WorldWideScience

Sample records for total economic impact

  1. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  2. Economic impacts of the total nuclear waste management program envisioned for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, L.; Zielen, A.J.; Parry, S.J.S.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents information on the costs of nuclear waste management and on the impacts of those costs on the price of power and on the capital and labor markets. It is assumed that the LWR would be the sole commercial reactor used through the year 2000. Two fuel cycle options are considered: the throwaway mode (spent fuel is waste), and the full recycle for comparison. Total costs are calculated for all facilities needed to store, package, and reposit all the spent fuel through the lifetime of 380 GW capacity installed by 2000 and operating for 30 y. The economic impact is: the price of power produced by the reactors would be increased by 1.4%; the capital for nuclear plants would apply to waste management; the average annual labor effort needed over the next 50 to 75 years is 3000 to 5000 man years; and the unit cost of spent fuel disposal is $129/kg ($119/kg for full recycle). 7 tables

  3. The assessment of chronic health conditions on work performance, absence, and total economic impact for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J; Baase, Catherine M; Sharda, Claire E; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Nicholson, Sean; Billotti, Gary M; Turpin, Robin S; Olson, Michael; Berger, Marc L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and estimate total costs for chronic health conditions in the U.S. workforce for the Dow Chemical Company (Dow). Using the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, information was collected from workers at five locations on work impairment and absenteeism based on self-reported "primary" chronic health conditions. Survey data were merged with employee demographics, medical and pharmaceutical claims, smoking status, biometric health risk factors, payroll records, and job type. Almost 65% of respondents reported having one or more of the surveyed chronic conditions. The most common were allergies, arthritis/joint pain or stiffness, and back or neck disorders. The associated absenteeism by chronic condition ranged from 0.9 to 5.9 hours in a 4-week period, and on-the-job work impairment ranged from a 17.8% to 36.4% decrement in ability to function at work. The presence of a chronic condition was the most important determinant of the reported levels of work impairment and absence after adjusting for other factors (P < 0.000). The total cost of chronic conditions was estimated to be 10.7% of the total labor costs for Dow in the United States; 6.8% was attributable to work impairment alone. For all chronic conditions studied, the cost associated with performance based work loss or "presenteeism" greatly exceeded the combined costs of absenteeism and medical treatment combined.

  4. Economic Impacts and Business Opportunities | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economic Impacts and Business Opportunities Economic Impacts and Business Opportunities NREL corporations alike. Colorado flag Economic Impact The economic impact of NREL operations on the nation totaled Jefferson County where the economic benefit totaled $275 million in 2014. Growth chart Economic Benefit NREL

  5. Impact of the economic downturn on total joint replacement demand in the United States: updated projections to 2021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Ong, Kevin L; Lau, Edmund; Bozic, Kevin J

    2014-04-16

    Few studies have explored the role of the National Health Expenditure and macroeconomics on the utilization of total joint replacement. The economic downturn has raised questions about the sustainability of growth for total joint replacement in the future. Previous projections of total joint replacement demand in the United States were based on data up to 2003 using a statistical methodology that neglected macroeconomic factors, such as the National Health Expenditure. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (1993 to 2010) were used with United States Census and National Health Expenditure data to quantify historical trends in total joint replacement rates, including the two economic downturns in the 2000s. Primary and revision hip and knee arthroplasty were identified using codes from the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Projections in total joint replacement were estimated using a regression model incorporating the growth in population and rate of arthroplasties from 1993 to 2010 as a function of age, sex, race, and census region using the National Health Expenditure as the independent variable. The regression model was used in conjunction with government projections of National Health Expenditure from 2011 to 2021 to estimate future arthroplasty rates in subpopulations of the United States and to derive national estimates. The growth trend for the incidence of joint arthroplasty, for the overall United States population as well as for the United States workforce, was insensitive to economic downturns. From 2009 to 2010, the total number of procedures increased by 6.0% for primary total hip arthroplasty, 6.1% for primary total knee arthroplasty, 10.8% for revision total hip arthroplasty, and 13.5% for revision total knee arthroplasty. The National Health Expenditure model projections for primary hip replacement in 2020 were higher than a previously projected model, whereas the current model estimates for total

  6. Economic Impacts of Total Water Use Control in the Heihe River Basin in Northwestern China—An Integrated CGE-BEM Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an integrated modeling approach combined with a top-down dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE model and a bottom-up bio-economic model (BEM to study the economic impact of a total water use control policy in the Heihe river basin, northwestern China. The integrated CGE-BEM model is regionally disaggregated with a variety of crops and livestock, and includes the responses of farmers and consequent feedback effects in the regional economic system. The results show that under the total water use control scenario, the water use structure is changed and water use efficiency is improved. The total water use control policy has limited negative impact on the regional economic growth with only a slightly lower growth rate of 13.38% compared with a growth rate of 14% by 2020 under a business as usual water use scenario. However, the total water use control policy has significant negative impacts on several sectors, especially agriculture and food processing. It is expected cropping systems will change through a replacement of water-intensive crops with water-efficient crops. Farmers’ incomes will decrease by 3.14%. In order to alleviate farmers’ income loss and deal with water use conflicts across different sectors and regions, the promotion of migration of surplus labor from agriculture to non-agricultural sectors and the improvement of water use efficiency in agriculture are needed.

  7. Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Drought Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global drought total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross Domestic...

  8. Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Total Economic Loss Risk Deciles is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide total economic loss risks. A process of spatially allocating Gross...

  9. Economic analysis model for total energy and economic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Katsuhiko; Yasukawa, Shigeru; Sato, Osamu

    1980-09-01

    This report describes framing an economic analysis model developed as a tool of total energy systems. To prospect and analyze future energy systems, it is important to analyze the relation between energy system and economic structure. We prepared an economic analysis model which was suited for this purpose. Our model marks that we can analyze in more detail energy related matters than other economic ones, and can forecast long-term economic progress rather than short-term economic fluctuation. From view point of economics, our model is longterm multi-sectoral economic analysis model of open Leontief type. Our model gave us appropriate results for fitting test and forecasting estimation. (author)

  10. Total environmental impacts of biofuels from corn stover using a hybrid life cycle assessment model combining process life cycle assessment and economic input-output life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changqi; Huang, Yaji; Wang, Xinye; Tai, Yang; Liu, Lingqin; Liu, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Studies on the environmental analysis of biofuels by fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (BFPH) have so far focused only on the environmental impacts from direct emissions and have included few indirect emissions. The influence of ignoring some indirect emissions on the environmental performance of BFPH has not been well investigated and hence is not really understood. In addition, in order to avoid shifting environmental problems from one medium to another, a comprehensive assessment of environmental impacts caused by the processes must quantify the environmental emissions to all media (air, water, and land) in relation to each life cycle stage. A well-to-wheels assessment of the total environmental impacts resulting from direct emissions and indirect emissions of a BFPH system with corn stover is conducted using a hybrid life cycle assessment (LCA) model combining the economic input-output LCA and the process LCA. The Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of Chemical and other environmental Impacts (TRACI) has been used to estimate the environmental impacts in terms of acidification, eutrophication, global climate change, ozone depletion, human health criteria, photochemical smog formation, ecotoxicity, human health cancer, and human health noncancer caused by 1 MJ biofuel production. Taking account of all the indirect greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the net GHG emissions (81.8 g CO 2 eq/MJ) of the biofuels are still less than those of petroleum-based fuels (94 g CO 2 eq/MJ). Maize production and pyrolysis and hydroprocessing make major contributions to all impact categories except the human health criteria. All impact categories resulting from indirect emissions except eutrophication and smog air make more than 24% contribution to the total environmental impacts. Therefore, the indirect emissions are important and cannot be ignored. Sensitivity analysis has shown that corn stover yield and bio-oil yield affect the total environmental impacts of the biofuels

  11. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  12. Economic impact of refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J Edward; Filipski, Mateusz J; Alloush, Mohamad; Gupta, Anubhab; Rojas Valdes, Ruben Irvin; Gonzalez-Estrada, Ernesto

    2016-07-05

    In 2015, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees accommodated over 15 million refugees, mostly in refugee camps in developing countries. The World Food Program provided these refugees with food aid, in cash or in kind. Refugees' impacts on host countries are controversial and little understood. This unique study analyzes the economic impacts of refugees on host-country economies within a 10-km radius of three Congolese refugee camps in Rwanda. Simulations using Monte Carlo methods reveal that cash aid to refugees creates significant positive income spillovers to host-country businesses and households. An additional adult refugee receiving cash aid increases annual real income in the local economy by $205 to $253, significantly more than the $120-$126 in aid each refugee receives. Trade between the local economy and the rest of Rwanda increases by $49 to $55. The impacts are lower for in-kind food aid, a finding relevant to development aid generally.

  13. Economic impact of cultural events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saayman

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of events can hardly be described as a new one.  The aim of this paper is to determine the economic benefits of three major cultural events in South Africa to the host community.  Measuring the economic impact normally entails some estimation of the cash injection into a region by visitors and applying the relevant multiplier to arrive at a monetary estimate of the economic impact.  But few regions or municipal areas have detailed economic data to construct a type of input-output model and derive a multiplier.  The purpose of the methods used in this research were firstly to determine the estimated cash injection, secondly to estimate the size of leakages in the local economy and thirdly to derive an appropriate multiplier to estimate the economic impact of the event.

  14. Economic impact of cultural tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Zadel, Zrinka; Bogdan, Sinisa

    2013-01-01

    The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and p...

  15. Economics of human performance and systems total ownership cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkham, Wilawan; Karwowski, Waldemar; Ahram, Tareq Z

    2012-01-01

    Financial costs of investing in people is associated with training, acquisition, recruiting, and resolving human errors have a significant impact on increased total ownership costs. These costs can also affect the exaggerate budgets and delayed schedules. The study of human performance economical assessment in the system acquisition process enhances the visibility of hidden cost drivers which support program management informed decisions. This paper presents the literature review of human total ownership cost (HTOC) and cost impacts on overall system performance. Economic value assessment models such as cost benefit analysis, risk-cost tradeoff analysis, expected value of utility function analysis (EV), growth readiness matrix, multi-attribute utility technique, and multi-regressions model were introduced to reflect the HTOC and human performance-technology tradeoffs in terms of the dollar value. The human total ownership regression model introduces to address the influencing human performance cost component measurement. Results from this study will increase understanding of relevant cost drivers in the system acquisition process over the long term.

  16. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CULTURAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrinka Zadel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis in the paper is economic impact of cultural tourism and identification of the main factors which directly affect cultural tourism revenues. Most countries do not have a statistical system of monitoring and analysing individual factors of cultural tourism such as the number of arrivals of cultural tourists and consumption of cultural tourists. Therefore, it is hard to assess the economic impact of cultural tourism. In cultural tourism, cultural assets are prepared and placed on the tourist market, i.e. cultural resources are transformed into cultural tourism products. The main objective is fulfilling tourists' needs, and achieving positive effects which includes economic effects. Identification of the economic impact of cultural tourism is important because cultural resources have an inestimable value for the local community. Tourism valorisation should be used in order to achieve the necessary maximum effects with minimum negative impacts which tourism may leave on cultural resources. The objective of the paper is to identify the economic contribution of cultural tourism in the Republic of Croatia and to propose a model of identification of economic impact of cultural tourism.

  17. Development of women's human capital and its impact on economic growth and total factor productivity: A case study of selected OECD countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Mostafaee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiences of developed countries and various studies in the context of economic growth of developing countries have shown that economic growth is not only explained by physical capital and labor force but also, and more importantly, by human capital. The later variable should be entered, as a major determinant, in the endogenous growth model. With the concern of important role of human capital in this research, the primary objective of this paper is to explore the effect of gender discrimination of human capital on economic growth and factor productivity in Iran and the selected OECD countries. More specifically, to indicate the economic capability of educated females, we use data of the considered countries over the period 1974-2008, to estimate the relevant models of growth and productivity. The implication is to compare the empirical results obtained for Iran and the selected developed countries.

  18. Socio-economic impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The construction of an electric generating station may have socio-economic effects upon the community in which it is located. Among the possible effects during construction are changes in population leading to strains in housing, schools, employment, transportation, and increased demands on local government services. The scale of the effects varies according to the population base of the county in which the plant is located and the distance of the site from major metropolitan areas. Increased demands for county and municipal public services also vary during the construction period. In some instances the increased cost of public services can result in large budget deficits at both the county and municipal level as construction period revenue increases fail to keep pace with service costs. In the study case of potential Eastern Shore power plant sites, annual municipal budget deficits were estimated to range from 3 to 21% for nuclear plant construction. The same study projected the largest county deficit at 4%, with other counties experiencing revenues and expenditures which were essentially in balance. After a new plant starts operation, the tax revenue to county government is on the order of several million dollars per year or greater depending on plant size and local tax rates, and the service costs are small

  19. Economic impact of world mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walser, G.

    2002-01-01

    Mining plays a vital role in the economic development of many countries. The emerging economies are now major players in the production and availability of key commodities such as copper (70%), bauxite (40%), iron ore and precious metals. Mining also has a positive impact on the economy of many countries. Another impact of mining can be measured in terms of employment opportunities and income generation. Commercial scale mining provides employment and skills transfer to more than 2 million workers. The multiplier effect increases this benefit by a factor of between 2 and 5. The World Bank Mining Department has carried out an in-depth study on economic and social impact of mining at the community level in Chile, Peru, Bolivia, Papua New Guinea and Mali. This study demonstrates that there are substantial social and economic benefits to the community. The most positive cases are related to the growth of local small- and micro-enterprise activities. However, mining remains controversial, as true sustainable development is not only a matter of financial flows. Mining has also been associated with a number of economic and social problems. As a result there are questions about the sustainability of the economic outcome of mining. The contribution of mining to sustainable development needs to be considered in terms of economic and technical viability, ecological sustainability and social equity. To achieve this, governments, mining companies and local communities must work together to address these issues. (author)

  20. Economic impacts of a California tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Wing, Ian Sue; Wei, Dan; Wein, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The economic consequences of a tsunami scenario for Southern California are estimated using computable general equilibrium analysis. The economy is modeled as a set of interconnected supply chains interacting through markets but with explicit constraints stemming from property damage and business downtime. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction of Gross Domestic Product for Southern California, Rest of California, and U.S. economies. For California, total economic impacts represent the general equilibrium (essentially quantity and price multiplier) effects of lost production in industries upstream and downstream in the supply-chain of sectors that are directly impacted by port cargo disruptions at Port of Los Angeles and Port of Long Beach (POLA/POLB), property damage along the coast, and evacuation of potentially inundated areas. These impacts are estimated to be $2.2 billion from port disruptions, $0.9 billion from property damages, and $2.8 billion from evacuations. Various economic-resilience tactics can potentially reduce the direct and total impacts by 80–85%.

  1. Economic impact of GM crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Graham; Barfoot, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A key part of any assessment of the global value of crop biotechnology in agriculture is an examination of its economic impact at the farm level. This paper follows earlier annual studies which examined economic impacts on yields, key costs of production, direct farm income and effects, and impacts on the production base of the four main crops of soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. The commercialization of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to occur at a rapid rate, with important changes in both the overall level of adoption and impact occurring in 2012. This annual updated analysis shows that there have been very significant net economic benefits at the farm level amounting to $18.8 billion in 2012 and $116.6 billion for the 17-year period (in nominal terms). These economic gains have been divided roughly 50% each to farmers in developed and developing countries. GM technology have also made important contributions to increasing global production levels of the four main crops, having added 122 million tonnes and 230 million tonnes respectively, to the global production of soybeans and maize since the introduction of the technology in the mid-1990s. PMID:24637520

  2. MIGRATION IMPACT ON ECONOMICAL SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia COJOCARU

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents recent trends and flows of labor migration and its impact on economic and social life. Main aim of this research sets up the influence of the migration on the European economics and its competitiveness. Methods of research are: method of comparison, analysis method, method of deduction, method of statistics, modeling method. The economic impact of migration has been intensively studied but is still often driven by ill-informed perceptions, which, in turn, can lead to public antagonism towards migration. These negative views risk jeopardising efforts to adapt migration policies to the new economic and demographic challenges facing many countries. Migration Policy looks at the evidence for how immigrants affect the economy in three main areas: The labour market, public purse and economic growth. In Europe, the scope of labour mobility greatly increased within the EU/EFTA zones following the EU enlargements of 2004, 2007 and 2014-2015. This added to labour markets’ adjustment capacity. Recent estimates suggest that as much as a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock – that is occurring at different times and with different intensities across countries – may have been absorbed by migration within a year.

  3. Economic Impacts of Power Shortage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Ou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The electricity industry is a basic industry of the national economy. It has experienced several large-scale power shortages, hard power shortage and soft power shortage, which have brought a great threat to China’s sustainable economic development. To solve this problem better, it is necessary to make a quantitative assessment of the economic impacts of power shortage. The CGE model is commonly used for simulating economic shocks and policy effects. It describes supply, demand and equilibrium in different markets by simulating the economic mechanism through a set of equations. Once changed, the exogenous variables will affect a certain part of the system and then the whole system, leading to changes in quantities and prices. The equilibrium state will also change from one to another. A static CGE model is built in this paper, and the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM of eight sectors of China in 2007 is compiled, in order to simulate the economic impacts of hard power shortage and soft power shortage. Simulation results show that the negative effects of power shortage on economic development are very significant, and the effects vary in different sectors. Especially, under the background of hard power shortage, the industrial sector suffers most. The economic cost of power shortage is considerable, and the main reason for it is the specific administrative pricing system in China. The low electricity price in the long term will lead to insufficient construction and hard power shortage; moreover, that in the short run would result in soft power shortage. In order to solve the problem of power shortage completely, power system reform is inevitable.

  4. Socio-economic expenditure impacts report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The direct and indirect employment and employment income that can result from lifting the moratorium on British Columbia's west coast were estimated. Jobs and income are the two socio-economic benefits that generate the most concern at the local, provincial and national levels. The estimates are based on the development scenarios of one natural gas project in the Hecate Strait, and one oil project in the Queen Charlotte Sound. It was noted that a significant component of the potential socio-economic benefits from offshore development in British Columbia will result from project investment expenditures. Statistics Canada's Input-Output Model was used to assess the total expenditure impacts at the national and provincial levels. The indirect impacts are relatively more important to the local economy because they deal mainly with accommodation, food, beverage, and transportation. The total impacts can be measured in terms of total revenues, gross domestic product, and wages and salaries. The nature of supplier services that may be required were also identified. It was estimated that with the combined impacts of construction and operations, the total Canadian gross domestic product will increase by $3.0 billion, most of which will accrue to British Columbia. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isard, W.; Reiner, T.; Van Zele, R.; Stratham, J.

    1976-08-01

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  6. Economic impact of PCI remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairiot, H.

    1980-01-01

    The paper first outlines the data base on which the economic evaluation is performed. It includes: modifications of the design of the fuel; preconditioning of the fuel; ramping limitations; in-core fuel management modifications. The economic assumptions on which the study is performed are also outlined. They are representative of a PWR situation. For what fuel design modifications are concerned, some have a minor cost impact (e.g. pellet density, pellet length to diameter ratio, gap size, etc...), while some others may have a quite large impact on the fissile material cost (e.g. duplex pellet), the fabrication cost (e.g. coating of the cladding ID) or the reprocessing cost (e.g. interlayer between pellet and cladding). The preconditioning of the fuel may require to run the reactor in a mode unrelated to the energy demand. This aspect can be minimized by a proper adjustment of in-core fuel management. The ramping limitation is the most usually adopted approach. Different cases are investigated and the impact on generating cost is discussed. The in-core fuel management can also contribute to a better ramping performance of the fuel. Exemplative cases show that this leads to a minimum cost penalty. (author)

  7. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  8. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Pedro L; Budke, Christine M; Schantz, Peter M; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-05-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722) per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629) if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction) were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383) if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production) were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489) DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  9. Economic impact of cystic echinococcosis in peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L Moro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs lost. FINDINGS: The total estimated cost of human CE in Peru was U.S.$2,420,348 (95% CI:1,118,384-4,812,722 per year. Total estimated livestock-associated costs due to CE ranged from U.S.$196,681 (95% CI:141,641-251,629 if only direct losses (i.e., cattle and sheep liver destruction were taken into consideration to U.S.$3,846,754 (95% CI:2,676,181-4,911,383 if additional production losses (liver condemnation, decreased carcass weight, wool losses, decreased milk production were accounted for. An estimated 1,139 (95% CI: 861-1,489 DALYs were also lost due to surgical cases of CE. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary and conservative assessment of the socio-economic impact of CE on Peru, which is based largely on official sources of information, very likely underestimates the true extent of the problem. Nevertheless, these estimates illustrate the negative economic impact of CE in Peru.

  10. Who Wins the Olympic Games: Economic Development and Medal Totals

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew B. Bernard; Meghan R. Busse

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines determinants of Olympic success at the country level. Does the U.S. win its fair share of Olympic medals? Why does China win 6% of the medals even though it has 1/5 of the world's population? We consider the role of population and economic development in determining medal totals from 1960-1996. We also provide out of sample predictions for the 2000 Olympics in Sydney.

  11. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of a HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  12. Estimating total economic merit for the Portuguese Holstein cattle population under new economic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana B.M. Almeida

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop a total economic merit index that identifies more profitable animals using Portugal as a case study to illustrate the recent economic changes in milk production. Economic values were estimated following future global prices and EU policy, and taking into consideration the priorities of the Portuguese dairy sector. Economic values were derived using an objective system analysis with a positive approach, that involved the comparison of several alternatives, using real technical and economic data from national dairy farms. The estimated relative economic values revealed a high importance of production traits, low for morphological traits and a value of zero for somatic cell score. According to several future market expectations, three scenarios for milk production were defined: a realistic, a pessimistic and an optimistic setting, each with projected future economic values. Responses to selection and efficiency of selection of the indices were compared to a fourth scenario that represents the current selection situation in Portugal, based on individual estimated breeding values for milk yield. Although profit resulting from sale of milk per average lactation in the optimistic scenario was higher than in the realistic scenario, the volatility of future economic conditions and uncertainty about the future milk pricing system should be considered. Due to this market instability, genetic improvement programs require new definitions of profit functions for the near future. Effective genetic progress direction must be verified so that total economic merit formulae can be adjusted and selection criteria redirected to the newly defined target goals.

  13. Economic Impacts of the Southern Pine Beetle

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Pye; Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the timber economic impacts of the southern pine beetle (SPB). Although we anticipate that SPB outbreaks cause substantial economic losses to households that consume the nonmarket economic services provided by healthy forests, we have narrowly focused our attention here on changes in values to timber growers and wood-products...

  14. Economic impacts of wine tourism in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi-Kyung Kim; Seung Hyun Kim

    2003-01-01

    In Michigan, wine tourism is perceived as increasingly important concept because more and more tourists visit wineries and wine tasting rooms annually. However there have been few studies conducted concerning the economic impacts of wineries in Michigan even though the industry has been recognized as having significant economic impact potential. The primary purpose of...

  15. 77 FR 68776 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public..., Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Turkey, and United Kingdom. Interested parties may submit comments on this transaction by email to economic.impact...

  16. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-13

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL's researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects and is revised with 2017 figures.

  17. The economic impact of revision otologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Sahar; Leonetti, John P; Pontikis, George

    2016-03-01

    Revision otologic surgery places a significant economic burden on patients and the healthcare system. We conducted a retrospective chart analysis to estimate the economic impact of revision canal-wall-down (CWD) mastoidectomy. We reviewed the medical records of all 189 adults who had undergone CWD mastoidectomy performed by the senior author between June 2006 and August 2011 at Loyola University Medical Center in Maywood, Ill. Institutional charges and collections for all patients were extrapolated to estimate the overall healthcare cost of revision surgery in Illinois and at the national level. Of the 189 CWD mastoidectomies, 89 were primary and 100 were revision procedures. The total charge for the revision cases was $2,783,700, and the net reimbursement (collections) was $846,289 (30.4%). Using Illinois Hospital Association data, we estimated that reimbursement for 387 revision CWD mastoidectomies that had been performed in fiscal year 2011 was nearly $3.3 million. By extrapolating our data to the national level, we estimated that 9,214 patients underwent revision CWD mastoidectomy in the United States during 2011, which cost the national healthcare system roughly $76 million, not including lost wages and productivity. Known causes of failed CWD mastoidectomies that often result in revision surgery include an inadequate meatoplasty, a facial ridge that is too high, residual diseased air cells, and recurrent cholesteatoma. A better understanding of these factors can reduce the need for revision surgery, which could have a positive impact on the economic strain related to this procedure at the local, state, and national levels.

  18. Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

  19. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Economic Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Tshilidzi Marwala

    2015-01-01

    Artificial intelligence has impacted many aspects of human life. This paper studies the impact of artificial intelligence on economic theory. In particular we study the impact of artificial intelligence on the theory of bounded rationality, efficient market hypothesis and prospect theory.

  20. The Impact of Regression to the Mean on Economic Evaluation in Quasi-Experimental Pre-Post Studies: The Example of Total Knee Replacement Using Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Chris; Petrie, Dennis; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F; Clarke, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Many treatments are evaluated using quasi-experimental pre-post studies susceptible to regression to the mean (RTM). Ignoring RTM could bias the economic evaluation. We investigated this issue using the contemporary example of total knee replacement (TKR), a common treatment for end-stage osteoarthritis of the knee. Data (n = 4796) were obtained from the Osteoarthritis Initiative database, a longitudinal observational study of osteoarthritis. TKR patients (n = 184) were matched to non-TKR patients, using propensity score matching on the predicted hazard of TKR and exact matching on osteoarthritis severity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL). The economic evaluation using the matched control group was compared to the standard method of using the pre-surgery score as the control. Matched controls were identified for 56% of the primary TKRs. The matched control HrQoL trajectory showed evidence of RTM accounting for a third of the estimated QALY gains from surgery using the pre-surgery HrQoL as the control. Incorporating RTM into the economic evaluation significantly reduced the estimated cost effectiveness of TKR and increased the uncertainty. A generalized ICER bias correction factor was derived to account for RTM in cost-effectiveness analysis. RTM should be considered in economic evaluations based on quasi-experimental pre-post studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Economic Impacts and Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Rose, A.; Sue Wing, I.; Wei, D.

    2013-12-01

    Business interruption (BI) losses for the SAFRR tsunami scenario are derived from the forecasted physical damages of about 100 million at the Ports of Los Angeles (LA) and Long Beach (LB), and 700 million in marina damages, and 2 billion in inundated property damages along the California coast. Economic impacts are measured by the reduction in California's gross domestic product (GDP). The analysis involves several steps. First, estimates are made of immediate business interruption losses due to physical damage to facilities or to disruption of production. Second, total economic impacts (consisting of both direct and indirect effects) are measured by a general equilibrium (quantity and price multiplier effects) of lost production in other sectors through ripple effects upstream and downstream along the supply chain. Third, many types of resilience are applied to demonstrate their potential reductions of the impacts. At the Ports of LA and LB, a two-day port shutdown, cargo losses, and additional terminal downtimes would expose 1.2 billion of trade (import and export) value associated with over 4 billion of BI losses. The sectors potentially most affected by trade disruptions are leather, metal, and motor vehicle manufacturing. Excess capacity, inventories, export conversion, and conservation could reduce the direct trade impacts by 85%. Production recapture alone (including clearing the backlog of waiting ships) could reduce BI losses by 85%. The Port of LA commercial fishing would be subject to damages to the fleet, perished fish that cannot be landed, and lost fishing days. Although BI losses are relatively small, the southern Californian fishing sector could incur a 4% drop in output. The impacts would depend on the speed at which boats are repaired and whether lost fishing days can be made up. Ship-building and repair could also be negatively affected, but these impacts would be offset somewhat by reconstruction. Effects on commercial fishing in other locations

  2. Does debt predict growth? An empirical analysis of the relationship between total debt and economic output

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Vanlaer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the recent global financial crisis has stimulated a vast amount of research on the impact of public debt on economic growth and also increasingly on the role of private credit, the total levels of indebtedness of an economy have largely been ignored. This paper studies the impact of the total level of and increases in debt-to-GDP on economic growth for 26 developed countries in the short, medium and longer term. We analyse whether we can predict the future level of growth, simply by looking at the total level of debt, or increases in that debt level. We find that there is a negative correlation between high levels of debt and short term economic growth, but that this effect tapers in the medium and long term. Similarly, we find that rapid debt accumulation is negatively related to economic growth over the short term, the impact is less pronounced over the medium term and is non-existent over the long term.

  3. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: News: Economic Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Search Menu About Leadership Mission Social Media Community Involvement Leadership Mission Environmental Responsibility History Diversity Social Media Careers View All Small Business Assistance Program Sandia's Economic Impact Sandia Science & Technology Park © 2018

  5. Economic effect of fusion in energy market. Economic impact of fusion deployment in energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Satoshi

    2002-01-01

    Energy model analysis estimates the significant contribution of fusion in the latter half of the century under the global environment constraints if it will be successfully developed and introduced into the market. The total possible economical impact of fusion is investigated from the aspect of energy cost savings, sales, and its effects on Gross Domestic Products. Considerable economical possibility will be found in the markets for fusion related devices, of currently developing countries, and for synthesized fuel. The value of fusion development could be evaluated from these possible economic impact in comparison with its necessary investment. (author)

  6. Economic impacts of marine ecological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Rolf A.; Bartelings, Heleen; Börger, Tobias; Bosello, Francesco; Buisman, Erik; Delpiazzo, Elisa; Eboli, Fabio; Fernandes, Jose A.; Hamon, Katell G.; Hattam, Caroline; Loureiro, Maria; Nunes, Paulo A.L.D.; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke E.; Simons, Sarah L.; Walker, Adam N.

    2018-01-01

    Marine ecological change is likely to have serious potential economic consequences for coastal economies all over the world. This article reviews the current literature on the economic impacts of marine ecological change, as well as a number of recent contributions to this literature carried out

  7. 78 FR 6322 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export..., France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Philippines, Poland, Romania... comments on this transaction by email to economic[email protected] or by mail to 811 Vermont Avenue NW...

  8. The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Arroyo, Gloria M; San Buenaventura, Mariano

    1983-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and social impact of tourism in Pagsanjan in which tourism development project is located. Results show that the project’s various significant impacts include increases in employment and income and stimulation of political and women’s participation. While its impact on environment and on the people’s social life has been a mixture of positive and negative results, its impact on income distribution has been trifling. To maximize the tourism multiplier, the pape...

  9. Managing nuclear waste: Social and economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemphill, R.C.; Bassett, G.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Recent research has focused on perceptions of risk as a dominant source of economic impacts due to siting a high level radioactive waste facility. This article addresses the social and economic considerations involved with the issue of risk perception and other types of negative imagery. Emphasis is placed on ways of measuring the potential for economic effects resulting from perceptions prior to construction and operation of HLW facility. We describe the problems in arriving at defensible estimates of economic impacts. Our review has found that although legal and regulatory bases may soon allow inclusion of these impacts in EIS and for compensation purposes, credible scientific methods do not currently exist for predicting the existence or magnitude of changes in economic decision-making. Policy-makers should recognize the potential for perception-based economic impacts in determining the location and means of managing radioactive waste; but, they also need be cognizant of the current limitations of quantitative estimates of impacts in this area

  10. Future socio-economic impacts and vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balgis Osman-Elasha; Neil Adger; Maria Brockhaus; Carol J. Pierce Colfer; Brent Sohngen; Tallaat Dafalla; Linda A. Joyce; Nkem Johnson; Carmenza Robledo

    2009-01-01

    The projected impacts of climate change are significant, and despite the uncertainties associated with current climate and ecosystem model projections, the associated changes in the provision of forest ecosystem services are expected to be substantial in many parts of the world. These impacts will present significant social and economic challenges for affected...

  11. Economic impacts of hurricanes on forest owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; Thomas P. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    We present a conceptual model of the economic impacts of hurricanes on timber producers and consumers, offer a framework indicating how welfare impacts can be estimated using econometric estimates of timber price dynamics, and illustrate the advantages of using a welfare theoretic model, which includes (1) welfare estimates that are consistent with neo-classical...

  12. Regional economic impact of oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heen, K.; Andersen, M.

    1994-01-01

    An approach is demonstrated of coupling an environmental model to input-output analysis which aims to quantify the regional economic impact of an environmental accident. The model is implemented with the data of a potential oil spill interacting with the salmon aquaculture industry in Northern Norway. The production loss in salmon aquaculture and the regional income impact is computed and discussed. The approach used in this article could be a model for estimating the regional socio-economic impact of environmental factors like water and air pollution. 1 fig., 4 tabs., 19 refs

  13. Economic impact of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has been one year since Beijing successfully hosts the 2008 Olympic Games. It needs to stress the economic impacts of the city as the Olympic effect could boost economy of Beijing a long and lasting growth. In this paper, a large number of academic articles are reviewed given a general view of these impacts and put insights into the economic impacts of previous host cities. Both positive and negative effects are mentioned with rich discussions. Based on the statistical data, growth trend o...

  14. The economic impact of NASA R and D spending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. K.

    1976-01-01

    The economic impact of R and D spending, particularly NASA R and D spending, on the U. S. economy was evaluated. The crux of the methodology and hence the results revolve around the fact that it was necessary to consider both the demand effects of increased spending and the supply effects of a higher rate of technological growth and a larger total productive capacity. The demand effects are primarily short-run in nature, while the supply effects do not begin to have a significant effect on aggregate economic activity until the fifth year after increased expenditures have taken place. The short-term economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975 was first examined. The long-term economic impact of increased levels of NASA R and D spending over a sustained period was then evaluated.

  15. Backup_of_23. THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF STROKE ON

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    problems. The study aimed at assessing the socio- economic impact of stroke in households in Livingstone district. A total ... economic challenges after stroke with a few of them were ..... 20 Trainer T, The transition; Getting to a sustainable and.

  16. Total Economic Consequences of an Influenza Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Fynnwin; Wei, Dan; Rose, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Pandemic influenza represents a serious threat not only to the population of the United States, but also to its economy. In this study, we analyze the total economic consequences of potential influenza outbreaks in the United States for four cases based on the distinctions between disease severity and the presence/absence of vaccinations. The analysis is based on data and parameters on influenza obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and the general literature. A state-of-the-art economic impact modeling approach, computable general equilibrium, is applied to analyze a wide range of potential impacts stemming from the outbreaks. This study examines the economic impacts from changes in medical expenditures and workforce participation, and also takes into consideration different types of avoidance behavior and resilience actions not previously fully studied. Our results indicate that, in the absence of avoidance and resilience effects, a pandemic influenza outbreak could result in a loss in U.S. GDP of $25.4 billion, but that vaccination could reduce the losses to $19.9 billion. When behavioral and resilience factors are taken into account, a pandemic influenza outbreak could result in GDP losses of $45.3 billion without vaccination and $34.4 billion with vaccination. These results indicate the importance of including a broader set of causal factors to achieve more accurate estimates of the total economic impacts of not just pandemic influenza but biothreats in general. The results also highlight a number of actionable items that government policymakers and public health officials can use to help reduce potential economic losses from the outbreaks. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. How do Economic Crises Impact Firm Boundaries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    How economic crises impact the boundaries of firms has been offered virtually no attention in the literature on the theory of the firm. I review the best-known theories of the firm and identify the variables that matter for the explanation of firm boundaries. I then examine how an economic crisis...... may impact these variables and change efficient firm boundaries. The various theories of the firm have difficulties explaining how firms efficiently adapt their boundaries to such prominent characteristics of economic crisis as declining demand and increased costs of external finance. However, all...... these theories stress uncertainty as an antecedent of firm organization, and as uncertainty is also an important characteristic of an economic crisis I examine how uncertainty is allowed to play out in the various theories in order to identify what predictions we can derive from the theory regarding changes...

  18. The impact of economic globalisation on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, Meri

    2006-01-01

    The analysis of the impact of economic globalisation on health depends on how it is defined and should consider how it shapes both health and health policies. I first discuss the ways in which economic globalisation can and has been defined and then why it is important to analyse its impact both in terms of health and health policies. I then explore the ways in which economic globalisation influences health and health policies and how this relates to equity, social justice, and the role of values and social rights in societies. Finally, I argue that the process of economic globalisation provides a common challenge for all health systems across the globe and requires a broader debate on values, accountability, and policy approaches.

  19. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Caroline E.; Lester, Erica L. W.; Chuck, Anderson W.; Birch, Daniel W.; Karmali, Shahzeer; de Gara, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the dir...

  20. Socio-economic Impact of Sethusamudram Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Srinivasan

    2007-01-01

    Any major development project has both benefits and disadvantages to the society. Many development projects have very high economic benefit and at the same time lead to environmental hazard. One such project is Sethudamudram project initiated by Government of India. This is a project which aims at minimising the distance of navigation for the goods transport in the sea. This paper is an attempt to study the socio-economic impact of the project based on the secondary data.

  1. The economic impact of pilgrimage: An economic impact analysis of pilgrimage expenditures in Galicia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graave, Elisabeth J.E.; Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we calculate the economic impact of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in the NUTS 2 region Galicia (Spain) in 2010. This economic impact is relevant to policymakers and other stakeholders dealing with religious tourism in Galicia. The analysis is based on the Input-Output model.

  2. The economic impact of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices

  3. The economic impact of renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic impact of renewable energy. The background to the study is traced, and potential sources of public finance for renewable projects, sensitivity analysis of the employment estimates , estimates of demand met by renewable energy technologies, the expenditures involved in investment in renewable energy; and sectoral linkages are examined. Wealth creation through investment in renewable energy, and the economic and employment impacts are explored. Plant retirement and replacement analysis, and input-output models are considered in appendices.

  4. Measuring total economic benefits from water in plantation forestry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi input-output framework was applied to measuring direct and indirect economic benefits from water use in plantation forestry in the Crocodile river catchment of South Africa. The study accounted for indirect economic benefits generated in downstream timber processing activities and input supply sectors linked with ...

  5. Economic impact of medication error: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Elaine K; Hansen, Christina Raae; Sahm, Laura J; Kearney, Patricia M; Doherty, Edel; Bradley, Colin P

    2017-05-01

    Medication error is a significant source of morbidity and mortality among patients. Clinical and cost-effectiveness evidence are required for the implementation of quality of care interventions. Reduction of error-related cost is a key potential benefit of interventions addressing medication error. The aim of this review was to describe and quantify the economic burden associated with medication error. PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHL, EconLit, ABI/INFORM, Business Source Complete were searched. Studies published 2004-2016 assessing the economic impact of medication error were included. Cost values were expressed in Euro 2015. A narrative synthesis was performed. A total of 4572 articles were identified from database searching, and 16 were included in the review. One study met all applicable quality criteria. Fifteen studies expressed economic impact in monetary terms. Mean cost per error per study ranged from €2.58 to €111 727.08. Healthcare costs were used to measure economic impact in 15 of the included studies with one study measuring litigation costs. Four studies included costs incurred in primary care with the remaining 12 measuring hospital costs. Five studies looked at general medication error in a general population with 11 studies reporting the economic impact of an individual type of medication error or error within a specific patient population. Considerable variability existed between studies in terms of financial cost, patients, settings and errors included. Many were of poor quality. Assessment of economic impact was conducted predominantly in the hospital setting with little assessment of primary care impact. Limited parameters were used to establish economic impact. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Economic impacts of Medicaid in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Christopher; Hall, William; Garrett, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide estimates of the economic impacts of Medicaid program expenditures in North Carolina in state fiscal year (SFY) 2003. The study uses input-output analysis to estimate the economic impacts of Medicaid expenditures. The study uses North Carolina Medicaid program expenditure data for SFY 2003 as submitted by the North Carolina Division of Medical Assistance to the federal Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Industry structure data from 2002 that are part of the IMPLAN input-output modeling software database are also used in the analysis. In SFY 2003 $6.307 billion in Medicaid program expenditures occurred within the state of North Carolina-$3.941 billion federal dollars, $2.014 billion state dollars, and $351 million in local government funds. Each dollar of state and local government expenditures brought $1.67 in federal Medicaid cost-share to the state. The economic impacts within North Carolina of the 2003 Medicaid expenditures included the following: 182,000 jobs supported (including both full-time and some part-time jobs); $6.1 billion in labor income (wages, salaries, sole proprietorship/partnership profits); and $1.9 billion in capital income (rents, interest payments, corporate dividend payments). If the Medicaid program were shut down and the funds returned to taxpayers who saved/spent the funds according to typical consumer expenditure patterns, employment in North Carolina would fall by an estimated 67,400 jobs, and labor income would fall by $2.83 billion, due to the labor-intensive nature of Medicaid expenditures. Medicaid expenditure and economic impact results do not capture the economic value of the improved health and well-being of Medicaid recipients. Furthermore, the results do not capture the savings to society from increased preventive care and reduced uncompensated care resulting from Medicaid. State and local government expenditures do not fully capture the economic consequences of Medicaid

  7. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ON GLOBAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sofronov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact,the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. The outlook for the Tourism sector in 2017 remains robust and will continue to be at the forefront of wealth and employment creation in the global economy, despite the emergence of a number of challenging headwinds. In tourism, GDP growth is expected to accelerate to 3.8%, up from 3.1% in 2016. As nations seem to be looking increasingly inward, putting in place barriers to trade and movement of people, the role of Tourism becomes even more significant, as an engine of economic development and as a vehicle for sharing cultures, creating peace, and building mutual understanding.

  8. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT ON GLOBAL TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Sofronov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is an important economic activity in most countries around the world. As well as its direct economic impact,the industry has significant indirect and induced impacts. The outlook for the Tourism sector in 2017 remains robust and will continue to be at the forefront of wealth and employment creation in the global economy, despite the emergence of a number of challenging headwinds. In tourism, GDP growth is expected to accelerate to 3.8%, up from 3.1% in 2016. As nations seem to be looking increasingly inward, putting in place barriers to trade and movement of people, the role of Tourism becomes even more significant, as an engine of economic development and as a vehicle for sharing cultures, creating peace, and building mutual understanding.

  9. THE IMPACT OF MICROFINANCE INSTITUTION IN ECONOMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CIU

    has a significant impact on economic performance in Nigeria in the long run. Although ... 70% of adults live in rural areas with 51% male and 49% female. ... services that will enable them start up or run business ventures of their choice . In this ... Accordingto Ademola & Arogundade (2014), credit delivery is one of the most.

  10. 75 FR 28021 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $400 million long.... New Mexican production of ZSM will be sold in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and Brazil. Interested parties...

  11. 76 FR 79679 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $74 million long..., locomotives and railcars to Canada. The U.S. exports will enable the Canadian mining company to increase...

  12. The Impact of Economic Crisis on Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, Dora Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…

  13. 77 FR 6563 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $1.74 billion loan... Australia. The U.S. exports will enable the Australian mining company to increase production by about 100...

  14. 76 FR 28225 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $47 million long... services to Australia. The U.S. exports will enable the Australian mining company to produce, on average...

  15. 78 FR 37539 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... the export of approximately $74 million in U.S. semiconductor manufacturing equipment to a dedicated foundry in China. The U.S. exports will enable the dedicated foundry to increase existing 300mm (non-DRAM... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export...

  16. 78 FR 34660 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ... guarantee to support the export of approximately $110.4 million worth of aluminum beverage cans and ends manufacturing equipment to China. The U.S. exports will enable the Chinese company to produce approximately 2.8... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export...

  17. 78 FR 30920 - Economic Impact Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Economic Impact Policy This notice is to inform the public that the Export-Import Bank of the United States has received an application for a $650 million long... Asian Markets including: China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Interested parties may submit comments on this...

  18. Global Economic Impact of Dental Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, S; Galloway, J; Mossey, P A; Marcenes, W

    2015-10-01

    Reporting the economic burden of oral diseases is important to evaluate the societal relevance of preventing and addressing oral diseases. In addition to treatment costs, there are indirect costs to consider, mainly in terms of productivity losses due to absenteeism from work. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the direct and indirect costs of dental diseases worldwide to approximate the global economic impact. Estimation of direct treatment costs was based on a systematic approach. For estimation of indirect costs, an approach suggested by the World Health Organization's Commission on Macroeconomics and Health was employed, which factored in 2010 values of gross domestic product per capita as provided by the International Monetary Fund and oral burden of disease estimates from the 2010 Global Burden of Disease Study. Direct treatment costs due to dental diseases worldwide were estimated at US$298 billion yearly, corresponding to an average of 4.6% of global health expenditure. Indirect costs due to dental diseases worldwide amounted to US$144 billion yearly, corresponding to economic losses within the range of the 10 most frequent global causes of death. Within the limitations of currently available data sources and methodologies, these findings suggest that the global economic impact of dental diseases amounted to US$442 billion in 2010. Improvements in population oral health may imply substantial economic benefits not only in terms of reduced treatment costs but also because of fewer productivity losses in the labor market. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  19. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. CHIRILA DONCIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis has had a severe impact on the economy worldwide. The investment activity has strongly felt the crisis and caused dramatic changes in the hierarchy of large investors. The financial system did not have availability for credits and funding from companies' own resources was extremely limited in terms of reducing profits. The purpose of the paper is the analysis of global foreign direct investment under the effect of the largest financial and economic crisis. The research results show a dramatic decline in foreign direct investments flows perceived and generated in 2009, and the fact that since 2010 there has been an easy comeback.

  20. Economic impact analysis of load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaweera, D.K.; Karady, G.G.; Farmer, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Short term load forecasting is an essential function in electric power system operations and planning. Forecasts are needed for a variety of utility activities such as generation scheduling, scheduling of fuel purchases, maintenance scheduling and security analysis. Depending on power system characteristics, significant forecasting errors can lead to either excessively conservative scheduling or very marginal scheduling. Either can induce heavy economic penalties. This paper examines the economic impact of inaccurate load forecasts. Monte Carlo simulations were used to study the effect of different load forecasting accuracy. Investigations into the effect of improving the daily peak load forecasts, effect of different seasons of the year and effect of utilization factors are presented

  1. Critical review on the socio-economic impact of tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea Hopkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no studies that determine the total burden that tendinopathy places on patients and society. A systematic search was conducted to understand the impact of tendinopathy. It demonstrated that the current prevalence is underestimated, particularly in active populations, such as athletes and workers. Search results demonstrate that due to the high prevalence, impact on patients' daily lives and the economic impact due to work-loss, treatments are significantly higher than currently observed. A well-accepted definition by medical professionals and the public will improve documentation and increase awareness, in order to better tackle the disease burden.

  2. Economic Impacts Analysis of Shale Gas Investment in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shangfeng; Zhang, Baosheng; Wang, Xuecheng

    2018-01-01

    Chinese government has announced an ambitious shale gas extraction plan, which requires significant investment. This has the potential to draw investment from other areas and may affect the whole China’s economy. There is few study to date has quantified these shale gas investment’s effects on Chinese economy. The aim of this paper is to quantify the economic effect and figures out whether shale gas investment in China is a good choice or not. Input-output analysis has been utilized in this study to estimate the economic impacts in four different Chinese regions. Our findings show that shale gas investment will result in approximately 868, 427, 115 and 42 Billion RMB economic impacts in Sichuan, Chongqing, Inner Mongolia and Guizhou, respectively. The total economic impact is only around 1453 Billion RMB, which is not significant compared to the economic impact of coalbed methane investment. Considering the potential risks of environmental issues, we suggest that it may be a better strategy for the government, at least in the current situation, to slow down shale gas development investment.

  3. Economic impacts of deforestation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoboli, R.

    1992-01-01

    Assessments of the economic impacts of the deterioration of European forests are being made from two points of view - the marketing of wood products and the potential economic benefits which can possibly be derived from a healthy environment. This article considers the principal results of these studies and evaluates their limitations and usefulness. In reviewing some scientific aspects of current debate on the probable causes of deforestation, as well as, in examining government efforts towards air pollution abatement, the article makes reference to tabled data on deforestation in Europe. Overall, the results of economic impacts studies based on the use of simulation models indicate a significant reduction in local supplies to the European wood products industry thus resulting in a dramatic drop in world market share and consequent market instability. Economic losses due to the inability to capitalize on healthy forests are valued in the order of billions of dollars per year in terms of the loss of business in the wood products and commercial-recreational sectors. While pointing out the uncertainties involved in the formulation of these assessments, the article also suggests how their results can constitute useful guidelines in cost benefit analyses of proposed government interventions. A discussion is made of the efficacy of some of these interventions now being considered aimed at reforestation and air pollution abatement

  4. Economic Impact of Cystic Echinococcosis in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Pedro L.; Budke, Christine M.; Schantz, Peter M.; Vasquez, Julio; Santivañez, Saul J.; Villavicencio, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic echinococcosis (CE) constitutes an important public health problem in Peru. However, no studies have attempted to estimate the monetary and non-monetary impact of CE in Peruvian society. METHODS: We used official and published sources of epidemiological and economic information to estimate direct and indirect costs associated with livestock production losses and human disease in addition to surgical CE-associated disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost. FINDINGS: The to...

  5. The economic impact of merger control legislation

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Onega, Steven

    2007-01-01

    We construct a unique dataset of legislative reforms in merger control legislation that occurred in nineteen industrial countries in the period 1987-2004, and investigate the economic impact of these changes on stock prices. In line with the hypothesis that merger control should challenge anticompetitive mergers and thus limit future monopolistic profits, we find that the strengthening of merger control decreases the stock prices of non-financial firms. In contrast, we find that bank stock pr...

  6. The economic impact of military expenditures

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    The author addresses three questions about military spending in developing countries: What are the levels of (and trends in) military spending as a percentage of gross national product? What impact does peacetime military spending have on growth, government spending on social welfare and infrastructure, and other key economic variables? What major factors influence the level of military spending? The author finds that military spending as a share of GNP generally fell in the 1980s, even in th...

  7. Broad economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The decision to adopt, expand or reject a nuclear programme has implications that go beyond economic considerations limited to the cost of electricity produced. This report attempts to illustrate the treatment of macroeconomic factors in the decision-making process of various countries, and discusses the macroeconomic impacts of nuclear power, such as employment, balance of payments, security of supply, as well as environmental, health and socio-cultural issues. 274 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs., 9 appendices

  8. Economic impact of uranium mining in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaming, G.F.

    1980-01-01

    The principal economic impacts are the result of three flows of money from the industry into the remainder of the state's economy. These are: money paid to individuals (personal income); money paid to other businesses (business income); and money paid to state and local governments (government revenues). Growth has come in a largely rural, seven-county area that lies within the triangle formed by the Laredo, San Antonio, and Corpus Christi metropolitan areas. 4 refs

  9. Economic impact of university veterinary diagnostic laboratories: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Lee L; Hayes, Dermot J; Holtkamp, Derald J; Swenson, David A

    2018-03-01

    Veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) play a significant role in the prevention and mitigation of endemic animal diseases and serve an important role in surveillance of, and the response to, outbreaks of transboundary and emerging animal diseases. They also allow for business continuity in livestock operations and help improve human health. Despite these critical societal roles, there is no academic literature on the economic impact of VDLs. We present a case study on the economic impact of the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (ISUVDL). We use economic contribution analysis coupled with a stakeholder survey to estimate the impact. Results suggest that the ISUVDL is responsible for $2,162.46 million in direct output, $2,832.45 million in total output, $1,158.19 million in total value added, and $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years. In an animal health emergency this increases to $8,446.21 million in direct output, $11,063.06 million in total output, $4,523.70 million in total value added, and $124.15 million in state taxes. The ISUVDL receives $4 million annually as a direct state government appropriation for operating purposes. The $31.79 million in state taxes in normal years and the $124.15 million in state taxes in an animal health emergency equates to a 795% and 3104% return on investment, respectively. Estimates of the economic impact of the ISUVDL provide information to scientists, administrators, and policymakers regarding the efficacy and return on investment of VDLs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Economic total maximum daily load for watershed-based pollutant trading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, A Z; deMonsabert, S M

    2015-04-01

    Water quality trading (WQT) is supported by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the framework of its total maximum daily load (TMDL) program. An innovative approach is presented in this paper that proposes post-TMDL trade by calculating pollutant rights for each pollutant source within a watershed. Several water quality trading programs are currently operating in the USA with an objective to achieve overall pollutant reduction impacts that are equivalent or better than TMDL scenarios. These programs use trading ratios for establishing water quality equivalence among pollutant reductions. The inbuilt uncertainty in modeling the effects of pollutants in a watershed from both the point and nonpoint sources on receiving waterbodies makes WQT very difficult. A higher trading ratio carries with it increased mitigation costs, but cannot ensure the attainment of the required water quality with certainty. The selection of an applicable trading ratio, therefore, is not a simple process. The proposed approach uses an Economic TMDL optimization model that determines an economic pollutant reduction scenario that can be compared with actual TMDL allocations to calculate selling/purchasing rights for each contributing source. The methodology is presented using the established TMDLs for the bacteria (fecal coliform) impaired Muddy Creek subwatershed WAR1 in Rockingham County, Virginia, USA. Case study results show that an environmentally and economically superior trading scenario can be realized by using Economic TMDL model or any similar model that considers the cost of TMDL allocations.

  11. NILAI EKONOMI TOTAL KONVERSI LAHAN PERTANIAN DI KABUPATEN SLEMAN (Total Economic Value of the Land Agricultural Conversion in Sleman Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini

    2013-03-01

    conducted in Sleman Regency through survey methods using 90 respondents as the research samples. The study area is based on a conversion rate of the agricultural land during the period of 17 years. Through Landsat  TM images year 1992 and 2000, also Alos images year 2009, can be determined the conversion of agricultural land all regions in Sleman Regency. Data analysis is performed qualitatively and quantitatively using descriptive statistical test through test models Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR and also Total Economic Value (TEV model. The research result show there are varying levels of the agricultural land conversion in Sleman Regency. The assessment result using TEV method is obtained that in the zone 1 region, the economic value of wetland farming is lower than the area of zone 2, while in the region of zone 3 has a high value. The level of pollution is caused by the conversion of agricultural land which impacted on the results of wetland farming activities. The most pollution which is assumed by the farmers recently is water pollution, otherwise the soil and the air contamination, there is no response by them. The conversion of the agricultural land also impacts to the production of commodities.  The commodities production is also influenced by the area of wetland, technology and productivity in each zone of the study area.

  12. Social and economic impacts of climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Tamma A; Hsiang, Solomon M

    2016-09-09

    For centuries, thinkers have considered whether and how climatic conditions-such as temperature, rainfall, and violent storms-influence the nature of societies and the performance of economies. A multidisciplinary renaissance of quantitative empirical research is illuminating important linkages in the coupled climate-human system. We highlight key methodological innovations and results describing effects of climate on health, economics, conflict, migration, and demographics. Because of persistent "adaptation gaps," current climate conditions continue to play a substantial role in shaping modern society, and future climate changes will likely have additional impact. For example, we compute that temperature depresses current U.S. maize yields by ~48%, warming since 1980 elevated conflict risk in Africa by ~11%, and future warming may slow global economic growth rates by ~0.28 percentage points per year. In general, we estimate that the economic and social burden of current climates tends to be comparable in magnitude to the additional projected impact caused by future anthropogenic climate changes. Overall, findings from this literature point to climate as an important influence on the historical evolution of the global economy, they should inform how we respond to modern climatic conditions, and they can guide how we predict the consequences of future climate changes. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The Impact of Women Economic Group Conflicts on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Impact of Women Economic Group Conflicts on the Development of their Projects: ... among women and their impact on the success of their economic projects. ... The target group was the petty business women in Kinondoni municipality.

  14. Economic impact of potential NORM regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.E.; Fitzgibbon, T.; Karp, S.

    1995-01-01

    Oil and gas field wastes and sites contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have quickly become a focus of substantial attention by regulators both at the state and federal level. Although currently regulated in a number of states, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has indicated a desire to develop federal regulations to address management and disposal of NORM-contaminated wastes. This paper provides a brief overview of current state NORM regulations, currently available technologies for managing and disposing NORM wastes, and the cost of employing these techniques. Based on these characterizations and alternative assumptions about the volume of NORM wastes, four alternative scenarios have been developed to bracket potential future NORM requirements. These scenarios have been used is the basis for an analysis of the potential economic and supply impacts of NORM requirements on the U.S. oil and gas industry. The results illustrate that a reasonable approach to regulation that focuses only on those NORM wastes that pose a risk and allows producers to use safe, low cost disposal methods (downhole or other) would have minimal economic impacts on the oil and gas industry. A very stringent regulatory approach that covered large volumes of wastes, required the use of higher cost disposal techniques, and required extensive site clean-up activities could have a substantial economic impact, resulting in a loss of up to 20 percent of U.S. oil production and 8 percent of U.S. gas production by 2000. The costs of compliance with these alternative approaches could range from $71 million to over $14 billion annually. Between these two cases lies the opportunity for regulators to develop requirements for management and disposal of NORM wastes that will address any environmental and human health risks posed at industry sites without imposing unnecessarily costly regulations on the U.S. oil and gas E ampersand P industry

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; economic uses fact sheet 03: economic impacts of fuel treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    With increased interest in reducing hazardous fuels in dry inland forests of the American West, agencies and the public will want to know the economic impacts of fuel reduction treatments. This fact sheet discusses the economic impact tool, a component of My Fuel Treatment Planner, for evaluating economic impacts.

  16. Regional economic development in Europe : the role of total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko J.; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    Regional economic development in Europe: the role of total factor productivity. Regional Studies. This paper documents the fact that the large and persistent differences in economic development across subnational regions in European Union countries can largely be attributed to differences in total

  17. A review of the economic impact of mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Christopher M; Kinchin, Irina

    2017-11-13

    Objective To examine the impact and cost associated with mental illness. Methods A rapid review of the literature from Australia, New Zealand, UK and Canada was undertaken. The review included literature pertaining to the cost-of-illness and impact of mental illness as well as any modelling studies. Included studies were categorised according to impact on education, labour force engagement, earlier retirement or welfare dependency. The well-accepted Drummond 10-point economic appraisal checklist was used to assess the quality of the studies. Results A total of 45 methodologically diverse studies were included. The studies highlight the significant burden mental illness places on all facets of society, including individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. Mental illness results in a greater chance of leaving school early, a lower probability of gaining full-time employment and a reduced quality of life. Research from Canada suggests that the total economic costs associated with mental illness will increase six-fold over the next 30 years with costs likely to exceed A$2.8 trillion (based on 2015 Australian dollars). Conclusions Mental illness is associated with a high economic burden. Further research is required to develop a better understanding of the trajectory and burden of mental illness so that resources can be directed towards cost-effective interventions. What is known about the topic? Although mental illness continues to be one of the leading contributors to the burden of disease, there is limited information on the economic impact that mental illness imposes on individuals, families, workplaces and the wider economy. What does this paper add? This review provides a summary of the economic impact and cost of mental illness. The included literature highlights the significant burden mental illness places on individuals, families, workplaces, society and the economy in general. The review identified several areas for improvement. For example, only

  18. Power station impacts: socio-economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasson, John; Elson, Martin; Barrett, Brendan; Wee, D. Van der

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the local social and economic impacts of a proposed nuclear power station development at Hinkley Point in Somerset. The proposed development, Hinkley Point C, would be an addition to the existing Hinkley Point A Magnox station, commissioned in 1965, and the Hinkley Point B Advanced Gas Cooled Reactor (AGR) station, commissioned in 1976. It is hoped that the study will be of assistance to the CEGB, the Somerset County and District Councils and other agencies in their studies of the proposed development. In addition, the study seeks to apply and further develop the methodology and results from previous studies by the Power Station Impacts (PSI) team for predicting the social and economic effects of proposed power station developments on their localities. (author)

  19. Glastonbury Festival 2007: The Socio-Economic Impacts on the Host Community

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Eleanor

    2008-01-01

    Event tourism, particularly festival tourism, is increasingly becoming a focus for tourism research. There are numerous impacts of festival tourism to the tourism industry and they often have numerous effects upon the host community. This research investigates the economic and social impacts of Glastonbury Festival 2007 on the host community. The research estimates a total economic impact on the immediate and the wider geographical area and gains an insight into the social impacts of the F...

  20. Platform decommissioning: Socio-economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheelhaase, Janina D.

    1998-01-01

    The object of this presentation is to evaluate the socio-economic effects of the decommissioning of steel jacket platforms in the North Sea and in the North East Atlantic in the period up to 2020 in their entirety. It is focused on two different decommissioning options, namely total and partial removal of installations. Partial removal applies only to installations in water deeper than 75 meters. All other installations, i.e those in waters shallower than 75 meters, have to be totally removed and brought onshore for disposal. Areas being analyzed cover costs of different decommissioning options, effects of the different options on employment, fiscal aspects of the different options, and aspects of recycling onshore. 6 figs., 13 tabs

  1. Investigating the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on innovation in iranian oil companies. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... for competing with rival's organized management and to survive in the cycle of change.

  2. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  3. International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-01

    International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, biomass, and geothermal energy projects. Building on a similar model for the United States, I-JEDI was developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under the U.S. government's Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support partner countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector.

  4. Economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirani, Mohamed; Crowston, Jonathan G; Taylor, Penny S; Moore, Peter T; Rogers, Sophie; Pezzullo, M Lynne; Keeffe, Jill E; Taylor, Hugh R

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is the World's leading cause of irreversible blindness, and poses serious public health and economic concerns.   Review. Published randomized trials and population-based studies since 1985. We report the economic impact of primary open-angle glaucoma and model the effect of changes in detection rates and management strategies. The cost-effectiveness of different interventions to prevent vision loss from primary open-angle glaucoma was measured in terms of financial cost (Australian dollars) and disability-adjusted life years. The prevalence of glaucoma in Australia is expected to increase from 208 000 in 2005 to 379 000 in 2025 because of the aging population. Health system costs over the same time period are estimated to increase from $AU355 million to $AU784 million. Total costs (health system costs, indirect costs and costs of loss of well-being) will increase from $AU1.9 billion to $AU4.3 billion in Australia. Primary open-angle glaucoma poses a significant economic burden, which will increase substantially by 2025. This dynamic model provides a valuable tool for ongoing policy formulation and determining the economic impact of interventions to better prevent visual impairment and blindness from glaucoma. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology © 2011 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  5. Operational Contract Support: Economic Impact Evaluation and Measures of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES...DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPERATIONAL CONTRACT SUPPORT: ECONOMIC IMPACT EVALUATION AND MEASURES OF EFFECTIVENESS 5...evaluation, expeditionary economics , operational contract support, measure of effectiveness 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY

  6. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Local economic impact of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurcliff, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The local economic impact of nuclear installations is examined and the conclusion reached that much of the subsequent area growth may be coincidental to the facility. Nuclear siting criteria favor proximity to a regional power grid, abundant water for cooling, and extensive vacant land with a major access road. These criteria coincide with the characteristics of commuter suburbs, centers for retirement, and recreation areas. Clustering of nuclear units introduces an extraordinary level of new construction, office requirements, and capital. Economic changes will occur at the start and completion of the construction stage and at the time of decommissioning the facility. Past experiences are detailed in terms of employment, payroll, housing, public services, and procurement. When construction is completed, employment falls to a relatively low level. Proximity to the plant offers no advantage in terms of local power rates. While nuclear facilities do not preclude other development in the area, there are restrictions on access, regulatory agencies may reject absorbing the cost of public use as a business expense in the rate structure, and security measures may constrain public use. There is pressure for tax equalization laws to compensate communities for the loss of potential property tax revenues. Some agencies (e.g., the Tennessee Valley Authority) make in-lieu-of-tax payments, while some plants have produced tax benefits large enough to effect significant public improvements. 8 references

  8. The Economic Impact of Weight Regain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E. Sheppard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is well known for being associated with significant economic repercussions. Bariatric surgery is the only evidence-based solution to this problem as well as a cost-effective method of addressing the concern. Numerous authors have calculated the cost effectiveness and cost savings of bariatric surgery; however, to date the economic impact of weight regain as a component of overall cost has not been addressed. Methods. The literature search was conducted to elucidate the direct costs of obesity and primary bariatric surgery, the rate of weight recidivism and surgical revision, and any costs therein. Results. The quoted cost of obesity in Canada was $2.0 billion–$6.7 billion in 2013 CAD. The median percentage of bariatric procedures that fail due to weight gain or insufficient weight loss is 20% (average: 21.1%±10.1%, range: 5.2–39, n=10. Revision of primary surgeries on average ranges from 2.5% to 18.4%, and depending on the procedure accounts for an additional cost between $14,000 and $50,000 USD per patient. Discussion. There was a significant deficit of the literature pertaining to the cost of revision surgery as compared with primary bariatric surgery. As such, the cycle of weight recidivism and bariatric revisions has not as of yet been introduced into any previous cost analysis of bariatric surgery.

  9. The economic impact of recreation development: a synopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell G. Breadsley

    1971-01-01

    Economic impacts per dollar of tourist expenditure have generally been found to be low compared to other economic sectors in local less-developed areas where recreation development is often proposed as a stimulus for economic growth. Tourism, however, can be economically important where potential or existing recreation attractions can encourage tourist spending in...

  10. Economic impacts of climate change in Australia: framework and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    Full text: There is growing interest in understanding the potential impacts of climate change in Australia, and especially the economic impacts of 'inaction'. In this study, a preliminary analysis of the possible economic impacts of future climate change in Australia is undertaken using ABARE's general equilibrium model of the global economy, GTEM. In order to understand the potential economy-wide economic impacts, the broad climatic trends that Australia is likely to experience over the next several decades are canvassed and the potential economic and non-economic impacts on key risk areas, such as water resources, agriculture and forests, health, industry and human settlements and the ecosystems, are identified. A more detailed analysis of the economic impacts of climate change are undertaken by developing two case studies. In the first case study, the economic impact of climate change and reduced water availability on the agricultural sector is assessed in the Murray-Darling Basin. In the second case study, the sectoral economic impacts on the Australian resources sector of a projected decline in global economic activity due to climate change is analysed. The key areas of required development to more fully understand the economy-wide and sectoral impacts of climate change are also discussed including issues associated with estimating both non-market and market impacts. Finally, an analytical framework for undertaking integrated assessment of climate change impacts domestically and globally is developed

  11. Macro-economic Impact Study for Bio-based Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijl, van H.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Dijk, van M.; Powell, J.P.; Tabeau, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    This Macro-economic Impact Study (MES) provides quantitative insights into the macro-economic effects of introducing green, palmbased alternatives for electricity, fuels, chemicals and materials industries in Malaysia between now and 2030.

  12. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Water Supply ... In a context of positive economic growth, demand for water is expected to ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all ...

  13. Analyzing the Effect of Economic Variables on Total Tax Revenues in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Basirat; Fatemeh Aboodi; Abdulmajid Ahangari

    2014-01-01

    As the government’s source of revenue, taxes play a major role in the construction and economic development of a country. Accurate knowledge of factors affecting tax revenues provides the policymakers with a clear horizon for economic planning. This study mainly aimed to examine the effect of economic variables on total tax revenues between 1974 and 2011. Accordingly, the Auto regression Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model was used. Results indicated that exchange rate with 0.71398, import with 0.53...

  14. Evaluating total carrying capacity of tourism using impact indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The carrying capacity is well identified tool to manage problems due to uncontrolled tourism for any destination. This report highlights the carrying capacity estimation of Kerwa tourism area, Bhopal, India. The methodology used in this report is a new two-tier mechanism of impact analysis using index numbers derived from a survey of 123 stakeholders. From this the individual component impact analysis and the total carrying capacity of the area is computed in order to state the insight of the total carrying capacity left for the tourism activities in Kerwa tourism area. It is calculated from, the results so obtained, that the Kerwa catchment area falls in “very low impact category” and hence in a healthy state of the artwork in terms of total carrying capacity. The study conveys the current need in the destination management and tourism development as a road map for the destination managers for implementing sustainable tourism.

  15. The current total economic burden of diabetes mellitus in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, M L; Huisman, E L; Schoonen, M; Wolffenbuttel, B H R

    2017-09-01

    Insight into the total economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM) is essential for decision makers and payers. Currently available estimates for the Netherlands only include part of the total burden or are no longer up-to-date. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the current total economic burden of DM and its complications in the Netherlands, by including all the relevant cost components. The study combined a systematic literature review to identify all relevant published information and a targeted review to identify relevant information in the grey literature. The identified evidence was then combined to estimate the current total economic burden. In 2016, there were an estimated 1.1 million DM patients in the Netherlands, of whom approximately 10% had type 1 and 90% had type 2 DM. The estimated current total economic burden of DM was € 6.8 billion in 2016. Healthcare costs (excluding costs of complications) were € 1.6 billion, direct costs of complications were € 1.3 billion and indirect costs due to productivity losses, welfare payments and complications were € 4.0 billion. DM and its complications pose a substantial economic burden to the Netherlands, which is expected to rise due to changing demographics and lifestyle. Indirect costs, such as welfare payments, accounted for a large portion of the current total economic burden of DM, while these cost components are often not included in cost estimations. Publicly available data for key cost drivers such as complications were scarce.

  16. MIGRATION ISSUES AND THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia LAZARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The most important and avidly debated effects of undocumented immigration involve the UE’ economy and labor force. It is estimated that there are 12 million undocumented immigrants in the UE today, and their impact on the economy can be perceived as positive as well as negative. The overall effect is unclear, and this page aims to present both sides of the debate. The main argument supporting the undocumented immigration is that migrant workers do jobs that UE do not want to do. Given that most of the EU labor force does not compete with undocumented workers for jobs, there has not been a significant shift in the wage rate. Who is then hurt by these immigrants doing jobs that “we will not do”? For instance, those without high school diplomas are the ones who are most affected. It is estimated that undocumented immigrants have lower wages by approximately 3 to 8 percent for low-skill jobs. Furthermore, Americans who compete with immigrants for these jobs stand to make an additional $25 a week if undocumented immigration were to be severely cut down. This modeling demonstrates how migration has varied economic impacts across economics. While mining GDP is boosted by migration, in percentage terms this boost falls well short of the boost to population. This is because mining is dependent on a fixed natural resource. Thus mining GDP is substantially lower on a per capita basis. On a per capita basis, the boost to the Government services industry is modest. This reflects the falls in general government final demand per capita. The boost to Agriculture on a per capita basis is also modest. This is because Agriculture is dependent on the supply of agricultural land, limiting its ability to expand with a higher population. Both the manufacturing industry and the other services industry achieve large gains from migration, as these industries do not face the same natural constraints as mining and agriculture. They both benefit from their exposure to

  17. The economic impact of subthreshold and clinical childhood mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatori, Daniel; Salum, Giovanni; Itria, Alexander; Pan, Pedro; Alvarenga, Pedro; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Bressan, Rodrigo; Gadelha, Ary; de Jesus Mari, Jair; Conceição do Rosário, Maria; Manfro, Gisele; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Graeff-Martins, Ana Soledade

    2018-04-28

    Mental disorders are common health problems associated with serious impairment and economic impact. To estimate the costs of clinical and subthreshold mental disorders in a sample of Brazilian children. The High Risk Cohort Study is a community study conducted in two major Brazilian cities. Subjects were 6-14 years old children being registered at school. From an initial pool of 9937 children, two subgroups were further investigated using a random-selection (n = 958) and high-risk group selection procedure (n = 1554), resulting in a sample of 2512 subjects. Mental disorder assessment was made using the Development and Well-Being Assessment. Costs for each child were estimated from the following components: mental health and social services use, school problems and parental loss of productivity. Child subthreshold and clinical mental disorders showed lifetime mean total cost of $1750.9 and $3141.2, respectively. National lifetime cost estimate was $9.9 billion for subthreshold mental disorders and $11.6 billion for clinical mental disorders (values in US$ purchasing power parity). This study provides evidence that child mental disorders have a great economic impact on society. There is an urgent need to plan an effective system of care with cost-effective programs of treatment and prevention to reduce economic burden.

  18. A look at local economic impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradfield, M.

    1998-01-01

    The benefits of mega-projects such as Hibernia and the Sable Offshore Energy Project on the local economies in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia were discussed. It was argued that most of the spin-off activities of such mega-projects are realized externally because the projects are driven by external interests and external funding, and are designed for external markets. Few of the short-term activities that can be done locally provide opportunities for sustained economic growth. Studies have shown that the impact of mega-projects on smaller economies is mainly on the construction sector and related supplies industries. Another reason why mega-projects have limited real effects on the local economy is that foreign investors have traditional supply sources, often with affiliated companies. Local availability of appropriate skills is yet another potential limiting factor. Moreover, most mega-projects have social, environmental and political consequences that are often under-estimated and ignored. In this author's view, most mega-projects have limited long-term domestic spin-offs. The challenge is to maximize the net benefits, and to minimize the social and environmental costs

  19. Investigating the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on innovation in iranian oil companies. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and ...

  20. Economic and environmental impacts of alternative transportation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This project has focused on comparing alternative transportation technologies in terms of their : environmental and economic impacts. The research is data-driven and quantitative, and examines the : dynamics of impact. We have developed new theory an...

  1. Surfactant replacement therapy--economic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejaver, R K; al Hifzi, I; Aldussari, S

    2001-06-01

    Surfactant replacement is an effective treatment for neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. (RDS). As widespread use of surfactant is becoming a reality, it is important to assess the economic implications of this new form of therapy. A comparison study was carried out at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Northwest Armed Forces Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Among 75 infants who received surfactant for RDS and similar number who were managed during time period just before the surfactant was available, but by set criteria would have made them eligible for surfactant. All other management modalities except surfactant were the same for all these babies. Based on the intensity of monitoring and nursing care required by the baby, the level of care was divided as: Level IIIA, IIIB, Level II, Level I. The cost per day per bed for each level was calculated, taking into account the use of hospital immovable equipment, personal salaries of nursing, medical, ancillary staff, overheads and maintenance, depreciation and replacement costs. Medications used, procedures done, TPN, oxygen, were all added to individual patient's total expenditure. 75 infants in the Surfactant group had 62 survivors. They spent a total of 4300 days in hospital. (av 69.35) Out of which 970 d (av 15.65 per patient) were ventilated days. There were 56 survivors in the non-surfactant group of 75. They had spent a total of 5023 days in the hospital (av 89.69/patient) out of which 1490 were ventilated days (av 26.60 d). Including the cost of surfactant (two doses), cost of hospital stay for each infant taking the average figures of stay would be SR 118, 009.75 per surfactant treated baby and SR 164, 070.70 per non-surfactant treated baby. The difference of 46,061 SR is 39.03% more in non-surfactant group. One Saudi rial = 8 Rs (approx at the time study was carried out.) Medical care cost varies from place to place. However, it is definitely cost-effective where surfactant is concerned. Quality adjusted

  2. Economic impact analysis of independent power projects in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-12-01

    Independent power producer (IPP) projects have been active in British Columbia's (BC) regulated electricity market since the late 1980s. The 49 IPP projects developed in the province currently account for approximately 10 per cent of BC's electricity generation, and IPP development continues to expand in nearly every region. This study presented an economic impact analysis of IPP projects in BC. The economic impacts of IPP projects were divided into 2 categories: (1) existing IPP projects, and (2) potential IPP projects. The study showed that the total power potential supplied by BC IPP projects would increase from a current level of 5940 annual GWh to approximately 14,149 GWh. BC could also be generating a further 21,321 GWh of annual output to service demand domestically in addition to exporting to the United States. The value of capital investment in existing IPPs across BC was estimated at $2.8 billion. Capital investment in potential IPPs was estimated at $26.1 billion in 2009 constant dollars. Government revenues generated through the construction phase of potential IPP projects were estimated at $1.6 billion. IPP projects are expected to have a significant impact on First Nations groups, contribute to provincial energy self-sufficiency, and have little to no greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. 25 refs., 19 tabs., 24 figs.

  3. The Impact of High School Economics on the College Principles of Economics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasfield, David W.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of 1,119 students in introductory college economics courses to determine the impact of high school economics on student achievement. Finds that prior high school economics was positively and significantly related to students grades in both introductory microeconomics and macroeconomics courses. (CFR)

  4. The impact of microfinance institution in economic growth of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study show that microfinance loans have a significant positive impact on the short run economic performance in Nigeria. Microfinance loans enhanced consumption per capita in short run with an impressive coefficient, although these banks' loans do not have a significant impact on economic growth in ...

  5. The impact of cancer drug wastage on economic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Judy; Cheung, Matthew C; Mai, Helen; Letargo, Jessa; Chambers, Alexandra; Sabharwal, Mona; Trudeau, Maureen E; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2017-09-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of modeling cancer drug wastage in economic evaluations because wastage can result from single-dose vials on account of body surface area- or weight-based dosing. Intravenous chemotherapy drugs were identified from the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR) program as of January 2015. Economic evaluations performed by drug manufacturers and pCODR were reviewed. Cost-effectiveness analyses and budget impact analyses were conducted for no-wastage and maximum-wastage scenarios (ie, the entire unused portion of the vial was discarded at each infusion). Sensitivity analyses were performed for a range of body surface areas and weights. Twelve drugs used for 17 indications were analyzed. Wastage was reported (ie, assumptions were explicit) in 71% of the models and was incorporated into 53% by manufacturers; this resulted in a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio increase of 6.1% (range, 1.3%-14.6%). pCODR reported and incorporated wastage for 59% of the models, and this resulted in a mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio increase of 15.0% (range, 2.6%-48.2%). In the maximum-wastage scenario, there was a mean increase in the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 24.0% (range, 0.0%-97.2%), a mean increase in the 3-year total incremental budget costs of 26.0% (range, 0.0%-83.1%), and an increase in the 3-year total incremental drug budget cost of approximately CaD $102 million nationally. Changing the mean body surface area or body weight caused 45% of the drugs to have a change in the vial size and/or quantity, and this resulted in increased drug costs. Cancer drug wastage can increase drug costs but is not uniformly modeled in economic evaluations. Cancer 2017;123:3583-90. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF TOURISM: THE EVIDENCE OF MACEDONIA

    OpenAIRE

    Biljana Petrevska

    2012-01-01

    Due to variety of positive impacts, each country is interested in developing tourism. This paper disentangles the economic impacts of tourism industry in Macedonia and makes an attempt to assess the contribution to the economic development. So, some commonly applied economic parameters are addressed. Moreover, different types of analysis are performed, based on available sources of secondary data supplemented by descriptive statistics. The data set spreads over a twenty year horizon, covering...

  7. Wind Power: The Economic Impact of Intermittency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Wind is the fastest growing renewable energy source for generating electricity, but economic research lags behind. In this study, therefore, we examine the economics of integrating large-scale wind energy into an existing electrical grid. Using a simple grid management model to investigate the

  8. Economic impacts assessment of pleuropneumonia burden and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) is a trans-boundary infectious and contagious respiratory disease of cattle caused by Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides. It is a disease of high economic importance because of its ability to compromise food security. Information on its economic burden in pastoral cattle ...

  9. The economic impact of rural family physicians practicing obstetrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Daniel M; Hooper, Dwight E; McDonald, John T; Love, Michael W; Tucker, Melanie T; Parton, Jason M

    2014-01-01

    The economic impact of a family physician practicing family medicine in rural Alabama is $1,000,000 a year in economic benefit to the community. The economic benefit of those rural family physicians practicing obstetrics has not been studied. This study was designed to determine whether there was any added economic benefit of rural family physicians practicing obstetrics in rural, underserved Alabama. The Alabama Family Practice Rural Health Board has funded the University of Alabama Family Medicine Obstetrics Fellowship since its beginning in 1986. Family medicine obstetrics fellowship graduates who practice obstetrics in rural, underserved areas were sent questionnaires and asked to participate in the study. The questions included the most common types and average annual numbers of obstetrics/gynecological procedures they performed. Ten physicians, or 77% of the graduates asked to participate in the study, returned the questionnaire. Fourteen common obstetrics/gynecological procedures performed by the graduates were identified. A mean of 115 deliveries were performed. The full-time equivalent reduction in family medicine time to practice obstetrics was 20%. A family physician practicing obstetrics in a rural area adds an additional $488,560 in economic benefit to the community in addition to the $1,000,000 from practicing family medicine, producing a total annual benefit of $1,488,560. The investment of $616,385 from the Alabama Family Practice Rural Health Board resulted in a $399 benefit to the community for every dollar invested. The cumulative effect of fellowship graduates practicing both family medicine and obstetrics in rural, underserved areas over the 26 years studied was $246,047,120. © Copyright 2014 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  10. The economic impact of Mexico City's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Carlos Manuel Guerrero; Ruiz, Jorge Alberto Jiménez; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Waters, Hugh R

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate the economic impact of Mexico City's 2008 smoke-free law--The Non-Smokers' Health Protection Law on restaurants, bars and nightclubs. We used the Monthly Services Survey of businesses from January 2005 to April 2009--with revenues, employment and payments to employees as the principal outcomes. The results are estimated using a differences-in-differences regression model with fixed effects. The states of Jalisco, Nuevo León and México, where the law was not in effect, serve as a counterfactual comparison group. In restaurants, after accounting for observable factors and the fixed effects, there was a 24.8% increase in restaurants' revenue associated with the smoke-free law. This difference is not statistically significant but shows that, on average, restaurants did not suffer economically as a result of the law. Total wages increased by 28.2% and employment increased by 16.2%. In nightclubs, bars and taverns there was a decrease of 1.5% in revenues and an increase of 0.1% and 3.0%, respectively, in wages and employment. None of these effects are statistically significant in multivariate analysis. There is no statistically significant evidence that the Mexico City smoke-free law had a negative impact on restaurants' income, employees' wages and levels of employment. On the contrary, the results show a positive, though statistically non-significant, impact of the law on most of these outcomes. Mexico City's experience suggests that smoke-free laws in Mexico and elsewhere will not hurt economic productivity in the restaurant and bar industries.

  11. The impact of a total reward system of work engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal Hoole

    2016-11-01

    attention to which strategies have an impact on work engagement. Contribution/Value-add: Organisations must take cognisance that factors such as performance and career management significantly predicted work engagement and should be considered as part of their total reward offerings.

  12. Economic impact of antidepressant treatment duration in naturalistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M; Crott, R; Gaudron, Y; Verdoux, H

    2013-05-01

    To assess the economic impact of the duration of antidepressant drug treatment in a real-life setting. A historical fixed cohort study included 27 917 patients aged 18 and over with a new antidepressant treatment registered in the national insurance database. The economic impact concerned healthcare expenditure in the first 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Generalized linear models were used to compare two groups of treatment duration: adjustment for care costs before and during treatment episode, gender, age, chronic diseases, welfare and prescriber specialty, total healthcare costs (in log) [-0.06 (-0.14;0.01) P = 0.11] and psychiatric care costs (in square root) [-0.08 (-0.41;0.25) P = 0.6] were similar in both groups. Non-psychiatric care costs were significantly lower in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group [-11.4 (-15.8; -7.0) P costs over the antidepressant treatment episode were larger in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group. With regard to healthcare costs and global health, antidepressant drug treatments of short duration appear less effective than treatment of recommended duration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Analyzing the economic impacts of transportation projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of the study is to explore methods, approaches and : analytical software tools for analyzing economic activity that results from largescale : transportation investments in Connecticut. The primary conclusion is that the : transportation...

  14. Regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjerpe, Evan E; Kim, Yeon-Su

    2007-10-01

    Economic impact analysis (EIA) of outdoor recreation can provide critical social information concerning the utilization of natural resources. Outdoor recreation and other non-consumptive uses of resources are viewed as environmentally friendly alternatives to extractive-type industries. While outdoor recreation can be an appropriate use of resources, it generates both beneficial and adverse socioeconomic impacts on rural communities. The authors used EIA to assess the regional economic impacts of rafting in Grand Canyon National Park. The Grand Canyon region of northern Arizona represents a rural US economy that is highly dependent upon tourism and recreational expenditures. The purpose of this research is twofold. The first is to ascertain the previously unknown regional economic impacts of Grand Canyon river runners. The second purpose is to examine attributes of these economic impacts in terms of regional multipliers, leakage, and types of employment created. Most of the literature on economic impacts of outdoor recreation has focused strictly on the positive economic impacts, failing to illuminate the coinciding adverse and constraining economic impacts. Examining the attributes of economic impacts can highlight deficiencies and constraints that limit the economic benefits of recreation and tourism. Regional expenditure information was obtained by surveying non-commercial boaters and commercial outfitters. The authors used IMPLAN input-output modeling to assess direct, indirect, and induced effects of Grand Canyon river runners. Multipliers were calculated for output, employment, and income. Over 22,000 people rafted on the Colorado River through Grand Canyon National Park in 2001, resulting in an estimated $21,100,000 of regional expenditures to the greater Grand Canyon economy. However, over 50% of all rafting-related expenditures were not captured by the regional economy and many of the jobs created by the rafting industry are lower-wage and seasonal. Policy

  15. Economic Evaluation of Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarelli, G.; Goria, A.

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with the social and economic dimensions of climate change impacts and adaptation in Italy. The ultimate aim of the paper is to provide policy makers and experts with a conceptual framework, as well as methodological and operational tools for dealing with climate change impacts and adaptation from an economic perspective. In order to do so, first a conceptual and theoretical framework of the economic assessment of climate change impacts is presented and the state of the art about impact assessment studies is briefly analysed. Then, the Italian case is taken into account, by underlying the main impacts and adaptation challenges that are likely to be implied by climate change in the next decades. The analysis of the Italian case is particularly addressed through the description of the methodology and results of two case studies. The first one, dealing mainly with impact assessment, is carried out at the national level and is part of a EC funded project on Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE). The second one is carried out at the local level and focuses on sea level rise impacts and adaptation in a plane south of Rome. The two case studies allow to propose simple and flexible methodologies for the economic impact assessment and the economic valuation of adaptation strategies

  16. State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, Michael C.; Lantz, Eric; Johnson, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ► We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ► Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. ► Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

  17. The impacts of fracking on the environment: A total environmental study paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2017-02-15

    Fracking has become a hot topic in the media and public discourse not only because of its economic benefit but also its environmental impacts. Recently, scientists have investigated the environmental impacts of fracking, and most studies focus on its air and ground water pollution. A systematic research structure and an overall evaluation of fracking's impacts on the environment are needed, because fracking does not only influence ground water but most environmental elements including but not limited to air, water, soil, rock, vegetation, wildlife, human, and many other ecosystem components. From the standpoint of the total environment, this communication assesses the overall impacts of fracking on the environment and then designs a total environmental study paradigm that effectively examines the complicated relationship among the total environment. Fracking dramatically changes the anthroposphere, which in turn significantly impacts the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, and biosphere through the significant input or output of water, air, liquid or solid waste disposals, and the complex chemical components in fracking fluids. The proposed total environment study paradigm of fracking can be applied to other significant human activities that have dramatic impacts on the environment, such as mountain top coal mining or oil sands for environmental studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multi-basin, Multi-sector Drought Economic Impact Model in Python: Development and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutenson, J. L.; Zhu, L.; Ernest, A. N. S.; Oubeidillah, A.; Bearden, B.; Johnson, T. G.

    2015-12-01

    Drought is one of the most economically disastrous natural hazards, one whose impacts are exacerbated by the lack of abrupt onset and offset that define tornados and hurricanes. In the United States, about 30 billion dollars losses is caused by drought in 2012, resulting in widespread economic impacts for societies, industries, agriculture, and recreation. And in California, the drought cost statewide economic losses about 2.2 billion, with a total loss of 17,100 seasonal and part-time jobs. Driven by a variety of factors including climate change, population growth, increased water demands, alteration to land cover, drought occurs widely all over the world. Drought economic consequence assessment tool are greatly needed to allow decision makers and stakeholders to anticipate and manage effectively. In this study, current drought economic impact modeling methods were reviewed. Most of these models only deal with the impact in the agricultural sector with a focus on a single basin; few of these models analyze long term impact. However, drought impacts are rarely restricted to basin boundaries, and cascading economic impacts are likely to be significant. A holistic approach to multi-basin, multi-sector drought economic impact assessment is needed.In this work, we developed a new model for drought economic impact assessment, Drought Economic Impact Model in Python (PyDEM). This model classified all business establishments into thirteen categories based on NAICS, and using a continuous dynamic social accounting matrix approach, coupled with calculation of the indirect consequences for the local and regional economies and the various resilience. In addition, Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model was combined for analyzing drought caused soil erosion together with agriculture production, and then the long term impacts of drought were achieved. A visible output of this model was presented in GIS. In this presentation, Choctawhatchee-Pea-Yellow River Basins, Alabama

  19. The Impact of the Economic Transition on the Development of Economic Freedom – Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Stepniak-Kucharska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the Polish socio-economic system, initiated at the turn of 1989 and 1990, led to a systematic increase in the liberalization of economy and thereby the rise of the level of economic freedom. The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of the economic transition on the development of economic freedom in Poland. The analysis, carried out in the period 1995-2015, was conducted on the basis of the chain-linked Economic Freedom Index by the Fraser Institute and the Index of Economic Freedom of the Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal. The analysis indicates that: (1 Poland cannot be considered as a country that is fully free economically, but the transition of its economic system has resulted in a rapid growth of economic freedom. (2 The impact of transition varies for different areas (sub-indices of the economy. (3 The European economic integration stimulated the increase of EFI, but the economic crisis did not decrease the level of economic freedom.

  20. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  1. The economic impacts of emission reduction policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental expenditures, or environmental tax revenues, e.g., carbon taxes are potentially significant components of the US macroeconomy. This paper presents a simple model of the role of environmental abatement expenditures and/or emission taxes from the viewpoint of economic efficiency, welfare and potential macroeconomic effects.

  2. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available

  3. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Harney County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  4. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Deschutes County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300 degrees F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant

  5. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Deschutes County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be Deschutes County. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Deschutes County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economical impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result for the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  6. Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Harney County, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifford, Alex; Beale, Kasi

    1991-12-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Harney Count. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Harney County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Geothermal energy is defined as the heat of the earth. For purposes of this study, geothermal energy is heat capable of economically generating electricity (using available technology). That translates to steam or hot water over 300{degrees}F. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued respending as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. The workers associated with plant development bring their families to the area. Additional labor is required to provide support services for the new population. Local government services must also increase to support the new community growth and the geothermal plant itself. These changes yield indirect and induced employment impacts associated with the geothermal plant.

  7. Towards improved socio-economic assessments of ocean acidification's impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilmi, Nathalie; Allemand, Denis; Dupont, Sam; Safa, Alain; Haraldsson, Gunnar; Nunes, Paulo A L D; Moore, Chris; Hattam, Caroline; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Fine, Maoz; Turley, Carol; Jeffree, Ross; Orr, James; Munday, Philip L; Cooley, Sarah R

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is increasingly recognized as a component of global change that could have a wide range of impacts on marine organisms, the ecosystems they live in, and the goods and services they provide humankind. Assessment of these potential socio-economic impacts requires integrated efforts between biologists, chemists, oceanographers, economists and social scientists. But because ocean acidification is a new research area, significant knowledge gaps are preventing economists from estimating its welfare impacts. For instance, economic data on the impact of ocean acidification on significant markets such as fisheries, aquaculture and tourism are very limited (if not non-existent), and non-market valuation studies on this topic are not yet available. Our paper summarizes the current understanding of future OA impacts and sets out what further information is required for economists to assess socio-economic impacts of ocean acidification. Our aim is to provide clear directions for multidisciplinary collaborative research.

  8. Conversion to organic wine production: exploring the economic performance impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nisén, Pia

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on understanding the relationship between organic wine production and economic performance. The aim of this study is to clarify, what are the economic impacts that result from the conversion of wine production from conventional to organic. This is an interesting topic to be explored in more detail because despite the increasing demand of organic wine and share of vineyard area used for organic winemaking, the economic consequences of the conversion are still somewhat unclea...

  9. The Impact of Functional Literacy on Socio-Economic Lives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Elizabeth

    Agona District of Ghana using an Interview Guide on the Impact of Functional. Literacy Programme on ... economic growth and the quality of formal education provided to their citizens (Thompson, 1981). ..... References. Abadze, H. (1994) Adult ...

  10. Assessing economic and demographic impacts of intermodal transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-14

    There exists a large literature of transportation impacts on economic and demographic change. Prior studies have focused on single modes of transportation individually rather than integrating these modes. Yet, little work has been undertaken to study...

  11. Economic development and workforce impacts of state DOT highway expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The research measured the impact of Georgia Department of Transportations highway : expenditures on economic activity in the State. The analysis covered awards made between January 2009 : and April 2013. The research is unique in that it not only ...

  12. 7. The Socio-Economic Impact of Stroke on

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    2University of Zambia, School of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Lusaka. *Corresponding ... Key words: Stroke, household, socio-economic, impact,. Livingstone ..... breakdowns resulting in delinquency, reduced. 21 family ties ...

  13. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der

    2013-01-01

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  14. Bhakra Beas complex - socio economic and ecological impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhani, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Bhakra Beas complex (comprising Bhakra Nangal Project and Beas Project Unit I and II) is one of the major multi-purpose Valley Projects of India. The socio economic and ecological impacts of the project are discussed. (author)

  15. Technical assistance report : I-73 economic impact analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the probable economic impact of the future Interstate 73 along each of twelve alternative corridors that were proposed for the new highway. The contents of this report were originally distributed in four parts during February and ...

  16. Using monetary measurement of environmental impacts within economic reporting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dovenmuehle, Timo R.H. von der [Volkswagen AG, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Ecologic sustainability is not the only goal of an organization - there are the goals of social and economic sustainability, too. It is sad, but true: every action in one direction seems to have a negative impact to the other two dimensions. In this paper, a measurement methodology purely based on economic impacts is discussed. The goal is to minimize the gap betwen the dimensions ecologic and economic sustainability. It is based on the idea of an economic ecology, where the impact to the environment is measured by financial indicators. The definition of these indicators is based on the impact to the social environment, which allows this method to take care of the dimension of social sustainability, too. (orig.)

  17. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  18. Recurrent outbreaks of lumpy skin disease and its economic impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute, severe and economically important transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). Suspected outbreaks of LSD are frequently reported in Nigeria, but laboratory diagnosis is seldom carried out and the economic impact of the disease is unknown. This study investigated ...

  19. Increasing Impact of Economic Conditions upon Higher Education Enrollments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, James J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic conditions on enrollment in higher education, researchers used time series analysis on national data for 1966-78 and on 1972-78 data from all eight regions of the country and the University of Arizona. The findings indicate enrollment has gone up during economic downturns. (Author/RW)

  20. AASA Survey: Impact of the Economic Downturn on School Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    AASA, The School Superintendent's Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to gauge how school districts across the country are responding to the current economic downturn, the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) continues to assess various measures of economic impact. Earlier AASA surveys addressed trends in districts' initial responses to the downturn, districts'…

  1. Socio-Economic Impact Of Onchocerciasis With Particular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The socio-economic impact of onchocerciasis (river blindness) on humans is reviewed with special reference to females and children. The results of many studies reveal that onchocerciasis is usuallya serious threat to public health and an impediment to socio-economic development in areas wth high intensity and high ...

  2. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although the role of emotion in social economic decision making has been increasingly recognized, the impact of mood disorders, such as depression, on such decisions has been surprisingly neglected. To address this gap, 15 depressed and 23 nondepressed individuals completed a well-known economic

  3. Impact of Currency Devaluation on Economic Growth of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of the study is to estimate the long run relationship between economic growth (RGDP) and currency devaluation. This study investigated the impact of currency devaluation on economic growth of Nigeria. This was achieved through a review of literature and a test of hypothesis. In order to generate the ...

  4. A Total Economic Valuation of Wetland Ecosystem Services: An Evidence from Jagadishpur Ramsar Site, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sony Baral

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem and provide wide arrays of wetland ecosystems (goods and services to the local communities in particular and global communities in general. However, management of the wetland often does not remain priority and recognized as the unproductive waste land mainly due to poor realization of the economic value of the wetlands. Taking this into account, the study estimated the total economic value of the Jagadishpur Reservoir taking into account direct, indirect, and nonuse value. The study prioritized six major values of the reservoir which include wetland goods consumption, tourism, irrigation, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and conservation for future use (existence and option value. The study used market and nonmarket based valuation techniques to estimate total economic value of the reservoir. Household survey, focus group discussions, and interaction with the tourism entrepreneurs and district stakeholders were carried out to collect information. The study estimated the total annual economic value of the reservoir as NRs 94.5 million, where option/existence value remains main contributor followed by direct use value such as wetland goods and tourism and indirect use value, for example, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and irrigation. The study reveals that the local communities gave high importance to the future use value and are willing to make investment for conservation and restoration of reservoir given its conservation significance.

  5. A Total Economic Valuation of Wetland Ecosystem Services: An Evidence from Jagadishpur Ramsar Site, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baral, Sony; Basnyat, Bijendra; Khanal, Rajendra; Gauli, Kalyan

    Wetlands are the most productive ecosystem and provide wide arrays of wetland ecosystems (goods and services) to the local communities in particular and global communities in general. However, management of the wetland often does not remain priority and recognized as the unproductive waste land mainly due to poor realization of the economic value of the wetlands. Taking this into account, the study estimated the total economic value of the Jagadishpur Reservoir taking into account direct, indirect, and nonuse value. The study prioritized six major values of the reservoir which include wetland goods consumption, tourism, irrigation, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and conservation for future use (existence and option value). The study used market and nonmarket based valuation techniques to estimate total economic value of the reservoir. Household survey, focus group discussions, and interaction with the tourism entrepreneurs and district stakeholders were carried out to collect information. The study estimated the total annual economic value of the reservoir as NRs 94.5 million, where option/existence value remains main contributor followed by direct use value such as wetland goods and tourism and indirect use value, for example, carbon sequestration, biodiversity conservation, and irrigation. The study reveals that the local communities gave high importance to the future use value and are willing to make investment for conservation and restoration of reservoir given its conservation significance.

  6. Economic Evaluation and Impact Analysis of SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Boo, K. D.; Park, S. B.

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the economic value and contribution to the national economy of the SMART project. This study tries to evaluate three kinds of values of the project separately; national economy contribution, the financial cost-benefit analysis and intangible social benefit of the project. The research methods are Net Present Valuation (NPT) for the first analysis, Input-Output (IO) model for the second analysis and Contingent Valuation Method(CVM) for the last analysis. This study tries to answer for the following questions: (1) how much does the project affect on Korean national economy in area of construction, electricity generation and export? (2) what is the financial cost - benefit assessment of the SMART project which is of the most interest to the private sector constructing the reactor? (3) how much is the project's intangible social gains in that it brings Korea's scientific development in area of nuclear generation and improves Korea's global standing? Main Results of Research are (1) Domestic Construction and Electricity Generation of the 1st Reactor A. Contribution to the National Economy Production inducing effect by the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor amounts to 1,801 ∼2,059 billion won, value added inducing effect amounts to 789∼919 billion won, and employment inducing effect amounts to 11,015∼12, 856 men. B. Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment Financial cost - benefit of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically non-profitable from the point of view of private companies participating the project, by having economic loss over all scenarios of construction costs. C. Combining Financial Cost-Benefit Assessment and Contribution to the National Economy's Value-Added Combining financial cost - benefit and value added inducing effect of the domestic construction and generation of the 1st reactor turns out to be economically valid from the point of view of

  7. Socio-economics impacts of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Filiposki, Oliver; Ackovska, Marija; Petroska Angelovska, Neda; Metodijeski, Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a global phenomenon in which different cultures, nations and races intertwines, in order to satisfy the tourist as a content consumer. Tourism sector contributes a lot to the overall world economy, and society. Tourism is the economic division that continually evolves in any national economy, the statistical data represent that 2010-2014 it was developed by over 3% annually. Tourism is also a branch that does not absorb the benefits of the national economy, but it...

  8. Case study: The Economic impacts of tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Kennell, James

    2014-01-01

    Tourism can be a challenging subject for students because it is both dynamic and susceptible to economic turbulence and shifts in trends. Tourism: A Modern Synthesis is an essential textbook for tourism students looking for a clear and comprehensive introduction to their studies which helps overcome these challenges. The authors apply a strong business approach to the subject reflecting developments in the teaching and content of modern courses and the text covers both key principles and cont...

  9. The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Rayna, Thierry; Solomon, O. Helen

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article attempts to investigate the impact of social media (SM) on economic growth. Using information obtained from memberships to social networks, we find that SM has a negative and significant impact on economic growth. This provides evidence in favour of our hypothesis that SM increases the search costs for information and also increase...

  10. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  11. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  12. Economic impact of solar thermal electricity deployment in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldes, N.; Varela, M.; Santamaria, M.; Saez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the work is to estimate the socio-economic impacts of increasing the installed solar thermal energy power capacity in Spain. Using an input-output (I-O) analysis, this paper estimates the increase in the demand for goods and services as well as in employment derived from solar thermal plants in Spain under two different scenarios: (a) based on two solar thermal power plants currently in operation (with 50 and 17 MW of installed capacity); (b) the compliance to the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan (PER) 2005-2010 reaching 500 MW by 2010. Results show that the multiplier effect of the PER is 2.3 and the total employment generated would reach 108,992 equivalent full-time jobs of 1 year of duration. Despite this is an aggregated result, this figure represents 4.5% of current Spanish unemployment. It can be concluded that the socio-economic effect of the PER's solar thermal installed capacity goal would be remarkable.

  13. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PLOSCARU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The current financial and economic crisis has affected many sectors, and also the construction sector. The construction market has been and will be an important source of income for the entire Europe, totaling about 1.650 thousand billion euro, which is more than the GDP of Italy. Building no doubt brings significant percentage in the GDP of any European country, which of course is different from country to country. In Western European countries, the residential market is almost 50% from the construction market, while in Eastern European countries the majority is held by the civil and non-residential constructions. In addition, in the West the medium budget per capita spent on construction is 3-4 times higher than that spent in Eastern countries. But, according to previsions in the coming years the countries that will witness a growth, albeit small, will be the Eastern ones. The paper highlights the impact of the economic and financial crisis in the construction industry on a European and national level, as the sustainable constructions that may represent the sector’s future.

  14. Economic impact of the new oral treatments for multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Ayuso, L; Rodríguez Marrodán, B; Blasco Quílez, M R; García-Merino, J A; Sánchez Guerrero, A

    2018-01-11

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease affecting the central nervous system and is characterised by inflammation, demyelination, gliosis, and axonal damage. The introduction of dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide has led to an increase in the number of alternative first-line therapies for MS. The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of the incorporation of new oral therapies at the reference unit (CSUR) at Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda. We performed a retrospective observational study including patients diagnosed with MS, who underwent treatment with disease-modifying drugs in 2015 and were followed up for a minimum mean time of one year. Data were collected from patients' electronic clinical histories and the pharmacy service's programme for dispensing drugs to outpatients. Evaluating the cost of changing 125 patients' treatment from other drugs to dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide, and comparing this with the cost that would have resulted from maintaining their previous treatment, demonstrated a total saving of €169,107.31 over the study period. In addition to contributing new therapeutic alternatives, dimethyl fumarate and teriflunomide produced an economic saving in MS treatment at our hospital. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of daily milk production on the economic impact of mastitits in cattle herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Alves Demeu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to analyze and quantify the effect of daily productivity per animal on the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds. A simulation study was conducted using the CU$TO MASTITE computational program. Dairy herds with an average production of 10, 20 and 30 liters of milk/day were considered. As preventive measures, expenses with mastitis incidence monitoring (culture and antibiogram, somatic cell count in the tank and somatic cells count per animal, pre and post dipping, vaccination, and treatment of dry cows were computed. Treatments of clinical cases, which corresponded to 7% of all lactating cows, were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses (reduction in production and milk disposal during treatment and antibiotic withdrawal period plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. An increase in daily productivity per animal reduced the economic impact of mastitis. Higher productivity was associated with lower economic impact values, per liter of commercialized milk, due to optimization of the products and materials used per animal, reducing operating expenses. The expenses with preventive treatment corresponded to a maximum of 13.5% of economic impact. This percentage was lower than the economic impact of expenses with curative treatment. These results demonstrate the advantages of investing in preventive treatment, which will contribute to reduce the economic impact of mastitis.

  16. User Guide for the International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, Caroline [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The International Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (I-JEDI) model is a freely available economic model that estimates gross economic impacts from wind, solar, and geothermal energy projects for several different countries. Building on the original JEDI model, which was developed for the United States, I-JEDI was developed under the USAID Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to support countries in assessing economic impacts of LEDS actions in the energy sector. I-JEDI estimates economic impacts by characterizing the construction and operation of energy projects in terms of expenditures and the portion of these expenditures made within the country of analysis. These data are then used in a country-specific input-output (I-O) model to estimate employment, earnings, gross domestic product (GDP), and gross output impacts. Total economic impacts are presented as well as impacts by industry. This user guide presents general information about how to use I-JEDI and interpret results as well as detailed information about methodology and model limitations.

  17. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Malheur County, Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sifford, A.; Beale, K.

    1993-01-01

    This study provides local economic impact estimates for a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power project in Oregon. The hypothetical project would be in Malheur County, shown in Figure 1. Bonneville Power Administration commissioned this study to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council and its advisors. Malheur County was chosen as it has both identified resources and industry interest. Local economic impacts include direct, indirect, and induced changes in the local economy. Direct economic impacts result from the costs of plant development, construction, and operation. Indirect impacts result from household and local government purchases. Induced impacts result from continued responding as goods and services to support the households and local governments are purchased. Employment impacts of geothermal development follow a pattern similar to the economic impacts. Public service impacts include costs such as education, fire protection, roads, waste disposal, and water supply. The project assumption discussion notes experiences at other geothermal areas. The background section compares geothermal with conventional power plants. Power plant fuel distinguishes geothermal from other power sources. Other aspects of development are similar to small scale conventional thermal sources. The process of geothermal development is then explained. Development consists of well drilling, gathering system construction, power plant construction, plant operation and maintenance, and wellfield maintenance

  18. Social and macro economic impact of closure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeliene, D.

    1999-01-01

    The social consequences of closure of Ignalina NPP will largely depend on the actions the Government takes. If it puts in place the conditions which enable the International Financial Institutions to assist Lithuania, both in providing loans and grants for decommissioning and (in the case of the EU) providing Structural Adjustment Funds for the regional economic development of the Visaginas area, then solutions to the problems of closure can be found. But if the Government delays putting into place the necessary conditions, then Lithuania will be left to solve the problems of - inter alia necessary - closure of Ignalina NPP on its own. (author)

  19. Emergency surgery pre-operative delays - realities and economic impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D P; Beecher, S; McLaughlin, R

    2014-12-01

    A key principle of acute surgical service provision is the establishment of a distinct patient flow process and an emergency theatre. Time-to-theatre (TTT) is a key performance indicator of theatre efficiency. The combined impacts of an aging population, increasing demands and complexity associated with centralisation of emergency and oncology services has placed pressure on emergency theatre access. We examined our institution's experience with running a designated emergency theatre for acute surgical patients. A retrospective review of an electronic prospectively maintained database was performed between 1/1/12 and 31/12/13. A cost analysis was conducted to assess the economic impact of delayed TTT, with every 24hr delay incurring the cost of an additional overnight bed. Delays and the economic effects were assessed only after the first 24 h as an in-patient had elapsed. In total, 7041 procedures were performed. Overall mean TTT was 26 h, 2 min. There were significant differences between different age groups, with those aged under 16 year and over 65 having mean TTT at 6 h, 34 min (95% C.I. 0.51-2.15, p 65 years age group had a mean TTT of 23 h, 41 min which was significantly longer than the overall mean TTT Vascular and urological emergencies are significantly disadvantaged in competition with other services for a shared emergency theatre. The economic impact of delayed TTT was calculated at €7,116,000, or €9880/day of additional costs generated from delayed TTT over a 24 month period. One third of patients waited longer than 24 h for emergency surgery, with the elderly disproportionately represented in this group. Aside from the clinical risks of delayed and out of hours surgery, such practices incur significant additional costs. New strategies must be devised to ensure efficient access to emergency theatres, investment in such services is likely to be financially and clinically beneficial. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier

  20. The Economic Impact of Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blenda J.

    2005-01-01

    New England colleges and universities impact their local and regional economies in many ways. They are often major employers and purchasers. They construct new facilities, attract visitors, provide cultural and intellectual enrichment for the community and boost property values. The knowledge produced by New England's higher education institutions…

  1. Measuring the Total Economic Value of State-Funded Higher Education in Iowa

    OpenAIRE

    Swenson, David A.

    2011-01-01

    This is an evaluation of the statewide total economic value of state-funded higher education in Iowa. The analysis is based on Fiscal Year 2010 final budgeted values for Iowa's three Board of Regents universities and their teaching hospital, as well as the state's 15 community colleges. Final budget year data were obtained from the respective state universities' web sites, from the Board of Regents, and from the Annual Condition of Iowa's Community Colleges, 2010, report published by the Iowa...

  2. Petroleum Refinery Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model User Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), are user-friendly tools utilized to estimate the economic impacts at the local level of constructing and operating fuel and power generation projects for a range of conventional and renewable energy technologies. The JEDI Petroleum Refinery Model User Reference Guide was developed to assist users in employing and understanding the model. This guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and references used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features, operation of the model, and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the model estimates job creation, earning and output (total economic activity) for a given petroleum refinery. This includes the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the refinery's construction and operation phases. Project cost and job data used in the model are derived from the most current cost estimations available. Local direct and indirect economic impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from IMPLAN software. By determining the regional economic impacts and job creation for a proposed refinery, the JEDI Petroleum Refinery model can be used to field questions about the added value refineries may bring to the local community.

  3. The Economic Impact of Domestic Military Installations on Regional Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    16 Co SCOPEP LIMITATIONSP AND ASSUMPTIONS OF THE RESEARCH---------------------------------------- 17 D. METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH...state and local level. This research will focus on the local or regional impact of militarw expenditures. A. PURPOSE OF THE RESERACH Militarw spending...unanswered auestions. This research will attempt to examine the theories of economic impact to Provide ouantitative methodologies for expressing and

  4. Social and economic impact of nuclear electricity in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.

    1985-01-01

    The paper concerns a study of the social and economic impact of nuclear energy in the U.K., undertaken by an independent writer. Fears and risks; nuclear power is proven; cost comparisons; the nuclear industry; social impact and public relations; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Temperature impacts on economic growth warrant stringent mitigation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frances C.; Diaz, Delavane B.

    2015-02-01

    Integrated assessment models compare the costs of greenhouse gas mitigation with damages from climate change to evaluate the social welfare implications of climate policy proposals and inform optimal emissions reduction trajectories. However, these models have been criticized for lacking a strong empirical basis for their damage functions, which do little to alter assumptions of sustained gross domestic product (GDP) growth, even under extreme temperature scenarios. We implement empirical estimates of temperature effects on GDP growth rates in the DICE model through two pathways, total factor productivity growth and capital depreciation. This damage specification, even under optimistic adaptation assumptions, substantially slows GDP growth in poor regions but has more modest effects in rich countries. Optimal climate policy in this model stabilizes global temperature change below 2 °C by eliminating emissions in the near future and implies a social cost of carbon several times larger than previous estimates. A sensitivity analysis shows that the magnitude of climate change impacts on economic growth, the rate of adaptation, and the dynamic interaction between damages and GDP are three critical uncertainties requiring further research. In particular, optimal mitigation rates are much lower if countries become less sensitive to climate change impacts as they develop, making this a major source of uncertainty and an important subject for future research.

  6. The economic impact of tourism on local residents in Wolong Nature Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Liu; Yihe Lü

    2008-01-01

    Theoretically, tourism can generate economic benefits for local residents, while whether the benefits can come true in reality is a crucial issue. To obtain the actual direct economic impact that tourism have on local residents, a questionnaire survey was conducted in Wolong Nature Reserve (WNR). Total income generated by tourism, employment opportunities for local participants, and income distributions were included in the questionnaire. The results showed that there’s a considerable gap bet...

  7. The Economic Impact of Coal Mining in New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peach, James; Starbuck, C.

    2009-06-01

    The economic impact of coal mining in New Mexico is examined in this report. The analysis is based on economic multipliers derived from an input-output model of the New Mexico economy. The direct, indirect, and induced impacts of coal mining in New Mexico are presented in terms of output, value added, employment, and labor income for calendar year 2007. Tax, rental, and royalty income to the State of New Mexico are also presented. Historical coal production, reserves, and price data are also presented and discussed. The impacts of coal-fired electricity generation will be examined in a separate report.

  8. Estimation of the economic impacts of Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Fukuda, Kenji

    1998-01-01

    The Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident had an immediate negative impact on the economy of the seven-country area which surrounds the plant site. In order to estimate the social effect of the nuclear power plant accident economically, immediate and short term economical impacts on some industrial classification have been evaluated. The economical effect to Metropolitan Edison Co., the circumstantial payment of the insurance and the lawsuit for the compensation for damages, etc. have been estimated at dollar 90 million for the manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industry, dollar 5 million for the tourist industry and dollar 50,000 for agriculture. The total loss for the state and country governments is about dollar 90,000. Metropolitan Edison Co. expended also dollar 111 million for the substitute energy and dollar 760 million for the decontamination cost. Since the lawsuit for the compensation for damages is still continuing, the total impacts cost is calculated more than a billion dollar. (author)

  9. Economic impact of a noncomprehensive smoke-free air law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Chaloupka, Frank J; Keith, Jennifer D; Brown, Deborah P; Meyer, Joy Blankley

    2014-07-01

    Many stakeholders were interested in the potential economic impact of Pennsylvania's 2008 Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA). This study focused on the examination of economic change subsequent to CIAA and, because CIAA allows certain venue exemptions among eating and drinking establishments, if the allowance of exemptions influenced that impact. Policy analysis. Prais-Winsten regressions were employed to assess effects of CIAA and law exemptions on county-level quarterly taxable sales in restaurants and drinking establishments. Regressions controlled for general economic activity, trends in eating/drinking establishment sales, seasonality, and county characteristics. Across models, CIAA had no significant negative effects on taxable sales in full-/limited-service restaurants or drinking establishments and some positive effects. CIAA exemptions for drinking establishments do not offer a clear economic benefit. Restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales were strongly related to overall economic conditions and seasonality. After controlling for confounding factors, and consistent with the weight of the evidence from literature on the economic impact of smoke-free policies, our study concludes that the Pennsylvania CIAA had no negative effects on per capita restaurant and drinking establishment taxable sales. High rates of drinking establishment exemptions were not economically beneficial. This study can inform efforts to make smoke-free laws more comprehensive. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. The impact of remittances on economic growth: An econometric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Meyer

    2017-05-01

    In other words, the econometric analysis will be based on those six remittance receiving countries. The paper is then to review the empirical literature devoted to the impact of remittances on economic growth, in order, to identify empirically if there are significant relationships between remittances and growth in these countries. The results suggest that remittances have a positive impact on growth and that this impact increases at higher levels of remittances relative to GDP.

  11. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  12. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Using Economic Impact Models as an Educational Tool in Community Economic Development Programming: Lessons from Pennsylvania and Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Martin; Deller, Steven C.

    2003-01-01

    Outlines an educational process designed to help provide communities with economic, social, and political information using community economic impact modeling. Describes the process of community meetings using economic impact, community demographics, and fiscal impact modules and the local preconditions that help make the process successful. (SK)

  14. Climate change. Socio-economic impacts and violent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ierland, E.C.; Klaassen, M.G.; Nierop, T.; Van der Wusten, H.

    1996-01-01

    The results of a literature study on the socio-economic impacts of climate change and the possibilities of violent conflicts enhanced by the greenhouse effect are presented. The socio-economic impacts are classified according to the economic sectors agriculture, forestry, fishery, energy, water, construction, transport, tourism and recreation and discussed in Chapter 2. The impacts on property, ecosystems and human well being are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 deals with climate change and environmental security, and discusses the most important concepts of security and their relation to climate change. Chapter 5 deals with already existing and potential conflicts, that may be enhanced by the greenhouse effect as a result of resource scarcity, particularly related to availability of food and water. On the basis of the literature study and an analysis of research gaps propositions are made on new areas of research to be undertaken. The study emphasizes the need to further study the impact on agriculture in semi-arid zones, the impact on water availability in sensitive regions, a further analysis of the consequences of sea level rise particularly in sensitive areas and with regard to forced migration. Also further studies are required into the socio-economic impacts of changes in human health and mortality due to climate change, in relation to diseases. Special attention should be paid to migration because of environmental degradation and flooding. Extreme weather events have already been studied, but there still is a need for further insights into how extreme weather events will affect society, taking into account adaptive behaviour. Finally, in the area of socio-economic impacts, the implications of changes in ecosystems and biodiversity require further attention as these effects may be large but, at the same time, difficult to assess in economic terms. 175 refs

  15. Green Jobs in Tennessee: Economic Impact of Green Investments

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Arik

    2011-01-01

    The term green jobs has been widely used to describe jobs in businesses that are particularly related to renewable energy, energy efficiency, or environmental sustainability. The Business and Economic Research Center has partnered with the Tennessee Department of Labor and Workforce Development to estimate the economic impact of six ground-breaking green investments in Tennessee: Hemlock Semiconductor, Wacker Chemie AG, Volkswagen, Nissan Leaf and Storage Battery Manufacturing, Tennessee Sola...

  16. THE IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION AND GOVERNANCE ON LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Armenia ANDRONICEANU

    2013-01-01

    Globalization and the crises context have influenced the local economic development in Romania and determined the government to adapt its policies according to them. This paper presents part of the results of a specific research on the impact of globalization and the government policies to the local economic development. The sample was composed by small and medium size enterprises from Bucharest. They are specialized in export of products from three main areas. The research methodology includ...

  17. Geothermal : Economic Impacts of Geothermal Development in Whatcom County, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system.

  18. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Skamania County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Skamania County, Washington, near Mt. Adams, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Skamania County was chosen due to both identified geothermal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Skamania County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  19. Economic impacts of geothermal development in Whatcom County, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    This report estimates the local economic impacts that could be anticipated from the development of a 100 megawatt (MW) geothermal power plant in eastern Whatcom County, Washington, near Mt. Baker, as shown in Figure 1. The study was commissioned by the Bonneville Power Administration to quantify such impacts as part of regional confirmation work recommended by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Whatcom County was chosen due to both identified geotherrnal resources and developer interest. The analysis will focus on two phases: a plant construction phase, including well field development, generating plant construction, and transmission line construction; and an operations phase. Economic impacts will occur to the extent that construction and operations affect the local economy. These impacts will depend on the existing structure of the Whatcom County economy and estimates of revenues that may accrue to the county as a result of plant construction, operation, and maintenance. Specific impacts may include additional direct employment at the plant, secondary impacts from wage payments being used to purchase locally produced goods and services, and impacts due to expenditures of royalty and tax payments received by the county. The basis for the analysis of economic impacts in this study is the US Forest Service IMPLAN input-output modeling system

  20. Evaluating the economic impact of casino liberalization in Macao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Victor; Hung, Eva P W

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the economic impact after Macao decided to liberalize its gaming industry. By analysing both objective data of official statistics and subjective data of the perceptions of quality of life, we painted a picture of mixed blessings. Although objective indicators showed strong economic growth in terms of a rise in per capita GDP and public revenue as well as a decline in unemployment rate, subjective indicators revealed that local residents were less than optimistic about their own employment outlook and did not perceive any improvement in their overall economic situation. While casino liberalization brought forth tremendous economic gain, the general population did not subjectively feel the benefits. An integrative analysis of both objective and subjective indicators would therefore allow us to look closer how residents' lives in the micro-level could have been adversely affected by the prosperous economic outlook at the macro-level.

  1. Socio/economic/ecological impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.; Watson, J.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear facility has both radiological and non-radiological effects on the environment. To minimize radiological effects, limits are set on releases of radioactive materials that will cause either direct or indirect exposure (such as the food chain). Exposure pathways for man and other organisms are described with comparisons of typical calculated doses and design objective doses. Non-radiological impacts of nuclear plants are classified as ecological-physical and socio/economic considerations, which include eighteen areas affected during each phase of the nuclear facility cycle. The ecological-physical environment is impacted in the areas of hydrology, terrestrial and aquatic ecology, and air and water quality. The socio-economic environment is impacted in areas of land use, tax base, employment, economic stimulus, relocation, lifestyle, demand for service, aesthetics, and power needs. Case studies of large construction projects are described in the appendix

  2. Economic impacts of the BC recycling regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-31

    Extended producer responsibility (EPR) is an environmental approach used in British Columbia (BC) to consider the entire life cycle of a product from the selection and materials and design to the post-consumer stage. This paper discussed EPR strategies that are currently being used to help the BC government remove toxins from its waste stream and develop recycling programs that contribute to the sustainable use of BC's resources. BC's recycling regulation was designed to ensure that producers of designated materials take responsibility for managing products at end-of-life under approved product stewardship plans. The stewardship management recycling program has provided an estimated 1600 full-time equivalent jobs in the province. Overall employment rates are expected to reach over 2100. A waste reduction model (WARM) analysis showed that BC stewardships provide an estimated reduction of 73,000 metric tonnes of carbon equivalent (MTCE). Aluminum can and tire recycling programs account for 82 per cent of the reductions. Diverting the wastes from landfill has helped to avoid the costs of remedial clean-ups as well as avoid the costs of handling hazardous materials. It was concluded that total revenues of $109 million were earned in 2007 from fees, deposits, and the sale of recovered materials. Separate data were provided for stewardship programs for beverage containers; beer containers; tires; used oil; electronics; paint, flammables, and pesticides; tree paint; and pharmaceuticals. 28 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Economic impact of traditional medicine practice worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V. Pejcic

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this literature review was to summarize available findings from publications that reported expenditure on traditional/complementary and alternative medicine (TM/CAM within a representative general population sample of a nation or a defined geographical area. A total of 24 publications met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The expenditure on TM/CAM varies worldwide, but direct comparison of the findings of publications included in this review is limited due to the differences in the definitions of TM/CAM, inclusion of various forms of TM/CAM, use of different names and categorization, as well as differences in reported currencies and time periods in which data were collected. Data about the expenditure on TM/CAM in most countries throughout the world are scarce. Further national studies should be conducted in order to provide up-to-date assessment of the TM/CAM related expenditure patterns and use. Uniform nomenclature, definition of TM/CAM and standardized instruments would provide basis for comparability of data of studies conducted in various regions and time periods.

  4. The Impact of Political Relations Between Countries on Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we assess the implications of changes in bilateral diplomatic relations with the United States for economic relations. We identify countries whose relations with the US changed during two historic and significant milestones in the past three decades, and a third group of countries after their leftist governments failed/collapsed in early 1990s. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test, we measure the significance of changes in economic relations. We chose the following set of economic indices to reflect economic relations: imports and exports to and from the US, capital outflows from the US to the country, economic and military assistance provided by the US, flow of students to the US, US arms export to the country, the country’s military expenditures, and believing in the importance of remittances and FDI and portfolio investment we use total figures as we did not have bilateral figures. Our results, though mixed, offer some interesting insights.

  5. Nutrition economics – characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  6. Economic impact profiling of CBRN events: focusing on biological incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallini, Simona; Bisogni, Fabio; Mastroianni, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents, both caused accidentally by human error or natural/technological events and determined intentionally as criminal/malicious/terroristic acts, have consequences that could be differently characterized. In the last years many efforts to analyze the economic impact of terrorist threat have been carried out, while researches specifically concerning CBRN events have not been extensively undertaken. This paper in particular aims at proposing a methodological approach for studying macro-level economic impact profiles of biological incidents caused by weaponized and non-weaponized materials. The suggested approach investigates the economic consequences of biological incidents according to two main dimensions: type of large-scale effect and persistence of effect. Biological incident economic impacts are analyzed taking into account the persistence of effect during time as short-term impact (i.e. immediately after the incident), medium-term impact (i.e. by a month) and long-term impact (i.e. by years). The costs due to preventive countermeasure against biological threats (e.g. prevention, protection and preparedness expenses) are not taken into account. To this purpose, information on the key features of past biological incidents can be used as case studies to try to build impact profiles taking into account the proposed two main dimensions. Consequence management and effect mitigation of CBRN emergencies and disasters may benefit from an ex ante definition of the impact profiling related to this kind of incidents. The final goal of this paper is to define an approach to organize information on possible biological events according to their impact profile for supporting more effective and efficient first responders' prompt actions and policy makers' strategic decisions after the event occurrence.

  7. Local economic impacts associated with pure taxable capacity changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    A fiscal-impact model based on the introduction of a nuclear power plant demonstrates the need to integrate local public-sector impacts with local private-sector impacts when estimating the economic changes a community undergoes in response to a significant exogenous shock. A nuclear plant differs from other electrical generating facilities because siting regulations require locating in a low-population density area where the influence on the community will be substantial. These characteristics approximate the pure fiscal capacity change or pure tax revenue importation concept. Four sections of the paper describe local decision making on taxes, identify the parameters that may shape local impact, analyze indifference curves as they integrate with the local macroeconomic model, and compare data for two communities in which both private and public local economic sectors show stimulation. 12 references, 1 figure

  8. Economics and austerity in Europe: gendered impacts and sustainable alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bargawi, Hannah; Cozzi, Giovanni; Himmelweit, Sue

    2016-01-01

    This book brings together the research of leading feminist economists in the area of gender and austerity economics. By conducting a rigorous gender-impact analysis at national and pan-European levels, not only do the chapters of the book offer thorough evidence for the detrimental gender-impact of austerity policies across Europe, but they also provide readers with concrete suggestions of alternative policies that national governments and the European Union should adopt. The focus is on the ...

  9. Consciousness towards Socio-Economic Impact Propensity: The Langkawi Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khadar Nur Zafirah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the socio-economic impact of tourism development on the tourist perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. Socio-economic impacts are the consequences of either the tourism industry development or the presence of tourists in a particular destination, which resulted from the host-tourist relationship. Data for this research was generated using quantitative techniques and divided into 3 parts of instruments. Part A includes the demographic profile of respondents, Part B contains perceptions and opinions in economic and social impatcs and the last part was Part C where consists tourism utility assessment in social, economy and transportation. Simple frequency of mean and paired sample -test analysis were used to analyse the data generated for the study. The findings of the analysis proved that tourism development had a significant effect on the socio-economic impact and on the tourists’ perceptions in Oriental Village, Langkawi Island. In addition, it is viewed that public participation must be encouraged by tourism developers and planners to ensure the sustainability of tourism development in the community. Thus, this paper aims to give emphasis on the establishment of standard social guidelines within the tourism development framework for the purpose of preserving and protecting the social and economic values.

  10. The Impact of FDI on the Economic Growth of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Parežanin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of the Republic of Serbia. The aim is to analyze the effects of the economic crisis on foreign direct investment impact on the economic performance of the Serbian economy. This paper analyzes the period of 2000 - 2014, using the Inward FDI Performance Index and Pearson’s coefficient of simple linear correlation. The period before the economic crises (2000-2007 and the period after the beginning of the economic crisis (2008-2014 are analyzed separately, in order to observe the linear correlation between FDI and economic growth. The results of the research speak in favor of the existence of a strong and statistically significant correlation between FDI and observed macroeconomic indicators in the period of 2000-2007. The second sub-period was characterized by an absence correlation between FDI inflows and all the observed macroeconomic indicators. The results for the period of 2008-2014 can be explained by the effects of the global crisis on the Serbian economy and the deterioration of all macroeconomic indicators in the given period. Effects of the crisis on the Serbian economy were very strong.

  11. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Appendix O: Economic and Social Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Columbia River System Operation Review (U.S.)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included.

  12. Columbia River system operation review: Final environmental impact statement. Appendix O, economic and social impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Appendix O of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Columbia River System measures the economic and social effects of the alternative system operation strategies and includes both geographic and methodology components. Areas discussed in detail include the following: purpose, scope and process; an economic history of the Columbia River Basin and its use today including the Columbia River and Socio-economic development in the Northwest and Major uses of the River System; Analysis procedures and methodologies including national economic evaluation, the concepts, analysis of assumptions, analysis for specific river uses, water quality, Regional evaluation, analysis, and social impacts; alternatives and impacts including implementation costs, andromous fish, resident fish and wildlife, flood control, irrigation and municipal and industrial water supply, navigation impacts, power, recreation, annual costs, regional economic analysis. Extensive comparison of alternatives is included

  13. The impact of the total tax rate reduction on public services provided in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina TRANDAFIR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic globalization, governments tend to take tax measures disadvantageous to society in order to increase the attractiveness of the business environment. A common measures for this purpose is the reduction in tax rate. According to the classical theory of tax competition such measure leads to under the provision of public goods. This article aims to show, through an econometric analysis, whether in Romania, in the period 2006-2013, reducing total tax rate had a negative impact on public services. For this, using linear regression technique, the article analysed the correlation between total tax rate and the variation in the share of the main public service spending in GDP.

  14. A review of economic impact of targeted oral anticancer medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chan; Chien, Chun-Ru; Geynisman, Daniel M; Smieliauskas, Fabrice; Shih, Ya-Chen T

    2014-02-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the use of targeted oral anticancer medications (OAMs) in the past decade. As OAMs are often expensive, economic consideration play a significant role in the decision to prescribe, receive or cover them. This paper performs a systematic review of costs or budgetary impact of targeted OAMs to better understand their economic impact on the healthcare system, patients as well as payers. We present our review in a summary table that describes the method and main findings, take into account multiple factors, such as country, analytical approach, cost type, study perspective, timeframe, data sources, study population and care setting when we interpret the results from different papers, and discuss the policy and clinical implications. Our review raises a concern regarding the role of sponsorship on findings of economic analyses as the vast majority of pharmaceutical company-sponsored studies reported cost advantages toward the sponsor's drugs.

  15. The Impact of the feelings of Economic powerlessness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the feelings of economic powerlessness & alienation on self-employment intentions of young people. The data used in the study was collected through a survey of students at the National University of Lesotho, and the correlation and factor analyses, as well as ...

  16. Impact of the Economic Downturn on Schools. Report of Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Robert S.; Ellerson, Noelle M.; Jordan, K. Forbis; Jordan, Teresa; Lemons, Richard; Mattocks, T. C.; Melver, Toby; Orr, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    In Fall 2008, in response to the recent economic downturn, as evidenced in state budget shortfalls, federal buy-outs and interventions, and a series of additional events characterizing a slowing, stagnant economy, AASA examined the impact on school districts across the nation. While there are regional differences, the findings of AASA's…

  17. Economic Impacts of Surface Mining on Household Drinking Water Supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides information on the economic and social impacts of contaminated surface and ground water supplies on residents and households near surface mining operations. The focus is on coal slurry contamination of water supplies in Mingo County, West Virginia, and descr...

  18. Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio–economic and environmental impact of crude oil exploration and production on agricultural production: a case study of Edjeba and Kokori communities in Delta State of ... The results also showed an increase in the occurrence of health hazard, air/noise pollution and heightened deforestation in these communities.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the Impact of Financial Policies on Nigeria's Economic Growth. ... Furthermore, it calls for effective implementation and monitoring of financial policies as well as adequate supervision of the financial sector by the relevant authorities to avoid lopsided compliance with financial and monetary guidelines. Keywords: ...

  20. Smallholder adoption and economic impacts of tissue culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals. Full Length ... Key words: Biotechnology, adoption, tissue culture bananas, Kenya. INTRODUCTION ... Recent studies about the agronomic and economic impacts of biotech- ..... accused scientist for 'playing God', others have supported biotechnologies.

  1. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOISA Claudia Olimpia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  2. ECONOMIC CRISIS IMPACT ON COUNTY ALBA HOTEL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    MOISA Claudia Olimpia

    2012-01-01

    The present paper, dominated by the global economic crisis effects is and continues to be a critical time for global tourism industry and for Romanian too. This study tries to play on a particular case, Park Hotel, located in Alba Iulia, the impact of this phenomenon over tourist hotel services.

  3. Criteria for comparing economic impact models of tourism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijs, J.; Heijman, W.J.M.; Korteweg Maris, D.; Bryon, J.

    2012-01-01

    There are substantial differences between models of the economic impacts of tourism. Not only do the nature and precision of results vary, but data demands, complexity and underlying assumptions also differ. Often, it is not clear whether the models chosen are appropriate for the specific situation

  4. The Impact of Depression on Social Economic Decision Making [correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harlé, K.M.; Allen, J.J.B.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Reports an error in "The impact of depression on social economic decision making" by Katia M. Harlé, John J. B. Allen and Alan G. Sanfey (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2010[May], Vol 119[2], 440-446). In the article, the last revision received date printed on the final page of the article was

  5. Economic risk assessment of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, A.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Macian-Sorribes, H.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we present an innovative framework for an economic risk analysis of drought impacts on irrigated agriculture. It consists on the integration of three components: stochastic time series modelling for prediction of inflows and future reservoir storages at the beginning of the irrigation season; statistical regression for the evaluation of water deliveries based on projected inflows and storages; and econometric modelling for economic assessment of the production value of agriculture based on irrigation water deliveries and crop prices. Therefore, the effect of the price volatility can be isolated from the losses due to water scarcity in the assessment of the drought impacts. Monte Carlo simulations are applied to generate probability functions of inflows, which are translated into probabilities of storages, deliveries, and finally, production value of agriculture. The framework also allows the assessment of the value of mitigation measures as reduction of economic losses during droughts. The approach was applied to the Jucar river basin, a complex system affected by multiannual severe droughts, with irrigated agriculture as the main consumptive demand. Probability distributions of deliveries and production value were obtained for each irrigation season. In the majority of the irrigation districts, drought causes a significant economic impact. The increase of crop prices can partially offset the losses from the reduction of production due to water scarcity in some districts. Emergency wells contribute to mitigating the droughts' impacts on the Jucar river system.

  6. JEDI for Advanced Users | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov (United States)

    discussion. Users with more experience with power generation projects and/or economic impact analysis can , earnings, and output (per million dollars change in final demand) as well as personal consumption Services Professional Services Retail Trade Transportation, Communication and Public Utilities Wholesale

  7. Sport events and their socio-economic impact: residents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sport events have become big business as countries as well as cities are competing fi ercely to host major events. The purpose of this article is to determine the economic impact of visitor spending during the annual Cape Argus Pick 'n Pay Cycle Tour. Direct spending was determined based on a survey consisting of 583 ...

  8. Clinical and economic impact of etanercept in real-life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Grønhøj; Andersen, Peter Hundevadt; Lorentzen, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-life data on the therapeutic effectiveness and costs of etanercept are scarce. Objectives: To assess the clinical and economic impact of etanercept in patients with psoriasis in Denmark and Norway. MATERIAL & METHODS: This prospective, non-interventional study in a private...

  9. The economic impact of workplace wellness programmes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J C; Yaquian, E; Burke, S M; Rouse, M; Zaric, G

    2017-08-01

    The economic benefits of workplace wellness programmes (WWPs) are commonly cited as a reason for employers to implement such programmes; however, there is limited evidence outside of the US context exploring their economic impact. US evidence is less relevant in countries such as Canada with universal publicly funded health systems because of the lower potential employer savings from WWPs. To conduct a systematic review of the Canadian literature investigating the economic impact of WWPs from an employer perspective. The quality of that evidence was also assessed. We reviewed literature which included analyses of four economic outcomes: return on investment calculations; cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit analyses; valuations of productivity, turnover, absenteeism and/or presenteeism costs; and valuations of health care utilization costs. We applied the British Medical Journal (BMJ) Economic Evaluation Working Party Checklist to evaluate the quality of this evidence. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Although the studies showed that WWPs generated economic benefits from an employer perspective (largely from productivity changes), none of the reviewed studies were in the high-quality category (i.e. fulfilled at least 75% of the checklist criteria) and most had severe methodological issues. Though the Canadian literature pertaining to the economic impact of WWPs spans over three decades, robust evidence on this topic remains sparse. Future research should include a comparable control group, a time horizon of over a year, both direct and indirect costs, and researchers should apply analytical techniques that account for potential selection bias. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Society of Occupational Medicine 2017.

  10. The economic impact of environmentally sustainable transport in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schade, B.; Rothengatter, W.

    2004-01-01

    The economic assessment of the Environmentally Sustainable Transportation (EST) scenarios developed throughout this paper are part of Phase 3 of the overall project, which is on social and economic assessment and on devising packages of instruments that - if implemented - would result in attaining EST. Two methods were chosen for the assessment of the scenarios: a qualitative evaluation based on a simplified cybernetic model (SCM) and a system dynamics model (SDM). In the assessment with the simplified cybernetic model, a conservative baseline has been chosen in order to start with a scenario that incorporates some pessimistic views of the industry. The aim is to show that, even in this case, an economic disaster will not occur. The System Dynamics Model ESCOT was designed to consider the ecological and technical aspects of a transition towards sustainable transportation. It is important that ESCOT considers not only first round effects but also secondary effects, which makes it a powerful instrument for the assessment of such large ecological changes. The economic assessment of environmentally sustainable scenarios shows that the departure from car and road freight oriented transport policy is far from leading to an economic collapse. The effects concerning economic indices are rather low, even though the measures proposed in the EST-80% scenario designate distinct changes compared to today's transport policy. The impacts on some economic indicators, however, are clearly negative. With an expansion of the time period for the transition in the EST-50% scenario we derived even more encouraging results than for EST-80%

  11. The economic impact of peste des petits ruminants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhan, D; Kumar, S; Anandsekaran, G; Chaudhury, J K; Meraj, M; Singh, R K; Verma, M R; Kumar, D; Kumar P T, N; Ahmed Lone, S; Mishra, V; Mohanty, B S; Korade, N; De, U K

    2017-04-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an economically important livestock disease which affects a vast section of the small ruminant population in India. However, data on the incidence of PPR are limited and scant literature is available on the economic losses caused by the disease. In the present study, a structured sampling design was adopted, which covered the major agro-climatic regions of the country, to ascertain the morbidity and mortality rates of PPR. Available estimates of the economic losses in India due to various livestock diseases are based on single values of various epidemiological and economic parameters. Stochastic modelling was used to estimate the economic impact of PPR. Overall annual morbidity and mortality rates of PPR for small ruminants in India have been estimated from the sample as being 8%and 3.45%, respectively. The authors have analysed variations in these rates across species, age group, sex, season and region. The expected annual economic loss due to PPR in India ranges from as little as US $2 million to $18 million and may go up to US $1.5 billion; the most likely range of expected economic losses is between US $653 million and $669 million. This study thus reveals significant losses due to the incidence of PPR in small ruminants in India.

  12. Economic impact of land finance and subsequent risk response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lü Wei; Xu Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    In China,land finance is actually an endogenous factor in economic growth.As a kind of nontraditional,informal government revenue in China's economic transition process,land finance is unstable,non-standard and unsustainable,and it simultaneously makes the current land-finance dependent growth mode difficult to maintain.The paper firstly analyzes the impact of the land finance on China's economic growth and economic structure change followed by discussing the possible risks in post-"land finance" period.It then put forward some suggestions to deal with the problem.The analysis shows that land finance exacerbates the economic fluctuation,bringing in the increase of government public expenditure and economic growth in the short term.Nonetheless,in the long term there is no significant effect,and it could gradually lead to a more unreasonable economic structure.In the post-"land finance" period,if we do not take precautions in advance,it will restrain the sustainable development of China's economy and society.

  13. Impacts of Seaport Investment on the Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Ammar Jouili

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of seaports investment on the economic growth. Seaports are seen by many governments as an important factor in the strengthening of the economies. During the last two decades, the Tunisian succeeding governments have been allocating a great amount of money to develop seaport infrastructures. However, the Tunisian economy witnessed fluctuations in the economic growth rates and decrease in the rate of employment during the same period of time. This study used an econometric model by employing the Cobb-Douglas production function. The sample was composed of Tunisia's economic sectors (manufacturing, services and agriculture over the period 1983-2011. The results of the study show that the public investment in seaport infrastructures has apositive influence on Tunisian economic growth. The study also revealed that the biggest beneficiary from the seaport investment infrastructure is the service sector.This paper aims to estimate the impact of seaports investment on the economic growth. The seaports are seen by many governments as an important factor in the strengthening of the economies. During the last two decades, the Tunisian succeeding governments were allocating a great amount of money to develop seaports' infrastructures. However, the Tunisian economy witnessed fluctuating in the economic growth rates and decreased in the rate of employment during the same period of time. This study used an econometric model by employing the Cobb-Douglas production function. The sample composed of Tunisia's economic sectors (manufacturing, services and agriculture over the period 1983-2011. The results of the study show that the public investment in seaports' infrastructures has a positive influence on Tunisian economic growth. The study also revealed that the biggest beneficiary from the seaports investment infrastructure is the services sector.

  14. How much will be economic impact of climate change on water resources? A Meta-Analytic Review of previous literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Iseri, Y.; Kanae, S.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources is vital in social and economic activities. Total global water use is increasing, mainly due to economic and population growth in developing countries. It has one of risk with high agreement and robust evidence that freshwater-related risks of climate change increase significantly with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. It is difficult to compare the risk with other field risk (e.g. agriculture, forestry, sea level rise) for considering both adaptation and mitigation policy with the level of decision makers and public servants. Economic impacts of climate change on water scarcity has been estimated by economic researchers. We have no certainty at all about integration between hydrological and economical fields on global scale. In this study, we highlight key concerns about conventional estimations of economic impact on water resources through meta-analysis. The economic impact on water resource in same base year using consumer price index is shown with increase in the global mean temperature. We clarified four concerns which are involved in 1) classification of economic mechanism, 2) estimated items of economic impact, 3) difference in estimating equations, and 4) definition of parameters related with economic impact of climate change. This study would be essential to next challenge as transdisciplinary research between hydrologic and economic fields.

  15. Potential economic impact assessment for cattle parasites in Mexico review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here, economic losses caused by cattle parasites in Mexico were estimated on an annual basis. The main factors taken into consideration for this assessment included the total number of animals at risk, potential detrimental effects of parasitism on milk production or weight gain, and records of cond...

  16. Economic impacts of climate change in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, J.

    1997-01-01

    Results of a long-term research project funded by EPRI to study the economic impacts of climate change in the U.S. were described. In 1992, Industrial Economics Inc., began an assessment of the impact of climate change in key natural resource sectors. A wide range of uniform climate scenarios were used to assess sensitivity across different temperature and precipitation gradients. Estimates were developed for the 2060 economy, using dynamic models to understand what was happening along the transient. It was projected that the greatest impact of climate change would be on the agricultural sector because of projected gains in productivity, mainly due to increased precipitation. Similar scenarios were developed for the economic impact of climate change on timber and coastal structures, including the loss of value of coastal property. Key limitations of the study, and future directions in research (e.g. extending the study to health and non-market impacts, including other developed and developing countries) were also outlined

  17. Economic impacts of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill: Social and economic studies. Technical report (Final)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, P.; Isaacs, J.; Richardson, J.; Braund, S.; Witten, E.

    1990-11-01

    On July 2, 1987, an oil spill occurred in Cook Inlet when the S.S. Glacier Bay hit a submerged obstacle while enroute to Kenai Pipeline Company facilities to offload oil. The 1987 commercial fishery in Cook Inlet was barely underway when the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill occurred, and the largest salmon return in history was moving up the inlet. The sockeye salmon run alone totaled over 12 million, providing a seasonal catch of 9.25 million salmon. The 1987 sport fishery in Cook Inlet was in mid-season at the time of the spill. The S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill represents an opportunity to study the economic impacts of an oil spill event in Alaska, particularly with regard to commercial fishing impacts and the public costs of cleanup. The report evaluates the existing information on the spill, response measures, and economic impacts, and adds discussions with individuals and groups involved in or affected by the spill to this data base. The report reviewed accounts of the oil spill and its costs; identified types and sources of data, developed protocol, and contacted groups and people for data collection and verification; and described, analyzed, and prepared reports of the economic effects of the S.S. Glacier Bay oil spill

  18. The Impact of Economic Agents Perceptions on Stock Price Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Bukovina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies perceptions of economic subjects and its impact on stock prices. Perceptions are represented by stock market indexes and Facebook activity. The contribution of this paper is twofold. In the first place, this paper analyzes the unique data of Facebook activity and proposes the methodology for employment of social networks as a proxy variable which represents the perceptions of information in society related to the specific company. The second contribution is the proposal of potential link between social network principles and theories of behavioral economics. Overall, the author finds the negative impact of Facebook activity on stock prices and the positive impact of stock market indices. The author points the implications of findings to protection of company reputation and to investment strategy based on the existence of undervalued stocks.

  19. The Social and Economic Impacts of Space Weather (US Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkkinen, A. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Webb, D. F.; Oughton, E. J.; Worman, S. L.; Taylor, S. M.; Onsager, T. G.; Adkins, J. E.; Baker, D. N.; Forbes, K. F.; Basoli, D.; Griot, O.

    2017-12-01

    The National Space Weather Action Plan calls for new research into the social and economic impacts of space weather and for the development of quantitative estimates of potential costs. In response to this call, NOAA's Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) and Abt Associates are working together to identify, describe, and quantify the impact of space weather to U.S. interests. This study covers impacts resulting from both moderate and severe space weather events across four technological sectors: Electric power, commercial aviation, satellites, and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) users. It captures the full range of potential impacts, identified from an extensive literature review and from additional conversations with more than 50 sector stakeholders of diverse expertise from engineering to operations to end users. We organize and discuss our findings in terms of five broad but interrelated impact categories including Defensive Investments, Mitigating Actions, Asset Damages, Service Interruptions, and Health Effects. We also present simple, tractable estimates of the potential costs where we focused on quantifying a subset of all identified impacts that are apt to be largest and are also most plausible during moderate and more severe space weather scenarios. We hope that our systematic exploration of the social and economic impacts provides a foundation for the future work that is critical for designing technologies, developing procedures, and implementing policies that can effectively reduce our known and evolving vulnerabilities to this natural hazard.

  20. Methodologies for assessing socio-economic impacts of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, B.

    1993-01-01

    Much of the studies on climate change impacts have focused on physical and biological impacts, yet a knowledge of the social and economic impacts of climate change is likely to have a greater impact on the public and on policymakers. A conventional assessment of the impacts of climate change begins with scenarios of future climate, commonly derived from global climate models translated to a regional scale. Estimates of biophysical conditions provided by such scenarios provide a basis for analyses of human impacts, usually considered sector by sector. The scenario approach, although having considerable merit and appeal, has some noteworthy limitations. It encourages consideration of only a small set of scenarios, requires bold assumptions to be made about adjustments in human systems, provides little direct analysis of sensitivities of human social and economic systems to climate perturbations, and usually invokes the assumption that all factors other than climate are stable and have no synergistic effects on human systems. Conventional studies concentrate on average climate, yet climate is inherently variable. A common response to this situation is to propose further development of climate models, but this is not a sufficient or necessary condition for good and useful assessments of impacts on human activities. Different approaches to socioeconomic impact analysis are needed, and approaches should be considered that include identification of sensitivities in a social or ecological system, identification of critical threshold levels or critical speeds of change in variables, and exploration of alternative methodologies such as process studies, spatial and temporal analogues, and socio-economic systems modelling. 5 refs., 3 figs

  1. The Higher Essence of Economic Convergence Regarding Monetary Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudec Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing pace of achieving socio-economic growth and convergence into developed structures represents the main desire of most countries. Moreover, membership in monetary unions has quite a significant impact on the economies of participating countries, since integration processes have become undoubtedly the undisputed accelerator of convergence and integration catalyst, reflecting on the development of the world economy. The growing intensity of world trade, the ever-deepening division of labor and specialization, international movement of capital and labor mobility as wells as investments into education, research and development, innovations are among the factors that lead to the creation of increasingly closer ties between economies, deepening their mutual dependence, further reflected in knowledge-based societies. Thus, the close ties between national economies themselves represent a further incentive for more intensive cooperation through the different stages of economic integration. International economic integration is an objective to promote a gradual process of linking and connecting existing economic units, i.e. national economies to the greater interconnected units in the global economy. The aim of our research paper, by using the methods of analysis and comparison, is to closely present the issue of monetary integration, focusing on the impact of monetary integration on countries’ economy, resulting in the issue of benefits and costs of the countries’ entry into the monetary union, associated with initial economic shocks.

  2. Impact on quality culture of total quality management practices factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faihan Mosaad Saud Alotaibi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated total quality management practices and quality culture of Saudi Arabian contractors. Improving the quality can be achieved through implementation of total quality management although studies and researches work regarding this improvement is still lacking. A quantitative approach using the survey method was employed. With assistance from the Saudi Arabia Ministry of Municipal and Rural Affairs, survey questionnaires were distributed to selected contractors in Saudi Arabia. The collected data were analysed using correlation, and multiple regression analyses. The key findings were the confirmation of significant relationships between all total quality management practices and quality culture and a positive relationship between quality management practices and quality culture. Furthermore, total quality management practices were found to be able to explain 68.1% of the variance in quality culture, while quality culture explained 12.5% of the variance in competitiveness. Quality culture was found to only partially mediate the relationship between total quality management practices and competitiveness.

  3. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the President’s Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  4. Techno-Economic, Sustainability & Environmental Impact Diagnosis (TESED) Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Matos, Henrique A.

    2014-01-01

    that truly sustainable design alternatives can befound.This work proposes a framework,called ‘Techno-Economic Sustainability Environmental Impact Diagnosis’ (TESED) that allows users to assess chemical/biochemical processes in a product oriented analysis.TESED is asystematic and generic approach that can......Nowadays, companies are looking for new sustainable design alternatives that improve their original processes.To assesst he best designalternative, economic aspects have been the preferred indicators. However, environmental and social concerns should also be included in the decision process so...

  5. WeChat impact on social and economic in China

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Mengmeng

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to analyse WeChat in China. On the hand, this thesis analyses the impact of WeChat on social and economic based on its features. WeChat changes Chinese way of life. Customers are directly taken part in economic activities in WeChat. On the other hand, this thesis is intended to help entrepreneurs and organizations to know more about WeChat B2B and B2C model in China. The thesis will be helpful for those entrepreneurs who are going to enter Chinese market. Th...

  6. The Total Economic Value of Sport Tourism in Belt and Road Development—An Environmental Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chu Yeh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of the belt and road region leads cities to significantly increase the amount of public expenditure on the new construction of facilities and infrastructure. Mass construction not only relies on many environmental resources, but might also destroy the local natural environment. In order to reveal the importance of the natural environment, this study explores the economic value of the natural landscape for sport tourism in Taiwan. While the concept of total economic value (TEV is applied to the Sun–Moon Lake Swimming Carnival Event, the travel cost method (TCM is adopted to estimate the use value for participants, and the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM and survival analysis are performed to evaluate the non-use value for the residents. The use value is on average NT$ 5668 for one participant. The median willingness to pay for the option value, existence value and bequest value of every resident is NT$433, NT$411 and NT$274, respectively.

  7. Economic Impacts from Indiana's First 1,000 Megawatts of Wind Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.; Keyser, D.; Flores-Espino, F.; Hauser, R.

    2014-08-01

    The magnitude of Indiana's available wind resource indicates that the development of wind power infrastructure has the potential to support millions of dollars of economic activity in the state. The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, are tools used to estimate some of the economic impacts of energy projects at the state level. JEDI calculates results in the form of jobs, earnings, and economic output in three categories: project development and onsite labor, local revenue and supply chain, and induced impacts. According to this analysis, the first 1,000 MW of wind power development in Indiana (projects built between 2008 and 2011): supported employment totaling more than 4,400 full-time-equivalent jobs in Indiana during the construction periods; supports approximately 260 ongoing Indiana jobs; supported nearly $570 million in economic activity for Indiana during the construction periods; supported and continues to support nearly $40 million in annual Indiana economic activity during the operating periods; generates more than $8 million in annual property taxes; generates nearly $4 million annually in income for Indiana landowners who lease their land for wind energy projects.

  8. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisiger, M.L.; Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the St. Lucie nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period, 1980-1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  9. Economic Impact Assessment of Alternative Climate Policy Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemfert, C.

    2001-10-01

    This paper investigates the world economic implications of climate change policy strategies, especially the evaluation of impacts by an implementation of Clean Development Mechanisms, Joint Implementation and Emissions trading with a world integrated assessment model. Of special interest in this context are the welfare spill over and competitiveness effects that result from diverse climate policy strategies. In particular, this study elaborates and compares multi gas policy strategies and explores the impacts of the inclusion of sinks. Because of the recent decision of an isolated climate policy strategy by the United States of America, we examine the economic impacts of all world regions by a non cooperative and free rider position of the USA. It turns out that Clean Development Mechanisms and Joint Implementation show evidence of improvement in the economic development in the host countries and increase the share of new applied technologies. The decomposition of welfare effects demonstrates that the competitiveness effect including the spill over effects from trade have the strongest importance because of the intense trade relations between countries. Climatic effects have a significant impact within the next 50 years, cause considerable welfare losses to world regions and will intensify if some highly responsible nations like the USA do not reduce their emissions

  10. Financial Transaction Tax: Determination of Economic Impact Under DSGE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Solilová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The discussion about the possible taxation of the financial sector has started in the European Union as a result of the financial crisis which has spread to the Europe from the United States in 2008 and consequently of the massive financial interventions by governments made in favour of the financial sector. On 14 February 2013, after rejection of the draft of the directive introducing a common system of financial transaction tax in 2011, the European Commission introduced the financial transaction tax through enhanced cooperation. The aim of the paper is to research economic impact of financial transaction tax on EU (EU27 or EU11 with respect to the DSGE model which was used for the determination of impacts. Based on our analysis the DSGE model can be considered as underestimated in case of the impact on economic growth and an overestimated in case of the revenue collection. Particularly, the overall impact of the financial transaction tax considering cascade effects of securities (tax rate 2.2% and derivatives (tax rate 0.2% is ranged between −4.752 and 1.472 percent points of GDP. And further, is assumed that the relocation effects of business/trade can be in average 40% causes a decline of expected tax revenues in the amount of 13bn EUR. Thus, at a time of fragile economic growth across the EU and the increased risk of recession in Europe, the introduction of the FTT should be undesirable.

  11. Economic Impact of Nuclear Power Plant in The Operational

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriyana

    2004-01-01

    Study on economic impact of nuclear power plant in the operational stage, in Madura has been conducted. The object of the study is SMART technology which is coupled with desalination installation. The power capacity is 2 x 100 M We and the water production capacity is 4 x 10,000 m 3 /day. This technology has been developed by Korea, but until recently there is no units in construction or operation. Input-Output analysis model is applied as the methodology of this study. Economic sector is aggregated from 56 x 56 to 10 x 10. This aggregation is meant to reduce the uncertainty in long term projection. This study conclude that : (1) In the operational stage SMART Nuclear Power Desalination will give an output to local economic about Rp 908.12 billion per year. (2) Electricity and water production will provide output direct impact to Madura about Rp. 1,234 trillion and will give direct impact to Regional Product Domestic Bruto (PDRB) about Rp. 138.7 billion. (3) Output impact to the electricity sector and fresh water sector is about 5.37% and 1.57% compared to PDRB 2018. (author)

  12. The economic impact of the Volksblad Arts Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Strydom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Arts festivals, as a form of event tourism, are becoming more and more popular in South Africa with new festivals developing annually. The Volksblad Arts Festival in Bloemfontein celebrated its fifth anniversary in 2005. The purpose of this paper is to indicate the economic impact of the annual Volksblad Arts Festival on the local economy of Bloemfontein. Results are also compared with research done at other popular festivals in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: The main thrust of the paper is to determine the economic impact of the Volksblad Arts Festival in Bloemfontein. More than 400 visitor questionnaires and 72 business questionnaires were administered and successfully completed during the festival that took place from 12-17 July 2005. Findings: The results show that this festival generates R18 405 653. If one compares it to festivals such as the KKNK in Oudtshoorn, the National Arts Festival in Grahamstown and even Aardklop held in Potchefstroom, it is evident that Volksblad is a smaller festival and it is therefore also expected that the economic impact of the festival should be less. Implications: This paper presents a comprehensive approach to understanding the measurement of the economic impact of a festival like the Volksblad Arts Festival. It provides tourism managers of Bloemfontein with an indication of the potential of event tourism as a source of income for the city. It also indicates the need for more extensive marketing in order to increase the percentage of non-local visitors to the particular festival. Originality/Value: Bloemfontein is increasingly regarded as an event tourism destination rather than an end destination for leisure tourists. This research represents an original attempt to indicate the potential impact of events to the tourism managers of Bloemfontein as well as other destinations with similar interests.

  13. Impact Of Total Quality Management (TQM), Activity Based Costing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Time (JIT), and Total Quality Management (TQM) as strategic initiatives lead to improved financial performance in the Turkish textile industry. Strong evidence emerged that there is a strong positive association between using ABC, JIT or TQM ...

  14. THE IMPACT OF CULTURE ON THE ECONOMIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARINA-ELENA STEGĂROIU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This premise of this paper is based on the concept of hedonistic culture, which contributes to financial fragility, damages assessment of future capacity (generating investment myopia and short-termism and enhances current opportunism. The paper aims to analyze economic culture as a factor of influence on the global economic crisis, considering the culture of modern capitalism that should be defined as a hedonistic culture, and this culture can contribute to global economic crises. According to the hypothesis of this article, the economic culture and not the individuals underlie economic decisions. Accordingly, the decisions that are taken in the economy, influenced by the dominant culture can have both a positive impact on the economy or a destructive one by generating or maintaining economic crises. The current economic culture authorizes extensive use of loans, including those for consumption, thus generating financial fragility and consequently economic crisis. Hedonistic culture leads operators to focus almost entirely on short-term consequences of his actions to the detriment of long-term outcomes. It is this connection plays an important role in explaining current global crisis resistance. Opportunism emphasized as part of the hedonistic culture also affects the generation and maintenance of the global crisis and unethical behavior by refusing to invest in strategic areas for the economy. This is particularly the widespread use of credit, including the consumer, in preference to short-term investments at the expense of long-term, low appreciation of the future and also a high and growing opportunism. The global crisis is the result of interdependence agents, burdened by debt, especially short-term constantly growing which is a high financial fragility, directed almost exclusively at short-term gains and tend to cheat in their mutual relations.

  15. IMPACTS OF AFRICA'S TOTAL AND COMMODITY-BASED TRADE WITH CHINA AND OECD COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Bayraktar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the changes in the pattern of Africa’s trade with China and OECD countries, and the impacts of these changes on sub-Saharan Africa’s economic growth. In the study, the country-level total exports and imports, as well as the commodity-based exports and imports are considered for 42 sub-Saharan African countries between 1980 and 2014. The results show that as the share of China in sub-Saharan Africa’s trade has significantly increased, a declining trend is observed for OECD countries, traditional trading partners. Despite changing trade links, the investigation of the commodity-based exports and imports indicate that the types of imported and exported commodities have not changed much for Africa. However, a strong link is observed between economic growth in SSA and its changing trade links from the OECD countries towards China at the total level as well as at the commodity level. The study concludes that there is an increase in the international competition for Africa’s commodities, and resulting in improvements in the terms of trade has led to higher income growth in the region.

  16. Economic uncertainty and its impact on the Croatian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Soric

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to quantify institutional (political and fiscal and non-institutional uncertainty (economic policy uncertainty, Economists’ recession index, natural disasters-related uncertainty, and several disagreement measures. The stated indicators are based on articles from highly popular Croatian news portals, the repository of law amendments (Narodne novine, and Business and Consumer Surveys. We also introduce a composite uncertainty indicator, obtained by the principal components method. The analysis of a structural VAR model of the Croatian economy (both with fixed and time-varying parameters has showed that a vast part of the analysed indicators are significant predictors of economic activity. It is demonstrated that their impact on industrial production is the strongest in the onset of a crisis. On the other hand, the influence of fiscal uncertainty exhibits just the opposite tendencies. It strengthens with the intensification of economic activity, which partially exculpates the possible utilization of fiscal expansion as a counter-crisis tool.

  17. Economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Harry; Cavill, Nick; Racioppi, Francesca; Dinsdale, Hywell; Oja, Pekka; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2013-01-01

    Increasing regular physical activity is a key public health goal. One strategy is to change the physical environment to encourage walking and cycling, requiring partnerships with the transport and urban planning sectors. Economic evaluation is an important factor in the decision to fund any new transport scheme, but techniques for assessing the economic value of the health benefits of cycling and walking have tended to be less sophisticated than the approaches used for assessing other benefits. This study aimed to produce a practical tool for estimating the economic impact of reduced mortality due to increased cycling. The tool was intended to be transparent, easy to use, reliable, and based on conservative assumptions and default values, which can be used in the absence of local data. It addressed the question: For a given volume of cycling within a defined population, what is the economic value of the health benefits? The authors used published estimates of relative risk of all-cause mortality among regular cyclists and applied these to levels of cycling defined by the user to produce an estimate of the number of deaths potentially averted because of regular cycling. The tool then calculates the economic value of the deaths averted using the "value of a statistical life." The outputs of the tool support decision making on cycle infrastructure or policies, or can be used as part of an integrated economic appraisal. The tool's unique contribution is that it takes a public health approach to a transport problem, addresses it in epidemiologic terms, and places the results back into the transport context. Examples of its use include its adoption by the English and Swedish departments of transport as the recommended methodologic approach for estimating the health impact of walking and cycling. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimating the Total Economic Value of Cultivated Flower Land in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Huang Huang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Many arable land areas have been converted to residential or business uses by Taiwan government authorities, because the low farmland value is associated with the low value of agricultural products. However, agriculture is multifunctional. This study investigates farmland value through Total Economic Value (TEV for Tianwei Township, which is Taiwan’s largest floral farmland region. Direct use value measures the floral products’ output value and recreational benefit. Recreational benefit from visitors’ flower sightseeing was measured by the travel cost method (TCM. Option value and non-use value, including bequest value and existence value, measure the residents’ willingness to pay through the double-bounded dichotomous contingent valuation method (CVM. The results show that the total floral products’ output is NT$1.441 billion in 2007, recreational benefit is roughly NT$17.757 billion. The intangible value of option value and non-use values are approximately between NT$5 million to 15 million. Therefore, ignoring various values of farmland might lead to an underestimation of farmland value.

  19. The economic impact of South Africa’s international airports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Luke

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure is strongly linked to economic growth and plays a major role in providing greater mobility and choice, leading to an improvement in incomes and welfare. Transport infrastructure such as highways, bridges, ports, airports and railways is critical in achieving economic growth. If the supply of these facilities does not keep up with rising demand, the cost of moving goods will increase, and there will be a downward pressure on profits and growth. Airports play a critical role in generating employment within an economy, creating wealth, contributing to the tax base, stimulating tourism and contributing to world trade. While the latter two are less easily measured, it is possible to determine a base impact that an airport has on an economy by measuring the direct and indirect gross domestic product, employment and taxation impacts. This study quantifies these for the three main international airports in South Africa.

  20. The Impact of Public Spending on Regional Economic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that public spending and investment have upon economic growth in the departments of Colombia is examined using the results of national accounts for the years 2000-2011. Figures for departmental production by activity, along with change over the period and information for the gross public capital are brought together to create a statistical model to assess effects. A data panel model is chosen to relate the existing differences between departments and compare the impact of spending and investment between departments using the available information. Results indicate that public spending and investment play an important role in departmental economic dynamic and that its effect is greater in larger and wealthier departments.

  1. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Pisey Khin; Ryuta Ray Kato

    2010-01-01

    We numerically examine the impact of the global economic crisis on the Cambodian garment exports as well as its economy by using the conventional CGE model. A seminal aspect of the paper is that we have successfully estimated the curvature of the CET and CES production functions for the Cambodian economy, by using the time series regression method. One of our most striking results indicates that the welfare cost of the impact of the crisis at least reaches 281 million US dollars, thus resulti...

  2. The social and economic impact of nuclear energy in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, E.

    1976-01-01

    A model for structural analysis is introduced and discussed. An application is made to the 'Brazilian Nuclear System' defined by a structural matrix lying upon 42 factors (of which 11 are political 7 economic, 9 technological, 6 sociological, 7 ecological and 2 psychdogical, whose interactions are evalueted. The hierarchical ordering of these 42 factors shows the preponderance of the political ones, the technological factors being the least important. The study is completed by calculating the impact of a PWR pant construction in Brazilian territory, using an enlarged input-output method the sectorial impacts are determined for industrial production, value added, inderect imports and capital goods industries [pt

  3. Review of regional economic models with special reference to labor impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, G.; Mason, B.

    1979-06-01

    This paper reviews several regional economic models and examines the capabilities of these models for assessing the total employment impacts of solar energy adoption. Five generic analytic methods are discussed: economic base analysis, shift-share analysis, demographic-economic interaction models, input-output analysis, and industrial location analysis. Ten regional models incorporating some aspect of these methods are reviewed. From the model review, the conclusion is drawn that there is no single model that fits all of the necessary criteria for planned research efforts. Models that appear to hold promise are the Economic Activity Analysis (EAA) Model, the Regional Industrial Multipliers System (RIMS), the Multiregion, Multi-industry (MRMI) Model, and the MULTIREGION model.

  4. The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

    2001-03-01

    The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies.

  5. The estimation of economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Jung, Won dea

    2001-03-01

    The economic impacts resulting from the severe accidents of a nuclear power plant were estimated for the different combinations of a release parameters and metrorological data. According to the cost estimation for the basic scenarios, the population dependent cost is dominant. The cost for the protective actions such as evacuation and relocation have a small portion in the total cost and show little variation from scenario to scenario. The economic cost estimation for the seasonal scenarios show very similar trend as that for the basic scenarios. There are little or small variation in the economic cost for the different scenarios for each season except for the season-5 scenario. The health effect value shows maximum in Summer and minimum in Fall. On the contrast, the economic cost shows maximum in Fall and minimum in Summer. The result will be used as basic data in the establishment of effective emergency response and in the cost/benefit analysis in developing optimum risk reduction strategies

  6. The Short-run Impact on Total Factor Productivity Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Jacobsen, Joannes; Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus

    This project was prepared for The Danish Agency for Science, Technology and Innovation (DASTI) under The Ministry of Science, Innovation and Higher Education. The scope of the project was to conduct the first comprehensive productivity impact assessment of the Danish system of innovation...

  7. Economics of extreme weather events: Terminology and regional impact models

    OpenAIRE

    Jahn, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Impacts of extreme weather events are relevant for regional (in the sense of subnational) economies and in particular cities in many aspects. Cities are the cores of economic activity and the amount of people and assets endangered by extreme weather events is large, even under the current climate. A changing climate with changing extreme weather patterns and the process of urbanization will make the whole issue even more relevant in the future. In this paper, definitions and terminology in th...

  8. Impact of Fiscal Variables on Economic Development of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaheer Khan KAKAR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the impact of the fiscal variables on economic growth in Pakistan using time series data for the period 1980-2009. Cointegration and error correction techniques are used for this analysis and Granger causality test is used to determine the direction of causality. This study will provide help in determining the importance of fiscal policy for the development of Pakistan.

  9. Welfare Evaluation and the Economic Impacts of Climate Change on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research will aim to study from an interdisciplinary perspective the economic and social impact of changes in water availability and quality due to climate ... Dans le cadre de ce projet, on étudiera les efforts déployés par le secteur privé pour améliorer la conformité aux lois contre la corruption en Amérique latine.

  10. Aligning economic impact with environmental benefits: a green strategy model

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Q.; Lago, P.; Potenza, S.

    2012-01-01

    To achieve lower energy consumption many green strategies (e.g. virtualize applications and consolidate them on shared server machines, or optimize the usage of the private cloud by opening up to external consumers) have been discussed. In practice, however, the major incentive for a company to go green is reducing costs. While green strategies often focus on technical and environmental issues, they hardly address the economic impact that they may bring. If green strategies do not lead to an ...

  11. Hosts' perception of economic and socio-cultural tourism impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Kamšek, David; Milfelner, Borut; Ogorelc, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing tourism perceptions of host communities and residents' attitudes toward tourism development has been gaining increasing attention in the tourism research. This paper examines how residents perceive positive and negative economic and socio-cultural impacts of tourism. The authors identify several differences between two groups of respondents: residents employed in tourism and other residents. The study provides tourism planners with useful information concerning specific elements ass...

  12. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  13. Environmental economic impact assessment in China: Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindhjem, Henrik; Hu Tao; Ma Zhong; Skjelvik, John Magne; Song Guojun; Vennemo, Haakon; Wu Jian; Zhang Shiqiu

    2007-01-01

    The use of economic valuation methods to assess environmental impacts of projects and policies has grown considerably in recent years. However, environmental valuation appears to have developed independently of regulations and practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), despite its potential benefits to the EIA process. Environmental valuation may be useful in judging significance of impacts, determining mitigation level, comparing alternatives and generally enabling a more objective analysis of tradeoffs. In China, laws and regulations require the use of environmental valuation in EIA, but current practice lags far behind. This paper assesses the problems and prospects of introducing environmental valuation into the EIA process in China. We conduct four case studies of environmental economic impact assessment (EEIA), three of which are based on environmental impact statements of construction projects (a power plant, a wastewater treatment plant and a road construction project) and one for a regional pollution problem (wastewater irrigation). The paper demonstrates the potential usefulness of environmental valuation but also discusses several challenges to the introduction and wider use of EEIA, many of which are likely to be of relevance far beyond the Chinese context. The paper closes with suggesting some initial core elements of an EEIA guideline

  14. The impact of globalization on economic conditions: empirical evidence from the Mena region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa A. Elsherif

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Middle East and North Africa (MENA is an economically diverse region that includes countries with a common heritage, at various stages of economic development, with vastly different endowment of natural resources and accounts for 6% of the world total population. Despite undertaking economic reforms in many countries, and having considerable success in achieving macroeconomic stability, the region's economic performance in the past 30 years has been below its potential. Some countries that pursued reforms, such as Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia, enjoyed the region's most rapid growth rates, but due to the political instability and turbulences they are still lagged behind. The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the impact of globalization in MENA region on the economic performances. This study uses a panel data covers the period 2001–2014 for Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC and non- Gulf Cooperation Council (non-GCC MENA countries and employs Generalized Method of Moments (GMM approach. Results indicate that Globalization is negatively affecting economic conditions in non-GCC and it has no significant effect on non-GCC. This study suggests better policy coordination at all level of government to integrate social, economic and political policies as well all to improve transparency and democratic participation. The paper is outlined as follows- following the introduction, section two reviews the current economic conditions in MENA countries, section three discusses data and methodology, section four presents’ results and interpretation of findings, section five provides conclusions and recommendations.

  15. Representativeness of different factors affecting the economic impact of mastitis in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available he objective of this study was to identify and quantify the most representative factor affecting the economic impact of mastitis in dairy cattle herds in order to establish those that should receive greater attention from farmers and technicians to reduce the economic impact of this important disease. A simulation study was conducted with the CU$TO MASTITE program, considering 324 different herds and using combinations of the following factors: somatic cell count (250,000; 500,000; 750,000 and 1,000,000 somatic cells/mL milk; production scale (50; 100 and 150 lactating cows; productivity per animal (10; 20 and 30 L/cow/day; average annual incidence of clinical mastitis (1%; 7% and 15%, and involuntary culling rate due to mastitis (2%; 4% and 6%. Preventive measures included expenses with monitoring [culture and antibiogram, bulk tank somatic cell count (BTSCC, and individual somatic cell counts], pre- and post-dipping, vaccination, treatment of dry cows, and maintenance of the milking machine. Only treatments of clinical cases were considered as curative measures. The impact of mastitis was estimated as total losses plus expenses with prevention and treatment of clinical cases. The mean incidence of clinical mastitis (MIM and BTSCC were significant (P<0.05 in five of the seven models analyzed [economic impact per lactating cow (ILC, economic impact per liter of milk (ILM, economic impact of curative treatment per liter of milk (CTM, economic impact of milk disposal/liter of sold milk (IMD, and economic impact of reduction in production per liter of milk (IRM]. However, the standardized coefficient for MIM was higher in three indicators (ILC, IMD and CTM, a fact rendering this factor more representative when compared to BTSCC, which also had five significant indicators. Comparison of the medians of curative treatments and preventive measures per lactating cow revealed an excellent cost/benefit ratio. These findings demonstrate that both

  16. Impact of recent technical developments on upgrading economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padamsey, R.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to compare the economics of hydrogen addition processes using Alberta heavy oil feedstocks, based on test achievements, with the economics of upgrading processes representative of those currently in commercial use in Alberta. Capital and operating cost estimates were developed for an upgrader complex centrally located in Alberta utilizing three alternative upgrading schemes: flexicoking with separate hydrotreating, low conversion flexicoking-fining with delayed coking of unconverted bottoms and separate hydrotreating, and VEBA combi-cracker high conversion (VCC) hydrogen addition with integrated hydrotreating. Each scheme was designed to process 60,000 bbl per calendar day of Cold Lake bitumen and produce a synthetic crude oil that could be substituted for a conventional crude. The study included capital cost estimates, operating cost estimates, economic analysis and sensitivity analysis. The results of these analyses, as measured by the price available for the bitumen, indicated that high conversion hydrogen addition processes with integrated hydrotreating, such as VCC, offer a significant economic advantage over the currently employed coking processes combined with separate hydrotreating and over the low conversion hydrogen addition processes combined with separate hydrotreating and coking of unconverted bottoms. Technology was found to have a significant impact on the economics of the operation. 4 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  17. [Economic impact of chronic, acute and global malnutrition in Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcázar, Lorena; Ocampo, Diego; Huamán-Espino, Lucio; Pablo Aparco, Juan

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the economic impact of chronic, acute and global malnutrition in Peru. This study, through an econometric model, estimated the economic impact of child malnutrition in two time horizons (incidental retrospective and prospective) during 2011, considering malnutrition-associated costs of health, education and productivity for the Peruvian economy. Information collected is a combination of data coming from the Demographic Survey of Family Health, the National Survey of Homes, the 2007 Census of Population and Housing, and public budget information, as well as estimates of risks a child is exposed to due to malnutrition during their first years of life. Nationwide it was found that in the perspective retrospective, the cost of child malnutrition in 2011 was 10,999 million soles, which was equal to 2.2% of GDP for that same year. Prospective costs nationwide, of those who by 2011 were 0 to 59 months, reached 4,505 million soles and represented 0.9% of GDP in 2011. Most cases stem from losses of productivity in both cases. Moreover, malnutrition affects much more both the Andes and jungle regions. The economic impact of child malnutrition represents a significant percentage of GDP, reason for which it is necessary to continue investing equitably in its prevention through participation with proven efficiency.

  18. Performance assessment of hybrid power generation systems: Economic and environmental impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Sharafi, Abdullah; Yilbas, Bekir S.; Sahin, Ahmet Z.; Ayar, T.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A double-step optimization tool for hybrid power generation systems is introduced. • Economical aspects and the impact of the system on the environment are considered. • A hybrid system comprises PV array-wind turbine-battery-diesel engine is considered. • Real time analysis of the system for full year simulation is carried out. • System optimum configuration at point where total performance index is maximized. - Abstract: This article aims to introduce a double-step performance assessment tool for the hybrid power generation systems. As a case study, a hybrid system comprising PV array, wind-turbine, battery bank and diesel engine is incorporated in hourly based simulations to meet power demand of a residence unit at Dhahran area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Different indicators related to economical and environmental performance assessments of the hybrid system have been considered. In the economic related assessment case, cost of electricity, energy excess percentage, and operating life cycle indicators have been considered and combined to develop the first overall performance index. Renewable contribution, renewable source availability and environmental impact indicators have been considered for the environmental assessment case and they are combined in the second performance index. For either economical or environmental cases, the optimum configuration of the system is achieved by maximizing the first and second overall performance indicators. This innovative optimization tools gives the designer the freedom to assign suitable weights associated with economical aspect, environmental impact, governmental regulations and social impact, for the first and second overall performance indicators, and combine them in the total performance index. The optimum system configuration is at the point where the total performance index is maximized.

  19. The impact of total laryngectomy: the patient's perspective.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noonan, Brendan J

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE\\/OBJECTIVES: To describe the experiences of patients who had total laryngectomy from their perspective. RESEARCH APPROACH: Descriptive, qualitative study.Setting: Participants\\' homes or investigator\\'s hospital office. PARTICIPANTS: 10 patients after total laryngectomy. METHODOLOGIC APPROACH: Data were collected by semistructured, open-ended interviews during a period of six months, with an interview topic guide built on the framework of the literature review. Data were analyzed with descriptive content analysis. Trustworthiness of the study was enhanced through the use of verbatim quotations, audible data analysis trail, and a reflexive approach. MAIN RESEARCH VARIABLES: Patients\\' experiences of undergoing total laryngectomy. FINDINGS: Patients who have undergone a total laryngectomy report difficulties and concerns that are largely functional and psychological. The functional difficulties reported included descriptions of altered swallow, excess phlegm, speech difficulties, weak neck muscles, and altered energy levels. The psychological concerns reported included descriptions of depression, regrets, and personal resolve. CONCLUSIONS: As a group, patients experience a broad range of problems well after completion of treatment, reinforcing the need for rehabilitation management for prolonged periods after surgery. INTERPRETATION: Nurses are suitably positioned to support this group of patients across the disease management trajectory, from the initial preoperative period to the postoperative period and through to the rehabilitative period and beyond.

  20. Impact of total quality management on students' academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low academic performance of secondary school students in our society has been the greatest challenges facing the educational system in the country. The challenges associated with the country's educational performance especially at the secondary schools could be improved upon if total quality management control is ...

  1. The impact of embedded total productive maintenance with six ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to capture the current state of Six Sigma and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) as well as to propose the embedded approach of Six Sigma and TPM on improving supply chain performance. The approach to this paper is to answer the questions such as “how does TPM ...

  2. Impact of the economic and financial crisis on the evolving trend of crude steel consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Paliu-Popa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Given that the modern world cannot be conceived without the existence of the steel and its use, the crude steel consumption may be considered as an indicator characterizing the economic development of a country. The purpose of this paper is to establish the evolution of the world, regional and state consumption of crude steel, both per total, as well as per inhabitant, but also the impact of the economic and financial crisis it had on the evolving evolution of using the crude steel. Data subject to the study are related to the period 2004 – 2014 and concern nine regions of development and ten countries.

  3. Quantifying the daily economic impact of extreme space weather due to failure in electricity transmission infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oughton, Edward J.; Skelton, Andrew; Horne, Richard B.; Thomson, Alan W. P.; Gaunt, Charles T.

    2017-01-01

    Extreme space weather due to coronal mass ejections has the potential to cause considerable disruption to the global economy by damaging the transformers required to operate electricity transmission infrastructure. However, expert opinion is split between the potential outcome being one of a temporary regional blackout and of a more prolonged event. The temporary blackout scenario proposed by some is expected to last the length of the disturbance, with normal operations resuming after a couple of days. On the other hand, others have predicted widespread equipment damage with blackout scenarios lasting months. In this paper we explore the potential costs associated with failure in the electricity transmission infrastructure in the U.S. due to extreme space weather, focusing on daily economic loss. This provides insight into the direct and indirect economic consequences of how an extreme space weather event may affect domestic production, as well as other nations, via supply chain linkages. By exploring the sensitivity of the blackout zone, we show that on average the direct economic cost incurred from disruption to electricity represents only 49% of the total potential macroeconomic cost. Therefore, if indirect supply chain costs are not considered when undertaking cost-benefit analysis of space weather forecasting and mitigation investment, the total potential macroeconomic cost is not correctly represented. The paper contributes to our understanding of the economic impact of space weather, as well as making a number of key methodological contributions relevant for future work. Further economic impact assessment of this threat must consider multiday, multiregional events.

  4. Economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands, volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, G.R.; LeBlanc, N.; Walden, T.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, the international media recognized Alberta's oil sands as part of the global oil reserves, thereby establishing Canada as second to Saudi Arabia as potential oil producing nations. The economic impacts of Alberta's oil sands industry on economies were assessed at regional, provincial and international levels for the 2000 to 2020 period. A customized input-output model was used to assess economic impacts, which were measured in terms of changes in gross domestic product; employment and labour income; and, government revenues. Cumulative impacts on employment by sector and by jurisdiction were also presented. An investment of $100 billion is expected through 2020, resulting in production of crude bitumen and synthetic crude oil outputs valued at about $531 billion. The impact of the oil sands industry on local employment was also evaluated. It was shown that activities in the oil sands industry will lead to significant economic impact in Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and the rest of Canada. Alberta's local economy would be the main beneficiary of oil sands activities with nearly 3.6 million person years employment created in Alberta during the 2000 to 2020. Another 3 million person years employment would be created in other Canadian provinces and outside Canada during the same time period. A sensitivity analysis on the responsiveness to oil prices and the removal of various constraints incorporated in the main analysis was also presented. The federal government will be the largest recipient of revenues generated to to oil sands activities. The results of the study were compared with that of the National Task Force on Oil Sands Strategies. This first volume revealed the results of the study while the second volume includes the data and detailed results. 48 refs., 57 tabs., 28 figs

  5. The Impact of Total Risk Management on Company's Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Hamdu Kedir; Knapkova, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally risk management used to be considered as a means to alleviate perhaps eliminate negative outcomes of exposures. However, the result of this and other empirical studies shows the ability of risk management to go beyond this and respond to market factors which are out of management control in order to control volatilities in earning which ultimately improve corporate performance. The empirical study investigates the relationship between total risk management and company's performa...

  6. Impact of total laryngectomy on return to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jose Miguel; López, Montserrat; García, Jacinto; León, Xavier; Quer, Miquel

    Total laryngectomy is one of the most mutilating oncological operations. There are no specific studies evaluating return to work after this surgery. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 116 laryngectomized patients who were disease- free and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years from total laryngectomy. A survey was conducted to find out their employment situation before and after surgery. At the time of surgery, 62 (53%) were working, 40 (35%) were retired and 14 (12%) were in a disability situation. 60% had professions with low qualification requirements, the largest group being construction workers. Of the 62 patients active at the time of total laryngectomy, 29 became inactive and 33 (53%) maintained their work activity. The most important factors in maintaining work activity were the level of professional qualification and the method of vocal rehabilitation. Eighty percent of the patients with high-intermediate qualification maintained their jobs, compared to 35% of those with low professional qualifications (Pde Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of population and economic growth on carbon emissions in Taiwan using an analytic tool STIRPAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chao Yeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emission has increasingly become an issue of global concern because of climate change. Unfortunately, Taiwan was listed as top 20 countries of carbon emission in 2014. In order to provide appropriate measures to control carbon emission, it appears that there is an urgent need to address how such factors as population and economic growth impact the emission of carbon dioxide in any developing countries. In addition to total population, both the percentages of population living in urban area (i.e., urbanization percentage, and non-dependent population may also serve as limiting factors. On the other hand, the total energy-driven gross domestic production (GDP and the percentage of GDP generated by the manufacturing industries are assessed to see their respective degree of impact on carbon emission. Therefore, based on the past national data in the period 1990–2014 in Taiwan, an analytic tool of Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT was employed to see how well those aforementioned factors can describe their individual potential impact on global warming, which is measured by the total amount of carbon emission into the atmosphere. Seven scenarios of STIRPAT model were proposed and tested statistically for the significance of each proposed model. As a result, two models were suggested to predict the impact of carbon emission due to population and economic growth by the year 2025 in Taiwan.

  8. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lertpitakpong Chanida

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1 cost components included in the estimation; (2 the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies.

  9. Economics of total energy schemes in the liberalised European energy market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampret, Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the liberalisation of the European Energy markets and the affects this has had on total energy systems. The work concentrates on a number of case studies all of which are located in the area surrounding Gelsenkirchen - Bottrop - Gladbeck, the centre of the Ruhr region of Germany.The thesis describes briefly how the legislation of the parliament of the extended European Union has been interpreted and enacted into German legislation and its affects on production, transport, sales and customers. Primarily the legislation has been enacted to reduce energy costs by having a competitive market while enabling security of supply. The legislation whose development has accelerated since 1999 can lead to negative effects and these have been highlighted for the case studies chosen.The legislation and technological advances, each of them successful by themselves, do not provide the expected reduction of carbon dioxide emissions when applied to total energy system. The introduction of human behaviour as a missing link makes the problems evident and gives a theoretical basis to overcome these problems. The hypothesis is proven by eight detailed research projects and four concisely described ones.The base of the research is the experience gained on approximately 1,000 operation years of the simplest total energy system, that of centralised heating. This experience is transferred to different solutions for total energy systems and their economics in combination with the changing legislation and observation of human behaviour.The variety of topics of the case studies includes the production of heat by boiler, solar or combined heat and power and the use of fuel cells. Additionally the transfer of heat, at the place of demand is considered, either as an individual boiler in a building or as de-centralised district heating.The various results of these projects come together in a final project which covers four different heating systems in identical

  10. Economic impact of milk production in the State of New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, V E; Hagevoort, R; Solís, D; Kirksey, R; Diemer, J A

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to quantify the economic role of dairy farming in New Mexico and to identify its linkages with allied industries in terms of income, value added, and employment impacts. An input-output model was used to estimate the direct, indirect, and induced impacts of the dairy farm industry on the economy of New Mexico. The results showed that in 2005, New Mexico's dairy farm industry had a total economic impact of $1.98 billion and accounted for 14,313 jobs. Therefore, dairy farming in New Mexico had an output multiplier (income) of 1.92, a labor income multiplier of $248 thousand/$ million of gross sales, and an employment multiplier of 13.91 jobs/$ million of gross sales. Furthermore, the New Mexico dairy farms accounted for 13.1% of the total agricultural outputs, 20.5% of the agricultural jobs, 1.5% of total state economic activity, and $80 million in tax revenue. With the exception of Lea, Eddy, and Bernalillo counties, which are diversified, the dairy farms accounted for more than two-thirds of the agricultural outputs and for more than two-fifths of the agricultural employment in counties where dairy farms are concentrated.

  11. Economic impacts of climate change: Methods of estimating impacts at an aggregate level using Hordaland as an illustration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses methods for calculating economic impacts of climate change, and uses Hordaland county in Norway as an illustrative example. The calculations are based on estimated climate changes from the RegClim project. This study draws from knowledge of the relationship between economic activity and climate at a disaggregate level and calculates changes in production of and demand for goods and services within aggregate sectors, which are specified in the county budget for Hordaland. Total impacts for the county thus are expressed through known values from the national budget, such as the county's ''national product'', total consumption, and investments. The estimates of impacts of climate changes at a disaggregate level in Hordaland are quantified only to small degree. The calculations made in this report can thus only be considered appropriate for illustrating methods and interpretations. In terms of relative economic significance for the county, however, it is likely that the hydropower sector will be the most affected. Increased precipitation will result in greater production potential, but profitability will largely depend on projected energy prices and investment costs associated with expansion. Agriculture and forestry will increase their production potential, but they are relatively small sectors in the county. Compared with the uncertainty about how climate change will affect production, however, the uncertainty about changes in demand is far greater. The demand for personal transportation and construction in particular can have significant consequences for the county's economy. (author)

  12. Economic impacts from shifting cropland use from food to fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raneses, Anton; Hanson, Kenneth; Shapouri, Hosein

    1998-01-01

    Without the availability of idle cropland, biomass energy crops will have to compete with other crops and pasture land use. In this paper, we investigate: (a) the economic feasibility of using cropland, traditionally used for pasture, hay and other commodity crops, for production of biomass crops to be used as an energy source for electric utilities; (b) the impact of biomass crop production on crop and livestock prices, farm income, and the cost of food to consumers. We find a $1-4 billion demand for biomass crops may result in a 2-12% impact on farm sector prices. This impact warrants further exploration into estimating the opportunity cost for biomass crop production when idle cropland is not available. (Author)

  13. Economic impact of the world summit on sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JH Martins

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa hosted the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD in 2002.  This event is regarded as the single biggest conference to be held anywhere in the world. The aim of this paper is to set out the estimated economic impact of the WSSD and its parallel events on South Africa.  This impact can be expressed in monetary terms as well as employment figures.  The impact is calculated by using an input-output model and employment spin-offs determined from the IO table by using partial multipliers.  The input data were derived from a survey amongst WSSD delegates as well as information on government and private investments made.

  14. Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) User Reference Guide: Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldberg, Marshall [MRG and Associates, Nevada City, CA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    This guide -- the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model User Reference Guide -- was developed to assist users in operating and understanding the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model. The guide provides information on the model's underlying methodology, as well as the parameters and data sources used to develop the cost data utilized in the model. This guide also provides basic instruction on model add-in features and a discussion of how the results should be interpreted. Based on project-specific inputs from the user, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model estimates local (e.g., county- or state-level) job creation, earnings, and output from total economic activity for a given fast pyrolysis biorefinery. These estimates include the direct, indirect and induced economic impacts to the local economy associated with the construction and operation phases of biorefinery projects.Local revenue and supply chain impacts as well as induced impacts are estimated using economic multipliers derived from the IMPLAN software program. By determining the local economic impacts and job creation for a proposed biorefinery, the JEDI Fast Pyrolysis Biorefinery Model can be used to field questions about the added value biorefineries might bring to a local community.

  15. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  16. Impact of Globalisation On Economic Growth in Romania: An Empirical Analysis of Its Economic, Social and Political Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Neagu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.

  17. Economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our paper focuses on the relevant theoretical economic approaches that allow us to understand the key elements of cultural values. The paper presents a model envisaged to estimate economic and social impact of modernization on cultural values in modern societies. We employ three indices of social and economic development for each level in Russian Federal districts of Moscow and St. Petersburg in order to reveal their impacts on modernization processes. Our data has been collected via the means of a questionnaire and an opinion poll with the purpose of revealing the value guidelines of society in terms of its modernization. Our results reveal the presence of four relevant levels of value orientations: family orientations, global, work, and personal orientations. Our results demonstrate how modernization is perceived in modern societies, in which spheres it is mostly expressed, and how it influences the society. Moreover, we show the determinants of values within four levels of value orientations. Our findings provide estimations of modern attitudes towards social consciousness in the processes of modernization and reveal basic moral principles that could become a background of new system of values used in modernizing modern societies.

  18. The impact of physics assumptions on fusion economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.; Cook, I.; Knight, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    The development of fusion promises a long term supply of energy with widespread resources and good safety and environmental properties. However the introduction of fusion into the future energy market will rely on the development of an economically viable fusion power plant. Although predictions of the likely cost of electricity produced by a future fusion power plant are uncertain, it is important that an assessment is made to ensure that the likely economics are not unreasonable. In this paper the impact of different physics (and other) constraints on the economics of fusion is considered. Comparison with the expected future cost of electricity from other sources must take account of the trends in the energy market, particularly at present towards sources with low external costs related to impact on human health and the natural environment. Although these costs depend on the country concerned, a range of expected future costs can be derived. Comparison with the expected range of fusion costs shows that fusion can contribute to the future energy market. (author)

  19. Global health and economic impacts of future ozone pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selin, N E; Nam, K M; Reilly, J M; Paltsev, S; Prinn, R G; Webster, M D; Wu, S

    2009-01-01

    We assess the human health and economic impacts of projected 2000-2050 changes in ozone pollution using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis - Health Effects (EPPA-HE) model, in combination with results from the GEOS-Chem global tropospheric chemistry model of climate and chemistry effects of projected future emissions. We use EPPA-HE to assess the human health damages (including mortality and morbidity) caused by ozone pollution, and quantify their economic impacts in sixteen world regions. We compare the costs of ozone pollution under scenarios with 2000 and 2050 ozone precursor and greenhouse gas emissions (using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B scenario). We estimate that health costs due to global ozone pollution above pre-industrial levels by 2050 will be $580 billion (year 2000$) and that mortalities from acute exposure will exceed 2 million. We find that previous methodologies underestimate costs of air pollution by more than a third because they do not take into account the long-term, compounding effects of health costs. The economic effects of emissions changes far exceed the influence of climate alone.

  20. The economic impact of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanwa, Natasha; Kendzerska, Tetyana; Krahn, Murray; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Daneman, Nick; Witteman, William; Mittmann, Nicole; Cadarette, Suzanne M; Rosella, Laura; Sander, Beate

    2015-04-01

    With Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) on the rise, knowledge of the current economic burden of CDI can inform decisions on interventions related to CDI. We systematically reviewed CDI cost-of-illness (COI) studies. We performed literature searches in six databases: MEDLINE, Embase, the Health Technology Assessment Database, the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry, and EconLit. We also searched gray literature and conducted reference list searches. Two reviewers screened articles independently. One reviewer abstracted data and assessed quality using a modified guideline for economic evaluations. The second reviewer validated the abstraction and assessment. We identified 45 COI studies between 1988 and June 2014. Most (84%) of the studies were from the United States, calculating costs of hospital stays (87%), and focusing on direct costs (100%). Attributable mean CDI costs ranged from $8,911 to $30,049 for hospitalized patients. Few studies stated resource quantification methods (0%), an epidemiological approach (0%), or a justified study perspective (16%) in their cost analyses. In addition, few studies conducted sensitivity analyses (7%). Forty-five COI studies quantified and confirmed the economic impact of CDI. Costing methods across studies were heterogeneous. Future studies should follow standard COI methodology, expand study perspectives (e.g., patient), and explore populations least studied (e.g., community-acquired CDI).

  1. The Impact of Environmental Regulation on Total Factor Energy Efficiency: A Cross-Region Analysis in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianting Lin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental regulations are the key measure by which governments achieve sustainable environmental and economic development. This study aimed to determine the direct and indirect impacts of environmental regulations on total factor energy efficiency of regions in China. Since regions have different levels of economic development and resource endowment, we used the slacks-based measure (SBM-undesirable model to calculate total factor energy efficiency considering regional technology heterogeneity and examined the regional impacts of environmental regulation on this efficiency using the Tobit regression model. A positive direct impact was generated in the eastern region of China by the forced mechanism, which forced enterprises to reduce fossil fuel energy demand and increase clean energy consumption; whereas a negative direct impact was generated in the middle and western regions owing to the green paradox, which is the observation that expected stringent environmental regulation prompts energy owners to accelerate resource extraction. Moreover, indirect impacts through technological progress and foreign direct investment were taken into account in the model, and the results show that the indirect impacts vary across regions. A logical response to these findings would be to develop different policies for different regions.

  2. National and regional economic impacts of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasblom, J.; Broek, R. van den; Meeusen-van Onna, M.

    1998-01-01

    Besides the known environmental benefits, national and regional economic impacts may form additional arguments for stimulating government measures in favour of electricity production from energy crops in the Netherlands. Therefore, we compared the economic impacts (at both national and regional

  3. Comparative economic evaluation of environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrascu, Roxana; Athanasovici, Victor; Raducanu, Cristian; Minciuc, Eduard; Bitir-Istrate, Ioan

    2004-01-01

    Cogeneration is one of the most powerful technologies for reduction of environmental pollution along with renewable energies. At the Kyoto Conference cogeneration has been identified as being the most important measure for reducing emissions of greenhouse effect gases. It has also been mentioned that cogeneration has a potential of reducing pollution with about 180 million tones per year. In order to promote new cogeneration technologies and evaluate the existing ones it is necessary to know and to be able to quantify in economical terms the environmental issues. When comparing different cogeneration technologies: steam turbine (TA), gas turbine (TG), internal combustion engine (MT), in order to choose the best one, the final decision implies an economic factor, which is even more important if it includes the environmental issues. The environmental impact of different cogeneration technologies is quantified using different criteria: depletion of non-renewable natural resources, eutrofisation, greenhouse effect, acidification etc. Environmental analysis using these criteria can be made using the 'impact with impact' methodology or the global one. The results of such an analysis cannot be quantified economically directly. Therefore there is a need of internalisation of ecological effects within the costs of produced energy: electricity and heat. In the energy production sector the externalizations represent the indirect effects on the environment. They can be materialised within different types of environmental impact: - Different buildings of mines, power plants etc; - Fuel losses during transportation and processing; - Effect of emissions in the air, water and soil. Introduction of the environmental impact costs in the energy price is called internalisation and it can be made using the direct and indirect methods. The paper discusses aspects regarding the emissions of cogeneration systems, the eco-taxes - method of 'internalisation' of environmental

  4. Safety and economic impacts of photo radar program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Greg

    2005-12-01

    Unsafe speed is one of the major traffic safety challenges facing motorized nations. In 2003, unsafe speed contributed to 31 percent of all fatal collisions, causing a loss of 13,380 lives in the United States alone. The economic impact of speeding is tremendous. According to NHTSA, the cost of unsafe speed related collisions to the American society exceeds 40 billion US dollars per year. In response, automated photo radar speed enforcement programs have been implemented in many countries. This study assesses the economic impacts of a large-scale photo radar program in British Columbia. The knowledge generated from this study could inform policy makers and project managers in making informed decisions with regard to this highly effective and efficient, yet very controversial program. This study establishes speed and safety effects of photo radar programs by summarizing two physical impact investigations in British Columbia. It then conducts a cost-benefit analysis to assess the program's economic impacts. The cost-benefit analysis takes into account both societal and funding agency's perspectives. It includes a comprehensive account of major impacts. It uses willingness to pay principle to value human lives saved and injuries avoided. It incorporates an extended sensitivity analysis to quantify the robustness of base case conclusions. The study reveals an annual net benefit of approximately 114 million in year 2001 Canadian dollars to British Columbians. The study also finds a net annual saving of over 38 million Canadian dollars for the Insurance Corporation of British Columbia (ICBC) that funded the program. These results are robust under almost all alternative scenarios tested. The only circumstance under which the net benefit of the program turns negative is when the real safety effects were one standard deviation below the estimated values, which is possible but highly unlikely. Automated photo radar traffic safety enforcement can be an effective and efficient

  5. The Impact of Regional Disparities on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated how economic growth affects the disparity in the distribution of regional income in Poland and vice versa. The research was based on annual data covering the period 2000-2009. In general, the research was divided into two main parts. First, the authors examined the evolution of the level of spatial inequalities in income in Poland over the last decade using the concepts of sigma and beta convergence. Next the nature of causal dependences was investigated between this inequality and economic growth. It was found that Polish regions did not converge with respect to the distribution of income as total GDP grew. The second part of the research provided evidence to claim that this inequality caused growth. Moreover, the evidence was also found that growth affected regional inequality. Finally, the authors noticed that the effects of both these factors were positive. The results suggest that as a consequence of rapid economic growth, some regions in Poland seized new opportunities, while less developed regions were unable to keep up with the challenging requirements of a decade of fast economic growth. (original abstract

  6. The Impact of Services on Economic Complexity: Service Sophistication as Route for Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojkoski, Viktor; Utkovski, Zoran; Kocarev, Ljupco

    2016-01-01

    Economic complexity reflects the amount of knowledge that is embedded in the productive structure of an economy. By combining tools from network science and econometrics, a robust and stable relationship between a country's productive structure and its economic growth has been established. Here we report that not only goods but also services are important for predicting the rate at which countries will grow. By adopting a terminology which classifies manufactured goods and delivered services as products, we investigate the influence of services on the country's productive structure. In particular, we provide evidence that complexity indices for services are in general higher than those for goods, which is reflected in a general tendency to rank countries with developed service sector higher than countries with economy centred on manufacturing of goods. By focusing on country dynamics based on experimental data, we investigate the impact of services on the economic complexity of countries measured in the product space (consisting of both goods and services). Importantly, we show that diversification of service exports and its sophistication can provide an additional route for economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

  7. The Potential Socio-economic Impacts of Gas Hydrate Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, David; Schaafsma, Marije; Marin-Moreno, Héctor; Minshull, Tim A.

    2017-04-01

    Gas hydrate has garnered significant interest as a possible clean fossil fuel resource, especially in countries with limited energy supplies. Whilst the sector is still in its infancy, there has been escalating development towards commercial production. To the best of our knowledge it appears that, despite its potential, existing analyses of the social and economic impacts of hydrate exploitation have been very limited. Before any viable commercial production commences, the potential impacts across society must be considered. It is likely that such impact assessments will become a legislative requirement for hydrate exploitation, similar to their requirement in conventional oil and gas projects. Social impact analysis should guide hydrate development to have the highest possible net benefits to the human and natural environment. Without active commercial hydrate operations, potential socio-economic impacts can only be inferred from other fossil fuel resource focused communities, including those directly or indirectly affected by the oil and gas industry either in the vicinity of the well or further afield. This review attempts to highlight potential impacts by synthesising current literature, focusing on social impacts at the extraction stage of operation, over time. Using a DPSIR (Driving forces; Pressures; States; Impacts; Responses) framework, we focus on impacts upon: health and wellbeing, land use and access, services and infrastructure, population, employment opportunities, income and lifestyles. Human populations directly or indirectly related with fossil fuel extraction activities often show boom and bust dynamics, and so any impacts may be finite or change temporally. Therefore potential impacts have to be reassessed throughout the lifetime of the exploitation. Our review shows there are a wide range of possible positive and negative socio-economic impacts from hydrate development. Exploitation can bring jobs and infrastructure to remote areas, although

  8. THE IMPACT OF PUBLIC DEBT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH WITHIN EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral (IBRAIM KAGITCI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this paper consists in offering a general view regarding a comparative analysis between different EU countries on public debt and economic growth. In the meantime, this is the evidence that the annual shift of the public dues ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio are seen in a bad way and linearly associated with per-capita GDP increase. The conduits term through government`s obligation (level or change is expected to have a big impact over the economical increased rate as: i secret saving; ii social investments; iii all the productivity factors; iv unlimited long-term nominal and real interest rate. From a political point of view, the results will bring basically arguments for dues reduction to support long-term increase prospect.

  9. Expansion of environmental impact assessment for eco-efficiency evaluation of China's economic sectors: An economic input-output based frontier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Zhencheng; Wang, Jigan; Zhang, Jie

    2018-09-01

    Due to the increasing environmental burdens caused by dramatic economic expansion, eco-efficiency indicating how efficient the economic activity is with respect to its environmental impacts has become a topic of considerable interest in China. In this context, Economic Input-output Life Cycle Assessment (EIO-LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) are combined to assess the environmental impacts and eco-efficiency of China's 26 economic sectors. The EIO-LCA results indicate that Electricity Production and Supply sector is the largest net exporter in energy usage, CO 2 emission and exhaust emission categories, while Construction sector is the largest net importer for five impact categories except for water withdrawal. Moreover, Construction sector is found to be the destination of the largest sector-to-sector environmental impact flows for the five impact categories and make the most contributions to the total environmental impacts. Another key finding is that Agriculture sector is both the largest net exporter and the greatest contributor for water withdrawal category. DEA results indicate that seven sectors are eco-efficient while over 70% of China's economic sectors are inefficient and require significant improvements. The average target improvements range between 23.30% and 35.06% depending on the impact category. Further sensitivity analysis reveals that the average sensitivity ratios vary from 7.7% to 15.7% among the six impact categories, which are found to be negatively correlated with their improvement potentials. Finally, several policy recommendations are made to mitigate environmental impacts of China's economic sectors and improve their eco-efficiency levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation the potential economic impacts of Taiwanese biomass energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chi-Chung; McCarl, Bruce; Chang, Ching-Cheng; Tso, Chunto

    2011-01-01

    The Taiwanese rice paddy land set-aside program diverts a substantial land area. Given today's high energy prices and interests in energy security, that set-aside area could be converted to produce bioenergy feedstocks. This study evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of such a policy change using a Taiwanese agricultural sector model. The results show that such a strategy provides increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. These outcomes indicate that the agricultural sector could play a positive role by producing renewable energy. -- Highlights: → This paper evaluates the economic and environmental impacts of converting set-aside area to produce bioenergy feedstocks. → Taiwanese agricultural sector model is built and applied to evaluate such impacts. → The empirical results show that producing bioenergy using set-aside area could provide increased farm revenue, increased rural employment, increased energy sufficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions but also increased government expenditures. → Agricultural sector in Taiwan could play a positive role by producing renewable energy.

  11. Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup | Hermann ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Socio-economic impacts of the 2010 FIFA World Cup. ... Literature on the impacts of mega events on tourism is available but limited in number in terms of the impacts of mega events on local residents. This study analyses the post ... Keywords: Mega events, economic impacts, social impacts, World Cup, local community.

  12. The Global Economic Impact of Manta Ray Watching Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Malley, Mary P.; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B.

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism. PMID:23741450

  13. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Mary P; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Medd, Hannah B

    2013-01-01

    As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris) are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  14. The global economic impact of manta ray watching tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary P O'Malley

    Full Text Available As manta rays face increased threats from targeted and bycatch fisheries, manta ray watching tourism, if managed properly, may present an attractive economic alternative to consumptive use of these species. Both species in the genus Manta (Manta alfredi and Manta birostris are classified by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature Red List as species Vulnerable to extinction in the wild, and are considered unsustainable as fisheries resources due to their conservative life history characteristics, which considerably reduce their ability to recover population numbers when depleted. Utilising dive operator surveys, Internet research, and a literature review, this study provides the first global estimate of the direct economic impact of manta ray watching tourism and examines the potential socio-economic benefits of non-consumptive manta ray watching operations relative to consumptive use of manta rays as a fishery resource. In the 23 countries in which manta ray watching operations meeting our criteria were identified, we estimated direct revenue to dive operators from manta ray dives and snorkels at over US$73 million annually and direct economic impact, including associated tourism expenditures, of US$140 million annually. Ten countries account for almost 93% of the global revenue estimate, specifically Japan, Indonesia, the Maldives, Mozambique, Thailand, Australia, Mexico, United States, Federated States of Micronesia and Palau. In many of the areas where directed fisheries for manta rays are known to occur, these activities overlap with manta ray tourism sites or the migratory range of the mantas on which these sites depend, and are likely to be unsustainable and detrimental to manta ray watching tourism.

  15. Economic value of U.S. fossil fuel electricity health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machol, Ben; Rizk, Sarah

    2013-02-01

    Fossil fuel energy has several externalities not accounted for in the retail price, including associated adverse human health impacts, future costs from climate change, and other environmental damages. Here, we quantify the economic value of health impacts associated with PM(2.5) and PM(2.5) precursors (NO(x) and SO(2)) on a per kilowatt hour basis. We provide figures based on state electricity profiles, national averages and fossil fuel type. We find that the economic value of improved human health associated with avoiding emissions from fossil fuel electricity in the United States ranges from a low of $0.005-$0.013/kWh in California to a high of $0.41-$1.01/kWh in Maryland. When accounting for the adverse health impacts of imported electricity, the California figure increases to $0.03-$0.07/kWh. Nationally, the average economic value of health impacts associated with fossil fuel usage is $0.14-$0.35/kWh. For coal, oil, and natural gas, respectively, associated economic values of health impacts are $0.19-$0.45/kWh, $0.08-$0.19/kWh, and $0.01-$0.02/kWh. For coal and oil, these costs are larger than the typical retail price of electricity, demonstrating the magnitude of the externality. When the economic value of health impacts resulting from air emissions is considered, our analysis suggests that on average, U.S. consumers of electricity should be willing to pay $0.24-$0.45/kWh for alternatives such as energy efficiency investments or emission-free renewable sources that avoid fossil fuel combustion. The economic value of health impacts is approximately an order of magnitude larger than estimates of the social cost of carbon for fossil fuel electricity. In total, we estimate that the economic value of health impacts from fossil fuel electricity in the United States is $361.7-886.5 billion annually, representing 2.5-6.0% of the national GDP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M; Gerlinger, K; Herrmann, N; Klein, R J.T.; Schneider, M; Sterr, H; Schellnhuber, H J

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  17. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  18. Impact of socioeconomic factors on outcome of total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Robert L; Ruh, Erin L; Chen, Jiajing; Lombardi, Adolph V; Berend, Keith R; Parvizi, Javad; Della Valle, Craig J; Hamilton, William G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2014-01-01

    Few data exist regarding the impact of socioeconomic factors on results of current TKA in young patients. Predictors of TKA outcomes have focused primarily on surgical technique, implant details, and individual patient clinical factors. The relative importance of these factors compared to patient socioeconomic status is not known. We determined whether (1) socioeconomic factors, (2) demographic factors, or (3) implant factors were associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes after TKA in young patients. We surveyed 661 patients (average age, 54 years; range, 18-60 years; 61% female) 1 to 4 years after undergoing modern primary TKA for noninflammatory arthritis at five orthopaedic centers. Data were collected by an independent third party with expertise in collecting healthcare data for state and federal agencies. We examined specific questions regarding satisfaction, pain, and function after TKA and socioeconomic (household income, education, employment) and demographic (sex, minority status) factors. Multivariable analysis was conducted to examine the relative importance of these factors for each outcome of interest. Patients reporting incomes of less than USD 25,000 were less likely to be satisfied with TKA outcomes and more likely to have functional limitations after TKA than patients with higher incomes; no other socioeconomic factors were associated with satisfaction. Women were less likely to be satisfied and more likely to have functional limitations than men, and minority patients were more likely to have functional limitations than nonminority patients. Implants were not associated with outcomes after surgery. Socioeconomic factors, in particular low income, are more strongly associated with satisfaction and functional outcomes in young patients after TKA than demographic or implant factors. Future studies should be directed to determining the causes of this association, and studies of clinical results after TKA should consider stratifying patients

  19. The economic impact of infection with Eimeria spp. in broiler farms from Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Györke

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A survey was conducted on chicken broiler farms from Romania in August-November 2010 to evaluate economic losses due to coccidiosis. Data were collected from six broiler farms of different capacity regarding chemoprophylaxis program, weight gain, feed conversion, and mortality, for two previous flocks in two houses of each farm, and finally we evaluated the economic losses. Also, faeces samples were collected and oocysts were classified according to their size, and virulence of each Eimeria spp. field isolate was determined by lesion scoring. Correlations between economic performance, oocysts category, and virulence of Eimeria were assessed by multiple linear regression. Total economic losses per 24 flocks of 18,000 chicks each were about €37,948.2, with an average of €3,162.4 per flock, and they were caused by mortality (34.8% and poor feed conversion (65.2%. Poor body weight gain was associated with AM oocyst category (presumptively E. acervulina and/or E. mitis, high lesion score in the duodenum, and coccidiostat used for chemoprophylaxis. Feed conversion ratio was linked to the same parameters as body weight gain, minus chemoprophylaxis programme, plus total lesion score. The percentage of mortality was influenced by the lesion score in the caecum and total lesion score. Statistical analysis showed that epidemiological survey of broiler flocks during the grower period can help the farmer to avoid important economic losses due to coccidiosis. As in other countries, the economic losses caused by coccidiosis in Romania are important, and a good prophylaxis programme can reduce the economic impact of coccidiosis.

  20. Evolutionary modelling of the macro-economic impacts of catastrophic flood events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; Brouwer, R.; Hofkes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the possible contribution of evolutionary economics to macro-economic modelling of flood impacts to provide guidance for future economic risk modelling. Most macro-economic models start from a neoclassical economic perspective and focus on equilibrium outcomes, either in a static

  1. Socio-economic impact analysis of new AECB regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochman, E.H.

    1985-06-01

    The federal government's Socio-Economic Impact Analysis (SEIA) policy has been in effect since 1978. Under this policy, all new or amended regulations concerning health, safety, or fairness are subjected to a screening exercise which determines whether the regulations are 'major' or 'minor'. The costs and benefits of major regulations are analyzed in depth. This paper describes the SEIA policy and explains some of the basic concepts. Then the steps the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) follows in the analysis of new regulations are summarized. Finally, the AECB's past and forthcoming experience with the SEIA policy is discussed

  2. HOW TO SUSTAIN ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE? ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ITS IMPACT FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA SIMONA HUDEA (CARAMAN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to render several important factors of impact on economic growth and to describe the particular types of relationships of the latter with each one of its influencing elements. In order to correctly determine such issue, we have resorted to three carefully selected models that have been estimated and compared so as to identify the most adequate and representative regression. For this purpose we have performed an analysis based on cross-section annual data for 105 countries spread all over the world. After having tested and rejected certain exogenous variables initially considered, such as imports or exports, we have finally retained the external debt and foreign direct investments as explanatory items of the dependent variable. The results revealed that both of them positively affect the gross domestic product of the analysed countries, this one being inelastic in relation to the exogenous variables considered. Even if the relationship between the economic growth and the external debt of a country is usually negative, as the money exit out of the country due to the debt service causes non-achieved potential investments, yet, there is an inflexion point up to which the external debt has a positive influence on economic growth by the increase of the investments funds acquired as result of the external credit contracting, this being the case reflected by our study. As for the relationship existing between foreign direct investments and GDP, the economic theory confirms that FDI and economic growth are directly correlated, the former contributing to technical progress, production increase and, finally, to the improvement of the living standard.

  3. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  4. Which Clinical and Patient Factors Influence the National Economic Burden of Hospital Readmissions After Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven M; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Adler, Edward M; Kolisek, Frank R; Manley, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    on the Type III F-statistic, p economic burden on the US healthcare system. Approximately half of the total annual economic burden for readmissions in the United States is medical and unrelated to the joint replacement procedure and half is related to procedural complications. This national study underscores LOS during readmission as a primary cost driver, suggesting that hospitals and doctors further optimize, to the extent possible, the clinical pathways for the hospitalization of readmitted patients. Because patients readmitted as a result of infection, dislocation, and periprosthetic fractures are the most costly types of readmissions, efforts to reduce the LOS for these types of readmissions will have the greatest impact on their economic burden. Additional clinical research is needed to determine the extent to which, if any, the LOS during readmissions can be reduced without sacrificing quality or access of care.

  5. Economical impact of orchiectomy for advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Adriano A. P. de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To demonstrate the economical impact of surgical castration in comparison to the medical castration for patients with advanced prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2001 and December 2001, 32 patients with advanced prostate cancer underwent bilateral sub-capsular orchiectomy at our Hospital. The costs of this procedure were compared to the costs of medical castration with LH-RH analogues. RESULTS: The costs of the surgical procedure were extremely reduced when compared to published data on the medical treatment. Surgical castration did not have any stronger negative impact on the evolution of these patients when compared to medical castration. CONCLUSION: Surgical castration is an efficient and low cost treatment for advanced prostate cancer.

  6. Math and science illiteracy: Social and economic impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    Today`s highly competitive global economy is being driven by increasingly rapid technological development. This paper explores the problems of math and science illiteracy in the United States and the potential impact on our economic survival in this environment during the next century. Established educational methods that reward task performance, emphasize passive lecture, and fail to demonstrate relevance to real life are partly to blame. Social norms, stereotypes, and race and gender bias also have an impact. To address this crisis, we need to question the philosophy of an educational system that values task over concept. Many schools have already initiated programs at all grade levels to make math and science learning more relevant, stimulating, and fun. Teaching methods that integrate math and science learning with teamwork, social context, and other academic subjects promote the development of higher-order thinking skills and help students see math and science as necessary skills.

  7. Indirect economic impacts in water supplies augmented with desalinated water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, Martin; Arvin, Erik; Binning, Philip John

    2010-01-01

    Several goals can be considered when optimizing blends from multiple water resources for urban water supplies. Concentration-response relationships from the literature indicate that a changed water quality can cause impacts on health, lifetime of consumer goods and use of water additives like...... going from fresh water based to desalinated water supply. Large uncertainties prevent the current results from being used for or against desalination as an option for Copenhagen's water supply. In the future, more impacts and an uncertainty analysis will be added to the assessment....... softeners. This paper describes potential economic consequences of diluting Copenhagen's drinking water with desalinated water. With a mineral content at 50% of current levels, dental caries and cardiovascular diseases are expected to increase by 51 and 23% respectively. Meanwhile, the number of dish...

  8. Short run economic impact of State University of Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Tarocco Filho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the inter-regional economic impact of short-term, State University of Londrina and their local impacts and in 2006, in respect of employment and income. Through the analysis of input-output multipliers employment and earnings, employment generation and income indexes and link back and forth was calculated. Through the results found that the Public Education employs 6.19% of employed staff and is responsible for 12.27% of earnings generated in the county. The Public Education excelled in creating jobs in Londrina, which along with the sectors of Education Services and Commodities (13, was the fourth biggest indicator, trailing sectors: Public Administration, Commerce and Securities Industry and Miscellaneous. We found that the employment multiplier is 1.25 and their ability to generate earnings through direct effect in the city is the third largest R $ 368,153 million.

  9. Spatiotemporal Assessment of PM2.5-Related Economic Losses from Health Impacts during 2014–2016 in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Particulate air pollution, especially PM2.5, is highly correlated with various adverse health impacts and, ultimately, economic losses for society, however, few studies have undertaken a spatiotemporal assessment of PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts covering all of the main cities in China. Methods: PM2.5 concentration data were retrieved for 190 Chinese cities for the period 2014–2016. We used a log-linear exposure–response model and monetary valuation methods, such as value of a statistical life (VSL, amended human capital (AHC, and cost of illness to evaluate PM2.5-related economic losses from health impacts at the city level. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation was used to analyze uncertainty. Results: The average economic loss was 0.3% (AHC to 1% (VSL of the total gross domestic product (GDP of 190 Chinese cities from 2014 to 2016. Overall, China experienced a downward trend in total economic losses over the three-year period, but the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing regions experienced greater annual economic losses. Conclusions: Exploration of spatiotemporal variations in PM2.5-related economic losses from long-term health impacts could provide new information for policymakers regarding priority areas for PM2.5 pollution prevention and control in China.

  10. A statistical analysis of aggregates of the total economic account for agriculture of the Czech Republic in 1998–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božena Bodečková

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of the statistical analysis of the of the total economic aggregate account for the Czech Republic enabled, in addition to the quantification of its performance, also to asses the developmental tendencies of economic phenomena under study. From this point of view, the most important were the data obtained within the framework of studies on the total output of Czech agricultural industry. Among the major indicators of the production intensity, the level of intermediate consumption was explored as well. This analysis involved also an exact estimation of both gross and net added value because such an analysis enables to express the the final economic effect of agriculture within the framework of the national economy as a whole. A complex approach to the solution of these problems is presented on the base of studies on the structure of both plant and animal production and of the total intermediate consumption

  11. THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF FOREIGN DEBT IN GREECE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Korol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The impact of foreign debt growth on the social and economic performance of Greece was shown. The parameters of GDP, consumption, interest rates, unemployment and government spendings were analyzed. Methodology. Data obtained for 2001-2014 was used for regression analysis, vector autoregression and as well as Kalman filter. Results. A multi-faced analysis of the debt for EU-member states and Greece in particular was performed. The events and decisions of Greek authorities leading to the crisis were summarized in structural and logical scheme. The recommendations for the economic policy of Greece, based on the performed analysis were suggested. The practical applications. Establishment of all weaknesses and empirical testing of the necessary indicators in this study was the basis for the justification of measures to stabilize the economic situation in Ukraine and Greece. Value/originality. The Mandel-Fleming model and the model of balance of savings-investments was used for the first time for the theoretical interpretation of the nature of the debt crisis in Greece, that under the influence of capital inflows caused by the deterioration of the current account balance and interest rate cuts. The increase in foreign borrowings has led to an increase in the budget deficit and reduction in savings. Also for the first time performed regression-correlation analysis, in particular the Kalman filter is used to study the effect of debt on macroeconomic performance of the Greek economy.

  12. The economic impact of energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulić, Davor; Bakarić, Ivana Rašić; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimunate the impact of energy saving investment in residential and public buildings in Croatia for the period 2015–2020. The aim is to assess the overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures defined in Croatian strategic documents in terms of the direct, indirect and induced growth of gross value added, employment and government revenues. An estimate of the avoided costs of air pollution is also included. The overall economic impact assessment is based on an input-output methodology. From the point of view of individual investors, the benefits in terms of reduced future expenses related to energy products are usually below energy efficient renovation investment costs, making an investment financially viable only if government support is provided. If the benefits for society as a whole are included, energy efficient renovation could be assessed as viable even in the short-run. Energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings positively contribute to economic growth, employment and protection of the environment. Because of economic growth, the tax revenues induced by these investments could compensate for government expenditures, and the overall impact on the public deficit is expected to be neutral even in the short-run. - Highlights: •Estimate of the overall socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures on national economy. •Energy efficient renovation if not subsidised is not financially viable from the owner perspective. •Total social benefits are higher than social costs due to positive externalities. •Impact of subsidies on public deficit is neutral even in the short run.

  13. Alberta benefits : economic impacts of northern gas pipeline construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylska, N.L.; Graebeiel, J.E.; Mirus, R.K.; Janzen, S.S.; Frost, R.J.

    2003-11-01

    This paper describes the potential economic impact and benefits to Alberta from the proposed development of the Alaska Highway Pipeline (AHP) and the Mackenzie Valley Pipeline (MVP). It also includes a planning framework for business and industry in the province. Each proposed pipeline was evaluated separately. The paper includes a list of Alberta companies that stand to benefit from the construction of one or both pipelines. The main findings indicate that northern pipeline development will bring opportunities to Alberta business in design, construction and management. There will be a secondary impact on petrochemical industries and infrastructure. Both pipeline developments will increase employment and yield billions of dollars in gross domestic product. The existing oil and gas industry in Alberta will receive value-added opportunities in areas of specialized expertise such as natural gas and natural gas liquid storage, natural gas liquid processing, and gas to liquid technology projects. The industry will also benefit from power generation and cogeneration. The northern pipelines have the potential to improve the role of First Nations in economic development. Gas consumers in Alberta should benefit from a secure supply of gas and lower prices. refs., tabs., figs

  14. THE INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS’ IMPACT ON THE ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC INTEGRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Prykhodko

    2015-11-01

    by the method of least squares with fixed effects transformation method, in order to avoid the heterogeneity across countries. The statistics of World Bank, IMF, OECD is used in the study. Results of the survey showed that the specifications test results confirm the positive role of the international aid programs to support the growth of GDP, in addition, we can assume the existence of positive effects simultaneously improving institutions and the positive effect of the external trade determinants. Practical implications. This study makes it possible to confirm that in terms of economic policies, countries that are in the integrating process should focus their efforts on improving the institutions in the trade area. Value/originality. The results of both models provide a better understanding of the impact of political, economic and institutional factors on the economic integration process of Central Eastern Europe countries and Commonwealth of Independent States. Further research in this area will help to reveal the problem in more details.

  15. Economic impact of the energy price increase in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Boyd, R.

    1997-01-01

    One unknown with regard to the price increases for gasoline and electricity is what will be the expected impact as the Mexican economy struggles to rebound. This is of more than spurious concern since many Mexican industries rely both intensively and extensively on gasoline and electricity to produce their goods and services. For example, the petrochemical and steel manufacturing industries are major consumers in Mexico's industrial sector which accounts for 55% of total energy consumption. Mexico's steel industry is one of the most electricity intensive in the world, with heavy reliance on electric arc furnace technology. Mexico's transportation sector accounts for about 30% of total energy consumption. Higher energy prices are expected to affect significantly the price and quantity of the goods and services produced. The nature and extent of this effect is the subject of this article. Also the modelling approach to be used in assessing the impact of higher energy prices will be discussed. 2 tabs., 20 refs

  16. Estimating the economic impact of seismic activity in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittore, Massimiliano; Sousa, Luis; Grant, Damian; Fleming, Kevin; Parolai, Stefano; Free, Matthew; Moldobekov, Bolot; Takeuchi, Ko

    2017-04-01

    Estimating the short and long-term economical impact of large-scale damaging events such as earthquakes, tsunamis or tropical storms is an important component of risk assessment, whose outcomes are routinely used to improve risk awareness, optimize investments in prevention and mitigation actions, as well as to customize insurance and reinsurance rates to specific geographical regions or single countries. Such estimations can be carried out by modeling the whole causal process, from hazard assessment to the estimation of loss for specific categories of assets. This approach allows a precise description of the various physical mechanisms contributing to direct seismic losses. However, it should reflect the underlying epistemic and random uncertainties in all involved components in a meaningful way. Within a project sponsored by the World Bank, a seismic risk study for the Kyrgyz Republic has been conducted, focusing on the assessment of social and economical impacts assessed in terms of direct losses of the residential and public building stocks. Probabilistic estimates based on stochastic event catalogs have been computed and integrated with the simulation of specific earthquake scenarios. Although very few relevant data are available in the region on the economic consequences of past damaging events, the proposed approach sets a benchmark for decision makers and policy holders to better understand the short and long term consequences of earthquakes in the region. The presented results confirm the high level of seismic risk of the Kyrgyz Republic territory, outlining the most affected regions; thus advocating for significant Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) measures to be implemented by local decision- and policy-makers.

  17. Public health and economic impact of dampness and mold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudarri, David; Fisk, William J.

    2007-06-01

    The public health risk and economic impact of dampness and mold exposures was assessed using current asthma as a health endpoint. Individual risk of current asthma from exposure to dampness and mold in homes from Fisk et al. (2007), and asthma risks calculated from additional studies that reported the prevalence of dampness and mold in homes were used to estimate the proportion of U.S. current asthma cases that are attributable to dampness and mold exposure at 21% (95% confidence internal 12-29%). An examination of the literature covering dampness and mold in schools, offices, and institutional buildings, which is summarized in the appendix, suggests that risks from exposure in these buildings are similar to risks from exposures in homes. Of the 21.8 million people reported to have asthma in the U.S., approximately 4.6 (2.7-6.3) million cases are estimated to be attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home. Estimates of the national cost of asthma from two prior studies were updated to 2004 and used to estimate the economic impact of dampness and mold exposures. By applying the attributable fraction to the updated national annual cost of asthma, the national annual cost of asthma that is attributable to dampness and mold exposure in the home is estimated to be $3.5 billion ($2.1-4.8 billion). Analysis indicates that exposure to dampness and mold in buildings poses significant public health and economic risks in the U.S. These findings are compatible with public policies and programs that help control moisture and mold in buildings.

  18. Oil sands economic impacts Canada : CERI report : backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    Oil sands production now accounts for 1 out of every 2 barrels of supply in Western Canada. It is anticipated that Alberta's oil sands sector will experience significant growth over the next few decades. This paper provided an outline of the challenges and economic impacts resulting from oil sands development in Canada. Alberta's oil sands reserves are estimated at 175 billion barrels that are deemed economically recoverable using current technology. At current production levels, reserves will sustain production of 2.5 million barrels per day for the next 200 years. A study by the Canadian Energy Research Institute (CERI) has forecast $100 billion in investment for the 2000-2020 period. Numerous companies hold leases and are planning new projects. A number of recent advances in oil sands technology are expected to further reduce costs as development matures. A royalty and tax regime that provides long-term fiscal certainty is a key factor that supports current oil sands growth forecasts. The CERI study has indicated that economic spinoffs from oil sands development relate to employment generated outside of Alberta, and that the largest percentage of government revenue accrues to the federal government. However, development may be constrained because the pace of growth in the sector may exceed underlying infrastructure related to roads, housing and municipal services. An adequate workforce of qualified trades and technical and professional people is also crucial. Several pipeline projects have been proposed to deliver oil sands crudes to new markets over the next decade. It was concluded that the billions of dollars invested in oil sands in Alberta will contribute to the economic prosperity of the entire country. 11 figs

  19. Impact of Nuclear Power and Desalination Plant Construction Toward National and East Java Economic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratya-Anindita; Sriyana; M-Nasrullah

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the economic impacts of the construction of the nuclear power plant 2 x 100 MW(e) SMART type with desalination 4 x 10,000 m 3 which would conduct in years 2008 to 2017 in Madura Island, East Java. The predicted IO tables of 2008-2017 have been created by the application of dynamic IO projection. The economic impact was estimated through multiplier effect which covers direct impact and indirect impact as well as the induced effect. The expenditures of SMART nuclear power and desalination plant to the domestic contractors is estimated to amount to 88.2 million US dollar or 25.6 % of the whole expenditures. The total impact of the project to the national economy would be Rp. 6,329,347 million, Rp. 8,439,130 million, and Rp. 12,658,695 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively for the scenario of dynamic growth. The total impact of the project to the provincial economy of East Java would be as much as Rp. 3,253,498 million, Rp. 4,337,997 million, and Rp. 6,506,995 million for each scenario of the exchange rate as high as Rp. 7,500/US dollar, Rp. 10,000/US dollar, Rp. 15,000/US dollar, respectively under the former scenario. Cumulative direct impact since pre-construction to construction period had been calculated as much as US dollar 101.8 million for sectors number 48.52 and 62. This have brought much impact on other sectors in national or provincial levels of economy. (author)

  20. Agricultural climate impacts assessment for economic modeling and decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, A. M.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Beach, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhao, K.; Monier, E.

    2013-12-01

    A range of approaches can be used in the application of climate change projections to agricultural impacts assessment. Climate projections can be used directly to drive crop models, which in turn can be used to provide inputs for agricultural economic or integrated assessment models. These model applications, and the transfer of information between models, must be guided by the state of the science. But the methodology must also account for the specific needs of stakeholders and the intended use of model results beyond pure scientific inquiry, including meeting the requirements of agencies responsible for designing and assessing policies, programs, and regulations. Here we present methodology and results of two climate impacts studies that applied climate model projections from CMIP3 and from the EPA Climate Impacts and Risk Analysis (CIRA) project in a crop model (EPIC - Environmental Policy Indicator Climate) in order to generate estimates of changes in crop productivity for use in an agricultural economic model for the United States (FASOM - Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model). The FASOM model is a forward-looking dynamic model of the US forest and agricultural sector used to assess market responses to changing productivity of alternative land uses. The first study, focused on climate change impacts on the UDSA crop insurance program, was designed to use available daily climate projections from the CMIP3 archive. The decision to focus on daily data for this application limited the climate model and time period selection significantly; however for the intended purpose of assessing impacts on crop insurance payments, consideration of extreme event frequency was critical for assessing periodic crop failures. In a second, coordinated impacts study designed to assess the relative difference in climate impacts under a no-mitigation policy and different future climate mitigation scenarios, the stakeholder specifically requested an assessment of a

  1. Analysis of High Plains Resource Risk and Economic Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vargas, Vanessa N [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jones, Shannon M [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dealy, Bern Caudill [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaneyfelt, Calvin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, Braeton James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moreland, Barbara Denise [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the High Plains Aquifer is broadly recognized as is its vulnerability to continued overuse. T his study e xplore s how continued depletions of the High Plains Aquifer might impact both critical infrastructure and the economy at the local, r egional , and national scale. This analysis is conducted at the county level over a broad geographic region within the states of Kansas and Nebraska. In total , 140 counties that overlie the High Plains Aquifer in these two states are analyzed. The analysis utilizes future climate projections to estimate crop production. Current water use and management practices are projected into the future to explore their related impact on the High Plains Aquifer , barring any changes in water management practices, regulat ion, or policy. Finally, the impact of declining water levels and even exhaustion of groundwater resources are projected for specific sectors of the economy as well as particular elements of the region's critical infrastructure.

  2. Estimated economic impact of vaccinations in 73 low- and middle-income countries, 2001-2020.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Clark, Samantha; Portnoy, Allison; Grewal, Simrun; Stack, Meghan L; Sinha, Anushua; Mirelman, Andrew; Franklin, Heather; Friberg, Ingrid K; Tam, Yvonne; Walker, Neff; Clark, Andrew; Ferrari, Matthew; Suraratdecha, Chutima; Sweet, Steven; Goldie, Sue J; Garske, Tini; Li, Michelle; Hansen, Peter M; Johnson, Hope L; Walker, Damian

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the economic impact likely to be achieved by efforts to vaccinate against 10 vaccine-preventable diseases between 2001 and 2020 in 73 low- and middle-income countries largely supported by Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. We used health impact models to estimate the economic impact of achieving forecasted coverages for vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, Japanese encephalitis, measles, Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A, rotavirus, rubella, Streptococcus pneumoniae and yellow fever. In comparison with no vaccination, we modelled the costs - expressed in 2010 United States dollars (US$) - of averted treatment, transportation costs, productivity losses of caregivers and productivity losses due to disability and death. We used the value-of-a-life-year method to estimate the broader economic and social value of living longer, in better health, as a result of immunization. We estimated that, in the 73 countries, vaccinations given between 2001 and 2020 will avert over 20 million deaths and save US$ 350 billion in cost of illness. The deaths and disability prevented by vaccinations given during the two decades will result in estimated lifelong productivity gains totalling US$ 330 billion and US$ 9 billion, respectively. Over the lifetimes of the vaccinated cohorts, the same vaccinations will save an estimated US$ 5 billion in treatment costs. The broader economic and social value of these vaccinations is estimated at US$ 820 billion. By preventing significant costs and potentially increasing economic productivity among some of the world's poorest countries, the impact of immunization goes well beyond health.

  3. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  4. Preferred drug lists: Potential impact on healthcare economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Ovsag

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Ovsag, Sabrina Hydery, Shaker A MousaPharmaceutical Research Institute at Albany College of Pharmacy, Albany, New York, USAObjectives: To analyze the implementation of Medicaid preferred drug lists (PDLs in a number of states and determine its impact on quality of care and cost relative to other segments of healthcare.Methods: We reviewed research and case studies found by searching library databases, primarily MEDLINE and EBSCOHost, and searching pertinent journals. Keywords initially included “drug lists,” “prior authorization,” “prior approval,” and “Medicaid.” We added terms such as “influence use of other healthcare services,” “quality of care,” and “overall economic impact.” We mainly used primary sources.Results: Based on our literature review, we determined that there are a number of issues regarding Medicaid PDLs that need to be addressed. Some issues include: (a the potential for PDLs to influence the utilization of other healthcare services, (b criteria used by Medicaid for determining acceptance of drugs onto a PDL, (c the effect of PDL implementation on compliance to new regimens, (d the potential effects of restricting medication availability on quality of care, (e administrative costs associated with PDLs, and (f satisfaction rates among patients and medical providers. This review highlighted expected short-term cost savings with limited degree of compromised quality of PDL implementation, but raised the concern about the potential long-term decline in quality of care and overall economic impact.Conclusions: The number of concerns raised indicates that further studies are warranted regarding both short-term cost benefits as well as potential long-term effects of Medicaid PDL implementation. Objective analysis of these effects is necessary to ensure cost-effectiveness and quality of care.Keywords: preferred drug lists, medicaid, healthcare costs, managed care

  5. Climate, economic, and environmental impacts of producing wood for bioenergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsey, Richard; Duffy, Philip; Smyth, Carolyn; Kurz, Werner A.; Dugan, Alexa J.; Houghton, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Increasing combustion of woody biomass for electricity has raised concerns and produced conflicting statements about impacts on atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, climate, and other forest values such as timber supply and biodiversity. The purposes of this concise review of current literature are to (1) examine impacts on net GHG emissions and climate from increasing bioenergy production from forests and exporting wood pellets to Europe from North America, (2) develop a set of science-based recommendations about the circumstances that would result in GHG reductions or increases in the atmosphere, and (3) identify economic and environmental impacts of increasing bioenergy use of forests. We find that increasing bioenergy production and pellet exports often increase net emissions of GHGs for decades or longer, depending on source of feedstock and its alternate fate, time horizon of analysis, energy emissions associated with the supply chain and fuel substitution, and impacts on carbon cycling of forest ecosystems. Alternative uses of roundwood often offer larger reductions in GHGs, in particular long-lived wood products that store carbon for longer periods of time and can achieve greater substitution benefits than bioenergy. Other effects of using wood for bioenergy may be considerable including induced land-use change, changes in supplies of wood and other materials for construction, albedo and non-radiative effects of land-cover change on climate, and long-term impacts on soil productivity. Changes in biodiversity and other ecosystem attributes may be strongly affected by increasing biofuel production, depending on source of material and the projected scale of biofuel production increases.

  6. Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Steve [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Merrill, Stephen [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-08-31

    Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research evaluates approaches to measuring the returns on federal research investments. This report identifies new methodologies and metrics that can be developed and used for assessing returns on research across a wide range of fields (biomedical, information technology, energy, agriculture, environment, and other biological and physical sciences, etc.), while using one or more background papers that review current methodologies as a starting point for the discussion. It focuses on tools that are able to exploit available data in the relatively near term rather than on methodologies that may require substantial new data collection. Over the last several years, there has been a growing interest in policy circles in identifying the payoffs from federal agency research investments, especially in terms of economic growth, competitiveness, and jobs. The extraordinary increase in research expenditures under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and the President's commitment to science and technology (S&T) funding increases going forward have heightened the need for measuring the impacts of research investments. Without a credible analysis of their outcomes, the recent and proposed increases in S&T funding may not be sustained, especially given competing claims for federal funding and pressures to reduce projected federal budget deficits. Motivated by these needs and requirements, Measuring the Economic Impacts of Federal Investments in Research reviews and discusses the use of quantitative and qualitative data to evaluate the returns on federal research and development (R&D) investments. Despite the job-focused mandate of the current ARRA reporting requirements, the impact of S&T funding extend well beyond employment. For instance, federal funding in energy research may lead to innovations that would reduce energy costs at the household level, energy imports at the national level, and

  7. Climate Change, Air Pollution, and the Economics of Health Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, J.; Yang, T.; Paltsev, S.; Wang, C.; Prinn, R.; Sarofim, M.

    2003-12-01

    Climate change and air pollution are intricately linked. The distinction between greenhouse substances and other air pollutants is resolved at least for the time being in the context of international negotiations on climate policy through the identification of CO2, CH4, N2O, SF6 and the per- and hydro- fluorocarbons as substances targeted for control. Many of the traditional air pollutant emissions including for example CO, NMVOCs, NOx, SO2, aerosols, and NH3 also directly or indirectly affect the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Among both sets of gases are precursors of and contributors to pollutants such as tropopospheric ozone, itself a strong greenhouse gas, particulate matter, and other pollutants that affect human health. Fossil fuel combustion, production, or transportation is a significant source for many of these substances. Climate policy can thus affect traditional air pollution or air pollution policy can affect climate. Health effects of acute or chronic exposure to air pollution include increased asthma, lung cancer, heart disease and bronchitis among others. These, in turn, redirect resources in the economy toward medical expenditures or result in lost labor or non-labor time with consequent effects on economic activity, itself producing a potential feedback on emissions levels. Study of these effects ultimately requires a fully coupled earth system model. Toward that end we develop an approach for introducing air pollution health impacts into the Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, a component of the MIT Integrated Global Systems Model (IGSM) a coupled economics-chemistry-atmosphere-ocean-terrestrial biosphere model of earth systems including an air pollution model resolving the urban scale. This preliminary examination allows us to consider how climate policy affects air pollution and consequent health effects, and to study the potential impacts of air pollution policy on climate. The novel contribution is the effort to

  8. Modelling the economic impacts of addressing climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Power Point report presents highlights of the latest economic modelling of Canada's Kyoto commitment to address climate change. It presents framework assumptions and a snapshot under 4 scenarios. The objective of this report is to evaluate the national, sectoral, provincial and territorial impacts of the federal reference case policy package in which the emissions reduction target is 170 Mt from a business-as-usual scenario. The reference case policy package also includes 30 Mt of sinks from current packages of which 20 Mt are derived from the forestry sector and the remainder from agricultural sector. The report examined 4 scenarios based on 2 international carbon prices ($10 and $50) per tonne of carbon dioxide in 2010. The scenarios were also based on the fiscal assumptions that climate change initiatives and revenue losses would directly affect the governments' balances, or that the government balances are maintained by increasing personal income tax. A comparison of impacts under each of the 4 scenarios to 2010 was presented. The model presents impacts on GDP, employment, disposable income per household, and energy prices. 4 tabs., 4 figs

  9. The regional economic impacts of bypasses : a longitudinal study incorporating spatial panel econometrics and multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This paper will describe an integrated approach to documenting and quantifying the impacts of bypasses : on small communities, with a focus on what economic impacts, if any, occur, and how these impacts : change over time. Two similarly sized communi...

  10. Biological control as a tool to mitigate economic impacts of facilitative ecological interactions between the giant reed and cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual domestic impacts associated with introduced weeds are conservatively estimated at $27 billion, incorporating costs of weed management, crop losses and displacement of productive rangeland, and displacement of some environmental services. Estimating the total economic damage of invasive weed...

  11. The Impact of Bank and Stock Market Developments on Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Words: Zimbabwe, financial development, bank developments, economic growth, stock ... BOJE: Botswana Journal of Economics. 74 ... data for the sample period 1988-2012 was used in the analysis. ...... Quantitative Economics, Vol.

  12. The economic impacts of desert power. Socio-economic aspects of an EUMENA renewable energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blohmke, Julian; Sohm, Matthew; Zickfeld, Florian

    2013-06-15

    The countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are one of the world's largest potential growth markets for renewable energy generation. Countries throughout the region have recognized the great potential of their excellent wind and solar conditions, and ample empty space, and have ambitious plans to develop solar and wind energy. They are already making progress in realizing these renewables targets. They also increasingly recognize the great potential of renewable energy in tackling a range of challenges. At a time of high unemployment, particularly among youth, the growth of renewable energy provides an engine for creating new jobs and fostering new skill profiles among workers. Renewables can increase GDP and form the basis for a significant new source of trade revenues. As a source of energy, renewables reduce dependency on fossil fuels - whether as imports, to supply energy, or as exports. This report, Economic Impacts of Desert Power (EIDP), investigates how, and under what conditions, renewables in MENA can lead to socioeconomic benefits. EIDP shows, under various scenarios, how many jobs can be expected in three exemplary MENA countries, and how the expansion of renewables can lead to higher GDP growth rates across the region. EIDP pinpoints their economic impact across sectors and countries. At the same time, EIDP describes how these effects can be maximized through immediate and sustained policy support. The report also details how such support can be tailored to foster a self-sustaining market. In short, EIDP aims to contribute to a range of debates focused on how to maximize the benefits of green growth. EIDP illustrates the following points: - MENA can benefit economically from decarbonizing - even if the rest of the world does not pursue climate action. - Exporting excess electricity is an economic opportunity for MENA countries - several North African countries could create a major export industry with renewable electricity, which

  13. The economic impact of strengthening fuel quality regulation-reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.J.; Cho, G.L.; Kim, Y.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of strengthening vehicle emission regulation on economic activities. The government attempts to use three regulation measures to protect air quality from transportation emission. The measures include the aggregate limit (bubbles), the vehicle emission standard, and the fuel quality standard. Especially, we focus on the economic impact of reducing sulfur content in diesel fuel quality standard. Sulfur content in diesel fuel is one of the main factors in worsening local air quality. The emission from diesel vehicle accounts for 51.8% of total vehicle emission in Korea. If sulfur content reduction regulation is implemented, then the petroleum industry should build more facility to produce low sulfur content diesel, leading to additional production costs and increasing prices and decreasing outputs. We use computable general equilibrium model to analyze how the sulfur reduction regulation affects economic activities and trace out local emission reduction cost and GDP loss. And we suggest the tax-recycling mechanism to mitigate the negative economic costs due to the sulfur reduction regulation

  14. Should Budapest Bid for the Olympics? - Measuring the Economic Impacts of Larger Sporting Events

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce L. Jaffee

    2002-01-01

    The article deals with both the general economic impact of large sporting events and the likely economic impact of having the Olympics held in Budapest. The author describes the general economic theory of economic impact and the spending patterns at major sporting events. He finds that a considerable part of the money spent in a community at the time of such an event cannot be viewed as “new money”that will stimulate the local economy. A large economic impact of such an event requires that it...

  15. Climate Change and Bangladesh: Geographical and Socio-economic Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farjana Jahan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change, the effects of greenhouse effect and global warming, is out to alter the global map with its devouring prospects of sending a number of countries under the waves. Unfortunately yet unavoidably, Bangladesh stands at the forefront of climate forays. Its land, water and weather are being severely affected by undesirable climatic changes. Alarmingly, the dangers are to be intensified unless the trend is reversed. However, local initiative will hardly be enough to offset the grave concerns of unintended climatic changes in Bangladesh. The changes will also impact the socio-economic conditions of the country, putting the future of the nation on the line. Some ominous signs are already there for the concerned to respond with required amount of fervour. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/dsaj.v7i0.10439 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol. 7, 2013; 113-132

  16. The economic impact of SARS in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jia, Na; Zhou, Qing-Yi; Smith, Richard; Cao, Wu-Chun; de Vlas, Sake J

    2009-11-01

    To document the impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Beijing on indicators of social and economic activity. Associations between time series of daily and monthly SARS cases and deaths and volume of public train, airplane and cargo transport, tourism, household consumption patterns and gross domestic product growth in Beijing were investigated using the cross-correlation function. Significant correlation coefficients were found for all indicators except wholesale accounts and expenditures on necessities, with the most significant correlations occurring with a delay of 1 day to 1 month. Especially leisure activities, local and international transport and tourism were affected by SARS particularly in May 2003. Much of this consumption was merely postponed; but irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector alone were estimated at about US$ 1.4 bn, or 300 times the cost of treatment for SARS cases in Beijing.

  17. Climate change impact on economical and industrial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parey, Sylvie; Bernardara, Pietro; Donat, Markus G.

    2010-05-01

    Climate change is underway and even if mitigation measures are successfully implemented, societies will have to adapt to new climatic conditions in the near future and further. This session had been proposed to gather different studies dedicated to the climate change impact on some human activities, and discuss the possible ways of adaptation. Climate change is often presented in terms of global mean temperature evolutions, but what is important for adaptation concerns the local evolutions, and rather of the variability and extremes than of the mean of the involved meteorological parameters. In the session, studies and applications will be presented, covering different economical and industrial activities, such as energy production, (re-) insurance and risk assessment, water management or tourism.

  18. Smart farming technologies - description, taxonomy and economic impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balafoutis, Athanasios T.; Beck, Bert; Tsiropoulos, Zisis

    2017-01-01

    Precision Agriculture is a cyclic optimization process where data have to be collected from the field, analysed and evaluated and finally used for decision making for site-specific management of the field. Smart farming technologies (SFT ) cover all these aspects of precision agriculture and can...... comprise the delineation of management zones, decision support systems and farm management information system s. Finally, precision application technologies embrace variable-rate application technologies, precision irrigation and weeding and machine guidance. In this chapter, the reader can find...... a technical description of the technologies included in each category accompanied by a taxonomy of all SFT in terms of farming system type, cropping system, availability, level of investment and farmers’ motives to adopt them. Finally, the economic impact that each SFT has compared to conventional...

  19. Economic impact and market analysis of a special event: The Great New England Air Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney B. Warnick; David C. Bojanic; Atul Sheel; Apurv Mather; Deepak Ninan

    2010-01-01

    We conducted a post-event evaluation for the Great New England Air Show to assess its general economic impact and to refine economic estimates where possible. In addition to the standard economic impact variables, we examined travel distance, purchase decision involvement, event satisfaction, and frequency of attendance. Graphic mapping of event visitors' home ZIP...

  20. Measuring the socio-economic impacts of agroforestry projects in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evan Mercer; Belita Vega; Hermie Francisco; Robin Maille

    1994-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that agroforestry projects can provide both ecological and economic benefits. Most agroforestry project evaluations, however, have failed to adequately assess the soci0-economic impacts. For example, a review of 108 agroforestry project impact evaluations by Sara Scherr of IFPRJ reported that only 8% assessed economic costs or benefits, 5%...

  1. The Use of Economic Impact Studies as a Service Learning Tool in Undergraduate Business Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misner, John M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the use of community based economic impact studies as service learning tools for undergraduate business programs. Economic impact studies are used to measure the economic benefits of a variety of activities such as community redevelopment, tourism, and expansions of existing facilities for both private and public producers.…

  2. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Biogas technology in Cienfuegos: energy, environmental, economic and social impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Pérez, Inocente; Gutiérrez Benítez, Omar; Martínez Bermúdez, Guillermo; Padrón Padrón, Wilfredo; Águila Cabrera, Cira

    2015-01-01

    Promote the use of biogas is endorsed in the Guidelines 131 and 247 of the Economic and Social Policy of the Party and the Revolution element. The aim was to promote the construction and good practices in the use, operation and maintenance of biogas digesters in the province of Cienfuegos. The study of the design features of each type of digester, according to criteria of constructability, amount of manure, energy demand and geometry was performed. Un-practical theory for the design and construction of various types of biogas digesters compendium was prepared. Calculations for the conceptual and basic design fixed dome biogas digesters Circular Square and engineering were performed. The detailed engineering projects of different capacities biodigesters were developed. The results showed a progression of exponential growth in the number biodigesters for the past 4 years. This growth was accompanied by strong job training, technical advice and disclosure. Energy, environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of biogas in Cienfuegos were significant. At year end 2013, 80 biogas digesters in operation produced 429.1 m3 / day of biogas, which allowed replacing 78.3 t / year of fossil fuel equivalent disburse stop 43563.55 USD / year, stop pouring 3488.8 t / year of residual polluting the environment and stop emitting into the atmosphere 46.5 t / year of methane, equivalent to 1069.5 of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent dioxide. (full text)

  4. An approach to evaluating the economic impact of emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieu, S.; Johnson, S.L.; Dabirian, S.

    1993-01-01

    The command-and-control system to air quality controls is a mixture of technology-forcing standards for existing sources and offset for new sources. More stringent controls are required to achieve the ambient air quality standards in non-attainment urban areas which have been conformed with burgeoning economic growth. Due to the economy of scale and locale of polluting sources, some sources can implement these controls in a more cost-effective manner than others. In order to minimize the control costs of regulated sources, trading of emissions has been stipulated and has occurred among power plants to curb acid rain at the national level. Southern California is currently embarking on the trading of oxides of nitrogen, reactive organic compounds, and oxides of sulfur among existing and new stationary sources. New economic opportunities for entrepreneurs with advances control technology will arise under emissions trading. Trading will also result in the redistribution of emissions geographically and across industries. Through the linkage of a linear-programming trading model, a regional econometric model, and an urban airshed model, the impact of trading on the Southern California economy can thus be examined. This paper describes a framework which can be used to compare and contrast RECLAIM with the command-and-control system; and discusses a few issues which may arise in a trading market and how these issues can be dealt with are also examined

  5. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  6. EU climate policy up to 2020: An economic impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph, E-mail: boehringer@uni-oldenburg.d [Department of Economics, University of Oldenburg (Germany); Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Loeschel, Andreas [Centre for European Economic Research (ZEW) Mannheim (Germany); Moslener, Ulf [KfW Development Bank, Frankfurt (Germany); Rutherford, Thomas F. [Center for Energy Policy and Economy (CEPE), ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost.

  7. EU climate policy up to 2020. An economic impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Loeschel, Andreas; Moslener, Ulf; Rutherford, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    In its fight against climate change the EU is committed to reducing its overall greenhouse gas emissions to at least 20% below 1990 levels by 2020. To meet this commitment, the EU builds on segmented market regulation with an EU-wide cap-and-trade system for emissions from energy-intensive installations (ETS sectors) and additional measures by each EU Member State covering emission sources outside the cap-and-trade system (the non-ETS sector). Furthermore, the EU has launched additional policy measures such as renewable energy subsidies in order to promote compliance with the climate policy target. Basic economic reasoning suggests that emission market segmentation and overlapping regulation can create substantial excess costs if we focus only on the climate policy target. In this paper, we evaluate the economic impacts of EU climate policy based on numerical simulations with a computable general equilibrium model of international trade and energy use. Our results highlight the importance of initial market distortions and imperfections as well as alternative baseline projections for the appropriate assessment of EU compliance cost. (author)

  8. Technical and economic impacts of active management on distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jietan; Cheng, Haozhong; Wang, Chun

    2009-01-01

    With the deregulation of energy market and the appeal for environment protection, more and more distributed generation (DG) is embedded in the distribution network. However the approach of connecting DG in most cases is based on a so-called ''fit and forget'' policy and the capacity of DG is limited rigidly by distribution network operator (DNO) to avoid the negative effects of high level penetration. Therefore active management (AM) is put forward as an effective method to network reinforcement for the connection and operation of DG. In this paper, the concept and principle of AM are introduced, and several indices are proposed to evaluate both technical and economic impacts of AM on distribution network with DG. To simplify the simulation fuzzy C-means clustering (FCM) algorithm is introduced. The test results on a sample system represent that AM will lead to decrease of power generation of DG, but it can reduce energy losses and improve voltage profile effectively. Furthermore, AM will take great economic incentives to DG developer as well as DNO with reasonable policy. (author)

  9. Evaluating the Air Quality, Climate and Economic Impacts of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion is a natural biological process in which microorganisms break down organic materials in the absence of oxygen. When anaerobic microbes metabolize organic waste – i.e., the carbon-based remains of plants, animals and their waste products, e.g. animal manure, sewage sludge and food waste – they produce biogas. Biogas consists mainly of methane and carbon dioxide and can be used as a renewable energy fuel in a variety of applications. The impacts of biogas generation and utilization processes differ, depending on the source material (e.g., sewage, manure, food processing waste, municipal solid waste) and end uses (e.g., on-site electricity generation, conversion to a vehicle fuel, injection into the natural gas pipeline, etc.). Organic waste managers and regulators alike lack sufficient information about the overall environmental and economic performance of available biogas management technologies. A more complete understanding of the environmental and economic performance of biogas-to-energy technologies will assist state and local governments, regulators, and potential project developers in identifying geographically appropriate and cost-effective biogas management options.The backdrop for this research was California. The state has unique air quality challenges due to the combination of meteorology and topography, population growth and the pollution burden associated with mobile sources. However, with the strengthening of National Ambient

  10. The economic impact of vocal attrition in public school teachers in Miami-Dade County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosow, David E; Szczupak, Mikhaylo; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Gerhard, Julia D; DuPont, Carl; Lo, Kaming

    2016-03-01

    Teachers are a known at-risk population for voice disorders. The prevalence and risk factors for voice disorders have been well studied in this population, but little is known about the associated economic cost. The purpose of this study is to assess the economic impact of voice dysfunction in teachers and understand the difference between the cost of absenteeism and presenteeism as a direct result of voice dysfunction. Cross-sectional analysis via self-administered online questionnaire. A total of 14,256 public school teachers from Miami-Dade County, Florida, were asked to participate. Questions were formatted based on the previously validated Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: Specific Health Problem questionnaire adapted for hoarseness and voice disorders. Additional demographic questions were included in the questionnaire. A total of 961 questionnaire responses were received. The demographic characteristics of respondents closely matched known statistics for public school teachers in Miami-Dade County. Economic calculations were performed for each questionnaire respondent and summed for all respondents to avoid bias. Per week, absenteeism-related costs were $25,000, whereas presenteeism-related costs were approximately $300,000. These figures were used to extrapolate annual cost. Per year, absenteeism-related costs were $1 million, whereas presenteeism-related costs were approximately $12 million. The economic impact of voice dysfunction on the teaching profession is enormous. With the above calculations only including lost wages and decreased productivity, the actual figures may in fact be larger (cost of substitute teachers, impact on nonwork activities, etc.). Research investigating preventative measures for voice dysfunction in teachers is necessary to reduce this costly issue. 2C. Laryngoscope, 126:665-671, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Health impacts of rapid economic changes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Harnvoravongchai, P; Pitayarangsarit, S; Kasemsup, V

    2000-09-01

    The economic crisis in Thailand in July 1997 had major social implications for unemployment, under employment, household income contraction, changing expenditure patterns, and child abandonment. The crisis increased poverty incidence by 1 million, of whom 54% were the ultra-poor. This paper explores and explains the short-term health impact of the crisis, using existing data and some special surveys and interviews for 2 years during 1998-99. The health impacts of the crisis are mixed, some being negative and some being positive. Household health expenditure reduced by 24% in real terms; among the poorer households, institutional care was replaced by self-medication. The pre-crisis rising trend in expenditure on alcohol and tobacco consumption was reversed. Immunization spending and coverage were sustained at a very high level after the crisis, but reports of increases in diphtheria and pertussis indicate declining programme quality. An increase in malaria, despite budget increases, had many causes but was mainly due to reduced programme effectiveness. STD incidence continued the pre-crisis downward trend. Rates of HIV risky sexual behaviour were higher among conscripts than other male workers, but in both groups there was lower condom use with casual partners. HIV serosurveillance showed a continuation of the pre-crisis downward trend among commercial sex workers (CSW, both brothel and non-brothel based), pregnant women and donated blood; this trend was slightly reversed among male STD patients and more among intravenous drug users. Condom coverage among brothel based CSW continued to increase to 97.5%, despite a 72% budget cut in free condom distribution. Poverty and lack of insurance coverage are two major determinants of absence of or inadequate antenatal care, and low birthweight. The Low Income Scheme could not adequately cover the poor but the voluntary Health Card Scheme played a health safety net role for maternal and child health. Low birthweight and

  12. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2015-11-09

    PNNL is a large economic entity with a total of 4,308 employees, $939 million (M) in total funding, and $1.02 billion (B) in total spending during FY 2014. The number of employees that live in Washington State is 4,026 or 93 percent of the Laboratory staff. he Laboratory directly and indirectly supported $1.45 billion in economic output, 6,832 jobs, and $517 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gained more than $1.19 billion in output, over 6,200 jobs, and $444 million in income through closely related economic activities such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community not-for-profit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which strengthen the

  13. Clinical and economic impact of infusion reactions in patients with colorectal cancer treated with cetuximab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, K. A.; Wang, P. F.; Barber, B. L.; Long, S. R.; Bagalman, J. E.; Wagner, V.; Song, X.; Zhao, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Systemic agents in cancer treatment were often associated with possible infusion reactions (IRs). This study estimated the incidence of IRs requiring medical intervention and assessed the clinical and economic impacts of IRs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) treated with cetuximab. Patients and methods: Details on patients with CRC receiving cetuximab in 2004–2006 were extracted from a large USA administrative claims database. IRs were identified based on the occurrence of outpatient treatment, emergency room (ER) visit, and/or hospitalization for hypersensitivity and allergic reactions. Multivariate regressions were used to examine potential risk factors and quantify the economic impact of IRs. Results: A total of 1122 CRC patients receiving cetuximab were identified. The incidence of IRs requiring medical intervention was 8.4%. Sixty-eight percent of the patients had treatment disruptions and 34% discontinued cetuximab treatment. Mean adjusted costs were $13 863 for cetuximab administrations with an IR requiring ER visit or hospitalization and $6280 for those with an IR requiring outpatient treatment, compared with $4555 for those without an IR. Conclusions: The incidence rate of cetuximab-related IRs requiring medical intervention in clinical practice was found to be higher than rates reported in the product label and clinical trials. The clinical and economic impacts of these IRs are substantial. PMID:20100773

  14. Assessing energy projects from the viewpoint of individual economic branches and total economy. The role of economic efficiency analysis, cost-benefit analysis and multicriteria methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, A.

    1992-01-01

    Energy is an extremely important good and means of production not only for the individual branches of economy but, due to its essential meaning to the development of a region or a national economy and its external effects connected with production and consumption, also of great interest to all economic branches. This article deals with the relation of analyses in individual economical branches and those in total economy and with the question of what the importance of cost-benefit analyses and other methods is in the analysis in total economy. The author also mentions the planning as in the special literature the planning and evaluation phases are not analytically separated which is seen especially in the discussion about the multi-criteria methods. (orig.) [de

  15. Estimating the economic impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cattle using a dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, P F; Bokkers, E A M; van Middelaar, C E; Hogeveen, H; de Boer, I J M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows. This metabolic disorder occurs in the period around calving and is associated with an increased risk of other diseases. Therefore, SCK affects farm productivity and profitability. Estimating the economic impact of SCK may make farmers more aware of this problem, and can improve their decision-making regarding interventions to reduce SCK. We developed a dynamic stochastic simulation model that enables estimating the economic impact of SCK and related diseases (i.e. mastitis, metritis, displaced abomasum, lameness and clinical ketosis) occurring during the first 30 days after calving. This model, which was applied to a typical Dutch dairy herd, groups cows according to their parity (1 to 5+), and simulates the dynamics of SCK and related diseases, and milk production per cow during one lactation. The economic impact of SCK and related diseases resulted from a reduced milk production, discarded milk, treatment costs, costs from a prolonged calving interval and removal (culling or dying) of cows. The total costs of SCK were €130 per case per year, with a range between €39 and €348 (5 to 95 percentiles). The total costs of SCK per case per year, moreover, increased from €83 per year in parity 1 to €175 in parity 3. Most cows with SCK, however, had SCK only (61%), and costs were €58 per case per year. Total costs of SCK per case per year resulted for 36% from a prolonged calving interval, 24% from reduced milk production, 19% from treatment, 14% from discarded milk and 6% from removal. Results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the disease incidence, removal risk, relations of SCK with other diseases and prices of milk resulted in a high variation of costs of SCK. The costs of SCK, therefore, might differ per farm because of farm-specific circumstances. Improving data collection on the incidence of SCK and related diseases, and on consequences of

  16. The impact of inclusion criteria in health economic assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Anke; Thieda, Patricia; Thaler, Kylie; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2011-05-01

    The debate surrounding whether the findings of efficacy studies are applicable to real-world treatment situations is ongoing. The issue of lack of applicability due to a lack of clinical heterogeneity could be addressed by employing less restrictive inclusion criteria. Given that health economic assessments based on cost-effectiveness measures are required by many governments and insurance providers, the impact of this choice may be far reaching. The objective of this article was to explore the use of a pilot study to examine the impact of inclusion criteria on cost-effectiveness results and clinical heterogeneity. A health economic assessment was conducted using QRISK®2 and simulation modelling of different population groups within the pilot study in Lower Austria. Patients were referred by their family physicians to 'Active Prevention' (Vorsorge Aktiv), a community-based lifestyle intervention focused on exercise and nutritional programmes. Cardiovascular risk factors were recorded before and after the intervention and translated to cardiovascular events. As expected, enforcing restrictive inclusion criteria produced stronger and more irrefutable computations - in the expected number of events, the number of deaths, the incremental cost per life-year saved and in the 95% confidence interval. These findings provide insight into the issues surrounding clinical heterogeneity and the need for restrictive inclusion criteria. This is not a full health economic assessment of the intervention. While inclusion criteria provide stronger results by limiting populations to those who would benefit the most, they must be enforced, both within and outside the clinical trial setting. Enforcement has costs, both monetary and arising from unintended negative consequences of enforcement mechanisms. All these considerations will affect the results realized by the payer organization. A pilot study can reveal whether an intervention may be cost effective 'enough' without restrictive

  17. Economic and clinical impact of multiple myeloma to managed care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Richard

    2008-09-01

    Because of the development of novel agents such as immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, and bisphosphonates, the standards of care for the multiple myeloma (MM) patient have changed. The costs associated with current and emerging therapies, as well as supportive care, are significant and pose a tremendous financial burden to both patients and managed care. To review the economic impact of MM and to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of current treatments in bringing value for prolonged life versus the cost of treatment. This chapter will also discuss the need for thorough data review and pharmacoeconomic analyses to determine the most cost-effective therapies. Although MM accounts for only a small percentage of all cancer types, the costs associated with treating and managing it are among the highest. Recent developments in diagnosing, treating, and managing myeloma have led to novel treatment strategies. Immunomodulators, proteasome inhibitors, and bisphosphonates are improving response rates and preserving quality of life. However, these agents are not replacing older treatment modalities, but being used in addition to them. Intensive chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, and supportive care are all important components in achieving treatment goals. Costs associated with stem cell transplants and complications of the disease add to the economic burden of myeloma. Additional costs for routine diagnostics to measure the progression of the disease or response to treatment need to be considered. Complications (e.g., lytic bone disease, infection, anemia, and renal failure) also add to morbidity and mortality, thus increasing the burden to the patient and the health care system as a whole. Financial and time constraints of caregivers must also be considered, as well as the added administrative burdens to health care providers. New standards of care in the treatment and management of myeloma are likely to lead to significant increases in costs. Although

  18. Economic Impact of Dengue: Multicenter Study across Four Brazilian Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelli, Celina Maria Turchi; Siqueira, Joao Bosco; Parente, Mirian Perpetua Palha Dias; Zara, Ana Laura de Sene Amancio; Oliveira, Consuelo Silva; Braga, Cynthia; Pimenta, Fabiano Geraldo; Cortes, Fanny; Lopez, Juan Guillermo; Bahia, Luciana Ribeiro; Mendes, Marcia Costa Ooteman; da Rosa, Michelle Quarti Machado; de Siqueira Filha, Noemia Teixeira; Constenla, Dagna; de Souza, Wayner Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasing public health concern in Brazil. There is a need for an updated evaluation of the economic impact of dengue within the country. We undertook this multicenter study to evaluate the economic burden of dengue in Brazil. Methods We estimated the economic burden of dengue in Brazil for the years 2009 to 2013 and for the epidemic season of August 2012- September 2013. We conducted a multicenter cohort study across four endemic regions: Midwest, Goiania; Southeast, Belo Horizonte and Rio de Janeiro; Northeast: Teresina and Recife; and the North, Belem. Ambulatory or hospitalized cases with suspected or laboratory-confirmed dengue treated in both the private and public sectors were recruited. Interviews were scheduled for the convalescent period to ascertain characteristics of the dengue episode, date of first symptoms/signs and recovery, use of medical services, work/school absence, household spending (out-of-pocket expense) and income lost using a questionnaire developed for a previous cost study. We also extracted data from the patients’ medical records for hospitalized cases. Overall costs per case and cumulative costs were calculated from the public payer and societal perspectives. National cost estimations took into account cases reported in the official notification system (SINAN) with adjustment for underreporting of cases. We applied a probabilistic sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulations with 90% certainty levels (CL). Results We screened 2,223 cases, of which 2,035 (91.5%) symptomatic dengue cases were included in our study. The estimated cost for dengue for the epidemic season (2012–2013) in the societal perspective was US$ 468 million (90% CL: 349–590) or US$ 1,212 million (90% CL: 904–1,526) after adjusting for under-reporting. Considering the time series of dengue (2009–2013) the estimated cost of dengue varied from US$ 371 million (2009) to US$ 1,228 million (2013). Conclusions The economic burden

  19. Socio-economic impact of nuclear reactor decommissioning at Vandellos I NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliana Yetta Pandi

    2013-01-01

    Currently nuclear reactors in Indonesia has been outstanding for more than 30 years, the possibility of nuclear reactors will be decommissioned. Closure of the operation or decommissioning of nuclear reactors will have socio-economic impacts. The socioeconomic impacts occur to workers, local communities and wider society. In this paper we report on socio-economic impacts of nuclear reactors decommissioning and lesson learned that can be drawn from the socio-economic impacts decommissioning Vandellos I nuclear power plant in Spain. Socio-economic impact due to decommissioning of nuclear reactor occurs at installation worker, local community and wider community. (author)

  20. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case–control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system Methods This is a case–control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. Discussion This study will provide an

  1. Social and economic impact of diabetics in Bangladesh: protocol for a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariful Islam, Sheikh Mohammed; Lechner, Andreas; Ferrari, Uta; Froeschl, Guenter; Niessen, Louis W; Seissler, Jochen; Alam, Dewan Shamsul

    2013-12-21

    Diabetes affects both individuals and their families and has an impact on economic and social development of a country. Information on the availability, cost, and quality of medical care for diabetes is mostly not available for many low- and middle-income countries including Bangladesh. Complications from diabetes, which can be devastating, could largely be prevented by wider use of several inexpensive generic medicines, simple tests and monitoring and can be a cost saving intervention. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social and economic impacts of diabetes in Bangladesh and propose clear recommendations for improving prevention and management of diabetes. The objectives of the study are: 1) To study the association between diabetes and other health problems and its social impacts. 2) To estimate the economic impact of diabetes including total direct and indirect costs. 3) To measure the impact of diabetes on quality of life among diabetes patients in Bangladesh. 4) To study the impact of diabetes on the health care system This is a case-control study comparing cases with type 2 diabetes to controls without diabetes matched on age, sex and place of residence. 564 cases and 564 controls will be selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data on socioeconomic status, health utility index, direct and indirect costs for diabetes, medication adherence, quality of life, treatment satisfaction, diet, physical activity, mental state examination, weight, height, hip and waist circumference, blood pressure, pulse, medication history, laboratory data and physical examination will be conducted. The primary outcome measures will be association between diabetes and other health problems, cost of diabetes, impact of diabetes on quality of life and secondary outcome measures are impact of diabetes on healthcare systems in Bangladesh. This study will provide an in-depth and comprehensive picture of social

  2. Economic impact assessment of invasive plant pests in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    According to the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures (SPS Agreement) of the World Trade Organization (WTO), phytosanitary measures should be economically justifiable. The economic impact assessments within a

  3. The economic impacts of Lake States forestry: an input-output study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Pedersen; Daniel E. Chappelle; David C. Lothner

    1989-01-01

    The report describes 1985 and 1995 levels of forest-related economic activity in the three-state area of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, and their impacts on other economic sectors based on a regional input-output model.

  4. Estimation of economic impacts of cellulosic biofuel production: a comparative analysis of three biofuel pathways: Economic impacts of biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin; Goldberg, Marshall; Tan, Eric; Meyer, Pimphan A.

    2016-03-07

    The development of a cellulosic biofuel industry utilizing domestic biomass resources is expected to create opportunities for economic growth resulting from the construction and operation of new biorefineries. We applied an economic input-output model to estimate potential economic impacts, particularly gross job growth, resulting from the construction and operation of biorefineries using three different technology pathways: 1) cellulosic ethanol via biochemical conversion in Iowa, 2) renewable diesel blendstock via biological conversion in Georgia, and 3) renewable diesel and gasoline blendstock via fast pyrolysis in Mississippi. Combining direct, indirect, and induced effects, capital investment associated with the construction of a biorefinery processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day (DMT/day) could yield between 5,960 and 8,470 full-time equivalent (FTE) jobs during the construction period. Fast pyrolysis biorefineries produce the most jobs on a project level thanks to the highest capital requirement among the three pathways. Normalized for one million dollars of capital investment, the fast pyrolysis biorefineries are estimated to yield slighter more jobs (12.1 jobs) than the renewable diesel (11.8 jobs) and the cellulosic ethanol (11.6 jobs) biorefineries. While operating biorefineries is not labor-intensive, the annual operation of a 2,000 DMT/day biorefinery could support between 720 and 970 jobs when the direct, indirect, and induced effects are considered. The major factor, which results in the variations among the three pathways, is the type of biomass feedstock used for biofuels. The agriculture/forest, services, and trade industries are the primary sectors that will benefit from the ongoing operation of biorefineries.

  5. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC INFRASTRUCTURE ON LONG TERM ECONOMIC GROWTH IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strike Mbulawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth rate for the Botswana economy has slowed down in recent years. This has been explained by weak global demand in minerals, subdued commodity prices and persistent electricity supply problems. The government is making efforts to diversify the economy to tap from other sources of growth. The government has come with two initiatives to boast growth: increasing expenditure on roads and improved generation of electricity. Literature has failed to agree on the causal linkage between growth and infrastructure development.  Previous studies employed different measures of infrastructure development and models resulting in conflicting findings. As a point of departure this study uses a log linear model and different measures of growth and infrastructure to examine the link between the two variables in the context of Botswana. Using vector error correction model and Ordinary Least Squares the study finds that long term economic growth is explained by both measures of infrastructure (electricity distribution and maintenance of roads. The impact of the former was more pronounced than the impact of the later. Evidence supports the infrastructure led growth hypothesis.

  6. Impact of FDI in economic expansion: The Kosovo case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Loku

    2017-11-01

    financial institutions. The persistent trade deficit reflects a weak production base and poor international competitiveness. Reliance on remittances and the widespread informal economy additionally decrease employment incentives, resulting in low labour force participation, especially among women, and high unemployment rates, in particular among young and unskilled workers. Kosovo is at an early stage in building the capacity to cope with competitive pressures and market forces within the Union. No progress was made on improving the quality of education, which is a key driver for improving long-term growth and competitiveness. Foreign direct investment (FDI is widely recognized for its positive impacts on economic growth and transformation (Amerasinghe & Modesto, 2012. FDI may facilitate rapid economic growth in developing countries by increasing savings and investment and by transferring experiences, technologies, and know-how from developed countries (Mott aleba, & Kalirajan, 2010. The impact of FDI on growth may also positively aff ect poverty levels in the host country by increasing employment opportunities and wages (Klein, Aaaron and Hadjimichael, 2011. Kosovo is limited in its ability to attract foreign investment due to the lack of information distribution within global markets, poor international communication regarding its economic environment and opportunities for foreign investment, and the absence of a credit rating by a credible foreign rating agency. Foreign investment inflows have also been hindered by high degrees of corruption, slow and ineffective business environment reforms, lack of transparency, economic inactivity in many sectors, negative perception by foreign investors and diaspora populations, and the failure of institutions to implement and achieve their set objectives. The law has not been implemented because of various factors (such as: bureaucracy costs, long administrative procedures, bribery and favors and all of them have created

  7. A socio-economic impact assessment of the European launcher sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monte, Luca del; Scatteia, Luigi

    2017-08-01

    In a context where the economic strains are challenging European policies as well as the very fabric of governmental contributions to public life, innovation and efficacy of public policy in research are called upon to support growth in Europe and to sustain employment and entrepreneurial capacities. Governments need evidence that the investments in space, while providing strategic tools to implement sovereign policies, create jobs and build the competitive European economy of the future. This is particularly true when the decisions at stake have a potential bearing on the future of the European space sector for at least the next 30 years, as it has been the case for the ESA Council at ministerial level meeting in December 2014. On that occasion, Ministers took the decision to start the development of a new Ariane 6 launcher and Vega evolutions having a critical bearing on the Member States' strategic industrial capabilities and on the sustainability of the European guaranteed access to space. Given the importance of the subject, and following similar studies undertaken in the past for e.g. the Ariane 1-4 programme, the Agency has requested an independent consulting team to perform a dedicated study to assess ex-post the direct, indirect and induced socio-economic impacts of the Ariane 5 programme (mid-term evaluation) and of the Vega programme (early evaluation) globally, at European level, and within the economies and industries of each ESA Member State. This paper presents the assessment of the socio-economic impacts allowing the evaluation of the return on public investments in launchers through ESA in a wider perspective, going beyond the purely economic terms. The scope of the assessment covered in total approximately 25 ESA programmatic and activity lines and 30,000 commitments from 1986 to end 2012. In the framework of the study, the economic impact of the European launcher programmes is measured through a GDP impact defined as the straight economic

  8. Socio-economic impacts - an overview based on coal mining projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    Socio-economic impacts of coal projects have assumed importance as new projects are affecting tribal/underdeveloped areas. The paper highlights the impacts on land uses and on life and culture of the habitats. It assesses socio-economic impacts and furnishes financial implications of rehabilitation. Some suggestions have also been given to neutralize the stresses developed due to development of coal fields

  9. Regional economic impacts of changes in electricity rates resulting from Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, T.; Griffes, P.; Edwards, B.K.

    1995-03-01

    This technical memorandum describes an analysis of regional economic impacts resulting from changes in retail electricity rates due to six power marketing programs proposed by Western Area Power Administration (Western). Regional economic impacts of changes in rates are estimated in terms of five key regional economic variables: population, gross regional product, disposable income, employment, and household income. The REMI (Regional Impact Models, Inc.) and IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning) models simulate economic impacts in nine subregions in the area in which Western power is sold for the years 1993, 2000, and 2008. Estimates show that impacts on aggregate economic activity in any of the subregions or years would be minimal for three reasons. First, the utilities that buy power from Western sell only a relatively small proportion of the total electricity sold in any of the subregions. Second, reliance of Western customers on Western power is fairly low in each subregion. Finally, electricity is not a significant input cost for any industry or for households in any subregion.

  10. The economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases in developing countries: new roles, new demands for economics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Karl M; Perry, Brian D

    2011-09-01

    Animal disease outbreaks pose significant threats to livestock sectors throughout the world, both from the standpoint of the economic impacts of the disease itself and the measures taken to mitigate the risk of disease introduction. These impacts are multidimensional and not always well understood, complicating effective policy response. In the developing world, livestock diseases have broader, more nuanced effects on markets, poverty, and livelihoods, given the diversity of uses of livestock and complexity of livestock value chains. In both settings, disease control strategies, particularly those informed by ex ante modeling platforms, often fail to recognize the constraints inherent among farmers, veterinary services, and other value chain actors. In short, context matters. Correspondingly, an important gap in the animal health economics literature is the explicit incorporation of behavior and incentives in impact analyses that highlight the interactions of disease with its socio-economic and institutional setting. In this paper, we examine new approaches and frameworks for the analysis of economic and poverty impacts of animal diseases. We propose greater utilization of "bottom-up" analyses, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of value chain and information economics approaches in impact analyses and stressing the importance of improved integration between the epidemiology of disease and its relationships with economic behavior. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Financing options and economic impact: distributed generation using solar photovoltaic systems in Normal, Illinois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H. Jo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing price volatility in fossil-fuel-produced energy, the demand for clean, renewable, and abundant energy is more prevalent than in past years. Solar photovoltaic (PV systems have been well documented for their ability to produce electrical energy while at the same time offering support to mitigate the negative externalities associated with fossil fuel combustion. Prices for PV systems have decreased over the past few years, however residential and commercial owners may still opt out of purchasing a system due to the overall price required for a PV system installation. Therefore, determining optimal financing options for residential and small-scale purchasers is a necessity. We report on payment methods currently used for distributed community solar projects throughout the US and suggest appropriate options for purchasers in Normal, Illinois given their economic status. We also examine the jobs and total economic impact of a PV system implementation in the case study area.

  12. Economic impact of enoxaparin after acute ischemic stroke based on PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Graham; Lin, Jay; Stern, Lee; Subrahmanian, Tarun; Annemans, Lieven

    2011-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been demonstrated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after acute ischemic stroke. Few data exist regarding the economic impact of LMWHs versus UFH in this population. A decision-analytic model was constructed using clinical information from the Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic stroke with LMWH Enoxaparin (PREVAIL) study, and drug costs and mean Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services event costs. When considering the total cost of events and drugs, enoxaparin was associated with cost-savings of $895 per patient compared with UFH ($2018 vs $2913). Findings were retained within the univariate and multivariate analyses. From a payer perspective, enoxaparin was cost-effective compared with UFH in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The difference was driven by the lower clinical event rates with enoxaparin. Use of enoxaparin may help to reduce the clinical and economic burden of VTE.

  13. Hurricane Sandy Economic Impacts Assessment: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Edwards, Brian Keith [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-08-07

    Economists use computable general equilibrium (CGE) models to assess how economies react and self-organize after changes in policies, technology, and other exogenous shocks. CGE models are equation-based, empirically calibrated, and inspired by Neoclassical economic theory. The focus of this work was to validate the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC) CGE model and apply it to the problem of assessing the economic impacts of severe events. We used the 2012 Hurricane Sandy event as our validation case. In particular, this work first introduces the model and then describes the validation approach and the empirical data available for studying the event of focus. Shocks to the model are then formalized and applied. Finally, model results and limitations are presented and discussed, pointing out both the model degree of accuracy and the assessed total damage caused by Hurricane Sandy.

  14. Nuclear incident response in industrial areas: assessing the economic impact of the decision to evacuate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, N.; Walle, B. van de; Hardeman, F.; Sohier, A.; Soudan, K.

    1996-01-01

    The economic impact of imposing countermeasures in case of a nuclear emergency is a very important aspect in both the Probabilistic Risk Assessment code COSYMA and the Real-time On-line DecisiOn Support system RODOS. Therefore, these codes make use of the economic model ECONOM. In this paper, we will show that this economic model is not very well suited, nor designed, to predict the economic impact of evacuating a highly industrialised area in case of a nuclear emergency. Furthermore, we will indicate how recent economic investment theories can be used to deal with this decision problem in a more elaborate way. (author)

  15. The economics of biomedical waste irradiation: key issues influencing total cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    Each application of gamma irradiation technology is different in one or more significant respects. Disinfection of biomedical wastes presents similar technical challenges to sterilization of medical supplies, but the economic issues are dramatically different. Regulatory requirements, site and technology approvals, waste separation/mixing, transportation, irradiator utilization, economies of scale, and end-product disposal can each have a prohibitive or enabling effect on whether irradiation of biomedical wastes makes good financial sense in a particular situation. This paper discusses each of these issues. (author)

  16. [Economic impact of overactive bladder symptoms in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Sachie; Kobayashi, Makoto; Sugaya, Kimio

    2008-11-01

    included 180.9 billion yen (19%) for OAB treatment cost (including medication of 159.1 billion yen), 62 billion yen (6%) for OAB-related cost, 28.7 billion yen (3%) for incontinence care cost and 684.6 billion yen (72%) for work loss. Therefore, the cost for work loss accounted for the majority of OAB cost. The potential annual cost saving was estimated at 92.7 billion yen and 205.8 billion yen for the assumed hospital visit rate of 35% and 50%, respectively, and 88,000 yen per newly visiting OAB patient. It was revealed that the economic impact imposed by OAB was enormous. It might be possible to reduce the cost for OAB by appropriate treatment for OAB population.

  17. Analyzing socio-economic impacts of tourism : Case of Lumbini region- Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    K.C., Shambhu; Gewali, Jhabindra

    2014-01-01

    The first objective of this Thesis is to identify, select, and analyze the socio- economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. The second objective is to present the impacts in context of changing business environment. And the last objective is to develop strategies for economic progress in a society. In this research work previous reports, theses, literatures and reviews were studied to get an idea about the socio-economic impacts of faith tourism in Lumbini region. In addition,...

  18. The socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park / S. Oberholzer.

    OpenAIRE

    Oberholzer, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the socio-economic impact of the Tsitsikamma National Park. Secondly, to determine the relationship between the community's level of interest in the Tsitsikamma National Park (TNP) and their perceptions concerning the environmental, economic and social impacts of the TNP. By conducting a literature study, the first objective was achieved. The following tourism impacts were identified: environmental, economic and social. These...

  19. THE IMPACT OF FISCAL POLICY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE COUNTRIES OF EASTERN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    BOLDEANU Florin Teodor; TACHE Ileana; ION Mădălin-Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the effects of fiscal policy on economic growth in 10 countries of Eastern Europe. For this analysis we to use two regression models. The results of the first model provide information on the factors that influence economic growth. Thus, direct taxes, indirect taxes, total income taxes, social contributions and the economic crisis had an effect on economic growth. Of these variables, total taxable income had a positive effect and indirect taxes and social contributions h...

  20. Economic evaluation of spondyloarthritis: economic impact of diagnostic delay in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, Francesco S; Viti, Raffaella; Marcellusi, Andrea; Sciattella, Paolo; Viapiana, Ombretta; Rossini, Maurizio

    2018-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a disease that normally affects the axial skeleton. It progressively leads to overall stiffness up to severe postural deformity of rachis and functional impotence. The objective of the study was to quantify, through an economic model, the impact of specialized testing and pharmacological treatments carried out by the National Health Service (NHS) in normal clinical practice, before the patient is diagnosed with SpA in Italy. In line with the analysis objective, the chosen perspective is that of the NHS. The study was conducted by analyzing the Health Search Database - IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database, from which newly diagnosed SpA patients were identified over the period 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2013. The use of specialist health care services and pharmacological treatments provided to the patients before the final SpA diagnosis were estimated. Through a retrospective analysis of the Health Search Database, 1,084 subjects (aged 25-45 years) were identified. These patients produced an expense of approximately €153,000 in the 3 years prior to a confirmed SpA diagnosis, in terms of specialist check-ups and drugs, presumably not appropriately used due to a lack of diagnosis. If we assume that the Health Search Database is a representative sample of the Italian population, it may be estimated that, in the 3 years prior to SpA diagnosis, over €5.4 million was largely unduly spent in Italy to examine and manage 38,232 newly diagnosed SpA patients, between 2010 and 2013. The costs due to the delay in SpA diagnosis were quantified for the first time in Italy. For this reason, this work represents a contribution for national and regional decision makers to understand the current clinical practice and the economic consequences of a diagnostic delay in the short and medium term.

  1. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  2. The regional economic impact of oil and gas extraction in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the regional economic impact of oil and gas extraction in Texas during the recent shale oil boom. Regressions with county-level data over the period 2009–2014 support smaller multiplier effects on local employment and income than corresponding estimates drawn from popular input–output-based studies. Economic impacts were larger for extraction from gas wells than oil wells, while the drilling phase generated comparable impacts. Estimates of economic impacts are greater in a dynamic spatial panel model that allows for spillover effects across local economies as well as over time. - Highlights: • Economic impacts and multiplier effects differ between oil and gas wells in Texas. • Interactions among local economies raise employment and income effects. • Impacts persist over time, raising the long-run multipliers. • Greater economic impacts from newly drilled wells than legacy wells.

  3. BASEL III: long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Angelini; Laurent Clerc; Vasco Cúrdia; Leonardo Gambacorta; Andrea Gerali; Alberto Locarno; Roberto Motto; Werner Roeger; Skander J. van den Heuvel; Jan Vlcek

    2011-01-01

    We assess the long-term economic impact of the new regulatory standards (the Basel III reform), answering the following questions: 1) What is the impact of the reform on longterm economic performance? 2) What is the impact of the reform on economic fluctuations? 3) What is the impact of the adoption of countercyclical capital buffers on economic fluctuations? The main results are the following: 1) Each percentage point increase in the capital ratio causes a median 0.09 percent decline in the ...

  4. Total Synthesis of Bryostatins. Development of Methodology for Atom-Economic and Stereoselective Synthesis of the C-ring Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Barry M.; Frontier, Alison J.; Thiel, Oliver R.; Yang, Hanbiao; Dong, Guangbin

    2012-01-01

    Bryostatins, a family of structurally complicated macrolides, exhibit an exceptional range of biological activities. The limited availability and structural complexity of these molecules makes development of an efficient total synthesis particularly important. This article describes our initial efforts towards the total synthesis of bryostatins, in which chemoselective and atom-economical methods for stereoselective assembly of the C-ring subunit were developed. A Pd-catalyzed tandem alkyne-alkyne coupling/6-endo-dig cyclization sequence was explored and successfully pursued in the synthesis of a dihydropyran ring system. Elaboration of this methodology ultimately led to a concise synthesis of the C-ring subunit of bryostatins. PMID:21793057

  5. Economic Impact of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on the State of Washington in Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a large economic entity, with $1.06 billion in annual funding, $936 million in total spending, and 4,344 employees in fiscal year (FY) 2013. Four thousand, one hundred and one (4,101) employees live in Washington State. The Laboratory directly and indirectly supports almost $1.31 billion in economic output, 6,802 jobs, and $514 million in Washington State wage income from current operations. The state also gains more than $1.21 billion in output, more than 6,400 jobs, and $459 million in income through closely related economic activities, such as visitors, health care spending, spending by resident retirees, and spinoff companies. PNNL affects Washington’s economy through commonly recognized economic channels, including spending on payrolls and other goods and services that support Laboratory operations. Less-commonly recognized channels also have their own impacts and include company-supported spending on health care for its staff members and retirees, spending of its resident retirees, Laboratory visitor spending, and the economic activities in a growing constellation of “spinoff” companies founded on PNNL research, technology, and managerial expertise. PNNL also has a significant impact on science and technology education and community nonprofit organizations. PNNL is an active participant in the future scientific enterprise in Washington with the state’s K-12 schools, colleges, and universities. The Laboratory sends staff members to the classroom and brings hundreds of students to the PNNL campus to help train the next generation of scientists, engineers, mathematicians, and technicians. This investment in human capital, though difficult to measure in terms of current dollars of economic output, is among the important lasting legacies of the Laboratory. Finally, PNNL contributes to the local community with millions of dollars’ worth of cash and in-kind corporate and staff contributions, all of which

  6. Impact of socio-economic growth on desalination in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziolkowska, Jadwiga R; Reyes, Reuben

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, around 1336 desalination plants in the United States (US) provided purified water mainly to municipalities, the industry sector and for power generation. In 2013 alone, ∼200 million m(3) of water were desalinated; the amount that could satisfy annual municipal water consumption of more than 1.5 million people in the US. Desalination has proven to be a reliable water supply source in many countries around the world, with the total global desalination capacity of ∼60 million m(3)/day in 2013. Desalination has been used to mitigate water scarcity and lessen the pressure on water resources. Currently, data and information about desalination are still limited, while extensive socio-economic analyses are missing. This paper presents an econometric model to fill this gap. It evaluates the impact of selected socio-economic variables on desalination development in the US in the time span 1970-2013. The results show that the GDP and population growth have significantly impacted the desalination sector over the analyzed time period. The insights into the economics of desalination provided with this paper can be used to further evaluate cost-effectiveness of desalination both in the US and in other countries around the world. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of the economic downturn on environmental health services and professionals in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston-Cox, Paula

    2012-06-01

    The objective of the authors' study was to examine the impact of the economic recession on the environmental health profession between budget year (BY) 2006-2007 and BY 2010-2011 in the following areas: (1) environmental health department fees for services; (2) changes in staffing levels, benefits, or pay; (3) changes in staff responsibilities; and (4) the impact to the private environmental sector compared to public environmental health professionals. Data were summarized from the following surveys: North Carolina Environmental Health Supervisors Association Fee and Economic Surveys; University of North Carolina Chapel Hill School of Government Current Salary Index; and a created online survey of private-sector environmental professionals. Total fees in the public sector for services have risen for most environmental health departments, but not enough to offset budget reductions. All of the counties that participated in the survey either have reduced staff, pay, or benefits due to budget cuts, and some counties utilized staff in other areas through cross-training. The private environmental sector also reduced staff in response to a reduced workload. Public sector employers may have difficulties retaining existing employees and recruiting new employees over the long-term in the current economic climate.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER FOR SUPPORTING OF TOTAL ABSORTION GRANTS BY SEMI SUBSISTENCE FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia TOMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In Romania semi-subsistence agriculture prevails and is rich in rural human resources, in terms of numbers, butstill poor in terms of their quality and professionalism. Therefore, increasing the competitiveness of semisubsistencefarms may be achieved also through the educational enhancement (technological, economic andmanagerial of the small farmers. Measure 141 "Supporting semi – subsistence farms" aims to increase theproduction volume for marketing and diversification of the production according to market requirements and, aswell, to introduce new products, in the endeavors for semi-subsistence farms to become economically viable. Thisresearch study is based on a brief analysis of the official data on the progress of Measure 141, as well as on aquantitative and qualitative analysis of a sample of over 1,000 farmers involved in semi-subsistence farming, whoare carrying out projects under this measure and have attended lectures on information and professional training ineconomics. The sample was stratified by various socio-professional criteria and selected by statistical step,representing 30% of the studied population segment. All these criteria were correlated and analyzed according tothe minimum initial knowledge of farmers at the beginning of the course, in the single-entry bookkeeping, after aperiod of at least two years after implementation. Due to the highly heterogeneous level of education, in many casesnon-agricultural and without economic knowledge, small authorized farmers were forced by the newly createdcircumstances to adapt and cope on-going, more or less correctly and thoroughly, to the new accounting, tax andmanagement requirements. For many farmers, information and professional training, especially in the single-entrybookkeeping, were provided often too late, in the third year of the project, so they it marked the proper use of the financial support and the quality of the farm management and marketing of agricultural products

  9. Total economical investigations on the extension of the high-temperature reactor line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, J.

    1978-04-01

    Two problems were worked out in the frame of this report with special weight on: 1. Determination of an optimum HTR-strategy with the successive closing of the fuel element cycle for HTR in normal converter operation and for HTR in high converter operation. The aim of this operation strategy was to reduce the efficient and political economical costs in the industrial application of nuclear energy by minimizing the consumption of natural uranium. 2. Balancing up of all suitable alternatives for central and decentral positions for nuclear power stations including the facilities for nuclear disposal. According to the position-dependent and position-independent factors besides a pure financial valuation an analysis of the population potentially concerned by the nuclear facilities for the position choice of a nuclear park and its alternatives was brought up. (orig.) [de

  10. First World War impact on economic development of worldlead countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Y. Polchanov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issue of economic development of world lead countries after the First World War. The aim of investigation is the identification of regularities of the post-conflict reconstruction of national economies of the world lead countries in the interwar period and the assessment of the dynamics of national defense financing as the indicator of international tension. The authors studies the experience in reconstruction of the European economies at the end of the First World War, in particular the main activities of the League of Nations (the world first International Organization for Security and Peace in Germany, Hungary, Estonia, Greece and Bulgaria in the interwar period are highlighted. Considering the data of military expenditures of main military and political bloc participants on the eve of the Second World War, the number of military personnel and the volume of iron and steel production during the 1920–1938, the author examines their relation with the help of correlation and regression analysis that allows to quantify the impact of these factors on the financing the defense sector.

  11. The impact of economic crisis on the Greek hospitals' productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Mitropoulos, Ioannis; Karanikas, Haralampos; Polyzos, Nikolaos

    2018-01-01

    During the recent economic crisis, Greece implemented a comprehensive reform in the health care system. The 2010 health reform occurred under the constraints imposed by the memorandum of understanding that the Greek Government signed with its EU/International Monetary Fund creditors to control its deficit. The objective of the study is to examine the impact of the reform on the efficiency and productivity of public hospitals in Greece. We use the Malmquist productivity index to comparatively examine the potential changes before and after the reform years. We compare productivity, efficiency, and technological changes using panel data of 111 public acute hospitals operating in Greece throughout the recession period of 2009 to 2012. Bootstrapping methods are applied to allow for uncertainty owing to sampling error and for statistical inference for the Malmquist productivity index and its decompositions. The analysis indicates that the productivity has been increased following the policy changes. It appears that the expected benefits from the reform in general have been achieved, at least in the short-term. This result is examined in the light of management and operations activities, which are related with the reform process. Therefore, at a second stage, the Malmquist index is regressed on variables that may potentially be statistically associated with productivity growth. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Economic Impact of CDM Implementation through Alternate Energy Resource Substitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. Sreekanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the Kyoto protocol agreement, Clean Development Mechanism (CDM hasgarnered large emphasis in terms of certified emission reductions (CER not only amidst the globalcarbon market but also in India. This paper attempts to assess the impact of CDM towardssustainable development particularly in rural domestic utility sector that mainly includes lightingand cooking applications, with electricity as the source of energy. A detailed survey has undertakenin the state of Kerala, in southern part of India to study the rural domestic energy consumptionpattern. The data collected was analyzed that throws insight into the interrelationships of thevarious parameters that influence domestic utility sector pertaining to energy consumption byusing electricity as the source of energy. The interrelationships between the different parameterswere modeled that optimizes the contribution of electricity on domestic utility sector. The resultswere used to estimate the feasible extent of CO2 emission reduction through use of electricity as theenergy resources, vis-à-vis its economic viability through cost effectiveness. The analysis alsoprovides a platform for implementing CDM projects in the sector and related prospects withrespects to the Indian scenario.

  13. Economic impacts of power electronics on electricity distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Carlos Henrique; Schaeffer, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    To achieve more efficient energy use, power electronics (PEs) may be employed. However, these introduce nonlinear loads (NLLs) into the system by generating undesired frequencies that are harmonic in relation to (multiples of) the fundamental frequency (60 Hz in Brazil). Consequently, devices using PEs are more efficient but also contribute significantly to degradation of power quality. Besides this, both the conventional rules on design and operation of power systems and the usual premises followed in energy efficiency programs (without mentioning the electricity consumed by the devices themselves) consider the sinusoidal voltage and current waveforms at the fixed fundamental frequency of the power grid. Thus, analysis of electricity consumption reductions in energy efficiency programs that include the use of PEs considers the reduction of kWh to the final consumer but not the additional losses caused by the increase in harmonic distortion. This article contributes to a better understanding of this problem by reporting the results of a case study of the ownership and use of television sets (TV sets) to estimate the economic impacts of residential PEs on a mainly residential electricity distribution system. (author)

  14. Economic and Environmental Impact of Energy Saving in Healthcare Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justo García-Sanz-Calcedo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to estimate the economic and environmental impacts of energy consumption derived from healthcare buildings and proposes several energy-saving options in the sector. An experimental energy consumption study was development between 2005 and 2013 in 12 hospitals and 70 healthcare centres in Spain, built between 1980 and 2005 through audits carried out between 2005 and 2012, performed by the Extremadura Energy Agency. The study focused on electric energy, HVAC, DWH, lighting systems, renewable energies, maintenance strategy, thermal insulation, and optimal building size. Specifically, the following parameters were evaluated: energy savings, investment emission of CO2, NO2, and SO2 gases, and payback. The results revealed that through an appropriate energy management of healthcare buildings it is possible to save up to 8.60 kWh/m2 per year, for buildings of less than 5000 m2 (with no beds, which represents an expense of 1.55 €/m2. In healthcare buildings larger than 5000 m2 (with beds, it was possible to save up to 6.88 kWh/m2 per year, which represents an expense of 1.25 €/m2.

  15. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  16. The impact of fiscal policy on economic growth in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Kaakunga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to shed light on the impact of fiscal policy on growth.  Governments undertake expenditures to pursue a variety of goals, only one of which may be an increase in per capita income.  Using the framework of endogenous growth models which seeks to explain sustained long term growth, we showed how a change in the mix of public spending in favour of productive activities could lead to a steady state growth rate.  The explanatory variables, which affect growth positively, include capital expenditure, tax revenue and the terms of trade.  The share of private consumption in GDP, fiscal deficit, the share of total public debt in GDP and current expenditure relates negatively to the growth rate of output.

  17. Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues

  18. Economic and socio-cultural impacts of Mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisa Piuchan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the economic and socio-cultural impacts from the burgeoning mainland Chinese tourists on Hong Kong residents. Ten individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect Hong Kong residents' views. Content analysis was employed to analyze the data. The results showed that the socio-cultural aspects were reported negatively with regard to culture, shopping and dining, and transportation but conversely, it had a positive impact on education and infrastructure. The economic aspect showed that residents accepted and appreciated the economic benefits brought by the inflow of mainland Chinese tourists. The Hong Kong government should consider these impacts, and then provide better solutions for residents' lives and plans to cope with the upcoming scenario which might arise regarding Hong Kong's economic boom and more tourists traveling to Hong Kong. Recommendations are also suggested in this study for further development. Keywords: Chinese tourists, economic impacts, socio-cultural impacts, tourism impacts

  19. Optimization of a Distillation Unit In Terms of Potential Environmental Impact and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassan Salami Tijani; Ramzan, N.

    2013-01-01

    Process energy integration and continuous improvement of process technology are increasing issues to ensure profitability of chemical productions. These objectives are increasingly important due to long-term environmental impact of energy degradation, such as resource depletion, emissions and the release of waste heat. The earlier energy conservation, process economics and environmental aspects are integrated into the process development, the easier and less expensive it is to improve the process design. In this work different distillation process design alternatives have been considered with respect to evaluations of process economics and potential environmental impacts. Optimum design alternatives are analyzed related to these objectives. A multi-criteria decision making technique such as (Analytic Hierarchy Process) AHP is applied for ranking the alternatives. This method reveals that the heat pump distillation unit which has the highest score of 52 % is the best alternative when compare with base case. In terms of the effluent streams the base case has a less potential environmental impact (PEI) compared with heat pump. The lower total PEI/ kg (7.45E-01) of the base case illustrates that the material utilization efficiency of the base case is better than the heat pump whose PEI/ kg is 8.14E-01. (author)

  20. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    OpenAIRE

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI; Nexhmie Berisha VOKSHI

    2017-01-01

    There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a sour...

  1. Impact of tourism on roundabout of economic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Slavoljub

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relation between of production and consumption units, market mechanisms, and the behaviour of economic subjects in the market are aspects that enable an understanding of tourism in the economic process. Two basic factors of tourism 'free time and free money' as the goal of creation of each individual, striving to meet the needs for luxury, rest, rehabilitation and recreation, are directly linked to the basic economic relationship, the relationship between limited resources and unlimited needs. Not respecting the principles and rules of the socio-economic sphere, by the dynamics of the development of techno-economic sphere, the increasing difference between the poor majority and rich minority in the world, causing many economic and social problems. Given the economic problems on a global level, further directions of development of tourism should be sought through the analysis of the relationship, or better to say, interdependence of development of techno-economic and socio-economic spheres. This paper seeks to determine and clarify the importance of tourism as a factor stimulating circular flow of economic processes.

  2. Health Economics as Rhetoric: The Limited Impact of Health Economics on Funding Decisions in Four European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franken, Margreet; Heintz, Emelie; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Raftery, James

    2016-12-01

    A response to the challenge of high-cost treatments in health care has been economic evaluation. Cost-effectiveness analysis presented as cost per quality-adjusted life-years gained has been controversial, raising heated support and opposition. To assess the impact of economic evaluation in decisions on what to fund in four European countries and discuss the implications of our findings. We used a protocol to review the key features of the application of economic evaluation in reimbursement decision making in England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, reporting country-specific highlights. Although the institutions and processes vary by country, health economic evaluation has had limited impact on restricting access of controversial high-cost drugs. Even in those countries that have gone the furthest, ways have been found to avoid refusing to fund high-cost drugs for particular diseases including cancer, multiple sclerosis, and orphan diseases. Economic evaluation may, however, have helped some countries to negotiate price reductions for some drugs. It has also extended to the discussion of clinical effectiveness to include cost. The differences in approaches but similarities in outcomes suggest that health economic evaluation be viewed largely as rhetoric (in D.N. McCloskey's terms in The Rhetoric of Economics, 1985). This is not to imply that economics had no impact: rather that it usually contributed to the discourse in ways that differed by country. The reasons for this no doubt vary by perspective, from political science to ethics. Economic evaluation may have less to do with rationing or denial of medical treatments than to do with expanding the discourse used to discuss such issues. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The economics of using prophylactic antibiotic-loaded bone cement in total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, C J; Zmistowski, B M; Clyde, C T; Parvizi, J

    2014-01-01

    The rate of peri-prosthetic infection following total joint replacement continues to rise, and attempts to curb this trend have included the use of antibiotic-loaded bone cement at the time of primary surgery. We have investigated the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of the use of antibiotic-loaded cement for primary total knee replacement (TKR) by comparing the rate of infection in 3048 TKRs performed without loaded cement over a three-year period versus the incidence of infection after 4830 TKRs performed with tobramycin-loaded cement over a later period of time of a similar duration. In order to adjust for confounding factors, the rate of infection in 3347 and 4702 uncemented total hip replacements (THR) performed during the same time periods, respectively, was also examined. There were no significant differences in the characteristics of the patients in the different cohorts. The absolute rate of infection increased when antibiotic-loaded cement was used in TKR. However, this rate of increase was less than the rate of increase in infection following uncemented THR during the same period. If the rise in the rate of infection observed in THR were extrapolated to the TKR cohort, 18 additional cases of infection would have been expected to occur in the cohort receiving antibiotic-loaded cement, compared with the number observed. Depending on the type of antibiotic-loaded cement that is used, its cost in all primary TKRs ranges between USD $2112.72 and USD $112 606.67 per case of infection that is prevented.

  4. Impact of Scientific and Technological Progress on Economic Development - the Views of Some Nobel Laureates of the Economic Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili KRASNIQI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are different authors' opinions and numerous theories according to which scientific technological progress is a determining factor of the economic development. The paper aims to present the contributions of some Nobel laureates to the impact of scientific and technological progress on economic development such as Arrow, Debreu, Hicks, Solow, Kuznets, Kantorovich and Stiglitz. The research results of their contributions show that scientific technological progress is considered as a source of economic development but this advanced technology to be widely and effectively used should be accompanied by such ideological and institutional adjustments that guarantee the reasonable use of innovations produced by the huge improvements of human knowledge.

  5. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherazai, S.T.H.; Shar, Z.; Iqbal, M.; Sumbal, G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  6. The Impact of the Tiananmen Crisis on China's Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Naughton, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The social and economic model that emerged out of the Tiananmen crisis was profoundly different from that contemplated on the eve of Tiananmen. China made a firm transition to a high-input, high investment, high growth model of development. The broad but vague social consensus in favour of political and economic reforms that underlay the Tiananmen protests crumbled, while the economy boomed and some people became much better off. In the post- Tiananmen period a strong economic logic and a str...

  7. Socio-economic impact of African swine fever outbreak of 2011 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With our findings we can conclude that ASF is still an important transboundary animal disease (TAD) with enormous socio-economic impact that requires concerted efforts of all stakeholders in the enforcement of control and preventive measures. Key words: African swine fever, socio-economic impact, seroprevalence, Isoka ...

  8. Offshore Wind Jobs and Economic Development Impact: Four Regional Scenarios (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tegen, S.

    2014-11-01

    NREL's Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model for Offshore Wind, is a computer tool for studying the economic impacts of fixed-bottom offshore wind projects in the United States. This presentation provides the results of an analysis of four offshore wind development scenarios in the Southeast Atlantic, Great Lakes, Mid-Atlantic, and Gulf of Mexico regions.

  9. The Impact of China on South American Political and Economic Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2018-01-01

    The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development.......The analysis compares three typologies of South American countries in terms of the impact of China on their political and economic development....

  10. Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of the Impact of External Debt on Economic Growth in an Emerging Economy: Evidence from Nigeria. ... African Research Review ... Findings reveal that debt service payment has negative and insignificant impact on Nigeria's economic growth while external debt stock has positive and significant effect on Nigeria's ...

  11. The Socio‑economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Socio‑economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross‑sectional Study. ... Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research ... socio‑economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub‑Sahara Africa region ...

  12. The economic impact of east–west migration on the European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kahanec, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2017), s. 407-434 ISSN 0340-8744 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-24642S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : EU enlargement * free mobility of workers * migration impacts Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

  13. The economic impact of east–west migration on the European Union

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kahanec, M.; Pytliková, Mariola

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 3 (2017), s. 407-434 ISSN 0340-8744 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : EU enlargement * free mobility of workers * migration impacts Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.658, year: 2016

  14. Dairy foods and osteoporosis: an example of assessing the health-economic impact of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötters, F J B; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Fardellone, P; Rizzoli, R; Rocher, E; Poley, M J

    2013-01-01

    Osteoporosis has become a major health concern, carrying a substantial burden in terms of health outcomes and costs. We constructed a model to quantify the potential effect of an additional intake of calcium from dairy foods on the risk of osteoporotic fracture, taking a health economics perspective. This study seeks, first, to estimate the impact of an increased dairy consumption on reducing the burden of osteoporosis in terms of health outcomes and costs, and, second, to contribute to a generic methodology for assessing the health-economic outcomes of food products. We constructed a model that generated the number of hip fractures that potentially can be prevented with dairy foods intakes, and then calculated costs avoided, considering the healthcare costs of hip fractures and the costs of additional dairy foods, as well as the number of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to hip fractures associated with low nutritional calcium intake. Separate analyses were done for The Netherlands, France, and Sweden, three countries with different levels of dairy products consumption. The number of hip fractures that may potentially be prevented each year with additional dairy products was highest in France (2,023), followed by Sweden (455) and The Netherlands (132). The yearly number of DALYs lost was 6,263 for France, 1,246 for Sweden, and 374 for The Netherlands. The corresponding total costs that might potentially be avoided are about 129 million, 34 million, and 6 million Euros, in these countries, respectively. This study quantified the potential nutrition economic impact of increased dairy consumption on osteoporotic fractures, building connections between the fields of nutrition and health economics. Future research should further collect longitudinal population data for documenting the net benefits of increasing dairy consumption on bone health and on the related utilization of healthcare resources.

  15. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiefelmeyer, K.; Mussell, A.; Moore, T.L.; Liu, D.

    2006-05-01

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  16. Social and Economic Impact of the Candle Light Source Project Candle project impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghiryan, M.

    Social and economic progress related to the realization of the CANDLE synchrotron light source creation project in Armenia is discussed. CANDLE service is multidisciplinary and long-lasting. Its impacts include significant improvement in science capacities, education quality, industrial capabilities, investment climate, country image, international relations, health level, restraining the "brain-drain", new workplaces, etc. CANDLE will serve as a universal national infrastructure assuring Armenia as a country with knowledge-based economy, a place for doing high-tech business, and be a powerful tool in achieving the country's jump forward in general.

  17. Economy Over Security: Why Crises Fail to Impact Economic Behavior in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SECURITY: WHY CRISES FAIL TO IMPACT ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN EAST ASIA by Aaron R. Sipos December 2017 Thesis Advisor: Michael Glosny Second...REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ECONOMY OVER SECURITY: WHY CRISES FAIL TO IMPACT ECONOMIC BEHAVIOR IN EAST...release. Distribution is unlimited. 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words) This study examines changes in economic behavior in

  18. The socio-economic impacts of Singaporean cross-border tourism in Malaysia and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    Cross-border tourism is often proposed by governments as an incentive for economic growth, but critics have suggested that its impacts are, in fact, overplayed. This paper\\ud presents research in the Indonesia-Malaysia-Singapore Growth Triangle. It presents a study of Singaporean cross-border tourism to its neighbours and discusses its\\ud economic impacts in two locations: Kukup, a traditional fishing village in Malaysia; and Bintan island in Indonesia. The project examined the broad economic...

  19. A Review of Cogent Reflection on the Economic Impact Assessment of Conferences – MICE Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MICE tourism has grown into an important economic sector in many places, and it is quite easy to understand the relevancy of estimating the economic impact of business tourists on the local and regional economies. Several industrial and academic researches has mentioned many methods for economic impact studies (direct, indirect and induced impacts of the conference - MICE tourism related events. Of these, the input-output (I-O model and general equilibrium models (REMI and REM II are widely used for the economic impact assessments. The current paper will review economic impact studies in the c conference - MICE tourism related events and then discusses the issues related to the I-O model and general equilibrium models framework

  20. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  1. Impact of Arts on Economic Development: The Nigeria Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No serious minded economic policy formulators and administrators atmodern times can afford to undermine education, art education, internal economic structure (micro economy), the arts and the need for diversification. Before the emergence of oil and gas exploration in Nigeria, subsistent farming, export of agricultural ...

  2. Impact of economic crisis on the intention to move house

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, G.Z.; Grigolon, A.B.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the economic crisis in 2008, the price of petrol, goods and agricultural products has rapidly increased and cities all over the world started to suffer from high levels of unemployment and lower business survival rates. Due to the economic downturn, the Dutch housing market also

  3. Impact of economic crisis on the intention to move house

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, G.Z.; Grigolon, A.B.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2014-01-01

    As a result of the economic crisis in 2008, the price of petrol, goods and agricultural products has rapidly increased and cities all over the world started to suffer from high levels of unemployment and lower business survival rates. Due to the economic downturn, the Dutch housing market also

  4. Environmental Impact Assessment for Socio-Economic Analysis of Chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calow, Peter; Biddinger, G; Hennes, C

    This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH.......This report describes the requirements for, and illustrates the application of, a methodology for a socio-economic analysis (SEA) especially as it might be adopted in the framework of REACH....

  5. The impact of behavioural economics and finance on retirement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These choices may also pose a threat to a member's financial wellbeing in retirement. Behavioural economics and finance helps to explain the choices made by these stakeholders in the retirement industry. The authors explain this concept in the context of industry stakeholders and the unique South African economic and ...

  6. Economic and health impacts associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium drinking water outbreak-Alamosa, CO, 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ailes

    Full Text Available In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746 households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n = 369/1,732 reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n = 108 reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n = 699/771, 91% reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n = 233 drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak's estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677-$6,002,879, and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471-$7,792,973 with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks.

  7. Economic and health impacts associated with a Salmonella Typhimurium drinking water outbreak-Alamosa, CO, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailes, Elizabeth; Budge, Philip; Shankar, Manjunath; Collier, Sarah; Brinton, William; Cronquist, Alicia; Chen, Melissa; Thornton, Andrew; Beach, Michael J; Brunkard, Joan M

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, a large Salmonella outbreak caused by contamination of the municipal drinking water supply occurred in Alamosa, Colorado. The objectives of this assessment were to determine the full economic costs associated with the outbreak and the long-term health impacts on the community of Alamosa. We conducted a postal survey of City of Alamosa (2008 population: 8,746) households and businesses, and conducted in-depth interviews with local, state, and nongovernmental agencies, and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools to assess the economic and long-term health impacts of the outbreak. Twenty-one percent of household survey respondents (n = 369/1,732) reported diarrheal illness during the outbreak. Of those, 29% (n = 108) reported experiencing potential long-term health consequences. Most households (n = 699/771, 91%) reported municipal water as their main drinking water source at home before the outbreak; afterwards, only 30% (n = 233) drank unfiltered municipal tap water. The outbreak's estimated total cost to residents and businesses of Alamosa using a Monte Carlo simulation model (10,000 iterations) was approximately $1.5 million dollars (range: $196,677-$6,002,879), and rose to $2.6 million dollars (range: $1,123,471-$7,792,973) with the inclusion of outbreak response costs to local, state and nongovernmental agencies and City of Alamosa healthcare facilities and schools. This investigation documents the significant economic and health impacts associated with waterborne disease outbreaks and highlights the potential for loss of trust in public water systems following such outbreaks.

  8. Deep water tie-back economics capex vs opex and the total costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarlton, Oran D. [Oil States Industries Inc., Arlington, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper explores the real cost and time benefits associated with the current, past, and future contracting strategies associated with subsea developments. It looks at the real cost associated with out sourcing engineering development and the impact of engineering, procurement, installation, and construction (EPIC) contracts. Development costs are first and foremost in the minds of operators as a field is analyzed for development potential. The cycle starts with an analysis of the geological information to estimate the potential value in the field. It proceeds to conceptual design where the first development methodology and cost estimates are prepared. If the project is initially viable it will proceed from conceptual design to Front End Engineering and Design (FEED) where a complete development plan is prepared with possible options and recommendations. Engineering companies may as a part of the FEED prepare a Request for Quotation (RFQ) which is sent to potential suppliers. As part of a FEED contract, an engineering company may also review responses to the RFQ and provide recommendations for selected suppliers. Typically large subsea projects are divided into several major categories such as: topsides; subsea production systems; wells; subsea umbilical risers and glow lines (SURF), and commissioning in order to simplify management and procurement. Many times these contracts are awarded as EPIC contracts to further simplify management and internal procurement efforts. A case study is presented which challenges current contracting strategies and presents an option for a lower cost and a better way forward with respect to the short term and a focus on the long term. (author)

  9. JEDI: Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Jobs and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) models are user-friendly tools that estimate the economic impacts of constructing and operating power generation and biofuel plants at the local (usually state) level. First developed by NREL’s researchers to model wind energy jobs and impacts, JEDI has been expanded to also estimate the economic impacts of biofuels, coal, conventional hydro, concentrating solar power, geothermal, marine and hydrokinetic power, natural gas, photovoltaics, and transmission lines. This fact sheet focuses on JEDI for wind energy projects.

  10. Impact of Total, Internal and External Government Debt on Interest Rate in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Perveen, Asma; Munir, Kashif

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine impact of total, internal and external government debt on nominal interest rate in Pakistan. To attain these objectives, the study used annual time series data from 1973 to 2016. The study used loanable fund theory as theoretical model and ARDL bound testing approach for cointegration and Granger causality test to estimate the results. The results of the study found negative relation between total government debt, external debt and nominal interest rat...

  11. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON PUBLIC SERVICES OF SOCIAL VALUE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Anda Ioana

    2013-07-01

    equal opportunities, financial security during illness not as simple care of the sick. The paper includes analysis related to: the structure of social protection in our country, the scope of these services, the relationship between social protection and poverty, the way and the degree to which social protection deepens or contribute to poverty reduction. The economic crisis triggered in Europe in 2008that also affects Romania, negatively influenced the evolution of social funds in key areas of public interest, education, health and social care. This results from: decreasing share of social spending in the state budget, decreasing share of these expenses in the total family budget due to lower purchasing power and thus the obligation of individual to reduce or waive some costs of this kind, central and local government bodies inability to meet certain service requirements such at the level of the population and especially low-income population groups. Located in the crisis situation the state must seek solutions to keep social services at an appropriate level because the quantity and quality of these services have an impact upon quality of life and standard of living of many individuals. The results of the analysis indicates us a reduced benefit for this type of service, in our country, with negative effects over the entire society. The conclusions aim to support the fact that social policy from our country is insufficient in relation to the real needs of the population, being strongly influenced by domestic economic situation and the size of the global economic crisis.

  12. The impact of the economic environment on financial reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Burcă

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial reporting represents a current issue of economic environment, given globalization and the recent economic crisis. Accounting -as profession - along with the investors and state institutions have started a comprehensive project of accounting convergence designed to improve the comparability of accounting information released by financial statements synthesis. The success of the project can only be provided by taking into account several constraints imposed by the economic environment, and not only. Therefore, attention must be paid to the voice of capital markets and large multinational corporations regarding the future development of financial reporting.

  13. Projected national impact of colorectal cancer screening on clinical and economic outcomes and health services demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Song, Kenneth

    2005-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is effective and cost-effective, but the potential national impact of widespread screening is uncertain. It is controversial whether screening colonoscopy can be offered widely and how emerging tests may impact health services demand. Our aim was to produce integrated, comprehensive estimates of the impact of widespread screening on national clinical and economic outcomes and health services demand. We used a Markov model and census data to estimate the national consequences of screening 75% of the US population with conventional and emerging strategies. Screening decreased CRC incidence by 17%-54% to as few as 66,000 cases per year and CRC mortality by 28%-60% to as few as 23,000 deaths per year. With no screening, total annual national CRC-related expenditures were 8.4 US billion dollars. With screening, expenditures for CRC care decreased by 1.5-4.4 US billion dollars but total expenditures increased to 9.2-15.4 US billion dollars. Screening colonoscopy every 10 years required 8.1 million colonoscopies per year including surveillance, with other strategies requiring 17%-58% as many colonoscopies. With improved screening uptake, total colonoscopy demand increased in general, even assuming substantial use of virtual colonoscopy. Despite savings in CRC care, widespread screening is unlikely to be cost saving and may increase national expenditures by 0.8-2.8 US billion dollars per year with conventional tests. The current national endoscopic capacity, as recently estimated, may be adequate to support widespread use of screening colonoscopy in the steady state. The impact of emerging tests on colonoscopy demand will depend on the extent to which they replace screening colonoscopy or increase screening uptake in the population.

  14. Economic impacts of invasive species in forests: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Thomas P; Aukema, Juliann E; Von Holle, Betsy; Liebhold, Andrew; Sills, Erin

    2009-04-01

    Biological invasions by nonnative species are a by-product of economic activities, with the vast majority of nonnative species introduced by trade and transport of products and people. Although most introduced species are relatively innocuous, a few species ultimately cause irreversible economic and ecological impacts, such as the chestnut blight that functionally eradicated the American chestnut across eastern North America. Assessments of the economic costs and losses induced by nonnative forest pests are required for policy development and need to adequately account for all of the economic impacts induced by rare, highly damaging pests. To date, countrywide economic evaluations of forest-invasive species have proceeded by multiplying a unit value (price) by a physical quantity (volume of forest products damaged) to arrive at aggregate estimates of economic impacts. This approach is inadequate for policy development because (1) it ignores the dynamic impacts of biological invasions on the evolution of prices, quantities, and market behavior, and (2) it fails to account for the loss in the economic value of nonmarket ecosystem services, such as landscape aesthetics, outdoor recreation, and the knowledge that healthy forest ecosystems exist. A review of the literature leads one to anticipate that the greatest economic impacts of invasive species in forests are due to the loss of nonmarket values. We proposed that new methods for evaluating aggregate economic damages from forest-invasive species need to be developed that quantify market and nonmarket impacts at microscales that are then extended using spatially explicit models to provide aggregate estimates of impacts. Finally, policies that shift the burden of economic impacts from taxpayers and forest landowners onto parties responsible for introducing or spreading invasives, whether through the imposition of tariffs on products suspected of imposing unacceptable risks on native forest ecosystems or by requiring

  15. The impact of the economic crisis on Spanish university libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón-Martín, José

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this study is to examine the impact of the financial crisis on the libraries of Spanish public universities. For this purpose, data from staff, finances, and services provided by the 47 public university libraries during 2008-2014 have been analyzed. Overall, the analysis of the data leads us to assert the following observations: these libraries have experienced a reduction in staff and expenditures for the purchase of information resources, whereas the volume of library lending has matched the evolution of student enrollment. Both interlibrary lending and the number of days that libraries were open during this period have decreased. Expenditures on electronic resources made by libraries and library consortia have increased in the period under study to the detriment of expenditures on monographs and printed journals. In this new economic environment, we consider that library managers should design actions for establishing strategies to ensure efficient and high-quality services to users.El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo examinar el impacto de la crisis financiera en las bibliotecas de las universidades públicas españolas. Para alcanzar este propósito se han analizado los datos de personal, los datos económicos, y los referidos a los servicios prestados por las 47 bibliotecas universitarias públicas durante el periodo 2008 a 2014. El análisis de los datos nos lleva a aseverar, a nivel global, las siguientes consideraciones: estas bibliotecas han experimentado una reducción en los efectivos de personal y en los gastos de adquisiciones de recursos de información, mientras que el volumen del préstamo domiciliario ha seguido una evolución similar al del número de estudiantes matriculados. Tanto el préstamo interbibliotecario como el número de días que permanecieron abiertas las bibliotecas durante estos años también han disminuido. El gasto en recursos electrónicos, realizado por las bibliotecas y los consorcios

  16. Assessment of the impacts of oil: Opportunities and challenges for economic development in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Nour, Samia Satti Osman Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the impacts of oil and discusses the opportunities and challenges for enhancing economic development in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis in this paper is that we provide a more comprehensive analysis using the most recent secondary data to discuss the positive and negative impacts of oil for enhancing economic development in Sudan. We explain that the various positive impacts of oil and the opportunities for enhancing development in Sudan's economy inc...

  17. Economic Impacts of Climate Change on Tuna Fisheries in Fiji Islands and Kiribati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, Asbjoern; Sygna, Linda

    2000-06-01

    This paper discusses the possible economic consequences of a change in the tuna fisheries in the Pacific Ocean resulting from climate change. On the background of Lehodey's (2000) study of potential changes in the tuna fisheries, we survey possible economic impacts in terms of quantities and values and give examples of macroeconomic impacts. The two main effects of climate change on tuna fishing are likely to be a decline in the total stock and a migration of the stock westwards. This will lead to various changes in the catch in different countries. The price of the fish in the export market may also change as a result. The Pacific islands are generally dependent on fisheries, and may therefore be vulnerable to these changes, although some will probably gain while others will lose. Based on a very simple macroeconomic model, it is shown that the resulting effects for the national economy in general may diverge substantially from the expected. This applies, in particular, if the national economies are inflexible and a large part of the population relies on subsistence production, which is the case for many developing countries. (author)

  18. Economic valuation of the environmental impact of logging residue recovery and nutrient compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the environmental impact of logging residue recovery (LRR) and nutrient compensation (NC) in Sweden is analysed and evaluated economically. Logging reside recovery and recirculation of wood ash can generate local environmental benefits, such as reduced soil acidification and, primarily in southern Sweden, also improved nitrogen balance and reduced nutrient leaching from forest land. Recovery of residues leads to a slight increase in net emissions of carbon dioxide, compared with on site decomposition, but this increase is small compared with the net emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil fuel cycles. The impact of toxic compounds is estimated to be insignificant, as is that on biodiversity, when current guidelines for forestry management methods are followed. The total cost, including direct costs and environmental costs/benefits, of LRR and NC is estimated to be about 1.1, 3.3 and 4.6 US dollars/GJ in southern, central and northern Sweden, respectively. For comparison, the current direct cost of LRR, excluding NC, is, on average, about 4.0 US dollars/GJ in Sweden. Almost one-third of the Swedish forest fuel potential is estimated to be located in the south, but this potential varies from about 50 to over 100 PJ per year depending on the assumptions made. Thus, when local environmental benefits are also considered, the overall economic benefit derived from the utilisation of forest fuels could increase significantly in southern Sweden, where large quantities of logging residues are available. (author)

  19. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  20. An Economic Assessment of the Impact of ICT on Performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: ICT, Water economics, water Resource Management, Nigeria, International. Water Wars. 1 ... the methodology employed in the study. ..... Jamieson, D.G and Fedra, K (1996) The 'Water Ware' decision-support systems for river.

  1. Impact of Global Economic Crisis on Technical and Vocational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-20

    May 20, 2011 ... factors, which also mutually interact with each other (Coombs, 1985). In Nigeria the global economic crisis (GEC) has led to depletion of stocks, ..... The Study of Instructional Communication Strategies in Nigerian Universities.

  2. The Impact Of Corruption On Economic Development: Case Study Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminita Ionescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, Romania implemented a strong legislation and a comprehensive program of public financial management reform in order to improve the national fiscal transparency and to reduce corruption. Corruption is a growing phenomenon all over the world, affecting economic development and aggravated by the legacy of the global economic crisis. The global risks are different from the past due to notably cyber attacks, new economic realities and geopolitical risks. Most of the time, corruption is associated with financial crime, fraud and bribery. Corruption is a major factor of reducing economic development and the governments must increase of macroeconomic and fiscal forecasts in order to facilitate access to the public funds.

  3. The economic impact of the Troubled Assets Relief Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through TARP funds, the US government buys illiquid mortgage-backed ... of ensuring financial stability in the United States, there are also groups that are ..... macro-economic, market and liquidity risks), financial instability will increase.

  4. The Economic Impact of Land Use Rights in Rural Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...Rental Markets In Transition: Evidence From Rural Vietnam." Oxford Bulletin Of Economics And Statistics 70, no. 1: 67- 101. ECONIS, EBSCOhost ...generating revenue through taxation in a previously non-existent real estate market . Before 1993, Vietnam experienced a long period of land reform

  5. FORMING MANAGEMENT IMPACTS IN AVIATION COMPANIES ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Prokhorova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Oriented reflective approach to management involves restructuring of goal, ideal and pragmatic, creating a program of action, organizing, correcting, control the definition of the new strategy. This process is only possible with multidimensional analysis and reflection of all the administrative restructuring process and its elements in determining and planning activities, creating conditions of restructuring, predicting outcomes and consequences of making a choice of ways to solve problems means to achieve the goal of information called ' bonds with participants restructuring process and correction flow management process based on continuous reflection. Methods: Development of the system of economic development now requires the use of mechanisms for continuous monitoring of internal and external environment to identify factors that threaten businesses. Rest of this is possible through the use of diagnostic tests: static analysis, expert diagnosis, linear and dynamic programming. Results: Built as part of the study economic and mathematical models can determine the status and level of economic development potential of aerospace companies that were investigated, confirming the need for action to manage economic development. To develop the mechanism of competition in the aircraft building sector must: implementation in practice of management motivation mechanisms to ensure the appropriate level of interest in the functioning of airlines on the basis of private property; formation of economic market institutions in the field of aircraft construction, affecting the creation of a competitive environment. Discussion: Stipulates that in difficult economic crisis positive results can be achieved managers who are constantly looking for original approaches to inclusion in the development process by aligning internal external opportunities generated by market. It is concluded that aviation business management in times of economic instability or

  6. IMPACTS OF FOREIGN INVESTMENT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TRANSITION COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Bosanac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current global economic crisis raises many questions and the most important imperative is to find solutions and recover the world economy. Neoliberalism as a cause of the crisis has shown fundamental shortcomings and proved that the market is an imperfect self-regulating system. At the present time in the media, politicians and some economists mention foreign direct investment (FDI as a life-saving solution for economic problems and economic growth. The analysis of the economic indicators proved that FDI cannot be, to the necessary extent, a generator of economic growth and that development of each country should be based on endogenous components. The development of critical thinking and questioning of the neoliberal concept, especially with today's time distance through comparisons of indicators such as economic growth, absence of inflation, employment and the export-import ratio, has revealed major systemic defects of the market fundamentalist policies. A strong indicator and argument to this thesis is particularly evident in the industrial production indexes, in the number of industrial workers and in the share of industry in GDP of transition countries.

  7. 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The goal of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in North Dakota is to improve the environment and reduce the negative health effects associated with residual radioactive material (RRM) from the inactive processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. A secondary benefit of the UMTRA Project is economic gain. The 1992 North Dakota Economic Impact Study (NDEIS) analyzes the impact of the remedial actions at the inactive Belfield and Bowman processing sites and their associated vicinity properties. This analysis is based on the assumption that the state of North Dakota will provide 10 percent of the funding required for remediation. For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests in the Belfield and Bowman onsite portion of the UMTRA Project, it will realize $5.04 in gross labor income (i.e., gross labor income divided by the state's total funding requirement). For every dollar the state of North Dakota invests, it will realize a net return of $3.04 (i.e., net benefit divided by the state's total funding requirement). This reflects only labor expenditure and employment impact. ff state and local non-labor tax benefits were considered in the net economic benefit, North Dakota could receive significantly more than $3.04 for each dollar it invests. The UMTRA Project work at Belfield and Bowman will benefit the state of North Dakota. Benefits include a reduction in the negative health effects caused by low-level RRM, an improvement in the environment, and increased economic growth

  8. Technical Report on Socio-Economic Trends, Macro-Economic Impacts and Cost Interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capros P; Sedee C; Jantzen J; MNV

    2001-01-01

    The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium

  9. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  10. Total cross section for chloroflouromethanes and CClx radicals by electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A model to find total CS for freons and CCl x by e − impact is employed. ► Complex optical potential formalism is used to find total inelastic and elastic CS. ► Result shows very good agreement with previous data wherever available. ► Maiden attempt to find cross section for the CCl x radicals. -- Abstract: We report here the total cross section for chloroflouromethanes namely CCl 3 F (Freon 11), CCl 2 F 2 (Freon 12), CClF 3 (Freon 13), CCl 4 and CCl x (x = 1–3), radicals by electron impact 50 to 5000 eV. The total inelastic and elastic cross sections are obtained employing a complex optical potential formalism and solving the Schrödinger equation through partial wave analysis. The total cross section is obtained as the sum of total inelastic and elastic cross sections. The results obtained are compared with the existing experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. The present result shows reasonable agreement with previous data. For the CCl x radicals, we have predicted the total cross sections for the first time. The data reported here has immense interest to atmospheric and technological plasma modelling

  11. Economics of Privacy: Users'€™ Attitudes and Economic Impact of Information Privacy Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Frik, Alisa

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral thesis consists of three essays within the field of economics of information privacy examined through the lens of behavioral and experimental economics. Rapid development and expansion of Internet, mobile and network technologies in the last decades has provided multitudinous opportunities and benefits to both business and society proposing the customized services and personalized offers at a relatively low price and high speed. However, such innovations and progress have al...

  12. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of noxious facilities'' be identified and measured To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  13. The economic impacts of noxious facilities on wages and property values: An exploratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Hemphill, R.C.; Clark, D.E.

    1991-05-01

    Recent assessments of socioeconomic impacts resulting from the location of potentially hazardous facilities have concentrated on the issue of negative public perceptions and their resulting economic consequences. This report presents an analysis designed to answer the question: Can economic impacts resulting from negative perceptions of ``noxious facilities`` be identified and measured? To identify the impacts of negative perceptions, data on noxious facilities sited throughout the United States were compiled, and secondary economic and demographic data sufficient to analyze the economic impacts on the surrounding study areas were assembled. This study uses wage rate and property value differentials to measure impacts on social welfare so that the extent to which noxious facilities and their associated activities have affected surrounding areas can be determined.

  14. The economic impact of Sandia National Laboratories on Central New Mexico and the State of New Mexico Fiscal Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansford, Robert R.; Adcock, Larry D.; Gentry, Lucille M.; Ben-David, Shaul; Temple, John

    1999-08-09

    impact analyses: The impact of SNL activities on Central New Mexico and the economic impacts of SNL on the state of New Mexico. For purposes of this report, the Central New Mexico Region includes: Bernalillo, Sandoval, Valencia, and Torrance Counties (Figure 1). Total impact represents both direct and indirect resending by business, including induced effects (resending by households). The standard multipliers used in determining impacts result from the inter-industry, input-output models developed for the four-county region and the state of New Mexico.

  15. Economic impact of industrial wood energy use in the Southeast region of the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    More than 1,000 commercial and industrial installations in the Southeast burn wood fuels. Collectively, these facilities consume 44.3 million green tons of fuelwood and 41.7 million tons per year of 'black liquor' residues. Considering the entire direct and indirect impacts of industrial wood energy expenditures as they ripple through the economy, activities associated with the use of industrial wood energy resulted in the production of over 71,000 jobs and $1 billion in personal income for the Southeast region in 1987. In addition, a total of $237 million in State and Federal tax revenues were generated through wood energy related economic activities. Growth projections indicate that by the year 2000, industrial wood energy utilization will generate approximately 97,000 jobs and $1.4 billion in income in the Southeast region

  16. The Impact of Tourism on Economic Growth in the Western Balkan Countries: An Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr Nasir Selimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research paper is to empirically analyse the effects of tourism on economic growth in Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Design/Methodology/Approach: The empirical analysis consists of 17-year panel data of 6 countries over the period 1998 to 2014. Several models are analysed using the panel regression econometric techniques. The study investigates the random and fixed effects, as well as individual heterogeneity across those countries. Also, the Hausman Taylor IV estimator is used as the most appropriate model for this analysis. The real income per capita of the sample countries is modelled as dependent on the lagged income per capita, tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, FDI stock, exports and government expenditures. Findings: The estimation results in all types of models, and indicate that tourism has a positive and significant impact on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries. The Hausman Taylor IV model suggests that for every 1% increase of tourist arrivals, the output will increase approximately by 0.08%. Research limitations/implications: Although the Hausman Taylor IV model performs well, the results should be interpreted with caution. The analysis has its limitations; firstly, the total number of observations is relatively small for a panel regression analysis; secondly, the problem of endogenity is not completely avoided. However, the study implies that these countries should enhance efforts for joint tourism sector policies to engender economic sustainability. Originality/Value: To our best knowledge, this is the first attempt of estimating the effects of tourism on economic growth in the Western Balkan countries using the Hausman Taylor IV model.

  17. Socio-economic impact assessment and community engagement to reduce conflict over mine operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Rolfe; Stewart Lockie [Central Queensland University, Qld. (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The broad aim of this project was to assist coal mining companies develop effective processes for engaging with their communities and developing impact assessment and planning processes that can be agreed by their stakeholders. The range of project outcomes have been summarised in a series of reports, as follows. Report 1. Overview of social and economic issues associated with the Bowen Basin coal industry; Report 2. A review of environmental impact assessments (EIA) for coal mine developments and the use of economic and social impact assessment in the Bowen Basin - tools and trends; Report 3. Accounting for social and economic impacts in annual sustainability reporting; Report 4. Regional Economic impact assessment: an overview of the input-output methods; Report 5. The impact of coal industry development projects on the Central Highlands, Fitzroy and Queensland economies: An application of input-output method; Report 6. Regional Economic impact assessment: factors influencing workforce mobility to regional mining towns; Report 7. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the township of Blackwater; Report 8. Social and economic impacts associated with changes in the coal mining industry in the Bowen Basin on the Bauhinia Shire (Springsure and Rolleston); Report 9. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (Blackwater); Report 10. Results of the extended stakeholder analysis (the Bauhinia Shire); and Report 11. Summary and Recommendations. This report includes a number of summary findings about the social and economic impacts of coal mining on the communities in the Bowen Basin. The approaches used are outlined and briefly discussed.

  18. REVERSIBLE IMPAIRMENT OF ASSETS AND THE IMPACT ON ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIRON VASILE-CRISTIAN-IOACHIM

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance is an essential objective of economic entities activating in the energy sector. The profit and loss account provides relevant information for performance analyzes, but evaluating the factors which determined the modification of the financial result demands detailed analyzes based on specific techniques. This paper develops and implements an econometric model that analyses the relation between gross profit and the reversible impairment of assets. The results of the analysis have shown that, in the energy sector, there is a significant connection between those two variables.

  19. he Impact of Economic Paradoxes on the Pharmaceutical Market Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina MARGARITTI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The population’s health represents the most important economic resource in a society. The social-economic role of heath protection is determined by the proper allocation of public financial resources but also partially, by the allocation of the populations own income. The general law of demand can be applied to the drugdemand. The well-knowneconomic paradoxes R. Giffen, T. Veblen and A. Rugina canbefound on the pharmaceuticalmarket and determine the elasticity of drug demand. The quantity of drugs needed to assure the populations health presents insignificant modifications to the price fluctuations, to the populations’ income, the resources allocated by the state and by each patient.

  20. Changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to analyze changes in taxation and their impact on economic growth in the European Union. The analysis is performed on adjusted annual panel data of 24 European Union countries in a period 1995–2008. Panel regression with fixed effects is used as a basic method of research. The panel regression is based on analysis the effect of total tax quota changes on GDP growth in model 1, of changes in its components (social contribution, direct and indirect tax quotas in model 2 and of personal and corporate income tax quota changes in model 3. Results of empirical tests verify statistically significant negative effect of tax burden on GDP growth. Total tax quota increased by 1% decreases the GDP growth rate by 0.29% in the same year. Estimations confirm a statistically significant negative effect of direct taxes on GDP growth as well. A cut in the direct tax quota by 1% raises the GDP growth rate by 0.43%. The model also presents a high negative impact of an increase in the corporate income tax quota on GDP growth (a value of the regression coefficient is minus 1.28%. The effect of social contribution quota on GDP growth is not statistically significant in any estimation.

  1. Socio-economic impact of antiretroviral treatment in HIV patients. An economic review of cost savings after introduction of HAART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo, Teresa; García Goñi, Manuel; Muñoz-Fernández, María Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Star celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury, Magic Johnson, and Isaac Asimov have unfortunately something in common: they were all victims of the HIV global pandemic. Since then HIV infection has become considered a pandemic disease, and it is regarded as a priority in healthcare worldwide. It is ranked as the first cause of death among young people in industrialized countries, and it is recognized as a public healthcare problem due to its human, social, mass media, and economic impact. Incorporation of new and highly active antiretroviral treatment, available since 1996 for HIV/AIDS treatment, has provoked a radical change in the disease pattern, as well as in the impact on patient survival and quality of life. The pharmaceutical industry's contribution, based on the research for more active new drugs, has been pivotal. Mortality rates have decreased significantly in 20 years by 50% and now AIDS is considered a chronic and controlled disease. In this review we have studied the impact of HAART treatment on infected patients, allowing them to maintain their status as active workers and the decreased absenteeism from work derived from this, contributing ultimately to overall social wealth and, thus, to economic growth. Furthermore, an analysis of the impact on healthcare costs, quality of life per year, life per year gained, cost economic savings and cost opportunity among other parameters has shown that society and governments are gaining major benefits from the inclusion of antiretroviral therapies in HIV/AIDS patients.

  2. Analysis the Impact of Technology Spillovers on Total Factor Productivity of Agricultural Sector in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Baniasadi

    2016-09-01

    Group of Eight developed countries (D8 plus China. Technology spillover indexes are thus decomposed into two components: Imports of capital goods and foreign direct investment (FDI. Index of capital goods imports measures imports of capital goods from major commercial partners of Iran (D8 countries and china. Foreign direct investment (FDI represents the share of foreign capital in agricultural sectors. Therefore, the empirical analysis of the technology spillover on the productivity of agricultural sectors is based on theatrical framework and ARDL model. Results and Discussion: According to the results of the ARDL model, technological spillover effect on the TFP of agricultural sector, in long-term shows that technology spillover has a positive and significant effect on agricultural productivity from both channels of capital goods import and foreign direct investment (FDI. But in short-term spillover variable from a capital goods import channel is not significant. This indicates that absorption of the technology from imports of capital goods channel do not perform very well and probably low-tech and without affecting on TFP of agriculture sector is imported. But in long-term technology spillover from imports channels also had a positive impact on total factor productivity of the agricultural sector. In fact, high technologies in long-term can be absorbed through the imports and influenced on TFP. According to thesis study results, the estimated coefficient of error correction term is equal to 0.53.This means that in each period, 53 percent of imbalances of agricultural TFP will be resolved. The average speed of upward of adjustment reflects the fact that in Iran economy, deviations and imbalances have arisen in the agricultural sector TFP caused by technology spillovers shocks, move very fast towards long-run equilibrium. Conclusions: The purpose of this paper is to advance the knowledge for a key question with evident implications for economic policy: What is the

  3. THE IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON THE FISCAL REVENUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inceu Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to evaluate the situation of the fiscal revenues in Romania in the context of economic and financial crisis, because the fiscal revenues are the major source of financing the public expenditure. The evolution of the level of fiscal revenu

  4. Impact of Global Economic Crisis on Technical and Vocational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the relationship between global economic crisis (GEC) and inadequacy of facilities for administration of the Technical and. Vocational Education. The descriptive survey design with a random sample of 100 technical teachers from a population of 139 technical teachers in all six Technical Colleges in ...

  5. Socio-Economic Impacts of Desertification in Nigeria | Eneji | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most climatic and environmental changes that occur today are manifestations of man's inadvertent modifications of climate based on his livelihood strategies. Climatic variation in Nigeria is physically evident in desertification and drought, especially in the northernmost states. The latter also affects the social and economic ...

  6. The impact of microfinance bank credit on economic development of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper x-rays the contribution of microfinance bank to the economic development of Nigeria for fifteen years by using secondary data collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria records, annual reports and statistical bulletin. The ordinary least square estimation technique was adopted using linear regression model.

  7. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  8. Limitations of JEDI Models | Jobs and Economic Development Impact Models |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Group's IMPLAN accounting software. For JEDI, these are updated every two years for the best available -output modeling remains a widely used methodology for measuring economic development activity. Definition definition of the geographic area under consideration. Datasets of multipliers from IMPLAN are available at

  9. Assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of grain for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to noticeably and systematically assess ecological, economic and social effects of the grain for green project on county level, this study investigated the benefits of carbon sequestration to the soil of farmland-converted forestland (in 0 to 20 cm soil depth), the change in household income structure and social ...

  10. Currency System and Its Impact on Economic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmadi Saharuddin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A number of economic problems that occurred during the power of Mamluk (1250-1517 AD was considered as a result of the change to currency system, namely from the system of commodity-based money (gold and silver into paper-based money (fiat. Instability prices, decrease of trading activities, high of unemployment number were a number of economic indicators that occurred at that time. This issue of macro-economy was considered as a result of changes in the money system. This study analyzes the dynamic relationship between the price of gold as a representation of commodity money system and M2 as a representation of fiat money against the stability of economic indicators such as inflation, economic growth, stock prices, and unemployment and interest rates. This study found that both systems not vary significantly against each other in its influence on macroeconomic variables. It means that the two systems do not have contrast distinction. Indeed, it was found that the commodity-based money system is not free of inflation, as propagated by the supporters of the dinar and dirham (dinarist. DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i2.4749

  11. THE IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP: EVIDENCE FROM EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELA ROMAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The significant importance of entrepreneurship for the economic development, job creation and innovation have increased the concerns of researchers and decision makers at different levels for the understanding and investigation of the factors that could have an impact on the level of entrepreneurial activity. Our study aims to empirically investigate the impact of some main macroeconomic and business environment factors on the level of the entrepreneurial activity in 18 EU member states in the period from 2002 - 2014. Our research is based on the data provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM and by the World Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. We took into consideration, as dependent variable for an econometric model, three indicators that are used as proxy variables of the level of entrepreneurial activity, namely: Total Entrepreneurial Activity rate, Nascent entrepreneurship rate, and New business ownership rate. We investigated eleven macroeconomic and business environment indicators, as the explanatory variables of our models, that could influence the level of the entrepreneurial activity in European countries: GDP growth, GDP per capita, unemployment, inflation, domestic credit to private sector by banks, fear of failure, entrepreneurial intentions, perceived capabilities, cost of business start-up procedures and time required to start a business. The empirical results highlight the fact that a large part of the explicative variables are significantly affecting the entrepreneurial activity, in agreement with the results of other empirical studies. Thus, the total entrepreneurial activity is influenced by unemployment rate, total tax rate, entrepreneurial intentions, perceived capabilities, cost of business start-up procedures and domestic credit to private sector. The other two dependent variables register some differences, however, overall, our study reveals that the key determinants of the entrepreneurial activity

  12. Diabetes that impacts on routine activities predicts slower recovery after total knee arthroplasty: an observational study

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    Nurudeen Amusat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Question: In the 6 months after total knee arthroplasty (TKA, what is the pattern of pain resolution and functional recovery in people without diabetes, with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities, and with diabetes that does impact on routine activities? Is diabetes that impacts on routine activities an independent predictor of slower resolution of pain and functional recovery after TKA? Design: Community-based prospective observational study. Participants: A consecutive cohort of 405 people undergoing primary TKA, of whom 60 (15% had diabetes. Participants with diabetes were also asked preoperatively whether diabetes impacted on their routine activities. Participants were categorised into three groups: no diabetes (n = 345, diabetes with no impact on activities (n = 41, and diabetes that impacted activities (n = 19. Outcome measures: Pain and function were measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index within the month before surgery and 1, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Demographic, medical and surgical factors were also measured, along with depression, social support and health-related quality of life. Results: No baseline differences in pain and function were seen among the three groups (p > 0.05. Adjusting for age, gender and contralateral joint involvement across the 6 postoperative months, participants with diabetes that impacted on routine activities had pain scores that were 8.3 points higher (indicating greater pain and function scores that were 5.4 points higher (indicating lower function than participants without diabetes. Participants with diabetes that doesn’t impact on routine activities had similar recovery to those without diabetes. Conclusion: People undergoing TKA who report preoperatively that diabetes impacts on their routine activities have less recovery over 6 months than those without diabetes or those with diabetes that does not impact on routine activities

  13. The Impact of the Global Economic Crisis on Sport

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    Szabó Földesi Gyöngyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis is the worst one in decades; it is surely the worst one the world has experienced since the Great Depression in the 1930s. Although it has affected countries with different positions in the global village in different ways and to different degrees, it has had worldwide consequences in most sub-systems of societies, including sport. These are hot issues in management and in everyday practice; still, relatively little attention has been paid to them within the social sciences. The objective of this paper is to close this gap by studying how the recent global economic crisis has affected sport. Two spheres of sport have been selected for analysis: mega sport events and grassroots sports. These two fields were chosen because of their social importance and because there is little scientific evidence about how they face and answer the challenges coming from the economic crisis. The topic is discussed from the theoretical perspective of the nexus of economy, politics, society, and culture. The methodological considerations refer to the lack of reliable sources for economic data related to sport. The results indicate that mega sport events have suffered less from the recession: there might be new actors, but the show goes on. The true loser is grassroots sport. Household impoverishment might lead to a decreased willingness of the individual practitioners to pay for sports goods and services and to a decreased contribution of volunteers working in sport. The funding models vary across countries, but generally both public and private funding has been reduced. In conclusion, it is underlined that no fields of sport have been left untouched by the current global economic crisis, but grassroots sports have suffered the most from it.

  14. The economic impact of the Troubled Assets Relief Programme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 international fi nancial crisis has led to many countries, including the USA, bailing out their fi nancial institutions. This article provides a unique perspective of the bailout issue by looking at the impact of the quantitative easing in monetary policy on competitiveness as well as providing multiplier impacts through the

  15. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Dietary Changes in Iran: An Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roham Rahmani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available  Iran's simple and environmentally extended commodity by commodity input-output (IO model was used to determine the impacts of dietary changes on the Iranian economy and on the environmental load. The original model is based on the status-quo diet and was modified to include the World Health Organization (WHO, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF and Mediterranean alternative dietary scenarios. A range of impacts occurred depending upon the relative changes in food items. The direction of changes was similar in the three alternative scenarios. The greatest and smallest impact occurred in the WHO and the Mediterranean scenarios respectively. Total changes in output in WHO, WCRF and Mediterranean dietary scenarios were calculated to be 7010.1, 4802.8 and 3330.8 billion Rials respectively. The outputs of rice, vegetables, fruit, bread and macaroni decreased, but those of live and other animal products increased. The output of non-food commodities and services increased as well. The environmental load increased for three dietary scenarios in comparison with the status-quo diet. The greatest and smallest environmental load occurred in WHO and Mediterranean dietary scenarios respectively. Thus, although dietary changes can have positive effects on economic output, in order to avoid negative environmental effects, it is necessary to consider strategies such as applying capabilities, particularly natural resources in an optimal healthy and environmentally diet, planning for improving forest covering and green space simultaneously with increasing economic activities and using indirect incentives, such as taxes and insurance, for promoting sustainable and healthy foods and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. The impact of old age on surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Gyu; Kim, Hee Sung; Kim, Byung Sik; Kwon, Sung Joon

    2013-11-01

    Old age is regarded as the risk factor of major abdominal surgery due to the lack of functional reserve and the increased presence of comorbidities. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of old age on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This study enrolled 389 gastric cancer patients who underwent totally laparoscopic gastrectomy at Hanyang University Guri Hospital and ASAN Medical Center. The patients were classified into two groups according to age as those older than 70 years and those younger than 70 years. Early surgical outcomes such as operation time, postoperative complications, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay were evaluated. No patient was converted to open surgery. The two groups differed significantly in terms of overall postoperative complication rate, time to first flatus, days until soft diet began, and hospital stay. The patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy differed in incidence of postoperative ileus but not in severe postoperative complication rate. The results of this study demonstrated that old age can have an effect on the surgical outcomes of totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. This study especially showed that elderly patients are affected by the return of bowel movement after totally laparoscopic gastrectomy. On the other hand, however, it is presumed that old age has not had a serious impact on surgical outcomes in totally laparoscopic gastrectomy because no difference in the severe postoperative complication rate was observed.

  17. Template-Directed Instrumentation Reduces Cost and Improves Efficiency for Total Knee Arthroplasty: An Economic Decision Analysis and Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLawhorn, Alexander S; Carroll, Kaitlin M; Blevins, Jason L; DeNegre, Scott T; Mayman, David J; Jerabek, Seth A

    2015-10-01

    Template-directed instrumentation (TDI) for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) may streamline operating room (OR) workflow and reduce costs by preselecting implants and minimizing instrument tray burden. A decision model simulated the economics of TDI. Sensitivity analyses determined thresholds for model variables to ensure TDI success. A clinical pilot was reviewed. The accuracy of preoperative templates was validated, and 20 consecutive primary TKAs were performed using TDI. The model determined that preoperative component size estimation should be accurate to ±1 implant size for 50% of TKAs to implement TDI. The pilot showed that preoperative template accuracy exceeded 97%. There were statistically significant improvements in OR turnover time and in-room time for TDI compared to an historical cohort of TKAs. TDI reduces costs and improves OR efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Regional Investment Policy Under The Impact Of Budget Limitations And Economic Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Avramenko, Yelena S.; Vlasov, Semyon V.; Lukyanov, Sergey A.; Temkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of research on the impact which budget limitations and economic sanctions have had on regional investment policy External sanctions and sluggish economic growth have affected the social and economic development of the region. Relying on the results of comparative and statistical analysis, the article demonstrates the need for altering the focus of current investment policy from quantitative growth to qualitative enhancement. The article analyses a new trend i...

  19. Economic Impact of Selected Conflicts in the Middle East; What Can We Learn from the Past?

    OpenAIRE

    Randa Sab

    2014-01-01

    Using narrative-based country-case studies, war episodes in the Middle East were examined to assess their economic impact on conflict and neighboring economies. The paper found that conflicts led to a contraction in growth, higher inflation, large fiscal and current account deficits, loss of reserves, and a weakened financial system. Post-conflict recovery depended on the economic and institutional development of the country, economic structure, duration of the war, international engagement, ...

  20. Impact of foreign direct investment volatility on economic growth of asean-5 countries

    OpenAIRE

    Chee-keong Choong; Venus khim-sen Liew

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of volatility of FDI, rather than its level on the economic growth of ASEAN-5 countries. Using bounds testing approach, we show that FDI volatility retards long-run economic growth in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand. Our results suggest that the economic growth of Indonesia is the most susceptible to the adverse effect of FDI volatility. These findings, which are robust to different measures of FDI volatility, are of concern in dealing with the...