WorldWideScience

Sample records for total entropy change

  1. A Graphical Proof of the Positive Entropy Change in Heat Transfer between Two Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatgamolchai, Somchai

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that heat transfer between two objects results in a positive change in the total entropy of the two-object system. The second law of thermodynamics states that the entropy change of a naturally irreversible process is positive. In other words, if the entropy change of any process is positive, it can be inferred that such a process…

  2. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naef, Rudolf; Acree, William E

    2017-06-25

    The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit ( Q ²) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol ( N = 3386 test molecules) for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol ( N = 1791) for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol ( N = 373) for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K ( N = 2637) for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K ( N = 2643) for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation coefficient R

  3. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Naef

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation (σ of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol (N = 3386 test molecules for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol (N = 1791 for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol (N = 373 for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K (N = 2637 for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K (N = 2643 for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation

  4. Direct measurements of the magnetic entropy change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Neves Bez, Henrique; von Moos, Lars

    2015-01-01

    An experimental device that can accurately measure the magnetic entropy change, Δs, as a function of temperature, T, and magnetic field, H, is presented. The magnetic field source is in this case a set of counter-rotating concentric Halbach-type magnets, which produce a highly homogeneous applied...... to the ambient are negligible in terms of the calorimetric determination of the magnetic entropy change, while the losses cannot be ignored when correcting for the actual sample temperature. We apply the device to two different types of samples; one is commercial grade Gd, i.e., a pure second-order phase...

  5. Magnetization and isothermal magnetic entropy change of a mixed spin-1 and spin-2 Heisenberg superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ping; Du, An

    2017-09-01

    A superlattice composed of spin-1 and spin-2 with ABAB … structure was described with Heisenberg model. The magnetizations and magnetic entropy changes under different magnetic fields were calculated by the Green's function method. The magnetization compensation phenomenon could be observed by altering the intralayer exchange interactions and the single-ion anisotropies of spins. Along with the temperature increasing, the system in the absence of magnetization compensation shows normal magnetic entropy change and displays a peak near the critical temperature, and yet the system with magnetization compensation shows normal magnetic entropy change near the compensation temperature but inverse magnetic entropy change near the critical temperature. Finally, we illustrated the reasons of different behaviors of magnetic entropy change by analyzing the contributions of two sublattices to the total magnetic entropy change.

  6. An Accessible Approach to Understanding Entropy and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip

    2018-01-01

    This article challenges the notion that entropy is something to be avoided. A line of argument is presented that is accessible to those not having specialist knowledge and that offers a new perspective to those more familiar with the concept. It shows that temperature is better understood by addressing entropy. Entropy change diagrams are…

  7. Regularities of changes of metal melting entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kats, S.A.; Chekhovskoj, V.Ya.

    1980-01-01

    Most trustworthy data on temperatures, heats and entropies of fusion of metals have been used as a basis to throw light on the laws governing variations of the entropy of metals fusion. The elaborated procedure is used to predict the entropies of the metals fusion whose thermodynamic properties under high temperatures have not yet been investigated

  8. Suggestion of a Management Model: Total Entropy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Goksel Alpan,; Ismail Efil

    2011-01-01

    “Entropy” can be defined as the measure of disorder, uncertainty and consumed energy in a system or in the Universe. In the study, entropy concept is used as metaphor and it is aimed to construct the conceptual basis of a new management model which can be utilized to manage all entropy sources effectively. The study is conveyed with a multidisciplinary and holistic approach and by the use of qualitative research techniques. In the study, it is examined the relations of the entropy concept wit...

  9. Fundamental limits on quantum dynamics based on entropy change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Siddhartha; Khatri, Sumeet; Siopsis, George; Wilde, Mark M.

    2018-01-01

    It is well known in the realm of quantum mechanics and information theory that the entropy is non-decreasing for the class of unital physical processes. However, in general, the entropy does not exhibit monotonic behavior. This has restricted the use of entropy change in characterizing evolution processes. Recently, a lower bound on the entropy change was provided in the work of Buscemi, Das, and Wilde [Phys. Rev. A 93(6), 062314 (2016)]. We explore the limit that this bound places on the physical evolution of a quantum system and discuss how these limits can be used as witnesses to characterize quantum dynamics. In particular, we derive a lower limit on the rate of entropy change for memoryless quantum dynamics, and we argue that it provides a witness of non-unitality. This limit on the rate of entropy change leads to definitions of several witnesses for testing memory effects in quantum dynamics. Furthermore, from the aforementioned lower bound on entropy change, we obtain a measure of non-unitarity for unital evolutions.

  10. On the relationship between NMR-derived amide order parameters and protein backbone entropy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Kim A; O'Brien, Evan; Kasinath, Vignesh; Wand, A Joshua

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to analyze the relationship between NMR-derived squared generalized order parameters of amide NH groups and backbone entropy. Amide order parameters (O(2) NH ) are largely determined by the secondary structure and average values appear unrelated to the overall flexibility of the protein. However, analysis of the more flexible subset (O(2) NH  entropy than that reported by the side chain methyl axis order parameters, O(2) axis . A calibration curve for backbone entropy vs. O(2) NH is developed, which accounts for both correlations between amide group motions of different residues, and correlations between backbone and side chain motions. This calibration curve can be used with experimental values of O(2) NH changes obtained by NMR relaxation measurements to extract backbone entropy changes, for example, upon ligand binding. In conjunction with our previous calibration for side chain entropy derived from measured O(2) axis values this provides a prescription for determination of the total protein conformational entropy changes from NMR relaxation measurements. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Visualizing the Entropy Change of a Thermal Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langbeheim, Elon; Safran, Samuel A.; Yerushalmi, Edit

    2014-01-01

    When a system exchanges energy with a constant-temperature environment, the entropy of the surroundings changes. A lattice model of a fluid thermal reservoir can provide a visualization of the microscopic changes that occur in the surroundings upon energy transfer from the system. This model can be used to clarify the consistency of phenomena such…

  12. Scaling of the magnetic entropy change of Fe3−xMnxSi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, M.R.; Hamam, Y.A.; Abu-Aljarayesh, I.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic entropy change of Fe 3−x Mn x Si (for x=1.15, 1.3 and 1.5) has been extracted from isothermal magnetization measurements near the Curie temperature. We used the scaling hypotheses of the thermodynamic potentials to scale the magnetic entropy change to a single universal curve for each sample. The effect of the exchange field and the Curie temperature on the maximum entropy change is discussed. - Highlights: • The maximum of the magnetic entropy change occurs at temperatures T>T C . • The exchange field enhances the magnetic entropy change. • The magnetic entropy change at T C is inversely proportional to T C . • Scaling hypothesis is used to scale the magnetic entropy change

  13. Exploring total cardiac variability in healthy and pathophysiological subjects using improved refined multiscale entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwaha, Puneeta; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) and refined multiscale entropy (RMSE) techniques are being widely used to evaluate the complexity of a time series across multiple time scales 't'. Both these techniques, at certain time scales (sometimes for the entire time scales, in the case of RMSE), assign higher entropy to the HRV time series of certain pathologies than that of healthy subjects, and to their corresponding randomized surrogate time series. This incorrect assessment of signal complexity may be due to the fact that these techniques suffer from the following limitations: (1) threshold value 'r' is updated as a function of long-term standard deviation and hence unable to explore the short-term variability as well as substantial variability inherited in beat-to-beat fluctuations of long-term HRV time series. (2) In RMSE, entropy values assigned to different filtered scaled time series are the result of changes in variance, but do not completely reflect the real structural organization inherited in original time series. In the present work, we propose an improved RMSE (I-RMSE) technique by introducing a new procedure to set the threshold value by taking into account the period-to-period variability inherited in a signal and evaluated it on simulated and real HRV database. The proposed I-RMSE assigns higher entropy to the age-matched healthy subjects than that of patients suffering from atrial fibrillation, congestive heart failure, sudden cardiac death and diabetes mellitus, for the entire time scales. The results strongly support the reduction in complexity of HRV time series in female group, old-aged, patients suffering from severe cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases, and in their corresponding surrogate time series.

  14. Effect of entropy change of lithium intercalation in cathodes and anodes on Li-ion battery thermal management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Xu, Wu; Towne, Silas; Williford, Ralph E.; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The entropy changes ({delta}S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as in complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). LiCoO{sub 2} has a much larger entropy change than electrodes based on LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2} and LiFePO{sub 4}, while lithium titanate based anodes have lower entropy change compared to graphite anodes. The reversible heat generation rate was found to be a significant portion of the total heat generation rate. The appropriate combinations of cathode and anode were investigated to minimize reversible heat generation rate across the 0-100% state of charge (SOC) range. In addition to screening for battery electrode materials with low reversible heat, the techniques described in this paper can be a useful engineering tool for battery thermal management in stationary and transportation applications. (author)

  15. Hypoglycemia-Related Electroencephalogram Changes Assessed by Multiscale Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabris, C.; Sparacino, G.; Sejling, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    derivation in the two glycemic intervals was assessed using the multiscale entropy (MSE) approach, obtaining measures of sample entropy (SampEn) at various temporal scales. The comparison of how signal irregularity measured by SampEn varies as the temporal scale increases in the two glycemic states provides...

  16. An entropy-based analysis of lane changing behavior: An interactive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosun, Caglar; Ozdemir, Serhan

    2017-05-19

    As a novelty, this article proposes the nonadditive entropy framework for the description of driver behaviors during lane changing. The authors also state that this entropy framework governs the lane changing behavior in traffic flow in accordance with the long-range vehicular interactions and traffic safety. The nonadditive entropy framework is the new generalized theory of thermostatistical mechanics. Vehicular interactions during lane changing are considered within this framework. The interactive approach for the lane changing behavior of the drivers is presented in the traffic flow scenarios presented in the article. According to the traffic flow scenarios, 4 categories of traffic flow and driver behaviors are obtained. Through the scenarios, comparative analyses of nonadditive and additive entropy domains are also provided. Two quadrants of the categories belong to the nonadditive entropy; the rest are involved in the additive entropy domain. Driving behaviors are extracted and the scenarios depict that nonadditivity matches safe driving well, whereas additivity corresponds to unsafe driving. Furthermore, the cooperative traffic system is considered in nonadditivity where the long-range interactions are present. However, the uncooperative traffic system falls into the additivity domain. The analyses also state that there would be possible traffic flow transitions among the quadrants. This article shows that lane changing behavior could be generalized as nonadditive, with additivity as a special case, based on the given traffic conditions. The nearest and close neighbor models are well within the conventional additive entropy framework. In this article, both the long-range vehicular interactions and safe driving behavior in traffic are handled in the nonadditive entropy domain. It is also inferred that the Tsallis entropy region would correspond to mandatory lane changing behavior, whereas additive and either the extensive or nonextensive entropy region would

  17. Giant irreversible positive to large reversible negative magnetic entropy change evolution in Tb-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qiang; Schwarz, Bjoern; Mattern, Norbert; Eckert, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of amorphous structure and random anisotropy on the magnetic entropy change in a series of Tb-based amorphous alloys. The amorphous structure broadens the peak of magnetic entropy change and facilitates the adjustment of properties. The peak magnetic entropy change above the spin freezing temperature first depends on the average magnetic moment approximately linearly and second on the exchange interaction and random anisotropy. Large and broad reversible negative magnetic entropy changes are observed above the spin freezing temperature and giant positive irreversible magnetic entropy changes which associate with the internal entropy production are obtained well below.

  18. On entropy change measurements around first order phase transitions in caloric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Luana; Ba Doan, Nguyen; Ranno, Laurent

    2017-02-22

    In this work we discuss the measurement protocols for indirect determination of the isothermal entropy change associated with first order phase transitions in caloric materials. The magneto-structural phase transitions giving rise to giant magnetocaloric effects in Cu-doped MnAs and FeRh are used as case studies to exemplify how badly designed protocols may affect isothermal measurements and lead to incorrect entropy change estimations. Isothermal measurement protocols which allow correct assessment of the entropy change around first order phase transitions in both direct and inverse cases are presented.

  19. Changes in total and differential white cell counts, total lymphocyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Published reports on the possible changes in the various immune cell populations, especially the total lymphocyte and CD4 cell counts, during the menstrual cycle in Nigerian female subjects are relatively scarce. Aim: To determine possible changes in the total and differential white blood cell [WBC] counts, ...

  20. Properties of Fuzzy Entropy Based on the Shape Change of Membership Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Modification of a fuzzy partition often leads to the change of fuzziness of a fuzzy system. Researches on the change of fuzzy entropy of a fuzzy set, responding to shape alteration of membership function, therefore, play a significant role in analysis of the change of fuzziness of a fuzzy system because a fuzzy partition consists of a set of fuzzy sets which satisfy some special constraints. This paper has shown several results about entropy changes of a fuzzy set. First, the entropies of two same type of fuzzy sets have a constant proportional relationship which depends on the ratio of the sizes of their support intervals. Second, as for Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (TFNs), the entropies of any two TFNs which can not be always the same type, also,have a constant proportional relationship which depends on the ratio of the sizes of their support intervals. Hence, any two TFNs with the same sizes of support intervals have the same entropies. Third, concerning two Triangular Fuzzy Sets (TFSs) with same sizes of support intervals and different heights, the relationship of their entropies lies on their height.Finally, we point it out a mistake that Chen's assertion that the entropy of resultant fuzzy set of elevation operation is directly proportional to that of the original one while elevation factor just acts as a proportional factor. These results should contribute to the analysis and design of a fuzzy system.

  1. On the determination of the magnetic entropy change in materials with first-order transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caron, L.; Ou, Z.Q.; Nguyen, T.T.; Cam Thanh, D.T.; Tegus, O.; Brueck, E.

    2009-01-01

    An accurate method to determine the magnetic entropy change in materials with hysteretic first-order transitions is presented, which is needed to estimate their potential for applications. We have investigated the effect of the maximal entropy change derived from magnetization measurements performed in different measurement processes. The results show that the isothermal entropy change can be derived from the Maxwell relations even for samples with large thermal hysteresis. In the temperature region with hysteresis, overestimating the entropy change can be avoided by measuring the isothermal magnetization of the sample after it is cooled from the paramagnetic state to the measurement temperature. In this way the so-called peak effect is not observed as shown here for a few compounds.

  2. Configurational entropy change of netropsin and distamycin upon DNA minor-groove binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Baron, Riccardo; Oostenbrink, Chris; Koller, Joze; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2006-08-15

    Binding of a small molecule to a macromolecular target reduces its conformational freedom, resulting in a negative entropy change that opposes the binding. The goal of this study is to estimate the configurational entropy change of two minor-groove-binding ligands, netropsin and distamycin, upon binding to the DNA duplex d(CGCGAAAAACGCG).d(CGCGTTTTTCGCG). Configurational entropy upper bounds based on 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations of netropsin and distamycin in solution and in complex with DNA in solution were estimated using the covariance matrix of atom-positional fluctuations. The results suggest that netropsin and distamycin lose a significant amount of configurational entropy upon binding to the DNA minor groove. The estimated changes in configurational entropy for netropsin and distamycin are -127 J K(-1) mol(-1) and -104 J K(-1) mol(-1), respectively. Estimates of the configurational entropy contributions of parts of the ligands are presented, showing that the loss of configurational entropy is comparatively more pronounced for the flexible tails than for the relatively rigid central body.

  3. A novel evaluation of heat-electricity cost allocation in cogenerations based on entropy change method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xuemin; Li, Chunxi

    2013-01-01

    As one of the most significant measures to improve energy utilization efficiency and save energy, cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) has been widely applied and promoted with positive motivations in many countries. A rational cost allocation model should indicate the performance of cogenerations and balance the benefits between electricity generation and heat production. Based on the second law of thermodynamics, the present paper proposes an entropy change method for cost allocation by choosing exhaust steam entropy as a datum point, and the new model works in conjunction with entropy change and irreversibility during energy conversion processes. The allocation ratios of heat cost with the present and existing methods are compared for different types of cogenerations. Results show that the allocation ratios with the entropy change method are more rational and the cost allocation model can make up some limitations involved in other approaches. The future energy policies and innovational directions for cogenerations and heat consumers should be developed. - Highlights: • A rational model of cogeneration cost allocation is established. • Entropy change method integrates the relation of entropy change and exergy losses. • The unity of measuring energy quality and quantity is materialized. • The benefits between electricity generation and heat production are balanced

  4. Conformational entropy changes upon lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Carl; Genheden, Samuel; Modig, Kristofer; Ryde, Ulf; Akke, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    The conformational entropy of proteins can make significant contributions to the free energy of ligand binding. NMR spin relaxation enables site-specific investigation of conformational entropy, via order parameters that parameterize local reorientational fluctuations of rank-2 tensors. Here we have probed the conformational entropy of lactose binding to the carbohydrate recognition domain of galectin-3 (Gal3), a protein that plays an important role in cell growth, cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and apoptosis, making it a potential target for therapeutic intervention in inflammation and cancer. We used 15 N spin relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations to monitor the backbone amides and secondary amines of the tryptophan and arginine side chains in the ligand-free and lactose-bound states of Gal3. Overall, we observe good agreement between the experimental and computed order parameters of the ligand-free and lactose-bound states. Thus, the 15 N spin relaxation data indicate that the molecular dynamics simulations provide reliable information on the conformational entropy of the binding process. The molecular dynamics simulations reveal a correlation between the simulated order parameters and residue-specific backbone entropy, re-emphasizing that order parameters provide useful estimates of local conformational entropy. The present results show that the protein backbone exhibits an increase in conformational entropy upon binding lactose, without any accompanying structural changes

  5. Effects of entropy changes in anodes and cathodes on the thermal behavior of lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williford, Ralph E.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The entropy changes ({delta}S) in various cathode and anode materials, as well as complete Li-ion batteries, were measured using an electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system (ETMS). A thermal model based on the fundamental properties of individual electrodes was used to obtain transient and equilibrium temperature distributions of Li-ion batteries. The results from theoretical simulations were compared with results obtained in experimental measurements. We found that the detailed shape of the entropy curves strongly depends on the manufacturer of the materials even for the same nominal compositions. LiCoO{sub 2} has a much larger entropy change than LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2}. This means that LiNi{sub x}Co{sub y}Mn{sub z}O{sub 2} is much more thermodynamically stable than LiCoO{sub 2}. The temperatures around the positive terminal of a prismatic battery are consistently higher than those at the negative terminal, due to differences in the thermal conductivities of the different terminal connectors. When all other simulation parameters are the same, simulations that use a battery-averaged entropy tend to overestimate the predicted temperatures when compared with simulations that use individual entropies for the anode and the cathode, due to computational averaging. (author)

  6. Entropies of the Chinese Land Use/Cover Change from 1990 to 2010 at a County Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Fan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Land Use/Cover Change (LUCC has gradually became an important direction in the research of global changes. LUCC is a complex system, and entropy is a measure of the degree of disorder of a system. According to land use information entropy, this paper analyzes changes in land use from the perspective of the system. Research on the entropy of LUCC structures has a certain “guiding role” for the optimization and adjustment of regional land use structure. Based on the five periods of LUCC data from the year of 1990 to 2010, this paper focuses on analyzing three types of LUCC entropies among counties in China—namely, Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. The findings suggest that: (1 Shannon entropy can reflect the volatility of the LUCC, that Renyi and Tsallis entropies also have this function when their parameter has a positive value, and that Renyi and Tsallis entropies can reflect the extreme case of the LUCC when their parameter has a negative value.; (2 The entropy of China’s LUCC is uneven in time and space distributions, and that there is a large trend during 1990–2010, the central region generally has high entropy in space.

  7. Entropy Generation Across Earth's Bow Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, George K.; McCarthy, Michael; Fu, Suiyan; Lee E. s; Cao, Jinbin; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Canu, Patrick; Dandouras, Iannis S.; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; hide

    2011-01-01

    Earth's bow shock is a transition layer that causes an irreversible change in the state of plasma that is stationary in time. Theories predict entropy increases across the bow shock but entropy has never been directly measured. Cluster and Double Star plasma experiments measure 3D plasma distributions upstream and downstream of the bow shock that allow calculation of Boltzmann's entropy function H and his famous H-theorem, dH/dt O. We present the first direct measurements of entropy density changes across Earth's bow shock. We will show that this entropy generation may be part of the processes that produce the non-thermal plasma distributions is consistent with a kinetic entropy flux model derived from the collisionless Boltzmann equation, giving strong support that solar wind's total entropy across the bow shock remains unchanged. As far as we know, our results are not explained by any existing shock models and should be of interests to theorists.

  8. Proposal for determining changes in entropy of semi ideal gas using mean values of temperature functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In a semi-ideal gas, entropy changes cannot be determined through the medium specific heat capacity in a manner as determined by the change of internal energy and enthalpy, i.e. the amount of heat exchanged. Taking this into account, the authors conducted two models through which it is possible to determine the change in the specific entropy of a semi-ideal gas for arbitrary temperature interval using the spread sheet method, using the mean values of the appropriate functions. The idea is to replace integration, which occurs here in evitably, with mean values of the previous functions. The models are derived based on the functional dependence of the actual specific heat capacity on the temperature. The theorem used is that of the mean value of a function as well as the mathematical properties of the definite integral. The mean value of a fractional function is determined via its integrand while the logarithmic functions were performed by applying a suitable transformation of the differential calculus. The relations derived relation, using the computer program, have enabled the design of appropriate thermodynamic tables through which it is possible to determine the change in entropy of arbitrary state changes in an efficient and rational manner, without the use of calculus or finished forms. In this way, the change in the entropy of a semi-ideal gas is determined for an arbitrary temperature interval using the method which is analogous to that applied in determining the change of internal energy and enthalpy or the amount of heat exchanged, which was the goal of the work. Verification of the proposed method for both the above functions was performed for a a few characteristic semi-ideal gases where change c(T is significant, for the three adopted temperature intervals, for the characteristic change of state. This was compared to the results of the classical integral and the proposed method through the prepared tables. In certain or special cases

  9. Physical entropy, information entropy and their evolution equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Inspired by the evolution equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics entropy and the concise statistical formula of the entropy production rate, we develop a theory of the dynamic information entropy and build a nonlinear evolution equation of the information entropy density changing in time and state variable space. Its mathematical form and physical meaning are similar to the evolution equation of the physical entropy: The time rate of change of information entropy density originates together from drift, diffusion and production. The concise statistical formula of information entropy production rate is similar to that of physical entropy also. Furthermore, we study the similarity and difference between physical entropy and information entropy and the possible unification of the two statistical entropies, and discuss the relationship among the principle of entropy increase, the principle of equilibrium maximum entropy and the principle of maximum information entropy as well as the connection between them and the entropy evolution equation.

  10. State fusion entropy for continuous and site-specific analysis of landslide stability changing regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Qin, Zhimeng; Hu, Baodan; Feng, Shuai

    2018-04-01

    Stability analysis is of great significance to landslide hazard prevention, especially the dynamic stability. However, many existing stability analysis methods are difficult to analyse the continuous landslide stability and its changing regularities in a uniform criterion due to the unique landslide geological conditions. Based on the relationship between displacement monitoring data, deformation states and landslide stability, a state fusion entropy method is herein proposed to derive landslide instability through a comprehensive multi-attribute entropy analysis of deformation states, which are defined by a proposed joint clustering method combining K-means and a cloud model. Taking Xintan landslide as the detailed case study, cumulative state fusion entropy presents an obvious increasing trend after the landslide entered accelerative deformation stage and historical maxima match highly with landslide macroscopic deformation behaviours in key time nodes. Reasonable results are also obtained in its application to several other landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. Combined with field survey, state fusion entropy may serve for assessing landslide stability and judging landslide evolutionary stages.

  11. Transfer Entropy Estimation and Directional Coupling Change Detection in Biomedical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Joon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of change in magnitude of directional coupling between two non-linear time series is a common subject of interest in the biomedical domain, including studies involving the respiratory chemoreflex system. Although transfer entropy is a useful tool in this avenue, no study to date has investigated how different transfer entropy estimation methods perform in typical biomedical applications featuring small sample size and presence of outliers. Methods With respect to detection of increased coupling strength, we compared three transfer entropy estimation techniques using both simulated time series and respiratory recordings from lambs. The following estimation methods were analyzed: fixed-binning with ranking, kernel density estimation (KDE, and the Darbellay-Vajda (D-V adaptive partitioning algorithm extended to three dimensions. In the simulated experiment, sample size was varied from 50 to 200, while coupling strength was increased. In order to introduce outliers, the heavy-tailed Laplace distribution was utilized. In the lamb experiment, the objective was to detect increased respiratory-related chemosensitivity to O2 and CO2 induced by a drug, domperidone. Specifically, the separate influence of end-tidal PO2 and PCO2 on minute ventilation (V˙E before and after administration of domperidone was analyzed. Results In the simulation, KDE detected increased coupling strength at the lowest SNR among the three methods. In the lamb experiment, D-V partitioning resulted in the statistically strongest increase in transfer entropy post-domperidone for PO2→V˙E. In addition, D-V partitioning was the only method that could detect an increase in transfer entropy for PCO2→V˙E, in agreement with experimental findings. Conclusions Transfer entropy is capable of detecting directional coupling changes in non-linear biomedical time series analysis featuring a small number of observations and presence of outliers. The results

  12. Entropy: Order or Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Naim, Arieh

    2011-01-01

    Changes in entropy can "sometimes" be interpreted in terms of changes in disorder. On the other hand, changes in entropy can "always" be interpreted in terms of changes in Shannon's measure of information. Mixing and demixing processes are used to highlight the pitfalls in the association of entropy with disorder. (Contains 3 figures.)

  13. Changing trends in total knee replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Goudie, Ewan; Robinson, Cal; Walmsley, Phil; Brenkel, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  This study evaluates a possible change in the demographics and surgical practice observed in a large cohort of patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR). Patients and methods:  We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected data on two groups of consecutive patients undergoing primary TKR. Group one consisted of patients who underwent surgery between 1994 and 1998. Group two consisted of patients who had surgery between 2009 and 2012. Results:  The me...

  14. Total least squares for anomalous change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theiler, James; Matsekh, Anna M.

    2010-04-01

    A family of subtraction-based anomalous change detection algorithms is derived from a total least squares (TLSQ) framework. This provides an alternative to the well-known chronochrome algorithm, which is derived from ordinary least squares. In both cases, the most anomalous changes are identified with the pixels that exhibit the largest residuals with respect to the regression of the two images against each other. The family of TLSQbased anomalous change detectors is shown to be equivalent to the subspace RX formulation for straight anomaly detection, but applied to the stacked space. However, this family is not invariant to linear coordinate transforms. On the other hand, whitened TLSQ is coordinate invariant, and special cases of it are equivalent to canonical correlation analysis and optimized covariance equalization. What whitened TLSQ offers is a generalization of these algorithms with the potential for better performance.

  15. Climate Change and Tropical Total Lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, R.; Petersen, W.; Buechler, D.; Goodman, S.; Blakeslee, R.; Christian, H.

    2009-01-01

    While global warming is regarded as a fact by many in the scientific community, its future impact remains a challenge to be determined and measured. The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment report (IPCC, 2007) shows inconclusive answers on global rainfall trends and general agreement on a future drier climate with increased global warming. The relationship between temperature, humidity and convection is not linear and is strongly dependent on regional scale features, such as topography and land cover. Furthermore, the relationship between convective lightning production (thunderstorms) and temperature is even more complicated, being subjected to the cloud dynamics and microphysics. Total lightning (intracloud and cloud-to-ground) monitoring is a relatively new field of observation. Global and tropical total lightning began to be more extensively measured by satellites in the mid 90s. In this scope, the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) onboard of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) has been operational for over 11 years. Here we address total lightning trends observed by LIS from 1998 to 2008 in different temporal (annual and seasonal) and spatial (large and regional) scales. The observed 11-year trends are then associate to different predicted/hypothesized climate change scenarios.

  16. Explaining the entropy concept and entropy components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Popovic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Total entropy of a thermodynamic system consists of two components: thermal entropy due to energy, and residual entropy due to molecular orientation. In this article, a three-step method for explaining entropy is suggested. Step one is to use a classical method to introduce thermal entropy STM as a function of temperature T and heat capacity at constant pressure Cp: STM = ∫(Cp/T dT. Thermal entropy is the entropy due to uncertainty in motion of molecules and vanishes at absolute zero (zero-point energy state. It is also the measure of useless thermal energy that cannot be converted into useful work. The next step is to introduce residual entropy S0 as a function of the number of molecules N and the number of distinct orientations available to them in a crystal m: S0 = N kB ln m, where kB is the Boltzmann constant. Residual entropy quantifies the uncertainty in molecular orientation. Residual entropy, unlike thermal entropy, is independent of temperature and remains present at absolute zero. The third step is to show that thermal entropy and residual entropy add up to the total entropy of a thermodynamic system S: S = S0 + STM. This method of explanation should result in a better comprehension of residual entropy and thermal entropy, as well as of their similarities and differences. The new method was tested in teaching at Faculty of Chemistry University of Belgrade, Serbia. The results of the test show that the new method has a potential to improve the quality of teaching.

  17. Entropy? Honest!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Toffoli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we deconstruct, and then in a reasoned way reconstruct, the concept of “entropy of a system”, paying particular attention to where the randomness may be coming from. We start with the core concept of entropy as a count associated with a description; this count (traditionally expressed in logarithmic form for a number of good reasons is in essence the number of possibilities—specific instances or “scenarios”—that match that description. Very natural (and virtually inescapable generalizations of the idea of description are the probability distribution and its quantum mechanical counterpart, the density operator. We track the process of dynamically updating entropy as a system evolves. Three factors may cause entropy to change: (1 the system’s internal dynamics; (2 unsolicited external influences on it; and (3 the approximations one has to make when one tries to predict the system’s future state. The latter task is usually hampered by hard-to-quantify aspects of the original description, limited data storage and processing resource, and possibly algorithmic inadequacy. Factors 2 and 3 introduce randomness—often huge amounts of it—into one’s predictions and accordingly degrade them. When forecasting, as long as the entropy bookkeping is conducted in an honest fashion, this degradation will always lead to an entropy increase. To clarify the above point we introduce the notion of honest entropy, which coalesces much of what is of course already done, often tacitly, in responsible entropy-bookkeping practice. This notion—we believe—will help to fill an expressivity gap in scientific discourse. With its help, we shall prove that any dynamical system—not just our physical universe—strictly obeys Clausius’s original formulation of the second law of thermodynamics if and only if it is invertible. Thus this law is a tautological property of invertible systems!

  18. Regional changes in the distribution of foreign aid: An entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Foreign aid contributes significantly to the income levels and economic viability of many developing countries. This paper investigates the dispersion in the distribution of foreign aid using the Theil entropy measure of inequality. Results show that the inequality (dispersion) of foreign aid has increased substantially in recent years. The increased inequality in the total distribution of aid has been due to both increases in the regional inequality of aid and increases in the average inequality of aid within each region. As a result, the distribution of aid is becoming less alike between regions and between countries within regions.

  19. Magnetic entropy change and critical exponents in double perovskite Y2NiMnO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, G.; Tripathi, T. S.; Saha, J.; Patnaik, S.

    2014-11-01

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) and the critical exponents in the double perovskite manganite Y2NiMnO6 with a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition TC~85 K. For a magnetic field change ΔH=80 kOe, a maximum magnetic entropy change ΔSM=-6.57 J/kg K is recorded around TC. The critical exponents β=0.363±0.05 and γ=1.331±0.09 obtained from power law fitting to spontaneous magnetization MS(T) and the inverse initial susceptibility χ0-1(T) satisfy well to values derived for a 3D-Heisenberg ferromagnet. The critical exponent δ=4.761±0.129 is determined from the isothermal magnetization at TC. The scaling exponents corresponding to second order phase transition are consistent with the exponents from Kouvel-Fisher analysis and satisfy Widom's scaling relation δ=1+(γ/β). Additionally, they also satisfy the single scaling equation M(H,ɛ)=ɛβf±(H/ɛ) according to which the magnetization-field-temperature data around TC should collapse into two curves for temperatures below and above TC.

  20. Detection of Changes in Ground-Level Ozone Concentrations via Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehua Wu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ground-level ozone concentration is a key indicator of air quality. Theremay exist sudden changes in ozone concentration data over a long time horizon, which may be caused by the implementation of government regulations and policies, such as establishing exhaust emission limits for on-road vehicles. To monitor and assess the efficacy of these policies, we propose a methodology for detecting changes in ground-level ozone concentrations, which consists of three major steps: data transformation, simultaneous autoregressive modelling and change-point detection on the estimated entropy. To show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, the methodology is applied to detect changes in ground-level ozone concentration data collected in the Toronto region of Canada between June and September for the years from 1988 to 2009. The proposed methodology is also applicable to other climate data.

  1. Sign reversal of transformation entropy change in Co2Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiao; Omori, Toshihiro; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Nagasako, Makoto; Kanomata, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and compression tests were performed on Co 2 Cr(Ga,Si) shape memory alloys. The reentrant martensitic transformation behavior was directly observed during the in situ XRD measurements. The high-temperature parent phase and low-temperature reentrant parent phase were found to have a continuous temperature dependence of lattice parameter, therefore suggesting that they are the same phase in nature. Moreover, compression tests were performed on a parent-phase single crystal sample; an evolution from normal to inverse temperature dependence of critical stress for martensitic transformation was directly observed. Based on the Clausius-Clapeyron analysis, a sign reversal of entropy change can be expected on the same alloy

  2. Entropy change at the magnetostructural transition in RCo2(R=Dy,Ho,Er)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero-Albillos, J.; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, L.M.; Casanova, F.; Labarta, A.; Batlle, X.

    2006-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry under applied magnetic field has been used to characterize the magnetocaloric effect in ErCo 2 , HoCo 2 , and DyCo 2 . The entropy change ΔS at the first-order magnetostructural transition present in these materials has been studied by inducing the transition; sweeping the temperature at a constant field and sweeping the field at a constant temperature. The corresponding values of ΔS differ significantly due to the broadness of the transition, i.e. the initial and final states involved when the transition is field or temperature induced are different. In the field-induced case, the additional work done by the magnetic field extending through the region in which the transition spread accounts roughly for the observed difference

  3. Quantum chaos: entropy signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, P.A.; Sarkar, S.; Zarum, R.

    1998-01-01

    A definition of quantum chaos is given in terms of entropy production rates for a quantum system coupled weakly to a reservoir. This allows the treatment of classical and quantum chaos on the same footing. In the quantum theory the entropy considered is the von Neumann entropy and in classical systems it is the Gibbs entropy. The rate of change of the coarse-grained Gibbs entropy of the classical system with time is given by the Kolmogorov-Sinai (KS) entropy. The relation between KS entropy and the rate of change of von Neumann entropy is investigated for the kicked rotator. For a system which is classically chaotic there is a linear relationship between these two entropies. Moreover it is possible to construct contour plots for the local KS entropy and compare it with the corresponding plots for the rate of change of von Neumann entropy. The quantitative and qualitative similarities of these plots are discussed for the standard map (kicked rotor) and the generalised cat maps. (author)

  4. Entanglement generation and entropy growth due to intrinsic decoherence in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A.-S.F.; Hessian, Hosny A.

    2004-01-01

    We study how intrinsic decoherence leads to growing entropy and a strong degradation of the maximal generated entanglement in the multiquanta Jaynes-Cummings model. We find an exact solution of the Milburn equation in multiquanta precesses and calculate the partial entropy of the particle (atom or trapped ion) and field subsystem as well as total entropy. As the total entropy is not conserved, and it is shown to increase as time develops, one cannot use the partial field or atomic entropy as a direct measure of particle-field entanglement. For a good entropy measure, we also calculate the negativity of the eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix. We find that, at least qualitatively, the difference of the total entropy to the sum of field and atom partial entropies can be also used as an entanglement measure. Our results show that the degree of entanglement is very sensitive to any change in the intrinsic decoherence parameter

  5. Change of entropy in the martensitic transformation and its dependence in Cu-based shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, R.; Pelegrina, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the entropy change ΔS between the β phase and the martensite in Cu-based shape memory alloys is presented. From a compilation of available experimental data, the composition dependence of ΔS was studied. The experimental data were analyzed within the frame of a simple model, which is based on the specific heats of the phases. It was demonstrated that the dependence of ΔS with composition comes only through the lattice parameter and the effective mass of the alloy. For the studied composition range, the greater vibrational entropy of β phase is mainly controlled by the high-mass Cu atoms

  6. Gene Network for Identifying the Entropy Changes of Different Modules in Pediatric Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Pediatric sepsis is a disease that threatens life of children. The incidence of pediatric sepsis is higher in developing countries due to various reasons, such as insufficient immunization and nutrition, water and air pollution, etc. Exploring the potential genes via different methods is of significance for the prevention and treatment of pediatric sepsis. This study aimed to identify potential genes associated with pediatric sepsis utilizing analysis of gene network and entropy. Methods: The mRNA expression in the blood samples collected from 20 septic children and 30 healthy controls was quantified by using Affymetrix HG-U133A microarray. Two condition-specific protein-protein interaction networks (PINs, one for the healthy control and the other one for the children with sepsis, were deduced by combining the fundamental human PINs with gene expression profiles in the two phenotypes. Subsequently, distinct modules from the two conditional networks were extracted by adopting a maximal clique-merging approach. Delta entropy (ΔS was calculated between sepsis and control modules. Results: Then, key genes displaying changes in gene composition were identified by matching the control and sepsis modules. Two objective modules were obtained, in which ribosomal protein RPL4 and RPL9 as well as TOP2A were probably considered as the key genes differentiating sepsis from healthy controls. Conclusion: According to previous reports and this work, TOP2A is the potential gene therapy target for pediatric sepsis. The relationship between pediatric sepsis and RPL4 and RPL9 needs further investigation.

  7. Large magnetic entropy change in melt-spun LaFe11.5Si1.5 ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Kun; Song Xiaoping; Zhu Yaoming; Lv Weipeng; Sun Zhanbo

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure transformation and the magnetic entropy change of LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 melt-spun ribbons were investigated. The melt-spun ribbons show a homogeneous distribution of elements, and the homogeneity develops further after 5 h annealing. XRD results show that the ribbons are composed of NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds and an α-Fe phase. After annealing, the ribbons crystallize well in the NaZn 13 -type structure and exhibit a very large magnetic entropy change. A first-order magnetic transition is observed in the annealed ribbons, and this is believed to be the origin of the large magnetic entropy. These results suggest that NaZn 13 -type LaFe 11.5 Si 1.5 compounds with a large magnetic entropy change can be produced by melt-spinning, the annealing time can be shortened significantly and the production cost of the magnetic refrigerant will be cut down accordingly

  8. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  9. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  10. Changes in the Complexity of Heart Rate Variability with Exercise Training Measured by Multiscale Entropy-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Sassoli Fazan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying complexity from heart rate variability (HRV series is a challenging task, and multiscale entropy (MSE, along with its variants, has been demonstrated to be one of the most robust approaches to achieve this goal. Although physical training is known to be beneficial, there is little information about the long-term complexity changes induced by the physical conditioning. The present study aimed to quantify the changes in physiological complexity elicited by physical training through multiscale entropy-based complexity measurements. Rats were subject to a protocol of medium intensity training ( n = 13 or a sedentary protocol ( n = 12 . One-hour HRV series were obtained from all conscious rats five days after the experimental protocol. We estimated MSE, multiscale dispersion entropy (MDE and multiscale SDiff q from HRV series. Multiscale SDiff q is a recent approach that accounts for entropy differences between a given time series and its shuffled dynamics. From SDiff q , three attributes (q-attributes were derived, namely SDiff q m a x , q m a x and q z e r o . MSE, MDE and multiscale q-attributes presented similar profiles, except for SDiff q m a x . q m a x showed significant differences between trained and sedentary groups on Time Scales 6 to 20. Results suggest that physical training increases the system complexity and that multiscale q-attributes provide valuable information about the physiological complexity.

  11. More dimensions: Less entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.; Lindley, D.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    For a cosmological model with d noncompact and D compact spatial dimensions and symmetry R 1 x S/sup d/ x S/sup D/, we calculate the entropy produced in d dimensions due to the compactification of D dimensions and show it too small to be of cosmological interest. Although insufficient entropy is produced in the model we study, the contraction of extra dimensions does lead to entropy production. We discuss modifications of our assumptions, including changing our condition for decoupling of the extra dimensions, which may lead to a large entropy production and change our conclusions

  12. Non-linear dielectric signatures of entropy changes in liquids subject to time dependent electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richert, Ranko [School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    A model of non-linear dielectric polarization is studied in which the field induced entropy change is the source of polarization dependent retardation time constants. Numerical solutions for the susceptibilities of the system are obtained for parameters that represent the dynamic and thermodynamic behavior of glycerol. The calculations for high amplitude sinusoidal fields show a significant enhancement of the steady state loss for frequencies below that of the low field loss peak. Also at relatively low frequencies, the third harmonic susceptibility spectrum shows a “hump,” i.e., a maximum, with an amplitude that increases with decreasing temperature. Both of these non-linear effects are consistent with experimental evidence. While such features have been used to conclude on a temperature dependent number of dynamically correlated particles, N{sub corr}, the present result demonstrates that the third harmonic susceptibility display a peak with an amplitude that tracks the variation of the activation energy in a model that does not involve dynamical correlations or spatial scales.

  13. Entropy-Stabilized Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    antiferroelectrics. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 017603 (2013). 22. Cantor , B., Chang, I., Knight, P. & Vincent, A. Microstructural development in equiatomic...Science 345, 1153–1158 (2014). 24. Gali, A. & George , E. Tensile properties of high- and medium-entropy alloys. Intermetallics 39, 74–78 (2013). 25...148–153 (2014). 26. Otto, F., Yang, Y., Bei, H. & George , E. Relative effects of enthalpy and entropy on the phase stability of equiatomic high-entropy

  14. Adjoint entropy vs topological entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Giordano Bruno, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently the adjoint algebraic entropy of endomorphisms of abelian groups was introduced and studied. We generalize the notion of adjoint entropy to continuous endomorphisms of topological abelian groups. Indeed, the adjoint algebraic entropy is defined using the family of all finite-index subgroups, while we take only the subfamily of all open finite-index subgroups to define the topological adjoint entropy. This allows us to compare the (topological) adjoint entropy with the known topologic...

  15. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhu eLiang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs’ effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of twelve entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP, in anesthesia induced by GA-BAergic agents.Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE and State entropy (SE, three wavelet entropy (WE measures (Shannon WE (SWE, Tsallis WE (TWE and Renyi WE (RWE, Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE, approximate entropy (ApEn, sample entropy (SampEn, Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE measures (Shannon PE (SPE, Tsallis PE (TPE and Renyi PE (RPE. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflu-rane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, phar-macokinetic / pharmacodynamic (PK/PD modeling and prediction probability analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA as a non-entropy measure was compared.Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline vari-ability, higher coefficient of determination and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an ad-vantage in computation efficiency compared with MDFA.Conclusion: Each entropy index has its advantages and disadvantages in estimating DoA. Overall, it is suggested that the RPE index was a superior measure.Significance: Investigating the advantages and disadvantages of these entropy indices could help improve current clinical indices for monitoring DoA.

  16. A Connection Entropy Approach to Water Resources Vulnerability Analysis in a Changing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengwei Pan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a water resources vulnerability framework based on sensitivity, natural resilience and artificial adaptation, through the analyses of the four states of the water system and its accompanying transformation processes. Furthermore, it proposes an analysis method for water resources vulnerability based on connection entropy, which extends the concept of contact entropy. An example is given of the water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province of China, which analysis illustrates that, overall, vulnerability levels fluctuated and showed apparent improvement trends from 2001 to 2015. Some suggestions are also provided for the improvement of the level of water resources vulnerability in Anhui Province, considering the viewpoint of the vulnerability index.

  17. Equipartition of entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondeur, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the optimal design or operation of heat and mass transfer processes and develops the following conjecture: for a given duty, the best configuration of the process is that in which the entropy production rate is most uniformly distributed. This principle is first analyzed in detail on the simple example of tubular heat exchangers, and within the framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics. A main result is established, which states that the total entropy production is minimal when the local production is uniformly distributed (equipartition). Corollaries then result, which relate the entropy production and the variance of its distribution to economic factors such as the duty, the exchange area, the fluid flow-rates, and the temperature changes. The equipartition principle is then extended to multiple independent variables (time and space), multicomponent transfer, and non-linear but concave flux vs force relationship. Chemical Engineering examples are discussed, where the equipartition property has been applied implicitly or explicitly: design of distillation plates, cyclic distillation, optimal state of feed, and flow-sheets in chromatographic separations. Finally, a generalization of the equipartition principle is proposed, for systems with a distributed design variable (such as the size of the various elements of a system). The optimal distribution of investment is such that the investment in each element (properly amortized) is equal to the cost of irreversible energy degradation in this element. This is equivalent to saying that the ratio of these two quantities is uniformly distributed over the system, and reduces to equipartition of entropy production when the cost factors are constant over the whole system

  18. Large rotating field entropy change in ErFeO3 single crystal with angular distribution contribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruoxiang; Cao, Shixun; Ren, Wei; Zhan, Sheng; Kang, Baojuan; Zhang, Jincang

    2013-10-01

    We report the rotating field entropy of ErFeO3 single-crystal in a temperature range of 3-40 K. The giant magnetic entropy change, ΔSM = -20.7 J/(kg K), and the refrigerant capacity, RC = 273.5 J/kg, are observed near T =6 K. The anisotropic constants at 6 K, K1 = 1.24× 103 J/kg, K2 = 0.74 × 103 J/kg, in the bc plane are obtained. By considering the magnetocrystalline anisotropy and Fermi-Dirac angular distribution along the orientation of spontaneous magnetization, the experimental results can be well simulated. Our present work demonstrates that ErFeO3 crystal may find practical use for low temperature anisotropic magnetic refrigeration.

  19. Entropy and chemical change. 1: Characterization of product (and reactant) energy distributions in reactive molecular collisions: Information and enthropy deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, R. B.; Levine, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    Optimal means of characterizing the distribution of product energy states resulting from reactive collisions of molecules with restricted distributions of initial states are considered, along with those for characterizing the particular reactant state distribution which yields a given set of product states at a specified total energy. It is suggested to represent the energy-dependence of global-type results in the form of square-faced bar plots, and of data for specific-type experiments as triangular-faced prismatic plots. The essential parameters defining the internal state distribution are isolated, and the information content of such a distribution is put on a quantitative basis. The relationship between the information content, the surprisal, and the entropy of the continuous distribution is established. The concept of an entropy deficiency, which characterizes the specificity of product state formation, is suggested as a useful measure of the deviance from statistical behavior. The degradation of information by experimental averaging is considered, leading to bounds on the entropy deficiency.

  20. Entropy change linked to the martensitic transformation inmetamagnetic shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J.I.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Zablotskyy, Vitaliy A.; Cesari, E.; Kustov, S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 60, 6-7 (2012), s. 3168-3175 ISSN 1359-6454 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : metamagnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) * martensitic phase transformation * thermodynamics * transformation entropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2012

  1. Broadening of the magnetic entropy change in La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krishnan Venkatesh, Radha; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    A broad table-like entropy change (ΔS) at room temperature has been observed in the ferromagnetic compound La0.75Ca0.15Sr0.10MnO3, which is analyzed in the concept of Landau theory and with critical exponent analysis obtained from the magnetization measurements. The change in entropy in La0.75Ca0...

  2. Long-Range Atomic Order and Entropy Change at the Martensitic Transformation in a Ni-Mn-In-Co Metamagnetic Shape Memory Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Sánchez-Alarcos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the atomic order on the martensitic transformation entropy change has been studied in a Ni-Mn-In-Co metamagnetic shape memory alloy through the evolution of the transformation temperatures under high-temperature quenching and post-quench annealing thermal treatments. It is confirmed that the entropy change evolves as a consequence of the variations on the degree of L21 atomic order brought by thermal treatments, though, contrary to what occurs in ternary Ni-Mn-In, post-quench aging appears to be the most effective way to modify the transformation entropy in Ni-Mn-In-Co. It is also shown that any entropy change value between around 40 and 5 J/kgK can be achieved in a controllable way for a single alloy under the appropriate aging treatment, thus bringing out the possibility of properly tune the magnetocaloric effect.

  3. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕc=e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕc and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  4. Emerging quasi-0D states at vanishing total entropy of the 1D hard sphere system: A coarse-grained similarity to the car parking problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frusawa, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    A coarse-grained system of one-dimensional (1D) hard spheres (HSs) is created using the Delaunay tessellation, which enables one to define the quasi-0D state. It is found from comparing the quasi-0D and 1D free energy densities that a frozen state due to the emergence of quasi-0D HSs is thermodynamically more favorable than fluidity with a large-scale heterogeneity above crossover volume fraction of ϕ c =e/(1+e)=0.731⋯ , at which the total entropy of the 1D state vanishes. The Delaunay-based lattice mapping further provides a similarity between the dense HS system above ϕ c and the jamming limit in the car parking problem.

  5. EEG entropy measures in anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhenhu; Wang, Yinghua; Sun, Xue; Li, Duan; Voss, Logan J.; Sleigh, Jamie W.; Hagihira, Satoshi; Li, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: ► Twelve entropy indices were systematically compared in monitoring depth of anesthesia and detecting burst suppression.► Renyi permutation entropy performed best in tracking EEG changes associated with different anesthesia states.► Approximate Entropy and Sample Entropy performed best in detecting burst suppression. Objective: Entropy algorithms have been widely used in analyzing EEG signals during anesthesia. However, a systematic comparison of these entropy algorithms in assessing anesthesia drugs' effect is lacking. In this study, we compare the capability of 12 entropy indices for monitoring depth of anesthesia (DoA) and detecting the burst suppression pattern (BSP), in anesthesia induced by GABAergic agents. Methods: Twelve indices were investigated, namely Response Entropy (RE) and State entropy (SE), three wavelet entropy (WE) measures [Shannon WE (SWE), Tsallis WE (TWE), and Renyi WE (RWE)], Hilbert-Huang spectral entropy (HHSE), approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn), Fuzzy entropy, and three permutation entropy (PE) measures [Shannon PE (SPE), Tsallis PE (TPE) and Renyi PE (RPE)]. Two EEG data sets from sevoflurane-induced and isoflurane-induced anesthesia respectively were selected to assess the capability of each entropy index in DoA monitoring and BSP detection. To validate the effectiveness of these entropy algorithms, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling and prediction probability (Pk) analysis were applied. The multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MDFA) as a non-entropy measure was compared. Results: All the entropy and MDFA indices could track the changes in EEG pattern during different anesthesia states. Three PE measures outperformed the other entropy indices, with less baseline variability, higher coefficient of determination (R2) and prediction probability, and RPE performed best; ApEn and SampEn discriminated BSP best. Additionally, these entropy measures showed an advantage in computation

  6. Nonsymmetric entropy and maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengshi

    2009-01-01

    Under the frame of a statistical model, the concept of nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzmann's entropy and Shannon's entropy, is defined. Maximum nonsymmetric entropy principle is proved. Some important distribution laws such as power law, can be derived from this principle naturally. Especially, nonsymmetric entropy is more convenient than other entropy such as Tsallis's entropy in deriving power laws.

  7. Symplectic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nicola, Sergio; Fedele, Renato; Man'ko, Margarita A; Man'ko, Vladimir I

    2007-01-01

    The tomographic-probability description of quantum states is reviewed. The symplectic tomography of quantum states with continuous variables is studied. The symplectic entropy of the states with continuous variables is discussed and its relation to Shannon entropy and information is elucidated. The known entropic uncertainty relations of the probability distribution in position and momentum of a particle are extended and new uncertainty relations for symplectic entropy are obtained. The partial case of symplectic entropy, which is optical entropy of quantum states, is considered. The entropy associated to optical tomogram is shown to satisfy the new entropic uncertainty relation. The example of Gaussian states of harmonic oscillator is studied and the entropic uncertainty relations for optical tomograms of the Gaussian state are shown to minimize the uncertainty relation

  8. Nonequilibrium entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In contrast to the quite unique entropy concept useful for systems in (local) thermodynamic equilibrium, there is a variety of quite distinct nonequilibrium entropies, reflecting different physical points. We disentangle these entropies as they relate to heat, fluctuations, response, time asymmetry, variational principles, monotonicity, volume contraction or statistical forces. However, not all of those extensions yield state quantities as understood thermodynamically. At the end we sketch how aspects of dynamical activity can take over for obtaining an extended Clausius relation.

  9. Nearly constant magnetic entropy change involving two closely spaced transitions in the compound LaFe11.375Al1.625

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, F X; Qian, X L; Wang, G J; Wang, J; Sun, J R; Zhang, X X; Cheng, Z H; Shen, B G

    2003-01-01

    A large change in the magnetic entropy, |ΔS|, was observed in the Fe-based NaZn 13 -type compound LaFe 11.375 Al 1.625 , which was nearly temperature independent over a wide temperature range (an about 70 K span from ∼ 140 to 210 K). This behaviour of the magnetic entropy change is associated with two closely spaced magnetic transitions. X-ray diffraction investigation at different temperatures indicates that the crystal structure remains cubic, of NaZn 13 type, when the magnetic state changes with temperature, but the cell parameter changes dramatically at the first-order transition point

  10. Changes in total carbohydrate and total antioxidant activity induced by gamma irradiation of wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manupriya, B.R.; Shenoy, K. Bhasker; Patil, Shrikant L.; Somashekarappa, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Wheat is a staple food grain in India after rice and occupies number one position in the world. The wheat crop not only gives food grains but also gives fodder for animals. Among many preservation methods irradiation is a current technique used to overcome infestation, contamination and spoilage of stored grains. The present study is aimed to check the changes in composition of irradiated wheat flour. Wheat flour was exposed to five different irradiation doses (0.25 KGy, 0.5KGy, 1KGy, 5KGy and 10 KGy) by using 60 Co gamma-irradiation chamber. Irradiated flour was stored in air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container at room temperature for different time intervals (0 th day, 1 month and 3 months). The stored flour was checked for total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdate method and total carbohydrates concentration by phenol-sulphuric acid method. On 0 th day total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was found to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.113 mg/ml and 0.045 mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.79 mg/ml and 39.5 mg/ml). Similarly for 1 month stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch total antioxidant activity and total carbohydrate concentration was observed to be increased at 0.5KGy (0.117 mg/ml and 0.045mg/ml respectively) when compared to control (0.096 mg/ml and 0.035 mg/ml). But in case of stored samples of plastic container total antioxidant activity increased at 0.25KGy (0.060 mg/ml) and total carbohydrate increased at 5KGy (0.051 mg/ml). Increased and decreased values were found in both factors for 3 months stored samples of air sealed polyethylene pouch and plastic container. Total antioxidant activity increased at 5KGy (0.072 mg/ml) for polyethylene bag samples and at 0.5KGy (0.137 mg/ml) for plastic container sample. Same way total carbohydrate concentration increased at 0.25KGy (0.046 mg/ml) and at 1KGy (0.045 mg/ml) respectively. This increase is due to affects of γ-irradiation on biomolecules by

  11. Changes in serum iron, total iron binding capacity and transferrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron is a vital constituent of cells but in excess may be harmful and is associated with a raised risk for some malignant diseases including breast cancer. We aimed to study changes in iron profile in Sudanese females newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods: A case- control study in which serum iron, Total ...

  12. Communication, functional disorders and lifestyle changes after total laryngectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackerstaff, A. H.; Hilgers, F. J.; Aaronson, N. K.; Balm, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Functional changes after total laryngectomy, including voice quality, hyposmia and dysgeusia, nasal discharge, swallowing and smoking habits were studied by means of a structured interview with 63 laryngectomized patients. Eighty per cent of the patients reported that they were satisfied with the

  13. Comparative changes in monthly blood urea nitrogen, total protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the comparative changes in the monthly blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration, total protein (TP) concentration in blood serum and the body condition score of Nguni cows and heifers raised on sweetveld. Twenty-four clinically healthy animals in different parities, namely Parity ...

  14. Magnetic entropy-change in La0.67-xBixCa0.33MnO3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalay, S.; Kolat, V.S.; Gencer, H.; Adiguzel, H.I.

    2006-01-01

    Bi doped lanthanum manganites with the chemical composition of La 0.67-x Bi x Ca 0.33 MnO 3 (x=0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2) were prepared by the standard solid-state process. The Curie temperatures were measured to be 267K for x=0, 248K for x=0.05, 244K for x=0.1 and 229K for x=0.2 samples. It was found that the maximum value of the magnetic entropy change |ΔS m | has reached the highest value of 6.08J/kgK at 3T for the composition with x=0.05. Nearly the same maximum entropy change was observed for the x=0 sample. A large decrease in the magnitude of the entropy change was observed for the x=0.2 sample

  15. Theoretical investigations on magnetic entropy change in amorphous and crystalline systems: Applications to RAg (R=Tb, Dy, Ho) and GdCuAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P.J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Nóbrega, E.P. [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Alho, B.P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 RJ (Brazil); Ribeiro, P.O.; Alvarenga, T.S.T.; Lopes, P.H.O.; Sousa, V.S.R. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, A. Magnus G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, CNPEM, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, N.A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetic entropy changes in amorphous systems through two different assumptions. In the first assumption, the HPZ-anisotropic model is considered to deal with the random direction of magnetic moments, where the amorphous RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) were used as prototypes systems. In the second assumption, the amorphisation is parameterized through the exchange interaction distribution and GdCuAl, in amorphous and crystalline structures, were considered as prototypes systems. Comparisons between the magnetic entropy changes under amorphisation and under the usual magnetic field variation were performed. The model reveals the dependence of refrigerant capacity on the amorphisation parameter, and an optimum amorphisation parameter was calculated. - Highlights: • Theoretical investigation on RAg (R=Tb, Dy and Ho) and GdCuAl amorphous alloys. • Magnetic entropy changes in GdCuAl in both amorphous and crystalline structures. • The refrigerant capacity was compared in both amorphous and crystalline phases.

  16. Linking entropy flow with typhoon evolution: a case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C; Xu, H; Liu, Y

    2007-01-01

    This paper is mainly aimed at investigating the relationship of entropy flow with an atmospheric system (typhoon), based on the observational analyses covering its whole life-cycle. The formula for calculating entropy flow is derived starting with the Gibbs relation with data from the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The results show that: (i) entropy flow characteristics at different vertical layers of the system are heterogeneous with predominant negative entropy flow in the large portion of the troposphere and positive ones at upper levels during its development; (ii) changes in the maximum surface wind velocity or the intensity of a typhoon are synchronous with the total entropy flow around the typhoon centre and its neighbourhood, suggesting that the growth of a severe atmospheric system relies greatly upon the negative entropy flow being strong enough, and that entropy flow analysis might provide a particular point of view and a powerful tool to understand the mechanism responsible for the life-cycle of an atmospheric system and associated weather events; and (iii) the horizontal pattern of negative entropy flow near the surface might contain some significant information conducive to the track forecast of typhoons

  17. On holographic defect entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estes, John; Jensen, Kristan; O’Bannon, Andy; Tsatis, Efstratios; Wrase, Timm

    2014-01-01

    We study a number of (3+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional defect and boundary conformal field theories holographically dual to supergravity theories. In all cases the defects or boundaries are planar, and the defects are codimension-one. Using holography, we compute the entanglement entropy of a (hemi-)spherical region centered on the defect (boundary). We define defect and boundary entropies from the entanglement entropy by an appropriate background subtraction. For some (3+1)-dimensional theories we find evidence that the defect/boundary entropy changes monotonically under certain renormalization group flows triggered by operators localized at the defect or boundary. This provides evidence that the g-theorem of (1+1)-dimensional field theories generalizes to higher dimensions

  18. Entropy maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf f that satisfy. ∫ fhi dμ = λi for i = 1, 2,...,...k the maximizer of entropy is an f0 that is pro- portional to exp(. ∑ ci hi ) for some choice of ci . An extension of this to a continuum of.

  19. Entropy Maximization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is shown that (i) every probability density is the unique maximizer of relative entropy in an appropriate class and (ii) in the class of all pdf that satisfy ∫ f h i d = i for i = 1 , 2 , … , … k the maximizer of entropy is an f 0 that is proportional to exp ⁡ ( ∑ c i h i ) for some choice of c i . An extension of this to a continuum of ...

  20. Phase change thermal storage for a solar total energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. E.; Cohen, B. M.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical and experimental program is being conducted on a one-tenth scale model of a high-temperature (584 K) phase-change thermal energy storage system for installation in a solar total energy test facility at Albuquerque, New Mexico, U.S.A. The thermal storage medium is anhydrous sodium hydroxide with 8% sodium nitrate. The program will produce data on the dynamic response of the system to repeated cycles of charging and discharging simulating those of the test facility. Data will be correlated with a mathematical model which will then be used in the design of the full-scale system.

  1. Entropy: From Thermodynamics to Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Some known results from statistical thermophysics as well as from hydrology are revisited from a different perspective trying: (a to unify the notion of entropy in thermodynamic and statistical/stochastic approaches of complex hydrological systems and (b to show the power of entropy and the principle of maximum entropy in inference, both deductive and inductive. The capability for deductive reasoning is illustrated by deriving the law of phase change transition of water (Clausius-Clapeyron from scratch by maximizing entropy in a formal probabilistic frame. However, such deductive reasoning cannot work in more complex hydrological systems with diverse elements, yet the entropy maximization framework can help in inductive inference, necessarily based on data. Several examples of this type are provided in an attempt to link statistical thermophysics with hydrology with a unifying view of entropy.

  2. Validating the Changes to Self-identity After Total Laryngectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, Jane; Coveney, John; Baker, Janet; Hersh, Deborah

    2018-05-25

    A total laryngectomy often prolongs life but results in long-term disablement, disfigurement, and complex care needs. Current clinical practice addresses the surgical options, procedures, and immediate recovery. Less support is available longer-term despite significant changes to aspects of personhood and ongoing medical needs. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of living with and/or supporting individuals with a laryngectomy at least 1 year after surgery. Constructivist grounded theory methods and symbolic interactionism were used to guide collection and analysis of interview data from 28 participants (12 individuals with a laryngectomy, 9 primary supporters, and 7 health professionals). The phenomena of "validating the altered self after total laryngectomy" highlighted how individuals, postlaryngectomy, navigate and negotiate interactions due to the disruption of their self-expression, related competencies, and roles. Several reframing patterns representing validation of the self emerged from the narratives. They were as follows: destabilized, resigned, resolute, and transformed. The data describe the influence of the processes of developing competence and building resilience, combined with contextual factors, for example, timing and turning points; being supported; and personal factors on these reframing patterns. The findings further our understanding of the long-term subjective experience of identity change after laryngectomy and call attention to the persisting need for psychosocial support. This research provides important evidence for evaluating and strengthening the continuum of services (specialist to community) and supporting social participation, regardless of communication method, and for competency training for all involved to optimize person-centered practices.

  3. Magnetic entropy change and critical exponents in double perovskite Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Tripathi, T.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi-110067 (India); Saha, J. [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India); Patnaik, S., E-mail: spatnaik@mail.jnu.ac.in [School of Physical Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi-110067 (India)

    2014-11-15

    We report the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and the critical exponents in the double perovskite manganite Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} with a ferromagnetic to paramagnetic transition T{sub C}∼85K. For a magnetic field change ΔH=80kOe, a maximum magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}=−6.57J/kgK is recorded around T{sub C}. The critical exponents β=0.363±0.05 and γ=1.331±0.09 obtained from power law fitting to spontaneous magnetization M{sub S}(T) and the inverse initial susceptibility χ{sub 0}{sup −1}(T) satisfy well to values derived for a 3D-Heisenberg ferromagnet. The critical exponent δ=4.761±0.129 is determined from the isothermal magnetization at T{sub C}. The scaling exponents corresponding to second order phase transition are consistent with the exponents from Kouvel–Fisher analysis and satisfy Widom's scaling relation δ=1+(γ/β). Additionally, they also satisfy the single scaling equation M(H,ϵ)=ϵ{sup β}f±(H/ϵ{sup β+γ}) according to which the magnetization-field-temperature data around T{sub C} should collapse into two curves for temperatures below and above T{sub C}. - Highlights: • The magneto-caloric (MC) effect and the critical exponent analysis in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} are studied. • Methods such as Kouvel–Fisher, Widom's and Mean-Field scaling are used. • The magnetic ground state in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} is based on isotropic 3D Heisenberg model. • The large MC effect can be utilized towards magnetic refrigeration around 77 K. • The nearest neighbor interaction in Y{sub 2}NiMnO{sub 6} rules out ferroelectricity.

  4. Entropy statistics and information theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; Hanusch, H.; Pyka, A.

    2007-01-01

    Entropy measures provide important tools to indicate variety in distributions at particular moments in time (e.g., market shares) and to analyse evolutionary processes over time (e.g., technical change). Importantly, entropy statistics are suitable to decomposition analysis, which renders the

  5. Changes in EEG complexity with electroconvulsive therapy in a patient with autism spectrum disorders: a multiscale entropy approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoko eOkazaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASD are heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders that are reportedly characterized by aberrant neural networks. Recently developed multiscale entropy analysis (MSE can characterize the complexity inherent in EEG dynamics over multiple temporal scales in the dynamics of neural networks. We encountered an 18-year-old man with ASD whose refractory catatonic obsessive–compulsive symptoms were improved dramatically after electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. In this clinical case study, we strove to clarify the neurophysiological mechanism of ECT in ASD by assessing EEG complexity using MSE. Along with ECT, the frontocentral region showed decreased EEG complexity at higher temporal scales, whereas the occipital region expressed an increase at lower temporal scales. Furthermore, these changes were associated with clinical improvement associated with the elevation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which is a molecular hypothesis of ECT, playing key roles in ASD pathogenesis. Changes in EEG complexity in a region-specific and temporal scale-specific manner we found might reflect atypical EEG dynamics in ASD. Although MSE is not a direct approach to measuring neural connectivity and the results are from only a single case, they might reflect specific aberrant neural network activity and the therapeutic neurophysiological mechanism of ECT in ASD.

  6. Control entropy identifies differential changes in complexity of walking and running gait patterns with increasing speed in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Stephen J; Busa, Michael A; Skufca, Joseph; Yaggie, James A; Bollt, Erik M

    2009-06-01

    Regularity statistics have been previously applied to walking gait measures in the hope of gaining insight into the complexity of gait under different conditions and in different populations. Traditional regularity statistics are subject to the requirement of stationarity, a limitation for examining changes in complexity under dynamic conditions such as exhaustive exercise. Using a novel measure, control entropy (CE), applied to triaxial continuous accelerometry, we report changes in complexity of walking and running during increasing speeds up to exhaustion in highly trained runners. We further apply Karhunen-Loeve analysis in a new and novel way to the patterns of CE responses in each of the three axes to identify dominant modes of CE responses in the vertical, mediolateral, and anterior/posterior planes. The differential CE responses observed between the different axes in this select population provide insight into the constraints of walking and running in those who may have optimized locomotion. Future comparisons between athletes, healthy untrained, and clinical populations using this approach may help elucidate differences between optimized and diseased locomotor control.

  7. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  8. Using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverick, Graham; Szturm, Tony; Wu, Christine Q

    2014-12-01

    Entropy measures have been widely used to quantify the complexity of theoretical and experimental dynamical systems. In this paper, the value of using entropy measures to characterize human locomotion is demonstrated based on their construct validity, predictive validity in a simple model of human walking and convergent validity in an experimental study. Results show that four of the five considered entropy measures increase meaningfully with the increased probability of falling in a simple passive bipedal walker model. The same four entropy measures also experienced statistically significant increases in response to increasing age and gait impairment caused by cognitive interference in an experimental study. Of the considered entropy measures, the proposed quantized dynamical entropy (QDE) and quantization-based approximation of sample entropy (QASE) offered the best combination of sensitivity to changes in gait dynamics and computational efficiency. Based on these results, entropy appears to be a viable candidate for assessing the stability of human locomotion.

  9. Misuse of thermodynamic entropy in economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, Andrey V.

    2016-01-01

    The direct relationship between thermodynamic entropy and economic scarcity is only valid for a thermodynamically isolated economy. References to the second law of thermodynamics in economics within the context of scarcity ignore the fact that the earth is not an isolated system. The earth interacts with external sources and sinks of entropy and the resulting total entropy fluctuates around a constant. Even if the mankind finally proves unable to recycle industrial waste and close the technological cycle, the economic disruption caused by the depletion of natural resources may happen while the total thermodynamic entropy of the ecosystem remains essentially at the present level, because the transfer of chemically refined products may not increase significantly the total entropy, but it may decrease their recyclability. The inutility of industrial waste is not connected with its entropy, which may be exemplified with the case of alumina production. The case also demonstrates that industrially generated entropy is discharged into surroundings without being accumulated in ‘thermodynamically unavailable matter’. Material entropy, as a measure of complexity and economic dispersal of resources, can be a recyclability metric, but it is not a thermodynamic parameter, and its growth is not equivalent to the growth of thermodynamic entropy. - Highlights: • Entropy cannot be used as a measure of economic scarcity. • There is no anthropogenic entropy separate from the entropy produced naturally. • Inutility of industrial waste is not connected with its thermodynamic entropy. • Industrially generated entropy may or may not be accumulated in industrial waste. • Recyclability is more important than thermodynamic entropy of a product.

  10. Analysis of the first-order phase transition of (Mn,Fe)2(P,Si,Ge) using entropy change scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G F; Zhao, Z R; Zhang, X F; Song, L; Tegus, O

    2013-01-01

    For materials with small size of the discontinuities of the free energy derivatives at transition, it is not so easy to determine the order of the transition using the criterion of the Arrott plot. In our previous paper, we found that the Mn 2−x Fe x P 0.6 Si 0.25 Ge 0.15 compounds with x = 0.7 and 0.8 undergo first-order phase transitions but apparently shows some characteristics of a second-order phase transition. In this paper, we have employed the Arrott plot and entropy change scaling to analyse the nature of the transitions for those compounds. The results reveal that the use of entropy change scaling is more effective than the Arrott plot for determining the nature of the transition in such materials. (paper)

  11. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Gooley, Joshua J

    2015-11-01

    The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21-28 y (n = 20). Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  12. Magnetic phase transitions and large magnetic entropy change with a wide temperature span in HoZn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingwei, E-mail: wei0396@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Yuan, Ye [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); Zhang, Yikun [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Pöttgen, Rainer [Institut für Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universität Münster, Corrensstrasse 30, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Zhou, Shengqiang [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Magnetic phase transitions and magnetocaloric effect in HoZn were studied. • The critical properties of HoZn were systematically investigated. • The obtained critical exponents are satisfied with scaling theory. • A large reversible magnetocaloric effect in HoZn was observed. • HoZn could be a promising candidate for magnetic refrigeration. - Abstract: CsCl-type HoZn undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions: (i) paramagnetic to ferromagnetic (FM) at T{sub C} ∼ 72 K and (ii) a spin reorientation (SR) at T{sub SR} ∼ 26 K. Magnetization and modified Arrott plots indicate that HoZn undergoes a second-order magnetic phase transition around T{sub C}. The obtained critical exponents have some small deviations from the mean-field theory, indicating a short range or a local magnetic interaction which is properly related to the coexistence of FM and SR transitions at low temperature. Two successive magnetic transitions in HoZn induce one broad pronounced peak together with a shoulder in the temperature dependence of the magnetic entropy change −ΔS{sub M}(T) curves, resulting in a wide temperature range with a large relative cooling power (RCP). For a field change of 0–7 T, the maximum value of −ΔS{sub M} is 15.2 J/kg K around T{sub C} with a large RCP value of 1124 J/kg. The large reversible magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and RC indicate that HoZn is a good candidate for active magnetic refrigeration.

  13. Determination of the seasonal changes on total fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total fatty acid compositions and seasonal variations of Oncorhynchus mykiss in Ivriz Dam Lake, Turkey were investigated using gas chromatographic method. A total of 38 different fatty acids were determined in the fatty acid composition of rainbow trout. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were found to be higher than ...

  14. Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes associated with negative lattice expansions in NaZn13-type compounds LaFeCoSi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feng-Xia; Qian, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Guang-Jun; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Gao, Ju

    2005-11-01

    Magnetoresistances and magnetic entropy changes in NaZn13-type compounds La(Fe1-xCox)11.9Si1.1 (x=0.04, 0.06 and 0.08) with Curie temperatures of 243 K, 274 K and 301 K, respectively, are studied. The ferromagnetic ordering is accompanied by a negative lattice expansion. Large magnetic entropy changes in a wide temperature range from ~230 K to ~320 K are achieved. Raising Co content increases the Curie temperature but weakens the magnetovolume effect, thereby causing a decrease in magnetic entropy change. These materials exhibit a metallic character below TC, whereas the electrical resistance decreases abruptly and then recovers the metal-like behaviour above TC. Application of a magnetic field retains the transitions via increasing the ferromagnetic ordering temperature. An isothermal increase in magnetic field leads to an increase in electrical resistance at temperatures near but above TC, which is a consequence of the field-induced metamagnetic transition from a paramagnetic state to a ferromagnetic state.

  15. Enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Enthalpy-entropy compensation was found to be a universal law in protein unfolding based on over 3 000 experimental data. Water molecular reorganization accompanying the protein unfolding was suggested as the origin of the enthalpy-entropy compensation in protein unfolding. It is indicated that the enthalpy-entropy compensation constitutes the physical foundation that satisfies the biological need of the small free energy changes in protein unfolding, without the sacrifice of the bio-diversity of proteins. The enthalpy-entropy compensation theory proposed herein also provides valuable insights into the Privalov's puzzle of enthalpy and entropy convergence in protein unfolding.

  16. The concept of entropy. Relation between action and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-P.Badiali

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Boltzmann expression for entropy represents the traditional link between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. New theoretical developments like the Unruh effect or the black hole theory suggest a new definition of entropy. In this paper we consider the thermodynamics of black holes as seriously founded and we try to see what we can learn from it in the case of ordinary systems for which a pre-relativistic description is sufficient. We introduce a space-time model and a new definition of entropy considering the thermal equilibrium from a dynamic point of view. Then we show that for black hole and ordinary systems we have the same relation relating a change of entropy to a change of action.

  17. Total Quality Management: A Mindset and Method to Stimulate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Janet A.

    1993-01-01

    Provides a review of the total quality management movement and process, and advocates applying it to higher education as a solution to current problems. Customer emphasis, continuous improvement, developing human resources, and using tools for process development are described; and examples from specific academic institutions are included.…

  18. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  19. Holographic entanglement entropy and cyclic cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Paul H.

    2018-06-01

    We discuss a cyclic cosmology in which the visible universe, or introverse, is all that is accessible to an observer while the extroverse represents the total spacetime originating from the time when the dark energy began to dominate. It is argued that entanglement entropy of the introverse is the more appropriate quantity to render infinitely cyclic, rather than the entropy of the total universe. Since vanishing entanglement entropy implies disconnected spacetimes, at the turnaround when the introverse entropy is zero the disconnected extroverse can be jettisoned with impunity.

  20. Total ozone changes in the 1987 Antarctic ozone hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Arlin J.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Doiron, Scott D.; Sechrist, Frank; Galimore, Reginald

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Antarctic ozone minimum was observed in 1987 with the Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. In the first half of August the near-polar (60 and 70 deg S) ozone levels were similar to those of recent years. By September, however, the ozone at 70 and 80 deg S was clearly lower than any previous year including 1985, the prior record low year. The levels continued to decrease throughout September until October 5 when a new record low of 109 DU was established at a point near the South Pole. This value is 29 DU less than the lowest observed in 1985 and 48 DU less than the 1986 low. The zonal mean total ozone at 60 deg S remained constant throughout the time of ozone hole formation. The ozone decline was punctuated by local minima formed away from the polar night boundary at about 75 deg S. The first of these, on August 15 to 17, formed just east of the Palmer Peninsula and appears to be a mountain wave. The second major minimum formed on September 5 to 7 again downwind of the Palmer Peninsula. This event was larger in scale than the August minimum and initiated the decline of ozone across the polar region. The 1987 ozone hole was nearly circular and pole centered for its entire life. In previous years the hole was perturbed by intrusions of the circumpolar maximum into the polar regions, thus causing the hole to be elliptical. The 1987 hole also remained in place until the end of November, a few days longer than in 1985, and this persistence resulted in the latest time for recovery to normal values yet observed.

  1. Bubble Entropy: An Entropy Almost Free of Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manis, George; Aktaruzzaman, Md; Sassi, Roberto

    2017-11-01

    Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation entropy, where the vectors in the embedding space are ranked. We use the bubble sort algorithm for the ordering procedure and count instead the number of swaps performed for each vector. Doing so, we create a more coarse-grained distribution and then compute the entropy of this distribution. Results: Experimental results with both real and synthetic HRV signals showed that bubble entropy presents remarkable stability and exhibits increased descriptive and discriminating power compared to all other definitions, including the most popular ones. Conclusion: The definition proposed is almost free of parameters. The most common ones are the scale factor r and the embedding dimension m . In our definition, the scale factor is totally eliminated and the importance of m is significantly reduced. The proposed method presents increased stability and discriminating power. Significance: After the extensive use of some entropy measures in physiological signals, typical values for their parameters have been suggested, or at least, widely used. However, the parameters are still there, application and dataset dependent, influencing the computed value and affecting the descriptive power. Reducing their significance or eliminating them alleviates the problem, decoupling the method from the data and the application, and eliminating subjective factors. Objective : A critical point in any definition of entropy is the selection of the parameters employed to obtain an estimate in practice. We propose a new definition of entropy aiming to reduce the significance of this selection. Methods: We call the new definition Bubble Entropy . Bubble Entropy is based on permutation

  2. Understanding Chemical Equilibrium Using Entropy Analysis: The Relationship between [delta]S[subscript tot](sys[superscript o]) and the Equilibrium Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindel, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    Entropy analyses as a function of the extent of reaction are presented for a number of physicochemical processes, including vaporization of a liquid, dimerization of nitrogen dioxide, and the autoionization of water. Graphs of the total entropy change versus the extent of reaction give a visual representation of chemical equilibrium and the second…

  3. Thermal modulation voltammetry with laser heating at an aqueous|nitrobenzene solution microinterface: determination of the standard entropy changes of transfer for tetraalkylammonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinoue, Teruo; Ikeda, Eiji; Watariguchi, Shigeru; Kibune, Yasuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Thermal modulation voltammetry (TMV) with laser heating was successfully performed at an aqueous|nitrobenzene (NB) solution microinterface, by taking advantage of the fact that laser light with a wavelength of 325.0 nm is optically transparent to the aqueous solution but opaque to the NB solution. When the laser beam impinges upon the interface from the aqueous solution side, a temperature is raised around the interface through the thermal diffusion subsequent to the light-to-heat conversion following the optical absorption by the NB solution near the interface. Based on such a principle, we achieved a fluctuating temperature perturbation around the interface for TMV by periodically irradiating the interface with the laser beam. On the other hand, the fluctuating temperature perturbation has influence on currents for transfer of an ion across the interface to produce fluctuating currents synchronized with the perturbation through temperature coefficients of several variables concerning the transfer, such as the standard transfer potential and the diffusion coefficient of the ion. Consequently, TMV has the possibility of providing information about the standard entropy change of transfer corresponding to a temperature coefficient of the standard transfer potential and a temperature coefficient of the diffusion coefficient. In this work, the aqueous|NB solution interface of 30 microm in diameter was irradiated with the laser beam at 10 Hz, and the currents synchronized with the periodical irradiation were recorded as a function of the potential difference across the interface in order to construct a TM voltammogram. TM voltammograms were measured for transfer of tetramethylammonium, tetraethylammonium, tetrapropylammonium, and tetra-n-butylammonium ions from the aqueous solution to the NB solution, and the standard entropy change of transfer was determined for each ion, according to an analytical procedure based on a mathematical expression of the TM voltammogram

  4. Phase equilibrium of PuO2-x - Pu2O3 based on first-principles calculations and configurational entropy change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamoto, Satoshi; Kato, Masato; Konashi, Kenji

    2011-01-01

    Combination of an oxygen vacancy formation energy calculated using first-principles approach and the configurational entropy change treated within the framework of statistical mechanics gives an expression of the Gibbs free energy at large deviation from stoichiometry of plutonium oxide PuO 2 . An oxygen vacancy formation energy 4.20 eV derived from our previously first-principles calculation was used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy change due to oxygen vacancies in the crystal. The oxygen partial pressures then can be evaluated from the change of the free energy with two fitting parameters (a vacancy-vacancy interaction energy and vibration entropy change due to induced vacancies). Derived thermodynamic expression for the free energy based on the SGTE thermodynamic data for the stoichiometric PuO 2 and the Pu 2 O 3 compounds was further incorporated into the CALPHAD modeling, then phase equilibrium between the stoichiometric Pu 2 O 3 and non-stoichiometric PuO 2-x were reproduced.

  5. Phase equilibrium of PuO{sub 2-x} - Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} based on first-principles calculations and configurational entropy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamoto, Satoshi, E-mail: satoshi.minamoto@ctc-g.co.jp [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corporation, Kasumigaseki, 2-5, Kasumigaseki 3-chome, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100-6080 (Japan); Kato, Masato [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki (Japan); Konashi, Kenji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Oarai-chou, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-05-31

    Combination of an oxygen vacancy formation energy calculated using first-principles approach and the configurational entropy change treated within the framework of statistical mechanics gives an expression of the Gibbs free energy at large deviation from stoichiometry of plutonium oxide PuO{sub 2}. An oxygen vacancy formation energy 4.20 eV derived from our previously first-principles calculation was used to evaluate the Gibbs free energy change due to oxygen vacancies in the crystal. The oxygen partial pressures then can be evaluated from the change of the free energy with two fitting parameters (a vacancy-vacancy interaction energy and vibration entropy change due to induced vacancies). Derived thermodynamic expression for the free energy based on the SGTE thermodynamic data for the stoichiometric PuO{sub 2} and the Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} compounds was further incorporated into the CALPHAD modeling, then phase equilibrium between the stoichiometric Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and non-stoichiometric PuO{sub 2-x} were reproduced.

  6. Global changes in total and wind electricity (1990–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del P. Pablo-Romero

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the renewable energies which have less adverse environmental impact and is becoming economically affordable long before several other renewable energies. Over recent years, substantial additions have been noted in wind energy capacity, although many differences can be observed between countries. Using the latest available data, this paper provides a concise analysis of wind energy and electricity consumption trends for the period 1990–2014 in a dual perspective, by principal world regions and by per capita gross national income levels in 2014. Electricity consumption has been divided into three types of energy: non-renewable, renewable excluding wind and wind energy. Annual rates of change, energy intensity, energy in per capita terms and some ratios have been analyzed. Notable regional differences and trends are observed in the studied variables. The first 15 European Union countries, other developed countries (ODC and East Asian (EAS and South Asian countries (SAS are the regions which currently have the highest wind capacity.

  7. Entropy in molecular recognition by proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, José A; Harpole, Kyle W; Kasinath, Vignesh; Lim, Jackwee; Granja, Jeffrey; Valentine, Kathleen G; Sharp, Kim A; Wand, A Joshua

    2017-06-20

    Molecular recognition by proteins is fundamental to molecular biology. Dissection of the thermodynamic energy terms governing protein-ligand interactions has proven difficult, with determination of entropic contributions being particularly elusive. NMR relaxation measurements have suggested that changes in protein conformational entropy can be quantitatively obtained through a dynamical proxy, but the generality of this relationship has not been shown. Twenty-eight protein-ligand complexes are used to show a quantitative relationship between measures of fast side-chain motion and the underlying conformational entropy. We find that the contribution of conformational entropy can range from favorable to unfavorable, which demonstrates the potential of this thermodynamic variable to modulate protein-ligand interactions. For about one-quarter of these complexes, the absence of conformational entropy would render the resulting affinity biologically meaningless. The dynamical proxy for conformational entropy or "entropy meter" also allows for refinement of the contributions of solvent entropy and the loss in rotational-translational entropy accompanying formation of high-affinity complexes. Furthermore, structure-based application of the approach can also provide insight into long-lived specific water-protein interactions that escape the generic treatments of solvent entropy based simply on changes in accessible surface area. These results provide a comprehensive and unified view of the general role of entropy in high-affinity molecular recognition by proteins.

  8. Entropy and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard S. Kay

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.

  9. The improvement of Clausius entropy and its application in entropy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jing; GUO ZengYuan

    2008-01-01

    The defects of Cleusius entropy which Include s premise of reversible process and a process quantlty of heat in Its definition are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the heat temperature quotient under reversible conditions, i.e. (δQ/T)rev, is essentially a process quantity although it is numerically equal to the entropy change. The sum of internal energy temperature quotient and work temperature quotient is defined as the improved form of Clausius entropy and it can be further proved to be a state funcllon. Unlike Clausius entropy, the improved deflnltion consists of system properties wlthout premise just like other state functions, for example, pressure p and enthalpy h, etc. it is unnecessary to invent reversible paths when calculating entropy change for irreversible processes based on the improved form of entropy since it is independent of process. Furthermore, entropy balance equations for internally and externally irreversible processes are deduced respectively based on the concepts of thermal reservoir entropy transfer and system entropy transfer. Finally, some examples are presented to show that the improved deflnitlon of Clausius entropy provides a clear concept as well as a convenient method for en-tropy change calculation.

  10. Magnetic-entropy change in Mn1.1Fe0.9P0.7As0.3-xGe x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegus, O.; Fuquan, B.; Dagula, W.; Zhang, L.; Brueck, E.; Si, P.Z.; Boer, F.R. de; Buschow, K.H.J.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and magnetic-entropy changes of Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 As 0.3-x Ge x compounds with x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.3. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows all the compounds crystallize in the Fe 2 P-type structure. Magnetic measurements show that the Curie temperature increases from 150 K for Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 As 0.3 to 380 K for Mn 1.1 Fe 0.9 P 0.7 Ge 0.3 . A field-induced first-order magnetic phase transition is observed above the Curie temperature for the compounds with x up to 0.15. There exists an optimal composition in which the first-order phase transition is the sharpest. The optimal composition for this system is x = 0.1. The maximal magnetic-entropy change derived from the magnetization data is about 40 J/(kg K) for a field change from 0 to 3 T

  11. SpatEntropy: Spatial Entropy Measures in R

    OpenAIRE

    Altieri, Linda; Cocchi, Daniela; Roli, Giulia

    2018-01-01

    This article illustrates how to measure the heterogeneity of spatial data presenting a finite number of categories via computation of spatial entropy. The R package SpatEntropy contains functions for the computation of entropy and spatial entropy measures. The extension to spatial entropy measures is a unique feature of SpatEntropy. In addition to the traditional version of Shannon's entropy, the package includes Batty's spatial entropy, O'Neill's entropy, Li and Reynolds' contagion index, Ka...

  12. Information and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caticha, Ariel

    2007-11-01

    What is information? Is it physical? We argue that in a Bayesian theory the notion of information must be defined in terms of its effects on the beliefs of rational agents. Information is whatever constrains rational beliefs and therefore it is the force that induces us to change our minds. This problem of updating from a prior to a posterior probability distribution is tackled through an eliminative induction process that singles out the logarithmic relative entropy as the unique tool for inference. The resulting method of Maximum relative Entropy (ME), which is designed for updating from arbitrary priors given information in the form of arbitrary constraints, includes as special cases both MaxEnt (which allows arbitrary constraints) and Bayes' rule (which allows arbitrary priors). Thus, ME unifies the two themes of these workshops—the Maximum Entropy and the Bayesian methods—into a single general inference scheme that allows us to handle problems that lie beyond the reach of either of the two methods separately. I conclude with a couple of simple illustrative examples.

  13. Statistical mechanical theory of liquid entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The multiparticle correlation expansion for the entropy of a classical monatomic liquid is presented. This entropy expresses the physical picture in which there is no free particle motion, but rather, each atom moves within a cage formed by its neighbors. The liquid expansion, including only pair correlations, gives an excellent account of the experimental entropy of most liquid metals, of liquid argon, and the hard sphere liquid. The pair correlation entropy is well approximated by a universal function of temperature. Higher order correlation entropy, due to n-particle irreducible correlations for n≥3, is significant in only a few liquid metals, and its occurrence suggests the presence of n-body forces. When the liquid theory is applied to the study of melting, the author discovers the important classification of normal and anomalous melting, according to whether there is not or is a significant change in the electronic structure upon melting, and he discovers the universal disordering entropy for melting of a monatomic crystal. Interesting directions for future research are: extension to include orientational correlations of molecules, theoretical calculation of the entropy of water, application to the entropy of the amorphous state, and correlational entropy of compressed argon. The author clarifies the relation among different entropy expansions in the recent literature

  14. Black hole versus cosmological horizon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Tamara M; Davies, P C W; Lineweaver, Charles H

    2003-01-01

    The generalized second law of thermodynamics states that entropy always increases when all event horizons are attributed with an entropy proportional to their area. We test the generalized second law by investigating the change in entropy when dust, radiation and black holes cross a cosmological event horizon. We generalize for flat, open and closed Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universes by using numerical calculations to determine the cosmological horizon evolution. In most cases, the loss of entropy from within the cosmological horizon is more than balanced by an increase in cosmological event horizon entropy, maintaining the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, an intriguing set of open universe models shows an apparent entropy decrease when black holes disappear over the cosmological event horizon. We anticipate that this apparent violation of the generalized second law will disappear when solutions are available for black holes embedded in arbitrary backgrounds

  15. Friction, Free Axes of Rotation and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kazachkov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces acting on rotators may promote their alignment and therefore eliminate degrees of freedom in their movement. The alignment of rotators by friction force was shown by experiments performed with different spinners, demonstrating how friction generates negentropy in a system of rotators. A gas of rigid rotators influenced by friction force is considered. The orientational negentropy generated by a friction force was estimated with the Sackur-Tetrode equation. The minimal change in total entropy of a system of rotators, corresponding to their eventual alignment, decreases with temperature. The reported effect may be of primary importance for the phase equilibrium and motion of ubiquitous colloidal and granular systems.

  16. Changes in Electroencephalography Complexity using a Brain Computer Interface-Motor Observation Training in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Fuzzy Approximate Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Sun

    2017-09-01

    improvement in stroke subjects. The entropy-based analysis might serve as a novel approach to understanding the abnormal cortical dynamics of stroke and the neurological changes induced by rehabilitation training.

  17. Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Shelley; Lerski, Richard [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Medical Physics, Dundee (United Kingdom); Purdie, Colin [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Pathology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Michie, Caroline [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Oncology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Evans, Andrew; Vinnicombe, Sarah [University of Dundee, Division of Imaging and Technology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Johnston, Marilyn [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Department of Clinical Radiology, Dundee (United Kingdom); Thompson, Alastair M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Centre, Department of Breast Surgical Oncology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-15

    To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30-79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner prior to NAC (baseline) and after 2-3 cycles of treatment (interim). Entropy was derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, on slice-matched baseline/interim T2-weighted images. Response, assessed using RCB score on surgically resected specimens, was compared statistically with entropy/heterogeneity changes and ROC analysis performed. Association of pCR within each tumour immunophenotype was evaluated. Mean entropy percent differences between examinations, by response category, were: pCR: 32.8%, RCB-I: 10.5%, RCB-II: 9.7% and RCB-III: 3.0%. Association of ultimate pCR with coarse entropy changes between baseline/interim MRI across all lesions yielded 85.2% accuracy (area under ROC curve: 0.845). Excellent sensitivity/specificity was obtained for pCR prediction within each immunophenotype: ER+: 100%/100%; HER2+: 83.3%/95.7%, TNBC: 87.5%/80.0%. Lesion T2 heterogeneity changes are associated with response to NAC using RCB scores, particularly for pCR, and can be useful across all immunophenotypes with good diagnostic accuracy. (orig.)

  18. The improvement of Clausius entropy and its application in entropy analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The defects of Clausius entropy which include a premise of reversible process and a process quantity of heat in its definition are discussed in this paper. Moreover, the heat temperature quotient under reversible conditions, i.e. (δQ/T)rev, is essentially a process quantity although it is numerically equal to the entropy change. The sum of internal energy temperature quotient and work temperature quotient is defined as the improved form of Clausius entropy and it can be further proved to be a state function. Unlike Clausius entropy, the improved definition consists of system properties without premise just like other state functions, for example, pressure p and enthalpy h, etc. It is unnecessary to invent reversible paths when calculating entropy change for irreversible processes based on the improved form of entropy since it is independent of process. Furthermore, entropy balance equations for internally and externally irreversible processes are deduced respectively based on the concepts of thermal reservoir entropy transfer and system entropy transfer. Finally, some examples are presented to show that the improved definition of Clausius entropy provides a clear concept as well as a convenient method for en- tropy change calculation.

  19. Land Use and Land Cover Changes and Urban Sprawl in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: AN Analysis Using Multi-Temporal Landsat Data and SHANNON'S Entropy Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. T.

    2016-06-01

    The city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia has experienced rapid population growth and urban expansion over the past several decades. Due to such growth, the capital city faces many short and long-term social and environmental consequences. In order to monitor and mitigate some of these consequences, it is essential to examine the past changes and historical growth of the city. It is also essential to measure its urban sprawl over the past few decades. The objective of this study is to fulfil these goals. It does so by first examining the historical growth of the city of Riyadh. To do so, Landsat data over the past two and half decades are classified using a combination of supervised and unsupervised classification techniques. Based on the classification results, the study then uses Shannon's Entropy to measure the urban sprawl in the city. The results show that from 1990-2009, the urban built-up area of the city has increased by 90% in the western, south-eastern, and northern parts. The Shannon's entropy values show that the city is dispersing towards the outskirts of the city. The results from this study will assist city planners and government officials to plan, reduce, and perhaps mitigate some of the social and environmental consequences and enable the growth of the city in a sustainable manner in the near future.

  20. Properties of von Neumann entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disentangled) as seen by moving observers, is used to investigate the properties of von Neumann entropy, as a measure of spin–momentum entanglement. To do so, we partition the total Hilbert space into momentum and spin subspaces so that the ...

  1. Quantum dynamical entropy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1996-10-01

    We define a new quantum dynamical entropy, which is a 'hybrid' of the closely related, physically oriented entropy introduced by Alicki and Fannes in 1994, and of the mathematically well-developed, single-argument entropy introduced by Connes, Narnhofer and Thirring in 1987. We show that this new quantum dynamical entropy has many properties similar to the ones of the Alicki-Fannes entropy, and also inherits some additional properties from the CNT entropy. In particular, the 'hybrid' entropy interpolates between the two different ways in which both the AF and the CNT entropy of the shift automorphism on the quantum spin chain agree with the usual quantum entropy density, resulting in even better agreement. Also, the new quantum dynamical entropy generalizes the classical dynamical entropy of Kolmogorov and Sinai in the same way as does the AF entropy. Finally, we estimate the 'hybrid' entropy both for the Powers-Price shift systems and for the noncommutative Arnold map on the irrational rotation C * -algebra, leaving some interesting open problems. (author)

  2. Save energy, without entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1992-01-01

    When we talk about saving energy what we usually mean is not wasting work. What we try to do when we design a process, is to use work as effectively as possible. It's hard to do that if we can't see it clearly. This paper illustrates how work can be seen (or calculated) without imposing entropy as a screen in front of it. We've all heard that the second law tells us that the entropy of the universe is increasing, and we are left with the feeling that the universe is ultimately headed for chaos, but receive little other information from this statement. A slightly more useful statement of the second law is the work potential of the universe is decreasing. However, this statement carries a needlessly negative ring. A simplified definition of the second law is: It takes work to change things. With these two corollaries: We can calculate the theoretical minimum work needed for a given change; and We can express the value of all changes in terms of work

  3. Changes in brain entropy are related to abstract temporal topology. Comment on "Topodynamics of metastable brains" by Arturo Tozzi et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çankaya, Mehmet Niyazi; Déli, Eva

    2017-07-01

    of the brain's electric activities that parallel changes in thoughts or evolution of concepts. Within the framework of operational architectonics, Tozzi et al. applied the methods of the Bursuk-Ulam theorem (BUT) to uncover the detailed dynamics of brain activities, such as dimensionality, entropy changes, and information accumulation. The authors find that ripples of rapid transitional periods, with sudden changes and reorganization of the information and entropy, parallels shifts both in dimensionality of temporal dynamics, as well as in cognitive processes. The method therefore can uncover how entropic and dimensionality changes are interconnected with emerging mental concepts. It also highlights the differences between lower conceptual processes, such as sensory processing, and higher cognitive synthesis, such as semantics, for example. In physical systems, information, dimensionality and entropy are related according to well-established formulas. In this direction, the entropy values of the volume and surface area are added into the evaluation of brain functionings [5-7]. If the same relationship is true in the wet and constantly changing biological complexity of the brain, then it would give us predictive capability toward the understanding of cognition, aid the treatment of mental problems and diseases in psychiatry and psychology, and facilitate the design of a new generation of artificial intelligent machines.

  4. Entropy generation of nanofluid flow in a microchannel heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manay, Eyuphan; Akyürek, Eda Feyza; Sahin, Bayram

    2018-06-01

    Present study aims to investigate the effects of the presence of nano sized TiO2 particles in the base fluid on entropy generation rate in a microchannel heat sink. Pure water was chosen as base fluid, and TiO2 particles were suspended into the pure water in five different particle volume fractions of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%. Under laminar, steady state flow and constant heat flux boundary conditions, thermal, frictional, total entropy generation rates and entropy generation number ratios of nanofluids were experimentally analyzed in microchannel flow for different channel heights of 200 μm, 300 μm, 400 μm and 500 μm. It was observed that frictional and total entropy generation rates increased as thermal entropy generation rate were decreasing with an increase in particle volume fraction. In microchannel flows, thermal entropy generation could be neglected due to its too low rate smaller than 1.10e-07 in total entropy generation. Higher channel heights caused higher thermal entropy generation rates, and increasing channel height yielded an increase from 30% to 52% in thermal entropy generation. When channel height decreased, an increase of 66%-98% in frictional entropy generation was obtained. Adding TiO2 nanoparticles into the base fluid caused thermal entropy generation to decrease about 1.8%-32.4%, frictional entropy generation to increase about 3.3%-21.6%.

  5. ENTROPY - OUR BEST FRIEND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Kordes

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper tries to tackle the question of connection between entropy and the living. Definitions of life as the phenomenon that defies entropy are overviewed and the conclusion is reached that life is in a way dependant on entropy - it couldn't exist without it. Entropy is a sort of medium, a fertile soil, that gives life possibility to blossom. Paper ends with presenting some consequences for the field of artificial intelligence.

  6. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  7. Psychological Entropy: A Framework for Understanding Uncertainty-Related Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B.; Mar, Raymond A.; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2012-01-01

    Entropy, a concept derived from thermodynamics and information theory, describes the amount of uncertainty and disorder within a system. Self-organizing systems engage in a continual dialogue with the environment and must adapt themselves to changing circumstances to keep internal entropy at a manageable level. We propose the entropy model of…

  8. Nonextensive Entropy, Prior PDFs and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Shafee, Fariel

    2008-01-01

    We show that using nonextensive entropy can lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking when a parameter changes its value from that applicable for a symmetric domain, as in field theory. We give the physical reasons and also show that even for symmetric Dirichlet priors, such a defnition of the entropy and the parameter value can lead to asymmetry when entropy is maximized.

  9. A Modified Entropy Generation Number for Heat Exchangers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the difference between the entropy generation number method proposed by Bejian and the method of entropy generation per unit amount of heat transferred in analyzing the ther-modynamic performance of heat exchangers,points out the reason for leading to the above difference.A modified entropy generation number for evaluating the irreversibility of heat exchangers is proposed which is in consistent with the entropy generation per unit amount of heat transferred in entropy generation analysis.The entropy generated by friction is also investigated.Results show that when the entropy generated by friction in heat exchangers in taken into account,there is a minimum total entropy generation number while the NTU and the ratio of heat capacity rates vary.The existence of this minimum is the prerequisite of heat exchanger optimization.

  10. Predicting Changes in Macrophyte Community Structure from Functional Traits in a Freshwater Lake: A Test of Maximum Entropy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hui; Zhong, Jiayou; Yuan, Guixiang; Guo, Chunjing; Lou, Qian; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jun; Ni, Leyi; Xie, Ping; Cao, Te

    2015-01-01

    Trait-based approaches have been widely applied to investigate how community dynamics respond to environmental gradients. In this study, we applied a series of maximum entropy (maxent) models incorporating functional traits to unravel the processes governing macrophyte community structure along water depth gradient in a freshwater lake. We sampled 42 plots and 1513 individual plants, and measured 16 functional traits and abundance of 17 macrophyte species. Study results showed that maxent model can be highly robust (99.8%) in predicting the species relative abundance of macrophytes with observed community-weighted mean (CWM) traits as the constraints, while relative low (about 30%) with CWM traits fitted from water depth gradient as the constraints. The measured traits showed notably distinct importance in predicting species abundances, with lowest for perennial growth form and highest for leaf dry mass content. For tuber and leaf nitrogen content, there were significant shifts in their effects on species relative abundance from positive in shallow water to negative in deep water. This result suggests that macrophyte species with tuber organ and greater leaf nitrogen content would become more abundant in shallow water, but would become less abundant in deep water. Our study highlights how functional traits distributed across gradients provide a robust path towards predictive community ecology. PMID:26167856

  11. What is the entropy of the universe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, Paul H; Hsu, Stephen D H; Reeb, David; Kephart, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Standard calculations suggest that the entropy of our universe is dominated by black holes, whose entropy is of order their area in Planck units, although they comprise only a tiny fraction of its total energy. Statistical entropy is the logarithm of the number of microstates consistent with the observed macroscopic properties of a system, hence a measure of uncertainty about its precise state. Therefore, assuming unitarity in black hole evaporation, the standard results suggest that the largest uncertainty in the future quantum state of the universe is due to the Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes. However, the entropy of the matter precursors to astrophysical black holes is enormously less than that given by area entropy. If unitarity relates the future radiation states to the black hole precursor states, then the standard results are highly misleading, at least for an observer that can differentiate the individual states of the Hawking radiation.

  12. What is the entropy of the universe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frampton, Paul H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UNC-Chapel Hill, NC 27599 (United States); Hsu, Stephen D H; Reeb, David [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Kephart, Thomas W, E-mail: frampton@physics.unc.ed, E-mail: hsu@uoregon.ed, E-mail: tom.kephart@gmail.co, E-mail: dreeb@uoregon.ed [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2009-07-21

    Standard calculations suggest that the entropy of our universe is dominated by black holes, whose entropy is of order their area in Planck units, although they comprise only a tiny fraction of its total energy. Statistical entropy is the logarithm of the number of microstates consistent with the observed macroscopic properties of a system, hence a measure of uncertainty about its precise state. Therefore, assuming unitarity in black hole evaporation, the standard results suggest that the largest uncertainty in the future quantum state of the universe is due to the Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes. However, the entropy of the matter precursors to astrophysical black holes is enormously less than that given by area entropy. If unitarity relates the future radiation states to the black hole precursor states, then the standard results are highly misleading, at least for an observer that can differentiate the individual states of the Hawking radiation.

  13. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun He

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and “quintessence horizon” for the black holes surrounded by quintessence. Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  14. Constant conditional entropy and related hypotheses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Dębowski, Łukasz; Moscoso del Prado Martín, Fermín

    2013-01-01

    Constant entropy rate (conditional entropies must remain constant as the sequence length increases) and uniform information density (conditional probabilities must remain constant as the sequence length increases) are two information theoretic principles that are argued to underlie a wide range of linguistic phenomena. Here we revise the predictions of these principles in the light of Hilberg’s law on the scaling of conditional entropy in language and related laws. We show that constant entropy rate (CER) and two interpretations for uniform information density (UID), full UID and strong UID, are inconsistent with these laws. Strong UID implies CER but the reverse is not true. Full UID, a particular case of UID, leads to costly uncorrelated sequences that are totally unrealistic. We conclude that CER and its particular cases are incomplete hypotheses about the scaling of conditional entropies. (letter)

  15. Entropy of black holes with multiple horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yun; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren

    2018-05-01

    We examine the entropy of black holes in de Sitter space and black holes surrounded by quintessence. These black holes have multiple horizons, including at least the black hole event horizon and a horizon outside it (cosmological horizon for de Sitter black holes and "quintessence horizon" for the black holes surrounded by quintessence). Based on the consideration that the two horizons are not independent each other, we conjecture that the total entropy of these black holes should not be simply the sum of entropies of the two horizons, but should have an extra term coming from the correlations between the two horizons. Different from our previous works, in this paper we consider the cosmological constant as the variable and employ an effective method to derive the explicit form of the entropy. We also try to discuss the thermodynamic stabilities of these black holes according to the entropy and the effective temperature.

  16. Entropy and information

    CERN Document Server

    Volkenstein, Mikhail V

    2009-01-01

    The book "Entropy and Information" deals with the thermodynamical concept of entropy and its relationship to information theory. It is successful in explaining the universality of the term "Entropy" not only as a physical phenomenon, but reveals its existence also in other domains. E.g., Volkenstein discusses the "meaning" of entropy in a biological context and shows how entropy is related to artistic activities. Written by the renowned Russian bio-physicist Mikhail V. Volkenstein, this book on "Entropy and Information" surely serves as a timely introduction to understand entropy from a thermodynamic perspective and is definitely an inspiring and thought-provoking book that should be read by every physicist, information-theorist, biologist, and even artist.

  17. Application of EoEP principle with variable heat transfer coefficient in minimizing entropy production in heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkan, F.

    2005-01-01

    A more realistic application of the entropy minimization principle EoEP is presented. This principle dictates uniform local entropy generations along the heat exchanger in order to minimize the total entropy generation rate due only to heat transfer. For a certain heat duty and area of an existing exchanger, this is done by changing the temperatures of one fluid while the temperatures of the other fluid are held constant. Since the heat duty is fixed, the change in the temperatures of the fluid after the change, however, may sometimes cause a drastic change in its flow rate. This may cause considerable changes in the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) and, consequently, in the entropy generation rate. Depending on the choice of the fluid for changing, the new entropy generation rates may be higher or lower than those based on constant U as is the case in papers recently published. So, the classical application of the EoEP principle needs to be modified to achieve more realistic entropy generation rates. In this study, the principle of EoEP with variable U is applied to some cases of heat exchange, and a simple method is presented as a criterion for the proper choice of the fluid to be changed

  18. Does black-hole entropy make sense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.

    1979-01-01

    Bekenstein and Hawking saved the second law of thermodynamics near a black hole by assigning to the hole an entropy Ssub(h) proportional to the area of its event horizon. It is tempting to assume that Ssub(h) possesses all the features commonly associated with the physical entropy. Kundt has shown, however, that Ssub(h) violates several reasonable physical expectations. This criticism is reviewed, augmenting it as follows: (a) Ssub(h) is a badly behaved state function requiring knowledge of the hole's future history; and (b) close analogs of event horizons in other space-times do not possess an 'entropy'. These questions are also discussed: (c) Is Ssub(h) suitable for all regions of a black-hole space-time. And (b) should Ssub(h) be attributed to the exterior of a white hole. One can retain Ssub(h) for the interior (respectively, exterior) of a black (respectively, white) hole, but is rejected as contrary to the information-theoretic derivation of horizon entropy given by Berkenstein. The total entropy defined by Kundt (all ordinary entropy on space-section cutting through the hole, no horizon term) and that of Bekenstein-Hawking (ordinary entropy outside horizon plus horizon term) appear to be complementary concepts with separate domains of validity. In the most natural choice, an observer inside a black hole will use Kundt's entropy, and one remaining outside that of Bekenstein-Hawking. (author)

  19. Total Teacher Effectiveness: Implication for Curriculum Change (TOC) in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Kwok Tung; Cheng, Yin Cheong

    This paper introduces the concept of total teacher effectiveness for facilitating educational reform and improvement, using target oriented curriculum (TOC) change in Hong Kong as an example. TOC change is a complex process that involves preparing, changing, and reinforcing teachers in multiple domains at multiple levels. Teacher effectiveness…

  20. Allometric relationship between changes of visceral fat and total fat mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallgreen, C. E.; Hall, K. D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the mathematical relationship between changes of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and total body fat mass (FM) during weight loss. Design: We hypothesized that changes of VAT mass are allometrically related to changes of FM, regardless of the type of weight-loss intervention...

  1. The pigeon's discrimination of visual entropy: a logarithmic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Michael E; Wasserman, Edward A

    2002-11-01

    We taught 8 pigeons to discriminate 16-icon arrays that differed in their visual variability or "entropy" to see whether the relationship between entropy and discriminative behavior is linear (in which equivalent differences in entropy should produce equivalent changes in behavior) or logarithmic (in which higher entropy values should be less discriminable from one another than lower entropy values). Pigeons received a go/no-go task in which the lower entropy arrays were reinforced for one group and the higher entropy arrays were reinforced for a second group. The superior discrimination of the second group was predicted by a theoretical analysis in which excitatory and inhibitory stimulus generalization gradients fall along a logarithmic, but not a linear scale. Reanalysis of previously published data also yielded results consistent with a logarithmic relationship between entropy and discriminative behavior.

  2. The effect of turbulence-radiation interaction on radiative entropy generation and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Miguel; Semiao, Viriato

    2007-01-01

    The analysis under the second law of thermodynamics is the gateway for optimisation in thermal equipments and systems. Through entropy minimisation techniques it is possible to increase the efficiency and overall performance of all kinds of thermal systems. Radiation, being the dominant mechanism of heat transfer in high-temperature systems, plays a determinant role in entropy generation within such equipments. Turbulence is also known to be a major player in the phenomenon of entropy generation. Therefore, turbulence-radiation interaction is expected to have a determinant effect on entropy generation. However, this is a subject that has not been dealt with so far, at least to the extent of the authors' knowledge. The present work attempts to fill that void, by studying the effect of turbulence-radiation interaction on entropy generation. All calculations are approached in such a way as to make them totally compatible with standard engineering methods for radiative heat transfer, namely the discrete ordinates method. It was found that turbulence-radiation interaction does not significantly change the spatial pattern of entropy generation, or heat transfer, but does change significantly their magnitude, in a way approximately proportional to the square of the intensity of turbulence

  3. Minimization of entropy production in separate and connected process units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roesjorde, Audun

    2004-08-01

    production of a heat-integrated distillation column separating benzene and toluene was influenced by changing two important system parameters. The two parameters were the ratio between the pressure in the rectifying and stripping section and the total rate of heat transfer per Kelvin (UA{sub total}). In Chapter 4, UA{sub total} was evenly distributed in the column. The results showed that there was an upper and a lower bound on the pressure ratio, for which the heat-integrated column had a lower entropy production than the adiabatic column. A lower bound was also found on UA{sub total}. In Chapter 5, we allowed the UA{sub total} to distribute itself in an optimal way. This enabled even lower entropy productions and widened the range of the two parameters for which the heat-integrated distillation column performed better than the adiabatic. As in Chapter 3, we found that heat exchange was most important close to the condenser and re boiler. This made us propose a new design for the heat-integrated distillation column, with heat transfer between the topmost and bottommost trays only. This enabled further reductions in the entropy production. The next step in the development was to study several units in connection. In Chapter 6, we minimized the entropy production of a heat exchanger, a plug-flow reactor, and a heat exchanger in series. This was a preparatory study for the larger process optimization in Chapter 7. By shifting heat transfer from the reactor to the heat exchanger up-front, the entropy production was reduced. It was also found that the ambient temperature profile along the reactor was of less important to the entropy production. Finally, in Chapter 7, we were able to minimize the entropy production of a process, producing propylene from propane. We showed that it is meaningful to use the entropy production in a chemical process as objective function in an optimization that aims to find the most energy efficient state of operation and, in some aspects, design. By

  4. Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Shelley; Purdie, Colin; Michie, Caroline; Evans, Andrew; Lerski, Richard; Johnston, Marilyn; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Thompson, Alastair M

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether interim changes in hetereogeneity (measured using entropy features) on MRI were associated with pathological residual cancer burden (RCB) at final surgery in patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for primary breast cancer. This was a retrospective study of 88 consenting women (age: 30-79 years). Scanning was performed on a 3.0 T MRI scanner prior to NAC (baseline) and after 2-3 cycles of treatment (interim). Entropy was derived from the grey-level co-occurrence matrix, on slice-matched baseline/interim T2-weighted images. Response, assessed using RCB score on surgically resected specimens, was compared statistically with entropy/heterogeneity changes and ROC analysis performed. Association of pCR within each tumour immunophenotype was evaluated. Mean entropy percent differences between examinations, by response category, were: pCR: 32.8%, RCB-I: 10.5%, RCB-II: 9.7% and RCB-III: 3.0%. Association of ultimate pCR with coarse entropy changes between baseline/interim MRI across all lesions yielded 85.2% accuracy (area under ROC curve: 0.845). Excellent sensitivity/specificity was obtained for pCR prediction within each immunophenotype: ER+: 100%/100%; HER2+: 83.3%/95.7%, TNBC: 87.5%/80.0%. Lesion T2 heterogeneity changes are associated with response to NAC using RCB scores, particularly for pCR, and can be useful across all immunophenotypes with good diagnostic accuracy. • Texture analysis provides a means of measuring lesion heterogeneity on MRI images. • Heterogeneity changes between baseline/interim MRI can be linked with ultimate pathological response. • Heterogeneity changes give good diagnostic accuracy of pCR response across all immunophenotypes. • Percentage reduction in heterogeneity is associated with pCR with good accuracy and NPV.

  5. Chain rules for smooth min-and max-entropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitanov, Alexande; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Tomamichel, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The chain rule for the Shannon and von Neumann en- tropy, which relates the total entropy of a system to the entropies of its parts, is of central importance to information theory. Here, we consider the chain rule for the more general smooth min- and max-entropies, used in one-shot in formation...... theory. For these en- tropy measures, the chain rule no longer holds as an equality. How- ever, the standard chain rule for the von Neum ann entropy is re- trieved asymptotically when evaluating the smooth entropies for many identical and independently distributed states....

  6. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  7. Entropy of self-gravitating radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorkin, R.D.; Wald, R.M.; Jiu, Z.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The entropy of self-gravitating radiation confined to a spherical box of radius R is examined in the context of general relativity. It is expected that configurations (i.e., initial data) which extremize total entropy will be spherically symmetric, time symmetric distributions of radiation in local thermodynamic equilibrium. Assuming this is the case, it is proved that extrema of S coincide precisely with static equilibrium configurations of the radiation fluid. Furthermore, dynamically stable equilibrium configurations are shown to coincide with local maxima of S. The equilibrium configurations and their entropies are calculated and their properties are discussed. However, it is shown that entropies higher than these local extrema can be achieved and, indeed, arbitrarily high entropies can be attained by configurations inside of or outside but arbitrarily near their own Schwarzschild radius. However, consideration is limited to configurations which are outside their own Schwarzschild radius by at least one radiation wavelength, then the entropy is bounded and it is found Ssub(max) < is approximately equal to MR, where M is the total mass. This supports the validity for self-gravitating systems of the Bekenstein upper limit on the entropy to energy ratio of material bodies. (author)

  8. Entropy of dynamical social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Marton; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2012-02-01

    Dynamical social networks are evolving rapidly and are highly adaptive. Characterizing the information encoded in social networks is essential to gain insight into the structure, evolution, adaptability and dynamics. Recently entropy measures have been used to quantify the information in email correspondence, static networks and mobility patterns. Nevertheless, we still lack methods to quantify the information encoded in time-varying dynamical social networks. In this talk we present a model to quantify the entropy of dynamical social networks and use this model to analyze the data of phone-call communication. We show evidence that the entropy of the phone-call interaction network changes according to circadian rhythms. Moreover we show that social networks are extremely adaptive and are modified by the use of technologies such as mobile phone communication. Indeed the statistics of duration of phone-call is described by a Weibull distribution and is significantly different from the distribution of duration of face-to-face interactions in a conference. Finally we investigate how much the entropy of dynamical social networks changes in realistic models of phone-call or face-to face interactions characterizing in this way different type human social behavior.

  9. Change in Total Snowfall in the Contiguous 48 States, 1930-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This map shows the average rate of change in total snowfall from 1930 to 2007 at 419 weather stations in the contiguous 48 states. Blue circles represent increased...

  10. Entropy production in a cell and reversal of entropy flow as an anticancer therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-fu LUO

    2009-01-01

    The entropy production rate of cancer cells is always higher than healthy cells in the case where no external field is applied. Different entropy production between two kinds of cells determines the direction of entropy flow among cells. The entropy flow is the carrier of information flow. The entropy flow from cancerous cells to healthy cells takes along the harmful information of cancerous cells, propagating its toxic action to healthy tissues. We demonstrate that a low-frequency and low- intensity electromagnetic field or ultrasound irradiation may increase the entropy production rate of a cell in normal tissue than that in cancer and consequently re- verse the direction of entropy current between two kinds of cells. The modification of the PH value of cells may also cause the reversal of the direction of entropy flow between healthy and cancerous cells. Therefore, the bio- logical tissue under the irradiation of an electromagnetic field or ultrasound or under the appropriate change of cell acidity can avoid the propagation of harmful infor- marion from cancer cells. We suggest that this entropy mechanism possibly provides a basis for a novel approach to anticancer therapy.

  11. Maximum Quantum Entropy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sim, Jae-Hoon; Han, Myung Joon

    2018-01-01

    Maximum entropy method for analytic continuation is extended by introducing quantum relative entropy. This new method is formulated in terms of matrix-valued functions and therefore invariant under arbitrary unitary transformation of input matrix. As a result, the continuation of off-diagonal elements becomes straightforward. Without introducing any further ambiguity, the Bayesian probabilistic interpretation is maintained just as in the conventional maximum entropy method. The applications o...

  12. Transplanckian entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin; Chu, C.-S.; Lin Fengli

    2004-01-01

    The entanglement entropy of the event horizon is known to be plagued by the UV divergence due to the infinitely blue-shifted near horizon modes. In this Letter we calculate the entanglement entropy using the transplanckian dispersion relation, which has been proposed to model the quantum gravity effects. We show that, very generally, the entropy is rendered UV finite due to the suppression of high energy modes effected by the transplanckian dispersion relation

  13. Entropy of uremia and dialysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronco, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    The second law of thermodynamics applies with local exceptions to patient history and therapy interventions. Living things preserve their low level of entropy throughout time because they receive energy from their surroundings in the form of food. They gain their order at the expense of disordering the nutrients they consume. Death is the thermodynamically favored state: it represents a large increase in entropy as molecular structure yields to chaos. The kidney is an organ dissipating large amounts of energy to maintain the level of entropy of the organism as low as possible. Diseases, and in particular uremia, represent conditions of rapid increase in entropy. Therapeutic strategies are oriented towards a reduction in entropy or at least a decrease in the speed of entropy increase. Uremia is a process accelerating the trend towards randomness and disorder (increase in entropy). Dialysis is a factor external to the patient that tends to reduce the level of entropy caused by kidney disease. Since entropy can only increase in closed systems, energy and work must be spent to limit the entropy of uremia. This energy should be adapted to the system (patient) and be specifically oriented and personalized. This includes a multidimensional effort to achieve an adequate dialysis that goes beyond small molecular weight solute clearance. It includes a biological plan for recovery of homeostasis and a strategy towards long-term rehabilitation of the patient. Such objectives can be achieved with a combination of technology and innovation to answer specific questions that are still present after 60 years of dialysis history. This change in the individual bioentropy may represent a local exception to natural trends as the patient could be considered an isolated universe responding to the classic laws of thermodynamics. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Age-dependent changes in the total protein concentrations in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related changes in total protein concentrations in ten regions of the pig brain and hypophyses from birth to 36 months of age. Age-related changes in protein concentrations in all the brain regions except the pons and cerebral cortex were not ...

  15. To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmen, C.

    2007-01-01

    When the total solar eclipse came into question, people connected the eclipse with the earthquake dated 17.08.1999. We thought if any physical parameters change during total solar eclipse on the earth, we could measure this changing and we did the project 'To Measure Probable Physical Changes On The Earth During Total Solar Eclipse Using Geophysical Methods' We did gravity, magnetic and self-potential measurements at Konya and Ankara during total solar eclipse (29, March, 2006) and the day before eclipse and the day after eclipse. The measurements went on three days continuously twenty-four hours at Konya and daytime in Ankara. Bogazici University Kandilli Observatory gave us magnetic values in Istanbul and we compare the values with our magnetic values. Turkish State Meteorological Service sent us temperature and air pressure observations during three days, in Konya and Ankara. We interpreted all of them

  16. Effect of interstitial nitrogen on magnetism and entropy change of LaFe11.7Si1.3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, M.; Rosca, M.; Fruchart, D.; Gignoux, D.

    2009-01-01

    Crystal structure, magnetism and magnetocaloric properties of LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y (y=0, 1.3) compounds have been studied by X-ray diffraction and magnetic measurements. The LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N y compounds present a cubic NaZn 13 -type structure. Insertion of 1.3 nitrogen atoms per LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 formula increases the lattice parameter and Curie temperature from 11.467 to 11.733 A and from 190 to ∼230 K, respectively. Besides, the absorption of nitrogen drives drastically the magnetic transition from first to second order and accordingly strongly decreases the magnetocaloric effect compared to the parent alloy. Under an external field change of 5 T, the value of isothermal entropy change -ΔS is about 28 and 3.5 J/kg K for LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 and LaFe 11.7 Si 1.3 N 1.3 , respectively, close to their Curie temperature. However, the relative cooling power RCP(S) of the nitride is about half that of the parent alloy

  17. Entropy and heat generation of lithium cells/batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Songrui

    2016-01-01

    The methods and techniques commonly used in investigating the change of entropy and heat generation in Li cells/batteries are introduced, as are the measurements, calculations and purposes. The changes of entropy and heat generation are concomitant with the use of Li cells/batteries. In order to improve the management and the application of Li cells/batteries, especially for large scale power batteries, the quantitative investigations of the change of entropy and heat generating are necessary. (topical review)

  18. ENTROPY FUNCTIONAL FOR CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS OF FINITE ENTROPY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Rahimi A. Riazi

    2012-01-01

    In this article,we introduce the concept of entropy functional for continuous systems on compact metric spaces,and prove some of its properties.We also extract the Kolmogorov entropy from the entropy functional.

  19. Gravitational entropy of nonstationary black holes and spherical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of defining the gravitational entropy of a nonstationary black hole is considered in a simple model consisting of a spherical shell which collapses into a preexisting black hole. The second law of black-hole mechanics strongly suggests identifying one-quarter of the area of the event horizon as the gravitational entropy of the system. It is, however, impossible to accurately locate the position of the global event horizon using only local measurements. In order to maintain a local thermodynamics, it is suggested that the entropy of the black hole be identified with one-quarter the area of the apparent horizon. The difference between the event-horizon entropy (to the extent it can be determined) and the apparent-horizon entropy may then be interpreted as the gravitational entropy of the collapsing shell. The total (event-horizon) gravitational entropy evolves in a smooth (C 0 ) fashion, even in the presence of δ-functional shells of matter

  20. Entropy Generation Analysis of Desalination Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Lienhard V

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving the development and implementation of a wide variety of seawater desalination technologies. Entropy generation analysis, and specifically, Second Law efficiency, is an important tool for illustrating the influence of irreversibilities within a system on the required energy input. When defining Second Law efficiency, the useful exergy output of the system must be properly defined. For desalination systems, this is the minimum least work of separation required to extract a unit of water from a feed stream of a given salinity. In order to evaluate the Second Law efficiency, entropy generation mechanisms present in a wide range of desalination processes are analyzed. In particular, entropy generated in the run down to equilibrium of discharge streams must be considered. Physical models are applied to estimate the magnitude of entropy generation by component and individual processes. These formulations are applied to calculate the total entropy generation in several desalination systems including multiple effect distillation, multistage flash, membrane distillation, mechanical vapor compression, reverse osmosis, and humidification-dehumidification. Within each technology, the relative importance of each source of entropy generation is discussed in order to determine which should be the target of entropy generation minimization. As given here, the correct application of Second Law efficiency shows which systems operate closest to the reversible limit and helps to indicate which systems have the greatest potential for improvement.

  1. Changes in intestinal absorption of nutrients and brush border glycoproteins after total parenteral nutrition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, S; Tanaka, S; Yoshioka, M; Serizawa, H; Tashiro, H; Shiozaki, H; Imaeda, H; Tsuchiya, M

    1992-01-01

    The effect of total parenteral nutrition on nutrients absorption and glycoprotein changes of brush border membrane was examined in rat small intestine. In total parenteral nutrition rats, a marked decrease in activity of brush border enzymes was observed mainly in the proximal and middle segments of the intestine. Galactose perfusion of jejunal segment showed that hexose absorption was significantly inhibited, while intestinal absorption of glycine or dipeptide, glycylglycine was not significantly affected by total parenteral nutrition treatment. When brush border membrane glycoprotein profile was examined by [3H]-glucosamine or [3H]-fucose incorporation into jejunal loops, significant changes were observed in the glycoprotein pattern of brush border membrane especially in the high molecular weight range over 120 kDa after total parenteral nutrition treatment, suggesting strong dependency of glycoprotein synthesis on luminal substances. Molecular weight of sucrase isomaltase in brush border membrane detected by specific antibody showed no significant difference, however, in total parenteral nutrition and control rats. Also, molecular weight of specific sodium glucose cotransporter of intestinal brush border membrane detected by selective photoaffinity labelling was not altered in total parenteral nutrition rats. It may be that prolonged absence of oral food intake may produce significant biochemical changes in brush border membrane glycoprotein and absorptive capacity of small intestine, but these changes were not observed in all brush border membrane glycoproteins. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1582592

  2. Calculations of the magnetic entropy change in amorphous through a microscopic anisotropic model: Applications to Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30} and DyCo{sub 3.4} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranke, P. J. von, E-mail: von.ranke@uol.com.br; Nóbrega, E. P.; Ribeiro, P. O.; Alvarenga, T. S. T.; Lopes, P. H. O.; Sousa, V. S. R. de; Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro—UERJ, Rua São Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Caldas, A. [Sociedade Unificada de Ensino Superior e Cultura, SUESC, 20211-351 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Alho, B. P. [Instituto de Aplicação Fernando Rodrigues da Silveira, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Santa Alexandrina, 288, 20260-232 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Carvalho, G. [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Sincroton—LNLS, 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Magnus, A.

    2014-10-14

    We report theoretical investigations on the magnetocaloric effect, described by the magnetic entropy change in rare earth—transition metal amorphous systems. The model includes the local anisotropy on the rare earth ions in Harris-Plischke-Zuckermann assumptions. The transition metals ions are treated in terms of itinerant electron ferromagnetism and the magnetic moment of rare earth ions is coupled to the polarized d-band by a local exchange interaction. The magnetocaloric effect was calculated in DyCo{sub 3.4} system, which presents amorphous sperimagnetic configuration. The calculations predict higher refrigerant capacity in the amorphous DyCo{sub 3.4} than in DyCo{sub 2} crystal, highlighting the importance of amorphous magnetocaloric materials. Our calculation of the magnetocaloric effect in Dy{sub 70}Zr{sub 30}, which presents amorphous asperomagnetic configuration, is in good agreement with the experimental result. Furthermore, magnetic entropy changes associated with crystal-amorphous configurations change are estimated.

  3. Enthalpy–entropy compensation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Enthalpy–entropy compensation is the name given to the correlation sometimes observed between the estimates of the enthalpy and entropy of a reaction obtained from temperature-dependence data. Although the mainly artefactual nature of this correlation has been known for many years, the subject enjoys periodical ...

  4. Entropy in Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    During the process of ageing, the balance shifts in the direction of anarchy. Death is ... tion of life and the laws of statistieal physics and entropy, both of which ... capable of doing work. ... defined by Ludwig Boltzmann in 1877, the entropy of the.

  5. The holographic entropy cone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Nezami, Sepehr [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ooguri, Hirosi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo,Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Stoica, Bogdan [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sully, James [Theory Group, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Walter, Michael [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  6. The holographic entropy cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Ning; Nezami, Sepehr; Ooguri, Hirosi; Stoica, Bogdan; Sully, James; Walter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We initiate a systematic enumeration and classification of entropy inequalities satisfied by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for conformal field theory states with smooth holographic dual geometries. For 2, 3, and 4 regions, we prove that the strong subadditivity and the monogamy of mutual information give the complete set of inequalities. This is in contrast to the situation for generic quantum systems, where a complete set of entropy inequalities is not known for 4 or more regions. We also find an infinite new family of inequalities applicable to 5 or more regions. The set of all holographic entropy inequalities bounds the phase space of Ryu-Takayanagi entropies, defining the holographic entropy cone. We characterize this entropy cone by reducing geometries to minimal graph models that encode the possible cutting and gluing relations of minimal surfaces. We find that, for a fixed number of regions, there are only finitely many independent entropy inequalities. To establish new holographic entropy inequalities, we introduce a combinatorial proof technique that may also be of independent interest in Riemannian geometry and graph theory.

  7. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  8. Griffiths-like phase, critical behavior near the paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transition and magnetic entropy change of nanocrystalline La0.75Ca0.25MnO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phong, P. T.; Ngan, L. T. T.; Dang, N. V.; Nguyen, L. H.; Nam, P. H.; Thuy, D. M.; Tuan, N. D.; Bau, L. V.; Lee, I. J.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we report the structural and magnetic properties of La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 nanoparticles synthesized by the sol-gel route. Rietvield refinement of X-ray powder diffraction confirms that our sample is single phase and crystallizes in orthorhombic system with Pnma space group. The facts that effective magnetic moment is large and the inverse susceptibility deviates from the Curie Weiss lawn indicate the presence of Griffiths-like cluster phase. The critical exponents have been estimated using different techniques such as modified Arrott plot, Kouvel-Fisher plot and critical isotherm technique. The critical exponents values of La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 are very close to those found out by the mean-field model, and this can be explained by the existence of a long-range interactions between spins in this system. These results were in good agreement with those obtained using the critical exponents of magnetic entropy change. The self-consistency and reliability of the critical exponent was verified by the Widom scaling law and the universal scaling hypothesis. Using the Harris criterion, we deduced that the disorder is relevant in our case. The maximum magnetic entropy change (ΔSM) calculated from the M-H measurements is 3.47 J/kg K under an external field change of 5 T. The ΔSM-T curves collapsed onto a single master curve regardless of the composition and the applied field, confirming the magnetic ordering is of second order nature. The obtained result was compared to ones calculated based on the Arrott plot and a good concordance is observed. Moreover, the spontaneous magnetization obtained from the entropy change is in excellent agreement with that deduced by classically extrapolation the Arrott curves. This result confirms the validity of the estimation of the spontaneous magnetization using the magnetic entropy change.

  9. Nonsymmetric entropy I: basic concepts and results

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chengshi

    2006-01-01

    A new concept named nonsymmetric entropy which generalizes the concepts of Boltzman's entropy and shannon's entropy, was introduced. Maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle was proven. Some important distribution laws were derived naturally from maximal nonsymmetric entropy principle.

  10. Determination of the magnetocaloric entropy change in the presence of phase separation and metastability: The case of Eu0.58Sr0.42MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillou, F.; Hardy, V.; Fruchart, D.; Zawilski, B.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in the manganite Eu 0.58 Sr 0.42 MnO 3 was derived by different methods, in a field range very sensitive to the phenomenon of phase separation. It turns out that a strong scatter in the MCE features was observed. When the applied field is less than the field required to complete the transition, it is found that the MCE can be strongly overestimated by “standard” indirect measurements. A way to properly estimate the MCE around a first order transition in the presence of phase separation and metastability is proposed. - Highlights: • The entropy change was investigated in an oxide with pronounced metastable effects. • A strong scatter is observed among results derived from several indirect methods. • It is found that even the calorimetric approach can be proned to artefacts. • A method is proposed to evaluate a “real” magnetocaloric entropy change

  11. Total and regional body-composition changes in early postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Q; Hassager, C; Ravn, Pernille

    1994-01-01

    Total and regional body composition were measured in 373 early postmenopausal women aged 49-60 y by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to evaluate whether the changes in body composition in the early postmenopausal years are related to menopause itself or merely to age. Both fat mass and fat...

  12. No change in total length of white matter fibers in Alzheimer's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, A.M.; Marner, L.; Pakkenberg, B.

    2008-01-01

    White matter changes have been reported as part of Alzheimer dementia. To investigate this, the total subcortical myelinated nerve fiber length was estimated in postmortem brains from eight females (age 79-88 years) with severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) and compared with brains from 10 female...

  13. Entropy of the Mixture of Sources and Entropy Dimension

    OpenAIRE

    Smieja, Marek; Tabor, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the problem of the entropy of the mixture of sources. There is given an estimation of the entropy and entropy dimension of convex combination of measures. The proof is based on our alternative definition of the entropy based on measures instead of partitions.

  14. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, Roger; Stadje, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk and prove a collection of axiomatic characterization and duality results. We show in particular that entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk emerge as negative certainty equivalents in (the regular and a generalized

  15. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. Entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk are special cases of φ-coherent and φ-convex measures of risk. Contrary to the classical use of coherent and convex

  16. Entropy Coherent and Entropy Convex Measures of Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laeven, R.J.A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce two subclasses of convex measures of risk, referred to as entropy coherent and entropy convex measures of risk. We prove that convex, entropy convex and entropy coherent measures of risk emerge as certainty equivalents under variational, homothetic and multiple priors preferences,

  17. Infinite Shannon entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Even if a probability distribution is properly normalizable, its associated Shannon (or von Neumann) entropy can easily be infinite. We carefully analyze conditions under which this phenomenon can occur. Roughly speaking, this happens when arbitrarily small amounts of probability are dispersed into an infinite number of states; we shall quantify this observation and make it precise. We develop several particularly simple, elementary, and useful bounds, and also provide some asymptotic estimates, leading to necessary and sufficient conditions for the occurrence of infinite Shannon entropy. We go to some effort to keep technical computations as simple and conceptually clear as possible. In particular, we shall see that large entropies cannot be localized in state space; large entropies can only be supported on an exponentially large number of states. We are for the time being interested in single-channel Shannon entropy in the information theoretic sense, not entropy in a stochastic field theory or quantum field theory defined over some configuration space, on the grounds that this simple problem is a necessary precursor to understanding infinite entropy in a field theoretic context. (paper)

  18. Black hole thermodynamical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Cirto, Leonardo J.L.

    2013-01-01

    As early as 1902, Gibbs pointed out that systems whose partition function diverges, e.g. gravitation, lie outside the validity of the Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) theory. Consistently, since the pioneering Bekenstein-Hawking results, physically meaningful evidence (e.g., the holographic principle) has accumulated that the BG entropy S BG of a (3+1) black hole is proportional to its area L 2 (L being a characteristic linear length), and not to its volume L 3 . Similarly it exists the area law, so named because, for a wide class of strongly quantum-entangled d-dimensional systems, S BG is proportional to lnL if d=1, and to L d-1 if d>1, instead of being proportional to L d (d ≥ 1). These results violate the extensivity of the thermodynamical entropy of a d-dimensional system. This thermodynamical inconsistency disappears if we realize that the thermodynamical entropy of such nonstandard systems is not to be identified with the BG additive entropy but with appropriately generalized nonadditive entropies. Indeed, the celebrated usefulness of the BG entropy is founded on hypothesis such as relatively weak probabilistic correlations (and their connections to ergodicity, which by no means can be assumed as a general rule of nature). Here we introduce a generalized entropy which, for the Schwarzschild black hole and the area law, can solve the thermodynamic puzzle. (orig.)

  19. Effects of quantum entropy on bag constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Tawfik, A.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of quantum entropy on the bag constant are studied at low temperatures and for small chemical potentials. The inclusion of the quantum entropy of the quarks in the equation of state provides the hadronic bag with an additional heat which causes a decrease in the effective latent heat inside the bag. We have considered two types of baryonic bags, Δ and Ω - . In both cases we have found that the bag constant without the quantum entropy almost does not change with temperature and quark chemical potential. The contribution from the quantum entropy to the equation of state clearly decreases the value of the bag constant. Furthermore, we construct states densities for quarks using the 'Thomas Fermi model' and take into consideration a thermal potential for the interaction. (author)

  20. Entropy Production of Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The entropy production (inside the volume bounded by a photosphere of main-sequence stars, subgiants, giants, and supergiants is calculated based on B–V photometry data. A non-linear inverse relationship of thermodynamic fluxes and forces as well as an almost constant specific (per volume entropy production of main-sequence stars (for 95% of stars, this quantity lies within 0.5 to 2.2 of the corresponding solar magnitude is found. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of known extreme principles related to entropy production.

  1. Estimation of the magnetic entropy change by means of Landau theory and phenomenological model in La0.6Ca0.2 Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 ceramic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri, M.; Dhahri, E.; Hlil, E. K.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 oxides have been investigated. The composite samples were prepared using the conventional solid-state reaction method. The second-order phase transition can be testified with the positive slope in Arrott plots. An excellent agreement has been found between the -ΔSM values estimated by Landau theory and those obtained using the classical Maxwell relation. The field dependence of the magnetic entropy change analysis shows a power law dependence,|ΔSM|≈Hn , with n(TC) = 0.65. Moreover, the scaling analysis of magnetic entropy change exhibits that ΔSM(T) curves collapse into a single universal curve, indicating that the observed paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition is an authentic second-order phase transition. The maximum value of magnetic entropy change of composites is found to decrease slightly with the further increasing of Sb2O3 concentration. A phenomenological model was used to predict magnetocaloric properties of La0.6Ca0.2Sr0.2MnO3/Sb2O3 composites. The theoretical calculations are compared with the available experimental data.

  2. Some remarks on conditional entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijst, A.G.P.M.

    1969-01-01

    Using a definition of conditional entropy given by Hanen and Neveu [5, 10, 11] we discuss in this paper some properties of conditional entropy and mean entropy, in particular an integral representation of conditional entropy (§ 2), and the decomposition theorem of the KolmogorovSina¯i invariant (§

  3. Notes on entropy force in general spherically symmetric spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Ohta, Nobuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper [arXiv:1001.0785], Verlinde has shown that the Newton gravity appears as an entropy force. In this paper we show how gravity appears as entropy force in Einstein's equation of gravitational field in a general spherically symmetric spacetime. We mainly focus on the trapping horizon of the spacetime. We find that when matter fields are absent, the change of entropy associated with the trapping horizon indeed can be identified with an entropy force. When matter fields are present, we see that heat flux of matter fields also leads to the change of entropy. Applying arguments made by Verlinde and Smolin, respectively, to the trapping horizon, we find that the entropy force is given by the surface gravity of the horizon. The cases in the untrapped region of the spacetime are also discussed.

  4. Ellipses of constant entropy in the XY spin chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchini, F; Its, A R; Jin, B-Q; Korepin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Entanglement in the ground state of the XY model on the infinite chain can be measured by the von Neumann entropy of a block of neighbouring spins. We study a double scaling limit: the size of the block is much larger than 1 but much smaller than the length of the whole chain. The entropy of the block has an asymptotic limit in the gapped regimes. We study this limiting entropy as a function of the anisotropy and of the magnetic field. We identify its minima at product states and its divergencies at the quantum phase transitions. We find that the curves of constant entropy are ellipses and hyperbolas, and that they all meet at one point (essential critical point). Depending on the approach to the essential critical point, the entropy can take any value between 0 and ∞. In the vicinity of this point, small changes in the parameters cause large change of the entropy

  5. Entropy of international trades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Young; Lee, D.-S.

    2017-05-01

    The organization of international trades is highly complex under the collective efforts towards economic profits of participating countries given inhomogeneous resources for production. Considering the trade flux as the probability of exporting a product from a country to another, we evaluate the entropy of the world trades in the period 1950-2000. The trade entropy has increased with time, and we show that it is mainly due to the extension of trade partnership. For a given number of trade partners, the mean trade entropy is about 60% of the maximum possible entropy, independent of time, which can be regarded as a characteristic of the trade fluxes' heterogeneity and is shown to be derived from the scaling and functional behaviors of the universal trade-flux distribution. The correlation and time evolution of the individual countries' gross-domestic products and the number of trade partners show that most countries achieved their economic growth partly by extending their trade relationship.

  6. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  7. Entropy in halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, Claudine; Mohite, Aditya D.; Even, Jacky

    2018-05-01

    Claudine Katan, Aditya D. Mohite and Jacky Even discuss the possible impact of various entropy contributions (stochastic structural fluctuations, anharmonicity and lattice softness) on the optoelectronic properties of halide perovskite materials and devices.

  8. New thermodynamics of entropy generation minimization with nonlinear thermal radiation and nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Ijaz; Qayyum, Sumaira; Alsaedi, A.; Khan, M. Imran

    2018-03-01

    This research addressed entropy generation for MHD stagnation point flow of viscous nanofluid over a stretching surface. Characteristics of heat transport are analyzed through nonlinear radiation and heat generation/absorption. Nanoliquid features for Brownian moment and thermophoresis have been considered. Fluid in the presence of constant applied inclined magnetic field is considered. Flow problem is mathematically modeled and governing expressions are changed into nonlinear ordinary ones by utilizing appropriate transformations. The effects of pertinent variables on velocity, nanoparticle concentration and temperature are discussed graphically. Furthermore Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects on entropy generation and Bejan number have been examined. Total entropy generation is inspected through various flow variables. Consideration is mainly given to the convergence process. Velocity, temperature and mass gradients at the surface of sheet are calculated numerically.

  9. Entropy Coding in HEVC

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, Vivienne; Marpe, Detlev

    2014-01-01

    Context-Based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) is a method of entropy coding first introduced in H.264/AVC and now used in the latest High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard. While it provides high coding efficiency, the data dependencies in H.264/AVC CABAC make it challenging to parallelize and thus limit its throughput. Accordingly, during the standardization of entropy coding for HEVC, both aspects of coding efficiency and throughput were considered. This chapter describes th...

  10. Entropy and wigner functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi; Feix

    2000-10-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such a definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive-definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions.

  11. Entropy and Wigner Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, G.; Feix, M. R.

    2002-01-01

    The properties of an alternative definition of quantum entropy, based on Wigner functions, are discussed. Such definition emerges naturally from the Wigner representation of quantum mechanics, and can easily quantify the amount of entanglement of a quantum state. It is shown that smoothing of the Wigner function induces an increase in entropy. This fact is used to derive some simple rules to construct positive definite probability distributions which are also admissible Wigner functions

  12. Feasible Histories, Maximum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitowsky, I.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the broadest possible consistency condition for a family of histories, which extends all previous proposals. A family that satisfies this condition is called feasible. On each feasible family of histories we choose a probability measure by maximizing entropy, while keeping the probabilities of commuting histories to their quantum mechanical values. This procedure is justified by the assumption that decoherence increases entropy. Finally, a criterion for identifying the nearly classical families is proposed

  13. Topological nearly entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulamsarwar, Syazwani; Salleh, Zabidin

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to generalize the notions of Adler's topological entropy along with their several fundamental properties. A function f : X → Y is said to be R-map if f-1 (V) is regular open in X for every regular open set V in Y. Thus, we initiated a notion of topological nearly entropy for topological R-dynamical systems which is based on nearly compact relative to the space by using R-map.

  14. Entropy of quasiblack holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.

    2010-01-01

    We trace the origin of the black hole entropy S, replacing a black hole by a quasiblack hole. Let the boundary of a static body approach its own gravitational radius, in such a way that a quasihorizon forms. We show that if the body is thermal with the temperature taking the Hawking value at the quasihorizon limit, it follows, in the nonextremal case, from the first law of thermodynamics that the entropy approaches the Bekenstein-Hawking value S=A/4. In this setup, the key role is played by the surface stresses on the quasihorizon and one finds that the entropy comes from the quasihorizon surface. Any distribution of matter inside the surface leads to the same universal value for the entropy in the quasihorizon limit. This can be of some help in the understanding of black hole entropy. Other similarities between black holes and quasiblack holes such as the mass formulas for both objects had been found previously. We also discuss the entropy for extremal quasiblack holes, a more subtle issue.

  15. Entropy, matter, and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigogine, I; Géhéniau, J

    1986-09-01

    The role of irreversible processes corresponding to creation of matter in general relativity is investigated. The use of Landau-Lifshitz pseudotensors together with conformal (Minkowski) coordinates suggests that this creation took place in the early universe at the stage of the variation of the conformal factor. The entropy production in this creation process is calculated. It is shown that these dissipative processes lead to the possibility of cosmological models that start from empty conditions and gradually build up matter and entropy. Gravitational entropy takes a simple meaning as associated to the entropy that is necessary to produce matter. This leads to an extension of the third law of thermodynamics, as now the zero point of entropy becomes the space-time structure out of which matter is generated. The theory can be put into a convenient form using a supplementary "C" field in Einstein's field equations. The role of the C field is to express the coupling between gravitation and matter leading to irreversible entropy production.

  16. On the Conditional Rényi Entropy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fehr (Serge); S. Berens (Stefan)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe Rényi entropy of general order unifies the well-known Shannon entropy with several other entropy notions, like the min-entropy or the collision entropy. In contrast to the Shannon entropy, there seems to be no commonly accepted definition for the conditional Rényi entropy: several

  17. Total Environment of Change: Impacts of Climate Change and Social Transitions on Subsistence Fisheries in Northwest Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie J. Moerlein

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of global climate change, with significant implications for the livelihoods of Arctic peoples. In this paper, based on ethnographic research conducted with the Iñupiaq communities of Noatak and Selawik in northwestern Alaska, we detail prominent environmental changes observed over the past twenty to thirty years and their impacts on subsistence-based lifestyles. However, we suggest that it is ultimately insufficient to try to understand how Arctic communities are experiencing and responding to climate change in isolation from other stressors. During interviews and participant observation documenting local observations of climatic and related environmental shifts and impacts to subsistence fishing practices, we find the inseparability of environmental, social, economic, cultural, and political realms for community residents. Many of our informants, who live in a mixed economy based on various forms of income and widespread subsistence harvesting of fish and game, perceive and experience climate change as embedded among numerous other factors affecting subsistence patterns and practices. Changing lifestyles, decreasing interest by younger generations in pursuing subsistence livelihoods, and economic challenges are greatly affecting contemporary subsistence patterns and practices in rural Alaska. Observations of climate change are perceived, experienced, and articulated to researchers through a broader lens of these linked lifestyle and cultural shifts. Therefore, we argue that to properly assess and understand the impacts of climate change on the subsistence practices in Arctic communities, we must also consider the total environment of change that is dramatically shaping the relationship between people, communities, and their surrounding environments.

  18. Enthalpy-entropy compensation: the role of solvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Anatoliy I; Read, Christopher M; Crane-Robinson, Colyn

    2017-05-01

    Structural modifications to interacting systems frequently lead to changes in both the enthalpy (heat) and entropy of the process that compensate each other, so that the Gibbs free energy is little changed: a major barrier to the development of lead compounds in drug discovery. The conventional explanation for such enthalpy-entropy compensation (EEC) is that tighter contacts lead to a more negative enthalpy but increased molecular constraints, i.e., a compensating conformational entropy reduction. Changes in solvation can also contribute to EEC but this contribution is infrequently discussed. We review long-established and recent cases of EEC and conclude that the large fluctuations in enthalpy and entropy observed are too great to be a result of only conformational changes and must result, to a considerable degree, from variations in the amounts of water immobilized or released on forming complexes. Two systems exhibiting EEC show a correlation between calorimetric entropies and local mobilities, interpreted to mean conformational control of the binding entropy/free energy. However, a substantial contribution from solvation gives the same effect, as a consequence of a structural link between the amount of bound water and the protein flexibility. Only by assuming substantial changes in solvation-an intrinsically compensatory process-can a more complete understanding of EEC be obtained. Faced with such large, and compensating, changes in the enthalpies and entropies of binding, the best approach to engineering elevated affinities must be through the addition of ionic links, as they generate increased entropy without affecting the enthalpy.

  19. Improving value in primary total joint arthroplasty care pathways: changes in inpatient physical therapy staffing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelt, Christopher E; Anderson, Mike B; Pendleton, Robert; Foulks, Matthew; Peters, Christopher L; Gililland, Jeremy M

    2017-03-01

    An early physical therapy (PT) care pathway was implemented to provide same-day ambulation after total joint arthroplasty by changing PT staffing hours. After receiving an exemption from our institutional review board, we performed a secondary data analysis on a cohort of patients that underwent primary TJA of the hip or knee 6 months before and 12 months after implementation of the change. Data on same-day ambulation rates, length of stay (LOS), and in-hospital costs were reviewed. Early evaluation and mobilization of patients by PT improved on postoperative day (POD) 0 from 64% to 85% after the change ( P ≤ .001). The median LOS before the change was 3.27 days compared to 3.23 days after the change ( P  = .014). Patients with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores were less likely to ambulate on POD 0 ( P  = .038) and had longer hospital stays ( P < .001). Early mobilization in the entire cohort was associated with a greater cost savings ( P < .001). A relatively simple change to staffing hours, using resources currently available to us, and little additional financial or institutional investment resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients ambulating on POD 0, with a modest reduction in both LOS and inpatient costs.

  20. Entropy squeezing for a two-level atom in two-mode Raman coupled model with intrinsic decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian; Shao Bin; Zou Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the entropy squeezing for a two-level atom interacting with two quantized fields through Raman coupling.We obtain the dynamical evolution of the total system under the influence of intrinsic decoherence when the two quantized fields are prepared in a two-mode squeezing vacuum state initially.The effects of the field squeezing factor,the two-level atomic transition frequency,the second field frequency and the intrinsic decoherence on the entropy squeezing are discussed.Without intrinsic decoherence,the increase of field squeezing factor can break the entropy squeezing.The two-level atomic transition frequency changes only the period of oscillation but not the strength of entropy squeezing.The influence of the second field frequency is complicated.With the intrinsic decoherence taken into consideration,the results show that the stronger the intrinsic decoherence is,the more quickly the entropy squeezing will disappear.The increase of the atomic transition frequency can hasten the disappearance of entropy squeezing.

  1. Entropy squeezing for a two-level atom in two-mode Raman coupled model with intrinsic decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Zhang; Bin, Shao; Jian, Zou

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the entropy squeezing for a two-level atom interacting with two quantized fields through Raman coupling. We obtain the dynamical evolution of the total system under the influence of intrinsic decoherence when the two quantized fields are prepared in a two-mode squeezing vacuum state initially. The effects of the field squeezing factor, the two-level atomic transition frequency, the second field frequency and the intrinsic decoherence on the entropy squeezing are discussed. Without intrinsic decoherence, the increase of field squeezing factor can break the entropy squeezing. The two-level atomic transition frequency changes only the period of oscillation but not the strength of entropy squeezing. The influence of the second field frequency is complicated. With the intrinsic decoherence taken into consideration, the results show that the stronger the intrinsic decoherence is, the more quickly the entropy squeezing will disappear. The increase of the atomic transition frequency can hasten the disappearance of entropy squeezing. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  2. Phonon broadening in high entropy alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmann, Fritz; Ikeda, Yuji; Grabowski, Blazej; Sluiter, Marcel H. F.

    2017-09-01

    Refractory high entropy alloys feature outstanding properties making them a promising materials class for next-generation high-temperature applications. At high temperatures, materials properties are strongly affected by lattice vibrations (phonons). Phonons critically influence thermal stability, thermodynamic and elastic properties, as well as thermal conductivity. In contrast to perfect crystals and ordered alloys, the inherently present mass and force constant fluctuations in multi-component random alloys (high entropy alloys) can induce significant phonon scattering and broadening. Despite their importance, phonon scattering and broadening have so far only scarcely been investigated for high entropy alloys. We tackle this challenge from a theoretical perspective and employ ab initio calculations to systematically study the impact of force constant and mass fluctuations on the phonon spectral functions of 12 body-centered cubic random alloys, from binaries up to 5-component high entropy alloys, addressing the key question of how chemical complexity impacts phonons. We find that it is crucial to include both mass and force constant fluctuations. If one or the other is neglected, qualitatively wrong results can be obtained such as artificial phonon band gaps. We analyze how the results obtained for the phonons translate into thermodynamically integrated quantities, specifically the vibrational entropy. Changes in the vibrational entropy with increasing the number of elements can be as large as changes in the configurational entropy and are thus important for phase stability considerations. The set of studied alloys includes MoTa, MoTaNb, MoTaNbW, MoTaNbWV, VW, VWNb, VWTa, VWNbTa, VTaNbTi, VWNbTaTi, HfZrNb, HfMoTaTiZr.

  3. Calculation of Configurational Entropy in Complex Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are fundamental concepts that underlie all natural processes and patterns. Recent research has shown how the entropy of a landscape mosaic can be calculated using the Boltzmann equation, with the entropy of a lattice mosaic equal to the logarithm of the number of ways a lattice with a given dimensionality and number of classes can be arranged to produce the same total amount of edge between cells of different classes. However, that work seemed to also suggest that the feasibility of applying this method to real landscapes was limited due to intractably large numbers of possible arrangements of raster cells in large landscapes. Here I extend that work by showing that: (1 the proportion of arrangements rather than the number with a given amount of edge length provides a means to calculate unbiased relative configurational entropy, obviating the need to compute all possible configurations of a landscape lattice; (2 the edge lengths of randomized landscape mosaics are normally distributed, following the central limit theorem; and (3 given this normal distribution it is possible to fit parametric probability density functions to estimate the expected proportion of randomized configurations that have any given edge length, enabling the calculation of configurational entropy on any landscape regardless of size or number of classes. I evaluate the boundary limits (4 for this normal approximation for small landscapes with a small proportion of a minority class and show it holds under all realistic landscape conditions. I further (5 demonstrate that this relationship holds for a sample of real landscapes that vary in size, patch richness, and evenness of area in each cover type, and (6 I show that the mean and standard deviation of the normally distributed edge lengths can be predicted nearly perfectly as a function of the size, patch richness and diversity of a landscape. Finally, (7 I show that the

  4. Entropy of network ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra

    2009-03-01

    In this paper we generalize the concept of random networks to describe network ensembles with nontrivial features by a statistical mechanics approach. This framework is able to describe undirected and directed network ensembles as well as weighted network ensembles. These networks might have nontrivial community structure or, in the case of networks embedded in a given space, they might have a link probability with a nontrivial dependence on the distance between the nodes. These ensembles are characterized by their entropy, which evaluates the cardinality of networks in the ensemble. In particular, in this paper we define and evaluate the structural entropy, i.e., the entropy of the ensembles of undirected uncorrelated simple networks with given degree sequence. We stress the apparent paradox that scale-free degree distributions are characterized by having small structural entropy while they are so widely encountered in natural, social, and technological complex systems. We propose a solution to the paradox by proving that scale-free degree distributions are the most likely degree distribution with the corresponding value of the structural entropy. Finally, the general framework we present in this paper is able to describe microcanonical ensembles of networks as well as canonical or hidden-variable network ensembles with significant implications for the formulation of network-constructing algorithms.

  5. Entropy Production in Stochastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetris Koutsoyiannis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the modern definition of entropy is genuinely probabilistic, in entropy production the classical thermodynamic definition, as in heat transfer, is typically used. Here we explore the concept of entropy production within stochastics and, particularly, two forms of entropy production in logarithmic time, unconditionally (EPLT or conditionally on the past and present having been observed (CEPLT. We study the theoretical properties of both forms, in general and in application to a broad set of stochastic processes. A main question investigated, related to model identification and fitting from data, is how to estimate the entropy production from a time series. It turns out that there is a link of the EPLT with the climacogram, and of the CEPLT with two additional tools introduced here, namely the differenced climacogram and the climacospectrum. In particular, EPLT and CEPLT are related to slopes of log-log plots of these tools, with the asymptotic slopes at the tails being most important as they justify the emergence of scaling laws of second-order characteristics of stochastic processes. As a real-world application, we use an extraordinary long time series of turbulent velocity and show how a parsimonious stochastic model can be identified and fitted using the tools developed.

  6. Changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guohong; Xu Ruiji; Zhang Zhongshu

    2011-01-01

    To determine changes in serum concentrations of total and free testosterone in young and middle-aged men.the healthy men (n=126) were divided 20-29 yr, 30-39 yr and 40-49 yr three groups,their serum levels of total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2) were detected. The results were statically analyzed. The results showed that the levels of serum T and FT was found significantly decreased in 30-39 yr group than in 20-29 yr group (15.06±13 nmol/L vs 20.41±86 nmol/L, P<0.01; 9.36±95 pg/L vs 11.48±88 pg/L, P<0.05; respectively). There were young trends that age-related decline in androgen levels. (authors)

  7. Total Factor Productivity Growth, Technical Progress & Efficiency Change in Vietnam Coal Industry - Nonparametric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Vu Hung

    2018-03-01

    This research applies Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach to analyze Total Factor Productivity (TFP) and efficiency changes in Vietnam coal mining industry from 2007 to 2013. The TFP of Vietnam coal mining companies decreased due to slow technological progress and unimproved efficiency. The decadence of technical efficiency in many enterprises proved that the coal mining industry has a large potential to increase productivity through technical efficiency improvement. Enhancing human resource training, technology and research & development investment could help the industry to improve efficiency and productivity in Vietnam coal mining industry.

  8. THE RESEARCH OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS CONTENT AND THEIR CHANGES IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beáta Volnová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants with antioxidant properties. In this work we research the changes in the content of total polyphenols in five varieties of potatoes (Rumelia, Arwen, Megan, Malvína, Erídia. Potatoes were grown at the stage of full maturity from Matejovce nad Hornádom, region of Poprad. Total polyphenols we determined in whole peeled potatoes; in the outside part of peeled potato tubers (1 cm; in inside part of potato tubers (mean 2 cm and in the whole peel-boiled potatoes. The total polyphenols content was determined by spectrophotometry (λ = 765 nm and it was used lyophilized samples in ethanol extracts. In whole peeled potatoes was the content of total polyphenols in the range from 243.34 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Rumelia to 446.38 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Megan, in the outside part of peeled potato tubers was content in the range from 190.45 mg.kg-1 (cv. Rumelia to 446.84 mg.kg-1 DM (cv. Malvína and in inside part of potato tubers from 245.51 mg.kg-1 to 446.26 mg.kg-1 DM (Arwen < Rumelia < Megan < Erídia < Malvína. In the whole peel-boiled potatoes was the lowest content of total polyphenols in variety Rumelia (252.5 mg.kg-1 DM and the highest content in variety Megan (440.54 mg.kg-1 DM. Results were statistically evaluated by the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA – Multiple Range Tests, Method: 95.0 percent LSD using statistical software STATGRAPHICS (Centurion XVI.I, USA and the regression and correlation analysis (Microsoft Excel was used.

  9. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  10. Microscopic entropy and nonlocality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, E.; Ordonets, G.; Petroskij, T.; Prigozhin, I.

    2003-01-01

    We have obtained a microscopic expression for entropy in terms of H function based on nonunitary Λ transformation which leads from the time evolution as a unitary group to a Markovian dynamics and unifies the reversible and irreversible aspects of quantum mechanics. This requires a new representation outside the Hilbert space. In terms of H, we show the entropy production and the entropy flow during the emission and absorption of radiation by an atom. Analyzing the time inversion experiment, we emphasize the importance of pre- and postcollisional correlations, which break the symmetry between incoming and outgoing waves. We consider the angle dependence of the H function in a three-dimensional situation. A model including virtual transitions is discussed in a subsequent paper

  11. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta; Srivastava

    2010-01-01

    Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian est...

  12. Quantum Entropy and Its Applications to Quantum Communication and Statistical Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Ohya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum entropy is a fundamental concept for quantum information recently developed in various directions. We will review the mathematical aspects of quantum entropy (entropies and discuss some applications to quantum communication, statistical physics. All topics taken here are somehow related to the quantum entropy that the present authors have been studied. Many other fields recently developed in quantum information theory, such as quantum algorithm, quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, etc., are totally discussed in the book (reference number 60.

  13. Springs-neaps cycles in daily total seabed light: Daylength-induced changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, E. M.; Bowers, D. G.; Davies, A. J.

    2014-04-01

    In shallow, tidal seas, daily total seabed light is determined largely by the interaction of the solar elevation cycle, the tidal cycle in water depth, and any temporal variability in turbidity. Since tidal range, times of low water, and often turbidity vary in regular ways over the springs-neaps cycle, daily total seabed light exhibits cycles of the same periodicity. Corresponding cycles are likely to be induced in the daily total primary production of benthic algae and plants, particularly those light-limited specimens occupying the lower reaches of a sub-tidal population. Consequently, this effect is an important control on the growth patterns, depth distribution and survival of, for example, macroalgal forests and seagrass meadows. Seasonal changes in daylength exert an important additional control on these cycles, as they alter the fraction of the tidal and turbidity cycles occurring within daylight hours. Bowers et al. (1997) modelled this phenomenon numerically and predicted that for a site with low water at about midday and midnight at neaps tides, 6 am and 6 pm at springs, daily total seabed light peaks at neaps in winter, but the ‘sense' of the cycle ‘switches' so that it peaks at springs in summer - the longer daylength permits the morning and evening low water springs to contribute substantially to the daily total. Observations for such a site in North Wales (UK), presented in this paper, show that no such ‘switch' occurs, and neaps tides host the largest daily totals throughout the year. The predicted ‘switch' is not observed because turbidity increases generally at spring tides, and specifically at low water springs, both of which were not accounted for in the model. Observations at a second site in Brittany (France), diametrically opposite in terms of the times of low water at neaps and at springs, indicate a peak at springs throughout the year. Analytical tools are developed to calculate the percentage of daily total sea surface irradiance

  14. Chronological changes in functional cup position at 10 years after total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanoue, Yusuke; Ikeuchi, Masahiko; Takaya, Shogo; Izumi, Masashi; Aso, Koji; Kawakami, Teruhiko

    2017-09-19

    This study aims to clarify the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after total hip arthroplasty (THA), and to identify the risk factors influencing a significant difference in functional cup position during the postoperative follow-up period. We evaluated the chronological changes in functional cup position at a minimum follow-up of 10 years after THA in 58 patients with unilateral hip osteoarthritis. Radiographic cup position was measured on anteroposterior pelvic radiographs with the patient in the supine position, whereas functional cup position was recorded in the standing position. Radiographs were obtained before, 3 weeks after, and every 1 year after surgery. Functional cup anteversion (F-Ant) increased over time, and was found to have significantly increased at final follow-up compared to that at 3 weeks after surgery (p10° anteriorly. Preoperative posterior pelvic tilt in the standing position and vertebral fractures after THA were significant predictors of increasing functional cup anteversion. Although chronological changes in functional cup position do occur after THA, their magnitude is relatively low. However, posterior impingement is likely to occur, which may cause edge loading, wear of the polyethylene liner, and anterior dislocation of the hip. We believe that, for the combined anteversion technique, the safe zone should probably be 5°-10° narrower in patients predicted to show considerable changes in functional cup position compared with standard cases.

  15. Algebraic topological entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1989-01-01

    As a 'by-product' of the Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring theory of dynamical entropy for (originally non-Abelian) nuclear C * -algebras, the well-known variational principle for topological entropy is eqivalently reformulated in purly algebraically defined terms for (separable) Abelian C * -algebras. This 'algebraic variational principle' should not only nicely illustrate the 'feed-back' of methods developed for quantum dynamical systems to the classical theory, but it could also be proved directly by 'algebraic' methods and could thus further simplify the original proof of the variational principle (at least 'in principle'). 23 refs. (Author)

  16. Combinatorial Image Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuri, Shtarkov; Justesen, Jørn

    1997-01-01

    The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions.......The concept of entropy for an image on a discrete two dimensional grid is introduced. This concept is used as an information theoretic bound on the coding rate for the image. It is proved that this quantity exists as a limit for arbitrary sets satisfying certain conditions....

  17. Maximum Entropy Fundamentals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Topsøe

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In its modern formulation, the Maximum Entropy Principle was promoted by E.T. Jaynes, starting in the mid-fifties. The principle dictates that one should look for a distribution, consistent with available information, which maximizes the entropy. However, this principle focuses only on distributions and it appears advantageous to bring information theoretical thinking more prominently into play by also focusing on the "observer" and on coding. This view was brought forward by the second named author in the late seventies and is the view we will follow-up on here. It leads to the consideration of a certain game, the Code Length Game and, via standard game theoretical thinking, to a principle of Game Theoretical Equilibrium. This principle is more basic than the Maximum Entropy Principle in the sense that the search for one type of optimal strategies in the Code Length Game translates directly into the search for distributions with maximum entropy. In the present paper we offer a self-contained and comprehensive treatment of fundamentals of both principles mentioned, based on a study of the Code Length Game. Though new concepts and results are presented, the reading should be instructional and accessible to a rather wide audience, at least if certain mathematical details are left aside at a rst reading. The most frequently studied instance of entropy maximization pertains to the Mean Energy Model which involves a moment constraint related to a given function, here taken to represent "energy". This type of application is very well known from the literature with hundreds of applications pertaining to several different elds and will also here serve as important illustration of the theory. But our approach reaches further, especially regarding the study of continuity properties of the entropy function, and this leads to new results which allow a discussion of models with so-called entropy loss. These results have tempted us to speculate over

  18. Maximum entropy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponman, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    For some years now two different expressions have been in use for maximum entropy image restoration and there has been some controversy over which one is appropriate for a given problem. Here two further entropies are presented and it is argued that there is no single correct algorithm. The properties of the four different methods are compared using simple 1D simulations with a view to showing how they can be used together to gain as much information as possible about the original object. (orig.)

  19. Entanglement entropy and duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radičević, Ðorđe [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2016-11-22

    Using the algebraic approach to entanglement entropy, we study several dual pairs of lattice theories and show how the entropy is completely preserved across each duality. Our main result is that a maximal algebra of observables in a region typically dualizes to a non-maximal algebra in a dual region. In particular, we show how the usual notion of tracing out external degrees of freedom dualizes to a tracing out coupled to an additional summation over superselection sectors. We briefly comment on possible extensions of our results to more intricate dualities, including holographic ones.

  20. Maximum entropy tokamak configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.

    1989-01-01

    The new entropy concept for the collective magnetic equilibria is applied to the description of the states of a tokamak subject to ohmic and auxiliary heating. The condition for the existence of steady state plasma states with vanishing entropy production implies, on one hand, the resilience of specific current density profiles and, on the other, severe restrictions on the scaling of the confinement time with power and current. These restrictions are consistent with Goldston scaling and with the existence of a heat pinch. (author)

  1. Analysis of behavioral change techniques in community-led total sanitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigler, Rachel; Mahmoudi, Lyana; Graham, Jay Paul

    2015-03-01

    The lack of sanitation facilitates the spread of diarrheal diseases-a leading cause of child deaths worldwide. As of 2012, an estimated 1 billion people still practiced open defecation (OD). To address this issue, one behavioral change approach used is community-led total sanitation (CLTS). It is now applied in an estimated 66 countries worldwide, and many countries have adopted this approach as their main strategy for scaling up rural sanitation coverage. While it appears that many of the activities used in CLTS-that target community-level changes in sanitation behaviors instead of household-level changes-have evolved out of existing behavior change frameworks and techniques, it is less clear how these activities are adapted by different organizations and applied in different country contexts. The aims of this study are to (i) show which behavior change frameworks and techniques are the most common in CLTS interventions; (ii) describe how activities are implemented in CLTS interventions by region and context; and (3) determine which activities program implementers considered the most valuable in achieving open defecation free (ODF) status and sustaining it. The results indicate that a wide range of activities are conducted across the different programs and often go beyond standard CLTS activities. CLTS practitioners ranked follow-up and monitoring activities as the most important activities for achieving an ODF community, yet only 1 of 10 organizations conducted monitoring and follow-up throughout their project. Empirical studies are needed to determine which specific behavioral change activities are most effective at ending OD and sustaining it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An entropy-assisted musculoskeletal shoulder model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xu; Lin, Jia-Hua; McGorry, Raymond W

    2017-04-01

    Optimization combined with a musculoskeletal shoulder model has been used to estimate mechanical loading of musculoskeletal elements around the shoulder. Traditionally, the objective function is to minimize the summation of the total activities of the muscles with forces, moments, and stability constraints. Such an objective function, however, tends to neglect the antagonist muscle co-contraction. In this study, an objective function including an entropy term is proposed to address muscle co-contractions. A musculoskeletal shoulder model is developed to apply the proposed objective function. To find the optimal weight for the entropy term, an experiment was conducted. In the experiment, participants generated various 3-D shoulder moments in six shoulder postures. The surface EMG of 8 shoulder muscles was measured and compared with the predicted muscle activities based on the proposed objective function using Bhattacharyya distance and concordance ratio under different weight of the entropy term. The results show that a small weight of the entropy term can improve the predictability of the model in terms of muscle activities. Such a result suggests that the concept of entropy could be helpful for further understanding the mechanism of muscle co-contractions as well as developing a shoulder biomechanical model with greater validity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of changes in plasma total antioxidant status in gamma irradiated rats treated with eugenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azab, Kh. SH.

    2002-01-01

    Eugenol, a volatile phenolic phyto chemical, is a major constituent of clove oil. The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant effect of eugenol on certain lipid metabolites and variations in the antioxidant status. In vitro study (oxidative susceptibility of lipoprotein) revealed that eugenol elongates the lag phase for the induction of conjugated diene and decreased the rate of lipid peroxidation (production of thiobarbituric reactive substances; TBARS) during the propagation phase. In vivo study on rats revealed a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant status after eugenol regime. Furthermore, eugenol water emulsion delivered to rats by garage in a concentration of 1 g/kg body weight for 15 days before and during exposure to fractionated whole body gamma radiation (1.5 Gy every other day) up to a total dose of 7.5 Gy showed that, administration of eugenol reduces significantly the concentration of plasma TBARS and minimize the decrease in plasma antioxidants. Amelioration in the concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH) in blood and liver and the activities of cytosolic glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in the liver were also observed. Furthermore, the changes in the concentrations of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were less pronounced. It could be postulated that by minimizing the decrease in antioxidant status, eugenol could prevents the radiation induce alterations in lipid metabolism

  4. Algebraic entropy for algebraic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, A N W; Ragnisco, Orlando; Zullo, Federico

    2016-01-01

    We propose an extension of the concept of algebraic entropy, as introduced by Bellon and Viallet for rational maps, to algebraic maps (or correspondences) of a certain kind. The corresponding entropy is an index of the complexity of the map. The definition inherits the basic properties from the definition of entropy for rational maps. We give an example with positive entropy, as well as two examples taken from the theory of Bäcklund transformations. (letter)

  5. Association of Changes in Diet Quality with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2017-07-13

    Few studies have evaluated the relationship between changes in diet quality over time and the risk of death. We used Cox proportional-hazards models to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for total and cause-specific mortality among 47,994 women in the Nurses' Health Study and 25,745 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1998 through 2010. Changes in diet quality over the preceding 12 years (1986-1998) were assessed with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 score, the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. The pooled hazard ratios for all-cause mortality among participants who had the greatest improvement in diet quality (13 to 33% improvement), as compared with those who had a relatively stable diet quality (0 to 3% improvement), in the 12-year period were the following: 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 0.97) according to changes in the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 0.84 (95 CI%, 0.78 to 0.91) according to changes in the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) according to changes in the DASH score. A 20-percentile increase in diet scores (indicating an improved quality of diet) was significantly associated with a reduction in total mortality of 8 to 17% with the use of the three diet indexes and a 7 to 15% reduction in the risk of death from cardiovascular disease with the use of the Alternate Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Mediterranean Diet. Among participants who maintained a high-quality diet over a 12-year period, the risk of death from any cause was significantly lower - by 14% (95% CI, 8 to 19) when assessed with the Alternate Healthy Eating Index score, 11% (95% CI, 5 to 18) when assessed with the Alternate Mediterranean Diet score, and 9% (95% CI, 2 to 15) when assessed with the DASH score - than the risk among participants with consistently low diet scores over time. Improved diet quality over 12 years was

  6. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  7. A Note on Quantum Entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Frank, E-mail: frank.hansen@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Institute for Excellence in Higher Education (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Incremental information, as measured by the quantum entropy, is increasing when two ensembles are united. This result was proved by Lieb and Ruskai, and it is the foundation for the proof of strong subadditivity of quantum entropy. We present a truly elementary proof of this fact in the context of the broader family of matrix entropies introduced by Chen and Tropp.

  8. Induction of systemic bone changes by preconditioning total body irradiation for bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Osamu; Okamoto, Reiko; Masaki, Hidekazu; Nishimura, Gen; Kumagai, Masaaki; Shioda, Yoko; Nozawa, Kumiko; Kitoh, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) prior to bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been believed to be a safe procedure that does not cause late morbidity; yet, a recent report raises the suspicion that TBI-induced chondroosseous abnormalities do occur. To evaluate the radiological manifestations of TBI-induced skeletal alterations and their orthopaedic morbidity. Subjects included 11 children with TBI-induced skeletal changes, including 9 in our hospital and 2 in other hospitals. The former were selected from 53 children who had undergone TBI with BMT. Radiographic examinations (n=11), MRI (n=3), CT (n=2), and medical records in the 11 children were retrospectively reviewed. The skeletal alterations included abnormal epiphyseal ossification and metaphyseal fraying (8/11), longitudinal metaphyseal striations (8/11), irregular metaphyseal sclerosis (6/11), osteochondromas (4/11), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (2/10), genu valgum (3/10), and platyspondyly (2/3). MRI demonstrated immature primary spongiosa in the metaphysis. Of the 11 children, 9 had clinical symptoms. TBI can induce polyostotic and/or generalized bone changes, mainly affecting the epiphyseal/metaphyseal regions and occasionally the spine. The epi-/metaphyseal abnormalities represent impaired chondrogenesis in the epiphysis and growth plate and abnormal remodelling in the metaphysis. Generalized spine changes may lead to misdiagnosis of a skeletal dysplasia. (orig.)

  9. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  10. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-05-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.

  11. Measurement of total ultrasonic power using thermal expansion and change in buoyancy of an absorbing target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar

    2014-01-01

    The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique

  12. Relations Among Some Fuzzy Entropy Formulae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿铭

    2004-01-01

    Fuzzy entropy has been widely used to analyze and design fuzzy systems, and many fuzzy entropy formulae have been proposed. For further in-deepth analysis of fuzzy entropy, the axioms and some important formulae of fuzzy entropy are introduced. Some equivalence results among these fuzzy entropy formulae are proved, and it is shown that fuzzy entropy is a special distance measurement.

  13. Global analysis of approaches for deriving total water storage changes from GRACE satellites and implications for groundwater storage change estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D.; Scanlon, B. R.; Longuevergne, L.; Chen, X.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing interest in use of GRACE satellites and a variety of new products to monitor changes in total water storage (TWS) underscores the need to assess the reliability of output from different products. The objective of this study was to assess skills and uncertainties of different approaches for processing GRACE data to restore signal losses caused by spatial filtering based on analysis of 1°×1° grid scale data and basin scale data in 60 river basins globally. Results indicate that scaling factors from six land surface models (LSMs), including four models from GLDAS-1 (Noah 2.7, Mosaic, VIC, and CLM 2.0), CLM 4.0, and WGHM, are similar over most humid, sub-humid, and high-latitude regions but can differ by up to 100% over arid and semi-arid basins and areas with intensive irrigation. Large differences in TWS anomalies from three processing approaches (scaling factor, additive, and multiplicative corrections) were found in arid and semi-arid regions, areas with intensive irrigation, and relatively small basins (e.g., ≤ 200,000 km2). Furthermore, TWS anomaly products from gridded data with CLM4.0 scaling factors and the additive correction approach more closely agree with WGHM output than the multiplicative correction approach. Estimation of groundwater storage changes using GRACE satellites requires caution in selecting an appropriate approach for restoring TWS changes. A priori ground-based data used in forward modeling can provide a powerful tool for explaining the distribution of signal gains or losses caused by low-pass filtering in specific regions of interest and should be very useful for more reliable estimation of groundwater storage changes using GRACE satellites.

  14. Entropy à la Boltzmann

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy à la Boltzmann. Jayanta K Bhattacharjee. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 19-34. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0019-0034 ...

  15. Entropy in Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Consider the integral. taken over a reversible transformation. We shall call this function the entropy of state A.” 'Thermodynamics' by Enrico Fermi. “Let Γ be the volume of the region of motion of the states, and. This is the basic assumption of ...

  16. Dynamic Cross-Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aur, Dorian; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2017-01-01

    Complexity measures for time series have been used in many applications to quantify the regularity of one dimensional time series, however many dynamical systems are spatially distributed multidimensional systems. We introduced Dynamic Cross-Entropy (DCE) a novel multidimensional complexity measure that quantifies the degree of regularity of EEG signals in selected frequency bands. Time series generated by discrete logistic equations with varying control parameter r are used to test DCE measures. Sliding window DCE analyses are able to reveal specific period doubling bifurcations that lead to chaos. A similar behavior can be observed in seizures triggered by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Sample entropy data show the level of signal complexity in different phases of the ictal ECT. The transition to irregular activity is preceded by the occurrence of cyclic regular behavior. A significant increase of DCE values in successive order from high frequencies in gamma to low frequencies in delta band reveals several phase transitions into less ordered states, possible chaos in the human brain. To our knowledge there are no reliable techniques able to reveal the transition to chaos in case of multidimensional times series. In addition, DCE based on sample entropy appears to be robust to EEG artifacts compared to DCE based on Shannon entropy. The applied technique may offer new approaches to better understand nonlinear brain activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rescaling Temperature and Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, John, III

    2010-01-01

    Temperature and entropy traditionally are expressed in units of kelvin and joule/kelvin. These units obscure some important aspects of the natures of these thermodynamic quantities. Defining a rescaled temperature using the Boltzmann constant, T' = k[subscript B]T, expresses temperature in energy units, thereby emphasizing the close relationship…

  18. Optimized Kernel Entropy Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Verdiguier, Emma; Laparra, Valero; Jenssen, Robert; Gomez-Chova, Luis; Camps-Valls, Gustau

    2017-06-01

    This brief addresses two main issues of the standard kernel entropy component analysis (KECA) algorithm: the optimization of the kernel decomposition and the optimization of the Gaussian kernel parameter. KECA roughly reduces to a sorting of the importance of kernel eigenvectors by entropy instead of variance, as in the kernel principal components analysis. In this brief, we propose an extension of the KECA method, named optimized KECA (OKECA), that directly extracts the optimal features retaining most of the data entropy by means of compacting the information in very few features (often in just one or two). The proposed method produces features which have higher expressive power. In particular, it is based on the independent component analysis framework, and introduces an extra rotation to the eigen decomposition, which is optimized via gradient-ascent search. This maximum entropy preservation suggests that OKECA features are more efficient than KECA features for density estimation. In addition, a critical issue in both the methods is the selection of the kernel parameter, since it critically affects the resulting performance. Here, we analyze the most common kernel length-scale selection criteria. The results of both the methods are illustrated in different synthetic and real problems. Results show that OKECA returns projections with more expressive power than KECA, the most successful rule for estimating the kernel parameter is based on maximum likelihood, and OKECA is more robust to the selection of the length-scale parameter in kernel density estimation.

  19. Enzyme catalysis by entropy without Circe effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Masoud; Himo, Fahmi; Åqvist, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Entropic effects have often been invoked to explain the extraordinary catalytic power of enzymes. In particular, the hypothesis that enzymes can use part of the substrate-binding free energy to reduce the entropic penalty associated with the subsequent chemical transformation has been very influential. The enzymatic reaction of cytidine deaminase appears to be a distinct example. Here, substrate binding is associated with a significant entropy loss that closely matches the activation entropy penalty for the uncatalyzed reaction in water, whereas the activation entropy for the rate-limiting catalytic step in the enzyme is close to zero. Herein, we report extensive computer simulations of the cytidine deaminase reaction and its temperature dependence. The energetics of the catalytic reaction is first evaluated by density functional theory calculations. These results are then used to parametrize an empirical valence bond description of the reaction, which allows efficient sampling by molecular dynamics simulations and computation of Arrhenius plots. The thermodynamic activation parameters calculated by this approach are in excellent agreement with experimental data and indeed show an activation entropy close to zero for the rate-limiting transition state. However, the origin of this effect is a change of reaction mechanism compared the uncatalyzed reaction. The enzyme operates by hydroxide ion attack, which is intrinsically associated with a favorable activation entropy. Hence, this has little to do with utilization of binding free energy to pay the entropic penalty but rather reflects how a preorganized active site can stabilize a reaction path that is not operational in solution.

  20. Entropy of Kerr-de Sitter black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Fan; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren

    2017-07-01

    Based on the consideration that the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon of Kerr-de Sitter black hole are not independent of each other, we conjecture the total entropy of the system should have an extra term contributed from the correlations between the two horizons, except for the sum of the two horizon entropies. By employing globally effective first law and effective thermodynamic quantities, we obtain the corrected total entropy and find that the region of stable state for Kerr-de Sitter is related to the angular velocity parameter a, i.e., the region of stable state becomes bigger as the rotating parameters a is increases.

  1. Minimizing the entropy production in a chemical process for dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosjorde, A.; Kjelstrup, S.; Johannessen, E.; Hansen, R.

    2007-01-01

    We minimize the total entropy production of a process designed for dehydrogenation of propane. The process consists of 21 units, including a plug-flow reactor, a partial condenser, two tray distillation columns and a handful of heat exchangers and compressors. The units were modeled in a manner that made them relatively insensitive to changes in the molar flow rates, to make the optimization more flexible. The operating conditions, as well as to some degree the design of selected units, which minimized the total entropy production of the process, were found. The most important variables were the amount of recycled propane and propylene, conversion and selectivity in the reactor, as well as the number of tubes in the reactor. The optimal conversion, selectivity and recycle flows were results of a very clear trade-off among the entropy produced in the reactor, the partial condenser and the two distillation columns. Although several simplifying assumptions were made for computational reasons, this shows for the first time that it is also meaningful to use the entropy production as an objective function in chemical engineering process optimization studies

  2. Entropy and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, M. H.

    This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own

  3. Entropy equilibrium equation and dynamic entropy production in environment liquid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The entropy equilibrium equation is the basis of the nonequilibrium state thermodynamics. But the internal energy implies the kinetic energy of the fluid micelle relative to mass center in the classical entropy equilibrium equation at present. This internal energy is not the mean kinetic energy of molecular movement in thermodynamics. Here a modified entropy equilibrium equation is deduced, based on the concept that the internal energy is just the mean kinetic energy of the molecular movement. A dynamic entropy production is introduced into the entropy equilibrium equation to describe the dynamic process distinctly. This modified entropy equilibrium equation can describe not only the entropy variation of the irreversible processes but also the reversible processes in a thermodynamic system. It is more reasonable and suitable for wider applications.

  4. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This approach presents a multi-valued representation of the neutrosophic information. It highlights the link between the bifuzzy information and neutrosophic one. The constructed deca-valued structure shows the neutrosophic information complexity. This deca-valued structure led to construction of two new concepts for the neutrosophic information: neutro-entropy and anti-entropy. These two concepts are added to the two existing: entropy and non-entropy. Thus, we obtained the following triad: e...

  5. Energy, entropy, and the flow of nature

    CERN Document Server

    Sherman, Thomas F

    2018-01-01

    A fresh and unified exploration of the laws that govern natural change, examining the historical roots and meaning of the concepts of energy and entropy. All natural processes--mechanical, thermal, chemical, electrical, and biological--are viewed as a flow across free energy gradients that interact with one another.

  6. How sensitive is the deltoid moment arm to humeral offset changes with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David R; Kinney, Allison L; Wright, Thomas W; Banks, Scott A

    2016-06-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty commonly treats cuff-deficient or osteoarthritic shoulders not amenable to rotator cuff repair. This study investigates deltoid moment arm sensitivity to variations in the joint center and humeral offset of 3 representative reverse total shoulder arthroplasty subjects. We hypothesized that a superior joint implant placement may exist, indicated by muscle moment arms, compared with the current actual surgical implant configuration. Moment arms for the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the deltoid muscle were determined for 1521 perturbations of the humeral offset location away from the surgical placement in a subject-specific musculoskeletal model with motion defined by subject-specific in vivo abduction kinematics. The humeral offset was varied from its surgical position ±4 mm in the anterior/posterior direction, ±12 mm in the medial/lateral direction, and -10 to 14 mm in the superior/inferior direction. The anterior deltoid moment arm varied in humeral offset and center of rotation up to 20 mm, primarily in the medial/lateral and superior/inferior directions. The lateral deltoid moment arm varied in humeral offset up to 20 mm, primarily in the medial/lateral and anterior/posterior directions. The posterior deltoid moment arm varied up to 15 mm, primarily in early abduction, and was most sensitive to humeral offset changes in the superior/inferior direction. High variations in muscle moment arms were found for all 3 deltoid components, presenting an opportunity to dramatically change the deltoid moment arms through surgical placement of the reverse shoulder components and by varying the overall offset of the humerus. Basic Science Study; Computer Modeling. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatio-temporal changes in total annual rainfall and the annual number of rainy days

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limjirakan, Sangchan; Limsakul, Atsamon

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Full text: Rainfall variability is a critical factor for Thailand's socioeconomic development. Thus, enhancing understanding of rainfall mechanisms and variability is of paramount importance for effective strategies in tackling the severe droughts/floods which are memorable and a recurring problem in Thailand. Through this study, we have examined the variability of total annual rainfall (R,otai) and the annual number of rainy days (Rday) in Thailand during 1951-2003, using an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis. The primary objective is to determine the dominant spatio-temporal patterns, and to illustrate their connection with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results reveal that the first two EOF modes, which explain nearly half of the total variance, show a good coherence of spatio-temporal structures. A salient feature of the leading modes of R,otal and Rday in Thailand is that their temporal coefficients exhibit significant relations to the ENSO. On an interannual timescale, the leading modes tended to be greater (lower) than normal during the La Nina (El Nino) phase of the ENSO. Changes in the Walker circulation appear to be the dominant mechanism whereby the ENSO exerts its influence on rainfall variability in Thailand. For an interdecadal timescale, there is evidence of the unusual and persistent deficit in Rtar accompanied by a concomitant reduction of Ranrd over the last three decades. The recent drought-like condition has been closely associated with the shift in the ENSO towards more El Nino events since the late 1970s, and coincided with the high global mean temperature. These natural/anthropogenic-induced climatic changes have important implications for rainfall forecasting, and consequently for water resource and agricultural planning and management in Thailand

  8. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnisz, Monika [Department of Environmental Microbiology, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Prawocheńskiego 1, 10-957 Olsztyn (Poland)

    2013-03-15

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX{sup R}) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX{sup R} isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress.

  9. Total resistance of native bacteria as an indicator of changes in the water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnisz, Monika

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes changes in the total (intrinsic and acquired) resistance of autochthonous bacteria in a river which is a receiver of treated wastewater. In the analyzed samples, tetracycline contamination levels were low and characteristic of surface water bodies. An increase in the populations of tetracycline-resistant and fluoroquinolone-resistant microorganisms was noted in downstream river water samples in comparison with upstream river water samples, but the above trend was not observed in bacteria resistant to macrolides and β-lactams. The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria (DOX R ) were significantly correlated with doxycycline levels. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for doxycycline in DOX R isolates were higher in downstream river water than in upstream river water samples. The discharge of treated wastewater had no effect on the multi-drug resistance of oxytetracycline-resistant and doxycycline-resistant isolates. The results of the experiment indicate that the presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria is a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress in river water. -- Highlights: ► The total resistance of native bacteria in river which is a receiver of treated wastewater was analyzed. ► Tetracyclines contamination levels were low. ► The counts of doxycycline-resistant bacteria were correlated with doxycycline levels. -- The presence of doxycycline-resistant bacteria in rivers can be a robust indicator of anthropogenic stress

  10. Total thyroidectomy: a clue to understanding the metabolic changes induced by subclinical hyperthyroidism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel Lassen, Pierre; Kyrilli, Aglaia; Lytrivi, Maria; Ruiz Patino, Maria; Corvilain, Bernard

    2017-02-01

    The effects of endogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism (eSCH) on heart and bone have been well documented. There are only limited data available regarding the impact of eSCH on weight regulation and lipid metabolism. Our aim was to evaluate the changes in body weight and metabolic parameters after total thyroidectomy in patients with pre-operative eSCH compared with pre-operative patients with euthyroid (EUT). A retrospective study of 505 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for benign multinodular goitre in an academic hospital in Brussels (Belgium) was performed. Two hundred and 25 patients were included (eSCH group: n = 74; EUT group: n = 151). The mean follow-up time was 26·1 ± 0·8 months and was similar in both groups. Absolute BMI gain was significantly greater in the eSCH group than in the EUT group (1·11 ± 0·17 vs 0·33 ± 0·13 kg/m 2 ; P = 0·003). A significant increase in LDL cholesterol was observed in the eSCH group (16·1 ± 3·8 mg/dl; P effect of eSCH on body weight regulation and lipid metabolism. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy for neutrosophic information

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Patrascu

    2017-01-01

    This article shows a deca-valued representation of neutrosophic information in which are defined the following features: truth, falsity, weak truth, weak falsity, ignorance, contradiction, saturation, neutrality, ambiguity and hesitation. Using these features, there are constructed computing formulas for entropy, neutro-entropy and anti-entropy.

  12. Total hip and knee replacement surgery results in changes in leukocyte and endothelial markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maclean Kirsty M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is estimated that over 8 million people in the United Kingdom suffer from osteoarthritis. These patients may require orthopaedic surgical intervention to help alleviate their clinical condition. Investigations presented here was to test the hypothesis that total hip replacement (THR and total knee replacement (TKR orthopaedic surgery result in changes to leukocyte and endothelial markers thus increasing inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Methods During this 'pilot study', ten test subjects were all scheduled for THR or TKR elective surgery due to osteoarthritis. Leukocyte concentrations were measured using an automated full blood count analyser. Leukocyte CD11b (Mac-1 and CD62L cell surface expression, intracellular production of H2O2 and elastase were measured as markers of leukocyte function. Von Willebrand factor (vWF and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1 were measured as markers of endothelial activation. Results The results obtained during this study demonstrate that THR and TKR orthopaedic surgery result in similar changes of leukocyte and endothelial markers, suggestive of increased inflammatory reactions postoperatively. Specifically, THR and TKR surgery resulted in a leukocytosis, this being demonstrated by an increase in the total leukocyte concentration following surgery. Evidence of leukocyte activation was demonstrated by a decrease in CD62L expression and an increase in CD11b expression by neutrophils and monocytes respectively. An increase in the intracellular H2O2 production by neutrophils and monocytes and in the leukocyte elastase concentrations was also evident of leukocyte activation following orthopaedic surgery. With respect to endothelial activation, increases in vWF and sICAM-1 concentrations were demonstrated following surgery. Conclusion In general it appeared that most of the leukocyte and endothelial markers measured during these studies peaked between days 1

  13. The different paths to entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benguigui, L

    2013-01-01

    In order to understand how the complex concept of entropy emerged, we propose a trip into the past, reviewing the works of Clausius, Boltzmann, Gibbs and Planck. In particular, since Gibbs's work is not very well known we present a detailed analysis, recalling the three definitions of entropy that Gibbs gives. The introduction of entropy in quantum mechanics gives in a compact form all the classical definitions of entropy. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of entropy is to see it as a thermodynamic potential like the others proposed by Callen. The calculation of fluctuations in thermodynamic quantities is thus naturally related to entropy. We close with some remarks on entropy and irreversibility. (paper)

  14. How does scapula motion change after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty? - a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Myung-Sun

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arm elevation is composed of glenohumeral and scapulothoracic motion. Many reports have addressed changes of scapular position across a spectrum of shoulder disease. However, no study has examined changes in scapular position after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in scapular position after RTSA compared to patients’ contralateral, nonoperated shoulder. Methods Seven patients that underwent RTSA for cuff tear arthropathy from July 2007 to October 2008 were enrolled. The distance between the long axis of the thoracic spine and the inferior pole of the scapula (lateralization of the scapula was measured on shoulder A-P radiographs at 0 degrees (the neutral position and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 degrees of shoulder abduction. In addition, the angle between the long axis of the thoracic spine and medial border of the scapula was measured and compared with the patients’ contralateral shoulder. Results Scapulohumeral rhythm was 2.4:1 on the operated shoulder and 4.1:1 on the nonoperated, contralateral shoulder at 120 degrees of abduction. The distance between the line of the interspinous process of upper thoracic vertebra and the inferior pole of the scapula showed a negative slope at 0 to 30 degrees abduction on the operated side, but beyond 30 degrees of abduction, this distance showed a more sudden increase than in the contralateral shoulder. The angle between the vertical vertebral line and the scapular medial border also showed greater increase beyond 30 degrees abduction on the operated limb. Conclusions The pattern of scapular position after RTSA, was found to differ from that of the contralateral shoulder, and showed a more scapular upward rotation.

  15. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won O. Song

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases.

  16. Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of fertilized Scots pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsholm, T; Ericsson, A

    1990-09-01

    Seasonal changes in amino acids, protein and total nitrogen in needles of 30-year-old, fertilized Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in Northern Sweden were investigated over two years in field experiments. The studied plots had been fertilized annually for 17 years with (i) a high level of N, (ii) a medium level of N, or (iii) a medium level of N, P and K. Trees growing on unfertilized plots served as controls. In control trees, glutamine, glutamic acid, gamma-aminobutyric acid, aspartic acid and proline represented 50-70% of the total free amino acids determined. Arginine was present only in low concentrations in control trees throughout the year, but it was usually the most abundant amino acid in fertilized trees. Glutamine concentrations were high during the spring and summer in both years of study, whereas proline concentrations were high in the spring but otherwise low throughout the year. In the first year of study, glutamic acid concentrations were high during the spring and summer, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid was present in high concentrations during the winter months. This pattern was less pronounced in the second year of investigation. The concentrations of most amino acids, except glutamic acid, increased in response to fertilization. Nitrogen fertilization increased the foliar concentration of arginine from trees to a maximum of 110 micromol g(dw) (-1). Trees fertilized with nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium had significantly lower arginine concentrations than trees fertilized with the same amount of nitrogen only. Protein concentrations were similar in all fertilized trees but higher than those in control trees. For all treatments, protein concentrations were high in winter and at a minimum in early spring. In summer, the protein concentration remained almost constant except for a temporary decrease which coincided with the expansion of new shoots. Apart from arginine, the amino acid composition of proteins was similar in all

  17. Total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation as the initial treatment for minimal-change chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gregory C; Sutton, Jeffrey M; Smith, Milton T; Schmulewitz, Nathan; Salehi, Marzieh; Choe, Kyuran A; Brunner, John E; Abbott, Daniel E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Ahmad, Syed A

    2015-03-01

    Patients with minimal-change chronic pancreatitis (MCCP) are traditionally managed medically with poor results. This study was conducted to review outcomes following total pancreatectomy with islet cell autotransplantation (TP/IAT) as the initial surgical procedure in the treatment of MCCP. All patients submitted to TP/IAT for MCCP were identified for inclusion in a single-centre observational study. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify pertinent preoperative, perioperative and postoperative data. A total of 84 patients with a mean age of 36.5 years (range: 15-60 years) underwent TP/IAT as the initial treatment for MCCP. The most common aetiology of chronic pancreatitis in this cohort was idiopathic (69.0%, n = 58), followed by aetiologies associated with genetic mutations (16.7%, n = 14), pancreatic divisum (9.5%, n = 8), and alcohol (4.8%, n = 4). The most common genetic mutations pertained to CFTR (n = 9), SPINK1 (n = 3) and PRSS1 (n = 2). Mean ± standard error of the mean preoperative narcotic requirements were 129.3 ± 18.7 morphine-equivalent milligrams (MEQ)/day. Overall, 58.3% (n = 49) of patients achieved narcotic independence and the remaining patients required 59.4 ± 10.6 MEQ/day (P < 0.05). Postoperative insulin independence was achieved by 36.9% (n = 31) of patients. The Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey administered postoperatively demonstrated improvement in all tested quality of life subscales. The present report represents one of the largest series demonstrating the benefits of TP/IAT in the subset of patients with MCCP. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  18. Entanglement entropy in a holographic p-wave superconductor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fang Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, arXiv:1309.4877, a holographic p-wave model has been proposed in an Einstein–Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The model exhibits rich phase structure depending on the mass and the charge of the vector field. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement entropy of dual field theory in this model. When the above two model parameters change, we observe the second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions from the behavior of the entanglement entropy at some intermediate temperatures. These imply that the entanglement entropy can indicate not only the occurrence of the phase transition, but also the order of the phase transition. The entanglement entropy is indeed a good probe to phase transition. Furthermore, the “retrograde condensation” which is a sub-dominated phase is also reflected on the entanglement entropy.

  19. Entanglement entropy in a holographic p-wave superconductor model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Li-Fang, E-mail: lilf@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Cai, Rong-Gen, E-mail: cairg@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Li, E-mail: liliphy@itp.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Shen, Chao, E-mail: sc@nssc.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-05-15

    In a recent paper, (arXiv:1309.4877), a holographic p-wave model has been proposed in an Einstein–Maxwell-complex vector field theory with a negative cosmological constant. The model exhibits rich phase structure depending on the mass and the charge of the vector field. We investigate the behavior of the entanglement entropy of dual field theory in this model. When the above two model parameters change, we observe the second order, first order and zeroth order phase transitions from the behavior of the entanglement entropy at some intermediate temperatures. These imply that the entanglement entropy can indicate not only the occurrence of the phase transition, but also the order of the phase transition. The entanglement entropy is indeed a good probe to phase transition. Furthermore, the “retrograde condensation” which is a sub-dominated phase is also reflected on the entanglement entropy.

  20. The entropy concept for non-equilibrium states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Elliott H; Yngvason, Jakob

    2013-10-08

    In earlier work, we presented a foundation for the second law of classical thermodynamics in terms of the entropy principle. More precisely, we provided an empirically accessible axiomatic derivation of an entropy function defined on all equilibrium states of all systems that has the appropriate additivity and scaling properties, and whose increase is a necessary and sufficient condition for an adiabatic process between two states to be possible. Here, after a brief review of this approach, we address the question of defining entropy for non-equilibrium states. Our conclusion is that it is generally not possible to find a unique entropy that has all relevant physical properties. We do show, however, that one can define two entropy functions, called S - and S + , which, taken together, delimit the range of adiabatic processes that can occur between non-equilibrium states. The concept of comparability of states with respect to adiabatic changes plays an important role in our reasoning.

  1. Holographic Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rangamani, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    We review the developments in the past decade on holographic entanglement entropy, a subject that has garnered much attention owing to its potential to teach us about the emergence of spacetime in holography. We provide an introduction to the concept of entanglement entropy in quantum field theories, review the holographic proposals for computing the same, providing some justification for where these proposals arise from in the first two parts. The final part addresses recent developments linking entanglement and geometry. We provide an overview of the various arguments and technical developments that teach us how to use field theory entanglement to detect geometry. Our discussion is by design eclectic; we have chosen to focus on developments that appear to us most promising for further insights into the holographic map. This is a preliminary draft of a few chapters of a book which will appear sometime in the near future, to be published by Springer. The book in addition contains a discussion of application o...

  2. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  3. Quantifying Changes in Total and Pyrogenic Carbon Stocks Across Fire Severity Gradients Using Active Wildfire Incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Miesel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Positive feedbacks between wildfire emissions and climate are expected to increase in strength in the future; however, fires not only release carbon (C from terrestrial to atmospheric pools, they also produce pyrogenic C (PyC which contributes to longer-term C stability. Our objective was to quantify wildfire impacts on total C and PyC stocks in California mixed-conifer forest, and to investigate patterns in C and PyC stocks and changes across gradients of fire severity, using metrics derived from remote sensing and field observations. Our unique study accessed active wildfires to establish and measure plots within days before and after fire, prior to substantial erosion. We measured pre- and post-fire aboveground forest structure and woody fuels to calculate aboveground biomass, C and PyC, and collected forest floor and 0–5 cm mineral soil samples. Immediate tree mortality increased with severity, but overstory C loss was minimal and limited primarily to foliage. Fire released 85% of understory and herbaceous C (comprising < 1.0% of total ecosystem C. The greatest C losses occurred from downed wood and forest floor pools (19.3 ± 5.1 Mg ha−1 and 25.9 ± 3.2 Mg ha−1, respectively. Tree bark and downed wood contributed the greatest PyC gains (1.5 ± 0.3 Mg ha−1 and 1.9 ± 0.8 Mg ha−1, respectively, and PyC in tree bark showed non-significant positive trends with increasing severity. Overall PyC losses of 1.9 ± 0.3 Mg ha−1 and 0.5 ± 0.1 Mg ha−1 occurred from forest floor and 0–5 cm mineral soil, with no clear patterns across severity. Fire resulted in a net ecosystem PyC gain (1.0 ± 1.0 Mg ha−1 across aboveground and belowground components of these forests, and there were no differences among severity levels. Carbon emissions represented only 21.6% of total forest C; however, extensive conversion of C from live to dead pools will contribute to large downed wood C pools susceptible to release in a subsequent fire, indicating

  4. Entropy region and convolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František; Csirmaz, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 11 (2016), s. 6007-6018 ISSN 0018-9448 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : entropy region * information-theoretic inequality * polymatroid Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.679, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/matus-0465564.pdf

  5. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J S

    2010-01-01

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  6. Hyperspherical entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowker, J S, E-mail: dowker@man.ac.u [Theory Group, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-05

    The coefficient of the log term in the entanglement entropy associated with hyperspherical surfaces in flat spacetime is shown to equal the conformal anomaly by conformally transforming Euclideanized spacetime to a sphere and using already existing formulae for the relevant heat-kernel coefficients after cyclic factoring. The result follows from the fact that the conformal anomaly on this lune has an extremum at the ordinary sphere limit. A proof is given. Agreement with a recent evaluation of the coefficient is found.

  7. Entropy for Mechanically Vibrating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufano, Dante

    The research contained within this thesis deals with the subject of entropy as defined for and applied to mechanically vibrating systems. This work begins with an overview of entropy as it is understood in the fields of classical thermodynamics, information theory, statistical mechanics, and statistical vibroacoustics. Khinchin's definition of entropy, which is the primary definition used for the work contained in this thesis, is introduced in the context of vibroacoustic systems. The main goal of this research is to to establish a mathematical framework for the application of Khinchin's entropy in the field of statistical vibroacoustics by examining the entropy context of mechanically vibrating systems. The introduction of this thesis provides an overview of statistical energy analysis (SEA), a modeling approach to vibroacoustics that motivates this work on entropy. The objective of this thesis is given, and followed by a discussion of the intellectual merit of this work as well as a literature review of relevant material. Following the introduction, an entropy analysis of systems of coupled oscillators is performed utilizing Khinchin's definition of entropy. This analysis develops upon the mathematical theory relating to mixing entropy, which is generated by the coupling of vibroacoustic systems. The mixing entropy is shown to provide insight into the qualitative behavior of such systems. Additionally, it is shown that the entropy inequality property of Khinchin's entropy can be reduced to an equality using the mixing entropy concept. This equality can be interpreted as a facet of the second law of thermodynamics for vibroacoustic systems. Following this analysis, an investigation of continuous systems is performed using Khinchin's entropy. It is shown that entropy analyses using Khinchin's entropy are valid for continuous systems that can be decomposed into a finite number of modes. The results are shown to be analogous to those obtained for simple oscillators

  8. Preimage entropy dimension of topological dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lei; Zhou, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiaoyao

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new definition of preimage entropy dimension for continuous maps on compact metric spaces, investigate fundamental properties of the preimage entropy dimension, and compare the preimage entropy dimension with the topological entropy dimension. The defined preimage entropy dimension holds various basic properties of topological entropy dimension, for example, the preimage entropy dimension of a subsystem is bounded by that of the original system and topologically conjugated system...

  9. Entropy budget of the earth,atmosphere and ocean system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Zijun; YAN Youfangand; QI Yiquan

    2004-01-01

    The energy budget in the system of the earth, atmosphere and ocean conforms to the first law of thermodynamics, namely the law of conservation of energy, and it is balanced when the system is in a steady-state condition. However, the entropy budget following the second law of thermodynamics is unbalanced. In this paper, we deduce the expressions of entropy flux and re-estimate the earth, atmosphere and ocean annual mean entropy budget with the updated climatologically global mean energy budget and the climatologically air-sea flux data. The calculated results show that the earth system obtains a net influx of negative entropy (-1179.3 mWm-2K-1) from its surroundings, and the atmosphere and the ocean systems obtain a net input of negative entropy at about -537.4 mWm-2K-1 and -555.6 mWm-2K-1, respectively. Calculations of the entropy budget can provide some guidance for further understanding the spatial-temporal change of the local entropy flux, and the entropy production resulting from all kinds of irreversible processes inside these systems.

  10. Entanglement entropy and differential entropy for massive flavors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Peter A.R.; Taylor, Marika

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we compute the holographic entanglement entropy for massive flavors in the D3-D7 system, for arbitrary mass and various entangling region geometries. We show that the universal terms in the entanglement entropy exactly match those computed in the dual theory using conformal perturbation theory. We derive holographically the universal terms in the entanglement entropy for a CFT perturbed by a relevant operator, up to second order in the coupling; our results are valid for any entangling region geometry. We present a new method for computing the entanglement entropy of any top-down brane probe system using Kaluza-Klein holography and illustrate our results with massive flavors at finite density. Finally we discuss the differential entropy for brane probe systems, emphasising that the differential entropy captures only the effective lower-dimensional Einstein metric rather than the ten-dimensional geometry.

  11. Serial Changes of Quadriceps and Hamstring Muscle Strength Following Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyeong-Sik; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to analyze serial changes in thigh muscles, including quadriceps and hamstring muscles, from before to one year after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). All studies sequentially comparing isokinetic quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths between the TKA side and the contralateral uninjured limb were included in this meta-analysis. Five studies with 7 cohorts were included in this meta-analysis. The mean differences in the strengths of quadriceps and hamstring muscles between the TKA and uninjured sides were greatest three months after surgery (26.8 N∙m, 12.8 N∙m, Phamstring strengths relative to preoperative levels were 9.2 N∙m and 4.9 N∙m, respectively, three months postoperatively (P = 0.041), but were no longer significant after six months and one year. During the year after TKA, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths were lowest after 3 months, recovering to preoperative level after six months, but not reaching the muscle strength on the contralateral side. Relative to preoperative levels, the difference in muscle strength between the TKA and contralateral knees was only significant at three months. Because decrease of strength of the quadriceps was significantly greater than decrease in hamstring muscle strength at postoperative three months, early rehabilitation after TKA should focus on recovery of quadriceps muscle strength. PMID:26849808

  12. A parsimonious characterization of change in global age-specific and total fertility rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to understand trends in global fertility from 1950-2010 though the analysis of age-specific fertility rates. This approach incorporates both the overall level, as when the total fertility rate is modeled, and different patterns of age-specific fertility to examine the relationship between changes in age-specific fertility and fertility decline. Singular value decomposition is used to capture the variation in age-specific fertility curves while reducing the number of dimensions, allowing curves to be described nearly fully with three parameters. Regional patterns and trends over time are evident in parameter values, suggesting this method provides a useful tool for considering fertility decline globally. The second and third parameters were analyzed using model-based clustering to examine patterns of age-specific fertility over time and place; four clusters were obtained. A country’s demographic transition can be traced through time by membership in the different clusters, and regional patterns in the trajectories through time and with fertility decline are identified. PMID:29377899

  13. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Subhash [The Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Chennai (India); KU Leuven - KULAK, Department of Physics, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G{sub D}{sup 0}. The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  14. Parametric Bayesian Estimation of Differential Entropy and Relative Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Given iid samples drawn from a distribution with known parametric form, we propose the minimization of expected Bregman divergence to form Bayesian estimates of differential entropy and relative entropy, and derive such estimators for the uniform, Gaussian, Wishart, and inverse Wishart distributions. Additionally, formulas are given for a log gamma Bregman divergence and the differential entropy and relative entropy for the Wishart and inverse Wishart. The results, as always with Bayesian estimates, depend on the accuracy of the prior parameters, but example simulations show that the performance can be substantially improved compared to maximum likelihood or state-of-the-art nonparametric estimators.

  15. Logarithmic black hole entropy corrections and holographic Renyi entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahapatra, Subhash

    2018-01-01

    The entanglement and Renyi entropies for spherical entangling surfaces in CFTs with gravity duals can be explicitly calculated by mapping these entropies first to the thermal entropy on hyperbolic space and then, using the AdS/CFT correspondence, to the Wald entropy of topological black holes. Here we extend this idea by taking into account corrections to the Wald entropy. Using the method based on horizon symmetries and the asymptotic Cardy formula, we calculate corrections to the Wald entropy and find that these corrections are proportional to the logarithm of the area of the horizon. With the corrected expression for the entropy of the black hole, we then find corrections to the Renyi entropies. We calculate these corrections for both Einstein and Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals. Corrections with logarithmic dependence on the area of the entangling surface naturally occur at the order G D 0 . The entropic c-function and the inequalities of the Renyi entropy are also satisfied even with the correction terms. (orig.)

  16. [Seasonal changes and response to stress of total flavonoids content of Farfugium japonicum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dalian; Ma, Yuxin

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the seasonal variation of total flavonoid content of Farfugium japonicum and its response to stress. The total flavonoids of Farfugium japonicum were determined by spectrophotometry in different seasons and under various stressful factors. The total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves was the highest, followed by the petiole, and rhizomes (Pseasons (Pwater stress, the total flavonoid content in Farfugium japonicum leaves gradually increased, that in petiole first increased and then decreased,while that in rhizomes decreased (Pstress, the total flavonoid content in leaves, petioles and rhizomes of Farfugium japonicum showed a decreasing trend (Pseasons and that in different parts of the plant has different responses to ecological stressful factors.

  17. Equipartition of entropy production as an approximation to the state of minimum entropy production in diabatic distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannessen, Eivind; Rosjorde, Audun

    2007-01-01

    We show that the theorem of equipartition of entropy production is important for the understanding of the state of minimum entropy production in diabatic distillation. The theorem is not valid in a strictly mathematical sense. We explain why, when and in what sense this theorem is a good approximation to the optimal state in diabatic distillation. In order to make these predictions, we use a hypothesis for the state of minimum entropy production of an optimally controlled system, which was formulated on the basis of results of entropy production minimisation in chemical reactors. The hypothesis says that the state of minimum entropy production is characterised by approximately constant local entropy production and thermodynamic forces, given that there is sufficient freedom in the system. We present numerical results which are in agreement with the predictions. The results show that a column with constant tray entropy production in the stripping section and in the rectifying section is a good approximation to the optimal column, except when the total heat transfer area is low. The agreement between the two columns becomes better and better as the total heat transfer area and the number of trays increase. The fact that the predictions and the numerical results agree very well gives support to the validity of the hypothesis

  18. Sensitivity of total stress to changes in externally applied water pressure in KBS-3 buffer bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.F.; Birchall, D.J.

    2007-04-01

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, composite copper and steel canisters containing spent nuclear fuel will be placed in large diameter disposal boreholes drilled into the floor of the repository tunnels. The space around each canister will be filled with pre-compacted bentonite which over time will draw in the surrounding ground water and swell, closing up any construction joints. However, for the purposes of performance assessment, it is necessary to consider the effect of glacial loading of a future repository and its impact on the mechanical behaviour of the bentonite, in particular, the sensitivity of total stress to changes in porewater pressure (backpressure). Two experimental histories have been undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. In both tests backpressure was varied in a number of incremental and decremental cycles while total stress, porewater pressure and volumetric flow rate were continuously monitored. The swelling pressure of the buffer clay at dry densities of 1.8 Mg/m 3 and 1.61 Mg/m 3 was determined to be around 5.5 MPa and 7.2 MPa respectively. For initial ascending porewater pressure histories the average proportionality factor α ranged from 0.86 and 0.92. Data exhibited a general trend of increasing α with increasing backpressure. In test Mx80-11 this was supported by analysis of the water inflow data which indicated a reduction in system compressibility. Asymptotic values of porewater pressure within the clay are in good agreement with externally applied backpressure values. Inspection of data provides no evidence for the development of hydraulic thresholds within the clay, subject to the boundary conditions of this test geometry. Analysis of the stress data demonstrates significant hysteresis between ascending and descending porewater pressure histories. The amount of hysteresis appears to be linked to the magnitude of the backpressure applied to the specimen, suggesting some

  19. Sensitivity of total stress to changes in externally applied water pressure in KBS-3 buffer bentonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, J.F.; Birchall, D.J. [British Geological Survey, Chemical and Biological Hazards Programme, Kingsley Dunham Centre (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    In the current Swedish repository design concept, composite copper and steel canisters containing spent nuclear fuel will be placed in large diameter disposal boreholes drilled into the floor of the repository tunnels. The space around each canister will be filled with pre-compacted bentonite which over time will draw in the surrounding ground water and swell, closing up any construction joints. However, for the purposes of performance assessment, it is necessary to consider the effect of glacial loading of a future repository and its impact on the mechanical behaviour of the bentonite, in particular, the sensitivity of total stress to changes in porewater pressure (backpressure). Two experimental histories have been undertaken using a custom-designed constant volume and radial flow (CVRF) apparatus. In both tests backpressure was varied in a number of incremental and decremental cycles while total stress, porewater pressure and volumetric flow rate were continuously monitored. The swelling pressure of the buffer clay at dry densities of 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3} and 1.61 Mg/m{sup 3} was determined to be around 5.5 MPa and 7.2 MPa respectively. For initial ascending porewater pressure histories the average proportionality factor {alpha} ranged from 0.86 and 0.92. Data exhibited a general trend of increasing {alpha} with increasing backpressure. In test Mx80-11 this was supported by analysis of the water inflow data which indicated a reduction in system compressibility. Asymptotic values of porewater pressure within the clay are in good agreement with externally applied backpressure values. Inspection of data provides no evidence for the development of hydraulic thresholds within the clay, subject to the boundary conditions of this test geometry. Analysis of the stress data demonstrates significant hysteresis between ascending and descending porewater pressure histories. The amount of hysteresis appears to be linked to the magnitude of the backpressure applied to the specimen

  20. Loss of conformational entropy in protein folding calculated using realistic ensembles and its implications for NMR-based calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxa, Michael C.; Haddadian, Esmael J.; Jumper, John M.; Freed, Karl F.; Sosnick, Tobin R.

    2014-01-01

    The loss of conformational entropy is a major contribution in the thermodynamics of protein folding. However, accurate determination of the quantity has proven challenging. We calculate this loss using molecular dynamic simulations of both the native protein and a realistic denatured state ensemble. For ubiquitin, the total change in entropy is TΔSTotal = 1.4 kcal⋅mol−1 per residue at 300 K with only 20% from the loss of side-chain entropy. Our analysis exhibits mixed agreement with prior studies because of the use of more accurate ensembles and contributions from correlated motions. Buried side chains lose only a factor of 1.4 in the number of conformations available per rotamer upon folding (ΩU/ΩN). The entropy loss for helical and sheet residues differs due to the smaller motions of helical residues (TΔShelix−sheet = 0.5 kcal⋅mol−1), a property not fully reflected in the amide N-H and carbonyl C=O bond NMR order parameters. The results have implications for the thermodynamics of folding and binding, including estimates of solvent ordering and microscopic entropies obtained from NMR. PMID:25313044

  1. Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations.In this paper,it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates,it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered.However,the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included,because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed.An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.

  2. Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations. In this paper, it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates, it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. However, the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included, because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed. An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. (general)

  3. Changes in Psychological Status and Health-Related Quality of Life Following Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Song, Kwang-Soon; Hwang, Ilseon; Coats-Thomas, Margaret S; Warner, Jon J P

    2017-06-21

    There has been little documentation of the effects of total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) on psychological status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We investigated changes in psychological status (depression and anxiety) and HRQoL following TSA and assessed the effect of preoperative psychological status on postoperative clinical and functional outcome. We hypothesized that TSA would improve both psychological status and HRQoL. We prospectively enrolled 46 patients undergoing TSA for osteoarthritis. Preoperatively and at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, all of the subjects completed the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons Scale (ASES), the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV) measure, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale Abbreviated Version (WHOQOL-BREF). From 3 months after surgery, significant improvement in HADS-depression, HADS-anxiety, and WHOQOL-BREF scores as well as in the other outcome measures of VAS pain score, ASES score, and SSV were observed. The prevalence of depression and anxiety decreased from a rate of 15.2% and 19.5%, respectively, preoperatively to a rate of 6.5% for each at 12 months postoperatively. Preoperative HADS-depression and HADS-anxiety scores did not correlate with any of the clinical and functional outcome measures at 12 months after surgery. This study showed significant improvement in psychological status and HRQoL as well as in pain and functional ability from 3 months after TSA in patients with osteoarthritis. Preoperative depression and anxiety did not predict poor postoperative outcome. Our findings suggest that TSA offers an excellent chance of improving psychological status and HRQoL. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Credal Networks under Maximum Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Lukasiewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We apply the principle of maximum entropy to select a unique joint probability distribution from the set of all joint probability distributions specified by a credal network. In detail, we start by showing that the unique joint distribution of a Bayesian tree coincides with the maximum entropy model of its conditional distributions. This result, however, does not hold anymore for general Bayesian networks. We thus present a new kind of maximum entropy models, which are computed sequentially. ...

  5. ACCUMULATED DEFORMATION MODELING OF PERMANENT WAY BASED ON ENTROPY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The work provides a theoretical research about the possibility of using methods that determine the lifetime of a railway track not only in terms of total stresses, and accounting its structure and dynamic characteristics. The aim of these studies is creation the model of deformations accumulation for assessment of service life of a railway track taking into account these features. Methodology. To simulate a gradual change state during the operation (accumulation of deformations the railway track is presented as a system that consists of many particles of different materials collected in a coherent design. It is appropriate to speak not about the appearance of deformations of a certain size in a certain section of the track, and the probability of such event on the site. If to operate the probability of occurrence of deviations, comfortable state of the system is characterized by the number of breaks of the conditional internal connections. The same state of the system may correspond to different combinations of breaks. The more breaks, the more the number of options changes in the structure of the system appropriate to its current state. Such a process can be represented as a gradual transition from an ordered state to a chaotic one. To describe the characteristics of the system used the numerical value of the entropy. Findings. Its entropy is constantly increasing at system aging. The growth of entropy is expressed by changes in the internal energy of the system, which can be determined using mechanical work forces, which leads to deformation. This gives the opportunity to show quantitative indication of breaking the bonds in the system as a consequence of performing mechanical work. According to the results of theoretical research methods for estimation of the timing of life cycles of railway operation considering such factors as the structure of the flow of trains, construction of the permanent way, the movement of trains at high

  6. Entropy Analysis of RR and QT Interval Variability during Orthostatic and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.

  7. The vibrational and configurational entropy of α-brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisek, Artur; Dachs, Edgar; Salihović, Miralem; Paunovic, Aleksandar; Maier, Maria E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The heat capacity of two α-brass samples was measured from T = 5 K to 300 K. • Above T = 300 K, the ordering/disordering processes were investigated calorimetrically. • The vibrational and configurational entropies of α-brass were calculated. • A volume vs. bulk modulus approach describing the excess entropy was tested. -- Abstract: The heat capacities of two samples of a fcc Cu–Zn alloy with the composition CuZn15 and CuZn34 were measured from T = 5 K to 573 K using relaxation and differential scanning calorimetry. Below ∼90 K, they are characterised by negative excess heat capacities deviating from ideal mixing by up to −0.20 and −0.44 J · mol −1 · K −1 for CuZn15 and CuZn34, respectively. The excess heat capacities produce excess vibrational entropies, which are less negative compared to the excess entropy available from the literature. Since the literature entropy data contain both, the configurational and the vibrational part of the entropy, the difference is attributed to the excess configurational entropy. The thermodynamics of different short-range ordered samples was also investigated. The extent of the short-range order had no influence on the heat capacity below T = 300 K. Above T = 300 K, where the ordering changed during the measurement, the heat capacity depended strongly on the thermal history of the samples. From these data, the heat and entropy of ordering was calculated. The results on the vibrational entropy of this study were also used to test a relationship for estimating the excess vibrational entropy of mixing

  8. Periacetabular Bone Mineral Density Changes After Resurfacing Hip Arthroplasty Versus Conventional Total Hip Arthroplasty. A Randomized Controlled DEXA Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolders, J.M.H.; Pakvis, D.F.; Hendrickx, B.W.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; van Susante, J.L.C.

    2013-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to evaluate acetabular bone mineral density (BMD) changes after hip resurfacing (RHA) versus an established conventional total hip arthroplasty (THA). A total of 71 patients were allocated randomly to receive either an RHA press-fit cobalt–chromium cup (n

  9. Editorial: Entropy in Landscape Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel A. Cushman

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics are the central organizing principles of nature, but the ideas and implications of the second law are poorly developed in landscape ecology. The purpose of this Special Issue “Entropy in Landscape Ecology” in Entropy is to bring together current research on applications of thermodynamics in landscape ecology, to consolidate current knowledge and identify key areas for future research. The special issue contains six articles, which cover a broad range of topics including relationships between entropy and evolution, connections between fractal geometry and entropy, new approaches to calculate configurational entropy of landscapes, example analyses of computing entropy of landscapes, and using entropy in the context of optimal landscape planning. Collectively these papers provide a broad range of contributions to the nascent field of ecological thermodynamics. Formalizing the connections between entropy and ecology are in a very early stage, and that this special issue contains papers that address several centrally important ideas, and provides seminal work that will be a foundation for the future development of ecological and evolutionary thermodynamics.

  10. Entropy and transverse section reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-01-01

    A new approach to the reconstruction of a transverse section using projection data from multiple views incorporates the concept of maximum entropy. The principle of maximizing information entropy embodies the assurance of minimizing bias or prejudice in the reconstruction. Using maximum entropy is a necessary condition for the reconstructed image. This entropy criterion is most appropriate for 3-D reconstruction of objects from projections where the system is underdetermined or the data are limited statistically. This is the case in nuclear medicine time limitations in patient studies do not yield sufficient projections

  11. Shuffled Cards, Messy Desks, and Disorderly Dorm Rooms - Examples of Entropy Increase? Nonsense!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Frank L.

    1999-10-01

    and in it he adopted the word "entropy" to name the quantity that his equation defined (2). This occurred because a friend, the brilliant mathematician John von Neumann, told him "call it entropy no one knows what entropy really is, so in a debate you will always have the advantage" (3). Wryly funny for that moment, Shannon's unwise acquiescence has produced enormous scientific confusion due to the increasingly widespread usefulness of his equation and its fertile mathematical variations in many fields other than communications (4, 5). Certainly most non-experts hearing of the widely touted information "entropy" would assume its overlap with thermodynamic entropy. However, the great success of information "entropy" has been in areas totally divorced from experimental chemistry, whose objective macro results are dependent on the behavior of energetic microparticles. Nevertheless, many instructors in chemistry have the impression that information "entropy" is not only relevant to the calculations and conclusions of thermodynamic entropy but may change them. This is not true. There is no invariant function corresponding to energy embedded in each of the hundreds of equations of information "entropy" and thus no analog of temperature universally present in them. In contrast, inherent in all thermodynamic entropy, temperature is the objective indicator of a system's energetic state. Probability distributions in information "entropy" represent human selections; therefore information "entropy" is strongly subjective. Probability distributions in thermodynamic entropy are dependent on the microparticulate and physicochemical nature of the system; limited thereby, thermodynamic entropy is strongly objective. This is not to say that the extremely general mathematics of information theory cannot be modified ad hoc and further specifically constrained to yield results that are identical to Gibbs' or Boltzmann's relations (6). This may be important theoretically but it is totally

  12. Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Yurtseven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes and trends of seasonal total rainfall in the province of Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Several studies revealed that climate change can affect local and regional precipitation patterns. Long term trends and cycles in precipitation is important for the health of ecosystems in the region. The possible impacts in near future can affect the forest and water resources of Istanbul. In this study, daily, monthly, seasonal and annual precipitation analyses for the different meteorology stations were examined for the İstanbul province. Northern and southern different climatic conditions of İstanbul have been effective selection of the station. The Mann-Kendall test results showed that there is positive statistically significant trend in some meteorology stations. According to Mann-Kendall results the increased fall precipitation trend were found in Florya, Kireçburnu ve Kumköy meteorology stations and decreased summer precipitation trend were found in Göztepe meteorology stations Keywords: Mann-Kendall trend analysis, precipitation time series, the regional precipitation reactions analysis, climate change İstanbul ilinde mevsimsel toplam yağışların değişimleri ve eğilimleri Özet: İklim değişikliğinin bölgesel ve yöresel ölçekte yağış rejimi üzerinde etkileri olabileceği birçok araştırma ile ortaya konulmuştur. Yağış serilerindeki uzun dönemli yönelimler ve döngüler yöredeki ekosistemlerin sağlığı ve geleceği açısından büyük önem arzetmektedir. İstanbul ilinde önümüzdeki dönemde gerçekleşebilecek etkiler ise hem su kaynakları hem de ormanlar üzerinde önemli sonuçlar ortaya çıkarabilir. Bu çalışmada İstanbul iline ait farklı meteoroloji istasyonlarının uzun dönemli mevsimlik verileri araştırılmıştır. Çalışmadaki amacımız ileriye dönük tahminlerdeki belirsizlikleri belli oranda ortadan kaldırabilecek geçmişe dönük veriler yardımıyla istatistiksel analizleri ger

  13. How well are the climate indices related to the GRACE-observed total water storage changes in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraju, B.; Vishwakarma, B.; Sneeuw, N. J.

    2017-12-01

    The fresh water availability over land masses is changing rapidly under the influence of climate change and human intervention. In order to manage our water resources and plan for a better future, we need to demarcate the role of climate change. The total water storage change in a region can be obtained from the GRACE satellite mission. On the other hand, many climate change indicators, for example ENSO, are derived from sea surface temperature. In this contribution we investigate the relationship between the total water storage change over China with the climate indices using statistical time-series decomposition techniques, such as Seasonal and Trend decomposition using Loess (STL), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). The anomalies in climate variables, such as sea surface temperature, are responsible for anomalous precipitation and thus an anomalous total water storage change over land. Therefore, it is imperative that we use a GRACE product that can capture anomalous water storage changes with unprecedented accuracy. Since filtering decreases the sensitivity of GRACE products substantially, we use the data-driven method of deviation for recovering the signal lost due to filtering. To this end, we are able to obtain the spatial fingerprint of individual climate index on total water storage change observed over China.

  14. Nonextensive entropy interdisciplinary applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tsallis, Constantino

    2004-01-01

    A great variety of complex phenomena in many scientific fields exhibit power-law behavior, reflecting a hierarchical or fractal structure. Many of these phenomena seem to be susceptible to description using approaches drawn from thermodynamics or statistical mechanics, particularly approaches involving the maximization of entropy and of Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics and standard laws in a natural way. The book addresses the interdisciplinary applications of these ideas, and also on various phenomena that could possibly be quantitatively describable in terms of these ideas.

  15. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  16. The entropy of the life table: A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Oscar E; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2015-09-01

    The life table entropy provides useful information for understanding improvements in mortality and survival in a population. In this paper we take a closer look at the life table entropy and use advanced mathematical methods to provide additional insights for understanding how it relates to changes in mortality and survival. By studying the entropy (H) as a functional, we show that changes in the entropy depend on both the relative change in life expectancy lost due to death (e(†)) and in life expectancy at birth (e0). We also show that changes in the entropy can be further linked to improvements in premature and older deaths. We illustrate our methods with empirical data from Latin American countries, which suggests that at high mortality levels declines in H (which are associated with survival increases) linked with larger improvements in e0, whereas at low mortality levels e(†) made larger contributions to H. We additionally show that among countries with low mortality level, contributions of e(†) to changes in the life table entropy resulted from averting early deaths. These findings indicate that future increases in overall survival in low mortality countries will likely result from improvements in e(†). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A numerical investigation of the entropy generation in and thermodynamic optimization of a combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arjmandi, H.R.; Amani, E.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we are simulating the turbulent combustion of a mixed bluff-body swirl stabilized flame in a gas turbine combustion chamber and investigating the effects of different parameters, including the swirl number, distance between the air and fuel nozzle which is called bluff size, equivalence ratio, inlet fuel flow rate, and the inlet air velocity, on the entropy generation. We perform the process of the design of the combustion chamber by proposing the optimal value of each parameter based on the EGM (entropy generation minimization) method under the two maximum allowable temperature and size constraints. Two common methods of entropy generation calculation, one based on the overall entropy balance on a system and the other based on the local entropy generation rate calculation, are used and compared in this study. Our results show that the deviation between the total entropy generations calculated by the two methods is 6.4% in average which is an acceptable error in turbulent combustion simulations. Also, the two opposing factors, namely chemical reaction and heat transfer, have the main contribution to the total entropy generation. - Highlights: • We perform the design of a combustion chamber using CFD and based on the EGM method. • We use and compare two methods for computing the total entropy generation. • We also study the entropy generation due to different phenomena separately. • Reaction and heat transfer have the dominant contribution to the entropy generation

  18. Characteristics of entropy generation and heat transfer in double-layered micro heat sinks with complex structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Y.L.; Xia, G.D.; Liu, X.F.; Wang, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel DL-MCHS with complex structure is presented. • A model of entropy generation rate of DL-MCHSs is derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. • DL-MCHSs show better thermodynamic advantage and thermal performance under large volumetric flow rate. - Abstract: A new type of double-layered micro heat sink (DL-MCHS) with complex structure is designed and investigated numerically. Moreover, a model of entropy generation rate of DL-MCHSs is also derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Results for the relationship of entropy generation rate between the first and second layer of DL-MCHSs, total entropy generation rate, the average temperature on the bottom wall, thermal resistance and pressure drop are investigated in detail, respectively. The results indicate that the effect of entropy generation rate of the first layer on total entropy generation rate is dominant. The thermal characteristic of DL-MCHSs with complex structure is better than that of all DL-MCHSs and single-layered micro heat sinks (SL-MCHSs) with simple structure under the same volumetric flow rate. However, DL-MCHSs only show better thermodynamic advantage and thermal performance than SL-MCHSs with complex structure when the volumetric flow rate larger than a certain value. It is not reasonable to use DL-MCHSs for cooling microelectronic equipments under small volumetric flow rate due to the larger irreversibility. Finally, the pressure drop of DL-MHCSs can be reduced by properly changing the channel height under various volumetric flow rates. Due to the less irreversibility and more uniform temperature distribution on the bottom wall, DL-MCHSs can effectively eliminate the internal thermal stresses in microelectronic equipments. Therefore, DL-MCHSs are an alternative method for the electronic cooling. Moreover, the thermodynamic analysis provides references for the actual application design

  19. Information Entropy Measures for Stand Structural Diversity:Joint Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Xiangdong; Lu Yuanchang

    2004-01-01

    Structural diversity is the key attribute of a stand. A set of biodiversity measures in ecology was introduced in forest management for describing stand structure, of which Shannon information entropy (Shannon index) has been the most widely used measure of species diversity. It is generally thought that tree size diversity could serve as a good proxy for height diversity. However, tree size diversity and height diversity for stand structure is not completely consistent. Stand diameter cannot reflect height information completely. Either tree size diversity or height diversity is one-dimensional information entropy measure. This paper discussed the method of multiple-dimensional information entropy measure with the concept of joint entropy. It is suggested that joint entropy is a good measure for describing overall stand structural diversity.

  20. Weak entropy inequalities and entropic convergence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A criterion for algebraic convergence of the entropy is presented and an algebraic convergence result for the entropy of an exclusion process is improved. A weak entropy inequality is considered and its relationship to entropic convergence is discussed.

  1. Entropy concentration and the empirical coding game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    We give a characterization of maximum entropy/minimum relative entropy inference by providing two 'strong entropy concentration' theorems. These theorems unify and generalize Jaynes''concentration phenomenon' and Van Campenhout and Cover's 'conditional limit theorem'. The theorems characterize

  2. Entropy and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Scales Avery

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, human society is regarded as a “superorganism”, analogous to colonies of social insects. The digestive system of the human superorganism is the global economy, which ingests both free energy and resources, and later excretes them in a degraded form. This process involves an increase in entropy. Early in the 20th century, both Frederick Soddy and Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen discussed the relationship between entropy and economics. Soddy called for an index system to regulate the money supply and a reform of the fractional reserve banking system, while Georgescu-Roegen pointed to the need for Ecological Economics, a steady-state economy, and population stabilization. As we reach the end of the fossil fuel era and as industrial growth falters, massive unemployment can only be avoided by responsible governmental action. The necessary steps include shifting labor to projects needed for a sustainable economy, dividing the available work fairly among those seeking employment, and reforming the practices of the financial sector.

  3. Magneto-electric properties and magnetic entropy change in perovskite La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bau, Le Viet, E-mail: levietbau@hdu.edu.vn; An, Nguyen Manh

    2016-12-15

    The ceramic samples of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3}(x=0; 0.05; 0.1; 0.2 and 0.3) were synthesized by the conventional solid state reaction method. Their electric, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties have been investigated. The transition temperature declines and a significant influence on the width of the ferro-paramagnetic phase transition is observed as increasing Ti concentration. Moreover, the sign of spin-glass is expected to exist in the high concentration samples. For fully replacing Ti{sup 4+} for Mn{sup 4+}, the canted spin state is formed. The substitution Ti for Mn increases resistivity quickly and the insulating–metallic transition temperature shifts toward lower temperature. For x>0.1 samples, the insulating state is observed even in ferromagnetic phase. The substitution Ti shifts the CME to room temperature while almost persists the value of entropy change. Although the maximum value of CME reduces slightly, the temperature range happening MCE is expended and then improves the relative cooling power. These properties could be explained in term of DE interaction and phase separation phenomenon. - Highlights: • Electro-magnetic properties and CME of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}Mn{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} have been investigated. • T{sub C} declines and the width of the F-M phase transition is observed as increasing Ti concentration. • For fully replacing Ti{sup 4+} for Mn{sup 4+}, the canted spin state is formed. • The substitution Ti for Mn increases resistivity quickly and T{sub P} shifts toward lower temperature. • The substitution Ti shifts CME to 300 K while almost persists the value of entropy change. • Relative cooling power (RCP) increases with substitution 5% Ti for Mn.

  4. Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasa, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizes a fundamental limitation of operations by the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted, we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy. (paper)

  5. Technical change and total factor productivity growth: the case of Chinese provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Heshmati, Almas; Kumbhakar, Subal C.

    2010-01-01

    In the literature technical change is mostly assumed to be exogenous and specified as a function of time. However, some exogenous external factors other than time can also affect technical change. In this paper we model technical change via time trend (purely external non-economic) as well as other exogenous (external economic) factors (technology shifters). We define technology index based on the external economic factors which are indicators of ‘technology’. Thus our definition of productio...

  6. Configurational entropy of glueball states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardini, Alex E., E-mail: alexeb@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, PO Box 676, 13565-905, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Braga, Nelson R.F., E-mail: braga@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [CMCC, Universidade Federal do ABC, UFABC, 09210-580, Santo André (Brazil)

    2017-02-10

    The configurational entropy of glueball states is calculated using a holographic description. Glueball states are represented by a supergravity dual picture, consisting of a 5-dimensional graviton–dilaton action of a dynamical holographic AdS/QCD model. The configurational entropy is studied as a function of the glueball spin and of the mass, providing information about the stability of the glueball states.

  7. Thermostatistical aspects of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, K.S.; Lenzi, E.K.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the properties concerning a class of generalized entropies given by S q,r =k{1-[Σ i p i q ] r }/[r(q-1)] which include Tsallis' entropy (r=1), the usual Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy (q=1), Renyi's entropy (r=0) and normalized Tsallis' entropy (r=-1). In order to obtain the generalized thermodynamic relations we use the laws of thermodynamics and considering the hypothesis that the joint probability of two independent systems is given by p ij A c upB =p i A p j B . We show that the transmutation which occurs from Tsallis' entropy to Renyi's entropy also occur with S q,r . In this scenario, we also analyze the generalized variance, covariance and correlation coefficient of a non-interacting system by using extended optimal Lagrange multiplier approach. We show that the correlation coefficient tends to zero in the thermodynamic limit. However, Renyi's entropy related to this non-interacting system presents a certain degree of non-extensivity

  8. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2010-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  9. Black brane entropy and hydrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, I.; Heller, M.P.; Spaliński, M.

    2011-01-01

    A generalization of entropy to near-equilibrium phenomena is provided by the notion of a hydrodynamic entropy current. Recent advances in holography have lead to the formulation of fluid-gravity duality, a remarkable connection between the hydrodynamics of certain strongly coupled media and dynamics

  10. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  11. Anomalies of the entanglement entropy in chiral theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Nabil [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Amsterdam,Science Park 904, Postbus 94485, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wall, Aron C. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    We study entanglement entropy in theories with gravitational or mixed U(1) gauge-gravitational anomalies in two, four and six dimensions. In such theories there is an anomaly in the entanglement entropy: it depends on the choice of reference frame in which the theory is regulated. We discuss subtleties regarding regulators and entanglement entropies in anomalous theories. We then study the entanglement entropy of free chiral fermions and self-dual bosons and show that in sufficiently symmetric situations this entanglement anomaly comes from an imbalance in the flux of modes flowing through the boundary, controlled by familiar index theorems. In two and four dimensions we use anomalous Ward identities to find general expressions for the transformation of the entanglement entropy under a diffeomorphism. (In the case of a mixed anomaly there is an alternative presentation of the theory in which the entanglement entropy is not invariant under a U(1) gauge transformation. The free-field manifestation of this phenomenon involves a novel kind of fermion zero mode on a gravitational background with a twist in the normal bundle to the entangling surface.) We also study d-dimensional anomalous systems as the boundaries of d+1 dimensional gapped Hall phases. Here the full system is non-anomalous, but the boundary anomaly manifests itself in a change in the entanglement entropy when the boundary metric is sheared relative to the bulk.

  12. Entropies from Markov Models as Complexity Measures of Embedded Attractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián D. Arias-Londoño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of measuring complexity from embedded attractors as a way to characterize changes in the dynamical behavior of different types of systems with a quasi-periodic behavior by observing their outputs. With the aim of measuring the stability of the trajectories of the attractor along time, this paper proposes three new estimations of entropy that are derived from a Markov model of the embedded attractor. The proposed estimators are compared with traditional nonparametric entropy measures, such as approximate entropy, sample entropy and fuzzy entropy, which only take into account the spatial dimension of the trajectory. The method proposes the use of an unsupervised algorithm to find the principal curve, which is considered as the “profile trajectory”, that will serve to adjust the Markov model. The new entropy measures are evaluated using three synthetic experiments and three datasets of physiological signals. In terms of consistency and discrimination capabilities, the results show that the proposed measures perform better than the other entropy measures used for comparison purposes.

  13. Entropy of orthogonal polynomials with Freud weights and information entropies of the harmonic oscillator potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, W.; Yáñez, R. J.; Dehesa, J. S.

    1995-08-01

    The information entropy of the harmonic oscillator potential V(x)=1/2λx2 in both position and momentum spaces can be expressed in terms of the so-called ``entropy of Hermite polynomials,'' i.e., the quantity Sn(H):= -∫-∞+∞H2n(x)log H2n(x) e-x2dx. These polynomials are instances of the polynomials orthogonal with respect to the Freud weights w(x)=exp(-||x||m), m≳0. Here, a very precise and general result of the entropy of Freud polynomials recently established by Aptekarev et al. [J. Math. Phys. 35, 4423-4428 (1994)], specialized to the Hermite kernel (case m=2), leads to an important refined asymptotic expression for the information entropies of very excited states (i.e., for large n) in both position and momentum spaces, to be denoted by Sρ and Sγ, respectively. Briefly, it is shown that, for large values of n, Sρ+1/2logλ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1) and Sγ-1/2log λ≂log(π√2n/e)+o(1), so that Sρ+Sγ≂log(2π2n/e2)+o(1) in agreement with the generalized indetermination relation of Byalinicki-Birula and Mycielski [Commun. Math. Phys. 44, 129-132 (1975)]. Finally, the rate of convergence of these two information entropies is numerically analyzed. In addition, using a Rakhmanov result, we describe a totally new proof of the leading term of the entropy of Freud polynomials which, naturally, is just a weak version of the aforementioned general result.

  14. Absolute entropy of ions in methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abakshin, V.A.; Kobenin, V.A.; Krestov, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    By measuring the initial thermoelectromotive forces of chains with bromo-silver electrodes in tetraalkylammonium bromide solutions the absolute entropy of bromide-ion in methanol is determined in the 298.15-318.15 K range. The anti Ssub(Brsup(-))sup(0) = 9.8 entropy units value is used for calculation of the absolute partial molar entropy of alkali metal ions and halogenide ions. It has been found that, absolute entropy of Cs + =12.0 entropy units, I - =14.0 entropy units. The obtained ion absolute entropies in methanol at 298.15 K within 1-2 entropy units is in an agreement with published data

  15. Entropy and equilibrium via games of complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsøe, Flemming

    2004-09-01

    It is suggested that thermodynamical equilibrium equals game theoretical equilibrium. Aspects of this thesis are discussed. The philosophy is consistent with maximum entropy thinking of Jaynes, but goes one step deeper by deriving the maximum entropy principle from an underlying game theoretical principle. The games introduced are based on measures of complexity. Entropy is viewed as minimal complexity. It is demonstrated that Tsallis entropy ( q-entropy) and Kaniadakis entropy ( κ-entropy) can be obtained in this way, based on suitable complexity measures. A certain unifying effect is obtained by embedding these measures in a two-parameter family of entropy functions.

  16. Entropy inequalities from reflection positivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casini, H

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the question of whether the entropy and the Renyi entropies of the vacuum state reduced to a region of space can be represented in terms of correlators in quantum field theory. In this case, the positivity relations for the correlators are mapped into inequalities for the entropies. We write them using a real-time version of reflection positivity, which can be generalized to general quantum systems. Using this generalization we can prove an infinite sequence of inequalities which are obeyed by the Renyi entropies of integer index. There is one independent inequality involving any number of different subsystems. In quantum field theory the inequalities acquire a simple geometrical form and are consistent with the integer index Renyi entropies being given by vacuum expectation values of twisting operators in the Euclidean formulation. Several possible generalizations and specific examples are analyzed

  17. Entropy Budget for Hawking Evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alonso-Serrano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackbody radiation, emitted from a furnace and described by a Planck spectrum, contains (on average an entropy of 3 . 9 ± 2 . 5 bits per photon. Since normal physical burning is a unitary process, this amount of entropy is compensated by the same amount of “hidden information” in correlations between the photons. The importance of this result lies in the posterior extension of this argument to the Hawking radiation from black holes, demonstrating that the assumption of unitarity leads to a perfectly reasonable entropy/information budget for the evaporation process. In order to carry out this calculation, we adopt a variant of the “average subsystem” approach, but consider a tripartite pure system that includes the influence of the rest of the universe, and which allows “young” black holes to still have a non-zero entropy; which we identify with the standard Bekenstein entropy.

  18. Variation of entanglement entropy in scattering process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Shigenori, E-mail: sigenori@hanyang.ac.kr [Research Institute for Natural Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, I.Y., E-mail: inyongpark05@gmail.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, Philander Smith College, Little Rock, AR 72223 (United States); Sin, Sang-Jin, E-mail: sjsin@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-09

    In a scattering process, the final state is determined by an initial state and an S-matrix. We focus on two-particle scattering processes and consider the entanglement between these particles. For two types initial states, i.e., an unentangled state and an entangled one, we calculate perturbatively the change of entanglement entropy from the initial state to the final one. Then we show a few examples in a field theory and in quantum mechanics.

  19. MoNbTaV Medium-Entropy Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Yao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Guided by CALPHAD (Calculation of Phase Diagrams modeling, the refractory medium-entropy alloy MoNbTaV was synthesized by vacuum arc melting under a high-purity argon atmosphere. A body-centered cubic solid solution phase was experimentally confirmed in the as-cast ingot using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The measured lattice parameter of the alloy (3.208 Å obeys the rule of mixtures (ROM, but the Vickers microhardness (4.95 GPa and the yield strength (1.5 GPa are about 4.5 and 4.6 times those estimated from the ROM, respectively. Using a simple model on solid solution strengthening predicts a yield strength of approximately 1.5 GPa. Thermodynamic analysis shows that the total entropy of the alloy is more than three times the configurational entropy at room temperature, and the entropy of mixing exhibits a small negative departure from ideal mixing.

  20. Cultural Changes Required in the Army to Truly Achieve a Total Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    tailored to achieve anticipated objectives.”1 Honorable John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy...United States Soldier. 16 End Notes 1 McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy).” Secretary of the Army, September 4...1 (February 2006): 40–42. McCullough, Amy. “Out of Reserve (Air Force Reserve Command)” 94, no. 12 (2011): 40. McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012

  1. On the fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics—Nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation and the formula for entropy production rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the author presents an overview on his own research works. More than ten years ago, we proposed a new fundamental equation of nonequilibrium statistical physics in place of the present Liouville equation. That is the stochastic velocity type’s Langevin equation in 6N dimensional phase space or its equivalent Liouville diffusion equation. This equation is time-reversed asymmetrical. It shows that the form of motion of particles in statistical thermodynamic systems has the drift-diffusion duality, and the law of motion of statistical thermodynamics is expressed by a superposition of both the law of dynamics and the stochastic velocity and possesses both determinism and probability. Hence it is different from the law of motion of particles in dynamical systems. The stochastic diffusion motion of the particles is the microscopic origin of macroscopic irreversibility. Starting from this fundamental equation the BBGKY diffusion equation hierarchy, the Boltzmann collision diffusion equation, the hydrodynamic equations such as the mass drift-diffusion equation, the Navier-Stokes equation and the thermal conductivity equation have been derived and presented here. What is more important, we first constructed a nonlinear evolution equation of nonequilibrium entropy density in 6N, 6 and 3 dimensional phase space, predicted the existence of entropy diffusion. This entropy evolution equation plays a leading role in nonequilibrium entropy theory, it reveals that the time rate of change of nonequilibrium entropy density originates together from its drift, diffusion and production in space. From this evolution equation, we presented a formula for entropy production rate (i.e. the law of entropy increase) in 6N and 6 dimensional phase space, proved that internal attractive force in nonequilibrium system can result in entropy decrease while internal repulsive force leads to another entropy increase, and derived a common expression for this entropy decrease rate or

  2. Numerical study of magnetic field on mixed convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in a trapezoidal enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghaei, Alireza, E-mail: AlirezaAghaei21@gmail.com; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein, E-mail: khorasan@kashanu.ac.ir; Sheikhzadeh, Ghanbarali, E-mail: Sheikhz@kashanu.ac.ir; Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud, E-mail: abbaszadeh.mahmoud@gmail.com

    2016-04-01

    The flow under influence of magnetic field is experienced in cooling electronic devices and voltage transformers, nuclear reactors, biochemistry and in physical phenomenon like geology. In this study, the effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid mixed convection in a trapezoidal enclosure have been investigated. The top lid is cold and moving toward right or left, the bottom wall is hot and the side walls are insulated and their angle from the horizon are 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. Simulations have been carried out for constant Grashof number of 10{sup 4}, Reynolds numbers of 30, 100, 300 and 1000, Hartmann numbers of 25, 50, 75 and 100 and nanoparticles volume fractions of zero up to 0.04. The finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm have been utilized to solve the governing equations numerically. The results showed that with imposing the magnetic field and enhancing it, the nanofluid convection and the strength of flow decrease and the flow tends toward natural convection and finally toward pure conduction. For this reason, for all of the considered Reynolds numbers and volume fractions, by increasing the Hartmann number the average Nusselt number decreases. Furthermore, for any case with constant Reynolds and Hartmann numbers by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles the maximum stream function decreases. For all of the studied cases, entropy generation due to friction is negligible and the total entropy generation is mainly due to irreversibility associated with heat transfer and variation of the total entropy generation with Hartmann number is similar to that of the average Nusselt number. With change in lid movement direction at Reynolds number of 30 the average Nusselt number and total entropy generation are changed, but at Reynolds number of 1000 it has a negligible effect. - Highlights: • effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation. • mixed

  3. Numerical study of magnetic field on mixed convection and entropy generation of nanofluid in a trapezoidal enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Alireza; Khorasanizadeh, Hossein; Sheikhzadeh, Ghanbarali; Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The flow under influence of magnetic field is experienced in cooling electronic devices and voltage transformers, nuclear reactors, biochemistry and in physical phenomenon like geology. In this study, the effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid mixed convection in a trapezoidal enclosure have been investigated. The top lid is cold and moving toward right or left, the bottom wall is hot and the side walls are insulated and their angle from the horizon are 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. Simulations have been carried out for constant Grashof number of 10"4, Reynolds numbers of 30, 100, 300 and 1000, Hartmann numbers of 25, 50, 75 and 100 and nanoparticles volume fractions of zero up to 0.04. The finite volume method and SIMPLER algorithm have been utilized to solve the governing equations numerically. The results showed that with imposing the magnetic field and enhancing it, the nanofluid convection and the strength of flow decrease and the flow tends toward natural convection and finally toward pure conduction. For this reason, for all of the considered Reynolds numbers and volume fractions, by increasing the Hartmann number the average Nusselt number decreases. Furthermore, for any case with constant Reynolds and Hartmann numbers by increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles the maximum stream function decreases. For all of the studied cases, entropy generation due to friction is negligible and the total entropy generation is mainly due to irreversibility associated with heat transfer and variation of the total entropy generation with Hartmann number is similar to that of the average Nusselt number. With change in lid movement direction at Reynolds number of 30 the average Nusselt number and total entropy generation are changed, but at Reynolds number of 1000 it has a negligible effect. - Highlights: • effects of magnetic field on the flow field, heat transfer and entropy generation. • mixed

  4. Chemical equilibrium. [maximizing entropy of gas system to derive relations between thermodynamic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The entropy of a gas system with the number of particles subject to external control is maximized to derive relations between the thermodynamic variables that obtain at equilibrium. These relations are described in terms of the chemical potential, defined as equivalent partial derivatives of entropy, energy, enthalpy, free energy, or free enthalpy. At equilibrium, the change in total chemical potential must vanish. This fact is used to derive the equilibrium constants for chemical reactions in terms of the partition functions of the species involved in the reaction. Thus the equilibrium constants can be determined accurately, just as other thermodynamic properties, from a knowledge of the energy levels and degeneracies for the gas species involved. These equilibrium constants permit one to calculate the equilibrium concentrations or partial pressures of chemically reacting species that occur in gas mixtures at any given condition of pressure and temperature or volume and temperature.

  5. Changes in body chemical composition with age measured by total-body neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, S.H.; Vaswani, A.; Zanzi, I.; Aloia, J.F.; Roginsky, M.S.; Ellis, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    Total-body levels of calcium and phosphorus (reflecting skeletal mass) and total-body levels of potassium (reflecting muscle mass) were measured by neutron activation analysis in 39 men and 40 women ages 30 to 90 yr. In order to intercompare the total body calcium (TBCa) values in a heterogeneous population, such as this, it was necessary to normalize the data for skeletal size. The normalization consisted of dividing the absolute calcium level by the predicted calcium level for each individual matched to a set of critical parameters. The parameter used in the computation of normal values were age, sex, muscle mass, i.e., total body potassium (TBK) and height. For the calcium data of the women, it was necessary to add an age correction factor after the age of 55 yr. The calcium ratio (mean ratio of the predicted to measured TBCa) in men was 1.000 +- 7.8 percent and in women 0.996 +- 7.1 percent. The TBCa of normal males and females can thus be predicted to +-13 percent (at the 90 percent confidence level). An exception to this was found in males (70 to 90 yr) who exhibited a mean calcium ratio greater than 1.13

  6. CFD Prediction of Airfoil Drag in Viscous Flow Using the Entropy Generation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aerodynamic force of drag prediction approach was developed to compute the airfoil drag via entropy generation rate in the flow field. According to the momentum balance, entropy generation and its relationship to drag were derived for viscous flow. Model equations for the calculation of the local entropy generation in turbulent flows were presented by extending the RANS procedure to the entropy balance equation. The accuracy of algorithm and programs was assessed by simulating the pressure coefficient distribution and dragging coefficient of different airfoils under different Reynolds number at different attack angle. Numerical data shows that the total entropy generation rate in the flow field and the drag coefficient of the airfoil can be related by linear equation, which indicates that the total drag could be resolved into entropy generation based on its physical mechanism of energy loss.

  7. Longitudinal Changes in Total Brain Volume in Schizophrenia: Relation to Symptom Severity, Cognition and Antipsychotic Medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veijola, J.; Guo, J.Y.; Moilanen, J.S.; Jaaskelainen, E.; Miettunen, J.; Kyllonen, M.; Haapea, M.; Huhtaniska, S.; Alaraisanen, A.; Maki, P.; Kiviniemi, V.; Nikkinen, J.; Starck, T.; Remes, J.J.; Tanskanen, P.; Tervonen, O.; Wink, A.M.; Kehagia, A.; Suckling, J.; Kobayashi, H.; Barnett, J.H.; Barnes, A.; Koponen, H.J.; Jones, P.B.; Isohanni, M.; Murray, G.K.

    2014-01-01

    Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population

  8. Changes in lifestyle and total homocysteine in relation to MTHFR (C677T) genotype: the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, LL; Thomsen, TF; Fenger, M

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in total homocysteine (tHcy) may be clinically relevant in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of changes in various lifestyle habits and lifestyle related biological CVD risk markers on changes in t...... intervention and re-examination after one year. RESULTS: None of the studied lifestyle changes-- smoking, physical activity, dietary habits, and coffee, tea, and alcohol consumption-- was significantly associated with changes in tHcy, either overall, or in any of the MTHFR genotype subgroups. In addition...

  9. Tsallis-like entropies in quantum scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion, D.B.; Ion, M.L.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, the following entropies in quantum scattering are defined: the informational angular entropy, S θ ; Tsallis-like angular entropies, S q (θ); the angular momentum entropy, S L ; the Tsallis-like angular momentum entropies, S q (L); the angle-angular momentum entropy, S θL . These entropies are defined as natural measures of the uncertainties corresponding to the distribution probabilities. If we are interested in obtaining a measure of uncertainty of the simultaneous realization of the probability distributions, than, we have to calculate the entropy corresponding to these distributions. The expression of angle-angular momentum entropy is given. The relation between the Tsallis entropies and the angle-angular momentum entropy is derived

  10. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. We review the need for such methods in data analysis and show, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. We conclude with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. Introduction to maximum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivia, D.S.

    1989-01-01

    The maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle has been successfully used in image reconstruction in a wide variety of fields. The author reviews the need for such methods in data analysis and shows, by use of a very simple example, why MaxEnt is to be preferred over other regularizing functions. This leads to a more general interpretation of the MaxEnt method, and its use is illustrated with several different examples. Practical difficulties with non-linear problems still remain, this being highlighted by the notorious phase problem in crystallography. He concludes with an example from neutron scattering, using data from a filter difference spectrometer to contrast MaxEnt with a conventional deconvolution. 12 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  12. Entropy and galaxy clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandrup, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of a p-particle entropy Sp introduced by Kandrup (1987) is applied here to a Newtonian cosmology modeled as an expanding system of identical point masses studying the time dependence of S1 and S2 in the framework of the linearized theory considered by Fall and Saslaw (1976). It is found that if, at some initial time t0, the galaxy-galaxy correlation function vanished, then S1(t0) = S2(t0). At least for short times t - t0 thereafter, S1 and Delta S = S1 - S2 increase on a characteristic time scale. For all times t after t0, S1(t) = S2(t) or greater. 13 references

  13. Microscopic insights into the NMR relaxation based protein conformational entropy meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinath, Vignesh; Sharp, Kim A.; Wand, A. Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Conformational entropy is a potentially important thermodynamic parameter contributing to protein function. Quantitative measures of conformational entropy are necessary for an understanding of its role but have been difficult to obtain. An empirical method that utilizes changes in conformational dynamics as a proxy for changes in conformational entropy has recently been introduced. Here we probe the microscopic origins of the link between conformational dynamics and conformational entropy using molecular dynamics simulations. Simulation of seven pro! teins gave an excellent correlation with measures of side-chain motion derived from NMR relaxation. The simulations show that the motion of methyl-bearing side-chains are sufficiently coupled to that of other side chains to serve as excellent reporters of the overall side-chain conformational entropy. These results tend to validate the use of experimentally accessible measures of methyl motion - the NMR-derived generalized order parameters - as a proxy from which to derive changes in protein conformational entropy. PMID:24007504

  14. EXPLORER: Changing the molecular imaging paradigm with total-body PET/CT (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Simon R.; Badawi, Ramsey D.; Jones, Terry

    2016-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is the highest sensitivity technique for human whole-body imaging studies. However, current clinical PET scanners do not make full use of the available signal, as they only permit imaging of a 15-25 cm segment of the body at one time. Given the limited sensitive region, whole-body imaging with clinical PET scanners requires relatively long scan times and subjects the patient to higher than necessary radiation doses. The EXPLORER initiative aims to build a 2-meter axial length PET scanner to allow imaging the entire subject at once, capturing nearly the entire available PET signal. EXPLORER will acquire data with ~40-fold greater sensitivity leading to a six-fold increase in reconstructed signal-to-noise ratio for imaging the total body. Alternatively, total-body images with the EXPLORER scanner will be able to be acquired in ~30 seconds or with ~0.15 mSv injected dose, while maintaining current PET image quality. The superior sensitivity will open many new avenues for biomedical research. Specifically for cancer applications, high sensitivity PET will enable detection of smaller lesions. Additionally, greater sensitivity will allow imaging out to 10 half-lives of positron emitting radiotracers. This will enable 1) metabolic ultra-staging with FDG by extending the uptake and clearance time to 3-5 hours to significantly improve contrast and 2) improved kinetic imaging with short-lived radioisotopes such as C-11, crucial for drug development studies. Frequent imaging studies of the same subject to study disease progression or to track response to therapy will be possible with the low dose capabilities of the EXPLORER scanner. The low dose capabilities will also open up new imaging possibilities in pediatrics and adolescents to better study developmental disorders. This talk will review the basis for developing total-body PET, potential applications, and review progress to date in developing EXPLORER, the first total-body PET scanner.

  15. Critical Care Admissions following Total Laryngectomy: Is It Time to Change Our Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walijee, Hussein; Morgan, Alexandria; Gibson, Bethan; Berry, Sandeep; Jaffery, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Critical Care Unit (CCU) beds are a limited resource and in increasing demand. Studies have shown that complex head and neck patients can be safely managed on a ward setting given the appropriate staffing and support. This retrospective case series aims to quantify the CCU care received by patients following total laryngectomy (TL) at a District General Hospital (DGH) and compare patient outcomes in an attempt to inform current practice. Data relating to TL were collected over a 5-year period from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2015. A total of 22 patients were included. All patients were admitted to CCU postoperatively for an average length of stay of 25.5 hours. 95% of these patients were admitted to CCU for the purpose of close monitoring only, not requiring any active treatment prior to discharge to the ward. 73% of total complications were encountered after the first 24 hours postoperatively at which point patients had been stepped down to ward care. Avoiding the use of CCU beds and instead providing the appropriate level of care on the ward would result in a potential cost saving of approximately £8,000 with no influence on patient morbidity and mortality.

  16. Chromium Fractions Changes Compared With Total-Cr As Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Abdou, F.M.; Elwan, I.M.; Al-Salama, Y.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fifteen soil samples were chosen from different locations (five different locations at north greater Cairo, Egypt to represent different soils (alluvial and sandy) as well as different source of contaminated wastewater (sewage and industrial effluent). Using sequential extraction technique (extracting the soil with different solutions, which is designed to separate metal fractions), Cr was separated into six operationally defined fractions water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe-Mn oxides bound, organic bound and residual fractions. Result of soil total-Cr indicated the serious accumulation of Cr in soils subjected to prolonged irrigation with contaminated wastewater. As it could seen, total-Cr in the tested contaminated soils exceeds the permissible levels (75-100)ppm Cr by several order of magnitude particularly at the surface and subsurface layers. The highest accumulation of total Cr down to depth 60 cm was observed in case of soil E. Data showed that values of total Cr determined by NAA method were always higher than the relevant values determined either by AAS or those calculated after the sequential extraction method. T-test analysis showed the significant difference between NAA and either AAS or sequential extraction methods. Although T-test analysis showed that were significant differences between total content in soils as determined by destructive (AAS or SUM) and non-destructive (NAA) analytical techniques however, strong liner relation between NAA and other tested methods was obtained. Chromium distribution between different extractants shows that the greatest amounts are found in the residual and Occluded in Fe and Mn-Oxides fractions followed by carbonate or organic fractions. In most cases the proportion of all tested Cr-forms has increased in contaminated soil layers with higher enrichment in organically bound Cr, occluded in Fe and Mn oxides, carbonate exchangeable and soluble fractions. Results indicate that soil properties have a

  17. High-entropy alloys as high-temperature thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafeie, Samrand [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Guo, Sheng, E-mail: sheng.guo@chalmers.se [Surface and Microstructure Engineering Group, Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Hu, Qiang [Institute of Applied Physics, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Fahlquist, Henrik [Bruker AXS Nordic AB, 17067 Solna (Sweden); Erhart, Paul [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Palmqvist, Anders, E-mail: anders.palmqvist@chalmers.se [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-11-14

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators that efficiently recycle a large portion of waste heat will be an important complementary energy technology in the future. While many efficient TE materials exist in the lower temperature region, few are efficient at high temperatures. Here, we present the high temperature properties of high-entropy alloys (HEAs), as a potential new class of high temperature TE materials. We show that their TE properties can be controlled significantly by changing the valence electron concentration (VEC) of the system with appropriate substitutional elements. Both the electrical and thermal transport properties in this system were found to decrease with a lower VEC number. Overall, the large microstructural complexity and lower average VEC in these types of alloys can potentially be used to lower both the total and the lattice thermal conductivity. These findings highlight the possibility to exploit HEAs as a new class of future high temperature TE materials.

  18. Correlation as a Determinant of Configurational Entropy in Supramolecular and Protein Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For biomolecules in solution, changes in configurational entropy are thought to contribute substantially to the free energies of processes like binding and conformational change. In principle, the configurational entropy can be strongly affected by pairwise and higher-order correlations among conformational degrees of freedom. However, the literature offers mixed perspectives regarding the contributions that changes in correlations make to changes in configurational entropy for such processes. Here we take advantage of powerful techniques for simulation and entropy analysis to carry out rigorous in silico studies of correlation in binding and conformational changes. In particular, we apply information-theoretic expansions of the configurational entropy to well-sampled molecular dynamics simulations of a model host–guest system and the protein bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor. The results bear on the interpretation of NMR data, as they indicate that changes in correlation are important determinants of entropy changes for biologically relevant processes and that changes in correlation may either balance or reinforce changes in first-order entropy. The results also highlight the importance of main-chain torsions as contributors to changes in protein configurational entropy. As simulation techniques grow in power, the mathematical techniques used here will offer new opportunities to answer challenging questions about complex molecular systems. PMID:24702693

  19. Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    In this thesis, we investigate the connections between the geometry of spacetime and aspects of quantum field theory such as entanglement entropy and causality. This work is motivated by the idea that spacetime geometry is an emergent phenomenon in quantum gravity, and that the physics responsible for this emergence is fundamental to quantum field theory. Part I of this thesis is focused on the interplay between spacetime and entropy, with a special emphasis on entropy due to entanglement. In general spacetimes, there exist locally-defined surfaces sensitive to the geometry that may act as local black hole boundaries or cosmological horizons; these surfaces, known as holographic screens, are argued to have a connection with the second law of thermodynamics. Holographic screens obey an area law, suggestive of an association with entropy; they are also distinguished surfaces from the perspective of the covariant entropy bound, a bound on the total entropy of a slice of the spacetime. This construction is shown to be quite general, and is formulated in both classical and perturbatively quantum theories of gravity. The remainder of Part I uses the Anti-de Sitter/ Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to both expand and constrain the connection between entanglement entropy and geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence posits an equivalence between string theory in the "bulk" with AdS boundary conditions and certain quantum field theories. In the limit where the string theory is simply classical General Relativity, the Ryu-Takayanagi and more generally, the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) formulae provide a way of relating the geometry of surfaces to entanglement entropy. A first-order bulk quantum correction to HRT was derived by Faulkner, Lewkowycz and Maldacena. This formula is generalized to include perturbative quantum corrections in the bulk at any (finite) order. Hurdles to spacetime emergence from entanglement entropy as described by HRT and its quantum

  20. Entropy and convexity for nonlinear partial differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, John M; Chen, Gui-Qiang G

    2013-12-28

    Partial differential equations are ubiquitous in almost all applications of mathematics, where they provide a natural mathematical description of many phenomena involving change in physical, chemical, biological and social processes. The concept of entropy originated in thermodynamics and statistical physics during the nineteenth century to describe the heat exchanges that occur in the thermal processes in a thermodynamic system, while the original notion of convexity is for sets and functions in mathematics. Since then, entropy and convexity have become two of the most important concepts in mathematics. In particular, nonlinear methods via entropy and convexity have been playing an increasingly important role in the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations in recent decades. This opening article of the Theme Issue is intended to provide an introduction to entropy, convexity and related nonlinear methods for the analysis of nonlinear partial differential equations. We also provide a brief discussion about the content and contributions of the papers that make up this Theme Issue.

  1. Changing strategies of the retrograde approach for chronic total occlusion during the past 7 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramatsu, Toshiya; Tsukahara, Reiko; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ishimori, Hiroshi; Park, Seung-Jung; de Winter, Robert; Shokry, Khaled; Wang, Lefeng; Chen, Jiyan; Wang, Haichang

    2013-01-01

    We reviewed the technical changes and results achieved with the retrograde approach since we introduced it 7 years ago. The subjects were 1,268 patients who were treated for CTO between January 2004 and December 2010. They were investigated with respect to the success rate, the frequency of

  2. Improving value in primary total joint arthroplasty care pathways: changes in inpatient physical therapy staffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E. Pelt, MD

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: A relatively simple change to staffing hours, using resources currently available to us, and little additional financial or institutional investment resulted in a significant improvement in the number of patients ambulating on POD 0, with a modest reduction in both LOS and inpatient costs.

  3. Order and correlation contributions to the entropy of hydrophobic solvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Maoyuan; Besford, Quinn Alexander; Mulvaney, Thomas; Gray-Weale, Angus, E-mail: gusgw@gusgw.net [School of Chemistry, The University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2015-03-21

    identifying the structural feature responsible for the entropy change, and point to a possible explanation for the observed dependence on length scale. Our key results are that the hydrophobic effect, i.e. the signature, temperature-dependent, solvation entropy of nonpolar molecules in water, is largely due to a dispersion force arising from correlations between rotating permanent dipole moments, that the strength of this force depends on the Kirkwood g-factor, and that the strength of this force may be obtained exactly without simulation.

  4. Pareto versus lognormal: a maximum entropy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bee, Marco; Riccaboni, Massimo; Schiavo, Stefano

    2011-08-01

    It is commonly found that distributions that seem to be lognormal over a broad range change to a power-law (Pareto) distribution for the last few percentiles. The distributions of many physical, natural, and social events (earthquake size, species abundance, income and wealth, as well as file, city, and firm sizes) display this structure. We present a test for the occurrence of power-law tails in statistical distributions based on maximum entropy. This methodology allows one to identify the true data-generating processes even in the case when it is neither lognormal nor Pareto. The maximum entropy approach is then compared with other widely used methods and applied to different levels of aggregation of complex systems. Our results provide support for the theory that distributions with lognormal body and Pareto tail can be generated as mixtures of lognormally distributed units.

  5. Teaching Electrostatics and Entropy in Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Mark

    Entropy changes underlie the physics that dominates biological interactions. Indeed, introductory biology courses often begin with an exploration of the qualities of water that are important to living systems. However, one idea that is not explicitly addressed in most introductory physics or biology courses is important contribution of the entropy in driving fundamental biological processes towards equilibrium. I will present material developed to teach electrostatic screening in solutions and the function of nerve cells where entropic effects act to counterbalance electrostatic attraction. These ideas are taught in an introductory, calculus-based physics course to biomedical engineers using SCALEUP pedagogy. Results of student mastering of complex problems that cross disciplinary boundaries between biology and physics, as well as the challenges that they face in learning this material will be presented.

  6. Zero modes and entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Yasaman K. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,31 Caroline St. N., Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2017-04-26

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  7. Shannon's information is not entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, M.

    1990-01-01

    In this letter we clear up the long-standing misidentification of Shannon's Information with Entropy. We show that Information, in contrast to Entropy, is not invariant under unitary transformations and that these quantities are only equivalent for representations consisting of Hamiltonian eigenstates. We illustrate this fact through a toy system consisting of a harmonic oscillator in a coherent state. It is further proved that the representations which maximize the information are those which are energy-eigenstates. This fact sets the entropy as an upper bound for Shannon's Information. (author)

  8. Entropy Learning in Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geok See Ng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, entropy term is used in the learning phase of a neural network.  As learning progresses, more hidden nodes get into saturation.  The early creation of such hidden nodes may impair generalisation.  Hence entropy approach is proposed to dampen the early creation of such nodes.  The entropy learning also helps to increase the importance of relevant nodes while dampening the less important nodes.  At the end of learning, the less important nodes can then be eliminated to reduce the memory requirements of the neural network.

  9. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virachnee Lohachoompol

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5∘C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20∘C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2±0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3±0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7±0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries.

  10. The Change of Total Anthocyanins in Blueberries and Their Antioxidant Effect After Drying and Freezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srzednicki, George

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of freezing, storage, and cabinet drying on the anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L). Fresh samples were stored for two weeks at 5°C while frozen samples were kept for up to three months at −20°C. There were two drying treatments, one including osmotic pretreatment followed by cabinet drying and the other involving only cabinet drying. Total anthocyanins found in fresh blueberries were 7.2 ± 0.5 mg/g dry matter, expressed as cyanidin 3-rutinoside equivalents. In comparison with fresh samples, total anthocyanins in untreated and pretreated dried blueberries were significantly reduced to 4.3 ± 0.1 mg/g solid content, 41% loss, and 3.7 ± 0.2 mg/g solid content, 49% loss, respectively. Osmotic treatment followed by a thermal treatment had a greater effect on anthocyanin loss than the thermal treatment alone. In contrast, the frozen samples did not show any significant decrease in anthocyanin level during three months of storage. Measurement of the antioxidant activity of anthocyanin extracts from blueberries showed there was no significant difference between fresh, dried, and frozen blueberries. PMID:15577185

  11. A rapid infusion protocol is safe for total dose iron polymaltose: time for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Morrison, G; Friedman, A; Lau, A; Lau, D; Gibson, P R

    2011-07-01

    Intravenous correction of iron deficiency by total dose iron polymaltose is inexpensive and safe, but current protocols entail prolonged administration over more than 4 h. This results in reduced patient acceptance, and hospital resource strain. We aimed to assess prospectively the safety of a rapid intravenous protocol and compare this with historical controls. Consecutive patients in whom intravenous iron replacement was indicated were invited to have up to 1.5 g iron polymaltose by a 58-min infusion protocol after an initial 15-min test dose without pre-medication. Infusion-related adverse events (AE) and delayed AE over the ensuing 5 days were also prospectively documented and graded as mild, moderate or severe. One hundred patients, 63 female, mean age 54 (range 18-85) years were studied. Thirty-four infusion-related AE to iron polymaltose occurred in a total of 24 patients--25 mild, 8 moderate and 1 severe; higher than previously reported for a slow protocol iron infusion. Thirty-one delayed AE occurred in 26 patients--26 mild, 3 moderate and 2 severe; similar to previously reported. All but five patients reported they would prefer iron replacement through the rapid protocol again. The presence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) predicted infusion-related reactions (54% vs 14% without IBD, P cost, resource utilization and time benefits for the patient and hospital system. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. Infestation of froghopper nymphs changes the amounts of total phenolics in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rafael José Navas da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased rate of sugarcane harvest without previous burn has provided a very favorable environment to the froghopper Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stal, 1854, with high moisture and low temperature variation. Few works have studied the response of sugarcane to this pest, so little is known about resistant cultivars. Plant phenolics are widely studied compounds because of their known antiherbivore effect. This research aims to determine if the attack of M. fimbriolata nymphs stimulates the accumulation of total phenolics in sugarcane. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse and arranged in completely randomized design, in a 3 X 2 X 4 factorial with three replications. Second instar nymphs of M. fimbriolata were infested at the following rates: control, 2-4 and 4-8 nymphs per pot (first-second infestations, respectively. Pots were covered with nylon net and monitored daily to isolate the effect of leaf sucking adults. Leaf and root samples were collected and kept frozen in liquid nitrogen until analyses. Infested plants showed higher levels of phenolics in both root and leaf tissues. In roots, the cultivar SP80-1816 accumulated more phenolic compounds in response to the infestation of M. fimbriolata. On the other hand, higher levels were found in leaves and roots of control plants of SP86-42, which might be an indication of a non-preference mechanism. The increase of total phenolics in sugarcane infested with root-sucking froghopper nymphs does not seem to be useful to detect the resistance to this pest.

  13. Longitudinal changes in total brain volume in schizophrenia: relation to symptom severity, cognition and antipsychotic medication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Veijola

    Full Text Available Studies show evidence of longitudinal brain volume decreases in schizophrenia. We studied brain volume changes and their relation to symptom severity, level of function, cognition, and antipsychotic medication in participants with schizophrenia and control participants from a general population based birth cohort sample in a relatively long follow-up period of almost a decade. All members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with any psychotic disorder and a random sample not having psychosis were invited for a MRI brain scan, and clinical and cognitive assessment during 1999-2001 at the age of 33-35 years. A follow-up was conducted 9 years later during 2008-2010. Brain scans at both time points were obtained from 33 participants with schizophrenia and 71 control participants. Regression models were used to examine whether brain volume changes predicted clinical and cognitive changes over time, and whether antipsychotic medication predicted brain volume changes. The mean annual whole brain volume reduction was 0.69% in schizophrenia, and 0.49% in controls (p = 0.003, adjusted for gender, educational level, alcohol use and weight gain. The brain volume reduction in schizophrenia patients was found especially in the temporal lobe and periventricular area. Symptom severity, functioning level, and decline in cognition were not associated with brain volume reduction in schizophrenia. The amount of antipsychotic medication (dose years of equivalent to 100 mg daily chlorpromazine over the follow-up period predicted brain volume loss (p = 0.003 adjusted for symptom level, alcohol use and weight gain. In this population based sample, brain volume reduction continues in schizophrenia patients after the onset of illness, and antipsychotic medications may contribute to these reductions.

  14. Endocrine factors related to changes in total peripheral vascular resistance after treatment of thyrotoxic and hypothyroid patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekman, M. J.; Harms, M. P.; Endert, E.; Wieling, W.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2001-01-01

    Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) decreases in thyrotoxicosis and increases in hypothyroidism. Several mechanisms may be involved, including adaptation to changes in heat production and direct non-genomic effects of tri-iodothyronine (T3) on vascular smooth muscle cells. The aim of this

  15. Total Quality Management in the African business community of Burkina Faso : a change in perspective on knowledge development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Pennink, B.

    2007-01-01

    During the 1990s Total Quality Management (TQM) became diffused to Burkina Faso. The overarching logic of privatization due to Structural Adjustment Programs prepared the ground for far-reaching changes in management practices. TQM became exhorted as a new way of manufacturing. This new management

  16. Temporal changes in TBT pollution in water, sediment, and oyster from Jinhae Bay after the total ban in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Sook; Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Shim, Won Joon

    2014-09-15

    Temporal change in tributyltin (TBT) levels in Jinhae Bay, which has various TBT sources, was investigated in water, sediments, and oysters from 2003 to 2013 after its total ban in South Korea. The seawater TBT levels decreased over 500-fold from 1995/97 to 2008/09. The oyster TBT levels were about fourfold lower in 2012/13 than in 1995/97. However, the sediment TBT levels did not significantly change, even 10 years after the partial TBT ban on small ships and 7 years after the total TBT ban on all oceangoing vessels in Korea. The total ban of TBT use effectively reduced water and oyster TBT levels in Jinhae Bay, but TBT levels in water, oysters, and sediment remained above the global environmental quality standards established to protect marine organisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. On quantum Rényi entropies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Lennert, Martin; Dupont-Dupuis, Fréderic; Szehr, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    The Rényi entropies constitute a family of information measures that generalizes the well-known Shannon entropy, inheriting many of its properties. They appear in the form of unconditional and conditional entropies, relative entropies, or mutual information, and have found many applications in in...

  18. Dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudetz, T.

    1990-01-01

    We review the recent physical application of the so-called Connes-Narnhofer-Thirring entropy, which is the successful quantum mechanical generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and, by its very conception, is a dynamical entropy for infinite quantum systems. We thus comparingly review also the physical applications of the classical dynamical entropy for infinite classical systems. 41 refs. (Author)

  19. Configurational entropy of hydrogen-disordered ice polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, Carlos P.; Ramírez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The configurational entropy of several H-disordered ice polymorphs is calculated by means of a thermodynamic integration along a path between a totally H-disordered state and one fulfilling the Bernal-Fowler ice rules. A Monte Carlo procedure based on a simple energy model is used, so that the employed thermodynamic path drives the system from high temperatures to the low-temperature limit. This method turns out to be precise enough to give reliable values for the configurational entropy s th of different ice phases in the thermodynamic limit (number of molecules N → ∞). The precision of the method is checked for the ice model on a two-dimensional square lattice. Results for the configurational entropy are given for H-disordered arrangements on several polymorphs, including ices Ih, Ic, II, III, IV, V, VI, and XII. The highest and lowest entropy values correspond to ices VI and XII, respectively, with a difference of 3.3% between them. The dependence of the entropy on the ice structures has been rationalized by comparing it with structural parameters of the various polymorphs, such as the mean ring size. A particularly good correlation has been found between the configurational entropy and the connective constant derived from self-avoiding walks on the ice networks

  20. Entropy generation method to quantify thermal comfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, S. C.; Tiwari, S. N.; Chaturvedi, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The present paper presents a thermodynamic approach to assess the quality of human-thermal environment interaction and quantify thermal comfort. The approach involves development of entropy generation term by applying second law of thermodynamics to the combined human-environment system. The entropy generation term combines both human thermal physiological responses and thermal environmental variables to provide an objective measure of thermal comfort. The original concepts and definitions form the basis for establishing the mathematical relationship between thermal comfort and entropy generation term. As a result of logic and deterministic approach, an Objective Thermal Comfort Index (OTCI) is defined and established as a function of entropy generation. In order to verify the entropy-based thermal comfort model, human thermal physiological responses due to changes in ambient conditions are simulated using a well established and validated human thermal model developed at the Institute of Environmental Research of Kansas State University (KSU). The finite element based KSU human thermal computer model is being utilized as a "Computational Environmental Chamber" to conduct series of simulations to examine the human thermal responses to different environmental conditions. The output from the simulation, which include human thermal responses and input data consisting of environmental conditions are fed into the thermal comfort model. Continuous monitoring of thermal comfort in comfortable and extreme environmental conditions is demonstrated. The Objective Thermal Comfort values obtained from the entropy-based model are validated against regression based Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) values. Using the corresponding air temperatures and vapor pressures that were used in the computer simulation in the regression equation generates the PMV values. The preliminary results indicate that the OTCI and PMV values correlate well under ideal conditions. However, an experimental study

  1. Do Changes in Patellofemoral Joint Offset Lead to Adverse Outcomes in Total Knee Arthroplasty With Patellar Resurfacing? A Radiographic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matz, Jacob; Howard, James L; Morden, David J; MacDonald, Steven J; Teeter, Matthew G; Lanting, Brent A

    2017-03-01

    Patellofemoral joint biomechanics contribute to anterior knee pain, instability, and dysfunction following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Information about specific factors leading to anterior knee pain and dysfunction is currently limited. Changes in patellofemoral joint offset (PFO) refers to a mismatch between the preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior geometry of the patellofemoral joint. It remains unclear whether these changes lead to adverse outcomes in TKA. A retrospective radiographic review of 970 knees pre-TKA and post-TKA was completed to correlate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of changing the PFO using a posterior-stabilized single knee design with patellar resurfacing. A total of 970 patients were reviewed. Postoperatively, the anterior femoral offset, anteroposterior femoral size, and anterior patellar offset were changed in 40%, 60%, and 71% of knees, respectively, compared to preoperative values. The Western Ontario and McMasters Osteoarthritis Index total score as well as subscale scores for pain and function were not significantly affected by an increase or decrease in PFO. Similarly, Knee Society Scores and range of motion were not significantly affected. Increased anterior patellar offset was, however, associated with increased postoperative patellar tilt. Postoperative patellar tilt was not correlated with adverse patient satisfaction scores or loss of range of motion. Changes in PFO (decreased, maintained, or increased) are common post-TKA and are not associated with a difference in clinical outcomes. Increases in anterior patellar offset led to increased patellar tilt, which was not associated with adverse patient satisfaction scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Giant magnetic entropy change in manganese perovskite La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} near room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Za, E-mail: zaineb.mohamed24@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique de la matière condensée et des nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences, 5019, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Tka, E.; Dhahri, J. [Laboratoire de Physique de la matière condensée et des nanosciences, Faculté des Sciences, 5019, Université de Monastir (Tunisia); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourrier, B.P. 166, B.P.W-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-12-05

    Highlights: • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} sample was prepared by solid state method. • La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} crystallizes in a rhombohedral R3{sup ‾}c structure. • The variation of (M) vs. (T) reveals a (FM) to (PM) phase transition around T{sub C}. • The magnetocaloric effect is studied and the |ΔS{sub M}{sup max}| and RCP are determined. - Abstract: Structural, magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.16}Ca{sub 0.17}MnO{sub 3} perovskite have been studied. A solid state reaction method was used in the preparation phase. X-ray diffraction analysis using Rietveld refinement revealed that this sample crystallizes in the distorted rhombohedral system with R3{sup ‾}c space group. The variation of magnetization (M) vs. temperature (T), under an applied magnetic field of 0.05T, revealed a transition from a ferromagnetic (FM) to paramagnetic (PM) phase at around Curie temperature (T{sub C} = 336 K). Using Arrott plots, it was found that the transition is of a second-order. Isothermal measurements of magnetization allow us, through thermodynamic Maxwell relations, to determine the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}). A large ΔS{sub M} deduced from isothermal magnetization curves, has been observed in our sample with a peak centered around its respective T{sub C}. The maximum of the magnetic entropy change ΔS{sub M}{sup max} in a magnetic field change of 5T is found to be 5.51 J kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} at 335 K. In addition, the compound showed a large relative cooling power (RCP) value of about 234 J/kg while the maximum refrigerant capacity of 174 J/kg was attained at the applied field of 5T. As a result, the studied sample can be considered as a potential material for magnetic refrigeration.

  3. Phase transitions and quantum entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrachea, L.; Canosa, N.; Plastino, A.; Portesi, M.; Rossignoli, R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination is made of the possibility to predict phase transitions of the fundamental state of finite quantum system, knowing the quantum entropy of these states, defined on the basis of the information theory. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs

  4. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo [Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Hamburg Univ. (Germany). II. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Meineri, Marco [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pisa (Italy); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Smolkin, Michael [California Univ., Berkely, CA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics

    2016-04-18

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  5. Quantum entropy and special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher; Scudo, Petra F; Terno, Daniel R

    2002-06-10

    We consider a single free spin- 1 / 2 particle. The reduced density matrix for its spin is not covariant under Lorentz transformations. The spin entropy is not a relativistic scalar and has no invariant meaning.

  6. Renyi entropy and conformal defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Lorenzo; Myers, Robert C.; Smolkin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We propose a field theoretic framework for calculating the dependence of Renyi entropies on the shape of the entangling surface in a conformal field theory. Our approach rests on regarding the corresponding twist operator as a conformal defect and in particular, we define the displacement operator which implements small local deformations of the entangling surface. We identify a simple constraint between the coefficient defining the two-point function of the displacement operator and the conformal weight of the twist operator, which consolidates a number of distinct conjectures on the shape dependence of the Renyi entropy. As an example, using this approach, we examine a conjecture regarding the universal coefficient associated with a conical singularity in the entangling surface for CFTs in any number of spacetime dimensions. We also provide a general formula for the second order variation of the Renyi entropy arising from small deformations of a spherical entangling surface, extending Mezei's results for the entanglement entropy.

  7. Uncertainty of forest carbon stock changes. Implications to the total uncertainty of GHG inventory of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monni, S.; Savolainen, I.; Peltoniemi, M.; Lehtonen, A.; Makipaa, R.; Palosuo, T.

    2007-01-01

    Uncertainty analysis facilitates identification of the most important categories affecting greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory uncertainty and helps in prioritisation of the efforts needed for development of the inventory. This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of GHG emissions of all Kyoto sectors and gases for Finland consolidated with estimates of emissions/removals from LULUCF categories. In Finland, net GHG emissions in 2003 were around 69 Tg (±15 Tg) CO2 equivalents. The uncertainties in forest carbon sink estimates in 2003 were larger than in most other emission categories, but of the same order of magnitude as in carbon stock change estimates in other land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) categories, and in N2O emissions from agricultural soils. Uncertainties in sink estimates of 1990 were lower, due to better availability of data. Results of this study indicate that inclusion of the forest carbon sink to GHG inventories reported to the UNFCCC increases uncertainties in net emissions notably. However, the decrease in precision is accompanied by an increase in the accuracy of the overall net GHG emissions due to improved completeness of the inventory. The results of this study can be utilised when planning future GHG mitigation protocols and emission trading schemes and when analysing environmental benefits of climate conventions

  8. Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Oh Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.

  9. Study of the Effects of Total Modulation Transfer Function Changes on Observer Performance Using Clinical Mammograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencomo, Jose Antonio Fagundez

    The main goal of this study was to relate physical changes in image quality measured by Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) to diagnostic accuracy. One Hundred and Fifty Kodak Min-R screen/film combination conventional craniocaudal mammograms obtained with the Pfizer Microfocus Mammographic system were selected from the files of the Department of Radiology, at M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The mammograms included 88 cases with a variety of benign diagnosis and 62 cases with a variety of malignant biopsy diagnosis. The average age of the patient population was 55 years old. 70 cases presented calcifications with 30 cases having calcifications smaller than 0.5mm. 46 cases presented irregular bordered masses larger than 1 cm. 30 cases presented smooth bordered masses with 20 larger than 1 cm. Four separated copies of the original images were made each having a different change in the MTF using a defocusing technique whereby copies of the original were obtained by light exposure through different thicknesses (spacing) of transparent film base. The mammograms were randomized, and evaluated by three experienced mammographers for the degree of visibility of various anatomical breast structures and pathological lesions (masses and calicifications), subjective image quality, and mammographic interpretation. 3,000 separate evaluations were anayzed by several statistical techniques including Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, McNemar test for differences between proportions and the Landis et al. method of agreement weighted kappa for ordinal categorical data. Results from the statistical analysis show: (1) There were no statistical significant differences in the diagnostic accuracy of the observers when diagnosing from mammograms with the same MTF. (2) There were no statistically significant differences in diagnostic accuracy for each observer when diagnosing from mammograms with the different MTF's used in the study. (3) There statistical

  10. Algorithmic randomness and physical entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    Algorithmic randomness provides a rigorous, entropylike measure of disorder of an individual, microscopic, definite state of a physical system. It is defined by the size (in binary digits) of the shortest message specifying the microstate uniquely up to the assumed resolution. Equivalently, algorithmic randomness can be expressed as the number of bits in the smallest program for a universal computer that can reproduce the state in question (for instance, by plotting it with the assumed accuracy). In contrast to the traditional definitions of entropy, algorithmic randomness can be used to measure disorder without any recourse to probabilities. Algorithmic randomness is typically very difficult to calculate exactly but relatively easy to estimate. In large systems, probabilistic ensemble definitions of entropy (e.g., coarse-grained entropy of Gibbs and Boltzmann's entropy H=lnW, as well as Shannon's information-theoretic entropy) provide accurate estimates of the algorithmic entropy of an individual system or its average value for an ensemble. One is thus able to rederive much of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in a setting very different from the usual. Physical entropy, I suggest, is a sum of (i) the missing information measured by Shannon's formula and (ii) of the algorithmic information content---algorithmic randomness---present in the available data about the system. This definition of entropy is essential in describing the operation of thermodynamic engines from the viewpoint of information gathering and using systems. These Maxwell demon-type entities are capable of acquiring and processing information and therefore can ''decide'' on the basis of the results of their measurements and computations the best strategy for extracting energy from their surroundings. From their internal point of view the outcome of each measurement is definite

  11. How do deltoid muscle moment arms change after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David R; Struk, Aimee M; Matsuki, Keisuke; Wright, Thomas W; Banks, Scott A

    2016-04-01

    Although many advantages of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) have been demonstrated, a variety of complications indicate there is much to learn about how RTSA modifies normal shoulder function. This study used a subject-specific computational model driven by in vivo kinematic data to assess how RTSA affects deltoid muscle moment arms after surgery. A subject-specific 12 degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal model was used to analyze the shoulders of 26 individuals (14 RTSA and 12 normal). The model was modified from the work of Holzbaur to directly input 6 degree-of-freedom humeral and scapular kinematics obtained using fluoroscopy. The moment arms of the anterior, lateral, and posterior aspects of the deltoid were significantly different when RTSA and normal cohorts were compared at different abduction angles. Anterior and lateral deltoid moment arms were significantly larger in the RTSA group at the initial elevation of the arm. The posterior deltoid was significantly larger at maximum elevation. There was large intersubject variability within the RTSA group. Placement of implant components during RTSA can directly affect the geometric relationship between the humerus and scapula and the muscle moment arms in the RTSA shoulder. RTSA shoulders maintain the same anterior and posterior deltoid muscle moment-arm patterns as healthy shoulders but show much greater intersubject variation and larger moment-arm magnitudes. These observations provide a basis for determining optimal implant configuration and surgical placement to maximize RTSA function in a patient-specific manner. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Seasonal changes in total body water; body composition and water turnover in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje S. Larsen

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available Total body water and water turnover were measured at different times throughout the year in 3 captive Norwegian reindeer, using a tritiated water dilution method (Holleman et al. 1982. Total body water (percent of body weight increased during late autumn and winter, from 59.1 ± 1.5 % in October to 72.5 ± 2.0 % in April. Using the equatation by Pace and Rathbun (1945 for predicting total body fat (% fat = 100 - % water/0.732, this increase in total body water indicates a concomitant reduction in body fat, from a maximum value of 18.9 ± 2.6 % (of body weight in October to a minimum of 0.9 ± 2.7 % in April. During summer, on the other hand, fat content increased at the expense of a reduced percentage of body water. Water turnover was low in winter (December - April, ranging between 30.8 ± 5.2and43.6 ± 13.5ml.d-'. kg-1, but increased nearly fourfold during summer (June-August with a maximum of 117.7 ± 5.9 ml.d-1. kg-1 in August. Positive correlations between water turnover and food intake and between water turnover and ambient temperature were found, the latter probably resulting from an incidental correlation between food intake and ambient temperature.Sesongmessige forandringer i totalt kroppsvann, kropps-sammensetning og vannomsetning hos reinsdyr.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Totalt kroppsvann og vannomsetning av vann ble målt til forskjellige årstider i 3 norske reinsdyr ved hjelp av utvasking av tritiert vann (Holleman et al. 1982. Totalt kroppsvann (prosent av kroppsvekt økte utover høsten og vinteren, fra 59.1 ± 1.5 % i oktober til 72.5 ± 2.0 % i april. Ved hjelp av en ligning som er gitt av Pace og Rathbun (1945 for beregning av totalt kroppsfett (% fett = 100 - % vann/0.732, fant en at denne økningen i vanninnhold tilsvarte en samtidig reduksjon i fettinnhold, fra en maksimums-verdi på 18.9 ± 2.6 % av kroppsvekt i oktober til et minimum på 0.9 ± 2.7 % i april. Utover sommeren økte derimot innholdet av fett p

  13. Total Volcanic Stratospheric Aerosol Optical Depths and Implications for Global Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, D. A.; Solomon, S.; Barnes, J. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Deshler, T.; Dolgii, S. I.; Herber, A. B.; Nagai, T.; Neely, R. R., III; Nevzorov, A. V.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the cooling effect of recent volcanoes is of particular interest in the context of the post-2000 slowing of the rate of global warming. Satellite observations of aerosol optical depth above 15 km have demonstrated that small-magnitude volcanic eruptions substantially perturb incoming solar radiation. Here we use lidar, Aerosol Robotic Network, and balloon-borne observations to provide evidence that currently available satellite databases neglect substantial amounts of volcanic aerosol between the tropopause and 15 km at middle to high latitudes and therefore underestimate total radiative forcing resulting from the recent eruptions. Incorporating these estimates into a simple climate model, we determine the global volcanic aerosol forcing since 2000 to be 0.19 +/- 0.09W/sq m. This translates into an estimated global cooling of 0.05 to 0.12 C. We conclude that recent volcanic events are responsible for more post-2000 cooling than is implied by satellite databases that neglect volcanic aerosol effects below 15 km.

  14. Basin-scale changes of total organic carbon profiles in the eastern South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. A. Alvarez-Salgado

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Total organic carbon (TOC samples were collected at 6 stations spaced ~800 km apart in the eastern South Atlantic, from the Equator to 45°S along 9°W. Analyses were performed by high temperature catalytic oxidation (HTCO in the base laboratory. Despite the complex advection and mixing patterns of North Atlantic and Antarctic waters with extremely different degrees of ventilation, TOC levels below 500 m are quasi-constant at 55±3 µmol C l-1, pointing to the refractory nature of deep-water TOC. On the other hand, a TOC excess from 25 to 38 g C m-2 is observed in the upper 100 m of the permanently stratified nutrient-depleted Equatorial, Subequatorial and Subtropical upper ocean, where vertical turbulent diffusion is largely prevented. Conversely, TOC levels in the nutrient-rich upper layer of the Subantarctic Front only exceeds 9 g C m-2 the deep-water baseline. As much as 70% of the TOC variability in the upper 500 m is due to simple mixing of reactive TOC formed in the surface layer and refractory TOC in deep ocean waters, with a minor contribution (13% to oxygen consumption in the prominent subsurface AOU maximum at 200-400 m depth.

  15. Applications of Entropy in Finance: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanqun Tong

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the concept of entropy is originated from thermodynamics, its concepts and relevant principles, especially the principles of maximum entropy and minimum cross-entropy, have been extensively applied in finance. In this paper, we review the concepts and principles of entropy, as well as their applications in the field of finance, especially in portfolio selection and asset pricing. Furthermore, we review the effects of the applications of entropy and compare them with other traditional and new methods.

  16. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  17. Nonlinear radiative heat flux and heat source/sink on entropy generation minimization rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, T.; Khan, M. Waleed Ahmed; Khan, M. Ijaz; Alsaedi, A.

    2018-06-01

    Entropy generation minimization in nonlinear radiative mixed convective flow towards a variable thicked surface is addressed. Entropy generation for momentum and temperature is carried out. The source for this flow analysis is stretching velocity of sheet. Transformations are used to reduce system of partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Total entropy generation rate is determined. Series solutions for the zeroth and mth order deformation systems are computed. Domain of convergence for obtained solutions is identified. Velocity, temperature and concentration fields are plotted and interpreted. Entropy equation is studied through nonlinear mixed convection and radiative heat flux. Velocity and temperature gradients are discussed through graphs. Meaningful results are concluded in the final remarks.

  18. Towards the entropy of gravity time-dependent models via the Cardy-Verlinde formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obregon, Octavio; Patino, Leonardo; Quevedo, Hernando

    2003-01-01

    For models with several time-dependent components, generalized entropies can be defined. This is shown for the Bianchi type IX model. We first derive the Cardy-Verlinde formula under the assumption that the first law of thermodynamics is valid. This leads to an explicit expression of the total entropy associated with this type of universe. Assuming the validity of the Cardy entropy formula, we obtain expressions for the corresponding Bekenstein, Bekenstein-Hawking and Hubble entropies. We discuss the validity of the Cardy-Verlinde formula and possible extensions of the outlined procedure to other time-dependent models

  19. Global sensitivity analysis for fuzzy inputs based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan; Lu, Zhenzhou; Zhou, Yicheng

    2018-06-01

    To analyse the component of fuzzy output entropy, a decomposition method of fuzzy output entropy is first presented. After the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, the total fuzzy output entropy can be expressed as the sum of the component fuzzy entropy contributed by fuzzy inputs. Based on the decomposition of fuzzy output entropy, a new global sensitivity analysis model is established for measuring the effects of uncertainties of fuzzy inputs on the output. The global sensitivity analysis model can not only tell the importance of fuzzy inputs but also simultaneously reflect the structural composition of the response function to a certain degree. Several examples illustrate the validity of the proposed global sensitivity analysis, which is a significant reference in engineering design and optimization of structural systems.

  20. Arithmetic of quantum entropy function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Quantum entropy function is a proposal for computing the entropy associated with the horizon of a black hole in the extremal limit, and is related via AdS/CFT correspondence to the dimension of the Hilbert space in a dual quantum mechanics. We show that in N = 4 supersymmetric string theories, quantum entropy function formalism naturally explains the origin of the subtle differences between the microscopic degeneracies of quarter BPS dyons carrying different torsion, i.e. different arithmetical properties. These arise from additional saddle points in the path integral - whose existence depends on the arithmetical properties of the black hole charges - constructed as freely acting orbifolds of the original AdS 2 x S 2 near horizon geometry. During this analysis we demonstrate that the quantum entropy function is insensitive to the details of the infrared cutoff used in the computation, and the details of the boundary terms added to the action. We also discuss the role of the asymptotic symmetries of AdS 2 in carrying out the path integral in the definition of quantum entropy function. Finally we show that even though quantum entropy function is expected to compute the absolute degeneracy in a given charge and angular momentum sector, it can also be used to compute the index. This can then be compared with the microscopic computation of the index.

  1. Mixing, entropy and competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimenko, A Y

    2012-01-01

    Non-traditional thermodynamics, applied to random behaviour associated with turbulence, mixing and competition, is reviewed and analysed. Competitive mixing represents a general framework for the study of generic properties of competitive systems and can be used to model a wide class of non-equilibrium phenomena ranging from turbulent premixed flames and invasion waves to complex competitive systems. We demonstrate consistency of the general principles of competition with thermodynamic description, review and analyse the related entropy concepts and introduce the corresponding competitive H-theorem. A competitive system can be characterized by a thermodynamic quantity—competitive potential—which determines the likely direction of evolution of the system. Contested resources tend to move between systems from lower to higher values of the competitive potential. There is, however, an important difference between conventional thermodynamics and competitive thermodynamics. While conventional thermodynamics is constrained by its zeroth law and is fundamentally transitive, the transitivity of competitive thermodynamics depends on the transitivity of the competition rules. Intransitivities are common in the real world and are responsible for complex behaviour in competitive systems. This work follows ideas and methods that have originated from the analysis of turbulent combustion, but reviews a much broader scope of issues linked to mixing and competition, including thermodynamic characterization of complex competitive systems with self-organization. The approach presented here is interdisciplinary and is addressed to the general educated readers, whereas the mathematical details can be found in the appendices. (comment)

  2. Entropy-driven metastable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Peaker, A.R.; Pantelides, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The known metastable defects are usually describable by a configuration coordinate diagram in which two energy minima are separated by a barrier. This diagram does not change with temperature and each configuration is stable over some temperature range. Here we report the observation of a novel metastability: A configuration change occurs spontaneously and abruptly at a critical temperature, giving rise to a discontinuous DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) spectrum. We propose that this phenomenon is a manifestation of entropy variations in the configurational space. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs

  3. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, Shunli

    2014-11-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  4. Change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity in adults: longitudinal findings from the iConnect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To better understand the health benefits of promoting active travel, it is important to understand the relationship between a change in active travel and changes in recreational and total physical activity. Methods These analyses, carried out in April 2012, use longitudinal data from 1628 adult respondents (mean age 54 years; 47% male) in the UK-based iConnect study. Travel and recreational physical activity were measured using detailed seven-day recall instruments. Adjusted linear regression models were fitted with change in active travel defined as ‘decreased’ (15 min/week) as the primary exposure variable and changes in (a) recreational and (b) total physical activity (min/week) as the primary outcome variables. Results Active travel increased in 32% (n=529), was maintained in 33% (n=534) and decreased in 35% (n=565) of respondents. Recreational physical activity decreased in all groups but this decrease was not greater in those whose active travel increased. Conversely, changes in active travel were associated with commensurate changes in total physical activity. Compared with those whose active travel remained unchanged, total physical activity decreased by 176.9 min/week in those whose active travel had decreased (adjusted regression coefficient −154.9, 95% CI −195.3 to −114.5) and was 112.2 min/week greater among those whose active travel had increased (adjusted regression coefficient 135.1, 95% CI 94.3 to 175.9). Conclusion An increase in active travel was associated with a commensurate increase in total physical activity and not a decrease in recreational physical activity. PMID:23445724

  5. Investigating dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere using various entropy measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasis, Georgios; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Papadimitriou, Constantinos; Kalimeri, Maria; Anastasiadis, Anastasios; Eftaxias, Konstantinos

    2009-09-01

    The complex system of the Earth's magnetosphere corresponds to an open spatially extended nonequilibrium (input-output) dynamical system. The nonextensive Tsallis entropy has been recently introduced as an appropriate information measure to investigate dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. The method has been employed for analyzing Dst time series and gave promising results, detecting the complexity dissimilarity among different physiological and pathological magnetospheric states (i.e., prestorm activity and intense magnetic storms, respectively). This paper explores the applicability and effectiveness of a variety of computable entropy measures (e.g., block entropy, Kolmogorov entropy, T complexity, and approximate entropy) to the investigation of dynamical complexity in the magnetosphere. We show that as the magnetic storm approaches there is clear evidence of significant lower complexity in the magnetosphere. The observed higher degree of organization of the system agrees with that inferred previously, from an independent linear fractal spectral analysis based on wavelet transforms. This convergence between nonlinear and linear analyses provides a more reliable detection of the transition from the quiet time to the storm time magnetosphere, thus showing evidence that the occurrence of an intense magnetic storm is imminent. More precisely, we claim that our results suggest an important principle: significant complexity decrease and accession of persistency in Dst time series can be confirmed as the magnetic storm approaches, which can be used as diagnostic tools for the magnetospheric injury (global instability). Overall, approximate entropy and Tsallis entropy yield superior results for detecting dynamical complexity changes in the magnetosphere in comparison to the other entropy measures presented herein. Ultimately, the analysis tools developed in the course of this study for the treatment of Dst index can provide convenience for space weather

  6. Energy consumption optimization of the total-FETI solver by changing the CPU frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, David; Riha, Lubomir; Sojka, Radim; Kruzik, Jakub; Beseda, Martin; Cermak, Martin; Schuchart, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    The energy consumption of supercomputers is one of the critical problems for the upcoming Exascale supercomputing era. The awareness of power and energy consumption is required on both software and hardware side. This paper deals with the energy consumption evaluation of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnect (FETI) based solvers of linear systems, which is an established method for solving real-world engineering problems. We have evaluated the effect of the CPU frequency on the energy consumption of the FETI solver using a linear elasticity 3D cube synthetic benchmark. In this problem, we have evaluated the effect of frequency tuning on the energy consumption of the essential processing kernels of the FETI method. The paper provides results for two types of frequency tuning: (1) static tuning and (2) dynamic tuning. For static tuning experiments, the frequency is set before execution and kept constant during the runtime. For dynamic tuning, the frequency is changed during the program execution to adapt the system to the actual needs of the application. The paper shows that static tuning brings up 12% energy savings when compared to default CPU settings (the highest clock rate). The dynamic tuning improves this further by up to 3%.

  7. Entropy Generation in Natural Convection Under an Evanescent Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magherbi, Mourad; El Jery, Atef; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2009-01-01

    We numerically study the effect of an externally-evanescent magnetic field on total entropy generation in conducting and non-reactive fluid enclosed in a square cavity. The horizontal walls of the enclosure are assumed to be insulated while the vertical walls are kept isothermal. A control volume finite element method is used to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0.71. The values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are chosen, so that the Lorentz force acts only in the transient state of entropy generation in natural convection. The total entropy generation was calculated for fixed value of irreversibility distribution ratio, different relaxation time varying from 0 to 1/5 and Grashof number equal to 10 5

  8. Paraphyseal changes on bone-age studies predict risk of delayed radiation-associated skeletal complications following total body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazono Hammell, Mary T.; Edgar, J.C.; Jaramillo, Diego; Bunin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Children undergoing total body irradiation (TBI) often develop delayed skeletal complications. Bone-age studies in these children often reveal subtle paraphyseal changes including physeal widening, metaphyseal irregularity and paraphyseal exostoses. To investigate whether paraphyseal changes on a bone-age study following TBI indicate a predisposition toward developing other radiation-associated skeletal complications. We retrospectively reviewed medical records and bone-age studies of 77 children receiving TBI at our institution between 1995 and 2008 who had at least 2 years of clinical follow-up and one bone-age study after TBI. We graded bone-age studies according to the severity of paraphyseal changes. All documented skeletal complications following TBI were tabulated. Kendall's tau-b was used to examine associations between degree of paraphyseal change and development of a skeletal complication. Kendall's tau analyses showed that physeal widening and metaphyseal irregularity/sclerosis (tau = 0.87, P < 0.001) and paraphyseal exostoses (tau = 0.68, P < 0.001) seen on bone-age studies were significantly positively associated with the development of delayed skeletal complications following TBI. Thirty percent of children with no or mild paraphyseal changes developed a delayed skeletal complication, compared with 58% of children with moderate paraphyseal changes and 90% of children with severe paraphyseal changes. Paraphyseal changes identified on a bone-age study correlate positively with the development of delayed skeletal complications elsewhere in the skeleton following TBI. (orig.)

  9. Experimental heat capacities, excess entropies, and magnetic properties of bulk and nano Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliesser, Jacob M.; Huang, Baiyu; Sahu, Sulata K.; Asplund, Megan; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Woodfield, Brian F.

    2018-03-01

    We have measured the heat capacities of several well-characterized bulk and nanophase Fe3O4-Co3O4 and Fe3O4-Mn3O4 spinel solid solution samples from which magnetic properties of transitions and third-law entropies have been determined. The magnetic transitions show several features common to effects of particle and magnetic domain sizes. From the standard molar entropies, excess entropies of mixing have been generated for these solid solutions and compared with configurational entropies determined previously by assuming appropriate cation and valence distributions. The vibrational and magnetic excess entropies for bulk materials are comparable in magnitude to the respective configurational entropies indicating that excess entropies of mixing must be included when analyzing entropies of mixing. The excess entropies for nanophase materials are even larger than the configurational entropies. Changes in valence, cation distribution, bonding and microstructure between the mixing ions are the likely sources of the positive excess entropies of mixing.

  10. Cadmium-induced changes in pigments, total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in fronds of Azolla imbricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling-Peng; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Huang, Yu; Li, Min-Jing

    2006-10-01

    This study was designed to examine the effects of cadmium on several color-related parameters (including chlorophyll, carotenoid, and anthocyanin), total phenolics, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity in an aquatic fern species Azolla imbricate (A. imbricata). Cd accumulation and effects in the fronds were closely related with Cd concentration in the growth medium. The fronds under 0.5 mg/L Cd treatment turned red on the 3rd day, and this color change also appeared under 0.05 and 0.1 mg/L Cd treatment on the 5th day. Correlated with the color change, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid in the fronds significantly decreased in the presence of high Cd concentrations, while the anthocyanin content increased during the experiment. Significant increase in total phenolics content and PAL activity were also detected during Cd treatment. The results suggested that the Cd-induced change in color of fronds might be due to the decrease in chlorophyll and carotenoid and the increase in anthocyanin. Anthocyanin, total phenolics and their biosynthesis-related PAL might play a role in detoxification of Cd in A. imbricata.

  11. Quantum key distribution with finite resources: Smooth Min entropy vs. Smooth Renyi entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertz, Markus; Abruzzo, Silvestre; Bratzik, Sylvia; Kampermann, Hermann; Bruss, Dagmar [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We consider different entropy measures that play an important role in the analysis of the security of QKD with finite resources. The smooth min entropy leads to an optimal bound for the length of a secure key. Another bound on the secure key length was derived by using Renyi entropies. Unfortunately, it is very hard or even impossible to calculate these entropies for realistic QKD scenarios. To estimate the security rate it becomes important to find computable bounds on these entropies. Here, we compare a lower bound for the smooth min entropy with a bound using Renyi entropies. We compare these entropies for the six-state protocol with symmetric attacks.

  12. Maximum Entropy, Word-Frequency, Chinese Characters, and Multiple Meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoyong; Minnhagen, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The word-frequency distribution of a text written by an author is well accounted for by a maximum entropy distribution, the RGF (random group formation)-prediction. The RGF-distribution is completely determined by the a priori values of the total number of words in the text (M), the number of distinct words (N) and the number of repetitions of the most common word (kmax). It is here shown that this maximum entropy prediction also describes a text written in Chinese characters. In particular it is shown that although the same Chinese text written in words and Chinese characters have quite differently shaped distributions, they are nevertheless both well predicted by their respective three a priori characteristic values. It is pointed out that this is analogous to the change in the shape of the distribution when translating a given text to another language. Another consequence of the RGF-prediction is that taking a part of a long text will change the input parameters (M, N, kmax) and consequently also the shape of the frequency distribution. This is explicitly confirmed for texts written in Chinese characters. Since the RGF-prediction has no system-specific information beyond the three a priori values (M, N, kmax), any specific language characteristic has to be sought in systematic deviations from the RGF-prediction and the measured frequencies. One such systematic deviation is identified and, through a statistical information theoretical argument and an extended RGF-model, it is proposed that this deviation is caused by multiple meanings of Chinese characters. The effect is stronger for Chinese characters than for Chinese words. The relation between Zipf’s law, the Simon-model for texts and the present results are discussed. PMID:25955175

  13. Radiation induced changes in plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen in desert rodent and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.; El-Husseini, M.; Saleh, F.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen was studied in the desert rodent, psammomy obesus obesus and albino rats subjected to dietary protein deficiency. In albino rats kept on high protein diet, the radiation syndrome resulted in urine retention, while in those kept on non-protein diet, such phenomenon was recorded only with the high radiation level of 1170r. Radiation exposure to 780 and 1170r caused remarkable diuresis in psammomys obesus obesus whereas they induced significant urine retention in albino rats. The levels of plasma total protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen were higher in albino rats maintained on high protein diet than in those kept on non-protein diet. Radiation exposure caused an initial drop in plasma total protein nitrogen concentration, concomitant with an initial rise in total urinary nitrogen, radiation exposure of psammomys obesus obesus caused significant increase in the levels of plasma protein nitrogen and urinary total nitrogen. Psammomys obesus obesus seemed to be more affected by radiation exposure than did the albino rats

  14. Influence of higher sodium substitutions on magnetic entropy ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The change in entropy also decreases with increase in substitution of sodium. A notable change ... of substituting elements for A and B ions, valence states of. Mn and the oxygen ... applied external magnetic field of 7 T.17 Sodium substitu- ..... Bohigas X, Tejada J, Del Barco E, Zhang X X and Sales M. 1998 Appl. Phys. Lett.

  15. Robust optimum design with maximum entropy method; Saidai entropy ho mochiita robust sei saitekika sekkeiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, K; Egashira, Y; Watanabe, G [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Vehicle and unit performance change according to not only external causes represented by the environment such as temperature or weather, but also internal causes which are dispersion of component characteristics and manufacturing processes or aged deteriorations. We developed the design method to estimate thus performance distributions with maximum entropy method and to calculate specifications with high performance robustness using Fuzzy theory. This paper describes the details of these methods and examples applied to power window system. 3 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Three-dimensional unsteady natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal cavity with

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical computation of unsteady laminar three-dimensional natural convection and entropy generation in an inclined cubical trapezoidal air-filled cavity is performed for the first time in this work. The vertical right and left sidewalls of the cavity are maintained at constant cold temperatures. The lower wall is subjected to a constant hot temperature, while the upper one is considered insulated. Computations are performed for Rayleigh numbers varied as 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105, while the trapezoidal cavity inclination angle is varied as 0° ⩽ Φ ⩽ 180°. Prandtl number is considered constant at Pr = 0.71. Second law of thermodynamics is applied to obtain thermodynamic losses inside the cavity due to both heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibilities. The variation of local and average Nusselt numbers is presented and discussed, while, streamlines, isotherms and entropy contours are presented in both two and three-dimensional pattern. The results show that when the Rayleigh number increases, the flow patterns are changed especially in three-dimensional results and the flow circulation increases. Also, the inclination angle effect on the total entropy generation becomes insignificant when the Rayleigh number is low. Moreover, when the Rayleigh number increases the average Nusselt number increases.

  17. Connecting complexity with spectral entropy using the Laplace transformed solution to the fractional diffusion equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yingjie; Chen, Wen; Magin, Richard L.

    2016-07-01

    Analytical solutions to the fractional diffusion equation are often obtained by using Laplace and Fourier transforms, which conveniently encode the order of the time and the space derivatives (α and β) as non-integer powers of the conjugate transform variables (s, and k) for the spectral and the spatial frequencies, respectively. This study presents a new solution to the fractional diffusion equation obtained using the Laplace transform and expressed as a Fox's H-function. This result clearly illustrates the kinetics of the underlying stochastic process in terms of the Laplace spectral frequency and entropy. The spectral entropy is numerically calculated by using the direct integration method and the adaptive Gauss-Kronrod quadrature algorithm. Here, the properties of spectral entropy are investigated for the cases of sub-diffusion and super-diffusion. We find that the overall spectral entropy decreases with the increasing α and β, and that the normal or Gaussian case with α = 1 and β = 2, has the lowest spectral entropy (i.e., less information is needed to describe the state of a Gaussian process). In addition, as the neighborhood over which the entropy is calculated increases, the spectral entropy decreases, which implies a spatial averaging or coarse graining of the material properties. Consequently, the spectral entropy is shown to provide a new way to characterize the temporal correlation of anomalous diffusion. Future studies should be designed to examine changes of spectral entropy in physical, chemical and biological systems undergoing phase changes, chemical reactions and tissue regeneration.

  18. Assessment of the effect of land use /land cover changes on total runoff from Ofu River catchment in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshach Ileanwa Alfa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The total runoff from a catchment is dependednt on both the soil characteristics and the land use/land cover (LULC type. This study was conducted to examine the effect of changes in land cover on the total runoff from Ofu River Catchment in Nigeria. Classified Landsat imageries of 1987, 2001 and 2016 in combination with the soil map extracted from the Digital Soil Map of the World was used to estimate the runoff curve number for 1987, 2001 and 2016. The runoff depth for 35 years daily rainfall data was estimated using Natura Resource Conservation Services Curve Number (NRCS-CN method. The runoff depths obtained for the respective years were subjected to a one-way analysis of variance at 95% level of significance. P-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Runoff curve numbers obtained for 1987, 2001 and 2016 were 61.83, 63.26 and 62.79 respectively. The effects of the changes in LULC for 1987-2001, 2001-2016 and 1987-2016 were statistically significant (P<0.001 at 95% confident interval.  The average change in runoff depths were 79.81%, -11.10% and 48.09% respectively for 1987-2001, 2001-2016 and 1987-2016. The study concluded that the changes in LULC of the catchment had significant effect on the runoff from the catchment.

  19. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  20. Maximum Entropy in Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yuan Tseng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Drug discovery applies multidisciplinary approaches either experimentally, computationally or both ways to identify lead compounds to treat various diseases. While conventional approaches have yielded many US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, researchers continue investigating and designing better approaches to increase the success rate in the discovery process. In this article, we provide an overview of the current strategies and point out where and how the method of maximum entropy has been introduced in this area. The maximum entropy principle has its root in thermodynamics, yet since Jaynes’ pioneering work in the 1950s, the maximum entropy principle has not only been used as a physics law, but also as a reasoning tool that allows us to process information in hand with the least bias. Its applicability in various disciplines has been abundantly demonstrated. We give several examples of applications of maximum entropy in different stages of drug discovery. Finally, we discuss a promising new direction in drug discovery that is likely to hinge on the ways of utilizing maximum entropy.

  1. For which option is credit risk more representative on China banks' total factor productivity Efficiency change or technological progress?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fadzlan Sufian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to provide new empirical evidence on the impact of credit risk on China banks' total factor productivity.Design/methodology/approach-The paper employs the Malmquist Productivity Index (MP1) which allows for the examination of five different indices:total factor productivity change (TFPCH);technological change (TECHCH);efficiency change (EFFCH);pure technical efficiency change (PEFFCH);and scale efficiency change (SECH) indices.Findings-The empirical findings indicate that the State Owned Commercial Banks (SOCB),Joint Stock Commercial Banks (JSCB),and City Commercial Banks (CCB) have exhibited lower TFPCH levels with the inclusion of risk factor.It was found that the JSCB and CCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to TECHCH,while the SOCB have exhibited lower TFPCH due to EFFCH.The empirical findings suggest that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a higher JSCB EFFCH levels.On the other hand,the SOCB and CCB have exhibited a lower EFFCH levels due to SECH and PEFFCH,respectively.Research limitations/implications-The results clearly highlight the importance of credit risk and lending quality in determining the total factor productivity change of banks operating in the China banking sector.The author demonstrates that the inclusion of credit risk factor has resulted in a lower TFPCH level of all banks operating in the China banking sector.Thus,excluding the credit risk factor from the analysis on the China banking sector may potentially bias the result upwards.Practical impIications-In an environment of heavy government influence over the lending process,a large proportion of loans extended by Chinese banks over the years have gone bad.Policymakers should prevent the flow of new non-performing loans by separating bad clients from banks that are being restructured and recapitalized in the reform of the banking sector.Originality/value-By employing the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI),the present paper contributes to

  2. Deriving Scaling Factors Using a Global Hydrological Model to Restore GRACE Total Water Storage Changes for China's Yangtze River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Di; Yang, Yuting; Yoshihide, Wada; Hong, Yang; Liang, Wei; Chen, Yaning; Yong, Bin; Hou, Aizhong; Wei, Jiangfeng; Chen, Lu

    2015-01-01

    This study used a global hydrological model (GHM), PCR-GLOBWB, which simulates surface water storage changes, natural and human induced groundwater storage changes, and the interactions between surface water and subsurface water, to generate scaling factors by mimicking low-pass filtering of GRACE signals. Signal losses in GRACE data were subsequently restored by the scaling factors from PCR-GLOBWB. Results indicate greater spatial heterogeneity in scaling factor from PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0 than that from GLDAS-1 Noah due to comprehensive simulation of surface and subsurface water storage changes for PCR-GLOBWB and CLM4.0. Filtered GRACE total water storage (TWS) changes applied with PCR-GLOBWB scaling factors show closer agreement with water budget estimates of TWS changes than those with scaling factors from other land surface models (LSMs) in China's Yangtze River basin. Results of this study develop a further understanding of the behavior of scaling factors from different LSMs or GHMs over hydrologically complex basins, and could be valuable in providing more accurate TWS changes for hydrological applications (e.g., monitoring drought and groundwater storage depletion) over regions where human-induced interactions between surface water and subsurface water are intensive.

  3. Application of the entropy concept to describe the quality of a X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    In a previous work (Oliveira and Pedroso de Lima, 2000), we introduced the concept of entropy to describe the degradation of the energy of a photon beam incident in a material. We pointed out the relation between both, the entropy of the distribution of the energy deposited in matter and the traditional quality factor of the radiation protection. From the point of view of the entropy, we showed that, in what concerns to the monoenergetic approximation to a polyenergetic beam, we can hardly speak in an approximation (Oliveira 2001). In fact, the behaviour of the entropy is very different for both, an X-ray and a monoenergetic beam. In this work we developed further the study of the degradation of the energy of X-ray photons, from the point of view of the entropy, introducing the concepts of surface entropy, S surf , equilibrium entropy, S eq , and concepts of entropy variation, namely, primary to surface variation, S ps , and total entropy variation, S T . These are characteristic parameters of the X-ray beams describing the degradation of the primary photons while they interact with matter

  4. Study of entropy generation in a slab with non-uniform internal heat generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Haj Assad Mamdouh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of entropy generation in a rectangular slab with a nonuniform internal heat generation is presented. Dimensionless local and total entropy generation during steady state heat conduction through the slab are obtained. Two different boundary conditions have been considered in the analysis, the first with asymmetric convection and the second with constant slab surface temperature. Temperature distribution within the slab is obtained analytically. The study investigates the effect of some relevant dimensionless heat transfer parameters on entropy generation. The results show that there exists a minimum local entropy generation but there does not exist a minimum total entropy generation for certain combinations of the heat transfer parameters. The results of calculations are presented graphically.

  5. Definition and measurement of entropy in high energy heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remler, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    This talk has two parts: the first on the definition and the second on the measurement of entropy. The connection to nuclear thermodynamics can be retained without the local equilibrium assumption via two steps. The first is relatively simple and goes as follows. The authors make the certainly reasonable assumption that in central collisions, at the moment of maximum compression, the state is similar to one or more fireballs and that the total entropy of each fireball approximates that of an equilibrated system at the same total energy and average density. This entropy, if measurable, would determine much of the thermodynamic properties of nuclear matter. The second step therefore concerns measurement of this entropy. This paper develops a method by which entropy may be measured using a minimum amount of theory. In particular, it is not based on any assumption local equilibrium

  6. Changes in total and central fat mass after a hypocaloric diet associate with changes of apoC-I in postmenopausal obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassef, Hanny; Davignon, Jean; Prud'homme, Denis; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Faraj, May

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the secretion of apolipoprotein apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE from adipose tissue in postmenopausal obese women, suggesting their potential regulation by energy balance in humans. We examined the changes of these apolipoproteins, in relation to changes in cardiometabolic risks, following a hypocaloric diet in overweight/obese women. A total of 137 postmenopausal overweight/obese women who were free of chronic disease were examined at baseline, 56 women of whom were reevaluated following a 6-month hypocaloric diet. At baseline, there was no association between the plasma transferable apolipoproteins with any index of adiposity, insulin sensitivity, lipids, or inflammation, except for apoE with peripheral fat mass (r = 0.18, P hypocaloric diet reduced adiposity, insulin resistance, and inflammatory markers but had no significant effects on plasma transferable apolipoproteins or lipids, whose average concentrations were within normal range at baseline. The changes in total and central, but not peripheral, fat mass associated with changes of apoC-I only (r = 0.28 and r = 0.43; respectively, P < .05). Post-weight-loss apoC-I increased in some women (52%) yet it decreased in others, however there were no differences in cardiometabolic risk factors between the 2 groups. Plasma apoC-I, apoC-II, apoC-III, and apoE are not associated with adiposity, insulin sensitivity, or inflammation in obese but healthy postmenopausal women. Post-weight-loss changes of total and central fat mass associate with changes of apoC-I. Copyright © 2014 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. On Interrelation of Time and Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A measure of time is related to the number of ways by which the human correlates the past and the future for some process. On this basis, a connection between time and entropy (information, Boltzmann–Gibbs, and thermodynamic one is established. This measure gives time such properties as universality, relativity, directionality, and non-uniformity. A number of issues of the modern science related to the finding of laws describing changes in nature are discussed. A special emphasis is made on the role of evolutionary adaptation of an observer to the surrounding world.

  8. Dynamical maximum entropy approach to flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Ginelli, Francesco; Mora, Thierry; Piovani, Duccio; Tavarone, Raffaele; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2014-04-01

    We derive a new method to infer from data the out-of-equilibrium alignment dynamics of collectively moving animal groups, by considering the maximum entropy model distribution consistent with temporal and spatial correlations of flight direction. When bird neighborhoods evolve rapidly, this dynamical inference correctly learns the parameters of the model, while a static one relying only on the spatial correlations fails. When neighbors change slowly and the detailed balance is satisfied, we recover the static procedure. We demonstrate the validity of the method on simulated data. The approach is applicable to other systems of active matter.

  9. Entropy exchange and entanglement in the Jaynes-Cummings model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, E.; Tannor, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) is the simplest fully quantum model that describes the interaction between light and matter. We extend a previous analysis by Phoenix and Knight [Ann. Phys. 186, 381 (1988)] of the JCM by considering mixed states of both the light and matter. We present examples of qualitatively different entropic correlations. In particular, we explore the regime of entropy exchange between light and matter, i.e., where the rate of change of the two are anticorrelated. This behavior contrasts with the case of pure light-matter states in which the rate of change of the two entropies are positively correlated and in fact identical. We give an analytical derivation of the anticorrelation phenomenon and discuss the regime of its validity. Finally, we show a strong correlation between the region of the Bloch sphere characterized by entropy exchange and that characterized by minimal entanglement as measured by the negative eigenvalues of the partially transposed density matrix

  10. Alterations of thalassemic erythrocytes detected by wavelet entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korol, A. M.; Rasia, R. J.; Rosso, O. A.

    2007-02-01

    A quantitative analysis of erythrocytes deformation under shear stress (the viscoelastic properties) observed on healthy donors as well as thalassemic patients are made by means of the normalized total wavelet entropy (NTWS). The results suggest that NTWS quantifier could be useful for characterizing pathological disturbances for the sake of clinical treatment.

  11. Entanglement entropy with a time-dependent Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Allic

    2018-03-01

    The time evolution of entanglement tracks how information propagates in interacting quantum systems. We study entanglement entropy in CFT2 with a time-dependent Hamiltonian. We perturb by operators with time-dependent source functions and use the replica trick to calculate higher-order corrections to entanglement entropy. At first order, we compute the correction due to a metric perturbation in AdS3/CFT2 and find agreement on both sides of the duality. Past first order, we find evidence of a universal structure of entanglement propagation to all orders. The central feature is that interactions entangle unentangled excitations. Entanglement propagates according to "entanglement diagrams," proposed structures that are motivated by accessory spacetime diagrams for real-time perturbation theory. To illustrate the mechanisms involved, we compute higher-order corrections to free fermion entanglement entropy. We identify an unentangled operator, one which does not change the entanglement entropy to any order. Then, we introduce an interaction and find it changes entanglement entropy by entangling the unentangled excitations. The entanglement propagates in line with our conjecture. We compute several entanglement diagrams. We provide tools to simplify the computation of loop entanglement diagrams, which probe UV effects in entanglement propagation in CFT and holography.

  12. A student's guide to entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemons, Don S

    2013-01-01

    Striving to explore the subject in as simple a manner as possible, this book helps readers understand the elusive concept of entropy. Innovative aspects of the book include the construction of statistical entropy, the derivation of the entropy of classical systems from purely classical assumptions, and a statistical thermodynamics approach to the ideal Fermi and ideal Bose gases. Derivations are worked through step-by-step and important applications are highlighted in over 20 worked examples. Nearly 50 end-of-chapter exercises test readers' understanding. The book also features a glossary giving definitions for all essential terms, a time line showing important developments, and list of books for further study. It is an ideal supplement to undergraduate courses in physics, engineering, chemistry and mathematics.

  13. Entropy lower bounds of quantum decision tree complexity

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yaoyun

    2000-01-01

    We prove a general lower bound of quantum decision tree complexity in terms of some entropy notion. We regard the computation as a communication process in which the oracle and the computer exchange several rounds of messages, each round consisting of O(log(n)) bits. Let E(f) be the Shannon entropy of the random variable f(X), where X is uniformly random in f's domain. Our main result is that it takes \\Omega(E(f)) queries to compute any \\emph{total} function f. It is interesting to contrast t...

  14. Bearing Change to Metal-On-Polyethylene for Ceramic Bearing Fracture in Total Hip Arthroplasty; Does It Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soong Joon; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term to midterm results of reoperation with bearing change to metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) after ceramic bearing fracture in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Nine third-generation ceramic bearing fractures (6 heads and 3 liners) were treated with bearing change to MoP. Mean age at reoperation was 52.7 years. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. During follow-up, 2 of 3 liner-fractured hips and 1 of 6 head-fractured hips showed radiologic signs of metallosis and elevated serum chromium levels. Re-reoperation with bearing rechange to a ceramic head was performed for the hips with metallosis. One liner-fractured hip had periprosthetic joint infection. Dislocation occurred in 3 hips. From our experience, bearing change to MoP is not a recommended treatment option for ceramic bearing fracture in total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera-Fumero, Armando L; Díaz-Mesa, Estefanía; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Fernandez-Lopez, Lourdes; Guillen-Pino, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD). TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14) or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99). At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, pday/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  16. Shannon entropy and particle decays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco Millán, Pedro; García-Ferrero, M. Ángeles; Llanes-Estrada, Felipe J.; Porras Riojano, Ana; Sánchez García, Esteban M.

    2018-05-01

    We deploy Shannon's information entropy to the distribution of branching fractions in a particle decay. This serves to quantify how important a given new reported decay channel is, from the point of view of the information that it adds to the already known ones. Because the entropy is additive, one can subdivide the set of channels and discuss, for example, how much information the discovery of a new decay branching would add; or subdivide the decay distribution down to the level of individual quantum states (which can be quickly counted by the phase space). We illustrate the concept with some examples of experimentally known particle decay distributions.

  17. Text mining by Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaati, Maryam; Mehri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Long-range correlations between the elements of natural languages enable them to convey very complex information. Complex structure of human language, as a manifestation of natural languages, motivates us to apply nonextensive statistical mechanics in text mining. Tsallis entropy appropriately ranks the terms' relevance to document subject, taking advantage of their spatial correlation length. We apply this statistical concept as a new powerful word ranking metric in order to extract keywords of a single document. We carry out an experimental evaluation, which shows capability of the presented method in keyword extraction. We find that, Tsallis entropy has reliable word ranking performance, at the same level of the best previous ranking methods.

  18. Methods for calculating nonconcave entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touchette, Hugo

    2010-01-01

    Five different methods which can be used to analytically calculate entropies that are nonconcave as functions of the energy in the thermodynamic limit are discussed and compared. The five methods are based on the following ideas and techniques: (i) microcanonical contraction, (ii) metastable branches of the free energy, (iii) generalized canonical ensembles with specific illustrations involving the so-called Gaussian and Betrag ensembles, (iv) the restricted canonical ensemble, and (v) the inverse Laplace transform. A simple long-range spin model having a nonconcave entropy is used to illustrate each method

  19. Maximum entropy principal for transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilich, F.; Da Silva, R.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we deal with modeling of the transportation phenomenon for use in the transportation planning process and policy-impact studies. The model developed is based on the dependence concept, i.e., the notion that the probability of a trip starting at origin i is dependent on the probability of a trip ending at destination j given that the factors (such as travel time, cost, etc.) which affect travel between origin i and destination j assume some specific values. The derivation of the solution of the model employs the maximum entropy principle combining a priori multinomial distribution with a trip utility concept. This model is utilized to forecast trip distributions under a variety of policy changes and scenarios. The dependence coefficients are obtained from a regression equation where the functional form is derived based on conditional probability and perception of factors from experimental psychology. The dependence coefficients encode all the information that was previously encoded in the form of constraints. In addition, the dependence coefficients encode information that cannot be expressed in the form of constraints for practical reasons, namely, computational tractability. The equivalence between the standard formulation (i.e., objective function with constraints) and the dependence formulation (i.e., without constraints) is demonstrated. The parameters of the dependence-based trip-distribution model are estimated, and the model is also validated using commercial air travel data in the U.S. In addition, policy impact analyses (such as allowance of supersonic flights inside the U.S. and user surcharge at noise-impacted airports) on air travel are performed.

  20. Nondestructive detection of total viable count changes of chilled pork in high oxygen storage condition based on hyperspectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaochun; Peng, Yankun; Li, Yongyu; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei

    2017-05-01

    The plate count method is commonly used to detect the total viable count (TVC) of bacteria in pork, which is timeconsuming and destructive. It has also been used to study the changes of the TVC in pork under different storage conditions. In recent years, many scholars have explored the non-destructive methods on detecting TVC by using visible near infrared (VIS/NIR) technology and hyperspectral technology. The TVC in chilled pork was monitored under high oxygen condition in this study by using hyperspectral technology in order to evaluate the changes of total bacterial count during storage, and then evaluate advantages and disadvantages of the storage condition. The VIS/NIR hyperspectral images of samples stored in high oxygen condition was acquired by a hyperspectral system in range of 400 1100nm. The actual reference value of total bacteria was measured by standard plate count method, and the results were obtained in 48 hours. The reflection spectra of the samples are extracted and used for the establishment of prediction model for TVC. The spectral preprocessing methods of standard normal variate transformation (SNV), multiple scatter correction (MSC) and derivation was conducted to the original reflectance spectra of samples. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) of TVC was performed and optimized to be the prediction model. The results show that the near infrared hyperspectral technology based on 400-1100nm combined with PLSR model can describe the growth pattern of the total bacteria count of the chilled pork under the condition of high oxygen very vividly and rapidly. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that the nondestructive method of TVC based on NIR hyperspectral has great potential in monitoring of edible safety in processing and storage of meat.

  1. Entropy in the classical and quantum polymer black hole models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livine, Etera R; Terno, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the entropy counting for black hole horizons in loop quantum gravity (LQG). We argue that the space of 3D closed polyhedra is the classical counterpart of the space of SU(2) intertwiners at the quantum level. Then computing the entropy for the boundary horizon amounts to calculating the density of polyhedra or the number of intertwiners at fixed total area. Following the previous work (Bianchi 2011 Class. Quantum Grav. 28 114006) we dub these the classical and quantum polymer models for isolated horizons in LQG. We provide exact micro-canonical calculations for both models and we show that the classical counting of polyhedra accounts for most of the features of the intertwiner counting (leading order entropy and log-correction), thus providing us with a simpler model to further investigate correlations and dynamics. To illustrate this, we also produce an exact formula for the dimension of the intertwiner space as a density of ‘almost-closed polyhedra’. (paper)

  2. Practical device-independent quantum cryptography via entropy accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnon-Friedman, Rotem; Dupuis, Frédéric; Fawzi, Omar; Renner, Renato; Vidick, Thomas

    2018-01-31

    Device-independent cryptography goes beyond conventional quantum cryptography by providing security that holds independently of the quality of the underlying physical devices. Device-independent protocols are based on the quantum phenomena of non-locality and the violation of Bell inequalities. This high level of security could so far only be established under conditions which are not achievable experimentally. Here we present a property of entropy, termed "entropy accumulation", which asserts that the total amount of entropy of a large system is the sum of its parts. We use this property to prove the security of cryptographic protocols, including device-independent quantum key distribution, while achieving essentially optimal parameters. Recent experimental progress, which enabled loophole-free Bell tests, suggests that the achieved parameters are technologically accessible. Our work hence provides the theoretical groundwork for experimental demonstrations of device-independent cryptography.

  3. Shortening a loop can increase protein native state entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Yulian; Dagan, Shlomi; Levy, Yaakov

    2015-12-01

    Protein loops are essential structural elements that influence not only function but also protein stability and folding rates. It was recently reported that shortening a loop in the AcP protein may increase its native state conformational entropy. This effect on the entropy of the folded state can be much larger than the lower entropic penalty of ordering a shorter loop upon folding, and can therefore result in a more pronounced stabilization than predicted by polymer model for loop closure entropy. In this study, which aims at generalizing the effect of loop length shortening on native state dynamics, we use all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study how gradual shortening a very long or solvent-exposed loop region in four different proteins can affect their stability. For two proteins, AcP and Ubc7, we show an increase in native state entropy in addition to the known effect of the loop length on the unfolded state entropy. However, for two permutants of SH3 domain, shortening a loop results only with the expected change in the entropy of the unfolded state, which nicely reproduces the observed experimental stabilization. Here, we show that an increase in the native state entropy following loop shortening is not unique to the AcP protein, yet nor is it a general rule that applies to all proteins following the truncation of any loop. This modification of the loop length on the folded state and on the unfolded state may result with a greater effect on protein stability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Examples of Entropy-driven Ordering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    driven Ordering. Orientational ordering of long objects. Entropy of sliding increases. Freezing in hard-sphere systems. Vibrational entropy increases. Phase separation in hard-sphere binary mixtures with disparate sizes. More room for smaller ...

  5. On thermodynamic limits of entropy densities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moriya, H; Van Enter, A

    We give some sufficient conditions which guarantee that the entropy density in the thermodynamic limit is equal to the thermodynamic limit of the entropy densities of finite-volume (local) Gibbs states.

  6. Multivariate refined composite multiscale entropy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau-Heurtier, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Multiscale entropy (MSE) has become a prevailing method to quantify signals complexity. MSE relies on sample entropy. However, MSE may yield imprecise complexity estimation at large scales, because sample entropy does not give precise estimation of entropy when short signals are processed. A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. Nevertheless, RCMSE is for univariate signals only. The simultaneous analysis of multi-channel (multivariate) data often over-performs studies based on univariate signals. We therefore introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. Applications of multivariate RCMSE to simulated processes reveal its better performances over the standard multivariate MSE. - Highlights: • Multiscale entropy quantifies data complexity but may be inaccurate at large scale. • A refined composite multiscale entropy (RCMSE) has therefore recently been proposed. • Nevertheless, RCMSE is adapted to univariate time series only. • We herein introduce an extension of RCMSE to multivariate data. • It shows better performances than the standard multivariate multiscale entropy.

  7. The entropy principle thermodynamics for the unsatisfied

    CERN Document Server

    Thess, André

    2011-01-01

    Entropy is the most important and the most difficult to understand term of thermodynamics. This book helps make this key concept understandable. It includes seven illustrative examples of applications of entropy, which are presented step by step.

  8. A brief introduction to sofic entropy theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bowen, Lewis

    2017-01-01

    Sofic entropy theory is a generalization of the classical Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy theory to actions of large class of non-amenable groups called sofic groups. This is a short introduction with a guide to the literature.

  9. Notes on entanglement entropy in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Song; Numasawa, Tokiro; Takayanagi, Tadashi; Watanabe, Kento

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the conical entropy in string theory in the simplest setup of dividing the nine dimensional space into two halves. This corresponds to the leading quantum correction to the horizon entropy in string theory on the Rindler space. This entropy is also called the conical entropy and includes surface term contributions. We first derive a new simple formula of the conical entropy for any free higher spin fields. Then we apply this formula to computations of conical entropy in open and closed superstring. In our analysis of closed string, we study the twisted conical entropy defined by making use of string theory on Melvin backgrounds. This quantity is easier to calculate owing to the folding trick. Our analysis shows that the conical entropy in closed superstring is UV finite owing to the string scale cutoff.

  10. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  11. The Impact of Coercive Migrations on the Changes of Total Population Flux in the War-Engulfed Croatian Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Pažanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals with the war impact and the impact of coercive migrations on the changes of total population fl ux between two censuses. On the eve of and during the Croatian War of Independence, the migration of population of the Republic of Croatia from the war-engulfed areas to the free areas of the country or to the foreign countries increased. The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina has caused a new wave of refugees from that country and a further migrational fl ux in our country. In the article, the author has established, on the case of the war-engulfed areas of eleven Croatian counties, that the war and coercive migrations have caused a decline of population, the growth of aged population, as well as changes in national and confessional structure.

  12. Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Abramovitc

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Abramovitc G., Parra A.C. & Fernandes W.R. [Changes in iron levels, total iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation in race horses, before and after of physical exercise]. Variação de níveis séricos de ferro, da capacidade total de ligação do ferro e da saturação da transferrina em equinos de corrida, antes e após exercício físico. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:289-293, 2014. Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva 87, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, São Paulo, SP 05508-270, Brasil. Email: wilsonrf@usp.br The preparation of the horse for physical activities in competition is directly related to important factors such as nutrition, muscle adaptation and blood profile, related to the concentration of serum iron, total capacity total iron binding capacity (TIBC and saturation of transferrin. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of exercise in iron levels, the total iron and transferrin saturation in race horses. One hundred and eleven samples of blood serum were collected from Thoroughbred horses, from the Jockey Club of São Paulo, aged between 3 and 4 years old, male and female, clinically healthy, practitioners turf competition, in sand or grass. The samples were obtained before exercise (control time and 30 minutes after exercise (post exercise. These animals were submitted to gallop training, of high intensity and short duration for this research. As a result, it was observed that the serum concentration of iron (Fe showed a statistically significant lowering post-exercise, due to organic re-balance of iron, while TIBC (total iron binding capacity showed a clear and significant increase in their serum levels due to increased needs of iron during and after exercise. The percentage of transferrin saturation in serum was shown to be lower post-exercise, probably due to the recruitment of

  13. Search for high entropy alloys in the X-NbTaTiZr systems (X = Al, Cr, V, Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Marco Gabriele, E-mail: marcogabriele.poletti@unito.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fiore, Gianluca [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy); Szost, Blanka A. [Strategic and Emerging Technologies Team (TEC-TS), European Space Agency, ESTEC, 1 Keplerlaan, 2201 AZ Noordwijk (Netherlands); Battezzati, Livio [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-01-25

    Highlights: • Composition of refractory high entropy alloys predicted. • Solid solutions found in VNbTaTiZr and AlNbTaTiZr. • Alloys containing Cr and Sn are multi-phased. - Abstract: High entropy alloys, i.e. solid solution phases, are sought in the X-NbTaTiZr equiatomic system where the X element was chosen as Al, Cr, V and Sn by applying recent criteria based on size and electronegativity mismatch of alloy components, number of itinerant and total valence electrons, and the temperature at which the free energy of mixing changes at the alloy composition. The alloys containing V and Al are mostly constituted by solid solutions in good agreement with prediction.

  14. Definition of Nonequilibrium Entropy of General Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Xiaochun

    1999-01-01

    The definition of nonequilibrium entropy is provided for the general nonequilibrium processes by connecting thermodynamics with statistical physics, and the principle of entropy increment in the nonequilibrium processes is also proved in the paper. The result shows that the definition of nonequilibrium entropy is not unique.

  15. Logical entropy of quantum dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimzadeh Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the concepts of logical entropy and conditional logical entropy of hnite partitions on a quantum logic. Some of their ergodic properties are presented. Also logical entropy of a quantum dynamical system is dehned and ergodic properties of dynamical systems on a quantum logic are investigated. Finally, the version of Kolmogorov-Sinai theorem is proved.

  16. The Wehrl entropy has Gaussian optimizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Palma, Giacomo

    2018-01-01

    We determine the minimum Wehrl entropy among the quantum states with a given von Neumann entropy and prove that it is achieved by thermal Gaussian states. This result determines the relation between the von Neumann and the Wehrl entropies. The key idea is proving that the quantum-classical channel...

  17. Algebraic entropy for differential-delay equations

    OpenAIRE

    Viallet, Claude M.

    2014-01-01

    We extend the definition of algebraic entropy to a class of differential-delay equations. The vanishing of the entropy, as a structural property of an equation, signals its integrability. We suggest a simple way to produce differential-delay equations with vanishing entropy from known integrable differential-difference equations.

  18. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Similar to this is the case of ref. [12] which also uses the saddle point approximation to express the microcanonical entropy in terms of the canonical entropy [12a]. Recalling that there is at least 'circumstantial' evidence that the microcanonical entropy has a 'universal' form [13–15], identical to that obtained in ref. [6] quoted.

  19. Single Particle Entropy in Heated Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Chankova, R.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Rekstad, J.; Siem, S.; Sunde, A. C.; Syed, N. U. H.; Agvaanluvsan, U.; Schiller, A.; Voinov, A.

    2006-01-01

    The thermal motion of single particles represents the largest contribution to level density (or entropy) in atomic nuclei. The concept of single particle entropy is presented and shown to be an approximate extensive (additive) quantity for mid-shell nuclei. A few applications of single particle entropy are demonstrated

  20. The dynamical entropy of quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connes, A.; Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1987-01-01

    The definition of the dynamical entropy for automorphisms of C * - algebras is represented. Several properties are discussed; especially it is argued that the entropy of the shift can be shown in special cases to be equal with the entropy density. (Author)

  1. Entropy-driven phase transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Increase in visible order can be associated with an increase in microscopic disorder. This phenomenon leads to many counter-intuitive phenomena such as entropy driven crystallization and phase separation. I devote special attention to the entropic depletion interaction as a means to tune the range

  2. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 9. Entropy, Coding and Data Compression. S Natarajan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 9 September 2001 pp 35-45. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/09/0035-0045 ...

  3. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore. 11 refs., 4 figs

  4. Maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottershead, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the formalism of maximum entropy beam diagnostic tomography as applied to the Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) prototype accelerator. The same formalism has also been used with streak camera data to produce an ultrahigh speed movie of the beam profile of the Experimental Test Accelerator (ETA) at Livermore

  5. Hidden states and hidden entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betak, E.

    1993-06-01

    We study the properties of master equations of the pre-equilibrium exciton model. For the case when the emission is included, we have proved the entropy to be a nondecreasing function of time. The opposite statement in the recent paper of Pan et al. has been caused mainly by neglecting a part of the exciton states. (author). 17 refs

  6. Vibrational entropies in metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Vidvuds; Asta, Mark; Wolverton, Christopher

    2000-03-01

    Recently, it has been recognized that vibrational entropy can have significant effects on the phase stability of metallic alloys. Using density functional linear response calculations and molecular dynamics simulations we study three representative cases: (i) phase diagram of Al-rich Al-Sc alloys, (ii) stability of precipitate phases in CuAl_2, and (iii) phonon dynamics in bcc Zr. We find large vibrational entropy effects in all cases. In the Al-Sc system, vibrations increase the solid solubility of Sc in Al by decreasing the stability of the L12 (Al_3Sc) phase. This leads to a nearly ten-fold increase in the solid solubility of Sc in Al at T=800 K. In the Cu-Al system, our calculations predict that the tetragonal Laves phase of CuAl2 has 0.35 kB/atom higher vibrational entropy than the cubic CaF_2-type phase (the latter is predicted to be the T=0 K ground state of CuAl_2). This entropy difference causes a structural transformation in CuAl2 precipitates from the fluorite to the tetragonal Laves phase around T=500 K. Finally, we analyze the highly unusual dynamics of anharmonically stabilized bcc Zr, finding large diffuse-scattering intensity streaks between the bcc Bragg peaks.

  7. An exploration for the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is analyzed based on the exergy (availability) of a combined system (a closed system and its environment), which is the maximum amount of useful work obtainable from the system and the environment as the system is brought into equilibrium with the environment. The process the system experiences can be divided in two sequent sub-processes, the process at constant volume, which represents the heat interaction of the system with the environment, and the adiabatic process, which represents the work interaction of the system with the environment. It is shown that the macroscopic physical meaning of entropy is a measure of the unavailable energy of a closed system for doing useful work through heat interaction. This statement is more precise than those reported in prior literature. The unavailability function of a closed system can be defined as T0S and p0V in volume constant process and adiabatic process, respectively. Their changes, that is, AiTgS) and A (p0V) represent the unusable parts of the internal energy of a closed system for doing useful work in corresponding processes. Finally, the relation between Clausius entropy and Boltzmann entropy is discussed based on the comparison of their expressions for absolute entropy.

  8. Dissecting Protein Configurational Entropy into Conformational and Vibrational Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Song-Ho; Ham, Sihyun

    2015-10-01

    Quantifying how the rugged nature of the underlying free-energy landscape determines the entropic cost a protein must incur upon folding and ligand binding is a challenging problem. Here, we present a novel computational approach that dissects the protein configurational entropy on the basis of the classification of protein dynamics on the landscape into two separate components: short-term vibrational dynamics related to individual free-energy wells and long-term conformational dynamics associated with transitions between wells. We apply this method to separate the configurational entropy of the protein villin headpiece subdomain into its conformational and vibrational components. We find that the change in configurational entropy upon folding is dominated by the conformational entropy despite the fact that the magnitude of the vibrational entropy is the significantly larger component in each of the folded and unfolded states, which is in accord with the previous empirical estimations. The straightforward applicability of our method to unfolded proteins promises a wide range of applications, including those related to intrinsically disordered proteins.

  9. Entropy Generation Minimization in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, Diego; Razzitte, Adrián César

    2018-04-01

    Entropy generation minimization is a method that helps improve the efficiency of real processes and devices. In this article, we study the entropy production (due to chemical reactions, heat exchange and friction) in a conventional reactor that synthesizes dimethyl ether and minimize it by modifying different operating variables of the reactor, such as composition, temperature and pressure, while aiming at a fixed production of dimethyl ether. Our results indicate that it is possible to reduce the entropy production rate by nearly 70 % and that, by changing only the inlet composition, it is possible to cut it by nearly 40 %, though this comes at the expense of greater dissipation due to heat transfer. We also study the alternative of coupling the reactor with another, where dehydrogenation of methylcyclohexane takes place. In that case, entropy generation can be reduced by 54 %, when pressure, temperature and inlet molar flows are varied. These examples show that entropy generation analysis can be a valuable tool in engineering design and applications aiming at process intensification and efficient operation of plant equipment.

  10. Topological Aspects of Entropy and Phase Transition of Kerr Black Holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guo-Hong; YAN Ji-Jiang; TIAN Li-Jun; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2005-01-01

    In the light of topological current and the relationship between the entropy and the Euler characteristic, the topological aspects of entropy and phase transition of Kerr black holes are studied. From Gauss-Bonnet-Chern theorem,it is shown that the entropy of Kerr black holes is determined by the singularities of the Killing vector field of spacetime.By calculating the Hopf indices and Brouwer degrees of the Killing vector field at the singularities, the entropy S = A/4for nonextreme Kerr black holes and S = 0 for extreme ones are obtained, respectively. It is also discussed that, with the change of the ratio of mass to angular momentum for unit mass, the Euler characteristic and the entropy of Kerr black holes will change discontinuously when the singularities on Cauchy horizon merge with the singularities on event horizon, which will lead to the first-order phase transition of Kerr black holes.

  11. Parameterized entropy analysis of EEG following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Shanbao; Bezerianos, Anastasios; Malhotra, Amit; Zhu Yisheng; Thakor, Nitish

    2003-01-01

    In the present study Tsallis and Renyi entropy methods were used to study the electric activity of brain following hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury. We investigated the performances of these parameterized information measures in describing the electroencephalogram (EEG) signal of controlled experimental animal HI injury. The results show that (a): compared with Shannon and Renyi entropy, the parameterized Tsallis entropy acts like a spatial filter and the information rate can either tune to long range rhythms or to short abrupt changes, such as bursts or spikes during the beginning of recovery, by the entropic index q; (b): Renyi entropy is a compact and predictive indicator for monitoring the physiological changes during the recovery of brain injury. There is a reduction in the Renyi entropy after brain injury followed by a gradual recovery upon resuscitation

  12. Entropy of Reissner–Nordström–de Sitter black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Li-Chun [Department of Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Zhao, Ren [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Ma, Meng-Sen, E-mail: mengsenma@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China); Institute of Theoretical Physics, Shanxi Datong University, Datong 037009 (China)

    2016-10-10

    Based on the consideration that the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon of Reissner–Nordström black hole in de Sitter space are not independent each other, we conjecture the total entropy of the system should have an extra term contributed from the entanglement between the two horizons, except for the sum of the two horizon entropies. Making use of the globally effective first law and the effective thermodynamic quantities, we derive the total entropy and find that it will diverge as the two horizons tend to coincide.

  13. Discontinuity of maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jianxin; Ji, Zhengfeng; Yu, Nengkun; Zeng, Bei; Li, Chi-Kwong; Poon, Yiu-Tung; Shen, Yi; Zhou, Duanlu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the connection between two genuinely quantum phenomena—the discontinuity of quantum maximum entropy inference and quantum phase transitions at zero temperature. It is shown that the discontinuity of the maximum entropy inference of local observable measurements signals the non-local type of transitions, where local density matrices of the ground state change smoothly at the transition point. We then propose to use the quantum conditional mutual information of the ground state as an indicator to detect the discontinuity and the non-local type of quantum phase transitions in the thermodynamic limit. (paper)

  14. Relation Entropy and Transferable Entropy Think of Aggregation on Group Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Qi-yue; QIU Wan-hua; LIU Xiao-feng

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, aggregation question based on group decision making and a single decision making is studied. The theory of entropy is applied to the sets pair analysis. The system of relation entropy and the transferable entropy notion are put. The character is studied. An potential by the relation entropy and transferable entropy are defined. It is the consistency measure on the group between a single decision making. We gained a new aggregation effective definition on the group misjudge.

  15. Kinetics of the Dynamical Information Shannon Entropy for Complex Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulmetyev, R.M.; Yulmetyeva, D.G.

    1999-01-01

    Kinetic behaviour of dynamical information Shannon entropy is discussed for complex systems: physical systems with non-Markovian property and memory in correlation approximation, and biological and physiological systems with sequences of the Markovian and non-Markovian random noises. For the stochastic processes, a description of the information entropy in terms of normalized time correlation functions is given. The influence and important role of two mutually dependent channels of the entropy change, correlation (creation or generation of correlations) and anti-correlation (decay or annihilation of correlation) is discussed. The method developed here is also used in analysis of the density fluctuations in liquid cesium obtained from slow neutron scattering data, fractal kinetics of the long-range fluctuation in the short-time human memory and chaotic dynamics of R-R intervals of human ECG. (author)

  16. Entropy generation in a condenser and related correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askowski Rafał

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of relations describing entropy generation in a condenser of a steam unit. Connections between entropy generation, condenser ratio, and heat exchanger effectiveness, as well as relations implied by them are shown. Theoretical considerations allowed to determine limits of individual parameters which describe the condenser operation. Various relations for average temperature of the cold fluid were compared. All the proposed relations were verified against data obtained using a simulator and actual measurement data from a 200 MW unit condenser. Based on data from a simulator it was examined how the sum of entropy rates, steam condenser effectiveness, terminal temperature difference and condenser ratio vary with the change in the inlet cooling water temperature, mass flow rate of steam and the cooling water mass flow rate.

  17. CT analysis of lung density changes in patients undergoing total body irradiation prior to bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.Y.; Shank, B.; Bonfiglio, P.; Reid, A.

    1984-01-01

    Sequential changes in lung density measured by CT are potentially sensitive and convenient monitors of lung abnormalities following total body irradiation (TBI). Methods have been developed to compare pre- and post-TBI CT of lung. The average local features of a cross-sectional lung slice are extracted from three peripheral regions of interest in the anterior, posterior, and lateral portions of the CT image. Also, density profiles across a specific region may be obtained. These may be compared first for verification of patient position and breathing status and then for changes between pre- and post-TBI. These may also be compared with radiation dose profiles through the lung. A preliminary study on 21 leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation indicates the following: (a) Density gradients of patients' lungs in the antero-posterior direction show a marked heterogeneity before and after transplantation compared with normal lungs. The patients with departures from normal density gradients pre-TBI correlate with later pulmonary complications. (b) Measurements of average peripheral lung densities have demonstrated that the average lung density in the younger age group is substantially higher: pre-TBI, the average CT number (1,000 scale) is -638 +/- 39 Hounsfield unit (HU) for 0-10 years old and -739 +/- 53 HU for 21-40 years old. (c) Density profiles showed no post-TBI regional changes in lung density corresponding to the dose profile across the lung, so no differentiation of a radiation-specific effect has yet been possible. Computed tomographic density profiles in the antero-posterior direction are successfully used to verify positioning of the CT slice and the breathing level of the lung

  18. A three-month longitudinal study of changes in day/night serum total antioxidant capacity in paranoid schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando L Morera-Fumero

    Full Text Available Free radicals and an oxidant/antioxidant imbalance have been involved in the schizophrenia pathophysiology. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC is a measure of the antioxidant capacity of a system. Day/night changes are a biological characteristic of hormones such as melatonin or cortisol. There is little information about TAC day/night changes in schizophrenia patients. The aim of this research is to study if there are day/night changes in serum TAC levels of schizophrenia patients. Thirty-two DSM-IV schizophrenia paranoid patients were studied. Blood was sampled at 12:00 and 00:00 h at admission, discharge and three months after hospital discharge (TMAHD. TAC results are expressed as mmol of Trolox/L. Patients did not have day/night TAC differences at admission (12:00: 0.67±0.12 vs. 00:00: 0.61±0.14, p>0.14 or discharge (12:00: 0.65±0.15 vs. 00:00: 0.65±0.12, p>0.99. At TMHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels at midday than midnight (12:00: 0.83±0.10 vs. 00:00: 0.74±0.12, p<0.006 as it has been reported in healthy subjects. There were no significant TAC differences at 12.00 and 00:00 between admission and discharge. At TMAHD, patients had significantly higher TAC levels than at admission and discharge, both at 12:00 and 00:00 h. In conclusion, the absence of day/night serum TAC changes when clinically relapsed and the normalization of day/night serum TAC changes at TMHD can be considered as a biological marker of schizophrenia evolution.

  19. Electrochemical determination of oxygen stoichiometry and entropy in oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachau-Christiansen, Birgit; Jacobsen, Torben; Skaarup, Steen

    1996-01-01

    in the temperature range 800-1000 degrees C. With scan rates of 2 mu V/s potential sweeps on CeO2 are reversible. The change in entropy is determined by either subtraction of e.m.f. curves obtained by potential sweeps of different temperatures or by measuring the e.m.f. during a temperature scan. The latter method...

  20. Fluctuation Theorems of Work and Entropy in Hamiltonian Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These theorems lead to the fact that the second law holds for aver-. RESONANCE | May 2018 ... thermodynamic quantities like work, heat or entropy change are also stochastic and follow .... In the third line, we have used the fact that W[z(t)] ...

  1. The Elusive Nature of Entropy and Its Physical Meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milivoje M. Kostic

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entropy is the most used and often abused concept in science, but also in philosophy and society. Further confusions are produced by some attempts to generalize entropy with similar but not the same concepts in other disciplines. The physical meaning of phenomenological, thermodynamic entropy is reasoned and elaborated by generalizing Clausius definition with inclusion of generated heat, since it is irrelevant if entropy is changed due to reversible heat transfer or irreversible heat generation. Irreversible, caloric heat transfer is introduced as complementing reversible heat transfer. It is also reasoned and thus proven why entropy cannot be destroyed but is always generated (and thus over-all increased locally and globally, at every space and time scales, without any exception. It is concluded that entropy is a thermal displacement (dynamic thermal-volume of thermal energy due to absolute temperature as a thermal potential (dQ = TdS, and thus associated with thermal heat and absolute temperature, i.e., distribution of thermal energy within thermal micro-particles in space. Entropy is an integral measure of (random thermal energy redistribution (due to heat transfer and/or irreversible heat generation within a material system structure in space, per absolute temperature level: dS = dQSys/T = mCSysdT/T, thus logarithmic integral function, with J/K unit. It may be also expressed as a measure of “thermal disorder”, being related to logarithm of number of all thermal, dynamic microstates W (their position and momenta, S = kBlnW, or to the sum of their logarithmic probabilities S = −kB∑pilnpi, that correspond to, or are consistent with the given thermodynamic macro-state. The number of thermal microstates W, is correlated with macro-properties temperature T and volume V for ideal gases. A system form and/or functional order or disorder are not (thermal energy order/disorder and the former is not related to Thermodynamic entropy. Expanding

  2. Body composition changes after totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with delta-shaped anastomosis: a comparison with conventional Billroth I anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Bum; Kwon, Oh Kyoung; Yu, Wansik; Jang, Byeong-Churl

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare body composition changes of patients undergoing totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (TLDG) with delta-shaped anastomosis (DSA) versus conventional laparoscopic distal gastrectomy (CLDG). Data from gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for histologically proven gastric cancer in KNUMC from January 2013 to May 2014 were collected and reviewed. We examined 85 consecutive patients undergoing TLDG or CLDG: 41 patients underwent TLDG and 44 patients underwent CLDG. Body composition was assessed by segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis. We compared the changes in nutritional parameters and body composition from preoperative status between the two groups at postoperative 6 and 12 months. All of the postoperative changes in the body composition and nutritional indices were similar between the two groups with the exception of visceral fat areas (VFAs) and albumin levels. VFAs increased at 6 months postoperatively in the TLDG group and a significant difference was shown at 12 months postoperatively between the TLDG and CLDG groups (86.7 ± 22.8 and 74.7 ± 21.9 cm(2), respectively, P body composition seemed comparable to those of CLDG. Six months postoperatively, VFAs and albumin levels were recovered in the TLDG group but not in the CLDG group. Thus, TLDG seems to be a novel surgical method.

  3. Receiver function estimated by maximum entropy deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴庆举; 田小波; 张乃铃; 李卫平; 曾融生

    2003-01-01

    Maximum entropy deconvolution is presented to estimate receiver function, with the maximum entropy as the rule to determine auto-correlation and cross-correlation functions. The Toeplitz equation and Levinson algorithm are used to calculate the iterative formula of error-predicting filter, and receiver function is then estimated. During extrapolation, reflective coefficient is always less than 1, which keeps maximum entropy deconvolution stable. The maximum entropy of the data outside window increases the resolution of receiver function. Both synthetic and real seismograms show that maximum entropy deconvolution is an effective method to measure receiver function in time-domain.

  4. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yifan; Wu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking. PMID:23818819

  5. Entropy evaporated by a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the entropy of the radiation evaporated by an uncharged, nonrotating black hole into vacuum in the course of its lifetime is approximately (4/3) times the initial entropy of this black hole. Also considered is a thermodynamically reversible process in which an increase of black-hole entropy is equal to the decrease of the entropy of its surroundings. Implications of these results for the generalized second law of thermodynamics and for the interpretation of black-hole entropy are pointed out

  6. q-entropy for symbolic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yun; Pesin, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    For symbolic dynamical systems we use the Carathéodory construction as described in (Pesin 1997 Dimension Theory in Dynamical Systems, ConTemporary Views and Applications (Chicago: University of Chicago Press)) to introduce the notions of q-topological and q-metric entropies. We describe some basic properties of these entropies and in particular, discuss relations between q-metric entropy and local metric entropy. Both q-topological and q-metric entropies are new invariants respectively under homeomorphisms and metric isomorphisms of dynamical systems. (paper)

  7. Holographic charged Rényi entropies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belin, Alexandre; Hung, Ling-Yan; Maloney, Alexander; Matsuura, Shunji; Myers, Robert C.; Sierens, Todd

    2013-12-01

    We construct a new class of entanglement measures by extending the usual definition of Rényi entropy to include a chemical potential. These charged Rényi entropies measure the degree of entanglement in different charge sectors of the theory and are given by Euclidean path integrals with the insertion of a Wilson line encircling the entangling surface. We compute these entropies for a spherical entangling surface in CFT's with holographic duals, where they are related to entropies of charged black holes with hyperbolic horizons. We also compute charged Rényi entropies in free field theories.

  8. Controlling the Shannon Entropy of Quantum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifan Xing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new quantum control method which controls the Shannon entropy of quantum systems. For both discrete and continuous entropies, controller design methods are proposed based on probability density function control, which can drive the quantum state to any target state. To drive the entropy to any target at any prespecified time, another discretization method is proposed for the discrete entropy case, and the conditions under which the entropy can be increased or decreased are discussed. Simulations are done on both two- and three-dimensional quantum systems, where division and prediction are used to achieve more accurate tracking.

  9. Entropy-Corrected Holographic Dark Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao

    2009-01-01

    The holographic dark energy (HDE) is now an interesting candidate of dark energy, which has been studied extensively in the literature. In the derivation of HDE, the black hole entropy plays an important role. In fact, the entropy-area relation can be modified due to loop quantum gravity or other reasons. With the modified entropy-area relation, we propose the so-called 'entropy-corrected holographic dark energy' (ECHDE) in the present work. We consider many aspects of ECHDE and find some interesting results. In addition, we briefly consider the so-called 'entropy-corrected agegraphic dark energy' (ECADE). (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)

  10. Entropy generation analysis of an adsorption cooling cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the analysis of an adsorption (AD) chiller using system entropy generation as a thermodynamic framework for evaluating total dissipative losses that occurred in a batch-operated AD cycle. The study focuses on an adsorption cycle operating at heat source temperatures ranging from 60 to 85 °C, whilst the chilled water inlet temperature is fixed at 12.5 °C,-a temperature of chilled water deemed useful for dehumidification and cooling. The total entropy generation model examines the processes of key components of the AD chiller such as the heat and mass transfer, flushing and de-superheating of liquid refrigerant. The following key findings are observed: (i) The cycle entropy generation increases with the increase in the heat source temperature (10.8 to 46.2 W/K) and the largest share of entropy generation or rate of energy dissipation occurs at the adsorption process, (ii) the second highest energy rate dissipation is the desorption process, (iii) the remaining energy dissipation rates are the evaporation and condensation processes, respectively. Some of the noteworthy highlights from the study are the inevitable but significant dissipative losses found in switching processes of adsorption-desorption and vice versa, as well as the de-superheating of warm condensate that is refluxed at non-thermal equilibrium conditions from the condenser to the evaporator for the completion of the refrigeration cycle. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Ormos

    Full Text Available We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  12. Wavelet entropy characterization of elevated intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng; Scalzo, Fabien; Bergsneider, Marvin; Vespa, Paul; Chad, Miller; Hu, Xiao

    2008-01-01

    Intracranial Hypertension (ICH) often occurs for those patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), stroke, tumor, etc. Pathology of ICH is still controversial. In this work, we used wavelet entropy and relative wavelet entropy to study the difference existed between normal and hypertension states of ICP for the first time. The wavelet entropy revealed the similar findings as the approximation entropy that entropy during ICH state is smaller than that in normal state. Moreover, with wavelet entropy, we can see that ICH state has the more focused energy in the low wavelet frequency band (0-3.1 Hz) than the normal state. The relative wavelet entropy shows that the energy distribution in the wavelet bands between these two states is actually different. Based on these results, we suggest that ICH may be formed by the re-allocation of oscillation energy within brain.

  13. Entropy-based financial asset pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormos, Mihály; Zibriczky, Dávid

    2014-01-01

    We investigate entropy as a financial risk measure. Entropy explains the equity premium of securities and portfolios in a simpler way and, at the same time, with higher explanatory power than the beta parameter of the capital asset pricing model. For asset pricing we define the continuous entropy as an alternative measure of risk. Our results show that entropy decreases in the function of the number of securities involved in a portfolio in a similar way to the standard deviation, and that efficient portfolios are situated on a hyperbola in the expected return-entropy system. For empirical investigation we use daily returns of 150 randomly selected securities for a period of 27 years. Our regression results show that entropy has a higher explanatory power for the expected return than the capital asset pricing model beta. Furthermore we show the time varying behavior of the beta along with entropy.

  14. Evolution, Entropy, & Biological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    A logical question to be expected from students: "How could life develop, that is, change, evolve from simple, primitive organisms into the complex forms existing today, while at the same time there is a generally observed decline and disorganization--the second law of thermodynamics?" The explanations in biology textbooks relied upon by…

  15. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An automated Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach for GC/MS metabonomic data using total ion chromatograms (TICs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Bhaskaran David; Esuvaranathan, Kesavan; Ho, Paul C; Pasikanti, Kishore Kumar; Chan, Eric Chun Yong; Yap, Chun Wei

    2013-05-21

    A fully automated and computationally efficient Pearson's correlation change classification (APC3) approach is proposed and shown to have overall comparable performance with both an average accuracy and an average AUC of 0.89 ± 0.08 but is 3.9 to 7 times faster, easier to use and have low outlier susceptibility in contrast to other dimensional reduction and classification combinations using only the total ion chromatogram (TIC) intensities of GC/MS data. The use of only the TIC permits the possible application of APC3 to other metabonomic data such as LC/MS TICs or NMR spectra. A RapidMiner implementation is available for download at http://padel.nus.edu.sg/software/padelapc3.

  17. Conformational Entropy of FK506 Binding to FKBP12 Determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Relaxation and Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomentsev, Gleb; Diehl, Carl; Akke, Mikael

    2018-03-06

    FKBP12 (FK506 binding protein 12 kDa) is an important drug target. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) order parameters, describing amplitudes of motion on the pico- to nanosecond time scale, can provide estimates of changes in conformational entropy upon ligand binding. Here we report backbone and methyl-axis order parameters of the apo and FK506-bound forms of FKBP12, based on 15 N and 2 H NMR relaxation. Binding of FK506 to FKBP12 results in localized changes in order parameters, notably for the backbone of residues E54 and I56 and the side chains of I56, I90, and I91, all positioned in the binding site. The order parameters increase slightly upon FK506 binding, indicating an unfavorable entropic contribution to binding of TΔ S = -18 ± 2 kJ/mol at 293 K. Molecular dynamics simulations indicate a change in conformational entropy, associated with all dihedral angles, of TΔ S = -26 ± 9 kJ/mol. Both these values are significant compared to the total entropy of binding determined by isothermal titration calorimetry and referenced to a reactant concentration of 1 mM ( TΔ S = -29 ± 1 kJ/mol). Our results reveal subtle differences in the response to ligand binding compared to that of the previously studied rapamycin-FKBP12 complex, despite the high degree of structural homology between the two complexes and their nearly identical ligand-FKBP12 interactions. These results highlight the delicate dependence of protein dynamics on drug interactions, which goes beyond the view provided by static structures, and reinforce the notion that protein conformational entropy can make important contributions to the free energy of ligand binding.

  18. From partial to full-face transplantation: total ablation and restoration, a change in the reconstructive paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Juan P

    2014-01-01

    The innovation of composite vascularized allotransplantation has provided plastic and reconstructive surgeons with the ultimate tool for those patients that present with facial deformities that cannot be reconstructed with classical or more traditional techniques. Transplanting normal tissues allows for a true restorative surgery. Initial experiences included the substitution of missing anatomy, whereas after the first world's full-face transplant performed in Barcelona in March 2010, a true ablative surgery with a total restoration proved to be effective. We review the world's experience and the performance of our restorative protocol to depict this change in the reconstructive paradigm of facial transplantation. Facial transplants should be performed after a careful analysis of the defect, with a comprehensive ablation plan following esthetic units with sacrifice of all required tissues with a focus of global restoration of anatomy, aesthetics and function, respecting normal functioning muscles. Nowadays, facial transplants following strict esthetic units should restore disfigurement extending to small central areas, whereas major defects may require a total ablation and restoration with full-face transplants. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Entropy and Entropy Production: Old Misconceptions and New Breakthroughs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M. Martyushev

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Persistent misconceptions existing for dozens of years and influencing progress in various fields of science are sometimes encountered in the scientific and especially, the popular-science literature. The present brief review deals with two such interrelated misconceptions (misunderstandings. The first misunderstanding: entropy is a measure of disorder. This is an old and very common opinion. The second misconception is that the entropy production minimizes in the evolution of nonequilibrium systems. However, as it has recently become clear, evolution (progress in Nature demonstrates the opposite, i.e., maximization of the entropy production. The principal questions connected with this maximization are considered herein. The two misconceptions mentioned above can lead to the apparent contradiction between the conclusions of modern thermodynamics and the basic conceptions of evolution existing in biology. In this regard, the analysis of these issues seems extremely important and timely as it contributes to the deeper understanding of the laws of development of the surrounding World and the place of humans in it.

  20. Magnetic entropy and cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Britt Rosendahl; Kuhn, Luise Theil; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden

    2010-01-01

    Some manifestations of magnetism are well-known and utilized on an everyday basis, e.g. using a refrigerator magnet for hanging that important note on the refrigerator door. Others are, so far, more exotic, such as cooling by making use of the magnetocaloric eect. This eect can cause a change...... in the temperature of a magnetic material when a magnetic eld is applied or removed. For many years, experimentalists have made use of dilute paramagnetic materials to achieve milliKelvin temperatures by use of the magnetocaloric eect. Also, research is done on materials, which might be used for hydrogen, helium...... or nitrogen liquefaction or for room-temperature cooling. The magnetocaloric eect can further be used to determine phase transition boundaries, if a change in the magnetic state occurs at the boundary.In this talk, I will introduce the magnetocaloric eect (MCE) and the two equations, which characterize...

  1. Aspect ratio effects of an adiabatic rectangular obstacle on natural convection and entropy generation of a nanofluid in an enclosure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Nikfar, M.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, aspect ratio (AR) effects of a centered adiabatic rectangular obstacle numerically investigated on natural convection and entropy generation in a differentially heated enclosure filled with either water or nanofluid (Cu-water). The governing equations are solved numerically with finite volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. The study has been done for Rayleigh numbers between 10"3 and 10"6 , the aspect ratio of 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2 and 3 and for base fluid as well as nanofluid. It is found that, using the nanofluid leads to increase the flow strength, average Nusselt number and entropy generation and decrease the Bejan number especially at high Rayleigh numbers. At low Rayleigh numbers entropy generation is very low. By increasing Rayleigh number, entropy generation and Bejan number increases. It is observed that the viscose entropy generation is more considerable than the thermal entropy generation and has dominant role in total entropy generation. The maximum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1/3 and 3 and the minimum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1 and 1/2. It is observed that the effect of AR on Nusselt number, entropy generation and Bejan number depends on Rayleigh number.

  2. Aspect ratio effects of an adiabatic rectangular obstacle on natural convection and entropy generation of a nanofluid in an enclosure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheikhzadeh, G. A.; Nikfar, M. [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, aspect ratio (AR) effects of a centered adiabatic rectangular obstacle numerically investigated on natural convection and entropy generation in a differentially heated enclosure filled with either water or nanofluid (Cu-water). The governing equations are solved numerically with finite volume method using the SIMPLER algorithm. The study has been done for Rayleigh numbers between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 6} , the aspect ratio of 1/3, 1/2, 1, 2 and 3 and for base fluid as well as nanofluid. It is found that, using the nanofluid leads to increase the flow strength, average Nusselt number and entropy generation and decrease the Bejan number especially at high Rayleigh numbers. At low Rayleigh numbers entropy generation is very low. By increasing Rayleigh number, entropy generation and Bejan number increases. It is observed that the viscose entropy generation is more considerable than the thermal entropy generation and has dominant role in total entropy generation. The maximum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1/3 and 3 and the minimum entropy generation occurs at AR = 1 and 1/2. It is observed that the effect of AR on Nusselt number, entropy generation and Bejan number depends on Rayleigh number.

  3. Determinism, chaos, self-organization and entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ PONTES

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We discuss two changes of paradigms that occurred in science along the XXth century: the end of the mechanist determinism, and the end of the apparent incompatibility between biology, where emergence of order is law, and physics, postulating a progressive loss of order in natural systems. We recognize today that three mechanisms play a major role in the building of order: the nonlinear nature of most evolution laws, along with distance to equilibrium, and with the new paradigm, that emerged in the last forty years, as we recognize that networks present collective order properties not found in the individual nodes. We also address the result presented by Blumenfeld (L.A. Blumenfeld, Problems of Biological Physics, Springer, Berlin, 1981 showing that entropy decreases resulting from building one of the most complex biological structures, the human being, are small and may be trivially compensated for compliance with thermodynamics. Life is made at the expense of very low thermodynamic cost, so thermodynamics does not pose major restrictions to the emergence of life. Besides, entropy does not capture our idea of order in biological systems. The above questions show that science is not free of confl icts and backlashes, often resulting from excessive extrapolations.

  4. Determinism, chaos, self-organization and entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, José

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two changes of paradigms that occurred in science along the XXth century: the end of the mechanist determinism, and the end of the apparent incompatibility between biology, where emergence of order is law, and physics, postulating a progressive loss of order in natural systems. We recognize today that three mechanisms play a major role in the building of order: the nonlinear nature of most evolution laws, along with distance to equilibrium, and with the new paradigm, that emerged in the last forty years, as we recognize that networks present collective order properties not found in the individual nodes. We also address the result presented by Blumenfeld (L.A. Blumenfeld, Problems of Biological Physics, Springer, Berlin, 1981) showing that entropy decreases resulting from building one of the most complex biological structures, the human being, are small and may be trivially compensated for compliance with thermodynamics. Life is made at the expense of very low thermodynamic cost, so thermodynamics does not pose major restrictions to the emergence of life. Besides, entropy does not capture our idea of order in biological systems. The above questions show that science is not free of confl icts and backlashes, often resulting from excessive extrapolations.

  5. Entropy: A new measure of stock market volatility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentes, Sonia R.; Menezes, Rui

    2012-11-01

    When uncertainty dominates understanding stock market volatility is vital. There are a number of reasons for that. On one hand, substantial changes in volatility of financial market returns are capable of having significant negative effects on risk averse investors. In addition, such changes can also impact on consumption patterns, corporate capital investment decisions and macroeconomic variables. Arguably, volatility is one of the most important concepts in the whole finance theory. In the traditional approach this phenomenon has been addressed based on the concept of standard-deviation (or variance) from which all the famous ARCH type models - Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity Models- depart. In this context, volatility is often used to describe dispersion from an expected value, price or model. The variability of traded prices from their sample mean is only an example. Although as a measure of uncertainty and risk standard-deviation is very popular since it is simple and easy to calculate it has long been recognized that it is not fully satisfactory. The main reason for that lies in the fact that it is severely affected by extreme values. This may suggest that this is not a closed issue. Bearing on the above we might conclude that many other questions might arise while addressing this subject. One of outstanding importance, from which more sophisticated analysis can be carried out, is how to evaluate volatility, after all? If the standard-deviation has some drawbacks shall we still rely on it? Shall we look for an alternative measure? In searching for this shall we consider the insight of other domains of knowledge? In this paper we specifically address if the concept of entropy, originally developed in physics by Clausius in the XIX century, which can constitute an effective alternative. Basically, what we try to understand is, which are the potentialities of entropy compared to the standard deviation. But why entropy? The answer lies on the fact

  6. Manufacturing of High Entropy Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Paul D.; Licavoli, Joseph J.; Gao, Michael C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2015-07-01

    High entropy alloys (HEAs) have generated interest in recent years due to their unique positioning within the alloy world. By incorporating a number of elements in high proportion they have high configurational entropy, and thus they hold the promise of interesting and useful properties such as enhanced strength and phase stability. The present study investigates the microstructure of two single-phase face-centered cubic (FCC) HEAs, CoCrFeNi and CoCrFeNiMn, with special attention given to melting, homogenization and thermo-mechanical processing. Large-scale ingots were made by vacuum induction melting to avoid the extrinsic factors inherent in small-scale laboratory button samples. A computationally based homogenization heat treatment was applied to both alloys in order to eliminate segregation due to normal ingot solidification. The alloys fabricated well, with typical thermo-mechanical processing parameters being employed.

  7. On Maximum Entropy and Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gresele

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Maximum entropy is a powerful concept that entails a sharp separation between relevant and irrelevant variables. It is typically invoked in inference, once an assumption is made on what the relevant variables are, in order to estimate a model from data, that affords predictions on all other (dependent variables. Conversely, maximum entropy can be invoked to retrieve the relevant variables (sufficient statistics directly from the data, once a model is identified by Bayesian model selection. We explore this approach in the case of spin models with interactions of arbitrary order, and we discuss how relevant interactions can be inferred. In this perspective, the dimensionality of the inference problem is not set by the number of parameters in the model, but by the frequency distribution of the data. We illustrate the method showing its ability to recover the correct model in a few prototype cases and discuss its application on a real dataset.

  8. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  9. Maximizing Entropy over Markov Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2013-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of an system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code....

  10. Maximizing entropy over Markov processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Fabrizio; Legay, Axel; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2014-01-01

    The channel capacity of a deterministic system with confidential data is an upper bound on the amount of bits of data an attacker can learn from the system. We encode all possible attacks to a system using a probabilistic specification, an Interval Markov Chain. Then the channel capacity...... as a reward function, a polynomial algorithm to verify the existence of a system maximizing entropy among those respecting a specification, a procedure for the maximization of reward functions over Interval Markov Chains and its application to synthesize an implementation maximizing entropy. We show how...... to use Interval Markov Chains to model abstractions of deterministic systems with confidential data, and use the above results to compute their channel capacity. These results are a foundation for ongoing work on computing channel capacity for abstractions of programs derived from code. © 2014 Elsevier...

  11. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  12. Maximum entropy deconvolution of low count nuclear medicine images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, D.M.

    1998-12-01

    Maximum entropy is applied to the problem of deconvolving nuclear medicine images, with special consideration for very low count data. The physics of the formation of scintigraphic images is described, illustrating the phenomena which degrade planar estimates of the tracer distribution. Various techniques which are used to restore these images are reviewed, outlining the relative merits of each. The development and theoretical justification of maximum entropy as an image processing technique is discussed. Maximum entropy is then applied to the problem of planar deconvolution, highlighting the question of the choice of error parameters for low count data. A novel iterative version of the algorithm is suggested which allows the errors to be estimated from the predicted Poisson mean values. This method is shown to produce the exact results predicted by combining Poisson statistics and a Bayesian interpretation of the maximum entropy approach. A facility for total count preservation has also been incorporated, leading to improved quantification. In order to evaluate this iterative maximum entropy technique, two comparable methods, Wiener filtering and a novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique, were implemented. The comparison of results obtained indicated that this maximum entropy approach may produce equivalent or better measures of image quality than the compared methods, depending upon the accuracy of the system model used. The novel Bayesian maximum likelihood expectation maximisation technique was shown to be preferable over many existing maximum a posteriori methods due to its simplicity of implementation. A single parameter is required to define the Bayesian prior, which suppresses noise in the solution and may reduce the processing time substantially. Finally, maximum entropy deconvolution was applied as a pre-processing step in single photon emission computed tomography reconstruction of low count data. Higher contrast results were

  13. ASSESSMENT OF MOTIVATION BY ENTROPY

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz G³owacki

    2014-01-01

    Motivation is inseparable from human work. It is also one of the five most important elements of the management process. The ability to determine the level of motivation would therefore be very useful in the work of every manager. This paper is an attempt to quantify motivation and evaluate its size, using the concept of entropy. The main reason to try defining a method of measuring the amount of motivation is to improve the management techniques of companies.

  14. Multivariate Generalized Multiscale Entropy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Humeau-Heurtier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multiscale entropy (MSE was introduced in the 2000s to quantify systems’ complexity. MSE relies on (i a coarse-graining procedure to derive a set of time series representing the system dynamics on different time scales; (ii the computation of the sample entropy for each coarse-grained time series. A refined composite MSE (rcMSE—based on the same steps as MSE—also exists. Compared to MSE, rcMSE increases the accuracy of entropy estimation and reduces the probability of inducing undefined entropy for short time series. The multivariate versions of MSE (MMSE and rcMSE (MrcMSE have also been introduced. In the coarse-graining step used in MSE, rcMSE, MMSE, and MrcMSE, the mean value is used to derive representations of the original data at different resolutions. A generalization of MSE was recently published, using the computation of different moments in the coarse-graining procedure. However, so far, this generalization only exists for univariate signals. We therefore herein propose an extension of this generalized MSE to multivariate data. The multivariate generalized algorithms of MMSE and MrcMSE presented herein (MGMSE and MGrcMSE, respectively are first analyzed through the processing of synthetic signals. We reveal that MGrcMSE shows better performance than MGMSE for short multivariate data. We then study the performance of MGrcMSE on two sets of short multivariate electroencephalograms (EEG available in the public domain. We report that MGrcMSE may show better performance than MrcMSE in distinguishing different types of multivariate EEG data. MGrcMSE could therefore supplement MMSE or MrcMSE in the processing of multivariate datasets.

  15. Magnetic entropy of the mixed and sintered compound of the RAl/sub 2/ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzuhara, T.; Wakabayashi, H.; Matsumoto, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Sahashi, M.; Inomata, K.; Tomokiyo, A.; Yayama, H.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic refrigerant for the Ericsson type magnetic refrigerator should have a constant magnetic entropy difference ΔS/sub J/ between two constant magnetic field processes. However, the magnetic entropy change of an homogeneous ferromagnet exhibits a sharp peak at the Curie temperature. In the present investigation the authors succeeded to make the layer structural sintered composite composed of several kinds of RAl/sub 2/ compounds having large entropy change near their Curie temperatures and made clear that this composite has the constant πS/sub J/ in the wide temperature range suitable for the Ericsson cycle

  16. Entropy-Based Model for Interpreting Life Systems in Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-lian Kang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM treats qi as the core of the human life systems. Starting with a hypothetical correlation between TCM qi and the entropy theory, we address in this article a holistic model for evaluating and unveiling the rule of TCM life systems. Several new concepts such as acquired life entropy (ALE, acquired life entropy flow (ALEF and acquired life entropy production (ALEP are propounded to interpret TCM life systems. Using the entropy theory, mathematical models are established for ALE, ALEF and ALEP, which reflect the evolution of life systems. Some criteria are given on physiological activities and pathological changes of the body in different stages of life. Moreover, a real data-based simulation shows life entropies of the human body with different ages, Cold and Hot constitutions and in different seasons in North China are coincided with the manifestations of qi as well as the life evolution in TCM descriptions. Especially, based on the comparative and quantitative analysis, the entropy-based model can nicely describe the evolution of life entropies in Cold and Hot individuals thereby fitting the Yin–Yang theory in TCM. Thus, this work establishes a novel approach to interpret the fundamental principles in TCM, and provides an alternative understanding for the complex life systems.

  17. On the Possibility of Calculating Entropy, Free Energy, and Enthalpy of Vitreous Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei V. Nemilov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A critical analysis for the arguments in support of, and against, the traditional approach to thermodynamics of vitreous state is provided. In this approach one presumes that there is a continuous variation of the entropy in the glass-liquid transition temperature range, or a “continuous entropy approach” towards 0 K which produces a positive value of the entropy at T → 0 K. I find that arguments given against this traditional approach use a different understanding of the thermodynamics of glass transition on cooling a liquid, because it suggests a discontinuity or “entropy loss approach” in the variation of entropy in the glass-liquid transition range. That is based on: (1 an unjustifiable use of the classical Boltzmann statistics for interpreting the value of entropy at absolute zero; (2 the rejection of thermodynamic analysis of systems with broken ergodicity, even though the possibility of analogous analysis was proposed already by Gibbs; (3 the possibility of a finite change in entropy of a system without absorption or release of heat; and, (4 describing the thermodynamic properties of glasses in the framework of functions, instead of functionals. The last one is necessary because for glasses the entropy and enthalpy are not functions of the state, but functionals, as defined by Gibbs’ in his classification.

  18. Entropy in an expanding universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frautschi, S.

    1982-01-01

    The question of how the observed evolution of organized structures from initial chaos in the expanding universe can be reconciled with the laws of statistical mechanics is studied, with emphasis on effects of the expansion and gravity. Some major sources of entropy increase are listed. An expanding causal region is defined in which the entropy, though increasing, tends to fall further and further behind its maximum possible value, thus allowing for the development of order. The related questions of whether entropy will continue increasing without limit in the future, and whether such increase in the form of Hawking radiation or radiation from positronium might enable life to maintain itself permanently, are considered. Attempts to find a scheme for preserving life based on solid structures fail because events such as quantum tunneling recurrently disorganize matter on a very long but fixed time scale, whereas all energy sources slow down progressively in an expanding universe. However, there remains hope that other modes of life capable of maintaining themselves permanently can be found

  19. Resonance transport and kinetic entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Yu.B.; Knoll, J.; Voskresensky, D.N.

    2000-01-01

    We continue the description of the dynamics of unstable particles within the real-time formulation of nonequilibrium field theory initiated in a previous paper . There we suggest to use Baym's PHI-functional method in order to achieve approximation schemes with 'built in' consistency with respect to conservation laws and thermodynamics even in the case of particles with finite damping width. Starting from Kadanoff-Baym equations we discuss a consistent first order gradient approach to transport which preserves the PHI-derivable properties. The validity conditions for the resulting quantum four-phase-space kinetic theory are discussed under the perspective to treat particles with broad damping widths. This non-equilibrium dynamics naturally includes all those quantum features already inherent in the corresponding equilibrium limit (e.g. Matsubara formalism) at the same level of PHI-derivable approximation. Various collision-term diagrams are discussed including those of higher order which lead to memory effects. As an important novel part we derive a generalized nonequilibrium expression for the kinetic entropy flow, which includes contributions from fluctuations and mass-width effects. In special cases an H-theorem is derived implying that the entropy can only increase with time. Memory effects in the kinetic terms provide contributions to the kinetic entropy flow that in the equilibrium limit recover the famous bosonic type T 3 lnT correction to the specific heat in the case of Fermi liquids like Helium-3

  20. Linearity of holographic entanglement entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almheiri, Ahmed [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Dong, Xi [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Swingle, Brian [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-02-14

    We consider the question of whether the leading contribution to the entanglement entropy in holographic CFTs is truly given by the expectation value of a linear operator as is suggested by the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. We investigate this property by computing the entanglement entropy, via the replica trick, in states dual to superpositions of macroscopically distinct geometries and find it consistent with evaluating the expectation value of the area operator within such states. However, we find that this fails once the number of semi-classical states in the superposition grows exponentially in the central charge of the CFT. Moreover, in certain such scenarios we find that the choice of surface on which to evaluate the area operator depends on the density matrix of the entire CFT. This nonlinearity is enforced in the bulk via the homology prescription of Ryu-Takayanagi. We thus conclude that the homology constraint is not a linear property in the CFT. We also discuss the existence of ‘entropy operators’ in general systems with a large number of degrees of freedom.