds with line patterns in the key-pressing task. Results suggest that the Cfunc contextual control was transferred to novel stimuli that were added to the relational network. In addition, the line patterns indirectly acquired the contextual cue function (Cfunc) initially established for the colored backgrounds. The conceptual and applied implications of Cfunc contextual control are discussed. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  16. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  17. Total and Partial Computation in Categorical Quantum Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uncovers the fundamental relationship between total and partial computation in the form of an equivalence of certain categories. This equivalence involves on the one hand effectuses, which are categories for total computation, introduced by Jacobs for the study of quantum/effect logic. On the other hand, it involves what we call FinPACs with effects; they are finitely partially additive categories equipped with effect algebra structures, serving as categories for partial computation. It turns out that the Kleisli category of the lift monad (-+1 on an effectus is always a FinPAC with effects, and this construction gives rise to the equivalence. Additionally, state-and-effect triangles over FinPACs with effects are presented.

  18. Fractionation and determination of total antioxidant capacity, total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEYAKS PLC

    2014-01-29

    Jan 29, 2014 ... the treatment of stomach and rheumatic pains, inflamma- tory disorders ... reagent and expressed as gallic acid equivalent (GAE). Exactly. 0.25 ml .... anthocyanins and antioxidant activity following simulated gastro- intestinal ...

  19. Total volume versus bouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinapaw, Mai; Klakk, Heidi; Møller, Niels Christian

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Examine the prospective relationship of total volume versus bouts of sedentary behaviour (SB) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with cardiometabolic risk in children. In addition, the moderating effects of weight status and MVPA were explored. SUBJECTS....../METHODS: Longitudinal study including 454 primary school children (mean age 10.3 years). Total volume and bouts (i.e. ≥10 min consecutive minutes) of MVPA and SB were assessed by accelerometry in Nov 2009/Jan 2010 (T1) and Aug/Oct 2010 (T2). Triglycerides, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio (TC:HDLC ratio......, with or without mutual adjustments between MVPA and SB. The moderating effects of weight status and MVPA (for SB only) were examined by adding interaction terms. RESULTS: Children engaged daily in about 60 min of total MVPA and 0-15 min/week in MVPA bouts. Mean total sedentary time was around 7 h/day with over 3...

  20. The energy spectrum of 662 keV photons in a water equivalent phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Ozmutlu, E.N.; Yalcin, S.; Gundogdu, O.; Sharaf, J.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Investigation is made on the energy spectrum of photons originating from interactions of 662 keV primary gamma-ray photons emitted by a point source positioned at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom of dimensions 19 cm×19 cm×24 cm. Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering have been observed using a 51 mm×51 mm NaI(Tl) detector; good agreement being found between the measured and simulated response functions. The energy spectrum of the gamma photons obtained through the Monte Carlo simulation reveals local maxima at about 100 keV and 210 keV, being also observed in the experimental response function. Such spectra can be used as a method of testing the water equivalence of solid phantom media before their use for dosimetry measurements. - Highlights: ► Peaks resulting from total energy loss (photopeak) and multiple and back scattering were observed. ► Energy distribution of γ-ray photons from a point source at the centre of a water equivalent solid phantom. ► The method can be applied to various detector geometries.

  1. Course design via Equivalency Theory supports equivalent student grades and satisfaction in online and face-to-face psychology classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eGarratt-Reed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a recent rapid growth in the number of psychology courses offered online through institutions of higher education. The American Psychological Association (APA has highlighted the importance of ensuring the effectiveness of online psychology courses. Despite this, there have been inconsistent findings regarding student grades, satisfaction, and retention in online psychology units. Equivalency Theory posits that online and classroom-based learners will attain equivalent learning outcomes when equivalent learning experiences are provided. We present a case study of an online introductory psychology unit designed to provide equivalent learning experiences to the pre-existing face-to-face version of the unit. Academic performance, student feedback, and retention data from 866 Australian undergraduate psychology students were examined to assess whether the online unit produced comparable outcomes to the ‘traditional’ unit delivered face-to-face. Student grades did not significantly differ between modes of delivery, except for a group-work based assessment where online students performed more poorly. Student satisfaction was generally high in both modes of the unit, with group-work the key source of dissatisfaction in the online unit. The results provide partial support for Equivalency Theory. The group-work based assessment did not provide an equivalent learning experience for students in the online unit highlighting the need for further research to determine effective methods of engaging students in online group activities. Consistent with previous research, retention rates were significantly lower in the online unit, indicating the need to develop effective strategies to increase online retention rates. While this study demonstrates successes in presenting online students with an equivalent learning experience, we recommend that future research investigates means of successfully facilitating collaborative group-work assessment

  2. An equivalent fluid/equivalent medium approach for the numerical simulation of coastal landslides propagation: theory and case studies

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mazzanti; F. Bozzano

    2009-01-01

    Coastal and subaqueous landslides can be very dangerous phenomena since they are characterised by the additional risk of induced tsunamis, unlike their completely-subaerial counterparts. Numerical modelling of landslides propagation is a key step in forecasting the consequences of landslides. In this paper, a novel approach named Equivalent Fluid/Equivalent Medium (EFEM) has been developed. It adapts common numerical models and software that were originally designed for subaerial landslides i...

  3. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...... women chose total and 105 women chose subtotal abdominal hysterectomy. No significant differences were found between the 2 operation methods in any of the outcome measures at 12 months. Fourteen women (15%) from the subtotal abdominal hysterectomy group experienced vaginal bleeding and three women had...

  4. Qualità totale e mobilità totale Total Quality and Total Mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trieste

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available FIABA ONLUS (Italian Fund for Elimination of Architectural Barriers was founded in 2000 with the aim of promoting a culture of equal opportunities and, above all, it has as its main goal to involve public and private institutions to create a really accessible and usable environment for everyone. Total accessibility, Total usability and Total mobility are key indicators to define quality of life within cities. A supportive environment that is free of architectural, cultural and psychological barriers allows everyone to live with ease and universality. In fact, people who access to goods and services in the urban context can use to their advantage time and space, so they can do their activities and can maintain relationships that are deemed significant for their social life. The main aim of urban accessibility is to raise the comfort of space for citizens, eliminating all barriers that discriminate people, and prevent from an equality of opportunity. “FIABA FUND - City of ... for the removal of architectural barriers” is an idea of FIABA that has already affected many regions of Italy as Lazio, Lombardy, Campania, Abruzzi and Calabria. It is a National project which provides for opening a bank account in the cities of referring, in which for the first time, all together, individuals and private and public institutions can make a donation to fund initiatives for the removal of architectural barriers within its own territory for a real and effective total accessibility. Last February the fund was launched in Rome with the aim of achieving a Capital without barriers and a Town European model of accessibility and usability. Urban mobility is a prerequisite to access to goods and services, and to organize activities related to daily life. FIABA promotes the concept of sustainable mobility for all, supported by the European Commission’s White Paper. We need a cultural change in management and organization of public means, which might focus on

  5. ASCERTAINMENT OF THE EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT PARAMETERS OF THE ASYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Safaryan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers experimental and analytical determination of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters with application of the reference data. Transient processes investigation of the asynchronous machines necessitates the equivalent circuit parameters (resistance impedance, inductances and coefficient of the stator-rotor contours mutual inductance that help form the transitory-process mathematical simulation model. The reference books do not provide those parameters; they instead give the rated ones (active power, voltage, slide, coefficient of performance and capacity coefficient as well as the ratio of starting and nominal currents and torques. The noted studies on the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuits parametrization fail to solve the problems ad finem or solve them with admissions. The paper presents experimental and analytical determinations of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit parameters: the experimental one based on the results of two measurements and the analytical one where the problem boils down to solving a system of nonlineal algebraic equations. The authors investigate the equivalent asynchronous machine input-resistance properties and adduce the dependence curvatures of the input-resistances on the slide. They present a symbolic model for analytical parameterization of the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit that represents a system of nonlineal equations and requires one of the rotor-parameters arbitrary assignment. The article demonstrates that for the asynchronous machine equivalent-circuit experimental parameterization the measures are to be conducted of the stator-circuit voltage, current and active power with two different slides and arbitrary assignment of one of the rotor parameters. The paper substantiates the fact that additional measurement does not discard the rotor-parameter choice arbitrariness. The authors establish that in motoring mode there is a critical slide by which the

  6. Peripheral artery disease is a coronary heart disease risk equivalent among both men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subherwal, Sumeet; Patel, Manesh R; Kober, Lars

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) has been proposed as a 'coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equivalent'. We aimed to examine whether PAD confers similar risk for mortality as incident myocardial infarction (MI) and whether risk differs by gender. METHODS: Using nationwide Dani...... and cardiovascular mortality vs. those with incident MI. PAD should be considered a CHD risk equivalent, warranting aggressive secondary prevention........62-1.80, respectively), and composite of death, MI, and ischaemic stroke, 95% CI HR, 1.38, 95% CI 1.36-1.42; and HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.61-1.75, respectively). The greater long-term risks of PAD were seen for both women and men. CONCLUSIONS: Both women and men with incident PAD have greater long-term risks of total...

  7. Snowpack snow water equivalent measurement using the attenuation of cosmic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhuber, R.; Condreva, K.

    1998-01-01

    Incoming, background cosmic radiation constantly fluxes through the earth's atmosphere. The high energy gamma portion of this radiation penetrates many terrestrial objects, including the winter snowpack. The attenuation of this radiation is exponentially related to the mass of the medium through which it penetrates. For the past three winters, a device measuring cosmic gamma radiation--and its attenuation through snow--has been installed at the Central Sierra Snow Laboratory, near Donner Pass, California. This gamma sensor, measuring energy levels between 5 and 15 MeV, has proved to be an accurate, reliable, non-invasive, non-mechanical instrument with which to measure the total snow water equivalent of a snowpack. This paper analyzes three winters' worth of data and discusses the physics and practical application of the sensor for the collection of snow water equivalent data from a remote location

  8. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  9. Total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novack, D.H.; Kiley, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The multitude of papers and conferences in recent years on the use of very large megavoltage radiation fields indicates an increased interest in total body, hemibody, and total nodal radiotherapy for various clinical situations. These include high dose total body irradiation (TBI) to destroy the bone marrow and leukemic cells and provide immunosuppression prior to a bone marrow transplant, high dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) prior to bone marrow transplantation in severe aplastic anemia, low dose TBI in the treatment of lymphocytic leukemias or lymphomas, and hemibody irradiation (HBI) in the treatment of advanced multiple myeloma. Although accurate provision of a specific dose and the desired degree of dose homogeneity are two of the physicist's major considerations for all radiotherapy techniques, these tasks are even more demanding for large field radiotherapy. Because most large field radiotherapy is done at an extended distance for complex patient geometries, basic dosimetry data measured at the standard distance (isocenter) must be verified or supplemented. This paper discusses some of the special dosimetric problems of large field radiotherapy, with specific examples given of the dosimetry of the TBI program for bone marrow transplant at the authors' hospital

  10. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation b...

  11. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  12. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  13. Total photon absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, P.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental methods using real photon beams for measurements of total photonuclear absorption cross section σ(Tot : E/sub γ/) are recalled. Most recent σ(Tot : E/sub γ/)results for complex nuclei and in the nucleon resonance region are presented

  14. Total 2004 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This annual report of the Group Total brings information and economic data on the following topics, for the year 2004: the corporate governance, the corporate social responsibility, the shareholder notebook, the management report, the activities, the upstream (exploration and production) and downstream (refining and marketing) operating, chemicals and other matters. (A.L.B.)

  15. Total Water Management - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a growing need for urban water managers to take a more holistic view of their water resource systems as population growth, urbanization, and current operations put different stresses on the environment and urban infrastructure. Total Water Management (TWM) is an approac...

  16. Water equivalence of NIPAM based polymer gel dosimeters with enhanced sensitivity for x-ray CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorjiara, Tina; Hill, Robin; Bosi, Stephen; Kuncic, Zdenka; Baldock, Clive

    2013-01-01

    Two new formulations of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) based three dimensional (3D) gel dosimeters have recently been developed with improved sensitivity to x-ray CT readout, one without any co-solvent and the other one with isopropanol co-solvent. The water equivalence of the NIPAM gel dosimeters was investigated using different methods to calculate their radiological properties including: density, electron density, number of electrons per grams, effective atomic number, photon interaction probabilities, mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients, electron collisional, radiative and total mass stopping powers and electron mass scattering power. Monte Carlo modelling was also used to compare the dose response of these gel dosimeters with water for kilovoltage and megavoltage x-ray beams and for megavoltage electron beams. We found that the density and electron density of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter are more water equivalent with less than a 2.6% difference compared to a 5.7% difference for the isopropanol gel dosimeter. Both the co-solvent free and isopropanol solvent gel dosimeters have lower effective atomic numbers than water, differing by 2.2% and 6.5%, respectively. As a result, their photoelectric absorption interaction probabilities are up to 6% and 19% different from water, respectively. Compton scattering and pair production interaction probabilities of NIPAM gel with isopropanol differ by up to 10% from water while for the co-solvent free gel, the differences are 3%. Mass attenuation and energy absorption coefficients of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter and the isopropanol gel dosimeter are up to 7% and 19% lower than water, respectively. Collisional and total mass stopping powers of both gel dosimeters differ by less than 2% from those of water. The dose response of the co-solvent free gel dosimeter is water equivalent (with 100 keV, correction factor is required for the gels. • For MV electron, correction factor needed for the gels to

  17. Non equivalence of the chains in the allosteric interaction of the hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacchieri, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    The importance, for the temperature dependence of the cooperative behaviour of hemoglobin, of the functional non equivalence of the polypeptide chains from which the hemoglobin molecule is built is studied. With such purpose thermodynamic allosteric parameters are introduced called 'mean allosteric parameters' which relate the last two oxygen bindings to the firsttwo ones. It is shown that the mean allosteric free energy is strongly correlated to the Hill parameter which is a classic measure of cooperativity; hence, the mean allosteric free energy measures the hemoglobin cooperativity. Recent experimental data show that the mean allosteric free energy decreasses with temperature; this is due to the mean allosteric enthalphy and entropy being positive quantities. To analise such behaviour in terms of thermodynamic's arguments equations are derived for the thermodynamic parameters of oxygen binding to hemoglobin in terms of those of its chains. Since the obtained equations have a great number of terms the same treatment is applied to a hypothetic dimer from which simpler relations are derived. From both cases it is concluded that the positive character of the mean allosteric enthalpy and entropy is due to the presence of cooperative and anticooperative terms. Since the last terms are absent in the equations of allosteric homoproteins, the characteristic temperature-dependence of hemoglobin's cooperativity depends on the presence of non-equivalent chains. (Author) [pt

  18. Development of Equivalent Material Properties of Microbump for Simulating Chip Stacking Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Chun Lee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available three-dimensional integrated circuit (3D-IC structure with a significant scale mismatch causes difficulty in analytic model construction. This paper proposes a simulation technique to introduce an equivalent material composed of microbumps and their surrounding wafer level underfill (WLUF. The mechanical properties of this equivalent material, including Young’s modulus (E, Poisson’s ratio, shear modulus, and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE, are directly obtained by applying either a tensile load or a constant displacement, and by increasing the temperature during simulations, respectively. Analytic results indicate that at least eight microbumps at the outermost region of the chip stacking structure need to be considered as an accurate stress/strain contour in the concerned region. In addition, a factorial experimental design with analysis of variance is proposed to optimize chip stacking structure reliability with four factors: chip thickness, substrate thickness, CTE, and E-value. Analytic results show that the most significant factor is CTE of WLUF. This factor affects microbump reliability and structural warpage under a temperature cycling load and high-temperature bonding process. WLUF with low CTE and high E-value are recommended to enhance the assembly reliability of the 3D-IC architecture.

  19. Manual performance deterioration in the cold estimated using the wind chill equivalent temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Manual performance during work in cold and windy climates is severely hampered by decreased dexterity, but valid dexterity decrease predictors based on climatic factors are scarce. Therefore, this study investigated the decrease in finger- and hand dexterity and grip force for nine combinations of

  20. Validity of the Aluminum Equivalent Approximation in Space Radiation Shielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badavi, Francis F.; Adams, Daniel O.; Wilson, John W.

    2009-01-01

    The origin of the aluminum equivalent shield approximation in space radiation analysis can be traced back to its roots in the early years of the NASA space programs (Mercury, Gemini and Apollo) wherein the primary radiobiological concern was the intense sources of ionizing radiation causing short term effects which was thought to jeopardize the safety of the crew and hence the mission. Herein, it is shown that the aluminum equivalent shield approximation, although reasonably well suited for that time period and to the application for which it was developed, is of questionable usefulness to the radiobiological concerns of routine space operations of the 21 st century which will include long stays onboard the International Space Station (ISS) and perhaps the moon. This is especially true for a risk based protection system, as appears imminent for deep space exploration where the long-term effects of Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) exposure is of primary concern. The present analysis demonstrates that sufficiently large errors in the interior particle environment of a spacecraft result from the use of the aluminum equivalent approximation, and such approximations should be avoided in future astronaut risk estimates. In this study, the aluminum equivalent approximation is evaluated as a means for estimating the particle environment within a spacecraft structure induced by the GCR radiation field. For comparison, the two extremes of the GCR environment, the 1977 solar minimum and the 2001 solar maximum, are considered. These environments are coupled to the Langley Research Center (LaRC) deterministic ionized particle transport code High charge (Z) and Energy TRaNsport (HZETRN), which propagates the GCR spectra for elements with charges (Z) in the range I aluminum equivalent approximation for a good polymeric shield material such as genetic polyethylene (PE). The shield thickness is represented by a 25 g/cm spherical shell. Although one could imagine the progression to greater

  1. Equivalence relations for the 9972-9975 SARP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemer, K.A.; Frost, R.L.

    1994-10-01

    Equivalence relations required to determine mass limits for mixtures of nuclides for the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) of the Savannah River Site 9972, 9973, 9974, and 9975 shipping casks were calculated. The systems analyzed included aqueous spheres, homogeneous metal spheres, and metal ball-and-shell configurations, all surrounded by an effectively infinite stainless steel or water reflector. Comparison of the equivalence calculations with the rule-of-fractions showed conservative agreement for aqueous solutions, both conservative and non-conservative agreement for the metal homogeneous sphere systems, and non-conservative agreement for the majority of metal ball-and-shell systems. Equivalence factors for the aqueous solutions and homogeneous metal spheres were calculated. The equivalence factors for the non-conservative metal homogeneous sphere systems were adjusted so that they were conservative. No equivalence factors were calculated for the ball-and-shell systems since the -SARP assumes that only homogeneous or uniformly distributed material will be shipped in the 9972-9975 shipping casks, and an unnecessarily conservative critical mass may result if the ball-and-shell configurations are included

  2. Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modelling techniques and a knowledge of the incident radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron doses and dose equivalents were measured in a RANDO phantom at specific locations using thermoluminescence dosemeters, etched track dosemeters, and a 1.27 cm (1/2 in) tissue-equivalent proportional counter. The phantom was exposed to a bare and a D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutron source at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and to calculate the organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared with the calculations. (author)

  3. Verification of an effective dose equivalent model for neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, J.E.; Piper, R.K.; Leonowich, J.A.; Faust, L.G.

    1991-10-01

    Since the effective dose equivalent, based on the weighted sum of organ dose equivalents, is not a directly measurable quantity, it must be estimated with the assistance of computer modeling techniques and a knowledge of the radiation field. Although extreme accuracy is not necessary for radiation protection purposes, a few well-chosen measurements are required to confirm the theoretical models. Neutron measurements were performed in a RANDO phantom using thermoluminescent dosemeters, track etch dosemeters, and a 1/2-in. (1.27-cm) tissue equivalent proportional counter in order to estimate neutron doses and dose equivalents within the phantom at specific locations. The phantom was exposed to bare and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf neutrons at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Low Scatter Facility. The Monte Carlo code MCNP with the MIRD-V mathematical phantom was used to model the human body and calculate organ doses and dose equivalents. The experimental methods are described and the results of the measurements are compared to the calculations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Committed dose equivalent in the practice of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.; Piechowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    In the case of internal exposure, the dose is not received at the moment of exposure, as happens with external exposure, since the incorporated radionuclide irradiates the various organs and tissues during the time it is present in the body. By definition, the committed dose equivalent corresponds to the received dose integrated over 50 years from the date of intake. In order to calculate it, one has to know the intake activity and the value of the committed dose equivalent per unit of intake activity. The uncertainties of the first parameter are such that the committed dose equivalent can only be regarded as an order of magnitude and not as a very accurate quantity. The use of it is justified, however, for, like the dose equivalent for external exposure, it expresses the risk of stochastic effects for the individual concerned since these effects, should they appear, would do so only after a latent period which is generally longer than the dose integration time. Moreover, the use of the committed dose equivalent offers certain advantages for dosimetric management, especially when it is simplified. A practical problem which may arise is that the annual dose limit is apparently exceeded by virtue of the fact that one is taking account, in the first year, of doses which will actually be received only in the following years. These problems are rare enough in practice to be dealt with individually in each case. (author)

  5. A Cp-theory problem book functional equivalencies

    CERN Document Server

    Tkachuk, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    This fourth volume in Vladimir Tkachuk's series on Cp-theory gives reasonably complete coverage of the theory of functional equivalencies through 500 carefully selected problems and exercises. By systematically introducing each of the major topics of Cp-theory, the book is intended to bring a dedicated reader from basic topological principles to the frontiers of modern research. The book presents complete and up-to-date information on the preservation of topological properties by homeomorphisms of function spaces.  An exhaustive theory of t-equivalent, u-equivalent and l-equivalent spaces is developed from scratch.   The reader will also find introductions to the theory of uniform spaces, the theory of locally convex spaces, as well as  the theory of inverse systems and dimension theory. Moreover, the inclusion of Kolmogorov's solution of Hilbert's Problem 13 is included as it is needed for the presentation of the theory of l-equivalent spaces. This volume contains the most important classical re...

  6. Inertia and Double Bending of Light from Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuler, Robert L., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Careful examination of light paths in an accelerated reference frame, with use of Special Relativity, can account fully for the observed bending of light in a gravitational field, not just half of it as reported in 1911. This analysis also leads to a Machian formulation of inertia similar to the one proposed by Einstein in 1912 and later derived from gravitational field equations in Minkowsky Space by Sciama in 1953. There is a clear inference from equivalence that there is some type of inertial mass increase in a gravitational field. It is the purpose of the current paper to suggest that equivalence provides a more complete picture of gravitational effects than previously thought, correctly predicting full light bending, and that since the theory of inertia is derivable from equivalence, any theory based on equivalence must take account of it. Einstein himself clearly was not satisfied with the status of inertia in GRT, as our quotes have shown. Many have tried to account for inertia and met with less than success, for example Davidson s integration of Sciama s inertia into GRT but only for a steady state cosmology [10], and the Machian gravity theory of Brans and Dicke [11]. Yet Mach s idea hasn t gone away, and now it seems that it cannot go away without also disposing of equivalence.

  7. TEWI - Total Equivalent Warming Impact. The environmental and climatic impact of the German refrigeration industry 1989/2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotz, H.

    1993-01-01

    Development of concepts and new technologies will have to pay more heed to the ecological balance of a product than in the past. The Umweltbundesamt (Federal Environmental Office) suggests to divide an ecological balance into a balance of facts, a balance of impact and include a balance sheet valuation. As there are no valid socio-political valuation criteria they suggest to use partial criteria as for instance the climate-relevant air pollution for the valuation of the refrigeration industry. This article attempts to forecast existing and foreseeable developments of the refrigeration industry under this particular aspect. (BWI) [de

  8. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of Piper Betel Linn leaves oil and total phenolic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A. H. A.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Arsad, N. H.; Lee, N. Y.; Idham, Z.; Razak, A. Q. A.

    2016-11-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (SC-CO2) Extraction was applied to extract piper betel linn leaves. The piper betel leaves oil was used antioxidant, anti-diabetic, anticancer and antistroke. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of pressure, temperature and flowrate for oil yield and total phenolic content. The operational conditions of SC-CO2 studied were pressure (10, 20, 30 MPa), temperature (40, 60, 80 °C) and flowrate carbon dioxide (4, 6, 8 mL/min). The constant parameters were average particle size and extraction regime, 355pm and 3.5 hours respectively. First order polynomial expression was used to express the extracted oil while second order polynomial expression was used to express the total phenolic content and the both results were satisfactory. The best conditions to maximize the total extraction oil yields and total phenolic content were 30 MPa, 80 °C and 4.42 mL/min leading to 7.32% of oil and 29.72 MPa, 67.53 °C and 7.98 mL/min leading to 845.085 mg GAE/g sample. In terms of optimum condition with high extraction yield and high total phenolic content in the extracts, the best operating conditions were 30 MPa, 78 °C and 8 mL/min with 7.05% yield and 791.709 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g sample. The most dominant condition for extraction of oil yield and phenolic content were pressure and CO2 flowrate. The results show a good fit to the proposed model and the optimal conditions obtained were within the experimental range with the value of R2 was 96.13% for percentage yield and 98.52% for total phenolic content.

  9. Total 2003 Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This document presents the 2003 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, 4. quarter 2003 results, full year 2003 results, upstream (key figures, proved reserves), downstream key figures, chemicals key figures, parent company accounts and proposed dividends, 2004 sensitivities, summary and outlook, operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2003: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refinery throughput by region, refined product sales by region, chemicals), impact of allocating contribution of Cepsa to net operating income by business segment: equity in income (loss) and affiliates and other items, Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  10. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca ȘERBAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated that the crucial level is determined by the learning and growth perspective. It has been developed from a human perspective, which focused on staff satisfaction, innovation perspective with focus on future developments. Integrating the Total Performance Scorecard in an overall framework assures the company’s success, by keeping track of the individual goals, the company’s objectives and strategic directions. Like this, individual identity can be linked to corporate brand, individual aspirations to business goals and individual learning objectives to needed organizational capabilities.

  11. Totally parallel multilevel algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederickson, Paul O.

    1988-01-01

    Four totally parallel algorithms for the solution of a sparse linear system have common characteristics which become quite apparent when they are implemented on a highly parallel hypercube such as the CM2. These four algorithms are Parallel Superconvergent Multigrid (PSMG) of Frederickson and McBryan, Robust Multigrid (RMG) of Hackbusch, the FFT based Spectral Algorithm, and Parallel Cyclic Reduction. In fact, all four can be formulated as particular cases of the same totally parallel multilevel algorithm, which are referred to as TPMA. In certain cases the spectral radius of TPMA is zero, and it is recognized to be a direct algorithm. In many other cases the spectral radius, although not zero, is small enough that a single iteration per timestep keeps the local error within the required tolerance.

  12. Comparative total phenolic content, anti-lipase and antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total phenol values are expressed in terms of Gallic acid equivalent (w/w of dry mass). Aframomum melegueta exhibited the highest phenolic content of 60.4 ± 2.36 mgGAE/g, a percentage antioxidant activity of 86.6 % at 200μg/ml and percentage lipase inhibition of 89% at 1mg/ml while Aframomum danielli revealed a total ...

  13. Changes of Dielectric Properties induced by Fast neutrons in Tissue Equivalent Plastic A-150

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    Tissue equivalent plastic A-150 (TEP A-150) samples are exposed to fast neutrons. Dielectric studies for TEP A-150 are carried out in the frequency range from 40 Hz to 4 MHz in the temperature range 295-343 K. The obtained data revealed that, both the dielectric properties and conductivity sigma ac (omega) of TEP A-150 are altered when irradiated by a relatively high fast neutron dose (15 Sv). The values of dielectric constant and conductivity are increased for the irradiated samples to about 24% than the blank samples

  14. Total space in resolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonacina, I.; Galesi, N.; Thapen, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 5 (2016), s. 1894-1909 ISSN 0097-5397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : total space * resolution random CNFs * proof complexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.433, year: 2016 http://epubs.siam.org/doi/10.1137/15M1023269

  15. MFTF TOTAL benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, J.H.

    1979-06-01

    A benchmark of the TOTAL data base management system as applied to the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) data base was implemented and run in February and March of 1979. The benchmark was run on an Interdata 8/32 and involved the following tasks: (1) data base design, (2) data base generation, (3) data base load, and (4) develop and implement programs to simulate MFTF usage of the data base

  16. Total - annual report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This annual report presents the activities and results of TOTAL S.A., french society on oil and gas. It deals with statistics, the managers, key information on financial data and risk factors, information on the Company, unresolved Staff Comments, employees, major Shareholders, consolidated statements, markets, security, financial risks, defaults dividend arrearages and delinquencies, controls and procedures, code of ethics and financial statements. (A.L.B.)

  17. Total Absorption Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, B.; Gelletly, W.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the distribution of beta decay strength (B(GT)) as a function of excitation energy in the daughter nucleus is discussed. Total Absorption Spectroscopy is shown to provide a way of determining the B(GT) precisely. A brief history of such measurements and a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, is followed by examples of two recent studies using the technique. (authors)

  18. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  19. Assaults by Mentally Disordered Offenders in Prison: Equity and Equivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Heidi; Dixon, Amy; Newton, Zoe; Bartlett, Annie

    2016-06-01

    Managing the violent behaviour of mentally disordered offenders (MDO) is challenging in all jurisdictions. We describe the ethical framework and practical management of MDOs in England and Wales in the context of the move to equivalence of healthcare between hospital and prison. We consider the similarities and differences between prison and hospital management of the violent and challenging behaviours of MDOs. We argue that both types of institution can learn from each other and that equivalence of care should extend to equivalence of criminal proceedings in court and prisons for MDOs. We argue that any adjudication process in prison for MDOs is enhanced by the relevant involvement of mental health professionals and the articulation of the ethical principles underpinning health and criminal justice practices.

  20. Testing the principle of equivalence by solar neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, Hisakazu; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Nunokawa, Hiroshi; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the possibility of testing the principle of equivalence with solar neutrinos. If there exists a violation of the equivalence principle quarks and leptons with different flavors may not universally couple with gravity. The method we discuss employs a quantum mechanical phenomenon of neutrino oscillation to probe into the non-university of the gravitational couplings of neutrinos. We develop an appropriate formalism to deal with neutrino propagation under the weak gravitational fields of the sun in the presence of the flavor mixing. We point out that solar neutrino observation by the next generation water Cherenkov detectors can improve the existing bound on violation of the equivalence principle by 3-4 orders of magnitude if the nonadiabatic Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein mechanism is the solution to the solar neutrino problem