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Sample records for total earthworm biomass

  1. Earthworm Cast Biomass Under Three Managed Ecosystems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to determine earthworm cast biomass under three managed ecosystems, Gmelina, Cashew and Banana plantations at Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta and its impact on the soil physicochemical parameters. Seven, five and four plots of 3 m2 each were sampled in Gmelina, Cashew and ...

  2. Soil physical ambient and its relation ships with the earthworm's biomass in some Colombian Andean hillsides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, Alexander; Ochoa, W A; Amezquita, E; Knapp, E B

    1999-01-01

    The work presented here describes on the one hand the relationship between diversity, density and biomass of the earthworm's side and humidity, total porosity and resistance to penetration in the hillsides soils (secondary forest, Inceptisol and Pennsisetum clandestinum pastured, Andisol) on the other hand side. Results indicate that there were significant differences between sites for density and biomass of earthworms, and that their presence was affected by the physical parameters. Resistance to soil penetrability and humidity were significantly different only in the first 20 cm; while in deeper soil layers these were no such difference between sites, this is of importance, since the surface of the soil suffers changes due to the management, thus affecting the conditions that regulate the earthworm populations

  3. Earthworms facilitate the stabilization of pelletized dewatered sludge through shaping microbial biomass and activity and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoyong; Cui, Guangyu; Huang, Kui; Chen, Xuemin; Li, Fusheng; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Fei

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effect of earthworms on microbial features during vermicomposting of pelletized dewatered sludge (PDS) was investigated through comparing two degradation systems with and without earthworm E isenia fetida involvement. After 60 days of experimentation, a relatively stable product with low organic matter and high nitrate and phosphorous was harvested when the earthworms were involved. During the process, earthworms could enhance microbial activity and biomass at the initial stage and thus accelerating the rapid decomposition of PDS. The end products of vermicomposting allowed the lower values of bacterial and eukaryotic densities comparison with those of no earthworm addition. In addition, the presence of earthworms modified the bacterial and fungal diversity, making the disappearances of some pathogens and specific decomposing bacteria of recalcitrant substrates in the vermicomposting process. This study evidences that earthworms can facilitate the stabilization of PDS through modifying microbial activity and number and community during vermicomposting.

  4. Earthworms (Amynthas spp. increase common bean growth, microbial biomass, and soil respiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julierme Zimmer Barbosa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have evaluated the effect of earthworms on plants and biological soil attributes, especially among legumes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of earthworms (Amynthas spp. on growth in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. and on soil biological attributes. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using a completely randomized design with five treatments and eight repetitions. The treatments consisted of inoculation with five different quantities of earthworms of the genus Amynthas (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 worms per pot. Each experimental unit consisted of a plastic pot containing 4 kg of soil and two common bean plants. The experiment was harvested 38 days after seedling emergence. Dry matter and plant height, soil respiration, microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and metabolic quotient were determined. Earthworm recovery in our study was high in number and mass, with all values above 91.6% and 89.1%, respectively. In addition, earthworm fresh biomass decreased only in the treatment that included eight earthworms per pot. The presence of earthworms increased the plant growth and improved soil biological properties, suggesting that agricultural practices that favor the presence of these organisms can be used to increase the production of common bean, and the increased soil CO2 emission caused by the earthworms can be partially offset by the addition of common bean crop residues to the soil.

  5. Avoidance, biomass and survival response of soil dwelling (endogeic) earthworms to OECD artificial soil: potential implications for earthworm ecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-05-01

    Soil dwelling earthworms are now adopted more widely in ecotoxicology, so it is vital to establish if standardised test parameters remain applicable. The main aim of this study was to determine the influence of OECD artificial soil on selected soil-dwelling, endogeic earthworm species. In an initial experiment, biomass change in mature Allolobophora chlorotica was recorded in Standard OECD Artificial Soil (AS) and also in Kettering Loam (KL). In a second experiment, avoidance behaviour was recorded in a linear gradient with varying proportions of AS and KL (100% AS, 75% AS + 25% KL, 50% KS + 50% KL, 25% AS + 75% KL, 100% KL) with either A. chlorotica or Octolasion cyaneum. Results showed a significant decrease in A. chlorotica biomass in AS relative to KL, and in the linear gradient, both earthworm species preferentially occupied sections containing higher proportions of KL over AS. Soil texture and specifically % composition and particle size of sand are proposed as key factors that influenced observed results. This research suggests that more suitable substrates are required for ecotoxicology tests with soil dwelling earthworms.

  6. Influence of Soil Organic Matter Content on Abundance and Biomass of Earthworm (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Valchovski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study explores the influence of soil organic matter content on abundance and biomass of earthworm communities. The observation was carried out on three type of soils: PellicVertisols (very fine texture, Cromi-Vertic Luvisols (fine texture and Calcaric Fluvisols (mediumtexture from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria. The field experiment was provided on uncultivatedplots. In the studied area earthworm fauna comprises of four species: Aporrectodea rosea,Aporrectodea caliginosa, Lumbricus terrestris and Octolasion lacteum. We found peregrine lumbricidtaxa, which are widely distributed in European soils. Our study demonstrated that soil organicmatter has a positive effect on lumbricid populations. It was revealed that augmentation of soilorganic matter favours characteristics of earthworm communities. The soil organic matter contentand earthworm abundance are in strong positive correlation (r > 0.981. The same relationship wasrevealed between the biomass of lumbricid fauna and amount of soil organic matter (r > 0.987. Insum, the soil organic matter could be used as an indicator for earthworm communities inuncultivated soils.

  7. Earthworm biomass as additional information for risk assessment of heavy metal biomagnification: a case study for dredged sediment-derived soils and polluted floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Samyn, Jurgen; Quataert, Paul; Muys, Bart; Tack, Filip M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The important role of earthworms in the biomagnification of heavy metals in terrestrial ecosystems is widely recognised. Differences in earthworm biomass between sites is mostly not accounted for in ecological risk assessment. These differences may be large depending on soil properties and pollution status. A survey of earthworm biomass and colonisation rate was carried out on dredged sediment-derived soils (DSDS). Results were compared with observations for the surrounding alluvial plains. Mainly grain size distribution and time since disposal determined earthworm biomass on DSDS, while soil pollution status of the DSDS was of lesser importance. Highest earthworm biomass was observed on sandy loam DSDS disposed at least 40 years ago. - Polluted clayey dredged sediment-derived soils have a relatively low risk for heavy metal biomagnification due to slow earthworm colonisation

  8. Optimization of animal manure vermicomposting based on biomass production of earthworms and higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Yan V; Alves, Luciano; Bianchi, Ivan; Espíndola, Jonas C; Oliveira, Juahil M De; Radetski, Claudemir M; Somensi, Cleder A

    2017-11-02

    The goal of this study was to optimize the mixture of swine manure (SM) and cattle manure (CM) used in the vermicomposting process, seeking to increase the manure biodegradation rate and enhance the biomass production of both earthworms and higher plants. To achieve this goal, physico-chemical parameters were determined to assess the final compost quality after 50 days of vermicomposting. The different manure ratios used to produce the composts (C) were as follows (SM:CM, % m/m basis): C1 100:0, C2 (75:25), C3 (50:50), C4 (25:75), and C5 (0:100). In addition, the earthworm biomass and the phytoproductivity of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) plants grown in mixtures (1:1) of natural soil and the most viable vermicomposts were investigated. The C1 and C2 compost compositions were associated with high earthworm mortality rates. The C3 compost provided the highest mineral concentrations and C5 showed the highest lettuce yield (wet biomass). The results verify that stabilized cattle manure is an excellent substrate for the vermicomposting process and that fresh swine manure must be mixed with pre-stabilized cattle manure to ensure an optimized vermicomposting process, which must be controlled in terms of temperature and ammonia levels. It is concluded that small livestock farmers could add value to swine manure by applying the vermicomposting process, without the need for high investments and with a minimal requirement for management of the biodegradation process. These are important technical aspects to be considered when circular economy principles are applied to small farms.

  9. Effects of post-hurricane fertilization and debris removal on earthworm abundance and biomass in subtropical forests in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Y. Li; X. Zou

    2007-01-01

    Hurricanes are a common disturbance in the Caribbean, striking the island of Puerto Rico on average every 21 years. Hurricane Hugo (1989) distributed the canopy litter onto the forest floor changing the chemistry and quantity of litter inputs to the soil. In this study, we determined the effect of inorganic fertilization on earthworm abundance, biomass, and species...

  10. Conventional tillage decreases the abundance and biomass of earthworms and alters their community structure in a global meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briones, María Jesús I; Schmidt, Olaf

    2017-10-01

    The adoption of less intensive soil cultivation practices is expected to increase earthworm populations and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. However, conflicting results have been reported on the effects of tillage intensity on earthworm populations, attributed in narrative reviews to site-dependent differences in soil properties, climatic conditions and agronomic operations (e.g. fertilization, residue management and chemical crop protection). We present a quantitative review based on a global meta-analysis, using paired observations from 165 publications performed over 65 years (1950-2016) across 40 countries on five continents, to elucidate this long-standing unresolved issue. Results showed that disturbing the soil less (e.g. no-tillage and conservation agriculture [CA]) significantly increased earthworm abundance (mean increase of 137% and 127%, respectively) and biomass (196% and 101%, respectively) compared to when the soil is inverted by conventional ploughing. Earthworm population responses were more pronounced when the soil had been under reduced tillage (RT) for a long time (>10 years), in warm temperate zones with fine-textured soils, and in soils with higher clay contents (>35%) and low pH (earthworm population responses to RT. Additional meta-analyses confirmed that epigeic and, more importantly, the bigger-sized anecic earthworms were the most sensitive ecological groups to conventional tillage. In particular, the deep burrower Lumbricus terrestris exhibited the strongest positive response to RT, increasing in abundance by 124% more than the overall mean of all 13 species analysed individually. The restoration of these two important ecological groups of earthworms and their burrowing, feeding and casting activities under various forms of RT will ensure the provision of ecosystem functions such as soil structure maintenance and nutrient cycling by "nature's plough." © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of total aboveground biomass and total merchantable biomass in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; David R. Larsen; Charles D. Keating

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the state of Missouri has been converting to biomass weight rather than volume as the standard measurement of wood for buying and selling sawtimber. Therefore, there is a need to identify accurate and precise methods of estimating whole tree biomass and merchantable biomass of harvested trees as well as total standing biomass of live timber for...

  12. Do alterations in mesofauna community affect earthworms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uvarov, Alexei V; Karaban, Kamil

    2015-11-01

    Interactions between the saprotrophic animal groups that strongly control soil microbial activities and the functioning of detrital food webs, such as earthworms and mesofauna, are not well understood. Earthworm trophic and engineering activities strongly affect mesofauna abundance and diversity through various direct and indirect pathways. In contrast, mesofauna effects on earthworm populations are less evident; however, their importance may be high, considering the keystone significance of earthworms for the functioning of the soil system. We studied effects of a diverse mesofauna community of a deciduous forest on two earthworm species representing epigeic (Lumbricus rubellus) and endogeic (Aporrectodea caliginosa) ecological groups. In microcosms, the density of total mesofauna or its separate groups (enchytraeids, collembolans, gamasid mites) was manipulated (increased) and responses of earthworms and soil systems were recorded. A rise in mesofauna density resulted in a decrease of biomass and an increased mortality in L. rubellus, presumably due to competition with mesofauna for litter resources. In contrast, similar mesofauna manipulations promoted reproduction of A. caliginosa, suggesting a facilitated exploitation of litter resources due to increased mesofauna activities. Changes of microcosm respiration rates, litter organic matter content and microbial activities across the manipulation treatments indicate that mesofauna modify responses of soil systems in the presence of earthworms. However, similar mesofauna manipulations could induce different responses in soil systems with either epigeic or endogeic lumbricids, which suggests that earthworm/mesofauna interactions are species-specific. Thus, mesofauna impacts should be treated as a factor affecting the engineering activities of epigeic and endogeic earthworms in the soil.

  13. Total Nitorgen Content from Earthworm (Eisenia Foetida Using The Kjeldahl Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the fish aquaculture management, fish feed is identified as a major problem. The high cost and scarcity of fishmeal in formulated feeds have led to the use of other protein sources such as earthworms and animal by-product. Earthworm is an alternative protein source to replace the fish meal in the fish feed formulation. In this study, total nitrogen content in earthworm powder is determined using the Kjeldahl method by employing the statistical software, Full Factorial Design (FFD which could provide the significant information about the studied parameters. The parameters are the digestion time (min and the volume of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 (ml. From the analysis of variance (ANOVA, the volume of H2SO4and the interaction between digestion time and the volume of H2SO4arefound to be important parameters in the nitrogen determination process via the Kjeldahl method. The highest nitrogen content obtained was 12.23% when using 15 ml H2SO4 and 60 mins of digestion time. The value of R2 is 0.9986 which shows that the selected parameters (the digestion time and the volume of H2SO4 and its corresponding levels are highly correlated to the percentage nitrogen content in earthworm powder using the Kjeldahl method. ABSTRAK:Dalam pengurusan akuakultur ikan, makanan telah dikenalpasti sebagai masalah utama. Kos yang tinggi serta kekurangan sumber makanan telah menggalakkan pencarian sumber protein baru seperti cacing tanah dan hasil sampingan sembelihan haiwan ternakan. Cacing adalah sumber protein alternatif menggantikan ramuan ikan (fish meal dalam formulasi makanan ikan. Dalam kajian ini, kandungan jumlah nitrogen dalam serbuk cacing tanah telah dianalisa menggunakan kaedah Kjeldahl dengan menggunapakai perisian statistikal iaitu Full Factorial Design (FFD yang boleh memberikan maklumat yang penting berkenaan dengan parameter-parameter yang dikaji. Parameter-parameter tersebut adalah masa pencernaan (min dan isipadu asid sulfurik (H2SO4 (ml. Daripada

  14. Effects of silver nanoparticles on survival, biomass change and avoidance behaviour of the endogeic earthworm Allolobophora chlorotica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brami, C; Glover, A R; Butt, K R; Lowe, C N

    2017-07-01

    Increasing commercial application of silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) and subsequent presence in wastewater and sewage sludge has raised concerns regarding their effects in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Several studies have employed standardised acute and chronic earthworm-based tests to establish the toxicological effects of Ag NP within soil. These studies have relied heavily on the use of epigiec earthworm species which may have limited ecological relevance in mineral soil. This study assessed the influence of Ag NP (uncoated 80nm powder) and AgNO 3 on survival, change in biomass and avoidance behaviour in a soil dwelling (endogiec) species, Allolobophora chlorotica. Earthworms were exposed for 14 days to soils spiked with Ag NP or AgNO 3 at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mgkg -1 either separately for survival and biomass measurement, or combined within a linear gradient to assess avoidance. Avoidance behaviour was shown to provide the most sensitive endpoint with an observable effect at an Ag NP/AgNO 3 concentration of 12.5mgkg -1 compared with 50mgkg -1 for biomass change and 100mgkg -1 for survival. Greater mortality was observed in AgNO 3 (66.7%) compared with Ag NP-spiked soils (12.5%) at 100mgkg -1 , attributed to increased presence of silver ions. Although comparison of results with studies employing Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei suggest that the A. chlorotica response to Ag NP is more sensitive, further research employing both epigeic and endogeic earthworms under similar experimental conditions is required to confirm this observation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    OpenAIRE

    YAHYA KOOCH; KATAYOUN HAGHVERDI

    2014-01-01

    In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass) and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca) to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest loca...

  16. Total mercury and methylmercury concentrations over a gradient of contamination in earthworms living in rice paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysinghe, Kasun S; Yang, Xiao-Dong; Goodale, Eben; Anderson, Christopher W N; Bishop, Kevin; Cao, Axiang; Feng, Xinbin; Liu, Shengjie; Mammides, Christos; Meng, Bo; Quan, Rui-Chang; Sun, Jing; Qiu, Guangle

    2017-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) deposited from emissions or from local contamination, can have serious health effects on humans and wildlife. Traditionally, Hg has been seen as a threat to aquatic wildlife, because of its conversion in suboxic conditions into bioavailable methylmercury (MeHg), but it can also threaten contaminated terrestrial ecosystems. In Asia, rice paddies in particular may be sensitive ecosystems. Earthworms are soil-dwelling organisms that have been used as indicators of Hg bioavailability; however, the MeHg concentrations they accumulate in rice paddy environments are not well known. Earthworm and soil samples were collected from rice paddies at progressive distances from abandoned mercury mines in Guizhou, China, and at control sites without a history of Hg mining. Total Hg (THg) and MeHg concentrations declined in soil and earthworms as distance increased from the mines, but the percentage of THg that was MeHg, and the bioaccumulation factors in earthworms, increased over this gradient. This escalation in methylation and the incursion of MeHg into earthworms may be influenced by more acidic soil conditions and higher organic content further from the mines. In areas where the source of Hg is deposition, especially in water-logged and acidic rice paddy soil, earthworms may biomagnify MeHg more than was previously reported. It is emphasized that rice paddy environments affected by acidifying deposition may be widely dispersed throughout Asia. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1202-1210. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Earthworms – good indicators for forest disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHYA KOOCH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In temperate forests, formation of canopy gaps by windthrow is a characteristic natural disturbance event. Little work has been done on the effects of canopy gaps on soil properties and fauna, especially earthworms as ecosystem engineers. We conducted a study to examine the reaction of earthworms (density/biomass and different soil properties (i.e., soil moisture, pH, organic matter, total N, and available Ca to different canopy gap areas in 25-ha areas of Liresar district beech forest located in a temperate forest of Mazandaran province in the north of Iran. Soil samples were taken at 0-15, 15-30 and 30-45 cm depths from gap center, gap edge and closed canopy using core soil sampler with 81 cm2 cross section. The earthworms were collected simultaneously with the soil sampling by hand sorting method. Our study supports that the canopy gap will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. Earthworm's density and biomass tended to be higher in small canopy gaps compared with the other canopy gap areas. Earthworm's population showed decreasing trend from closed canopy to disturbed sites (gap edge and gap center. The top soil was more appropriate to presence of earthworms although ecological groups have occupied different soil layers. As a conclusion, earthworms can be introduced as good bio-indicator of environmental changes that occur by disturbance.

  18. Determination of As concentration in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegretta, Ignazio; Porfido, Carlo; Panzarino, Onofrio; Fontanella, Maria Chiara; Beone, Gian Maria; Spagnuolo, Matteo; Terzano, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms are often used as sentinel organisms to study As bioavailability in polluted soils. Arsenic in earthworms is mainly sequestrated in the coelomic fluids whose As content can therefore be used to asses As bioavalability. In this work, a method for determining As concentration in coelomic fluid extracts using total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) is presented. For this purpose coelomic fluid extracts from earthworms living in three polluted soils and one non-polluted (control) soil have been collected and analysed. A very simple sample preparation was implemented, consisting of a dilution of the extracts with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) using a 1:8 ratio and dropwise deposition of the sample on the reflector. A detection limit of 0.2 μg/l and quantification limit of 0.6 μg/l was obtained in the diluted samples, corresponding to 2 μg/l and 6 μg/l in the coelomic fluid extracts, respectively. This allowed to quantify As concentration in coelomic fluids extracted from earthworms living in soils polluted with As at concentrations higher than 20 mg/kg (considered as a pollution threshold for agricultural soils). The TXRF method has been validated by comparison with As concentrations in standards and by analysing the same samples by ICP-MS, after acid digestion of the sample. The low limit of detection, the proven reliability of the method and the little sample preparation make TXRF a suitable, cost-efficient and "green" technique for the analysis of As in earthworm coelomic fluid extracts for bioavailability studies.

  19. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefaction curve and nonparametric richness estimators reveal 90–95% completeness of sampling. Earthworm community of pineapple agroecosystems was dominated by endogeic earthworms and Drawida assamensis was the dominant species with respect to its density, biomass, and relative abundance. Vertical distribution of earthworms was greatly influenced by seasonal variations. Population density and biomass of earthworms peaked during monsoon and postmonsoon period, respectively. Overall density and biomass of earthworms were in increasing trend with an increase in plantation age and were highest in the 30–35-year-old plantation. Significant decrease in the Shannon diversity and evenness index and increase in Simpson’s dominance and spatial aggregation index with an increase in the age of pineapple plantation were recorded. Soil temperature and soil moisture were identified as the most potent regulators of earthworm distribution in the pineapple plantation.

  20. Earthworms increase plant biomass more in soil with no earthworm legacy than in earthworm‐mediated soil, and favour late successional species in competition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Frouz, J.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2018), s. 626-636 ISSN 0269-8463 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09979S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-19376S; GA ČR GA13-10377S; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : succession * earthworms * restoration Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 5.630, year: 2016

  1. Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Parth, Myriam; Szunyogh, Ilona; Semmelrock, Ines; Sochurek, Susanne; Pinheiro, Marcia; Frank, Thomas; Drapela, Thomas

    2013-05-13

    species but little influenced by earthworms. Overall shoot biomass was decreased, root biomass increased in plant communities with more plant species. Earthworms decreased total shoot biomass in mesocosms with more plant species but did not affect biomass production of individual functional groups. Plant nitrogen concentrations across three focus species were 18% higher when earthworms were present; composition of plant communities did not affect plant quality. Given the important role that both herbivores and earthworms play in structuring plant communities the implications of belowground-aboveground linkages should more broadly be considered when investigating global change effects on ecosystems.

  2. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schelfhout, Stephanie; Mertens, Jan; Verheyen, Kris

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden...... of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer...

  3. Earthworms and nutrient availability: the ecosystem engineer as (bio)chemical engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Groenigen, Jan Willem; Ros, Mart; Vos, Hannah; De Deyn, Gerlinde; Hiemstra, Tjisse; Oenema, Oene; Koopmans, Gerwin

    2017-04-01

    The ability of earthworms to increase plant production has long been recognized. However, the pathways through which they do so, and the magnitude of this effect, have not been conclusively addressed. In two studies we address these issues for nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability to plants. In the first study, a meta-analysis, we concluded that earthworm presence increases crop yield on average with 26% and aboveground biomass with 24%. The positive effects of earthworms increase when more residue is returned to the soil, but disappear when soil N availability is high. This suggests that earthworms stimulate plant growth predominantly through N mineralization from soil organic matter or crop residue. In a second study, we tested the effect of earthworms on plant P uptake from inorganic sources. In a greenhouse experiment on a soil with low P availability we showed that presence of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus terrestris resulted in increased aboveground biomass (from 164 to 188 g dry matter m-2) and P uptake (from 0.21 to 0.27 g m-2). Concentrations of total dissolved P and dissolved inorganic P in water extractions of earthworm casts were 7-9 times higher than in those of bulk soil. Using advanced surface complexation modelling, we showed that these effects were primarily related to desorption of inorganic P due to competition with organic carbon for binding sites. We conclude that earthworms can alter nutrient cycling and increase N and P uptake by plants through a combination of biochemical and chemical pathways. Earthworms are most likely to stimulate N uptake in organic farming systems and tropical subsistence farming, which largely rely on nutrient mineralization. Additional benefits of earthworms might be expected in conventional farming systems with low levels of available P.

  4. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl 2 extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools

  5. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in relation to total and available metal concentrations in field soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbelen, P.H.F. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: phobbelen@usgs.gov; Koolhaas, J.E. [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gestel, C.A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-11-15

    The aim of this study was to determine important metal pools for bioaccumulation by the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus and Aporrectodea caliginosa in soils with high binding capacity. Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in soil, pore water and CaCl{sub 2} extracts of soil, in leaves of the plant species Urtica dioica and in earthworms were determined at 15 field sites constituting a gradient in metal pollution. Variations in the Cu and Cd concentrations in L. rubellus and Cu concentrations in A. caliginosa were best explained by total soil concentrations, while variation in Cd concentration in A. caliginosa was best explained by pore water concentrations. Zn concentrations in L. rubellus and A. caliginosa were not significantly correlated to any determined variable. It is concluded that despite low availability, earthworms in floodplain soils contain elevated concentrations of Cu and Cd, suggesting that uptake takes place not only from the soluble metal concentrations. - Earthworms in floodplain soils not only accumulate heavy metals from soluble metal pools.

  6. Exotic Earthworms Decrease Cd, Hg, and Pb Pools in Upland Forest Soils of Vermont and New Hampshire USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J B; Görres, J H; Friedland, A J

    2017-10-01

    Exotic earthworms are present in the forests of northeastern USA, yet few studies have documented their effects on pollutant metals in soil. The objective of this study was to identify if Cd, Hg, and Pb strong-acid extractable concentrations and pools (bulk inventories) in forest soils decreased with the presence of exotic earthworms. We compared 'Low Earthworm Abundance' (LEA) sites (≤10 g m -2 earthworms, n = 13) and 'High Earthworm Abundance' (HEA) (>10 g m -2 earthworms, n = 17) sites at five watersheds across Vermont and New Hampshire. Organic horizon Cd, Hg, and Pb concentrations were lower at HEA than LEA sites. Organic horizon and total soil pools of Cd and Hg were negatively correlated with earthworm biomass. Soil profile Cd and Hg concentrations were lower at HEA than LEA sites. Our results suggest earthworms are decreasing accumulation of Cd, Hg, and Pb in forest soils, potentially via greater mobilization through organic matter disruption or bioaccumulation.

  7. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis) in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure), which differed in microbial composition. The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions within the decomposer food web influence on nutrient cycling.

  8. Epigeic earthworms exert a bottleneck effect on microbial communities through gut associated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei is capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter through gut associated processes; and if these direct effects are related to the earthworm diet. METHODOLOGY: To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis in the earthworm casts derived from three types of animal manure (cow, horse and pig manure, which differed in microbial composition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The passage of the organic material through the gut of E. andrei reduced the total microbial biomass irrespective of the type of manure, and resulted in a decrease in bacterial biomass in all the manures; whilst leaving the fungi unaffected in the egested materials. However, unlike the microbial biomass, no such reduction was detected in the total microbial activity of cast samples derived from the pig manure. Moreover, no differences were found between cast samples derived from the different types of manure with regards to microbial community structure, which provides strong evidence for a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that earthworm gut is a major shaper of microbial communities, thereby favouring the existence of a reduced but more active microbial population in the egested materials, which is of great importance to understand how biotic interactions

  9. Impact of Biochar on Earthworm Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Weyers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming importance of earthworm activity in the soil system, there are a limited number of studies that have examined the impact resulting from biochar addition to soil. Biochar is part of the black carbon continuum of chemo-thermal converted biomass. This review summarizes existing data pertaining to earthworms where biochar and other black carbon substances, including slash-and-burn charcoals and wood ash, have been applied. After analyzing existing studies on black carbon, we identified that these additions have a range from short-term negative impacts to long-term null effects on earthworm population density and total biomass. Documented cases of mortality were found with certain biochar-soil combinations; the cause is not fully understood, but hypothesized to be related to pH, whether the black carbon is premoistened, affects feeding behaviors, or other unknown factors. With wood ashes, negative impacts were overcome with addition of other carbon substrates. Given that field data is limited, soils amended with biochar did not appear to cause significant long-term impacts. However, this may indicate that the magnitude of short-term negative impacts on earthworm populations can be reduced with time.

  10. Earthworm Protease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Pan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibriniolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP. The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate proenzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Earthworm Protease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, R.; Zhang, Z.; He, R.

    2010-01-01

    The alimentary tract of earthworm secretes a group of proteases with a relative wide substrate specificity. In 1983, six isozymes were isolated from earthworm with fibrinolytic activities and called fibrinolytic enzymes. So far, more isozymes have been found from different earthworm species such as Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida. For convenience, the proteases are named on the basis of the earthworm species and the protein function, for instance, Eisenia fetida protease (EfP). The proteases have the abilities not only to hydrolyze fibrin and other protein, but also activate pro enzymes such as plasminogen and prothrombin. In the light of recent studies, eight of the EfPs contain oligosaccharides chains which are thought to support the enzyme structure. Interestingly, EfP-II has a broader substrate specificity presenting alkaline trypsin, chymotrypsin and elastase activities, but EfP-III-1 has a stricter specificity. The protein crystal structures show the characteristics in their specificities. Earthworm proteases have been applied in several areas such as clinical treatment of clotting diseases, anti-tumor study, environmental protection and nutritional production. The current clinical utilizations and some potential new applications of the earthworm protease will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Population dynamics of earthworms in relation to soil physico-chemical parameters in agroforestry systems of Mizoram, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalthanzara, H; Ramanujam, S N; Jha, L K

    2011-09-01

    Earthworm population dynamics was studied in two agroforestry systems in the tropical hilly terrain of Mizoram, north-east India, over a period of 24 months, from July 2002 to June 2004. Two sites of agroforestry situated at Sakawrtuichhun (SKT) and Pachhunga University College (PUC) campus, Aizawl, having pineapple as the main crop, were selected for detail studies on population dynamics. Five of the total twelve species of earthworm reported from the state were recorded in the study sites. The density of earthworm ranged from 6 to 243 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 3.2 - 677.64 g.m(-2) in SKT. Comparatively the density and biomass in PUC, which is at relatively higher altitude were lowerwith a range of 0 to 176 ind.m(-2) and biomass from 0 - 391.36 g.m(-2) respectively. Population dynamics of earthworm was significantly correlated with rainfall and physical characters of the soil. Earthworm biomass was significantly affected by rainfall and moisture content of the soil. The influence of chemical factors was relatively less.

  13. Land use intensity impact on functional diversity in earthworms regarding regulation of soil structure and water infiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Jack H.; Pérès, G.; de Groot, Arjen

    discuss the functional ecology of earthworms at the level of functional group and the individual species, focussing on burrow morphology and vulnerability towards agricultural management practices. Results contribute to the understanding of the linkage between soil biodiversity and provision of ecosystem......Earthworms can be distinguished into three groups that represent different clusters of morphological and behavioural traits. These so-called ecological groups (sensu Bouché 1977) have traditionally been considered to represent different functional groups with respect to soil processes......- 4mm soil aggregates significantly increased with increasing biomass of both anecic and endogeic earthworms. Earthworm burrow distribution over the soil profile was strongly impacted by land management (e.g. total number was higher under grassland vs crop), and specific relationships were identified...

  14. Earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and quantification of earthworm feeding in vermifiltration system for sewage sludge stabilization using stable isotopic natural abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaowei; Xing, Meiyan, E-mail: lixiaowei419@163.com; Yang, Jian; Dai, Xiaohu

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm growth biomass and activity decreased with the VF depth. • Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria. • δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C in earthworms decreased with time, and increased with the VF depth. • Effect of earthworm feeding in enhanced VSS reduction was analyzed quantitatively. • Earthworm feeding had low contribution to the enhanced VSS reduction. - Abstract: Previous studies showed that the presence of earthworm improves treatment performance of vermifilter (VF) for sewage sludge stabilization, but earthworm eco-physiological characteristics and effects in VF were not fully investigated. In this study, earthworm population, enzymatic activity, gut microbial community and stable isotopic abundance were investigated in the VF. Results showed that biomass, average weight, number and alkaline phosphatase activity of the earthworms tended to decrease, while protein content and activities of peroxidase and catalase had an increasing tendency as the VF depth. Earthworm gut microbial communities were dominated by Gammaproteobacteria, and the percentages arrived to 76–92% of the microbial species detected. {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C natural abundance of the earthworms decreased with operation time, and increased as the VF depth. Quantitative analysis using δ{sup 15}N showed that earthworm feeding and earthworm–microorganism interaction were responsible for approximately 21% and 79%, respectively, of the enhanced volatile suspended solid reduction due to the presence of earthworm. The finding provides a quantitative insight into how earthworms influence on sewage sludge stabilization in vermifiltration system.

  15. Effects of non-native earthworms on on below- and aboveground processes in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlavecz, K. A.; McCormick, M. K.; Xia, L.; Pitz, S.; O'Neill, J.; Bernard, M.; Chang, C.; Whigham, D. F.

    2011-12-01

    Many biotic and abiotic disturbances have shaped the structure of the deciduous forests in the Mid-Atlantic region. One major anthropogenic factor is land use history. Agricultural practices in the past undoubtedly facilitated non-native earthworm colonization and establishment. Today most secondary forests are dominated by European lumbricid earthworms, although native species also occur in some habitats. To investigate how earthworm community composition and abundance affect belowground processes and tree seedling growth we set up a field manipulation experiment at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center in Edgewater, MD. A total of 66 experimental plots were set up in successional (70 yrs) and mature (150 yrs) Tulip-poplar-Oak associations. We manipulated earthworm abundance and leaf litter input, and planted seedlings of Tulip poplar, Red maple, Red oak, and American beech. The experiment lasted for two years during which we regularly monitored density, biomass and species composition of earthworm assemblages and measured soil respiration. Soil moisture, temperature and air temperature were also continuously monitored using a wireless sensor network. At harvest, soil bulk density, pH, N pools, C:N ratio, potential N-mineralization rates, and enzyme activity were determined. We used quantitative PCR to assess the community composition of soil fungi. We also determined the extent of mycorrhizal colonization and biomass of roots, shoots and leaves. We conducted likelihood ratio tests for random and fixed effects based on mixed model analyses of variance. Differences between soil depths and among sites and plots accounted for a large portion of the variation in many soil properties. Litter quality affected soil pH and N mineralization. Earthworm densities affected bulk density, inorganic N content, and N mineralization. Both mycorrhizal groups were more abundant in mature than in successional forests. Both ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and arbuscular (AM) fungi were

  16. Relations between Agronomic Practice and Earthworms in Norwegian Arable Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pommeresche, Reidun; Løes, Anne-Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents Norwegian studies of earthworms (density, biomass, burrows density, species, juvenile to adult ratios) in arable soil in Norway conducted during the last 20 years. The effects of crop rotations, fertilization, soil tillage and compaction on earthworms are presented, based on various field experiments. Geophagous (soil eating) species such as Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. rosea dominate the earthworm fauna in Norwegian arable soil. Lumbricus terrestris is also present; in ...

  17. Correlation between earthworms and plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Dechainea; Honghua Ruanb; Yaniria Sanchez-de Leon; Xiaoming Zou

    2005-01-01

    Earthworms are recognized to play an important role in the decomposition of organic materials. To test the use of earthworms as an indicator of plant litter decomposition, we examined the abundance and biomass of earthworms in relation to plant litter decomposition in a tropical wet forest of Puerto Rico. We collected earthworms at 0–0.1m and 0.1–0.25m soil depths from...

  18. Tree Species Identity Shapes Earthworm Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Schelfhout

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key organisms in forest ecosystems because they incorporate organic material into the soil and affect the activity of other soil organisms. Here, we investigated how tree species affect earthworm communities via litter and soil characteristics. In a 36-year old common garden experiment, replicated six times over Denmark, six tree species were planted in blocks: sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus, beech (Fagus sylvatica, ash (Fraxinus excelsior, Norway spruce (Picea abies, pedunculate oak (Quercus robur and lime (Tilia cordata. We studied the chemical characteristics of soil and foliar litter, and determined the forest floor turnover rate and the density and biomass of the earthworm species occurring in the stands. Tree species significantly affected earthworm communities via leaf litter and/or soil characteristics. Anecic earthworms were abundant under Fraxinus, Acer and Tilia, which is related to calcium-rich litter and low soil acidification. Epigeic earthworms were indifferent to calcium content in leaf litter and were shown to be mainly related to soil moisture content and litter C:P ratios. Almost no earthworms were found in Picea stands, likely because of the combined effects of recalcitrant litter, low pH and low soil moisture content.

  19. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and

  20. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested.To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus.Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community

  1. Radioactive elements and earthworms in contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Abdullayev, A.S.; Ahmadov, G.S.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Samadov, P.A.

    2010-11-01

    Earthworms are one of the indispensable soil animals which treat soil with letting it through their gut and help increasing soil fertility. The effect of radioactive elements and comparative effect of heavy metals to the vital functions of earthworms were determined in laboratory conditions. Experiments were continued for a month, and first of all, each soil type, grey-brown soil from Ramana iodine plant territory of Baku city, brown soil from Aluminum plant territory of Ganja city, aborigine grey-brown soil of Absheron peninsula, treated with Ra and U salts as model variants and brown soil of Ganja city was analyzed by gamma-spectrometer for radionuclide determining at the beginning and at the end of the experiment. Earthworms (Nicodrilus Caliginosus Sav.trapezoides) aboriginal for Absheron peninsula and plant residues were added to the soil. At the end of the month the biomass, survival value, coprolite allocation value, food activity and catalase value in earthworms and in soil were determined. The gamma-spectrometric analysis results gave interesting values in coprolites, soils which had been treated through the earthworms' gut. In comparison with the initial variants in experimental results more percent of radioactivity was gathered in coprolites. By this way earthworms absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. During absorbing, some percents of radioactive elements were also gathered in gut cells of the earthworms. Thereby determination of some vital functions of earthworms was expedient. Thus, by the instrumentality of these experiments we can use earthworms for biodiagnosis and for bioremediation of contaminated soils with radionuclides and heavy metals.

  2. earthworm Eisenia foetida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of temperature on the reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia foetida ... feeding supplements for poultry, fish and other livestock ... of earthworm reproduction. ..... invertebrate populations in artificial soil made of sewage sludge and.

  3. Teacher's Guide for Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Merle S.; And Others

    This teacher's guide on earthworms includes four major sections: (1) introduction, (2) caring for earthworms in the classroom, (3) classroom activities, and (4) the appendix. The introduction includes information concerning grade level, scheduling, materials, obtaining earthworms, field study, classroom clean-up, and records. Caring for earthworms…

  4. Mapping and estimating the total living biomass and carbon in low-biomass woodlands using Landsat 8 CDR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belachew Gizachew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A functional forest carbon measuring, reporting and verification (MRV system to support climate change mitigation policies, such as REDD+, requires estimates of forest biomass carbon, as an input to estimate emissions. A combination of field inventory and remote sensing is expected to provide those data. By linking Landsat 8 and forest inventory data, we (1 developed linear mixed effects models for total living biomass (TLB estimation as a function of spectral variables, (2 developed a 30 m resolution map of the total living carbon (TLC, and (3 estimated the total TLB stock of the study area. Inventory data consisted of tree measurements from 500 plots in 63 clusters in a 15,700 km2 study area, in miombo woodlands of Tanzania. The Landsat 8 data comprised two climate data record images covering the inventory area. Results We found a linear relationship between TLB and Landsat 8 derived spectral variables, and there was no clear evidence of spectral data saturation at higher biomass values. The root-mean-square error of the values predicted by the linear model linking the TLB and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI is equal to 44 t/ha (49 % of the mean value. The estimated TLB for the study area was 140 Mt, with a mean TLB density of 81 t/ha, and a 95 % confidence interval of 74–88 t/ha. We mapped the distribution of TLC of the study area using the TLB model, where TLC was estimated at 47 % of TLB. Conclusion The low biomass in the miombo woodlands, and the absence of a spectral data saturation problem suggested that Landsat 8 derived NDVI is suitable auxiliary information for carbon monitoring in the context of REDD+, for low-biomass, open-canopy woodlands.

  5. Earthworms and Soil Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Tamae

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the toxicity of metal contaminated soils has been assessed with various bioassays, more information is needed about the biochemical responses, which may help to elucidate the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity. We previously reported that the earthworm, Eisenia fetida, accumulates cadmium in its seminal vesicles. The bio-accumulative ability of earthworms is well known, and thus the earthworm could be a useful living organism for the bio-monitoring of soil pollution. In this short review, we describe recent studies concerning the relationship between earthworms and soil pollutants, and discuss the possibility of using the earthworm as a bio-monitoring organism for soil pollution.

  6. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-27

    Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  7. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing. Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%. We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease. These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects. In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  8. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia on Indian adult earthworms and estimation of total flavonoid content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purna A. Chander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the anthelmintic activity of Barleria buxifolia leaf and to estimate the total flavonoid content. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts were prepared and these were analyzed for total flavonoid content by aluminium chloride colorimetric method and Pheretima posthuma was used for anthelmintic activity by using the different concentrations (10, 20, 40, 80 and 100 mg/mL. Results: All the investigational extracts showed an anthelmintic activity at concentration of 10 mg/mL. The ethanolic extract of 100 mg/mL has produced an significant effect (P<0.001 when compared to aqueous extract. The total flavonoid content was found to be 5.67 mg QE/100 g. Conclusions: From the above study, the leaf extract has shown a good anthelmintic activity.

  9. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575 deg. C is covered for ash content.

  10. Earthworm Collections of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Sherlock, Emma; Livermore, Laurence; Scott, Ben

    2013-01-01

    A poster presenting "Earthworm Collections of the World" This site provides a central hub for researchers and students to locate earthworm collections and specimens, along with useful information on the various earthworm families and species.

  11. Removal of phenanthrene in contaminated soil by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuguang; Zeng, Defang

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of phenanthrene by combination of alfalfa, white-rot fungus, and earthworms in soil. A 60-day experiment was conducted. Inoculation with earthworms and/or white-rot fungus increased alfalfa biomass and phenanthrene accumulation in alfalfa. However, inoculations of alfalfa and white-rot fungus can significantly decrease the accumulation of phenanthrene in earthworms. The removal rates for phenanthrene in soil were 33, 48, 66, 74, 85, and 93% under treatments control, only earthworms, only alfalfa, earthworms + alfalfa, alfalfa + white-rot fungus, and alfalfa + earthworms + white-rot fungus, respectively. The present study demonstrated that the combination of alfalfa, earthworms, and white-rot fungus is an effective way to remove phenanthrene in the soil. The removal is mainly via stimulating both microbial development and soil enzyme activity.

  12. Effects of dispersal on total biomass in a patchy, heterogeneous system: analysis and experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Liu, Xin; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ni, Wei-Ming; Wang, G Geoff

    2015-01-01

    An intriguing recent result from mathematics is that a population diffusing at an intermediate rate in an environment in which resources vary spatially will reach a higher total equilibrium biomass than the population in an environment in which the same total resources are distributed homogeneously. We extended the current mathematical theory to apply to logistic growth and also showed that the result applies to patchy systems with dispersal among patches, both for continuous and discrete time. This allowed us to make specific predictions, through simulations, concerning the biomass dynamics, which were verified by a laboratory experiment. The experiment was a study of biomass growth of duckweed (Lemna minor Linn.), where the resources (nutrients added to water) were distributed homogeneously among a discrete series of water-filled containers in one treatment, and distributed heterogeneously in another treatment. The experimental results showed that total biomass peaked at an intermediate, relatively low, diffusion rate, higher than the total carrying capacity of the system and agreeing with the simulation model. The implications of the experiment to dynamics of source, sink, and pseudo-sink dynamics are discussed.

  13. Earthworm communities along an elevation gradient in Northeastern Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Emerita Garcia; Veronica Cruz; Sonia Borges; Marcela Zalamea; Maria M. Rivera

    2007-01-01

    In this study, we describe earthworm communities along an elevation gradient of eight forest types in Northeastern Puerto Rico, and determine whether their abundance, biomass and/or diversity is related to climatic, soil physical/chemical and/or biotic characteristics. We found that the density, biomass, and diversity of worms varied significantly among forest types....

  14. Influence of earthworms on the sulfur turnover in the soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grethe, S; Schrader, S; Giesemann, A; Larink, O; Weigel, H J

    1996-08-01

    Abstract The effects of earthworm activity on the concentration and isotopic composition of total sulfur in soils was investigated using batch experiments. Two ecologically different lumbricid species, the anecic Lumbricus terrestris and the endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa, were used. The earthworms were fed birch leaves, beech leaves, cattle manure or mixed plant litter. All food sources differed isotopically (δ(34)S) from the soil (Parabraunerde). As a reference, one experiment was carried out without additional food. The experimental results show, that both earthworm species influence the total S-content and the δ(34)S-values in the soil by digestion of the different food sources. The differences in the total S-content of the earthworm tissues and in the S-isotopic composition of the casts can be attributed to the ecological differences between the earthworm species.

  15. The use of earthworms in ecological soil classification and assessment concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rombke, J.; Jansch, S.; Didden, W.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Without doubt, earthworms are the most important soil invertebrates in most soils worldwide, in terms of both biomass and activity. Several species are even considered to be ecosystem engineers. Earthworms are also known to influence soil structure, soil chemistry, and, in particular, processes like

  16. Purifying capability, enzyme activity, and nitrification potentials in December in integrated vertical flow constructed wetland with earthworms and different substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Defu; Gu, Jiaru; Li, Yingxue; Zhang, Yu; Howard, Alan; Guan, Yidong; Li, Jiuhai; Xu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The response of purifying capability, enzyme activity, nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in the rhizosphere in December to wetland plants, substrates, and earthworms was investigated in integrated vertical flow constructed wetlands (IVFCW). The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (TN), NH4-N, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total phosphorus (TP) was increased when earthworms were added into IVFCW. A significantly average removal efficiency of N in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate and in IVFCW that employed a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate was not found. However, the average removal efficiency of P was higher in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW with river sand as substrate. Invertase activity in December was higher in IVFCW that used a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate than in IVFCW which used only river sand as substrate. However, urease activity, nitrification potential, and total number of bacteria in December was higher in IVFCW that employed river sand as substrate than in IVFCW with a mixture of river sand and Qing sand as substrate. The addition of earthworms into the integrated vertical flow constructed wetland increased the above-ground biomass, enzyme activity (catalase, urease, and invertase), nitrification potentials, and total number of bacteria in December. The above-ground biomass of wetland plants was significantly positively correlated with urease and nitrification potentials (p earthworms into IVFCW increased enzyme activity and nitrification potentials in December, which resulted in improving purifying capability.

  17. Descriptions of Earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, R.

    1890-01-01

    Among the animals, collected by Dr. A. Vorderman in the island of Billiton 1) and presented to our Museum, I met with some earthworms belonging to the genus Perichaeta, which appear to be hitherto undescribed.

  18. Nutrition Studies with Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobaga, Leandro

    1980-01-01

    Describes experiments which demonstrate how different diets affect the growth rate of earthworms. Procedures for feeding baby worms are outlined, the analysis of results are discussed, and various modifications of the exercise are provided. (CS)

  19. Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, the contraction for biological mass, is the amount of living material provided by a given area or volume of the earth's surface, whether terrestrial or aquatic. Biomass is important for commercial uses (e.g., fuel and fiber) and for national development planning, as well as for scientific studies of ecosystem productivity, energy and nutrient flows, and...

  20. Effect of water stress on total biomass, tuber yield, harvest index and water use efficiency in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of drought on tuber yield, total biomass, harvest index, water use efficiency of tuber yield (WUEt) and water use efficiency of biomass (WUEb), and to evaluate the differential responses of Jerusalem artichoke (JA) varieties under drought str...

  1. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  2. TOTAL HYDROGENATION OF BIOMASS-DERIVED FURFURAL OVER RANEY NICKEL-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITE CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodiansono Rodiansono

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Inexpensive Raney Ni-clay composite (R-Ni/clay catalysts exhibited excellent activity and reusability in the total hydrogenation of biomass-derived furfural into tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol under mild conditions. For the Raney Ni-bentonite (R-Ni/BNT catalysts, the complete reaction was achieved at 393 K, 180 min giving almost 99% yield of tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. The R-Ni/BNT catalyst was found to be reusable without any significant loss of activity and selectivity for at least six consecutive runs.

  3. Methylation of mercury in earthworms and the effect of mercury on the associated bacterial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations in the soils, earthworms, and their casts were analyzed. The impact of Hg on the bacterial community compositions in earthworms was also studied. Tissue concentrations of methyl-Hg in earthworms grown in soils treated with inorganic-Hg were about six times higher than in earthworms grown in soils without Hg. Concentrations of methyl-Hg in the soils and earthworm casts remained at significantly lower levels suggesting that Hg was mainly methylated in the earthworms. Bacterial communities in earthworms were mostly affected by methyl-Hg treatment. Terminal-restriction fragments (T-RFs) affiliated to Firmicutes were sensitive to inorganic and methyl-Hg, whereas T-RFs related to Betaproteobacteria were tolerant to the Hg treatments. Sulphate-reducing bacteria were detected in earthworms but not in soils.

  4. Does earthworms density really modify soil's hydrodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our study has the general objective to understand the impact of the valuation of treated water on earthworm abundance and total porosity of the soil and the effect of the interaction between these two physical-biological components of the hydrological functioning of soils. It was carried out on the meadows soils of the valley ...

  5. Biochemical diversity of betaines in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeke, Manuel [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Bundy, Jacob G., E-mail: j.bundy@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-25

    Highlights: ► We develop a method for rapid untargetted analysis of betaines. ► We profile betaines in a comparative study of ten earthworm species. ► Earthworms contain a surprisingly high number of different betaine metabolites. ► Earthworms contain betaines normally seen only in plants or marine animals. -- Abstract: The ability to accumulate osmoprotectant compounds, such as betaines, is an important evolutionary feature in many organisms. This is particularly the case for organisms that live in variable environments, which may have fluctuations in moisture and salinity levels. There is, surprisingly, very little known about betaines in soil invertebrates in general, and there is almost no information about earthworms – a group that are important ‘ecosystem engineers’ and key indicators of soil health. Here, we describe a fast and reliable {sup 1}H–{sup 13}C heteronuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) 2D NMR approach for the metabolic profiling of a series of betaines and related metabolites in tissue extracts, and list {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C chemical shifts for the trimethylammonium signal for 23 such compounds. The analysis of ten different species from three different families (Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae and Glossoscolecidae) showed an unexpected diversity of betaines present in earthworms. In total ten betaines were identified, including hydroxyproline-betaine, proline-betaine, taurine-betaine, GABA-betaine and histidine-betaine, and a further eleven as-yet unassigned putative betaine metabolites detected. The findings clearly indicate a hitherto-unappreciated important role for betaine metabolism in earthworms.

  6. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Zhou, Xuefeng; Xie, Xiaobing; Zhao, Chunrong; Chen, Jiana; Cao, Fangbo; Zou, Yingbin

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N) utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w) (EC1) produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0). EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1) to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate). Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1) improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2) increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  7. Rice Yield and the Fate of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Addition of Earthworm Casts Collected from Oilseed Rape Fields: A Pot Experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    Full Text Available The mechanism associated with improvement of soil nutritional status by oilseed rape crop, leading to better performance of rice crop, in rice-oilseed rape cropping systems is little known. The present study was aimed to test the hypothesis that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season have positive effects on grain yield and fertilizer nitrogen (N utilization in the subsequent flooded rice crop. A 15N-tracing pot experiment was conducted to determine the effects of earthworm casts collected from oilseed rape fields on yield attributes in rice and the fate of fertilizer N. Soil treated with earthworm casts (soil: earthworm casts = 4: 1, w/w (EC1 produced 39% higher grain yield than soil only (EC0. EC1 had 18% more panicle number and 10% higher spikelet filling percentage than EC0. Aboveground biomass and harvest index were higher in EC1 than in EC0 by 20% and 15%, respectively. SPAD values in flag leaves were 10% and 22% higher under EC1 than EC0 at 15 and 20 days after heading, respectively. EC1 had 19% higher total N uptake and 18% higher physiological N-use efficiency than EC0. These positive effects of earthworm casts on yield attributes offset negative effects of decreasing N rate from 0.74 g pot-1 (equivalent to the recommended field rate of 150 kg ha-1 to 0.44 g pot-1 (equivalent to 60% of the recommended rate. Fertilizer N retention rate was 7% higher while fertilizer N loss rate was 6% lower in EC1 than in EC0. Our study suggests that earthworm casts produced during oilseed rape-growing season are expected to have the following benefits on the subsequent flooded rice system: (1 improving growth and physiological processes in rice plants and consequently increasing rice grain yield, and (2 increasing fertilizer N retention rate and hence decreasing fertilizer N loss rate and reducing environmental risk.

  8. Species-specific effects of Asian and European earthworms on microbial communities in Mid-Atlantic deciduous forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworm species with different feeding, burrowing, and/or casting behaviors can lead to distinct microbial communities through complex direct and indirect processes. European earthworm invasion into temperate deciduous forests in North America has been shown to alter microbial biomass in the soil ...

  9. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieder, Stephan R.; Brunner, Ivano; Horvat, Milena; Jacobs, Anna; Frey, Beat

    2011-01-01

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg -1 dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg -1 dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: → Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. → Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. → MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. → Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  10. Accumulation of mercury and methylmercury by mushrooms and earthworms from forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rieder, Stephan R. [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Institute for Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Brunner, Ivano [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Horvat, Milena [Jozef Stefan Institute, 1001 Ljubliana (Slovenia); Jacobs, Anna [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Kassel, 37213 Witzenhausen (Germany); Frey, Beat, E-mail: beat.frey@wsl.ch [Rhizosphere Processes Group, Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, 8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)

    2011-10-15

    Accumulation of total and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms was studied in thirty-four natural forest soils strongly varying in soil physico-chemical characteristics. Tissue Hg concentrations of both receptors did hardly correlate with Hg concentrations in soil. Both total and methyl-Hg concentrations in tissues were species-specific and dependent on the ecological groups of receptor. Methyl-Hg was low accounting for less than 5 and 8% of total Hg in tissues of mushrooms and earthworms, respectively, but with four times higher concentrations in earthworms than mushrooms. Total Hg concentrations in mushrooms averaged 0.96 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw whereas litter decomposing mushrooms showed highest total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations. Earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations (1.04 mg Hg kg{sup -1} dw) whereas endogeic earthworms accumulated highest amounts of Hg and methyl-Hg. - Highlights: > Hg and MeHg concentrations in mushrooms and earthworms at unpolluted forest soils. > Mushrooms and earthworms contained similar Hg concentrations. > MeHg was present in traces but four times higher in earthworms than in mushrooms. > Ecophysiological group influenced Hg and MeHg concentration in both receptors. - Accumulation of Hg and methyl-Hg by mushrooms and earthworms is species- and ecophysiological group dependent.

  11. Structure and earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earthworms are an important part of the soil ecosystem and an indicator of soil quality. Sometimes referred to as ecosystem engineers, they play a pivotal role in maintaining soil productivity. Their burrowing, feeding, and casting activities alter the physical, chemical, and biological properties o...

  12. Enhanced bioremoval of lead by earthworm-Lumbricus terrestris co-cultivated with bacteria-Klebsiella variicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anamika; Osborne, Jabez W

    2017-10-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal having devastating effects on the environment. The current study was focussed on bioremoval of lead using earthworm and lead resistant bacteria. Earthworms were subjected to various concentrations of lead in the soil bioaugmented with lead resistant bacteria (VITMVCJ1) to enhance the uptake of lead from the contaminated soil. Significant increase was observed in the length and body weight of the earthworms supplemented with lead resistant bacteria. Similarly, there was a substantial increase in the locomotion rate of the earthworms treated with lead resistant bacteria in comparison with the control. The gut micro flora of bacterial treated earthworms had increased number of bacterial cells than the untreated earthworms. The histopathological studies revealed the toxic effects of lead on the gut of earthworms indicating severe damage in lead resistant bacteria untreated worms, whereas the cells were intact in lead resistant bacteria treated worms. COMET assay showed increased DNA damage with higher tail DNA percent in the untreated earthworms. Further, the colonisation of the bacteria supplemented, onto the gut region of earthworms was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry indicated a fair 50% uptake of lead within the biomass of earthworm treated with lead resistant bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  14. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin

    2017-12-01

    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  15. Glyphosate herbicide affects belowground interactions between earthworms and symbiotic mycorrhizal fungi in a model ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G.; Heigl, Florian; Ruess, Liliane; Grabmaier, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are widely used in agriculture and private gardens, however, surprisingly little is known on potential side effects on non-target soil organisms. In a greenhouse experiment with white clover we investigated, to what extent a globally-used glyphosate herbicide affects interactions between essential soil organisms such as earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We found that herbicides significantly decreased root mycorrhization, soil AMF spore biomass, vesicles and propagules. Herbicide application and earthworms increased soil hyphal biomass and tended to reduce soil water infiltration after a simulated heavy rainfall. Herbicide application in interaction with AMF led to slightly heavier but less active earthworms. Leaching of glyphosate after a simulated rainfall was substantial and altered by earthworms and AMF. These sizeable changes provide impetus for more general attention to side-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides on key soil organisms and their associated ecosystem services. PMID:25005713

  16. Earthworms drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities in post-mining sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Uteseny, Karoline; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Previous field observations indicated that earthworms promote late-successional plant species and reduce collembolan numbers at post-mining sites in the Sokolov coal mining district (Czech Republic). Here, we established a laboratory pot experiment to test the effect of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffm.) and litter of low, medium, and high quality (the grass Calamagrostis epigejos, the willow Salix caprea, and the alder Alnus glutinosa, respectively) on late successional plants (grasses Arrhenatherum elatius and Agrostis capillaris, legumes Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium medium, and non-leguminous dicots Centaurea jacea and Plantago lanceolata) in spoil substrate originating from Sokolov post-mining sites and naturally inhabited by abundant numbers of Collembola. The earthworms increased plant biomass, especially that of the large-seeded A. elatius, but reduced the number of plant individuals, mainly that of the small-seeded A. capillaris and both legumes. Litter quality affected plant biomass, which was highest with S. caprea litter, but did not change the number of plant individuals. Litter quality did not modify the effect of earthworms on plants; the effect of litter quality and earthworms was only additive. Species composition of Collembola community was altered by litter quality, but earthworms reduced the number of individuals, increased the number of species, and increased species evenness consistently across the litter qualities. Because the results of this experiment were consistent with the field observations, we conclude that earthworms help drive succession of both plant and Collembola communities on post-mining sites.

  17. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Montenegro: Diversity and biogeographical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Mirjana; Milutinović, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the lumbricid earthworms in Montenegro is presented. Comprehensive information on the distribution and habitats of all earthworms is given in order to establish the definitive list of known taxa from Montenegro. The complete list of earthworm taxa of Montenegro comprises 40 species and subspecies, belonging to 12 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The list underlines the diversity of earthworms and provides a general overview of their distribution and zoogeographical type. Our study shows that the degree of endemism is comparatively high, exceeding 20%. Summing up the endemics and the Balkanic species, 42.5% of the total lumbricid fauna shows an autochthonous character.

  18. The burrowing characteristics of three common earthworm species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, G.S.; Tabley, F.J.; Butler, R.C.; Fraser, P.M.

    2001-01-01

    The burrowing characteristics of 3 common earthworm species were studied using X-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning in large cylinders (24.1 cm diameter) packed with topsoil (0-25 cm) and subsoil (25-50 cm) to representative field bulk density values and sown with ryegrass. Replicated cylinders (n 3), kept under constant moisture and temperature conditions, were inoculated with mature species of Lumbricus rubellus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, or Octolasion cyaneum earthworms at rates similar to their population density in the field. A non-inoculated, unreplicated control was also included. The number, biomass, and activity of the 3 species were then examined. X-ray CT scanning of large-diameter soil cylinders offers an alternative method for obtaining information on the burrowing characteristics of earthworms (Jegou et al. 1999). As this method is non-destructive, repeat measurements can be made and the use of large cylinders minimises edge effects. The objectives of this study were to: (i) assess the burrowing characteristics of 3 earthworm species (under artificial conditions) through measurement of 2-D porosity using X-ray CT scanning, (ii) estimate the extent of burrow backfilling between sequential scans, and (iii) estimate the continuity of earthworm burrows with depth through hydraulic conductivity measurements. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  19. Invasion of exotic earthworms into ecosystems inhabited by native earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. F. Hendrix; G. H. Baker; M. A. Callaham Jr; G. A. Damoff; Fragoso C.; G. Gonzalez; S. W. James; S. L. Lachnicht; T. Winsome; X. Zou

    2006-01-01

    The most conspicuous biological invasions in terrestrial ecosystems have been by exotic plants, insects and vertebrates. Invasions by exotic earthworms, although not as well studied, may be increasing with global commerce in agriculture, waste management and bioremediation. A number of cases has documented where invasive earthworms have caused significant changes in...

  20. Determination of arsenic compounds in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geiszinger, A.; Goessler, W.; Kuehnelt, D.; Kosmus, W. [Karl-Franzens-Univ., Graz (Austria). Inst. for Analytical Chemistry; Francesconi, K. [Odense Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Biology

    1998-08-01

    Earthworms and soil collected from six sites in Styria, Austria, were investigated for total arsenic concentrations by ICP-MS and for arsenic compounds by HPLC-ICP-MS. Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 17.9 mg/kg dry weight in the worms and from 5.0 to 79.7 mg/kg dry weight in the soil samples. There was no strict correlation between the total arsenic concentrations in the worms and soil. Arsenic compounds were extracted from soil and a freeze-dried earthworm sample with a methanol/water mixture (9:1, v/v). The extracts were evaporated to dryness, redissolved in water, and chromatographed on an anion- and a cation-exchange column. Arsenic compounds were identified by comparison of the retention times with known standards. Only traces of arsenic acid could be extracted from the soil with the methanol/water (9:1, v/v) mixture. The major arsenic compounds detected in the extracts of the earthworms were arsenous acid and arsenic acid. Arsenobetaine was present as a minor constituent, and traces of dimethylarsinic acid were also detected. Two dimethylarsinoyltribosides were also identified in the extracts by co-chromatography with standard compounds. This is the first report of the presence of dimethylarsinoylribosides in a terrestrial organism. Two other minor arsenic species were present in the extract, but their retention times did not match with the retention times of the available standards.

  1. Determination of Total Carbohydrates in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure uses two-step sulfuric acid hydrolysis to hydrolyze the polymeric forms of carbohydrates in algal biomass into monomeric subunits. The monomers are then quantified by either HPLC or a suitable spectrophotometric method.

  2. Digestive enzymes of some earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, P C; Dash, M C

    1980-10-15

    4 species of tropical earthworms differed with regard to enzyme activity. The maximum activity of protease and of cellulase occurred in the posterior region of the gut of the earthworms. On the average Octochaetona surensis shows maximum activity and Drawida calebi shows minimum activity for all the enzymes studied.

  3. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use...

  4. Automated analysis of two-dimensional positions and body lengths of earthworms (Oligochaeta); MimizuTrack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, Naomi; Kimura, Toshifumi; Yonemura, Seiichiro; Kaneda, Satoshi; Ohashi, Mizue; Ikeno, Hidetoshi

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are important soil macrofauna inhabiting almost all ecosystems. Their biomass is large and their burrowing and ingestion of soils alters soil physicochemical properties. Because of their large biomass, earthworms are regarded as an indicator of "soil heath". However, primarily because the difficulties in quantifying their behavior, the extent of their impact on soil material flow dynamics and soil health is poorly understood. Image data, with the aid of image processing tools, are a powerful tool in quantifying the movements of objects. Image data sets are often very large and time-consuming to analyze, especially when continuously recorded and manually processed. We aimed to develop a system to quantify earthworm movement from video recordings. Our newly developed program successfully tracked the two-dimensional positions of three separate parts of the earthworm and simultaneously output the change in its body length. From the output data, we calculated the velocity of the earthworm's movement. Our program processed the image data three times faster than the manual tracking system. To date, there are no existing systems to quantify earthworm activity from continuously recorded image data. The system developed in this study will reduce input time by a factor of three compared with manual data entry and will reduce errors involved in quantifying large data sets. Furthermore, it will provide more reliable measured values, although the program is still a prototype that needs further testing and improvement. Combined with other techniques, such as measuring metabolic gas emissions from earthworm bodies, this program could provide continuous observations of earthworm behavior in response to environmental variables under laboratory conditions. In the future, this standardized method will be applied to other animals, and the quantified earthworm movement will be incorporated into models of soil material flow dynamics or behavior in response to chemical

  5. Impact of biomass burning emission on total peroxy nitrates: fire plume identification during the BORTAS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aruffo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Total peroxy nitrate ( ∑ PN concentrations have been measured using a thermal dissociation laser-induced fluorescence (TD-LIF instrument during the BORTAS campaign, which focused on the impact of boreal biomass burning (BB emissions on air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. The strong correlation observed between the  ∑ PN concentrations and those of carbon monoxide (CO, a well-known pyrogenic tracer, suggests the possible use of the  ∑ PN concentrations as marker of the BB plumes. Two methods for the identification of BB plumes have been applied: (1  ∑ PN concentrations higher than 6 times the standard deviation above the background and (2  ∑ PN concentrations higher than the 99th percentile of the  ∑ PNs measured during a background flight (B625; then we compared the percentage of BB plume selected using these methods with the percentage evaluated, applying the approaches usually used in literature. Moreover, adding the pressure threshold ( ∼  750 hPa as ancillary parameter to  ∑ PNs, hydrogen cyanide (HCN and CO, the BB plume identification is improved. A recurrent artificial neural network (ANN model was adapted to simulate the concentrations of  ∑ PNs and HCN, including nitrogen oxide (NO, acetonitrile (CH3CN, CO, ozone (O3 and atmospheric pressure as input parameters, to verify the specific role of these input data to better identify BB plumes.

  6. Total Protein Content Determination of Microalgal Biomass by Elemental Nitrogen Analysis and a Dedicated Nitrogen-to-Protein Conversion Factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, Lieve M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Olstad-Thompson, Jessica L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Templeton, David W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-02

    Accurately determining protein content is important in the valorization of algal biomass in food, feed, and fuel markets, where these values are used for component balance calculations. Conversion of elemental nitrogen to protein is a well-accepted and widely practiced method, but depends on developing an applicable nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor. The methodology reported here covers the quantitative assessment of the total nitrogen content of algal biomass and a description of the methodology that underpins the accurate de novo calculation of a dedicated nitrogen-to-protein conversion factor.

  7. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  8. {sup 32}P-postlabeling determination of DNA adducts in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to PAH-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, P. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada)]|[Ministere de l`Environnement et de la Faune du Quebec (Canada); El Adlouni, C.; Mukhopadhyay, M.J.; Nadeau, D.; Poirier, G.G. [Laval Univ. Research Center, Quebec (Canada); Viel, G. [CreaLab., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-05-01

    The importance of the search for reliable biomarkers of DNA damage in environmental health assessment is well recognized by the scientific community and regulatory agencies. Among the major biomarkers of DNA damage is the measurement of DNA adducts in target cells or tissues. Up to now, DNA adduct determinations have been directed mostly toward human exposure to toxic substances from the workplace and environment. Moreover, techniques for measuring DNA adducts, and in particular the {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique, presented also the possibility of determining DNA adduct levels in endogenous animal populations exposed to polluted environments as early warning monitors of ecotoxicity. Soil contamination is becoming a major environmental issue. Therefore, numerous contaminated sites must now be remediated to protect human health and to permit new uses of these sites as agricultural, residential, or industrial areas. Fulfillment of this task requires standardized and sensitive bioassays to carry out site evaluations and to establish scientifically defensible soil quality criteria. To that effect, the earthworm appears to be one of the best organisms for use in soil toxicity evaluation. Earthworms are probably the most relevant soil species, representing 60 to 80% of the total animal biomass in soil. Present soil bioassays focus mostly on plant species with end points like seed germination, root elongation, seedling growth and seedling emergence, and on acute toxicity evaluation (re: LC 50) on the earthworm Eisenia fetida. As yet, a standardized soil invertebrate test for teratogenic or mutagenic end points has not been developed. In this paper, we report the feasibility of DNA adduct determination by {sup 32}P-postlabelling in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris as a way to detect the presence of genotoxic substances in soils. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. How do earthworms, soil texture and plant composition affect infiltration along an experimental plant diversity gradient in grassland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Christine; Roscher, Christiane; Jensen, Britta; Eisenhauer, Nico; Baade, Jussi; Attinger, Sabine; Scheu, Stefan; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Schumacher, Jens; Hildebrandt, Anke

    2014-01-01

    Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species) and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs). In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i) direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii) indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

  10. How do earthworms, soil texture and plant composition affect infiltration along an experimental plant diversity gradient in grassland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Fischer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infiltration is a key process in determining the water balance, but so far effects of earthworms, soil texture, plant species diversity and their interaction on infiltration capacity have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured infiltration capacity in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density nested in plots of different plant species (1, 4, and 16 species and plant functional group richness and composition (1 to 4 groups; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs. In summer, earthworm presence significantly increased infiltration, whereas in fall effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration were due to plant-mediated changes in earthworm biomass. Effects of grasses and legumes on infiltration even reversed effects of texture. We propose two pathways: (i direct, probably by modifying the pore spectrum and (ii indirect, by enhancing or suppressing earthworm biomass, which in turn influenced infiltration capacity due to change in burrowing activity of earthworms. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, the results suggest that spatial and temporal variations in soil hydraulic properties can be explained by biotic processes, especially the presence of certain plant functional groups affecting earthworm biomass, while soil texture had no significant effect. Therefore biotic parameters should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

  11. Assessment of Relationships between Earthworms and Soil Abiotic and Biotic Factors as a Tool in Sustainable Agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Kanianska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are a major component of soil fauna communities. They influence soil chemical, biological, and physical processes and vice versa, their abundance and diversity are influenced by natural characteristics or land management practices. There is need to establish their characteristics and relations. In this study earthworm density (ED, body biomass (EB, and diversity in relation to land use (arable land—AL, permanent grasslands—PG, management, and selected abiotic (soil chemical, physical, climate related and biotic (arthropod density and biomass, ground beetle density, carabid density indicators were analysed at seven different study sites in Slovakia. On average, the density of earthworms was nearly twice as high in PG compared to AL. Among five soil types used as arable land, Fluvisols created the most suitable conditions for earthworm abundance and biomass. We recorded a significant correlation between ED, EB and soil moisture in arable land. In permanent grasslands, the main climate related factor was soil temperature. Relationships between earthworms and some chemical properties (pH, available nutrients were observed only in arable land. Our findings indicate trophic interaction between earthworms and carabids in organically managed arable land. Comprehensive assessment of observed relationships can help in earthworm management to achieve sustainable agricultural systems.

  12. High-pressure tolerance of earthworm fibrinolytic and digestive enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Shin-Ichi; Tokuyama, Haruka; Sato, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Toshinori; Shida, Yosuke; Ogasawara, Wataru

    2018-02-01

    Earthworms contain several digestive and therapeutic enzymes that are beneficial to our health and useful for biomass utilization. Specifically, earthworms contain potent fibrinolytic enzymes called lumbrokinases, which are highly stable even at room temperature and remain active in dried earthworm powder. However, the high-temperature sterilization method leads to the inactivation of enzymes. Therefore, we investigated the effect of high-pressure treatment (HPT) (from 0.1 MPa to 500 MPa at 25°C and 50°C) on the enzymatic activity of lumbrokinase (LK), α-amylase (AMY), endoglucanase (EG), β-glucosidase (BGL), and lipase (LP) of the earthworm Eisenia fetida, Waki strain, and its sterilization ability in producing dietary supplement. LK showed thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. In addition, HPT may have resulted in pressure-induced stabilization and activation of LK. Although AMY activity was maintained up to 400 MPa at 25°C, the apparent activity decreased slightly at 50°C with HPT. EG showed almost the same pattern as AMY. However, it is possible that the effects of temperature and pressure compensated each other under 100 MPa at 50°C. BGL was shown to be a pressure- and temperature-sensitive enzyme, and LP showed a thermo- and high-pressure tolerance. The slight decrease in apparent activity occurred under 200 MPa at both temperatures. Furthermore, the low-temperature and pressure treatment completely sterilized the samples. These results provide a basis for the development of a novel earthworm dietary supplement with fibrinolytic and digestive activity and of high-pressure-tolerant enzymes to be used for biomass pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Variability of total and mobile element contents in ash derived from biomass combustion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Száková, J.; Ochecová, P.; Hanzlíček, Tomáš; Perná, Ivana; Tlustoš, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 11 (2013), s. 1376-1385 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA MZe QI102A207 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : biomass combustion * fly ash * bottom ash * element contents Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.193, year: 2013

  14. The influences of CO2 fertilization and land use change on the total aboveground biomass in Amazonian tropical forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanho, A. D.; Zhang, K.; Coe, M. T.; Costa, M. H.; Moorcroft, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    Field observations from undisturbed old-growth Amazonian forest plots have recently reported on the temporal variation of many of the physical and chemical characteristics such as: physiological properties of leaves, above ground live biomass, above ground productivity, mortality and turnover rates. However, although this variation has been measured, it is still not well understood what mechanisms control the observed temporal variability. The observed changes in time are believed to be a result of a combination of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration, climate variability, recovery from natural disturbance (drought, wind blow, flood), and increase of nutrient availability. The time and spatial variability of the fertilization effect of CO2 on above ground biomass will be explored in more detail in this work. A precise understanding of the CO2 effect on the vegetation is essential for an accurate prediction of the future response of the forest to climate change. To address this issue we simultaneously explore the effects of climate variability, historical CO2 and land-use change on total biomass and productivity using two different Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVM). We use the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and the Ecosystem Demography Model 2.1 (ED2.1). Using land use changes database from 1700 - 2008 we reconstruct the total carbon balance in the Amazonian forest in space and time and present how the models predict the forest as carbon sink or source and explore why the model and field data diverge from each other. From 1970 to 2005 the Amazonian forest has been exposed to an increase of approximately 50 ppm in the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Preliminary analyses with the IBIS and ED2.1 dynamic vegetation model shows the CO2 fertilization effect could account for an increase in above ground biomass of 0.03 and 0.04 kg-C/m2/yr on average for the Amazon basin, respectively. The annual biomass change varies temporally and spatially from about 0

  15. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clause, Julia; Forey, Estelle; Lortie, Christopher J.; Lambert, Adam M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant species are correlated, and ii) to test whether seed ingestion by these worms alters the soil seed bank by evaluating the composition of seeds in casts relative to uningested soil. Sampling locations were selected based on historical land-use practices, including presence or absence of tilling, and revegetation by seed using Phalaris aquatica. Only non-native earthworm species were found, dominated by the invasive European species Aporrectodea trapezoides. Earthworm abundance was significantly higher in the grassland blocks dominated by non-native plant species, and these sites had higher carbon and moisture contents. Earthworm abundance was also positively related to increased emergence of non-native seedlings, but had no effect on that of native seedlings. Plant species richness and total seedling emergence were higher in casts than in uningested soils. This study suggests that there is a potential effect of non-native earthworms in promoting non-native and likely invasive plant species within grasslands, due to seed-plant-earthworm interactions via soil modification or to seed ingestion by earthworms and subsequent cast effects on grassland dynamics. This study supports a growing body of literature for earthworms as ecosystem engineers but highlights the relative importance of considering non-native-native interactions with the associated plant community.

  16. Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations Model of Total Aboveground Biomass in Forest Stands: Site-scale Test of Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, S.; Shi, Y.; Ni, X.; Simard, M.; Myneni, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Sparseness in in-situ observations has precluded the spatially explicit and accurate mapping of forest biomass. The need for large-scale maps has raised various approaches implementing conjugations between forest biomass and geospatial predictors such as climate, forest type, soil property, and topography. Despite the improved modeling techniques (e.g., machine learning and spatial statistics), a common limitation is that biophysical mechanisms governing tree growth are neglected in these black-box type models. The absence of a priori knowledge may lead to false interpretation of modeled results or unexplainable shifts in outputs due to the inconsistent training samples or study sites. Here, we present a gray-box approach combining known biophysical processes and geospatial predictors through parametric optimizations (inversion of reference measures). Total aboveground biomass in forest stands is estimated by incorporating the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) and Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM). Two main premises of this research are: (a) The Allometric Scaling and Resource Limitations (ASRL) theory can provide a relationship between tree geometry and local resource availability constrained by environmental conditions; and (b) The zeroth order theory (size-frequency distribution) can expand individual tree allometry into total aboveground biomass at the forest stand level. In addition to the FIA estimates, two reference maps from the National Biomass and Carbon Dataset (NBCD) and U.S. Forest Service (USFS) were produced to evaluate the model. This research focuses on a site-scale test of the biomass model to explore the robustness of predictors, and to potentially improve models using additional geospatial predictors such as climatic variables, vegetation indices, soil properties, and lidar-/radar-derived altimetry products (or existing forest canopy height maps). As results, the optimized ASRL estimates satisfactorily

  17. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass...

  18. Lethal critical body residues as measures of Cd, Pb, and Zn bioavailability and toxicity in the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conder, J.M.; Lanno, R.P. [Oklahoma State Univ., Dept. of Zoology, Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Background. Earthworm heavy metal concentrations (critical body residues, CBRs) may be the most relevant measures of heavy metal bioavailability in soils and may be linkable to toxic effects in order to better assess soil ecotoxicity. However, as earthworms possess physiological mechanisms to secrete and/or sequester absorbed metals as toxicologically inactive forms, total earthworm metal concentrations may not relate well with toxicity. Objective. The objectives of this research were to: i) develop LD{sub 50}s (total earthworm metal concentration associated with 50% mortality) for Cd, Pb, and Zn; ii) evaluate the LD{sub 50} for Zn in a lethal Zn-smelter soil; iii) evaluate the lethal mixture toxicity of Cd, Pb, and Zn using earthworm metal concentrations and the toxic unit (TU) approach; and iv) evaluate total and fractionated earthworm concentrations as indicators of sublethal exposure. Methods. Earthworms (Eisenia fetida (Savigny)) were exposed to artificial soils spiked with Cd, Pb, Zn, and a Cd-Pb-Zn equitoxic mixture to estimate lethal CBRs and mixture toxicity. To evaluate the CBR developed for Zn, earthworms were also exposed to Zn-contaminated field soils receiving three different remediation treatments. Earthworm metal concentrations were measured using a procedure devised to isolate toxicologically active metal burdens via separation into cytosolic and pellet fractions. (orig.)

  19. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  20. Effects of earthworms on physicochemical properties and microbial profiles during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of earthworms on physicochemical and microbial properties during vermicomposting of fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVW) by contrasting two decomposing systems of FVW with and without earthworms for 5weeks. Compared to control treatment (without earthworms), vermicomposting treatment resulted in a rapid decrease of electrical conductivity and losses of total carbon and nitrogen from the 2nd week. Quantitative PCR displayed that earthworms markedly enhanced bacterial and fungal densities, showing the higher values than control, during the whole decomposition process. In addition, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis combined with sequencing analysis revealed that earthworms pronouncedly modified bacterial and fungal community structures, through broadening the community diversities of Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Ascomycotina. These results suggest that the presence of earthworms promoted the activity and population of bacteria and fungi, and modified their communities, thus altering the decomposition pathway of fresh FVW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocrine disruptors in soil: Effects of bisphenol A on gene expression of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M; Verdú, I; Trigo, D; Martínez-Guitarte, J L

    2018-04-15

    Xenobiotics such as bisphenol A (BPA), are present in biosolids, which are applied as organic fertilizers in agricultural fields. Their effects on soil life have been poorly assessed, and this is particularly important in the case of earthworms, which represent the main animal biomass in this medium. In the present work we study the impacts of BPA on gene expression of Eisenia fetida, a widely used ecotoxicological model. Chronic soil tests and acute contact tests were performed, and gene expression was analyzed in total tissue and in masculine reproductive organs of the earthworms. The genes studied in this research played a role in endocrine pathways, detoxification mechanisms, stress response, epigenetics, and genotoxicity. Most of the genes were identified for the first time, providing potentially useful biomarkers for future assessments. For chronic exposures, no changes were detected in whole-body tissue; however, masculine reproductive organs showed changes in the expression of genes related to endocrine function (EcR, MAPR, AdipoR), epigenetic mechanisms (DNMTs), genotoxicity (PARP1), and stress responses (HSC70 4). For acute exposures, the expression of one epigenetic-related gene was altered for both whole-body tissues and male reproductive organs (Piwi2). Further changes were detected for whole-body tissues involved in detoxification (Metallothionein), stress (HSC70 4), and genotoxicity (PARP1) mechanisms. Acute exposure effects were also tested in whole-body tissues of juveniles, showing changes in the expression of Metallothionein and Piwi2. The molecular changes found in the analyzed earthworms indicate that exposure to BPA may have negative implications in their populations. Particularly interesting are the alterations related to epigenetic mechanisms, which suggest that future generations may be impacted. This study is the first to evaluate the molecular effects of BPA on soil organisms, and further assays will be necessary to better characterize

  2. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van; Koolhaas, Josee E.; Hamers, Timo; Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora; Reinecke, Sophie A.

    2009-01-01

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes

  3. Effects of metal pollution on earthworm communities in a contaminated floodplain area: Linking biomarker, community and functional responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: kees.van.gestel@falw.vu.nl; Koolhaas, Josee E. [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hamers, Timo [Institute of Environmental Studies, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hoppe, Maarten van; Roovert, Martijn van; Korsman, Cora [Institute of Ecological Science, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reinecke, Sophie A. [Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Effects on earthworms in the contaminated floodplain area the Biesbosch, the Netherlands, were determined at different levels of organization using a combination of field and laboratory tests. The species Lumbricus rubellus, collected from different polluted sites in the Biesbosch, showed reduced values for the biomarker neutral red retention time (NRRT), mainly explained by high metal concentrations in the soil and the resulting high internal copper concentrations in the earthworms. Organic pollutant levels in earthworms were low and did not explain reduced NRRTs. Earthworm abundance and biomass were not correlated with pollutant levels in the soil. Litterbag decomposition and bait-lamina feeding activity, measures of the functional role of earthworms, were not affected by metal pollution and did not show any correlation with metal concentrations in soil or earthworms nor with NRRT. Effects at the biochemical level therefore did not result in a reduced functioning of earthworm communities. - Metal pollution in floodplain soils does affect earthworm biomarker response but not their activity in decomposition processes.

  4. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-01-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. -- Highlights: •Historically polluted soils collected from a lead recycling facility were studied. •Cast production is a sensitive parameter to assess ecotoxicity on earthworms. •Both soil parameters, like organic matter content and pH and earthworm specie influence metal uptake and ecotoxicity. -- Behavioural factors and inorganic pollutant uptake by earthworms provide a valuable indication of bioavailability and ecotoxicity

  5. Total costs and benefits of biomass in selected regions of the European Union - BioCosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, A de; Costa, F B [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Inst. de Sistemas e Robotica; Bauen, A [London Univ. (United Kingdom). Div. of Life Sciences; and others

    1998-11-01

    In the BioCosts project, representative biomass-to-electricity and biomass-to-transport-service fuel cycles located at different sites within the European Union have been evaluated concerning their environmental and economic performance. Each case study was compared to a fossil-fuel fired reference case. The case studies examined comprise: utilisation of forestry residues in the Naessjoe circulating fluidized bed combustion plant, Sweden, versus the use of Polish coal in the same plant; utilisation of forestry residues and short-rotation coppice for industrial combined heat and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power; production of biogas from manure slurry for municipal combined heat and power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use of Danish natural gas in the same engine; gasification of woody biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant; production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in a similar engine; production of rape-seed oil methyl ester and its use for goods transport in Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks; production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether from fossil sources for the same purpose 130 refs, 25 figs, 42 tabs. Research funded in part by the European Commission in the JOULE III programme

  6. Predictive modeling of hazardous waste landfill total above-ground biomass using passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Brian Christopher

    This dissertation assessed remotely sensed data and geospatial modeling technique(s) to map the spatial distribution of total above-ground biomass present on the surface of the Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) hazardous waste landfill. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, regression kriging, and tree-structured regression were employed to model the empirical relationship between in-situ measured Bahia (Paspalum notatum Flugge) and Centipede [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro) Hack.] grass biomass against an assortment of explanatory variables extracted from fine spatial resolution passive optical and LIDAR remotely sensed data. Explanatory variables included: (1) discrete channels of visible, near-infrared (NIR), and short-wave infrared (SWIR) reflectance, (2) spectral vegetation indices (SVI), (3) spectral mixture analysis (SMA) modeled fractions, (4) narrow-band derivative-based vegetation indices, and (5) LIDAR derived topographic variables (i.e. elevation, slope, and aspect). Results showed that a linear combination of the first- (1DZ_DGVI), second- (2DZ_DGVI), and third-derivative of green vegetation indices (3DZ_DGVI) calculated from hyperspectral data recorded over the 400--960 nm wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum explained the largest percentage of statistical variation (R2 = 0.5184) in the total above-ground biomass measurements. In general, the topographic variables did not correlate well with the MWMF biomass data, accounting for less than five percent of the statistical variation. It was concluded that tree-structured regression represented the optimum geospatial modeling technique due to a combination of model performance and efficiency/flexibility factors.

  7. Effects of earthworms on nitrogen mineralization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, J.J.G.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Blair, J.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata) on the rate of net N mineralization was studied, both in soil with intact soil structure (partly influenced by past earthworm activity) and in columns with sieved soil

  8. For Better Soil, Let Earthworms Toil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinehart, Rebecca, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This activity involves elementary students in investigating how earthworms affect soil fertility. An introduction discusses topsoil loss and the connections between soil and earthworm ecology. Materials needed and step-by-step procedure are provided. (LZ)

  9. Soil Chemical Weathering and Nutrient Budgets along an Earthworm Invasion Chronosequence in a Northern Minnesota Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resner, K. E.; Yoo, K.; Sebestyen, S. D.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Lyttle, A.; Weinman, B. A.; Blum, A.; Hale, C. M.

    2011-12-01

    We are investigating the impact of exotic earthworms on the rate of nutrient and ion release from soil chemical weathering along an ~200 m invasion chronosequence in a northern Minnesota sugar maple forest. The earthworms belong to three ecological groups that represent different feeding and burrowing behaviors, all of which were introduced from Europe to the previously earthworm-free Great Lakes Region through fishing and agricultural activities. As earthworms digest and mix the soil, we hypothesize that they significantly alter chemical weathering processes by incorporating mineral surfaces to new geochemical environments in their intestines and at different soil depths. The effect of mixing on soil morphology is dramatic, but biogeochemical changes remain largely unknown and therefore are poorly coupled to the current and potential changes in forest ecosystems under the threat of exotic earthworms. We analyze the activities of short-lived isotopes 137-Cs and 210-Pb along with the inorganic chemistry of soil, water, and leaf litter across an invasion transect and link these measurements to the biomass and species composition of exotic earthworms. Earthworms vertically relocate minerals and organic matter largely within the top ~10 cm, which is reflected in the depth profiles of the short-lived isotopes. Among the inorganic nutrients analyzed, Ca is of particular interest due to sugar maple's aptitude for recycling Ca. Fractional mass loss values (tau) of Ca, relative to the soil's parent material, show an enrichment factor of 14 in the least invaded A horizon soils. However, such a high enrichment factor declines dramatically in the heavily invaded soils, suggesting that earthworm activities contribute to leaching Ca. In contrast, the enrichment factor of Fe increases with greater degrees of earthworm invasion, which is consistent with the extraction chemistry data showing greater quantities of pedogenic crystalline iron oxides and greater mineral specific

  10. Urban soil biomonitoring by beetle and earthworm populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janossy, L.; Bitto, A. [ELTE Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-31

    Two macro invertebrate groups were chosen for biomonitoring environmental changes. The beetle population was pitfall trapped (five month in 1994) at five downtown sites (parks) of Budapest and in a hilly original woodland as a control site 33km NW of Budapest. Earthworms were collected by using formol solution. Five heavy metals were measured (Pb, Co, Hg, Zn, Cu) in the upper soil layer at the same sampling sites. Pb, Hg, Zn and Cu was over the tolerable limit in a park near the railway, extreme high Pb (530 mg/kg dry soil) and Zn content was measured in one park. Roads are also salted in wintertime. The number of beetle species in the downtown parks varied 10 to 22 (226--462 specimen). Near to the edge of the city up to 45 beetle species were found in a park with 1,027 specimen. In the woodland area 52 beetle species with 1,061 specimen were found. Less dominance and higher specific diversity showed the direction from downtown to woodland. Only 2 or 3 cosmopolitan earthworm species existed in downtown parks with 30--35 specimen/m{sup 2}, in the control woodland area 7 mostly endemic earthworm species were found with 74 specimens/m{sup 2}. But earthworm biomass was higher in three well fertilized parks (43--157 g/m{sup 2}), than in the original woodland (25-g/m{sup 2}). The beetle populations seem to be good tools for biomonitoring. Earthworms are susceptible to environmental changes but they also strongly depend on the leaf litter and the organic matter of the soil. The change in the animal populations is the result of summarized environmental impacts in such a big city like Budapest.

  11. Total Costs and Benefits of Biomass in Selected regions of the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, A. de; Bauen, A.; Costa, F.B.

    1998-01-01

    biomass for combined heat and power generation in Vaernamo, Sweden, and Eggborough, UK, versus the use of coal in the Naessjoe plant mentioned above and a UK power plant;- production of cold-pressed rape-seed oil and its use in a cogeneration plant at Weissenburg, Germany, versus the use of diesel fuel...... and power production in Mangualde, Portugal, versus the use of fuel oil in an engine generating heat and power;- production of biogas from animal slurry for municipal combined heat an power generation at Hashoej, Denmark, versus the use fo Danish natural gas in the same engine;- gasification of woody...... in a similar engine;- production of rape-seed oil methyl ester (RME) and its use for goods transport in Germay, versus the use of diesel fuel in the same fleet of trucks;- production of ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE) from sugar beets and sweet sorghum for transport applications in France, versus the use...

  12. Detection of earthworm prey by Ruff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Loonstra, A.H.J.; Schmaltz, L.E.; Verkuil, Y.I.; Hooijmeijer, J.C.E.W.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Ruff Philomachus pugnax staging in the Netherlands forage in agricultural grasslands,where they mainly eat earthworms (Lumbricidae). Food intake and the surface availabilityof earthworms were studied in dairy farmland of southwest Friesland in March–April2011. Daily changes in earthworm availability

  13. Antimicrobial activity of earthworm ( Eudrilus eugeniae ) paste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm plays a major role in the proper functioning of the soil ecosystem. It acts as scavenger and helps in recycling of dead and decayed plant material by feeding on them. Earthworm increases the soil fertility and is often referred to as a farmer's friend. Earthworms have been used in medicine for various remedies.

  14. Ecological functions of earthworms in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, W.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological functions of earthworms in soil

    Walter S. Andriuzzi

    Abstract

    Earthworms are known to play an important role in soil structure and fertility, but there are still big knowledge gaps on the functional ecology of distinct earthworm species, on their

  15. Invasive earthworms interact with abiotic conditions to influence the invasion of common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Alexander M; Whitfeld, Timothy J S; Lodge, Alexandra G; Eisenhauer, Nico; Frelich, Lee E; Reich, Peter B

    2015-05-01

    Common buckthorn (Rhamnus cathartica L.) is one of the most abundant and ecologically harmful non-native plants in forests of the Upper Midwest United States. At the same time, European earthworms are invading previously glaciated areas in this region, with largely anecdotal evidence suggesting they compound the negative effects of buckthorn and influence the invasibility of these forests. Germination and seedling establishment are important control points for colonization by any species, and manipulation of the conditions influencing these life history stages may provide insight into why invasive species are successful in some environments and not others. Using a greenhouse microcosm experiment, we examined the effects of important biotic and abiotic factors on the germination and seedling establishment of common buckthorn. We manipulated light levels, leaf litter depth and earthworm presence to investigate the independent and interactive effects of these treatments on buckthorn establishment. We found that light and leaf litter depth were significant predictors of buckthorn germination but that the presence of earthworms was the most important factor; earthworms interacted with light and leaf litter to increase the number and biomass of buckthorn across all treatments. Path analysis suggested both direct and moisture-mediated indirect mechanisms controlled these processes. The results suggest that the action of earthworms may provide a pathway through which buckthorn invades forests of the Upper Midwest United States. Hence, researchers and managers should consider co-invasion of plants and earthworms when investigating invasibility and creating preemptive or post-invasion management plans.

  16. Effects of earthworms on soil aggregate stability and carbon and nitrogen storage in a legume cover crop agroecosystem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketterings, Q.M.; Blair, J.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    1997-01-01

    We investigated the effects of earthworms on soil aggregate size-distribution, water-stability, and the distribution of total C and N among aggregates of different sizes. Earthworm populations were experimentally manipulated (reduced, unaltered or increased) in field enclosures cropped to soybean

  17. A review of earthworm impact on soil function and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blouin, M.; Hodson, M.E.; Delgado, E.A.; Baker, G.; Brussaard, L.; Butt, K.R.; Dai, J.; Dendooven, L.; Peres, G.; Tondoh, J.E.; Cluzeau, D.; Brun, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity is responsible for the provision of many ecosystem services; human well-being is based on these services, and consequently on biodiversity. In soil, earthworms represent the largest component of the animal biomass and are commonly termed ecosystem engineers'. This review considers the

  18. Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Stephan Raphael; Brunner, Ivano; Daniel, Otto; Liu, Bian; Frey, Beat

    2013-01-01

    Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the total-Hg and meth...

  19. Subsurface earthworm casts can be important soil microsites specifically influencing the growth of grassland plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Johann G; Wechselberger, Katharina F; Gorfer, Markus; Hann, Patrick; Frank, Thomas; Wanek, Wolfgang; Drapela, Thomas

    Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) deposit several tons per hectare of casts enriched in nutrients and/or arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and create a spatial and temporal soil heterogeneity that can play a role in structuring plant communities. However, while we begin to understand the role of surface casts, it is still unclear to what extent plants utilize subsurface casts. We conducted a greenhouse experiment using large mesocosms (volume 45 l) to test whether (1) soil microsites consisting of earthworm casts with or without AMF (four Glomus taxa) affect the biomass production of 11 grassland plant species comprising the three functional groups grasses, forbs, and legumes, (2) different ecological groups of earthworms (soil dwellers- Aporrectodea caliginosa vs. vertical burrowers- Lumbricus terrestris ) alter potential influences of soil microsites (i.e., four earthworms × two subsurface microsites × two AMF treatments). Soil microsites were artificially inserted in a 25-cm depth, and afterwards, plant species were sown in a regular pattern; the experiment ran for 6 months. Our results show that minute amounts of subsurface casts (0.89 g kg -1 soil) decreased the shoot and root production of forbs and legumes, but not that of grasses. The presence of earthworms reduced root biomass of grasses only. Our data also suggest that subsurface casts provide microsites from which root AMF colonization can start. Ecological groups of earthworms did not differ in their effects on plant production or AMF distribution. Taken together, these findings suggest that subsurface earthworm casts might play a role in structuring plant communities by specifically affecting the growth of certain functional groups of plants.

  20. Plant genetic variation mediates an indirect ecological effect between belowground earthworms and aboveground aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Braun, Julia; Decker, Emilia; Hans, Sarah; Wagner, Agnes; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Zytynska, Sharon E

    2014-10-21

    Interactions between aboveground and belowground terrestrial communities are often mediated by plants, with soil organisms interacting via the roots and aboveground organisms via the shoots and leaves. Many studies now show that plant genetics can drive changes in the structure of both above and belowground communities; however, the role of plant genetic variation in mediating aboveground-belowground interactions is still unclear. We used an earthworm-plant-aphid model system with two aphid species (Aphis fabae and Acyrthosiphon pisum) to test the effect of host-plant (Vicia faba) genetic variation on the indirect interaction between the belowground earthworms (Eisenia veneta) on the aboveground aphid populations. Our data shows that host-plant variety mediated an indirect ecological effect of earthworms on generalist black bean aphids (A. fabae), with earthworms increasing aphid growth rate in three plant varieties but decreasing it in another variety. We found no effect of earthworms on the second aphid species, the pea aphid (A. pisum), and no effect of competition between the aphid species. Plant biomass was increased when earthworms were present, and decreased when A. pisum was feeding on the plant (mediated by plant variety). Although A. fabae aphids were influenced by the plants and worms, they did not, in turn, alter plant biomass. Previous work has shown inconsistent effects of earthworms on aphids, but we suggest these differences could be explained by plant genetic variation and variation among aphid species. This study demonstrates that the outcome of belowground-aboveground interactions can be mediated by genetic variation in the host-plant, but depends on the identity of the species involved.

  1. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Can earthworms survive fire retardants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Olson, A.

    1996-01-01

    Most common fire retardants are foams or are similar to common agricultural fertilizers, such as ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate. Although fire retardants are widely applied to soils, we lack basic information about their toxicities to soil organisms. We measured the toxicity of five fire retardants (Firetrol LCG-R, Firetrol GTS-R, Silv-Ex Foam Concentrate, Phos-chek D-75, and Phos-chek WD-881) to earthworms using the pesticide toxicity test developed for earthworms by the European Economic Community. None was lethal at 1,000 ppm in the soil, which was suggested as a relatively high exposure under normal applications. We concluded that the fire retardants tested are relatively nontoxic to soil organisms compared with other environmental chemicals and that they probably do not reduce earthworm populations when applied under usual firefighting conditions.

  3. Important Issues in Ecotoxicological Investigations Using Earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    The importance and beneficial effects of earthworms on soil structure and quality is well-established. In addition, earthworms have proved to be important model organisms for investigation of pollutant effects on soil ecosystems. In ecotoxicological investigations effects of various pollutants on earthworms were assessed. But some important issues regarding the effects of pollutants on earthworms still need to be comprehensively addressed. In this review several issues relevant to soil ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are emphasized and guidelines that should be adopted in ecotoxicological investigations using earthworms are given. The inclusion of these guidelines in ecotoxicological studies will contribute to the better quantification of impacts of pollutants and will allow more accurate prediction of the real field effects of pollutants to earthworms.

  4. Effects of diffusion on total biomass in heterogeneous continuous and discrete-patch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAngelis, Donald L.; Ming Ni, Wei; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical models of populations on a system of two connected patches previously have shown that when the two patches differ in maximum growth rate and carrying capacity, and in the limit of high diffusion, conditions exist for which the total population size at equilibrium exceeds that of the ideal free distribution, which predicts that the total population would equal the total carrying capacity of the two patches. However, this result has only been shown for the Pearl-Verhulst growth function on two patches and for a single-parameter growth function in continuous space. Here, we provide a general criterion for total population size to exceed total carrying capacity for three commonly used population growth rates for both heterogeneous continuous and multi-patch heterogeneous landscapes with high population diffusion. We show that a sufficient condition for this situation is that there is a convex positive relationship between the maximum growth rate and the parameter that, by itself or together with the maximum growth rate, determines the carrying capacity, as both vary across a spatial region. This relationship occurs in some biological populations, though not in others, so the result has ecological implications.

  5. Compositional features of cotton plant biomass fractions characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton is one of the most important and widely grown crops in the world. In addition to natural textile fiber production as a primary purpose, it yields a high grade vegetable oil for human consumption and also carbohydrate fiber and protein byproducts for animal feed. In this work, attenuated total...

  6. Improvement of the soil nitrogen content and maize growth by earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils polluted by oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Wang, Chong; Ji, Dingge

    2016-11-15

    Interactions between earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Rhizophagus intraradices, AM fungi) have been suggested to improve the maize nitrogen (N) content and biomass and were studied in soils polluted by oxytetracycline (OTC). Maize was planted and amended with AMF and/or earthworms (E) in the soil with low (1mgkg(-1) soil DM) or high (100mgkg(-1) soil DM) amounts of OTC pollution in comparison to soil without OTC. The root colonization, shoot and root biomass, shoot and root N contents, soil nitrogen forms, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) were measured at harvest. The results indicated that OTC decreased maize shoot and root biomass (psoil urease activity and AOB and AOA abundance, which resulted in a lower N availability for maize roots and shoots. There was a significant interaction between earthworms and AM fungi on the urease activity in soil polluted by OTC (ppolluted soil by increasing the urease activity and relieving the stress from OTC on the soil N cycle. AM fungi and earthworms interactively increased maize shoot and root biomass (ppolluted soils through their regulation of the urease activity and the abundance of ammonia oxidizers, resulting in different soil NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents, which may contribute to the N content of maize shoots and roots. Earthworms and AM fungi could be used as an efficient method to relieve the OTC stress in agro-ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Biomass energy in Jordan, and its potential contribution towards the total energy mix of the Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dabbas, Moh'd A. F.

    1994-04-01

    An evaluation of Jordan's bio-energy status was carried out. Available sources and the viability of exploitation were studied in order to identify the size of contribution that bio-energy could provide to the total energy mix of the Kingdom. The advantages of biogas technology were discussed, and a general description of Jordan's experience in this field was presented. Data on Jordan' animal, municipal, and agricultural wastes that are available as a potential source of bio-energy was tabulated. The report ascertained the economic feasibility of biogas utilization in Jordan, and concluded that the annual energy production potential from biogas, with only animal wastes being utilized, would amount to 80,000 ton oil equivalent. This amount of energy is equivalent to 2% of Jordan's total energy consumption in 1992. The utilization of biogas from municipal wastes would produce an additional 2.5% of the total energy consumption of Jordan. The annual value of utilizing animal and municipal wastes would reach 23 million Jordanian Dinars (JD). This value would increase to 61.5 million JD with the utilization of human wastes. The investment required for the utilization of bio-energy sources in Amman and its suburbs on the scale of family unit fermenters was estimated to be in the order of a million JD. The size of investment for industrial scale utilization for power generation with an electricity feed to the national grid, would range from 3 to 4 million JD. (A.M.H.). 8 refs., 4 tabs

  8. Bioavailability and chronic toxicity of bismuth citrate to earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to natural sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omouri, Zohra; Hawari, Jalal; Fournier, Michel; Robidoux, Pierre Yves

    2018-01-01

    The present study describes bioavailability and chronic effects of bismuth to earthworms Eisenia andrei using OECD reproduction test. Adult earthworms were exposed to natural sandy soil contaminated artificially by bismuth citrate. Average total concentrations of bismuth in soil recovered by HNO 3 digestion ranged from 75 to 289mg/kg. Results indicate that bismuth decreased significantly all reproduction parameters of Eisenia andrei at concentrations ≥ 116mg/kg. However, number of hatched cocoons and number of juveniles seem to be more sensitive than total number of cocoons, as determined by IC 50 ; i.e., 182, 123 and > 289mg/kg, respectively. Bismuth did not affect Eisenia andrei growth and survival, and had little effect on phagocytic efficiency of coelomocytes. The low immunotoxicity effect might be explained by the involvement of other mechanisms i.e. bismuth sequestered by metal-binding compounds. After 28 days of exposure bismuth concentrations in earthworms tissue increased with increasing bismuth concentrations in soil reaching a stationary state of 21.37mg/kg dry tissue for 243mg Bi/kg dry soil total content. Data indicate also that after 56 days of incubation the average fractions of bismuth available extracted by KNO 3 aqueous solution in soil without earthworms varied from 0.0051 to 0.0229mg/kg, while in soil with earthworms bismuth concentration ranged between 0.310-1.347mg/kg dry soil. We presume that mucus and chelating agents produced by earthworms and by soil or/and earthworm gut microorganisms could explain this enhancement, as well as the role of dermal and ingestion routes of earthworms uptake to soil contaminant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Catalytic total hydrodeoxygenation of biomass-derived polyfunctionalized substrates to alkanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yoshinao; Liu, Sibao; Tamura, Masazumi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2015-04-13

    The total hydrodeoxygenation of carbohydrate-derived molecules to alkanes, a key reaction in the production of biofuel, was reviewed from the aspect of catalysis. Noble metals (or Ni) and acid are the main components of the catalysts, and group 6 or 7 metals such as Re are sometimes added as modifiers of the noble metal. The main reaction route is acid-catalyzed dehydration plus metal-catalyzed hydrogenation, and in some systems metal-catalyzed direct CO dissociation is involved. The appropriate active metal, acid strength, and reaction conditions depend strongly on the reactivity of the substrate. Reactions that use Pt or Pd catalysts supported on Nb-based acids or relatively weak acids are suitable for furanic substrates. Carbohydrates themselves and sugar alcohols undergo CC dissociation easily. The systems that use metal-catalyzed direct CO dissociations can give a higher yield of the corresponding alkane from carbohydrates and sugar alcohols. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization.

  11. Earthworms, Collembola and residue management change wheat (Triticum aestivum) and herbivore pest performance (Aphidina: Rhophalosiphum padi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xin; Scheu, Stefan

    2008-10-01

    Management practices of arable systems determine the distribution of soil organic matter thereby changing decomposer animal activity and their impact on nutrient mineralization, plant growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Decomposer-mediated changes in plant growth and insect pest performance were investigated in wheat-aphid model systems in the greenhouse. Three types of litter distribution were established: litter patch at the soil surface (simulating mulching), litter patch deeper in soil (simulating ploughing) and litter homogeneously mixed into soil (simulating disk cultivation). The litter was labelled with (15)N to follow the mineralization and uptake of nutrients by the plants. Earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) and Collembola (Protaphorura armata) were included as representatives of major functional groups of decomposers. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) was planted and aphids (Rhophalosiphum padi) were introduced to leaves as one of the most important pests. Earthworms, Collembola and litter distribution affected plant growth, N acquisition and aphid development in an interactive way. Earthworms and Collembola increased biomass of seeds, shoots and roots of wheat. Increased plant growth by earthworms and Collembola was mainly due to increased transfer of N from soil (rather than litter) into plants. Despite increasing plant growth, earthworms reduced aphid reproduction. Aphid reproduction was not correlated closely with plant N concentrations, but rather with the concentration of litter N in wheat. Unexpectedly, both Collembola and earthworms predominantly affected the mobilization of N from soil organic matter, and by altering the distribution of litter earthworms reduced infestation of crops by aphids via reducing plant capture of litter N, in particular if the litter was concentrated deeper in soil. The results suggest that management practices stimulating a continuous moderate increase in nutrient mobilization from soil organic matter rather than

  12. Performance evaluation of a biomass boiler on the basis of heat loss method and total heat values of steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munir, A.; Alvi, J.Z.; Ashfaq, S.; Ghafoor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan being an agricultural country has large resources of biomass in the form of crop residues like wood, wheat straw, rice husk, cotton sticks and bagasse. Power generation using biomass offers an excellent opportunity to overcome current scenario of energy crises. Of the all biomass resources, bagasse is one of the potential energy sources which can be successfully utilized for power generation. During the last decade, bagasse fired boilers attained major importance due to increasing prices of primary energy (e.g. fossil fuels). Performance of a bagasse fired boiler was evaluated at Shakarganj Sugar Mill, Bhone-Jhang having steam generation capacity of 80 tons h/sup -1/at 25 bar working pressure. The unit was forced circulation and bi-drum type water tube boiler which was equipped with all accessories like air heater, economizer and super-heater. Flue gas analyzer and thermocouples were used to record percent composition and temperature of flue gases respectively. Physical analysis of bagasse showed gross calorific value of bagasse as 2326 kCal kg/sup -1/. Ultimate analysis of bagasse was performed and the actual air supplied to the boiler was calculated to be 4.05 kg per kg of bagasse under the available resources of the plant. Performance evaluation of the boiler was carried out and a complete heat balance sheet was prepared to investigate the different sources of heat losses. The efficiency of the boiler was evaluated on the basis of heat losses through boiler and was found to be 56.08%. It was also determined that 2 kg of steam produced from 1 kg of bagasse under existing condition of the boiler. The performance evaluation of the boiler was also done on the basis of total heat values of steam and found to be 55.98%. The results obtained from both the methods were found almost similar. Effects of excess air, stack and ambient temperature on the efficiency of boiler have also been evaluated and presented in the manuscript. (author)

  13. Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhadauria, T.; Saxena, K.G.

    2010-01-01

    The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs) are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macro fauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca) that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

  14. Role of Earthworms in Soil Fertility Maintenance through the Production of Biogenic Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunira Bhadauria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The soil biota benefits soil productivity and contributes to the sustainable function of all ecosystems. The cycling of nutrients is a critical function that is essential to life on earth. Earthworms (EWs are a major component of soil fauna communities in most ecosystems and comprise a large proportion of macrofauna biomass. Their activity is beneficial because it can enhance soil nutrient cycling through the rapid incorporation of detritus into mineral soils. In addition to this mixing effect, mucus production associated with water excretion in earthworm guts also enhances the activity of other beneficial soil microorganisms. This is followed by the production of organic matter. So, in the short term, a more significant effect is the concentration of large quantities of nutrients (N, P, K, and Ca that are easily assimilable by plants in fresh cast depositions. In addition, earthworms seem to accelerate the mineralization as well as the turnover of soil organic matter. Earthworms are known also to increase nitrogen mineralization, through direct and indirect effects on the microbial community. The increased transfer of organic C and N into soil aggregates indicates the potential for earthworms to facilitate soil organic matter stabilization and accumulation in agricultural systems, and that their influence depends greatly on differences in land management practices. This paper summarises information on published data on the described subjects.

  15. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, K.; Takahashi, T.; Nguyen, P.; Kubota, Y.; Gamou, S.; Sakurai, S.; Takahashi, S.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of 137 Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. 137 Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ( 137 Cs + 134 Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10 3 (μGy/day) in the earthworms. - Highlights: • We assessed the concentration ratios of 137 Cs in earthworms/dry soil. • The distribution of radio-caesium was relatively uniform throughout the earthworm body without any distinguishable accumulation in specific organs or tissues. • We estimated the absorbed dose rate of radio-caesium for earthworms

  16. Earthworm effects on the incorporation of litter C and N into soil organic matter in a sugar maple forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahey, Timothy J; Yavitt, Joseph B; Sherman, Ruth E; Maerz, John C; Groffman, Peter M; Fisk, Melany C; Bohlen, Patrick J

    2013-07-01

    To examine the mechanisms of earthworm effects on forest soil C and N, we double-labeled leaf litter with 13C and 15N, applied it to sugar maple forest plots with and without earthworms, and traced isotopes into soil pools. The experimental design included forest plots with different earthworm community composition (dominated by Lumbricus terrestris or L. rubellus). Soil carbon pools were 37% lower in earthworm-invaded plots largely because of the elimination of the forest floor horizons, and mineral soil C:N was lower in earthworm plots despite the mixing of high C:N organic matter into soil by earthworms. Litter disappearance over the first winter-spring was highest in the L. terrestris (T) plots, but during the warm season, rapid loss of litter was observed in both L. rubellus (R) and T plots. After two years, 22.0% +/- 5.4% of 13C released from litter was recovered in soil with no significant differences among plots. Total recovery of added 13C (decaying litter plus soil) was much higher in no-worm (NW) plots (61-68%) than in R and T plots (20-29%) as much of the litter remained in the former whereas it had disappeared in the latter. Much higher percentage recovery of 15N than 13C was observed, with significantly lower values for T than R and NW plots. Higher overwinter earthworm activity in T plots contributed to lower soil N recovery. In earthworm-invaded plots isotope enrichment was highest in macroaggregates and microaggregates whereas in NW plots silt plus clay fractions were most enriched. The net effect of litter mixing and priming of recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM), stabilization of SOM in soil aggregates, and alteration of the soil microbial community by earthworm activity results in loss of SOM and lowering of the C:N ratio. We suggest that earthworm stoichiometry plays a fundamental role in regulating C and N dynamics of forest SOM.

  17. Radiocesium (137Cs) from the Chernobyl reactor in Eurasian woodcock and earthworms in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalas, J.A.; Bretten, S.; Njastad, O.; Byrkjedal, I.

    1994-01-01

    To understand the ecological effects of the Chernobyl reactor accident, we investigated radiocesium ( 137 Cs) levels in Eurasian woodcock (Scolopax rusticola), earthworms (Lambricidae), litter (dead organic materials lying on the ground), humus (beneath litter 2 cm deep), and mineral soil samples (3-6 cm deep) from a heavily effected (20-60 kBq/m 2 [1 Bq = 1 nuclear fission/sec]) area in Norway. The highest concentrations measured in earthworms (1988 median = 142 Bq/Kg) and woodcock (1986 median = 730 Bq/kg) for human food (600 Bq/kg fresh mass) only were found in woodcock during 1986. Radiocesium concentrations decreased (P < 0.001) in earthworms (40%) and woodcock (95%) from 1986 to 1990. There was no reduction in total radiocesium in soil over the same period. The relatively high radiocesium concentrations in woodcock during 1986 and the decreasing radiocesium ratio in woodcock to earthworms during the first years following fallout could have been caused by woodcock ingesting abiotic radiocesium with earthworms. The decrease in radiocesium in woodcock and earthworms during the study (1986-90) probably resulted from decreasing bioavailability of radiocesium during the first years after fallout rather than by radiocesium disappearing from the ecosystem. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Assessment of forest management influences on total live aboveground tree biomass in William B Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callie Schweitzer; Dawn Lemke; Wubishet Tadesse; Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Forests contain a large amount of carbon (C) stored as tree biomass (above and below ground), detritus, and soil organic material. The aboveground tree biomass is the most rapid change component in this forest C pool. Thus, management of forest resources can influence the net C exchange with the atmosphere by changing the amount of C stored, particularly in landscapes...

  19. Modelling spatiotemporal distribution patterns of earthworms in order to indicate hydrological soil processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Juliane; Klaus, Julian; van Schaik, Loes; Zehe, Erwin; Schröder, Boris

    2010-05-01

    environmental predictors which explain the distribution and dynamics of different ecological earthworm types can help us to understand where or when these processes are relevant in the landscape. Therefore, we develop species distribution models which are a useful tool to predict spatiotemporal distributions of earthworm occurrence and abundance under changing environmental conditions. On field scale, geostatistical distribution maps have shown that the spatial distribution of earthworms depends on soil parameters such as food supply, soil moisture, bulk density but with different patterns for earthworm stages (adult, juvenile) and ecological types (anecic, endogeic, epigeic). On landscape scales, earthworm distribution seems to be strongly controlled by management/disturbance-related factors. Our study shows different modelling approaches for predicting distribution patterns of earthworms in the Weiherbach area, an agricultural site in Kraichtal (Baden-Württemberg, Germany). We carried out field studies on arable fields differing in soil management practices (conventional, conservational), soil properties (organic matter content, texture, soil moisture), and topography (slope, elevation) in order to identify predictors for earthworm occurrence, abundance and biomass. Our earthworm distribution models consider all ecological groups as well as different life stages, accounting for the fact that the activity of juveniles is sometimes different from those of adults. Within our BIOPORE-project it is our final goal to couple our distribution models with population dynamic models and a preferential flow model to an integrated ecohydrological model to analyse feedbacks between earthworm engineering and transport characteristics affecting the functioning of (agro-) ecosystems.

  20. Orimulsion impact on population and biomass of bioorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltrenas, P.; Idzelis, R.; Petraitis, E.

    1999-01-01

    Investigation of earthworms, Eisenia foetida (Californian line), their survival and biomass change in the soil polluted with orimulsion was carried out under laboratory conditions. The investigation was carried out in plastic buckets (capacity of 7 liters) with 3.5 kg of orimulsion contaminated soil 25% of which was the substratum of organisms. An experiment was made under specific conditions, i. e. at the temperature of 20-22 degrees Celsius and around 80% of humidity. During the experiment pH of the soil was controlled. Every tenth day the soil was aerated. In order to assess the impact of different orimulsion doses on earthworms, the buckets were filled with 10 g/kg, 15 g/kg, 25 g/kg and 50 g/kg of orimulsion, respectively. Orimulsion impact on the survival and reproduction of earthworms was registered after 4, 7, 10, 15, 25 days from the beginning of the experiment. The obtained data showed a direct relationship between the orimulsion concentration in the soil and the survival and change of earthworm population. When the orimulsion dose was 10 g/kg, the population of earthworms decreased by around 1.2%. When the dose was the biggest the population of earthworms decreased by 17-18%. The investigation results showed that when the orimulsion doses in the soil are low (10 g/kg), a negative influence on earthworms was observed only during the first few days. The greatest effect on the biomass of earthworms was registered when the concentration of orimulsion was 50 g/kg. In this case the biomass of population decreased by around 40 g. According to our results we can confirm that the negative effect of orimulsion on the soil fauna (earthworms) is less than that of crude oil. (author)

  1. Optimization of biomass, total carotenoids and astaxanthin production in Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow strain Steptoe (Nevada, USA under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA S CIFUENTES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The microalga Haematococcus pluvialis Flotow is one of the natural sources of astaxanthin, a pigment widely used in salmon feed. This study was made to discover optimal conditions for biomass and astaxanthin production in H. pluvialis from Steptoe, Nevada (USA, cultured in batch mode. Growth was carried out under autotrophic (with NaNO3, NH4Cl and urea and mixotrophic conditions (with 4, 8, 12 mM sodium acetate under two photon flux densities (PFD (35 and 85 µmol m-2 s-1. The carotenogenesis was induced by 1 addition of NaCl (0.2 and 0.8 %, 2 N-deprivation and 3 high PFD (150 µmol m-2 s-1. Total carotenoids were estimated by spectrophotometry and total astaxanthin by HPLC. Ammonium chloride was the best N-source for growth (k=0.7 div day-1, 228-258 mg l-1and 2.0 x 10(5 - 2.5 x 10(5 cells ml-1 at both PFD, respectively. With increasing acetate concentration, a slight increment in growth occurred only at 85 µmol m-2 s-1. Light was the best inductive carotenogenic factor, and the highest carotenoid production (4.9 mg l-1, 25.0 pg cell-1 was obtained in cultures pre-grown in nitrate at low light. The NaCl caused an increase in carotenoid content per cell at increasing salt concentrations, but resulted in a high cell mortality and did not produce any increment in carotenoid content per volume compared to cultures grown at 150 µmol m-2 s-1. The highest carotenoid content per cell (22 pg and astaxanthin content per dry weight (10.3 mg g-1 (1% w/w were obtained at 85 µmol m-2 s-1 with 0.8% NaCl.

  2. Earthworms and the soil greenhouse gas balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils worldwide. Their activity affects both biotic and abiotic soil properties, which in turn influence soil GHG emissions, carbon (C) sequestration and plant growth. Yet, the balance of earthworms

  3. Abundance of earthworms in Nigerian ecological zones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that if the illegal annual bush burning is prevented, the soil surface will be naturally mulched, earthworms protected, and by their function in the soil, the need for soil mechanization and fertilization could be replaced by earthworms to produce natural foods. Keywords: Annelida, Oligochaeta, leaf litter breakdown, soil fauna ...

  4. Bioconversion of biomass residue from the cultivation of pea sprouts on spent Pleurotus sajor-caju compost employing Lumbricus rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Abu Bakar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting is a green technology for the purpose of nutrient enrichment from a variety of organic waste products. In this study, saw dust-based spent mushroom compost (SMC, an organic waste and biomass residue, was used as a medium for the cultivation of pea sprouts. After harvesting the pea sprouts, the growth medium was reused to culture earthworms, Lumbricus rubellus. The culturing activity was conducted for 50 days without any pre-composting or thermocomposting. Thus duration of vermicomposting process was shortened as opposed to previous work on vermicomposting of saw dust-based SMC (no amendment for 70 days. The culturing treatments were conducted in triplicate, including one treatment without earthworms as the control. The analysis showed that concentrations of macronutrients in vermicompost were higher compared to controls, in which N = 4.12%, P = 2.07% and K = 1.56%. The C:N ratio was 11.77, which indicates a stabilisation and maturity of the organic waste compost, compared with the C:N ratio for the control, which was 59.34. At the end of the experiment, increment of total biomass and number of earthworms were observed and no mortality was recorded. The results suggested that vermicomposting could be used as an environmentally valuable technology to convert saw dust used for mushroom and pea sprouts cultivation into vermicompost or bio-fertiliser by employing L. rubellus.

  5. Global W`o'rming and Darwin Revisited: Quantifying Soil Mixing Rates by Non-native Earthworms in Fennoscandian Boreal and Arctic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackett, A. A.; Yoo, K.; Cameron, E. K.; Olid, C.; Klaminder, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fennoscandian boreal and arctic ecosystems represent some of the most pristine environments in Europe and store sizeable quantities of soil carbon. Both ecosystems may have evolved without native earthworms since the last glaciation, but are now increasingly subject to arrivals of novel geoengineering earthworm species due to human activities. As a result, invaded areas are devoid of the typical thick organic horizon present in earthworm free forest soils and instead contain carbon-rich mineral (A-horizon) soils at the surface. How rapidly this transition occurs and how it affects the fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools is not well known. In this study, we quantify the rates at which earthworm-mediated mixing of forest soils proceeds in these formerly glaciated landscapes. We infer soil mass fluxes using the vertical distribution of 210Pb in soils from Fennoscandia (N=4) and North America (N=1) and quantify annual mixing velocities as well as vertical fluxes of organic and mineral matter throughout the upper soil profiles. Across the sites, mixing velocities generally increase with increasing earthworm biomass and functional group diversity, and our annual mixing rates closely align with those predicted by Darwin for earthworm-engineered ecosystems in the UK 130 years earlier. Reduction of the O-horizon is concomitant with a decrease in surface SOC contents. However, we observe minimal changes to SOC inventories with earthworm invasion across the sites, reflecting the upward translocation of mineral soil and accompanying increase in soil bulk densities. Thus, the reduction or depletion of organic horizon by exotic earthworms does not necessarily involve loss of SOC via earthworm-accelerated decomposition, but is rather compensated for by physical mixing of organic matter and minerals, which may facilitate stabilizing organo-mineral interactions. This work constitutes an important step to elucidate how non-native earthworms impact SOC inventories and potentially

  6. Metal accumulation in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijver, Martina G.; Vink, Jos P.M.; Miermans, Cornelis J.H.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2007-01-01

    The main factors contributing to variation in metal concentrations in earthworms inhabiting floodplain soils were investigated in three floodplains differing in inundation frequency and vegetation type. Metal concentrations in epigeic earthworms showed larger seasonal variations than endogeic earthworms. Variation in internal levels between sampling intervals were largest in earthworms from floodplain sites frequently inundated. High and low frequency flooding did not result in consistent changes in internal metal concentrations. Vegetation types of the floodplains did not affect metal levels in Lumbricus rubellus, except for internal Cd levels, which were positively related to the presence of organic litter. Internal levels of most essential metals were higher in spring. In general, no clear patterns in metal uptake were found and repetition of the sampling campaign will probably yield different results. - Metal levels in earthworms show large variation among sites, among seasons and among epigeic and endogeic species

  7. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons from crude oil-contaminated soil with the earthworm: Hyperiodrilus africanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, O A; Aigbodion, F I

    2015-12-01

    A study on the bioremediation potentials of the earthworm Hyperiodrilus africanus (Beddard) in soil contaminated with crude oil was investigated. Dried and sieved soils were contaminated with 5 ml each of crude oil with replicates and inoculated with earthworms and monitored daily for 12 weeks. Physicochemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate, phosphate, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium were determined using standard procedures. Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) was determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), while BTEX constituents and earthworms tissues were analyzed using Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID). The results showed that the earthworm significantly enhanced the physicochemical parameters of the contaminated soil resulting in a decrease of the total organic carbon (56.64 %), sulfate (57.66 %), nitrate (57.69 %), phosphate (57.73 %), sodium (57.69 %), potassium (57.68 %), calcium (57.69 %) and magnesium (57.68 %) except pH (3.90 %) that slightly increased. There was a significant decrease in the TPH (84.99 %), benzene (91.65 %), toluene (100.00 %), ethylbenzene (100.00 %) and xylene (100.00 %). Analyses of the tissues of the earthworm at the end of the experiment showed that the earthworms bioaccumulated/biodegraded 57.35/27.64 % TPH, 38.91/52.73 % benzene, 27.76/72.24 % toluene, 42.16/57.85 % ethylbenzene and 09.62/90.38 % xylene. The results showed that the earthworms H. africanus could be used to bioremediate moderately polluted soil with crude oil contamination in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

  8. Adoption of an unmanned helicopter for low-altitude remote sensing to estimate yield and total biomass of a rice crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    A radio-controlled unmanned helicopter-based LARS (Low-Altitude Remote Sensing) platform was used to acquire quality images of high spatial and temporal resolution, in order to estimate yield and total biomass of a rice crop (Oriza Sativa, L.). Fifteen rice field plots with five N-treatments (0, 33,...

  9. Bacteria and protozoa in soil microhabitats as affected by earthworms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Anne; Rønn, Regin; Hendriksen, Niels B.

    1997-01-01

    , were compared. The total, viable, and culturable number of bacteria, the metabolic potentials of bacterial populations, and the number of protozoa and nematodes were determined in soil size fractions. Significant differences between soil fractions were shown by all assays. The highest number......-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolim chloride (CTC)-reducing bacteria explained a major part of the variation in the number of protozoa. High protozoan activity and predation thus coincided with high bacterial activity. In soil with elm leaves, fungal growth is assumed to inhibit bacterial and protozoan...... activity. In soil with elm leaves and earthworms, earthworm activity led to increased culturability of bacteria, activity of protozoa, number of nematodes, changed metabolic potentials of the bacteria, and decreased differences in metabolic potentials between bacterial populations in the soil fractions...

  10. Uptake and retention of radio-caesium in earthworms cultured in soil contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, K; Takahashi, T; Nguyen, P; Kubota, Y; Gamou, S; Sakurai, S; Takahashi, S

    2015-01-01

    To understand the effects of radionuclides on non-human biota and the environment, it is essential to study the intake and metabolism of radio-isotopes in earthworms which are among the most important soil organisms, and Eisenia fetida, which were used in this study, are known to be sufficiently sensitive to chemicals and representative of common earthworms. In this study, we assessed the concentration ratios, uptake and retention, absorbed dose rate, and distribution of radio-caesium in earthworms. The concentration ratios of (137)Cs (i.e., the concentrations of radio-caesium in earthworms relative to those in dry soil) were higher early in the culturing period and decreased gradually over the experimental period. (137)Cs taken up by E. fetida was cleared rapidly after the worms were cultured in radio-caesium-free soil, suggesting that the metabolism of radio-caesium in earthworms is very rapid. Autoradiography demonstrated that the concentration of radio-caesium within the digestive tract was as high as that in the soil, while radio-caesium in the body tissue was lower than radio-caesium in the soil and was almost uniformly distributed among earthworm tissues. The highest absorbed dose rate of total exposure to radio-caesium ((137)Cs + (134)Cs) was calculated to be 1.9 × 10(3) (μGy/day) in the earthworms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Residues effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Aporrectodea caliginosa) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Yahia; Mosleh, Ismaili

    2007-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the residues of isoproturon and its metabolites, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl)-3-methylurea, 1-(4-isopropylphenyl) urea, and 4-isopropylanilin in soil and mature earthworms under laboratory conditions. Mature earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were exposed for various durations (7, 15, 30, and 60 days) to soils contaminated with isoproturon concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 mg.kg(-1) soil). The decrease in isoproturon concentration in the soil depended on initial concentration it was slower at higher concentrations. The isoproturon and its metabolites accumulated in earthworms it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with total soluble protein content and glycogen of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the concentration 1000 mg.kg(-1) soil after 60 days of exposure. A reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms (maximum 59.54%). This study is suggesting the use of the total soluble protein content and glycogen of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon.

  12. Earthworm introduction on calcareous minesoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Kost, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Burrowing activity of the nightcrawler, Lumbricus terrestis (L.t.), incorporates organic matter into mineral soil while creating long-lasting macropores. Thus L.t. has potential as a biological means of improving physical and chemical properties of surface mined areas. Efforts to establish L.t. population on forested acidic or calcareous minesoils have been successful, but thus far have not been able to establish L.t. in grassland ecosystems on calcareous minesoils. In May, 1989, the authors put 11 clitellate L.t. under sphagnum moss on calcareous gray cast overburden on standard graded topsoil, or on ripped and disked topsoil. All soils had cover of agronomic grasses and legumes. They found no L.t. at the 24 points of inoculation during sampling in fall of 1990 with formalin extractant, although smaller species, Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrobaena spp., were found. At another location, in May, 1990, they put 25 clitellate L.t. at 16 points in grasslands growing on gray cast overburden. Using formalin extraction, they found no L.t. in May 1992 at these locations. Working in this same area in November, 1992, they released 10 clitellate L.t. at 16 points under 10 cm of moist Alnus glutinosa leaf litter. Careful examination of the surface inoculation points in spring and fall of 1993 did not show obvious signs of earthworm activity. Their next step will be to use Earthworm Inoculation Units (earthworm-minesoil microcosms containing L.t. adults, immatures, and cocoons) as the source of the new populations

  13. Determining the bioavailability and toxicity of lead contamination to earthworms requires using a combination of physicochemical and biological methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Wei; Verweij, Rudo A.; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of lead to Eisenia andrei in shooting range soils representing different land uses (forest, grassland, bullet plot). Soils contained 47–2398 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw), but also had different pH-CaCl 2 (3.2–6.8) and organic matter contents (3.8–13%). Therefore artificial soils with different pH and organic matter contents and two natural soils were included as control soils. Earthworms were exposed for 28 days and toxicity and uptake of Pb were related to total, water and 0.01 M CaCl 2 extractable and porewater Pb concentrations as well as to soil characteristics. Pb uptake in the earthworms linearly increased with increasing soil concentrations. At >2000 mg Pb/kg dw and pH 3.3–3.5, high earthworm mortality with significant weight loss and complete inhibition of reproduction were recorded. At <1000 mg/kg dw, earthworm reproduction was more related to differences in pH and other soil characteristics than to Pb. -- Highlights: • Availability and earthworm toxicity of Pb determined in field-contaminated soils. • Earthworm toxicity of most-polluted soils explained from available Pb levels. • Earthworm response in less polluted soils mainly determined by soil pH. • Earthworm toxicity correlated with Pb uptake from the soil. • Soil properties explained differences in earthworm Pb uptake and effects. -- Combination of physicochemical and biological assays helped explaining Pb toxicity in shooting range soils from available Pb concentrations and soil characteristics

  14. Earthworm in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, Paul; Lisowski, Stefan; Dricker, Ilya; Hellman, Sidney

    2010-05-01

    Earthworm (Johnson et al., 1995) is a fully open-source earthquake data acquisition and processing package that is in widespread use through out the world. Earthworm includes basic seismic data acquistion for the majority of the dataloggers currently available and provides network transport mechanisms and common formats as output for data transferral. In addition, it comes with network seismology tools to compute network detections, perform automated arrival picking, and automated hypocentral and magnitude estimations. More importantly it is an open and free framework in the C-programming language that can be used to create new modules that process waveform and earthquake data in near real time. The number of Earthworm installations is growing annually as are the number of contributions to the system. Furthermore its growth into other areas of waveform data acquistion (namely Geomagnetic observatories and Infrasound arrays) show its adaptability to other waveform technologies and processing strategies. In this presentation we discuss the coming challenges to growing Earthworm and new developments in its use; namely the open source add-ons that have become interfaces to Earthworm's core. These add-ons include GlowWorm, MagWorm, Hydra, SWARM, Winston, EarlyBird, Iworm, and most importantly, AQMS (formerly known as CHEETAH). The AQMS, ANSS Quake Monitoring System, is the Earthworm system created in California which has now been installed in the majority of Regional Seismic Networks (RSNs) in the United States. AQMS allows additional real-time and post-processing of Earthworm generated data to be stored and manipulated in a database using numerous database oriented tools. The use of a relational database for persistence provides users with the ability to implement configuration control and research capabilities not available in earlier Earthworm add-ons. By centralizing on AQMS, the RSNs will be able to leverage new developments by easily sharing Earthworm and AQMS

  15. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.

    1996-01-01

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. This paper describes a long-term (26 week) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 1) the length of exposure, and it describes three 8-week experiments relating concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to 2) their concentration in soil 3) the soil organic matter content and, 4) the degree of chlorination. In the 26-week experiment, the concentration of 1,2,4 - trichlorobenzene in earthworms fluctuated only slightly about a mean of 0.63 ppm (Fig. 1). Although a statistically significant decrease can be demonstrated over the test (Pearson correlation coefficient, r = -0.62 p earthworms showed a cyclical trend that coincided with replacement of the media, and a slight but statistically significant tendency to increase from about 2 to 3 ppm over the 26 weeks (r = 0.55, p earthworms increased as the concentrations in the soil increased (Fig. 2), but leveled off at the highest soil concentrations. The most surprising result of this study was the relatively low concentrations in earthworms compared to those in soils. The average concentration of each of the six isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene in earthworms was only about 1 ppm (Table 2); the isomeric structure did not affect accumulation. The concentration of organic matter in soil had a prominent effect on hexachlorobenzene concentrations in earthworms (Fig. 3). Hexachlorobenzene concentrations decreased steadily from 9.3 ppm in earthworms kept in soil without any peat moss added to about 1 ppm in soil containing 16 or 32% organic matter.

  16. Fate and sublethal effects of isoproturon on mature earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosleh, Y Y; Paris-Palacios, S; Couderchet, M; Vernet, G

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of isoproturon in mature earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) under laboratory condition. Earthworms were exposed to soils contaminated with different concentrations for various duration. Residues were monitored in soil and earthworms after 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days of exposure to different isoproturon concentrations. Acute toxicity of isoproturon was determined together with growth rate and total soluble protein content of worms. These parameters were related to isoproturon concentration in soil and earthworms. No lethal effect of isoproturon was observed even at the highest concentration tested (1.4 g/kg soil) after 60 days after treatment. Residues of isoproturon have caused a significant reduction of the growth rate. Additionally a reduction of total soluble protein was observed in all treated worms. Decrease of isoproturon concentration in soil was slow and depended on herbicide initial concentration. In the worms, it increased during the first 15 days and decreased thereafter. This study is suggesting the use of the growth rate of earthworms as biomarker of exposure to isoproturon.

  17. Priming effect in topsoil and subsoil induced by earthworm burrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Duyen Hoang Thi

    2017-04-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) not only affect soil physics, but they also boost microbial activities and consequently important hotspots of microbial mediated carbon and C turnover through their burrowing activity. However, it is still unknown to which extend earthworms affect priming effect in top- and subsoil horizons. More labile C inputs in earthworm burrows were hypothesized to trigger higher priming of soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition compared to rhizosphere and bulk soil. Moreover, this effect was expected to be more pronounced in subsoil due to its greater C and nutrient limitation. To test these hypotheses, biopores and bulk soil were sampled from topsoil (0-30 cm) and two subsoil depths (45-75 and 75-105 cm). Additionally, rhizosphere samples were taken from the topsoil. Total organic C (Corg), total N (TN), total P (TP) and enzyme activities involved in C-, N-, and P-cycling (cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, xylanase, chitinase, leucine aminopeptidase and phosphatase) were measured. Priming effects were calculated as the difference in SOM-derived CO2 from soil with or without 14C-labelled glucose addition. Enzyme activities in biopores were positively correlated with Corg, TN and TP, but in bulk soil this correlation was negative. The more frequent fresh and labile C inputs to biopores caused 4 to 20 time higher absolute priming of SOM turnover due to enzyme activities that were one order of magnitude higher than in bulk soil. In subsoil biopores, reduced labile C inputs and lower N availability stimulated priming twofold greater than in topsoil. In contrast, a positive priming effect in bulk soil was only detected at 75-105 cm depth. We conclude that earthworm burrows provide not only the linkage between top- and subsoil for C and nutrients, but strongly increase microbial activities and accelerate SOM turnover in subsoil, contributing to nutrient mobilization for roots and CO2 emission increase as a greenhouse gas. Additionally, the

  18. DOES EARTHWORMS DENSITY REALLY MODIFY SOIL'S HYDRODYNAMIC PROPERTIES IN IRRIGATED SYSTEMS WITH RECYCLED WATER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ababsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Our study has the general objective to understand the impact of the valuation of treated water on earthworm abundance and total porosity of the soil and the effect of the interaction between these two physical-biological components of the hydrological functioning of soils. It was carried out on the meadows soils of the valley of Wadi Bousselam.Although the treated water has high organic and particulate filler, it improved the earthworm abundance, total porosity and hydraulic conductivity of the soil.

  19. Distribution of bacteria and fungi in the earthworm Libyodrillus violaceous (Annelida: Oligochaeta, a native earthworm from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B Idowu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are soil invertebrates that play a key role in recycling organic matter in soils.In Nigeria, earthworms include Libyodrillus violaceous. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts, as well as fungal counts of viable microorganisms in soils and gut sections, were made on twenty L. violaceous collected from different sites on the campus of the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. The samples were collected between April and November, 2002. Numbers of microorganisms were higher in castings and gut sections than in uningested soil samples. The guts and their contents also had higher moisture and total nitrogen contents than the uningested soils. Bacteria and fungi isolated from the samples were identified by standard microbiological procedures on the bases of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Isolated bacteria were identified as Staphylococcus, Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans, Clostridium, Spirocheata spp., Azotobacter spp., Micrococcus lylae, Acinetobacter spp., Halobacterium for bacteria. Yeast isolates were identified as Candida spp., Zygosaccharomyces spp., Pichia spp., and Saccharomyces spp while molds were identified as, Aspergillus spp., Pytium spp., Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp and Rhizopus spp. Of the five locations examined, the refuse dump area had the highest numbers of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms, followed by the arboretum while the cultivated land area recorded the lowest counts. The higher numbers of microorganisms observed in the gut sections and casts of the earthworms examined in this work reinforce the general concept that the gut and casts of earthworms show higher microbial diversity and activity than the surrounding soil. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (1: 49-58. Epub 2006 Mar 31.

  20. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: msilva@falw.vu.n [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-10-15

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  1. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S.; Pathiratne, Asoka; Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha -1 ) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha -1 ) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  2. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N 2 O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability and suggested that feeding ratio should be considered when assessing the earthworms' effect on stabilisation and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Herbicide Glyphosate Impact to Earthworm (E. fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Dajoraitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glyphosate is a broad spectrum weed resistant herbicide. Glyphosate may pose negative impact on land ecosystems because of wide broad usage and hydrofilic characteristic. The aim of this study was to investigate negative effects of glyphosate on soil invertebrate organisms (earthworm Eisenia fetida. The duration of experiment was 8 weeks. The range of the test concentrations of glyphosate were: 0,1, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg. To investigate the glyphosate impact on earthworm Eisenia fetida the following endpoints were measured: survival, reproduction and weight. The exposure to 20 mg/kg glyphosate has led to the 100% mortality of earthworms. Glyphosate has led to decreased E. fetida reproduction, the cocoons were observed only in the lowest concentration (0,1 mg/kg. In general: long-term glyphosate toxicity to earthworms (E. fetida may be significant.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of earthworm (Eudrilus eugeniae) paste

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kavi pradeep

    2013-08-01

    Aug 1, 2013 ... Earthworm plays a major role in the proper functioning of the soil ecosystem. ... Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using micro dilution ... worms were kept in plastic troughs, covered tightly with polythene.

  5. Organic Amendments and Earthworm Addition Improve Properties of Nonacidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Rutherford

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In many mined areas, lack of topsoil limits conversion of disturbed landscapes to former or other productive uses. We examined the use of biosolids (10 or 20% by dry mass, with or without sawdust, pulp sludge, and the contribution of an earthworm species (Dendrobaena veneta to improve the properties of nonacidic mine tailings. Pulp sludge more rapidly immobilized excessive NH4 + concentrations from biosolids early in the study; however, total mineral N concentrations were similar in pulp sludge and sawdust treatments by week 29. Although NO3 −-N concentrations were generally greater in treatments with earthworms, these trends were not statistically significant (P>0.05. In general, Bray P concentrations were greater in the presence of earthworms. Soil thin sections showed that earthworms mixed organic residues into elongated spherical units within mine tailings. Organic residues in combination with earthworm addition may improve the chemical and microstructural properties of non-acidic mine tailings, producing a substrate conducive for plant establishment.

  6. Engineering of Soil Biological Quality from Nickel Mining Stockpile Using Two Earthworm Ecological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M H Kilowasid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have the ability in modifying soil biological quality for plant growth. Their ability is mostly depending on its ecological groups. The objectives of the research were to study the influence of two ecological groups of earthworms on soil microbial activity and soil micro-fauna abundance, and to know the potential of soil modified by earthworms as plant growth medium. Eight combination of individual earthworm from epigeic and endogeic groups was applied into pot that was filled by soil from two years of nickel stockpile and each treatment was repeated by five times. The experiment was following complete randomize design procedure. After sixteen days of research, the soil sample from each pot was analyzed for soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes. Furthermore, one kg of the soil from each pot was taken and every pot was grown by Paraserianthes falcataria seedling with the age of five days and continued its growth for two months. The results indicated that the soil FDA activity, number of flagellate and nematodes among treatments were significantly differences. In addition, it indicated the significant differences in dry weight of shoot, root, total plant, and root to shoot ratio of P. falcataria seedlings. It concluded that the combination of an individual number of epigeic and endogeic earthworms improved soil biological quality of stock pile, amd most suitable for seedlings growth in nickel mining area.

  7. Physical Characterisation and Quantification of Total Above Ground Biomass Derived from First Thinnings for Wood Fuel Consumption in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mockler, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive knowledge of wood fuel properties assists in the optimisation of operations concerned with the harvesting, seasoning, processing and conversion of wood to energy. This study investigated the physical properties of wood fuel. These properties included moisture content and basic density. The field work also allowed for the quantification of above ground biomass partitions. The species investigated were alder (Alnus glutinosa), ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.), birch (Betula spp.), lodg...

  8. Application of lime (CaCO3) to promote forest recovery from severe acidification increases potential for earthworm invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Caitlin; Beirer, Colin M; McCay, Timothy S; Lawrence, Gregory B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of lime (calcium carbonate) may be a cost-effective strategy to promote forest ecosystem recovery from acid impairment, under contemporary low levels of acidic deposition. However, liming acidified soils may create more suitable habitat for invasive earthworms that cause significant damage to forest floor communities and may disrupt ecosystem processes. We investigated the potential effects of liming in acidified soils where earthworms are rare in conjunction with a whole-ecosystem liming experiment in the chronically acidified forests of the western Adirondacks (USA). Using a microcosm experiment that replicated the whole-ecosystem treatment, we evaluated effects of soil liming on Lumbricus terrestris survivorship and biomass growth. We found that a moderate lime application (raising pH from 3.1 to 3.7) dramatically increased survival and biomass of L. terrestris, likely via increases in soil pH and associated reductions in inorganic aluminum, a known toxin. Very few L. terrestris individuals survived in unlimed soils, whereas earthworms in limed soils survived, grew, and rapidly consumed leaf litter. We supplemented this experiment with field surveys of extant earthworm communities along a gradient of soil pH in Adirondack hardwood forests, ranging from severely acidified (pH 5). In the field, no earthworms were observed where soil pH 4.4 and human dispersal vectors, including proximity to roads and public fishing access, were most prevalent. Overall our results suggest that moderate lime additions can be sufficient to increase earthworm invasion risk where dispersal vectors are present.

  9. Development of earthworm burrow systems and the influence of earthworms on soil hydrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, T.N.

    1996-01-01


    Inoculation of earthworms can help to restore or ameliorate land qualities. Earthworms create burrows and alter the structure of the soil matrix, which influence the water infiltration, drainage, water retention and the aeration of the soil. The way and rate of the development of

  10. Earthworm invasion in North America: Food resource competition affects native millipede survival and invasive earthworm reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce Snyder; Mac Callaham; Christopher Lowe; Paul Hendrix

    2013-01-01

    The invasive non-native earthworm Amynthas agrestis (Goto and Hatai, 1899) has recently been documented invading forests of the Appalachian Mountains in the southeastern United States. This epigeic earthworm decreases the depth of organic soil horizons, and this may play a role in the decrease of millipede richness and abundance associated with A. agrestis invasion. To...

  11. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M. [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Loureiro, Susana, E-mail: sloureiro@ua.pt [Department of Biology and CESAM, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2011-07-15

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: > Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. > Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. > The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. > Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. > Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  12. Assessing ecotoxicity and uptake of metals and metalloids in relation to two different earthworm species (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mazzia, Christophe; Auffan, Mélanie; Foucault, Yann; Austruy, Annabelle; Dumat, Camille

    2013-08-01

    Due to diffuse atmospheric fallouts of process particles enriched by metals and metalloids, polluted soils concern large areas at the global scale. Useful tools to assess ecotoxicity induced by these polluted soils are therefore needed. Earthworms are currently used as biotest, however the influence of specie and earthworm behaviour, soil characteristics are poorly highlighted. Our aim was therefore to assess the toxicity of various polluted soils with process particles enriches by metals and metalloids (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) collected from a lead recycling facility on two earthworm species belonging to different ecological types and thus likely to have contrasted behavioural responses (Eiseina hortensis and Lumbricus terrestris). The combination of behavioural factors measurements (cast production and biomass) and physico-chemical parameters such as metal absorption, bioaccumulation by earthworms and their localization in invertebrate tissues provided a valuable indication of pollutant bioavailability and ecotoxicity. Soil characteristics influenced ecotoxicity and metal uptake by earthworms, as well as their soil bioturbation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Combined effects of soil moisture and carbaryl to earthworms and plants: Simulation of flood and drought scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Maria P.R.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2011-01-01

    Studying tolerance limits in organisms exposed to climatic variations is key to understanding effects on behaviour and physiology. The presence of pollutants may influence these tolerance limits, by altering the toxicity or bioavailability of the chemical. In this work, the plant species Brassica rapa and Triticum aestivum and the earthworm Eisenia andrei were exposed to different levels of soil moisture and carbaryl, as natural and chemical stressors, respectively. Both stress factors were tested individually, as well as in combination. Acute and chronic tests were performed and results were discussed in order to evaluate the responses of organisms to the combination of stressors. When possible, data was fitted to widely employed models for describing chemical mixture responses. Synergistic interactions were observed in earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions, while antagonistic interactions were more representative for plants, especially in relation to biomass loss under flood-simulation conditions. - Highlights: → Climate variations may cause changes on chemicals' toxicity or bioavailability. → Earthworms and plants are exposed simultaneously to carbaryl and flood and drought conditions. → The IA model and possible deviations were used to evaluate combination exposures. → Synergism was observed for earthworms exposed to carbaryl and drought conditions. → Antagonistic interactions were observed for plants, in flood conditions and carbaryl. - Soil moisture can play an important role in carbaryl toxicity towards plants and earthworms.

  14. Comparative Genomics of Symbiotic Bacteria in Earthworm Nephridia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Kasper Urup; Pinel, Nicolas; Lund, Marie Braad

    The excretory and osmoregulatory organs (nephridia) of lumbricid earthworms are densely colonized by extracellular bacterial symbionts belonging to the newly established betaproteobacterial genus Verminephrobacter. The nephridial symbiont of the earthworm Eisenia fetida was subjected to full geno...

  15. A doubling of microphytobenthos biomass coincides with a tenfold increase in denitrifier and total bacterial abundances in intertidal sediments of a temperate estuary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Decleyre

    Full Text Available Surface sediments are important systems for the removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen in estuaries. They are often characterized by the presence of a microphytobenthos (MPB biofilm, which can impact bacterial communities in underlying sediments for example by secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS and competition for nutrients (including nitrogen. Pyrosequencing and qPCR was performed on two intertidal surface sediments of the Westerschelde estuary characterized by a two-fold difference in MPB biomass but no difference in MPB composition. Doubling of MPB biomass was accompanied by a disproportionately (ten-fold increase in total bacterial abundances while, unexpectedly, no difference in general community structure was observed, despite significantly lower bacterial richness and distinct community membership, mostly for non-abundant taxa. Denitrifier abundances corresponded likewise while community structure, both for nirS and nirK denitrifiers, remained unchanged, suggesting that competition with diatoms for nitrate is negligible at concentrations in the investigated sediments (appr. 1 mg/l NO3-. This study indicates that MPB biomass increase has a general, significantly positive effect on total bacterial and denitrifier abundances, with stimulation or inhibition of specific bacterial groups that however do not result in a re-structured community.

  16. Native and exotic earthworms affect orchid seed loss

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Melissa K.; Parker, Kenneth L.; Szlavecz, Katalin; Whigham, Dennis F.

    2013-01-01

    Non-native earthworms have invaded ecosystems around the world but have recently received increased attention as they invaded previously earthworm-free habitats in northern North America. Earthworms can affect plants by ingesting seeds and burying them in the soil. These effects can be negative or positive but are expected to become increasingly negative with decreasing seed size. Orchids have some of the smallest seeds of any plants, so we hypothesized that earthworm consumption of seeds wou...

  17. Earthworms and litter management contributions to ecosystem services in a tropical agroforestry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonte, Steven J; Six, Johan

    2010-06-01

    The development of sustainable agricultural systems depends in part upon improved management of non-crop species to enhance the overall functioning and provision of services by agroecosystems. To address this need, our research examined the role of earthworms and litter management on nutrient dynamics, soil organic matter (SOM) stabilization, and crop growth in the Quesungual agroforestry system of western Honduras. Field mesocosms were established with two earthworm treatments (0 vs. 8 Pontoscolex corethrurus individuals per mesocosm) and four litter quality treatments: (1) low-quality Zea mays, (2) high-quality Diphysa robinioides, (3) a mixture of low- and high-quality litters, and (4) a control with no organic residues applied. Mesocosms included a single Z. mays plant and additions of 15N-labeled inorganic nitrogen. At maize harvest, surface soils (0-15 cm) in the mesocosms were sampled to determine total and available P as well as the distribution of C, N, and 15N among different aggregate-associated SOM pools. Maize plants were divided into grain and non-grain components and analyzed for total P, N, and 15N. Earthworm additions improved soil structure as demonstrated by a 10% increase in mean weight diameter and higher C and N storage within large macro-aggregates (>2000 microm). A corresponding 17% increase in C contained in micro-aggregates within the macro-aggregates indicates that earthworms enhance the stabilization of SOM in these soils; however, this effect only occurred when organic residues were applied. Earthworms also decreased available P and total soil P, indicating that earthworms may facilitate the loss of labile P added to this system. Earthworms decreased the recovery of fertilizer-derived N in the soil but increased the uptake of 15N by maize by 7%. Litter treatments yielded minimal effects on soil properties and plant growth. Our results indicate that the application of litter inputs and proper management of earthworm populations can have

  18. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetidaIts Histological Perspicuity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gobi, M.; Gunasekaran, P.

    2010-01-01

    With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor) on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production) and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg/ kg -1 , 0.5150 mg/ kg -1 , and 2.5750 mg/ kg -1 of butachlor based on the LC 50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated

  19. Effect of Butachlor Herbicide on Earthworm Eisenia fetida—Its Histological Perspicuity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukaruppan Gobi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Green Revolution, there has been a quantum leap in the use of synthetic herbicides and pesticides throughout the world to sustain high yielding crop varieties. Continuous use of these synthetic chemicals leads to loss of soil fertility and soil organisms. To explore the effect of exposure to commercial herbicide (Butachlor on the life history parameters (biomass, clitellum development, and cocoon production and the histological changes in the earthworm Eisenia fetida over 60 days, the dried cow dung was contaminated with 0.2575 mg kg−1, 0.5150 mg kg−1, and 2.5750 mg kg−1 of butachlor based on the LC50 value, and a control was maintained. The mean earthworm biomass was found to be decreased with increasing herbicide concentration. Similarly, cocoon production was also reduced by the increasing herbicide concentration. A possible explanation is an increased demand for energy, needed for the regulation and detoxification of herbicide. All earthworms in the exposed group were found to have glandular cell enlargement and to be vacuolated.

  20. The leaf-litter earthworm fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of forests in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative survey of the leaf-litter earthworm fauna of 11 selected indigenous forests in Limpopo Province, South Africa, was conducted to identify the species present, to describe the communities and to assess the relationship between indigenous and exotic species. A total of 8185 individuals from 17 species (five ...

  1. Earthworms and post agricultural succession in the Neotropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; C.Y. Huang; S.C. Chang

    2008-01-01

    Earthworms are classified into endogeic, anecic, and epigeic species to represent soil, soil and litter, and litter feeders, respectively (Bouché 1977). Earthworms can alter soil physical properties and biogeochemical processes (e.g., Ewards and Bohlen 1996) according to their functionality. Endogeic earthworms alter soil properties primarily through changing soil...

  2. Earthworms, Dirt, and Rotten Leaves: An Exploration in Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Molly

    1994-01-01

    This article provides a model for inviting children to "an exploration in ecology" by observing earthworms. It gives reasons to explore earthworms and guides the investigator through a detailed examination of the worms to answer 21 observation questions. Explores the ways in which earthworms interact with their environment. (LZ)

  3. Efecto del proceso de secado de la lombriz de tierra (Eisenia andrei sobre el perfil aminoacídico de la harina determinado por cromatografía (CLAE | Effect of drying process of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei on amino acidic profile of the meal determined by chromatography (HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ovalles

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The possible effect of the drying temperature of the earthworm, Eisenia andrei, biomass on the amino acid profile of the resulting flour was evaluated. A tray dryer with air recirculation was used as a drying technique. The tested drying temperature were relatively low, T1 = 30, T2 = 40, T3 = 45 (°C, until obtaining a relative humidity below 10%. The differences in protein content of meal among treatments were not significant and resulted in average 63 ± 2% on a dry basis, and practically did not affect the proximate analysis in terms of total fat (7.2 ± 0.7% and ash content (5.3 ± 0.6%. Differences in the amino acid profile of the earthworm meal were not significant (p = 0.05 among treatments, except for asparagine (as Asp and glutamine (as Glu. Although, under the experimental conditions of the proposed approach, the results in terms of nutritional values were expected and satisfactory, they were not convenient in terms of microbiological quality. The results allow to infer that the use of low temperature drying is not a recommended approach to obtain earthworm meal, unless experimental conditions also ensure the microbiological quality without compromising the cost-benefit of the proposed drying process.

  4. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, a...

  5. Earthworms as indicators for different forest management types and human disturbance in Ilam oak forest, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heydari Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been observed widespread destruction of natural ecosystems around the world due to population growth, land use change and clear cutting which have affected soil properties. Different management strategies have been so far implemented to reduce this crisis in various regions of the world, such as e.g. short-term and long-term conservation management in the Zagros region. However, any management approach should be evaluated with appropriate measures to determine how managed areas respond. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential of earthworms as an indicator for different forest management strategies and human disturbances in Zagros oak (Quercus persica Jaub. and Spach forest. The sites selected included undisturbed one as the control (Un, the sites under five-year conservation management (FCM and twenty-year conservation management (TCM as well as the disturbed site (D. The results of principal component analysis (PCA showed that different regions separated into the components: PC1 and PC2. Un and TCM sites gathered together and represented higher values of the factors such as pH, Kavailable, OC, clay content, Pavailable, CEC, overstory tree canopy, Ntot, biomass and abundance of earthworms. The positive direction of the first axis reflected a gradient of EC, BD and Ptot. According to the logistic model, NH4-N and EC played the most important role in earthworm presence and absence in Zagros forest ecosystem. Earthworm abundance and biomass could be a good indicator to evaluate different forest management strategies in the study area.

  6. Autofluorescence in eleocytes of some earthworm species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Płytycz

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Immunocompetent cells of earthworms, coelomocytes, comprise adherent amoebocytes and granular eleocytes (chloragocytes. Both cell populations can be expelled via dorsal pores of adult earthworms by exposure to an electric current (4.5 V for 1 min. Analysis by phase contrast/fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry demonstrated that eleocyte population of several species exhibits a strong autofluorescence. A high percentage (11-35% of autofluorescent eleocytes was recorded in Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion sp. (O. cyaneum, O. tyrtaeum tyrtaeum and O. tyrtaeum lacteum. In contrast, autofluorescent coelomocytes were exceptionally scarce (less than 1% in representative Aporrectodea sp. (A. caliginosa and A. longa and Lumbricus sp. (L. castaneus, L. festivus, L. rubellus, L. terrestris. Thus, this paper for the first time describes profound intrinsic fluorescence of eleocytes in some--but not all--earthworm species. The function (if any and inter-species differences of the autofluorescent coelomocytes still remain elusive.

  7. Glycosaminoglycans from earthworms (Eisenia andrei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, A-Rang; Park, Youmie; Sim, Joon-Soo; Zhang, Zhenqing; Liu, Zhenling; Linhardt, Robert J; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2010-02-01

    The whole tissue of the earthworm (Eisenia andrei) was lyophilized and extracted to purify glycosaminoglycans. Fractions, eluting from an anion-exchange column at 1.0 M and 2.0 M NaCl, showed the presence of acidic polysaccharides on agarose gel electrophoresis. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that galactose and glucose were most abundant monosaccharides in both fractions. Depolymerization of the polysaccharide mixture with glycosaminoglycan-degrading enzymes confirmed the presence of chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction. The content of GAGs (uronic acid containing polysaccharide) in the 2.0 M NaCl fraction determined by carbazole assay was 2%. Disaccharide compositional analysis using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis after chondroitinase digestion (ABC and ACII), showed that the chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate contained a 4-O-sulfo (76%), 2,4-di-O-sulfo (15%), 6-O-sulfo (6%), and unsulfated (4%) uronic acid linked N-acetylgalactosamine residues. LC-ESI-MS analysis of heparin lyase I/II/III digests demonstrated the presence of N-sulfo (69%), N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (25%) and 2-O-sulfo-N-sulfo-6-O-sulfo (5%) uronic acid linked N-acetylglucosamine residues.

  8. Assessment of trace element accumulation by earthworms in an orchard soil remediation study using soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofantia, Tiziana; Chaney, Rufus L.; Beyer, W. Nelson; McConnell, Laura L.; Davis, A. P.; Jackson, Dana

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed potential bioaccumulation of various trace elements in grasses and earthworms as a consequence of soil incorporation of organic amendments for in situ remediation of an orchard field soil contaminated with organochlorine and Pb pesticide residues. In this experiment, four organic amendments of differing total organic carbon content and quality (two types of composted manure, composted biosolids, and biochar) were added to a contaminated orchard field soil, planted with two types of grasses, and tested for their ability to reduce bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides and metals in earthworms. The experiment was carried out in 4-L soil microcosms in a controlled environment for 90 days. After 45 days of orchardgrass or perennial ryegrass growth, Lumbricus terrestris L. were introduced to the microcosms and exposed to the experimental soils for 45 days before the experiment was ended. Total trace element concentrations in the added organic amendments were below recommended safe levels and their phytoavailablity and earthworm availability remained low during a 90-day bioremediation study. At the end of the experiment, total tissue concentrations of Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, and Zn in earthworms and grasses were below recommended safe levels. Total concentrations of Pb in test soil were similar to maximum background levels of Pb recorded in soils in the Eastern USA (100 mg kg−1 d.w.) because of previous application of orchard pesticides. Addition of aged dairy manure compost and presence of grasses was effective in reducing the accumulation of soil-derived Pb in earthworms, thus reducing the risk of soil Pb entry into wildlife food chains.

  9. Kinetic and Modeling Investigation to Provide Design Guidelines for the NREL Dilute-Acid Process Aimed at Total Hydrolysis/Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Iyer, P.; Xiang, Q.; Hayes, J.

    2004-08-01

    Following up on previous work, subcontractor investigated three aspects of using NREL ''pretreatment'' technology for total hydrolysis (cellulose as well as hemicellulose) of biomass. Whereas historic hydrolysis of biomass used either dilute acid or concentrated acid technology for hydrolysis of both hemicellulose and cellulose, NREL has been pursuing very dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. NREL's countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor design for hemicellulose hydrolysis (pretreatment) has, however, shown promise for total hydrolysis. For the first task, subcontractor developed a mathematical model of the countercurrent shrinking bed reactor operation and, using yellow poplar sawdust as a feedstock, analyzed the effect of: initial solid feeding rate, temperature, acid concentration, acid flow rate, Peclet number (a measure of backmixing in liquid flow), and bed shrinking. For the second task, subcontractor used laboratory trials, with yellow poplar sawdust and 0.07 wt% sulfuric acid at various temperatures, to verify the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose (desired) and decomposition of glucose (undesired) and determine appropriate parameters for use in kinetic models. Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, lignins, the third major component of biomass, are not carbohydrates that can be broken down into component sugars. They are, however, aromatic complex amorphous phenolic polymers that can likely be converted into low-molecular weight compounds suitable for production of fuels and chemicals. Oxidative degradation is one pathway for such conversion and hydrogen peroxide would be an attractive reagent for this, as it would leave no residuals. For the third task, subcontractor reacted lignin with hydrogen peroxide under various conditions and analyzed the resulting product mix.

  10. Annotation of nerve cord transcriptome in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanthakumar Ponesakki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In annelid worms, the nerve cord serves as a crucial organ to control the sensory and behavioral physiology. The inadequate genome resource of earthworms has prioritized the comprehensive analysis of their transcriptome dataset to monitor the genes express in the nerve cord and predict their role in the neurotransmission and sensory perception of the species. The present study focuses on identifying the potential transcripts and predicting their functional features by annotating the transcriptome dataset of nerve cord tissues prepared by Gong et al., 2010 from the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Totally 9762 transcripts were successfully annotated against the NCBI nr database using the BLASTX algorithm and among them 7680 transcripts were assigned to a total of 44,354 GO terms. The conserve domain analysis indicated the over representation of P-loop NTPase domain and calcium binding EF-hand domain. The COG functional annotation classified 5860 transcript sequences into 25 functional categories. Further, 4502 contig sequences were found to map with 124 KEGG pathways. The annotated contig dataset exhibited 22 crucial neuropeptides having considerable matches to the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii, suggesting their possible role in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. In addition, 108 human stem cell marker homologs were identified including the crucial epigenetic regulators, transcriptional repressors and cell cycle regulators, which may contribute to the neuronal and segmental regeneration. The complete functional annotation of this nerve cord transcriptome can be further utilized to interpret genetic and molecular mechanisms associated with neuronal development, nervous system regeneration and nerve cord function.

  11. The bioavailability of chemicals in soil for earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanno, R.; Wells, J.; Conder, Jason M.; Bradham, K.; Basta, N.

    2004-01-01

    The bioavailability of chemicals to earthworms can be modified dramatically by soil physical/chemical characteristics, yet expressing exposure as total chemical concentrations does not address this problem. In order to understand the effects of modifying factors on bioavailability, one must measure and express chemical bioavailability to earthworms in a consistent, logical manner. This can be accomplished by direct biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., bioaccumulation, critical body residues), indirect biological measures of bioavailability (e.g., biomarkers, reproduction), or indirect chemical measures of bioavailability (e.g., chemical or solid-phase extracts of soil). If indirect chemical measures of bioavailability are to be used, they must be correlated with some biological response. Bioavailability can be incorporated into ecological risk assessment during risk analysis, primarily in the estimation of exposure. However, in order to be used in the site-specific ecological risk assessment of chemicals, effects concentrations must be developed from laboratory toxicity tests based on exposure estimates utilizing techniques that measure the bioavailable fraction of chemicals in soil, not total chemical concentrations. ?? 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected warm water periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL1_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL0_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of 76 species...

  13. Assessing earthworm and sewage sludge impacts on microbiological and biochemical soil quality using multivariate analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanye Jafari Vafa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land application of organic wastes and biosolids such as municipal sewage sludge has been an important and attractive practice for improving different properties of agricultural soils with low organic matter content in semi-arid regions, due to an increase of soil organic matter level and fertility. However, application of this organic waste may directly or indirectly affect soil bio-indicators such as microbial and enzymatic activities through a change in the activity of other soil organisms such as earthworms. Earthworms are the most important soil saprophagous fauna and much of the faunal biomass is attributed to the presence of these organisms in the soil. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the effect of earthworm activity on soil microbial and biochemical attributes, in particularly when soils are amended with urban sewage sludge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the earthworm effects on biochemical and microbiological properties of a calcareous soil amended with municipal sewage sludge using Factor Analysis (FA. Materials and Methods: In the present study, the experimental treatments were sewage sludge (without and with 1.5% sewage sludge as the first factor and earthworm (no earthworm, Eiseniafoetida from epigeic group, Allolobophracaliginosa from endogeic group and a mixture of the two species as the second factor. The study was setup as 2×4 full factorial experiment arranged in a completely randomized design with three replications for each treatment under greenhouse conditions over 90 days. A calcareous soil from the 0-30 cm layer with clay loam texture was obtained from a farmland field under fallow without cultivation history for ten years. The soil was air-dried and passed through a 2-mm sieve for the experiment. Sewage sludge as the soil organic amendment was collected from Wastewater Treatment Plant in Shahrekord. Sewage sludge was air-dried and grounded to pass through a 1-mm sieve for a uniform mixture

  14. Analysis of integrated animal-fish production system under subtropical hill agro ecosystem in India: growth performance of animals, total biomass production and monetary benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaresan, A; Pathak, K A; Bujarbaruah, K M; Vinod, K

    2009-03-01

    The present study assessed the benefits of integration of animals with fish production in optimizing the bio mass production from unit land in subtropical hill agro ecosystem. Hampshire pigs and Khaki Campbell ducks were integrated with composite fish culture. The pig and duck excreta were directly allowed into the pond and no supplementary feed was given to fish during the period of study. The average levels of N, P and K in dried pig and duck manure were 0.9, 0.7 and 0.6 per cent and 1.3, 0.6 and 0.5 per cent, respectively. The average body weight of pig and duck at 11 months age was 90 and 1.74 kg with an average daily weight gain of 333.33 and 6.44 g, respectively. The fish production in pig-fish and duck-fish systems were 2209 and 2964 kg/ha, respectively while the fish productivity in control pond was only 820 kg/ha. The total biomass (animal and fish) production was higher (pfeeding system compared to the traditional system, however the input/output ratio was 1:1.2 and 1:1.55 for commercial and traditional systems, respectively. It was inferred that the total biomass production per unit land was high (pfish were integrated together.

  15. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests : complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J.; Cave, Mark R.; Harrington, Chris F.; Jenkin, Gawen R.T.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysi...

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Ma, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in

  17. Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in support of chemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankard, Peter K.; Svendsen, Claus; Wright, Julian; Wienberg, Claire; Fishwick, Samantha K.; Spurgeon, David J.; Weeks, Jason M.

    2004-01-01

    Biological indicators can be used to assess polluted sites but their success depends on the availability of suitable assays. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of two earthworm biomarkers, lysosomal membrane stability measured using the neutral red retention assay (NRR-T) and the total immune activity (TIA) assay, that have previously been established as responsive to chemical exposure. Responses of the two assays were measured following in situ exposure to complexly contaminated field soils at three industrial sites as well as urban and rural controls. The industrial sites were contaminated with a range of metal (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, nickel and cobalt) and organic (including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants, but at concentrations below the 'New Dutch List' Intervention concentrations. Exposed earthworms accumulated both metals and organic compounds at the contaminated sites, indicating that there was significant exposure. No effect on earthworm survival was found at any of the sites. Biomarker measurements, however, indicated significant effects, with lower NRR-T and TIA found in the contaminated soils when compared to the two controls. The results demonstrate that a comparison of soil pollutant concentrations with guideline values would not have unequivocally identified chemical exposure and toxic effect for soil organisms living in these soils. However, the earthworm biomarkers successfully identified significant exposure and biological effects caused by the mixture of chemicals present

  18. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  19. Visualization of enzyme activities inside earthworm pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2015-04-01

    In extremely dynamic microhabitats as bio-pores made by earthworm, the in situ enzyme activities are assumed as a footprint of complex biotic interactions. Our study focused on the effect of earthworm on the enzyme activities inside bio-pores and visualizing the differences between bio-pores and earthworm-free soil by zymography technique (Spohn and Kuzyakov, 2013). For the first time, we aimed at quantitative imaging of enzyme activities in bio-pores. Lumbricus terrestris L. was placed into transparent box (15×20×15cm). After two weeks when bio-pore systems were formed by earthworms, we visualized in situ enzyme activities of five hydrolytic enzymes (β-glucosidase, cellobiohydrolase, chitinase, xylanase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phosphatase. Zymography showed higher activity of β-glucosidase, chitinase, xylanase and phosphatase in biopores comparing to bulk soil. However, the differences in activity of cellobiohydrolase and leucine aminopeptidase between bio-pore and bulk soil were less pronounced. This demonstrated an applicability of zymography approach to monitor and to distinguish the in situ activity of hydrolytic enzymes in soil biopores.

  20. Earthworm-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameh

    The use of earthworms (Eudrilus eugenia) for vermi-assisted bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated mechanic workshop soils ... not always result in complete neutrali- zation of pollutants (Yerushalmi et al., 2003). ..... Screening of biofouling activity in marine bacterial isolate from ship hull. Int. J. Environ. Sci.

  1. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Butt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost webcam usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  2. does earthworms density really modify soil's hydrodynamic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N. Ababsa,, M. Kribaa, D. Addad, L. Tamrabet and M. Baha

    1 mai 2016 ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0. International License. Libraries Resource Directory. We are listed under Research Associations category. DOES EARTHWORMS DENSITY REALLY MODIFY SOIL'S HYDRODYNAMIC.

  3. Soil fauna research in Poland: earthworms (Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pączka Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are the foundation of ecosystem services. Of particular notice is zooedaphone, often underestimated and basically unknown to the general public. The present review summarizes the current state of knowledge related to earthworms occurring in natural and anthropogenically altered habitats in Poland, in the context of the requirement for protection of soil biodiversity.

  4. Basic Research Tools for Earthworm Ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, K.R.; Grigoropoulou, N.

    2010-01-01

    Earthworms are responsible for soil development, recycling organic matter and form a vital component within many food webs. For these and other reasons earthworms are worthy of investigation. Many technologically-enhanced approaches have been used within earthworm-focused research. These have their place, may be a development of existing practices or bring techniques from other fields. Nevertheless, let us not overlook the fact that much can still be learned through utilisation of more basic approaches which have been used for some time. New does not always equate to better. Information on community composition within an area and specific population densities can be learned using simple collection techniques, and burrowing behaviour can be determined from pits, resin-insertion or simple mesocosms. Life history studies can be achieved through maintenance of relatively simple cultures. Behavioural observations can be undertaken by direct observation or with low cost we became usage. Applied aspects of earthworm research can also be achieved through use of simple techniques to enhance population development and even population dynamics can be directly addressed with use of relatively inexpensive, effective marking techniques. This paper seeks to demonstrate that good quality research in this sphere can result from appropriate application of relatively simple research tools.

  5. DNA damage and repair process in earthworm after in-vivo and in vitro exposure to soils irrigated by wastewaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Min; Chen Ying; Wang Chunxia; Wang Zijian; Zhu Yongguan

    2007-01-01

    In this study, DNA damage to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after in vivo exposure to contaminated soils was measured by detecting DNA strand breakages (DSBs) and causality was analyzed through fractionation based bioassays. A non-linear dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil PAHs levels. DNA damage, measured with the comet assay, and its repair process, were observed. To identify the chemical causality, an in vitro comet assay using coelomocytes was subsequently performed on the fractionated organic extracts from soils. The results showed that the PAHs in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. When normalized to benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent (TEQ BaP ), the saturation dose in the dose-response curve was about 10 ng TEQ BaP g -1 soil (dw). - A non-linear dose-response relationship exists between earthworm DNA damage, measured with comet assay, and total PAHs levels in soils irrigated by wastewaters

  6. Nanoparticle silver coexposure reduces the accumulation of weathered persistent pesticides by earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Hawthorne, Joseph; White, Jason C; Kelsey, Jason W

    2017-07-01

    Although the use of engineered nanomaterials continues to increase, how these materials interact with coexisting contaminants in the environment is largely unknown. The effect of silver (Ag) in bulk, ionic, and nanoparticle (NP; bare and polyvinyl pyrrolidone-coated) forms at 3 concentrations (0 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, 2000 mg/kg; ion at 69 mg/kg, 138 mg/kg, 276 mg/kg) on the accumulation of field-weathered chlordane and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene + metabolites (DDX) by Eisenia fetida (earthworm) was investigated. Earthworm biomass and survival were unaffected by treatment. At the 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg exposure levels, NP-exposed earthworms contained significantly greater Ag (194-245%) than did the bulk exposed organisms; NP size or coating had no impact on element content. Generally, exposure to Ag of any type or at any concentration significantly reduced pesticide accumulation, although reductions for DDX (35.1%; 8.9-47.0%) were more modest than those for chlordane (79.0%; 17.4-92.9%). For DDX, the reduction in pesticide accumulation was not significantly affected by Ag type or concentration. For chlordane, the 3 NP exposures suppressed chlordane accumulation significantly more than did bulk exposure; earthworms exposed to bulk Ag contained 1170 ng/g chlordane, but levels in the NP-exposed earthworms were 279 ng/g. At the 500 mg/kg exposure, the smallest coated NPs exerted the greatest suppression in chlordane accumulation; at the 2 higher concentrations, chlordane uptake was unaffected by NP size or coating. The findings show that in exposed earthworms Ag particle size does significantly impact accumulation of the element itself, as well as that of coexisting weathered pesticides. The implications of these findings with regard to NP exposure and risk are unknown but are the topic of current investigation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1864-1871. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  7. Single and Combined Effects of Pesticide Seed Dressings and Herbicides on Earthworms, Soil Microorganisms, and Litter Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoesel, Willem; Tiefenbacher, Alexandra; König, Nina; Dorn, Verena M; Hagenguth, Julia F; Prah, Urša; Widhalm, Theresia; Wiklicky, Viktoria; Koller, Robert; Bonkowski, Michael; Lagerlöf, Jan; Ratzenböck, Andreas; Zaller, Johann G

    2017-01-01

    Seed dressing, i.e., the treatment of crop seeds with insecticides and/or fungicides, aiming to protect seeds from pests and diseases, is widely used in conventional agriculture. During the growing season, those crop fields often receive additional broadband herbicide applications. However, despite this broad utilization, very little is known on potential side effects or interactions between these different pesticide classes on soil organisms. In a greenhouse pot experiment, we studied single and interactive effects of seed dressing of winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. var. Capo ) with neonicotinoid insecticides and/or strobilurin and triazolinthione fungicides and an additional one-time application of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the activity of earthworms, soil microorganisms, litter decomposition, and crop growth. To further address food-web interactions, earthworms were introduced to half of the experimental units as an additional experimental factor. Seed dressings significantly reduced the surface activity of earthworms with no difference whether insecticides or fungicides were used. Moreover, seed dressing effects on earthworm activity were intensified by herbicides (significant herbicide × seed dressing interaction). Neither seed dressings nor herbicide application affected litter decomposition, soil basal respiration, microbial biomass, or specific respiration. Seed dressing did also not affect wheat growth. We conclude that interactive effects on soil biota and processes of different pesticide classes should receive more attention in ecotoxicological research.

  8. Effect of total solids content on biohydrogen production and lactic acid accumulation during dark fermentation of organic waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Trably, Eric; Frunzo, Luigi; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni; Cazier, Elisabeth A; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    Production of biohydrogen and related metabolic by-products was investigated in Solid State Dark Fermentation (SSDF) of food waste (FW) and wheat straw (WS). The effect of the total solids (TS) content and H 2 partial pressure (pp H2 ), two of the main operating factors of SSDF, were investigated. Batch tests with FW at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% TS showed considerable effects of the TS on metabolites distribution. H 2 production was strongly inhibited for TS contents higher than 15% with a concomitant accumulation of lactic acid and a decrease in substrate conversion. Varying the pp H2 had no significant effect on the conversion products and overall degradation of FW and WS, suggesting that pp H2 was not the main limiting factor in SSDF. This study showed that the conversion of complex substrates by SSDF depends on the substrate type and is limited by the TS content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-En; Yu, Jiayu; Ouyang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period. Results showed that earthworms tended to escape from the soil and eventually died for the SAR at pH = 2.0 as a result of acid toxicity. The catalase activity in the earthworms decreased with the SAR pH levels, whereas the superoxide dismutases activity in the earthworms showed a fluctuate pattern: decreasing from pH 6.5 to 5.0 and increasing from pH 5.0 to 4.0. Results implied that the growth of earthworms was retarded at the SAR pH ≤ 3.0.

  10. Características bio-ecológicas en poblaciones de lombrices (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae de una sabana natural y una protegida en los llanos centrales de Venezuela Bioecological characteristics of earthworm populations (Oligochaeta: Glossoscolecidae in a natural and a protected savanna in the central Llanos of Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernández

    2012-09-01

    plots of 90x90m, five fixed sampling units were selected at random; and at each sampling point one soil monolith of 25x25x30cm was collected per unit. Earthworms were extracted using the hand sorting extraction method; and the flotation method was used to estimate the density of cocoons. The earthworms were classified in different ecological categories considering their pigmentation, size and depth profile distribution. As a result of the savanna protection, physical parameters were modified in relation to SNI. The SP soils had higher soil moisture when compared to SNI. Soil moisture varied with depth during the dry season since, after the start of the rainy season, the soil was saturated. Field capacity in the SP was greater than that in the SNI. The surface apparent bulk density of soil was lower in the SP respect SNI, reflecting a lower soil compaction. Total average for the density and biomass of earthworms differed greatly, showing higher values in the SP. The earthworm density average in SP ranged between 25.6-85 individuals/m2 and the average biomass between 6.92-23.23g/m2. While in SNI, earthworms were only found in August, with a mean density of 22.40individuals/m2 and a mean biomass of 5.17g/m2. The vertical distribution pattern was only analyzed for the SP, and as in the SNI, no earthworms were found during the dry season; in the SP, a migration of earthworms to deeper layers during the dry season was observed; while in the rainy season they moved to upper soil layers to feed. The systems were characterized by abundance in juvenile Glossoscolecidae family earthworms which might be included in the endo-anecic ecological category. Results suggest that savanna agricultural management can modify an important fraction of pedofauna, particularly their earthworm communities, by modification of soil properties.

  11. Earthworms and in vitro physiologically-based extraction tests: complementary tools for a holistic approach towards understanding risk at arsenic-contaminated sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Mark; Watts, Michael J; Cave, Mark R; Harrington, Chris F; Jenkin, Gawen T

    2009-04-01

    The relationship of the total arsenic content of a soil and its bioaccumulation by earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus and Dendrodrilus rubidus) to the arsenic fraction bioaccessible to humans, measured using an in vitro physiologically-based extraction test (PBET), was investigated. Soil and earthworm samples were collected at 24 sites at the former arsenic mine at the Devon Great Consols (DGC) in southwest England (UK), along with an uncontaminated site in Nottingham, UK, for comparison. Analysis of soil and earthworm total arsenic via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was performed following a mixed acid digestion. Arsenic concentrations in the soil were elevated (204-9,025 mg kg(-1)) at DGC. The arsenic bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both earthworm species was found to correlate positively with the human bioaccessible fraction (HBF), although the correlation was only significant (P earthworms as complementary tools is explored as a holistic and multidisciplinary approach towards understanding risk at contaminated sites. Arsenic resistant earthworm species such as the L. rubellus populations at DGC are presented as a valuable tool for understanding risk at highly contaminated sites.

  12. Invasion of the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta in temperate grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ortiz-Gamino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus (Rhinodrilidae, Oligochaeta presents a broad distribution (e.g., 56 countries from four continents. It is generally assumed that temperature appears to limit the success of tropical exotic species in temperate climates. However, the distribution range of this species could advance towards higher elevations (with lower temperatures where no tropical species currently occur. The aim of this study was to evaluate the soil and climatic variables that could be closely associated with the distribution of P. corethrurus in four sites along an altitudinal gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico. We predicted that the distribution of P. corethrurus would be more related to climate variables than edaphic parameters. Five sampling points (in the grassland were established at each of four sites along an altitudinal gradient: Laguna Verde (LV, La Concepción (LC, Naolinco (NA and Acatlán (AC at 11–55, 992–1,025, 1,550–1,619 y 1,772–1,800 masl, respectively. The climate ranged from tropical to temperate along the altitudinal gradient. Ten earthworm species (5 Neotropical, 4 Palearctic and 1 Nearctic were found along the gradient, belonging to three families (Rhinodrilidae, Megascolecide and Lumbricidae. Soil properties showed a significant association (positive for Ngrass, pH, permanent wilting point, organic matter and P; and negative for Total N, K and water-holding capacity with the abundance of the earthworm community. Also there seems to be a relationship between climate and earthworm distribution along the altitudinal gradient. P. corethrurus was recorded at tropical (LV and LC and temperate sites (NA along the altitudinal gradient. Our results reveal that soil fertility determines the abundance of earthworms and site (climate can act as a barrier to their migration. Further research is needed to determine the genetic structure and lineages of P. corethrurus along altitudinal gradients.

  13. Relationships between metal compartmentalization and biomarkers in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Lamy, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Partitioning tissue metal concentration into subcellular compartments reflecting toxicologically available pools may provide good descriptors of the toxicological effects of metals on organisms. Here we investigated the relationships between internal compartmentalization of Cd, Pb and Zn and biomarker responses in a model soil organism: the earthworm. The aim of this study was to identify metal fractions reflecting the toxic pressure in an endogeic, naturally occurring earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa) exposed to realistic field-contaminated soils. After a 21 days exposure experiment to 31 field-contaminated soils, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in earthworms and in three subcellular fractions (cytosol, debris and granules) were quantified. Different biomarkers were measured: the expression of a metallothionein gene (mt), the activity of catalase (CAT) and of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and the protein, lipid and glycogen reserves. Biomarkers were further combined into an integrated biomarker index (IBR). The subcellular fractionation provided better predictors of biomarkers than the total internal contents hence supporting its use when assessing toxicological bioavailability of metals to earthworms. The most soluble internal pools of metals were not always the best predictors of biomarker responses. metallothionein expression responded to increasing concentrations of Cd in the insoluble fraction (debris + granules). Protein and glycogen contents were also mainly related to Cd and Pb in the insoluble fraction. On the other hand, GST activity was better explained by Pb in the cytosolic fraction. CAT activity and lipid contents variations were not related to metal subcellular distribution. The IBR was best explained by both soluble and insoluble fractions of Pb and Cd. This study further extends the scope of mt expression as a robust and specific biomarker in an ecologically representative earthworm species exposed to field-contaminated soils. The

  14. Effects of Earthworms on the Dispersal of Steinernema spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Shapiro, D. I.; Tylka, G. L.; Berry, E. C.; Lewis, L. C.

    1995-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that dispersal of S. carpocapsae may be enhanced in soil with earthworms. The objective of this research was to determine and compare the effects of earthworms on dispersal of other Steinernema spp. Vertical dispersal of Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and S. glaseri was tested in soil columns in the presence and absence of earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris). Dispersal was evaluated by a bioassay and by direct extraction of nematodes from soil. Upward dispersal ...

  15. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content......, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds......, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N2O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability...

  16. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  17. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  18. Checklist of earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmitz, Ricarda; Römbke, Jörg; Jänsch, Stephan; Krück, Stefanie; Beylich, Anneke; Graefe, Ulfert

    2014-09-23

    A checklist of the German earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published data, data from reports, diploma- and PhD- theses as well as unpublished data from museum collections, research institutions and private persons. Overall, 16,000 datasets were analyzed to produce the first German checklist of Lumbricidae. The checklist comprises 46 earthworm species from 15 genera and provides ecological information, zoogeographical distribution type and information on the species distribution in Germany. Only one species, Lumbricus badensis Michaelsen, 1907, is endemic to Germany, whereas 41% are peregrine. As there are 14 species occurring exclusively in the southern or eastern part of Germany, the species numbers in German regions increase from north to south.

  19. Monitoring to assess progress toward meeting the Assabet River, Massachusetts, phosphorus total maximum daily load - Aquatic macrophyte biomass and sediment-phosphorus flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Marc J.; Qian, Yu; Yong Q., Tian

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Total Phosphorus in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, was approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The goal of the TMDL was to decrease the concentrations of the nutrient phosphorus to mitigate some of the instream ecological effects of eutrophication on the river; these effects were, for the most part, direct consequences of the excessive growth of aquatic macrophytes. The primary instrument effecting lower concentrations of phosphorus was to be strict control of phosphorus releases from four major wastewatertreatment plants in Westborough, Marlborough, Hudson, and Maynard, Massachusetts. The improvements to be achieved from implementing this control were lower concentrations of total and dissolved phosphorus in the river, a 50-percent reduction in aquatic-plant biomass, a 30-percent reduction in episodes of dissolved oxygen supersaturation, no low-flow dissolved oxygen concentrations less than 5.0 milligrams per liter, and a 90-percent reduction in sediment releases of phosphorus to the overlying water. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, initiated studies to evaluate conditions in the Assabet River prior to the upgrading of wastewater-treatment plants to remove more phosphorus from their effluents. The studies, completed in 2008, implemented a visual monitoring plan to evaluate the extent and biomass of the floating macrophyte Lemna minor (commonly known as lesser duckweed) in five impoundments and evaluated the potential for phosphorus flux from sediments in impounded and free-flowing reaches of the river. Hydrologically, the two study years 2007 and 2008 were quite different. In 2007, summer streamflows, although low, were higher than average, and in 2008, the flows were generally higher than in 2007. Visually, the effects of these streamflow differences on the distribution of Lemna were obvious. In 2007, large amounts of

  20. The synergistic effects for the co-cultivation of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus on the biomass and total lipids accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Hong-Wei; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chen, Li-Juan

    2015-05-01

    In this co-culture of oleaginous yeast-Rhodotorula glutinis and microalgae-Scenedesmus obliquus, microalgae potentially acts as an oxygen generator for the growth of aerobic yeast while the yeast mutually provides CO2 to the microalgae as both carry out the production of lipids. To explore the synergistic effects of co-cultivation on the cells growth and total lipids accumulation, several co-culture process parameters including the carbon source concentration, temperature and dissolved oxygen level would be firstly investigated in the flask trials. The results of co-culture in a 5L photobioreactor revealed that about 40-50% of biomass increased and 60-70% of total lipid increased was observed as compared to the single culture batches. Besides the synergistic effects of gas utilization, the providing of trace elements to each other after the natural cells lysis was believed to be another benefit to the growth of the overall co-culture system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Checklist of the earthworms (Oligochaeta) of Kerala, a constituent of Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S Prasanth; Sathrumithra, S; Christopher, G; Thomas, A P; Julka, J M

    2016-11-15

    A checklist of earthworm species hitherto known from Kerala, a constituent of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India, is presented. In total, 88 species and subspecies are recorded, of which 55 are Kerala endemics, 9 near endemics, 14 exotics and 10 native peregrines. These belong to 26 genera and 9 families. The checklist includes the literature citation to the original description, type locality, any significant subsequent generic placements, and the district distributional pattern for each species/ subspecies.

  2. Biomass Maps | Geospatial Data Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Maps Biomass Maps These maps illustrate the biomass resource in the United States by county . Biomass feedstock data are analyzed both statistically and graphically using a geographic information Data Science Team. Solid Biomass Resources Map of Total Biomass Resources in the United States Solid

  3. Interaction effects and mechanism of Pb pollution and soil microorganism in the presence of earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gao; Ling, Siyuan; Zhan, Xiuping; Lin, Zhifen; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals usually cause great damage to soil ecosystem. Lead (Pb) was chosen as a research object in the present study. Here repeated exposure of Pb was designed for the soil artificially contaminated. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the changes in the Pb availability and biological activity in the presence of earthworm, and the risk assessment code (RAC) was applied to evaluate the remediated soil. Results demonstrated that Pb gradually transformed to more stable fractions (OMB- and FeMnOX-Pb) under microbial action, indicating the risk level of Pb was declined. On the other hand, Pb also caused the inhibition of soil respiration and microbial biomass, and the higher the concentration of Pb, the stronger the inhibition; While in the presence of earthworm, it could absorb Pb and facilitate microbial activity, reflected the decrease of Pb content and the increase of respiration intensity in soil, as well as microbial biomass. Additionally, a good dose-response relationship between EXCH-Pb content and respiration intensity might provide a basis for ecological risk assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The earthworm gut: an ideal habitat for ingested N2O-producing microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Marcus A; Schramm, Andreas; Drake, Harold L

    2003-03-01

    The in vivo production of nitrous oxide (N(2)O) by earthworms is due to their gut microbiota, and it is hypothesized that the microenvironment of the gut activates ingested N(2)O-producing soil bacteria. In situ measurement of N(2)O and O(2) with microsensors demonstrated that the earthworm gut is anoxic and the site of N(2)O production. The gut had a pH of 6.9 and an average water content of approximately 50%. The water content within the gut decreased from the anterior end to the posterior end. In contrast, the concentration of N(2)O increased from the anterior end to the mid-gut region and then decreased along the posterior part of the gut. Compared to the soil in which worms lived and fed, the gut of the earthworm was highly enriched in total carbon, organic carbon, and total nitrogen and had a C/N ratio of 7 (compared to a C/N ratio of 12 in soil). The aqueous phase of gut contents contained up to 80 mM glucose and numerous compounds that were indicative of anaerobic metabolism, including up to 9 mM formate, 8 mM acetate, 3 mM lactate, and 2 mM succinate. Compared to the soil contents, nitrite and ammonium were enriched in the gut up to 10- and 100-fold, respectively. The production of N(2)O by soil was induced when the gut environment was simulated in anoxic microcosms for 24 h (the approximate time for passage of soil through the earthworm). Anoxia, high osmolarity, nitrite, and nitrate were the dominant factors that stimulated the production of N(2)O. Supplemental organic carbon had a very minimal stimulatory effect on the production of N(2)O, and addition of buffer or ammonium had essentially no effect on the initial N(2)O production rates. However, a combination of supplements yielded rates greater than that obtained mathematically for single supplements, suggesting that the maximum rates observed were due to synergistic effects of supplements. Collectively, these results indicate that the special microenvironment of the earthworm gut is ideally suited

  5. 1H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.

    2010-01-01

    1 H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised ∼65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - 1 H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  6. Activity of earthworm in Latosol under simulated acid rain stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-En Zhang; Jiayu Yu; Ying Ouyang

    2015-01-01

    Acid rain is still an issue of environmental concerns. This study investigated the impacts of simulated acid rain (SAR) upon earthworm activity from the Latosol (acidic red soil). Laboratory experiment was performed by leaching the soil columns grown with earthworms (Eisenia fetida) at the SAR pH levels ranged from 2.0 to 6.5 over a 34-day period....

  7. Uptake and elimination kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Earthworm inoculation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil is thought to catalyze the bioremediation. Most bioremediation studies focus on the petroleum hydrocarbon content and not on the heavy metals. Here, the uptake kinetics of heavy metals by earthworm in used engine oil contaminated soil was investigated.

  8. Earthworms (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of the Columbia River basin assessment area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sam. James

    2000-01-01

    Earthworms are key components of many terrestrial ecosystems; however, little is known of their ecology, distribution, and taxonomy in the eastern interior Columbia River basin assessment area (hereafter referred to as the basin assessment area). This report summarizes the main issues about the ecology of earthworms and their impact on the physical and chemical status...

  9. Earthworms in Short-term Contact with a Low Dose of Neonicotinoid Actara 25WG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Garczyńska

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory experiment, carried out for five months, was designed to assess effects produced by the neonicotinoid Actara 25 WG, used at a dose recommended by the manufacturer, in the dynamics of populations of epigeic earthworms Eisenia fetida (Sav. and Dendrobena veneta (Rosa. The study was conducted in a climatic chamber and involved balanced biomass of mature specimens representing both species, in 3 replications of soil medium with the insecticide, in addition to controls. The growing populations were inspected five times, by means of manual segregation of the substrate. The insecticide led to an increase in both the number of specimens and biomass of E. fetida population (overall as well as mature and immature worms, yet it reduced their reproduction (decreased number of cocoons (p<0.05. In the case of D.veneta, the neonicotinoid insecticide produced positive effects only in mature specimens (p<0.05.

  10. Bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm: Eudrilus eugeniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekperusi, Ogheneruemu Abraham; Aigbodion, Iruobe Felix

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory study on the bioremediation of diesel contaminated soil with the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kingberg) was conducted. 5 ml of diesel was contaminated into soils in replicates and inoculated with E. eugeniae for 90 days. Physicochemical parameters, heavy metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analyzed using AAS. BTEX in contaminated soil and tissues of earthworms were determined with GC-FID. The activities of earthworms resulted in a decrease in pH (3.0 %), electrical conductivity (60.66 %), total nitrogen (47.37 %), chloride (60.66 %), total organic carbon (49.22 %), sulphate (60.59 %), nitrate (60.65 %), phosphate (60.80 %), sodium (60.65 %), potassium (60.67 %), calcium (60.67 %), magnesium (60.68 %), zinc (60.59 %), manganese (60.72 %), copper (60.68 %), nickel (60.58 %), cadmium (60.44 %), vanadium (61.19 %), chromium (53.60 %), lead (60.38 %), mercury (61.11 %), arsenic (80.85 %), TPH (84.99 %). Among the BTEX constituents, only benzene (8.35 %) was detected in soil at the end of the study. Earthworm tissue analysis showed varying levels of TPH (57.35 %), benzene (38.91 %), toluene (27.76 %), ethylbenzene (42.16 %) and xylene (09.62 %) in E. eugeniae at the end of the study. The study has shown that E. eugeniae could be applied as a possible bioremediator in diesel polluted soil.

  11. Avoidance of Ag nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the avoidance behaviour of earthworms, Eisenia fetida to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs). Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly as antibacterial agents....... The avoidance behaviour could not be explained by the release of silver ions in the soil-solution. Although, Ag-ions release (if any) may still have had an influence on behaviour. The present results suggests that the earthworms perceive the presence of actual nanoparticles in the soil. Our results suggest that...... and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworms avoided commercially fabricated silver nanoparticles in a dose and time dependent manner. The earthworms were exposed to 3 nanoparticles: NM...

  12. Microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are well adapted to their soil microhabitat where they live together in consortia, interacting with other living members, including earthworms. This literature review consists of four sections that focus on microscale interactions between earthworms and microorganisms. The first part is devoted to nephridia symbiosis. Recent discoveries show that Verminephrobacter spp. is present as a symbiont in earthworm nephridia. The second section deals with earthworm food preference and focuses on the major hypotheses of foraging strategies. The third section presents evidence of gut symbionts and highlights the need for additional studies in this field. The last section of this review explains why microorganism activities are enhanced in burrows and casts of earthworms.

  13. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Birkas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming—such as sustained dry spells in the summer—also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

  14. Effect of Soil Physical State on the Earthworms in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkas, M.; Bottlik, L.; Stingli, A.; Gyuricza, C.; Jolankai, M.

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian authors have long been discussing the role of earthworms in improving soil productivity. Earthworm counts in our higher quality soils are similar to those found in soils where more attention is paid to earthworm activity. Negative impacts that are independent of farming such as sustained dry spells in the summer also affect earthworm counts. Negative impacts that definitely depend on farming include land use causing soil moisture loss, deep stubble treatment leaving the soil without cover, and ploughing in the summer without subsequent pressing. The climate change is having both positive and negative impacts. Weather patterns are causing losses but adopting climate mitigating tillage are generating benefits. In the trials results so far show that tillage focusing on preserving soil moisture, structure, and organic materials, covering the surface in the critical months as well as adequate soil loosening are fundamental pre-requisites for making the soil a favourable habitat for earthworms.

  15. Beneficial effect of Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts on the fitness of the earthworm Aporrectodea tuberculata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Holmstrup, Martin; Lomstein, Bente Aagaard

    2010-01-01

    grown on the low nutrient diet. Thus, the Verminephrobacter nephridial symbionts do have a beneficial effect on their earthworm host. Cocoons with and without symbionts did not significantly differ in total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), or total hydrolysable amino acid (THAA) content, which...

  16. Alternatives to herbicides in an apple orchard, effects on yield, earthworms and plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.; Kuehn, Birka Falk; Bertelsen, M.

    2013-01-01

    tIn a newly established apple orchard eight alternative methods to weed control in the tree row werecompared to a herbicide treatment with respect to effects on tree growth, first-quality fruit yield, earth-worms and flora. All treatments were tested at two irrigation schedules, with similar amount......, whereasmulching with paper wool reduced first-quality fruit yield compared to herbicide treatment. Cover cropas tagetes and weed harrowing had similar yield as herbicide treatment, whereas cover crops as grassand hop medick and weed cutting reduced first-quality yield compared to herbicide treatment. Earth......-worms thrived under rape straw contrary to under black polypropylene and plots with weed harrowing.Treatments had significant effects on species numbers of plants both years, and total vegetation covergenerally increased in the second year. Rape straw supported a high production of apples and a largestock...

  17. Metal accumulation in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Model predictions compared to field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltman, K.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.; Vijver, M.G.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; Hobbelen, P.H.F.; Koolhaas, J.E.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Vliet, P.C.J.; Jan, Hendriks A.

    2007-01-01

    The mechanistic bioaccumulation model OMEGA (Optimal Modeling for Ecotoxicological Applications) is used to estimate accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus. Our validation to field accumulation data shows that the model accurately predicts internal cadmium concentrations. In addition, our results show that internal metal concentrations in the earthworm are less than linearly (slope < 1) related to the total concentration in soil, while risk assessment procedures often assume the biota-soil accumulation factor (BSAF) to be constant. Although predicted internal concentrations of all metals are generally within a factor 5 compared to field data, incorporation of regulation in the model is necessary to improve predictability of the essential metals such as zinc and copper. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dietary flexibility aids Asian earthworm invasion in North American forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Hendrix, Paul F; Snyder, Bruce A; Molina, Marirosa; Li, Jianxiong; Rao, Xingquan; Siemann, Evan; Fu, Shenglei

    2010-07-01

    On a local scale, invasiveness of introduced species and invasibility of habitats together determine invasion success. A key issue in invasion ecology has been how to quantify the contribution of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately. Conventional approaches, such as comparing the differences in traits and/or impacts of species between native and/or invaded ranges, do not determine the extent to which the performance of invaders is due to either the effects of species traits or habitat characteristics. Here we explore the interaction between two of the most widespread earthworm invaders in the world (Asian Amynthas agrestis and European Lumbricus rubellus) and study the effects of species invasiveness and habitat invasibility separately through an alternative approach of "third habitat" in Tennessee, USA. We propose that feeding behaviors of earthworms will be critical to invasion success because trophic ecology of invasive animals plays a key role in the invasion process. We found that (1) the biomass and isotopic abundances (delta13C and delta15N) of A. agrestis were not impacted by either direct effects of L. rubellus competition or indirect effects of L. rubellus-preconditioned habitat; (2) A. agrestis disrupted the relationship between L. rubellus and soil microorganisms and consequently hindered litter consumption by L. rubellus; and (3) compared to L. rubellus, A. agrestis shifted its diet more readily to consume more litter, more soil gram-positive (G+) bacteria (which may be important for litter digestion), and more non-microbial soil fauna when soil microorganisms were depleted. In conclusion, A. agrestis showed strong invasiveness through its dietary flexibility through diet shifting and superior feeding behavior and its indirectly negative effect of habitat invasibility on L. rubellus via changes in the soil microorganism community. In such context, our results expand on the resource fluctuation hypothesis and support the superior

  19. Earthworms from Matsu, Taiwan with descriptions of new species of the genera Amynthas (Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) and Drawida (Oligochaeta: Moniligastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huei-Ping; Chang, Chih-Han; Chih, Wen-Jay

    2015-06-18

    In 2012, we conducted earthworm surveys in Matsu Islands, and described five new species of the genera Amynthas and Metaphire and reported two new records, Desmogaster sinensis Gates, 1930 and Ocnerodrilus occidentalis Eisen, 1878. This paper describes three new species, one of them with two new subspecies, Amynthas nanganensis nanganensis sp. nov. et ssp. nov. and Amynthas nanganensis beiganensis ssp. nov., Drawida beiganica sp. nov. and Drawida dongyinica sp. nov., provides a new record of Drawida koreana Kobayashi, 1938 from the remaining specimens collected in the surveys, reports DNA barcodes (the 5' end sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene) from type specimens and further reference specimens of the new species, and lists a total of 27 earthworm species and subspecies found from Matsu Islands. Pheretimoid earthworms made up 66.7% of the total number of the species, with Metaphire matsuensis Shen, 2014 and Metaphire californica (Kinberg, 1867) the most dominant. Our findings indicate that the earthworm fauna of Matsu Islands is more closely related to that of warm temperate China than to Taiwan or tropical southern China.

  20. Five-minute grid of total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected cool water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL3_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL3_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq km) of up to 76...

  1. Five-minute grid of the total marine bird biomass densities surveyed off central California - selected neutral water temperature periods, 1980-2001 (CDAS data set AL2_MASS.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AL2_MASS is a polygon shapefile representing 5 minute x 5 minute latitude x longitude cells that house the overall total biomass densities (kg/sq.km.) of up to 76...

  2. Differences in sensitivity between earthworms and enchytraeids exposed to two commercial fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Sylvain; Laurent, Céline; Péry, Alexandre R R; Mougin, Christian; Pelosi, Céline

    2017-06-01

    The use of pesticides in crop fields may have negative effects on soil Oligochaeta Annelida, i.e., earthworms and enchytraeids, and thus affect soil quality. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two commercial fungicide formulations on the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa and the enchytraeid Enchytraeus albidus in a natural soil. The fungicides were Cuprafor micro® (copper oxychloride), commonly used in organic farming, and Swing Gold® (epoxiconazole and dimoxystrobin), a synthetic fungicide widely used in conventional farming to protect cereal crops. Laboratory experiments were used to assess the survival, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. No lethal effect was observed following exposure to the copper fungicide for 14 days, even at 5000mgkg -1 of copper, i.e. 650 times the recommended dose (RD). However, a significant decrease in biomass was observed from 50mgkg -1 of copper (6.5 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and at 5000mgkg -1 of copper (650 times the RD) for E. albidus. These sublethal effects suggest that a longer period of exposure would probably have led to lethal effects. The EC50 avoidance for the copper fungicide was estimated to be 51.2mgkg -1 of copper (6.7 times the RD) for A. caliginosa, and 393mgkg -1 of copper (51 times the RD) for E. albidus. For the Swing Gold® fungicide, the estimated LC50 was 7.0 10 -3 mLkg -1 (6.3 times the RD) for A. caliginosa and 12.7 10 -3 mLkg -1 (11.0 times the RD) for E. albidus. No effect on biomass or avoidance was observed at sublethal concentrations of this synthetic fungicide. It was concluded that enchytraeids were less sensitive than earthworms to the two commercial fungicides in terms of mortality, biomass loss and avoidance behaviour. Therefore we discuss the different strategies possibly used by the two Oligochaeta species to cope with the presence of the pesticides were discussed, along with the potential consequences on the soil functions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Effects of earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw additions on selected properties of petroleum-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Mac A; Stewart, Arthur J; Alarcón, Clara; McMillen, Sara J

    2002-08-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum) straw to petroleum land-farm soil and measured biological quality of the soil as responses in plant growth, soil respiration, and oil and grease (O&G) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations. Results indicated that plant growth was greater in earthworm-treated land-farm soil. Furthermore, addition of wheat straw resulted in greater total respiration in all soils tested (land-farm soil, noncontaminated reference soil, and a 1:1 mixture of land-farm and reference soils). We observed a 30% increase in soil respiration in straw-amended oily soil, whereas respiration increased by 246% in straw-amended reference soil. Much of the difference between oily and reference soils was attributable to higher basal respiration rates of nonamended oily soil compared to nonamended reference soil. Addition of earthworms resulted in greater total respiration of all soil and straw treatments except two (the land-farm and the 1:1 mixture soil treatments without straw). Straw and earthworm treatments did not affect O&G or TPH concentrations. Nevertheless, our findings that earthworm additions improved plant growth and that straw additions enhanced microbial activity in land-farm soil suggest that these treatments may be compatible with plant-based remediation techniques currently under evaluation in field trials, and could reduce the time required to restore soil ecosystem function.

  4. Earthworm avoidance of silver nanomaterials over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Amorim, Mónica J B; Jensen, John

    2018-01-01

    Avoidance behaviour offers a highly relevant information as it reveals the ability to avoid (or not) possible toxic compounds in the field, hence it provides information on reasons for the presence/absence in the field. The earthworm Eisenia fetida was used to study avoidance behaviour to four si...... exposure durations and showed a continuous higher avoidance with time (based on EC50 values). The AgNMs avoidance was in the order NM300Ksoil solution fraction that correlated with EC50 across materials....

  5. Status, Trends, and Advances in Earthworm Research and Vermitechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmegam, N.; Kale, R.D.; Kale, R.D.; Daniel, T.; Alam, M.N.; Rodriguez, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this special issue reflect the developments in the fields of earthworm research and vermitechnology. Charles Darwins observation on earthworms is a milestone in understanding the soil biology and enormous contribution to some aspects of the genesis of humus and of its role in soils. Earthworms are the best known soil inhabiting animals commonly called friends of farmers due to the beneficial role they play in soil. The research on earthworms has gained importance in India as well as in other countries. In the year 1981, an international symposium entitled Earthworm Ecology: Darwin to Vermiculture was held at Cumbria, UK, to commemorate the centenary celebration of Darwins book The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms, with Observations on Their Habits that was published in 1881 by Murray, London, UK. In the year 2000, Vermillenium-an international workshop and symposium- was held at Kalamazoo, USA, to realize the progress achieved in this field after a decade (since 1991). Recently, Ninth International Symposium on Earthworm Ecology (ISEE-9) that was held at Xalapa, Mexico, during the 5th to 10th of September 2010 clearly proved the importance of earthworms and vermitechnology by the participation of scientists from different countries. About 300 papers were received from the researchers across the world

  6. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology and ecotoxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, S.; Peijnenburg, W.; Muramatsu, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing concern about environmental radiation protection has raised awareness that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of ecosystems. ICRP (International Commission on Radiological Protection) selected earthworm as one of the reference organisms in their radiation protection recommendations. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. In addition, a change of the elemental composition itself might be a possible indicator of the effect on the earthworm and/or ecosystem. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for more than 30 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. The controlling factors on the transfer parameters such as the bioavailability of the elements in the soils will also be discussed. (author)

  7. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie L Ziemba

    Full Text Available Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp. are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding. We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance

  8. Invasive Asian Earthworms Negatively Impact Keystone Terrestrial Salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Julie L; Hickerson, Cari-Ann M; Anthony, Carl D

    2016-01-01

    Asian pheretimoid earthworms (e.g. Amynthas and Metaphire spp.) are invading North American forests and consuming the vital detrital layer that forest floor biota [including the keystone species Plethodon cinereus (Eastern Red-backed Salamander)], rely on for protection, food, and habitat. Plethodon cinereus population declines have been associated with leaf litter loss following the invasion of several exotic earthworm species, but there have been few studies on the specific interactions between pheretimoid earthworms and P. cinereus. Since some species of large and active pheretimoids spatially overlap with salamanders beneath natural cover objects and in detritus, they may distinctively compound the negative consequences of earthworm-mediated resource degradation by physically disturbing important salamander activities (foraging, mating, and egg brooding). We predicted that earthworms would exclude salamanders from high quality microhabitat, reduce foraging efficiency, and negatively affect salamander fitness. In laboratory trials, salamanders used lower quality microhabitat and consumed fewer flies in the presence of earthworms. In a natural field experiment, conducted on salamander populations from "non-invaded" and "pheretimoid invaded" sites in Ohio, salamanders and earthworms shared cover objects ~60% less than expected. Earthworm abundance was negatively associated with juvenile and male salamander abundance, but had no relationship with female salamander abundance. There was no effect of pheretimoid invasion on salamander body condition. Juvenile and non-resident male salamanders do not hold stable territories centered beneath cover objects such as rocks or logs, which results in reduced access to prey, greater risk of desiccation, and dispersal pressure. Habitat degradation and physical exclusion of salamanders from cover objects may hinder juvenile and male salamander performance, ultimately reducing recruitment and salamander abundance following Asian

  9. The Changes of Earthworm Population and Chemical Properties of Tropical Soils under Different Land Use Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Yusnaini

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilly area Sumberjaya, West Lampung Province, South Sumatra, Indonesia, is one of the Province where deforestation increasing in the past 30 years as a result of the implementation of agricultural systems, especially coffee plantation. it is important to study the soil fauna in these natural relicts. Six sites (3 naturals and 3 managed systems were studied in order to identify earthworm species communities, using the hand sorting method and soil chemical parameters (pH, avail-P, org-C., tot-N, and cation exchange capacity (CEC. Two species were found (Pheretima sp. and Pontoscolex sp.. All land use systems had very similar soil chemical characteristics, there can be characterised as acidic (pH between 3.6 and 5.0. A high content of organic carbon was in natural sites (bush 4.0% and primary forest 3.9%, and a low content was in managed sites (coffee plantation 2.1%. Total nitrogen (0.37% and CEC (21.84 Cmol-c kg-1 was in primary forest. However, the earthworm densities were significantly lower under primary forest than in the other sites. The acidity component explained mainly the lowest earthworm population at the primary forest (soil pH 3.6. The use of succession forest (bush and mix farming showed a positive effect on soil fertility.

  10. The potential role of earthworms in toxicity assessment of terrestrial hazardous waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Venables, B.J. [TRAC Labs., Inc., Denton, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Understanding the toxic potential and mechanisms of action of environmental xenobiotics is fundamental for assessing risk to public and environmental health. Current established protocols with earthworms focus primarily on defining the lethal effects of chemicals associated with soil contamination. Development of sublethal assays, until recently, has been largely ignored. Here the authors develop rationale for use of earthworms as a model organism for comprehensive assessment of risks to higher wildlife from contaminated soils and hazardous waste sites. They present a panel of lethal (LC/LD50`s) and sublethal measurement endpoint biomarkers, developed within the framework of the National Toxicology Program`s tiered immunotoxicity protocol for mice and according to published criteria for good measurement endpoints, that represent sensitive phylogenetically-conserved processes. Specifically the authors discuss immunosuppressive effects of terrestrial heavy metal and organic contamination on the innate, nonspecific and specific immune responses of earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, coelomocytes in terms of total and differential cell counts, lysozyme activity, nitroblue tetrazolium dye reduction, phagocytic activity and secretary rosette formation. Findings indicate that sensitive phylogenetically conserved immune responses present in invertebrates can be used to assess or predict risk to wildlife from contaminated soils.

  11. Acute and chronic toxicity testing of TPH-contaminated soils with the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, A.J.; Wicker, L.F.; Nazerias, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    Responses of Eisenia foetida to petroleum-contaminated soils are being assessed using a 21-day test described previously. The authors prepared dilutions of two soils, referred to as A and B, using their reference-soil counterparts, collected from near the contaminated sites. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) content of each soil was measured by latroscan before the dilutions were prepared. References for the A and B soils contained 167 and 1,869 ppm of TPH, respectively. Thus, neither reference soil was pristine. Dilutions of the A soil tested with E. foetida contained from 179 to 305 ppm TPH; dilutions of the B soil contained from 1,875 to 1,950 ppm TPH. E foetida survival was 100% in both dilution series. Mean growth of Eisenia in dilutions of the A soil ranged from 48 to 74 mg dry-weight growth per pair of worms; these values were lower than those in any dilution of the B soil series. Lipid levels of worms in higher concentrations of the A and B soils were similar to one another and to published values, suggesting little inhibition of feeding in either dilution series. Earthworm reproduction was zero in the A series, but moderately high in the B series. Thus, the A soil apparently contained materials other than TPH that inhibited earthworm growth and reproduction. This study shows that (1) TPH at concentrations as high as 1,800 ppm may not always be inhibitor to earthworm growth or reproduction and (2) that earthworm survival, as a test endpoint, is much less sensitive than either growth or reproduction

  12. Valorisation of a water hyacinth in vermicomposting using an epigeic earthworm Perionyx excavatus in Central Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirbes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of vermicomposting water hyacinth (WH [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms] mixed with pig manure (PM in different proportions was tested using tropical composting earthworm Perionyx excavatus. Earthworms grew and reproduced normally until the incorporation of 50% WH in initial substrate. Higher water hyacinth proportions induced earthworms' mortality and significantly affected the numbers of hatchlings and cocoons produced during vermicomposting period. The influence of the application of compost/vermicompost obtained from water hyacinth mixed with pig manure was also studied on seeds germination. Only water hyacinth substrate with 25% WH + 75% PM enhanced seeds germination for Oryza sp. and Nasturtium officinale. At the end of experiments, a significant decrease was observed in organic carbon content for each tested substrates (S1 to S8, in total nitrogen (N for substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 and compost substrates (S1 and S2. An important decrease was also noted in total potassium for all vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8, in total magnesium for composted substrates (S1 and S2, and in C/N ratio for substrates containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6. Whereas total N in vermicompost containing 0% to 50% of water hyacinth (S8 to S6, total phosphorus, total potassium in composted substrates (S1 and S2, total magnesium in vermicompost substrates (S3 to S8 and C:N ratio in substrates containing 70% to 100% of water hyacinth (S5 to S3 expressed a significant increase after eight weeks. The result suggested that water hyacinth could be potentially useful as raw material in vermicomposting and biofertilizing if mixed with 75% of pig manure.

  13. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  14. Macropores and earthworm species affected by agronomic intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Paul Henning; Pérès, Guénola

    project EcoFINDERS we investigated the relationsship between earthworm biodiversity, macropores and three agricultural landuse types. A field campaign was conducted in October-November 2011. Earthworm burrow distribution was quantified at 10, 20, 30, 50 and 100 20 cm horizontal layer intervals down...... the soil profile to 1 meter depth and correlated with the earthworm community consisting of 12 species dominated by the endogeics Aporrectodea caliginosa and Aporrectodea chlorotica and the anecics Aporrectodea longa and Lumbricus centralis. Medium-small macropores in the ploughing layer with diameters (Ø...

  15. Removal of an invasive shrub (Chinese privet: Ligustrum sinense Lour) reduces exotic earthworm abundance and promotes recovery of native North American earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua W. Lobe; Mac A. Callaham Jr.; Paul F. Hendrix; James L Hanula

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of a facilitative relationship between Chinese privet (Ligustrum sinense) and exotic earthworms, in the southeastern region of the USA. Earthworms and selected soil properties were sampled five years after experimental removal of privet from flood plain forests of the Georgia Piedmont region. The earthworm...

  16. Addressing the role of earthworms in treating domestic wastewater by analyzing biofilm modification through chemical and spectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin; Xing, Mei-Yan; Yang, Jian; Lu, Biao

    2016-03-01

    Vermifiltration eco-friendly system is an alternative and low-cost artificial ecosystem for decentralized wastewater treatment and excess sludge reduction. The biofilm characteristics of a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms, Eisenia fetida, for domestic wastewater treatment were studied. A conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms served as the control. Pore number in VF biofilm was significantly more than BF biofilm, and VF biofilm showed a better level-administrative structure through scanning electron microscope. VF biofilms had lower levels of protein and polysaccharide, but phosphoric acids and humic acid showed the opposite results. Furthermore, in the presence of earthworms, VF biofilms contained higher total organic carbon (TOC) percentage composition in the condition of less volatile suspended substances (VSS) contents. Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contents along VF showed better results than BF by increment of 12.84 ∼ 16.46 %. Overall findings indicated that the earthworms' presence remarkably decreases biofilm contests but increases enzyme activity and improves the community structure of VF biofilms, which is beneficial for the wastewater disposal.

  17. Optimal growth condition of earthworms and their vermicompost features during recycling of five different fresh fruit and vegetable wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kui; Xia, Hui; Li, Fusheng; Wei, Yongfen; Cui, Guangyu; Fu, Xiaoyong; Chen, Xuemin

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to promote vermicomposting performance for recycling fresh fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) and to assess microbial population and community of final products. Five fresh FVWs including banana peels, cabbage, lettuce, potato, and watermelon peels were chosen as earthworms' food. The fate test of earthworms showed that 30 g fresh FVWs/day was the optimal loading and the banana peels was harmful for the survival of Eisenia fetida. The followed vermicomposting test revealed lower contents of total carbon and weaker microbial activity in final vermicomposts, relative to those in compared systems without earthworms worked. The leachate from FVWs carried away great amounts of nutrients from reactors. Additionally, different fresh FVWs displayed dissimilar stabilization process. Molecular biological approaches revealed that earthworms could broaden bacterial diversity in their products, with significant greater populations of actinobacteria and ammonia oxidizing bacteria than in control. This study evidences that vermicomposting efficiency differs with the types and loadings of fresh FVWs and vermicomposts are rich in agricultural probiotics.

  18. Is there a relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability after exposure to field-contaminated soils?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Lamy, Isabelle; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickaël

    2014-01-01

    Generic biomarkers are needed to assess environmental risks in metal polluted soils. We assessed the strength of the relationship between earthworm energy reserves and metal availability under conditions of cocktail of metals at low doses and large range of soil parameters. Aporrectodea caliginosa was exposed in laboratory to a panel of soils differing in Cd, Pb and Zn total and available (CaCl 2 and EDTA-extractable) concentrations, and in soil texture, pH, CEC and organic-C. Glycogen, protein and lipid contents were recorded in exposed worms. Glycogen contents were not linked to the explaining variables considered. Variable selection identified CaCl 2 extractable metals concentrations and soil texture as the main factors affecting protein and lipid contents. The results showed opposite effects of Pb and Zn, high inter-individual variability of biomarkers and weak relationships with easily extractable metals. Our results support the lack of genericity of energy reserves in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Energy reserves were quantified in earthworms exposed to a wide panel of field soils. • Protein and lipid contents were related to CaCl 2 extractable metals. • Soil texture affected protein and lipid contents. • Energy reserves were highly variable inter-individually. - Earthworm energy reserves response to low doses of available metals is not generic

  19. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capowiez, Yvan; Dittbrenner, Nils; Rault, Magali; Triebskorn, Rita; Hedde, Mickael; Mazzia, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  1. Earthworm cast production as a new behavioural biomarker for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capowiez, Yvan, E-mail: capowiez@avignon.inra.f [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Dittbrenner, Nils [INRA, UR1115 ' Plantes et Systemes Horticoles' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Rault, Magali [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Str. 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Hedde, Mickael [INRA, UR251 ' PESSAC' , RD10, 78026 Versailles Cedex (France); Mazzia, Christophe [UAPV, UMR406 ' Abeilles et Environnement' , Domaine Saint Paul, 84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France)

    2010-02-15

    There is currently a lack of ecotoxicity tests adapted to earthworm species of higher ecological relevance and whose endpoints could be directly related to their ecological role in the soil. We propose a new and relatively simple ecotoxicity test based on the estimation of cast production (CP) by Lumbricus terrestris under laboratory conditions. CP was found to be linearly correlated to earthworm biomass and to be greatly influenced by soil water content. Azinphos-methyl had no effect on CP at all the concentrations tested. Significant decreases were observed at the normal application rate for other pesticides with (imidacloprid, carbaryl, methomyl) or without (ethyl-parathion and chlorpyrifos-ethyl) a clear concentration-effect response. For the highest concentration tested, reduction in CP varied between 35 and 67%. CP is straightforward and rapidly measured and ecologically meaningful. We thus believe it to be of great use as an endpoint in ecotoxicity testing. - Cast production of Lumbricus terrestris is affected by pesticides under laboratory conditions.

  2. Comparative toxicity of ten organic chemicals to four earthworm species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Durkin, P.R.; Malecki, M.R.; Anatra, M.

    1986-01-01

    Ten organic chemicals were tested for toxicity to four earthworm species: Allolobophora tuberculata, Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae and Perionyx excavatus, using the European Economic Community's (EEC) earthworm artificial soil and contact testing procedure. The phenols were the most toxic chemicals tested, followed by the amine, substituted benzenes, halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and phthalate as the least toxic chemical tested. Correlations among species within each type of test for a given chemical were extremely high, suggesting that the selection of earthworm test species does not markedly affect the assessment of a chemical's toxicity. The correlation between the two tests was low for all test species. The contact test LC50 for a given chemical cannot be directly correlated to an artificial soil test LC50 for the same earthworm species.

  3. Checklist of the earthworm fauna of Croatia (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutuzović, Davorka Hackenberger; Kutuzović, Branimir Hackenberger

    2013-01-01

    A checklist of the Croatian earthworm fauna (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) is presented, including published records and authors' personal data. This is the first checklist for Croatia only, with comprehensive information for each earthworm species regarding ecological category, habitat, distribution type and distribution in Croatia. The currently known earthworm fauna of Croatia comprises 68 species belonging to 17 genera, with Octodrilus being the species-richest genus (15 species). Chorologically these species can be allocated to 13 different types of distribution. Nineteen species are endemic of which 10 species are endemic to Croatia and 9 species are endemic to Croatia and neighbouring countries (Italy, Slovenia, Hungary, and Montenegro). The endemic earthworms are distributed in the areas of higher altitudes in the Continental and Alpine biogeographic region, mostly covered with forest or autochtonous vegetation.

  4. Descriptions of two new earthworm species, Iridodrilus abujaensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two new eudriline earthworm species, Iridodrilus abujaensis and Iridodrilus furcothecata are described from collections made around the Federal Capital Territory and Wukari, Nigeria. They are distinguished by the forms of their external papillae, seminal vesicles, ovospermathecal systems and other characters.

  5. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

    2003-10-08

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that {center_dot}O{sub 2}{sup -} is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone.

  6. Menadione enhances oxyradical formation in earthworm extracts: vulnerability of earthworms to quinone toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.M.; Besten, P.J. den; Noort, P.C.M. van

    2003-01-01

    NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase activities have been determined in the earthworms, L. rubellus and A. chlorotica, extracts. Menadione (0.35 mM, maximum concentration tested) was found to stimulate the rates of NADPH- and NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction by three- and twofold, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibited completely this menadione-mediated stimulation, suggesting that ·O 2 - is involved in the redox cycling of menadione. However, SOD had no effect on the basal activity (activity in the absence of quinone) in the case of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction, whereas it partially inhibited the basal activity of NADPH-cytochrome c reduction. This indicates direct electron transfer in the former case and the formation of superoxide anion in the latter. DT-diaphorase, measured as the dicumarol-inhibitable part of menadione reductase activity, was not detectable in the earthworms' extracts. In contrast, it was found that DT-diaphorase represents about 70% of the menadione reductase activities in the freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha. The results of this work suggest that earthworms, compared with mussels, could be more vulnerable to oxidative stress from quinones due to lack, or very low level of DT-diaphorase, an enzyme considered to play a significant role in the detoxification of quinones. On the contrary, mussels have efficient DT-diaphorase, which catalyzes two-electron reduction of menadione directly to hydroquinone, thus circumventing the formation of semiquinone

  7. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based metabolomic approach for optimization and toxicity evaluation of earthworm sub-lethal responses to carbofuran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in understanding mechanism of toxicity, the development of biomarkers (biochemicals that vary significantly with exposure to chemicals for pesticides and environmental contaminants exposure is still a challenging task. Carbofuran is one of the most commonly used pesticides in agriculture and said to be most toxic carbamate pesticide. It is necessary to identify the biochemicals that can vary significantly after carbofuran exposure on earthworms which will help to assess the soil ecotoxicity. Initially, we have optimized the extraction conditions which are suitable for high-throughput gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS based metabolomics for the tissue of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma. Upon evaluation of five different extraction solvent systems, 80% methanol was found to have good extraction efficiency based on the yields of metabolites, multivariate analysis, total number of peaks and reproducibility of metabolites. Later the toxicity evaluation was performed to characterize the tissue specific metabolomic perturbation of earthworm, Metaphire posthuma after exposure to carbofuran at three different concentration levels (0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg of soil. Seventeen metabolites, contributing to the best classification performance of highest dose dependent carbofuran exposed earthworms from healthy controls were identified. This study suggests that GC-MS based metabolomic approach was precise and sensitive to measure the earthworm responses to carbofuran exposure in soil, and can be used as a promising tool for environmental eco-toxicological studies.

  8. Global DNA methylation in earthworms: A candidate biomarker of epigenetic risks related to the presence of metals/metalloids in terrestrial environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maldonado Santoyo, Maria; Rodriguez Flores, Crescencio; Lopez Torres, Adolfo; Wrobel, Kazimierz [Department of Chemistry, University of Guanajuato, L de Retana No 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico); Wrobel, Katarzyna, E-mail: katarzyn@quijote.ugto.mx [Department of Chemistry, University of Guanajuato, L de Retana No 5, 36000 Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2011-10-15

    In this work, possible relationships between global DNA methylation and metal/metalloid concentrations in earthworms have been explored. Direct correlation was observed between soil and tissue As, Se, Sb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ag, Co, Hg, Pb (p < 0.05). Speciation results obtained for As and Hg hint at the capability of earthworms for conversion of inorganic element forms present in soil to methylated species. Inverse correlation was observed between the percentage of methylated DNA cytosines and total tissue As, As + Hg, As + Hg + Se + Sb ({beta} = -0.8456, p = 0.071; {beta} = -0.9406, p = 0.017; {beta} = -0.9526, p = 0.012 respectively), as well as inorganic As + Hg ({beta} = -0.8807, p = 0.049). It was concluded that earthworms would be particularly helpful as bioindicators of elements undergoing in vivo methylation and might also be used to assess the related risk of epigenetic changes in DNA methylation. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Several metals and metalloids contribute to epigenetic gene regulation. > As, Hg, Se, Sb inversely correlated with global DNA methylation in earthworms. > Biomethylation of the above elements in worms suggested. > Elements biomethylation apparently competes with DNA methylation. > DNA methylation a biomarker of epigenetic risks related to soil metals/metalloids. - Biomethylation of As, Hg in earthworms versus DNA methylation - a candidate biomarker of epigenetic risks related to the presence of metals/metalloids in soil.

  9. Effects of the amendment of biochars and carbon nanotubes on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in soil to ecologically different species of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Zhu, Hongkai; Sun, Hongwen; Xu, Jiayao

    2017-03-01

    Biochar is a promising material used in soil amendment and carbon nanotubes may enter soil due to its increasing application. These carbonaceous materials may change the bioavailability of pollutants in soil. In this concern, 0.5% w/w multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and 3 corn-straw biochars acquired at different pyrolyzing temperatures were used in soil amendment and their influences on the bioavailability of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), a brominated flame retardant, to 2 ecologically different earthworm species were studied. The amendment of 4 carbonaceous materials all reduced the bioaccumulation of HBCDs in earthworms by 18.2%-67.3%, which varied depending on the type of carbonaceous materials and the pyrolyzing temperature of biochars. The reduction in HBCDs uptake by Eisenia fetida (an epigeic species) was greater than by Metaphire guillelmi (an anecic species). The 2 earthworm species both showed bioaccumulative selectivity on certain HBCD diastereoisomer and enantiomer in the amended soils, which was similar to that in the control soil. Moreover, Tenax-assisted HBCDs desorption test was carried out for the simulation of their bioavailability. The rapid desorption fraction (F rap ), total desorption (15 d), and 24 h desorption all correlated well with the uptake of HBCDs in the earthworms, suggesting that the 24 h-desorption, due to its easy availability, can be a good proxy to predict the bioavailability of HBCDs to earthworms in soil. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Earthworms lost from pesticides application in potato crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Santos, Glenda; Forrer, Karin; Binder, Claudia R.

    2010-05-01

    Bioturbation from earthworm's activity contributes to soil creep and soil carbon dynamics, and provide enough aeration conditions for agricultural practices all over the world. In developing countries where there is a long term misuse of pesticides for agricultural purposes, lost of these benefits from earthworms activity might already yielded negative effects in the current crop production. Little research has been performed on earthworms avoidance to pesticides in developing countries located in the tropics. Furthermore, the complete avoidance reaction (from attraction to 100% avoidance) from earthworms to most of the pesticides used in potato cultivation in developing countries like Colombia is incomplete as yet. Hence the aim of this study is to assess the lost of earthworm on the soils caused by different concentrations of pesticides and associated agricultural impacts caused by a lost in the soil bioturbation. As a first stage, we have studied earthworm's avoidance to pesticide concentration in a potato agricultural area located in Colombia. Local cultivated Eisenia fetida were exposed to four of the most frequent applied active ingredients in potato crops i.e. carbofuran, mancozeb, methamidophos and chlorpyriphos. Adult earthworm toxicity experiments were carried out in two soils, untreated grasslands under standard (ISO guidelines) and undisturbed conditions, and exposed to six different concentrations of the active ingredients. The results of the avoidance reaction on the standard soils were significant for carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos. For each of the three active ingredients, we found i) overuse of pesticide, ii) applied dose of carbofuran, mancoceb and chlorpyrifos by the farmers potentially caused 20%, 11% and 9% of earthworms avoidance on the cultivated soils, respectively.

  11. Phenotypic and functional characterization of earthworm coelomocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Péter; Hayashi, Yuya; Bodo, Kornélia

    2016-01-01

    Flow cytometry is a common approach to study invertebrate immune cells including earthworm coelomocytes. However, the link between light-scatter- and microscopy-based phenotyping remains obscured. Here we show, by means of light scatter-based cell sorting, both subpopulations (amoebocytes...... amoebocytes and eleocytes, with the former being in favor of bacterial engulfment. This study has proved successful in linking flow cytometry and microscopy analysis and provides further experimental evidence of phenotypic and functional heterogeneity in earthworm coelomocyte subsets....

  12. Identification and Classification of Earthworm Species in Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Preeta Saywack; Abdullah Adil Ansari

    2011-01-01

    Earthworms are very important organisms, they are both environmentally and economically beneficial and hence their correct identification and classification is very vital. Taxonomy aims to classify organisms based on their similarities and differences. The present study was carried out during the year 2006-2007 at University of Guyana, Georgetown focusing on identification and classification of local earthworm species of Guyana and comparison with a known non-native species (California red). ...

  13. Transmission of Nephridial Bacteria of the Earthworm Eisenia fetida

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Seana K.; Stahl, David A.

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common b...

  14. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena, E-mail: jelena.mrdakovic.popic@umb.no; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ({sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ({sup 232}Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the {sup 232}Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ({sup 238}U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 {mu}Gy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of

  15. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940’s, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5–5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form ‘towers’ above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development. PMID:27168157

  16. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Zangerlé

    Full Text Available The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940's, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5-5 m and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m. This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form 'towers' above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development.

  17. The Surales, Self-Organized Earth-Mound Landscapes Made by Earthworms in a Seasonal Tropical Wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerlé, Anne; Renard, Delphine; Iriarte, José; Suarez Jimenez, Luz Elena; Adame Montoya, Kisay Lorena; Juilleret, Jérôme; McKey, Doyle

    2016-01-01

    The formation, functioning and emergent properties of patterned landscapes have recently drawn increased attention, notably in semi-arid ecosystems. We describe and analyze a set of similarly spectacular landforms in seasonal tropical wetlands. Surales landscapes, comprised of densely packed, regularly spaced mounds, cover large areas of the Orinoco Llanos. Although descriptions of surales date back to the 1940's, their ecology is virtually unknown. From data on soil physical and chemical properties, soil macrofauna, vegetation and aerial imagery, we provide evidence of the spatial extent of surales and how they form and develop. Mounds are largely comprised of earthworm casts. Recognizable, recently produced casts account for up to one-half of total soil mass. Locally, mounds are relatively constant in size, but vary greatly across sites in diameter (0.5-5 m) and height (from 0.3 m to over 2 m). This variation appears to reflect a chronosequence of surales formation and growth. Mound shape (round to labyrinth) varies across elevational gradients. Mounds are initiated when large earthworms feed in shallowly flooded soils, depositing casts that form 'towers' above water level. Using permanent galleries, each earthworm returns repeatedly to the same spot to deposit casts and to respire. Over time, the tower becomes a mound. Because each earthworm has a restricted foraging radius, there is net movement of soil to the mound from the surrounding area. As the mound grows, its basin thus becomes deeper, making initiation of a new mound nearby more difficult. When mounds already initiated are situated close together, the basin between them is filled and mounds coalesce to form larger composite mounds. Over time, this process produces mounds up to 5 m in diameter and 2 m tall. Our results suggest that one earthworm species drives self-organizing processes that produce keystone structures determining ecosystem functioning and development.

  18. Evaluation of DNA damage and antioxidant system induced by di-n-butyl phthalates exposure in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li; Li, Guangde; Liu, Mingming; Li, Yanqiang; Yin, Suzhen; Zhao, Jie; Zhang, Xinyi

    2015-05-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalates (DBP) are recognized as ubiquitous contaminants in soil and adversely impact the health of organisms. The effect of DBP on the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage were used as biomarkers to analyze the relationship between DNA damage and oxidative stress and to evaluate the genotoxic effect of DBP on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). DBP was added to artificial soil in the amounts of 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100mg per kg of soil. Earthworm tissues exposed to each treatment were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of the treatment. The results showed that SOD and CAT levels were significantly inhibited in the 100mgkg(-1) treatment group on day 28. MDA content in treatment groups was higher than in the control group throughout the exposure time, suggesting that DBP may lead to oxidative stress in cells. A dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil DBP levels. The comet assay showed that increasing concentrations of DBP resulted in a gradual increase in the OTM, Comet Tail Length and Tail DNA %. The degree of DNA damage was increased with increasing concentration of DBP. These results suggested that DBP induced serious oxidative damage on earthworms and induced the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in earthworms. The excessive generation of ROS caused damage to vital macromolecules including lipids and DNA. DBP in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Multi-element analyses of earthworms for radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Peijnenburg, W.

    2004-01-01

    Increasing attention on the environmental radiation protection realizes that more information is required on the transfer and accumulation of radionuclides in the biological compartments of the ecosystems. Earthworms play an important role in ecosystems, and might be a good indicator of soil contamination and its effect on the ecosystem. The elemental composition of earthworms gives useful information on background levels and possible accumulation of metals as well as related radionuclides. However, data for the elemental composition of earthworms are limited except for some specific heavy metals such as Cd, Zn, Pb and Cu. In this study, earthworms and their growth media were analyzed for 35 elements, including radionuclide related elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U, in order to obtain the basic information on the transfer parameters of the elements. The earthworms analyzed were fed in the laboratory or collected in the environment. The concentrations and transfer factors (TFs) of the elements were determined both for laboratory and natural conditions. Relatively high TFs were observed for Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Mo and Cd. The TFs for Al, Sc, Ti, Y, Nb and lanthanide elements were low. The TFs of Cs were different depending on the medium (soil type), indicating that bioavailability of Cs in the medium might be one of the important controlling factors of Cs concentration in earthworm. (author)

  20. Recycled water sources influence the bioavailability of copper to earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunhikrishnan, Anitha; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi; Kim, Won-Il

    2013-10-15

    Re-use of wastewaters can overcome shortfalls in irrigation demand and mitigate environmental pollution. However, in an untreated or partially treated state, these water sources can introduce inorganic contaminants, including heavy metals, to soils that are irrigated. In this study, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) have been used to determine copper (Cu) bioavailability in two contrasting soils irrigated with farm dairy, piggery and winery effluents. Soils spiked with varying levels of Cu (0-1,000 mg/kg) were subsequently irrigated with recycled waters and Milli-Q (MQ) water and Cu bioavailability to earthworms determined by mortality and avoidance tests. Earthworms clearly avoided high Cu soils and the effect was more pronounced in the absence than presence of recycled water irrigation. At the highest Cu concentration (1,000 mg/kg), worm mortality was 100% when irrigated with MQ-water; however, when irrigated with recycled waters, mortality decreased by 30%. Accumulation of Cu in earthworms was significantly less in the presence of recycled water and was dependent on CaCl2-extractable free Cu(2+) concentration in the soil. Here, it is evident that organic carbon in recycled waters was effective in decreasing the toxic effects of Cu on earthworms, indicating that the metal-organic complexes decreased Cu bioavailability to earthworms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Biomass resources in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S. [California Energy Commission, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure; and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.

  2. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction as a predictor of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bioaccumulation and toxicity by earthworms in manufactured-gas plant site soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitinger, Joseph P; Quiñones-Rivera, Antonio; Neuhauser, Edward F; Alexander, Martin; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2007-09-01

    The toxicity and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by earthworms were measured in soil samples collected from manufactured-gas plant sites having a wide range in PAH concentrations (170-42,000 mg/kg) and soil characteristics. Samples varied from vegetated soils to pure lampblack soot and had total organic carbon contents ranging from 3 to 87%. The biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) observed for individual PAHs in field-collected earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa) were up to 50-fold lower than the BSAFs predicted using equilibrium-partitioning theory. Acute toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida was unrelated to total PAH concentration: Mortality was not observed in some soils having high concentrations of total PAHs (>42,000 mg/kg), whereas 100% mortality was observed in other soils having much lower concentrations of total PAHs (1,520 mg/kg). Instead, toxicity appeared to be related to the rapidly released fraction of PAHs determined by mild supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). The results demonstrate that soils having approximately 16,000 mg rapidly released total PAH/kg organic carbon can be acutely toxic to earthworms and that the concentration of PAHs in soil that is rapidly released by SFE can estimate toxicity to soil invertebrates.

  3. Off to the (Earthworm) Races: A Quick and Flexible Lab Experiment for Introductory Zoology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Paul V.; Fritz, Ann H.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a hands-on, investigative lab activity for use in an introductory zoology course. Tests the behavioral hypothesis that substrate texture affects earthworm locomotor ability. Provides background information on earthworm locomotion followed by details of the lab exercise. (NB)

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vliet, P.C.J. van [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: petra.vanvliet@wur.nl; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der [Wageningen University, Department of Soil Quality, P.O. Box 8005, 6700 EC Wageningen (Netherlands); Ma, W.C. [Alterra, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2005-12-15

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding.

  5. Heavy metal concentrations in soil and earthworms in a floodplain grassland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, P.C.J. van; Zee, S.E.A.T.M. van der; Ma, W.C.

    2005-01-01

    We determined accumulated heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) of earthworms in moderately contaminated floodplain soils. Both soil and mature earthworms were sampled before and after flooding and earthworm species were identified to understand species specific differences in bioconcentration. Accumulated metal concentrations in floodplain earthworms differed before and after flooding. Differences in uptake and elimination mechanisms, in food choice and living habitat of the different earthworm species and changes in speciation of the heavy metals are possible causes for this observation. Regression equations taken from literature, that relate metal accumulation by earthworms in floodplains as a function of metal concentration in soil, performed well when all species specific data were combined in an average accumulation, but did not address differences in accumulation between earthworm species. - The accumulation of metals by earthworms is species dependent and affected by flooding

  6. Macroalgae Laminaria digitata and Saccharina latissima as Potential Biomasses for Biogas and Total Phenolics Production: Focusing on Seasonal and Spatial Variations of the Algae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Este, Martina; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Ciofalo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes such as for biochemic......Laminaria digitata (L. digitata) and Saccharina latissima (S. latissima) are the most common species of macroalgae in the north Atlantic and north Pacific. Because of their interesting composition, they have recently attracted attention as useful biomass for various purposes...... such as for biochemicals and bioenergy production. Nevertheless their composition varies according to the season and to the local environmental conditions. Therefore, in this study different samples harvested throughout a year and in different locations in Denmark were analyzed. The aim of the study was identifying...

  7. Epigeic Earthworms Exert a Bottleneck Effect on Microbial Communities through Gut Associated Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthworms play a critical role in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The ingestion, digestion, assimilation of organic material in the gut and then casting is the first step in earthworm-microorganism interactions. The current knowledge of these direct effects is still limited for epigeic earthworm species, mainly those living in man-made environments. Here we tested whether and to what extent the earthworm Eisenia andrei ...

  8. Non-native earthworms promote plant invasion by ingesting seeds and modifying soil properties

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Lortie, C. J.; Lambert, A. M.; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Earthworms can have strong direct effects on plant communities through consumption and digestion of seeds, however it is unclear how earthworms may influence the relative abundance and composition of plant communities invaded by non-native species. In this study, earthworms, seed banks, and the standing vegetation were sampled in a grassland of central California. Our objectives were i) to examine whether the abundances of non-native, invasive earthworm species and non-native grassland plant ...

  9. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara M. de Andréa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05. No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000 for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms.

  10. Earthworm assemblages as affected by field margin strips and tillage intensity: An on-farm approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Huerta, E.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm species contribute to soil ecosystem functions in varying ways. Important soil functions like structural maintenance and nutrient cycling are affected by earthworms, thus it is essential to understand how arable farm management influences earthworm species. One aim of arable field margin

  11. Darwin, Earthworms & Circadian Rhythms: A Fertile Field for Science Fair Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, John T.; Scurti, Paul J.; Furda, Amy M.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses why the study of earthworms has fascinated many scientists, and why earthworms make ideal experimental animals for students to test in the laboratory. Although earthworms may appear to be primitive, they are governed by both circadian and seasonal rhythms, just as more advanced organisms are. They possess an intelligence…

  12. Trophic dynamics in a simple experimental ecosystem: Interactions among centipedes, Collembola and introduced earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixiang Gao; Melanie K. Taylor; Mac A. Callaham

    2017-01-01

    Invasive earthworms in North America are known to have dramatic influences on soil ecosystems, including negative effects on other soil fauna. In general, studies examining this phenomenon have focused on invasive earthworm impacts on organisms at the same or lower trophic level as the earthworms themselves (i.e., detritivores and decomposers). In contrast, there have...

  13. Effects of Cry1Ab Transgenic Maize on Lifecycle and Biomarker Responses of the Earthworm, Eisenia Andrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Maboeta

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 28-day study was conducted to determine the effects of the Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin on the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Previously, investigations have been limited to life-cycle level effects of this protein on earthworms, and mostly on E. fetida. In this study several endpoints were compared which included biomass changes, cocoon production, hatching success, a cellular metal-stress biomarker (Neutral Red Retention Time; NRRT and potential genotoxic effects in terms of Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPDs. NRRT results indicated no differences between treatments (p > 0.36, and NRRT remained the same for both treatments at different times during the experiment (p = 0.18. Likewise, no significant differences were found for cocoon production (p = 0.32 or hatching success (p = 0.29. Conversely, biomass data indicated a significant difference between the control treatment and the Bt treatment from the second week onwards (p < 0.001, with the Bt treatment losing significantly more weight than the isoline treatment. Possible confounding factors were identified that might have affected the differences in weight loss between groups. From the RAPD profiles no conclusive data were obtained that could link observed genetic variation to exposure of E. andrei to Cry1Ab proteins produced by Bt maize.

  14. {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics of earthworm exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sarah A.E.; McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)

    2010-06-15

    {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics was used to monitor earthworm responses to sub-lethal (50-1500 mg/kg) phenanthrene exposure in soil. Total phenanthrene was analyzed via soxhlet extraction, bioavailable phenanthrene was estimated by hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) and 1-butanol extractions and sorption to soil was assessed by batch equilibration. Bioavailable phenanthrene (HPCD-extracted) comprised approx65-97% of total phenanthrene added to the soil. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed differences in responses between exposed earthworms and controls after 48 h exposure. The metabolites that varied with exposure included amino acids (isoleucine, alanine and glutamine) and maltose. PLS models indicated that earthworm response is positively correlated to both total phenanthrene concentration and bioavailable (HPCD-extracted) phenanthrene in a freshly spiked, unaged soil. These results show that metabolomics is a powerful, direct technique that may be used to monitor contaminant bioavailability and toxicity of sub-lethal concentrations of contaminants in the environment. These initial findings warrant further metabolomic studies with aged contaminated soils. - {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics is used to directly monitor metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida after 48 h of exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of phenanthrene in soil.

  15. Immunotoxicity of copper nanoparticle and copper sulfate in a common Indian earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Arunodaya; Ray, Abhishek; Mukherjee, Soumalya; Das, Santanu; Pal, Kunal; Das, Subhadeep; Karmakar, Parimal; Ray, Mitali; Ray, Sajal

    2018-02-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate are established contaminants of water and soil. Metaphire posthuma is a common variety of earthworm distributed in moist soil of Indian subcontinent. Comparative toxicity of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate were investigated with reference to selected immune associated parameters of earthworm. Total count, phagocytic response, generation of cytotoxic molecules (superoxide anion, nitric oxide), activities of enzymes like phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and total protein of coelomocytes were estimated under the exposures of 100, 500, 1000mg of copper oxide nanoparticles and copper sulfate per kg of soil for 7 and 14 d. A significant decrease in the total coelomocyte count were recorded with maximum depletion as 15.45 ± 2.2 and 12.5 ± 2 × 10 4 cells/ml under the treatment of 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate for 14 d respectively. A significant decrease in generation of nitric oxide and activity of phenoloxidase were recorded upon exposure of both toxins for 7 and 14 d indicating possible decline in cytotoxic status of the organism. A maximum inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity was recorded as 0.083 ± 0.0039 and 0.055 ± 0.0057 unit/mg protein/minute against 1000mg/kg of copper nanoparticles and copper sulfate treatment for 14 d respectively. Activities of catalase and alkaline phosphatase were inhibited by all experimental concentrations of both toxins in the coelomocytes of earthworm. These toxins were recorded to be modifiers of the major immune associated parameters of M. posthuma. Unrestricted contamination of soil by sulfate and oxide nanoparticles of copper may lead to an undesirable shift in the innate immunological status of earthworm leading to a condition of immune compromisation and shrinkage in population density of this species in its natural habitat. This article is the first time report of immunological toxicity of

  16. Field effects of pollutants in dynamic environments. A case study on earthworm populations in river floodplains contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Chris; Goedhart, Paul W.; Vandecasteele, Bart

    2007-01-01

    In industrialized countries river floodplains can be strongly polluted with heavy metals. Published studies on effects of heavy metal pollution on soil invertebrates in floodplains, however, are inconclusive. This is unexpected since studies in other less dynamic environments reported clear effects at even lower levels of pollution. Flooding induces extra variation in invertebrate biomass and abundance which may reduce the probability to detect heavy metal effects. In this paper we combine reported data from studies on river floodplains in The Netherlands and Belgium and statistically analyze the effect of heavy metals on species composition, biomass, density and individual weight of earthworms. Interaction effects of heavy metal stress and flooding are also considered. The results suggest clear effects of zinc and copper on all variables and interaction of heavy metals and flooding for individual weight. - Interaction with flooding masks heavy metal effects

  17. Longitudinal in vivo MR imaging of live earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budán, Ferenc; Kovács, Noémi; Engelmann, Péter; Horváth, Ildikó; Veres, Dániel S; Németh, Péter; Szigeti, Krisztián; Máthé, Domokos

    2014-11-01

    Earthworm (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) species are used widely in eco-toxicological tests especially with contaminated soils. These long-term tests are reliable, but a high sample size is needed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can produce fast, robust, sensitive, and longitudinal morphological results using a small sample size. Performing longitudinal in vivo examinations of earthworms using MRI requires the need for anesthetics to completely avoid earthworm's moving. Our goal was to develop a simple and non-invasive method to anesthetize earthworms for in vivo longitudinal imaging studies. We investigated a number of different anesthesia methods and found that propan-2-ol and its vapor was optimal. We used a commercial sequential nanoScan® PET/MRI system (Mediso Ltd, Hungary, Budapest) to explore feasibility of MR imaging in immobilized earthworms. It was possible to visualize via micro MRI the brain, gastrointestinal tract, seminal vesicles, calciferous gland (Morren gland), and main blood vessels of the circulatory system. Our findings show the possibilities to examine changes in morphology using MRI of certain organs using a reversible, long-term immobilization method. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Proximal Soil Sensing - A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirrmann, Michael; Joschko, Monika; Gebbers, Robin; Kramer, Eckart; Zörner, Mirjam; Barkusky, Dietmar; Timmer, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS) provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils. Proximal soil sensing data, e.g., soil electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and near infrared absorbance (NIR), were collected in real-time in a field with two management strategies (reduced tillage / conventional tillage) and sandy to loam soils. PSS was related to observations from a long-term (11 years) earthworm observation study conducted at 42 plots. Earthworms were sampled from 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 m³ soil blocks and identified to species level. Sensor data were highly correlated with earthworm abundances observed in reduced tillage but less correlated with earthworm abundances observed in conventional tillage. This may indicate that management influences the sensor-earthworm relationship. Generalized additive models and state-space models showed that modelling based on data fusion from EC, pH, and NIR sensors produced better results than modelling without sensor data or data from just a single sensor. Regarding the individual earthworm species, particular sensor combinations were more appropriate than others due to the different habitat requirements of the earthworms. Earthworm species with soil-specific habitat preferences were spatially predicted with higher accuracy by PSS than more ubiquitous species. Our findings suggest that PSS contributes to the spatial modelling of

  19. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  20. What's in our soil?: how soil pollution affects earthworm movement patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, T.

    2017-12-01

    Earthworms are an important member of many ecosystems because they contribute to soil quality and are a major food source for many organisms. In this project, we assessed the impacts soil pollution has on the burrowing patterns of earthworms. In each experiment, we introduced 10 earthworms to a unique pollutant and let them equilibrate for up to a week. The results indicated that earthworms migrate towards the introduced liquid regardless of its impact on them. The liquid pollutants introduced seemed to attract the earthworms. This can have harmful consequences, especially in the case of the motor oil, which killed multiple worms.

  1. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  2. Assessment of soil stabilization by chemical extraction and bioaccumulation using earthworm, Eisenia fetida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung-Tae; Abd Aziz, Azilah; Han, Heop Jo; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2014-05-01

    Soil stabilization does not remove heavy metals from contaminated soil, but lowers their exposures to ecosystem. Thus, it should be evaluated by measuring the fractions of heavy metals which are mobile and/or bioavailable in soils. The study compared several chemical extractions which intended to quantify the mobile or bioaccessible fractions with uptake and bioaccumulation by earthworm, Eisenia fetida. Soil samples were taken from the abandoned mine area contaminated with As, Cd, Cu, Pb and/or Zn. To stabilize heavy metals, the soils were amended with limestone and steel slag at 5% and 2% (w/w), respectively. All chemical extractions and earthworm tests were applied to both the contaminated and the stabilized soils with triplicates. The chemical extractions consisted of six single extractions which were 0.01M CaCl2 (unbufferred), EDTA or DTPA (chelating), TCLP (acidic), Mehlich 3 (mixture), and aqua regia (peudo-total). Sequential extractions were also applied to fractionate heavy metals in soils. In earthworm tests, worms were exposed to the soils for uptake of heavy metals. After 28 days of exposure to soils, worms were transferred to clean soils for elimination. During the tests, three worms were randomly collected at proper sampling events. Worms were rinsed with DI water and placed on moist filter paper for 48 h for depuration. Filter paper was renewed at 24 h to prevent coprophagy. The worms were killed with liquid nitrogen, dried in the oven, and digested with aqua regia for ICP-MS analysis. In addition to the bioaccumulation, several toxicity endpoints were observed such as burrowing time, mortality, cocoon production, and body weight changes. Toxicokinetics was applied to determine the uptake and elimination heavy metals by the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was estimated using total metal concentrations and body burdens. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression were applied to evaluate the relationship between metal fractions by single

  3. DNA damage and repair process in earthworm after in-vivo and in vitro exposure to soils irrigated by wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiao Min [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Chen Ying [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Chunxia [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Wang Zijian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)]. E-mail: wangzj@rcees.ac.cn; Zhu Yongguan [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, DNA damage to earthworms (Eisenia fetida) after in vivo exposure to contaminated soils was measured by detecting DNA strand breakages (DSBs) and causality was analyzed through fractionation based bioassays. A non-linear dose-response relationship existed between DNA damage and total soil PAHs levels. DNA damage, measured with the comet assay, and its repair process, were observed. To identify the chemical causality, an in vitro comet assay using coelomocytes was subsequently performed on the fractionated organic extracts from soils. The results showed that the PAHs in the soils were responsible for the exerting genotoxic effects on earthworms. When normalized to benzo(a)pyrene toxic equivalent (TEQ{sub BaP}), the saturation dose in the dose-response curve was about 10 ng TEQ{sub BaP} g{sup -1} soil (dw). - A non-linear dose-response relationship exists between earthworm DNA damage, measured with comet assay, and total PAHs levels in soils irrigated by wastewaters.

  4. A new drilling method-Earthworm-like vibration drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Ni, Hongjian; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed "earthworm-like drilling" is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a "soft-string" model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling.

  5. A new drilling method—Earthworm-like vibration drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wang, Ruihe

    2018-01-01

    The load transfer difficulty caused by borehole wall friction severely limits the penetration rate and extended-reach limit of complex structural wells. A new friction reduction technology termed “earthworm-like drilling” is proposed in this paper to improve the load transfer of complex structural wells. A mathematical model based on a “soft-string” model is developed and solved. The results show that earthworm-like drilling is more effective than single-point vibration drilling. The amplitude and frequency of the pulse pressure and the installation position of the shakers have a substantial impact on friction reduction and load transfer. An optimization model based on the projection gradient method is developed and used to optimize the position of three shakers in a horizontal well. The results verify the feasibility and advantages of earthworm-like drilling, and establish a solid theoretical foundation for its application in oil field drilling. PMID:29641615

  6. Second contribution to the knowledge of earthworms (Lumbricidae in Montenegro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Mirjana M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the results of qualitative analysis of Lumbricidae (Oligochaeta in Montenegro, during the period 1997-2003. The research has included natural and cultivated biotopes. The presence of 15 species was established and the habitats, localities and their zoogeographical position are given. In Montenegro we found four species for the first time Dendrobaena jastrebensis, D. vejdovskyi, Octodrilus bretcheri and Lumbricus terrestris. The complete list of earthworm species in Montenegro includes 45 taxa. With respects to the zoogeographic situation of the earthworms in Montenegro, the largest number belongs to endemic (10 and European (10 species. But 8 taxa are south-European, 9 Holarctic, 7 cosmopolitan, and 1 Palearctic. The degree of endemism of the earthworm fauna of Montenegro is quite high, exceeding 22.2%.

  7. Recombinant Protein Production of Earthworm Lumbrokinase for Potential Antithrombotic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Yueju Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms have been used as a traditional medicine in China, Japan, and other Far East countries for thousands of years. Oral administration of dry earthworm powder is considered as a potent and effective supplement for supporting healthy blood circulation. Lumbrokinases are a group of enzymes that were isolated and purified from different species of earthworms. These enzymes are recognized as fibrinolytic agents that can be used to treat various conditions associated with thrombosis. Many lumbrokinase (LK genes have been cloned and characterized. Advances in genetic technology have provided the ability to produce recombinant LK and have made it feasible to purify a single lumbrokinase enzyme for potential antithrombotic application. In this review, we focus on expression systems that can be used for lumbrokinase production. In particular, the advantages of using a transgenic plant system to produce edible lumbrokinase are described.

  8. Soil type influence on Ag Nanoparticles by earthworms, Eisenia fetida

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariyadas, Jennifer; Mónica, Amorim; Scott-Fordsmand, Janeck James

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms are key sentinel organisms playing an important role in improving the soil structure. Here we tested the importance of soil type on the toxicity to silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to earthworms, Eisenia fetida. Silver nanoparticles are widely used in a range of consumer products mainly...... as antibacterial agents and thus causes potential risk to the environment once these particles are released into the environment [1]. In our tests, we were able to show that the earthworm toxicity was strongly dependent on the soil type, with strongest effect in low organic matter soil. Studies on the organic...... matter content, clay and cation exchange capacity along with the metal solution activity will provide insight into the bioavailability of metals in different soils, hence For each of the soil type the fate of the AgNPs was also measured....

  9. An annotated checklist of earthworms of Greece (Clitellata: Megadrili).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szederjesi, Tímea; Vavoulidou, Evangelia; Chalkia, Christina; Dányi, László; Csuzdi, Csaba

    2017-05-26

    The earthworm fauna of Greece is reviewed. According to the up-to-date checklist, the earthworm fauna of Greece consists of 67 species and subspecies, of which 59 taxa belong to the family Lumbricidae, three to Megascolecidae, two to Acanthodrilidae and to Ocnerodrilidae and one taxon to the family Criodrilidae. Three species are recorded for the first time from the country: Allolobophora kosowensis kosowensis Karaman, 1968, Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867) and Eukerria saltensis (Beddard, 1895). Eisenia spelaea var. athenica Černosvitov, 1938 is proposed to be a synonym of Aporrectodea rosea (Savigny, 1826). The earthworm fauna of Greece is characterized by a large number of strict endemic species belonging to the family Lumbricidae (9 taxa), together with the occurrence of another 10 Balkanic endemic species.

  10. Comparative toxicity of chemicals to earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, C.A.; Shirazi, M.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States)); Neuhauser, E.F. (Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States))

    1994-02-01

    The concentration-response (mortality) relationships of four species of earthworms, Eisenia fetida (Savigny), Allolobophora tuberculata (Eisen), Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg), and Perionyx excavatus (Perrier) are summarized for 62 chemicals and two test protocols. A Weibull function is used to summarize these data for each chemical in terms of sensitivity and toxicity, in addition to the LC50. The estimation of the Weibull parameters a and k summarize the entire concentration-response relationship. This technique should be applicable to a variety of testing protocols with different species whenever the goal is summarizing the shape of the concentration-response curves to fully evaluate chemical impact on organisms. In some cases for these data four orders of magnitude separate LC50s of the soil test and the contact test for the same chemical and species. All four species appear to be similar in range of toxicity and tolerance to these chemicals, suggesting that Eisenia fetida and may be representative of these four species and these chemicals.

  11. Effect of earthworms on the biochemical characterization of biofilms in vermifiltration treatment of excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Liu, Jing; Xing, Meiyan; Lu, Zhibo; Yan, Qiong

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the biofilms formed in a vermifilter (VF) with earthworms and a conventional biofilter (BF) without earthworms were compared to investigate the effects of earthworms on the characteristics of biofilms during an excess sludge treatment period of 4months. Typical macrographs and micrographs of the biofilms showed that the feeding and casting actions of earthworms remarkably modified the VF morphology. Elemental analysis and fluorescence spectra indicated that earthworms enhanced the stabilization of organic matter by accelerating the mineralization and humification of organic materials during vermiconversion. In addition, bacterial communities inhabiting the VF biofilm showed that earthworms increased both bacterial diversity and metabolic activities in the film, as revealed by automatic testing bacteriology (ATB) expression and sequencing data. These results demonstrate that earthworms influence the structure and biochemical characteristics of biofilms and enhance their bacterial diversity and functions for improved sludge stabilization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and optimization of classifier genes from multi-class earthworm microarray dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    Full Text Available Monitoring, assessment and prediction of environmental risks that chemicals pose demand rapid and accurate diagnostic assays. A variety of toxicological effects have been associated with explosive compounds TNT and RDX. One important goal of microarray experiments is to discover novel biomarkers for toxicity evaluation. We have developed an earthworm microarray containing 15,208 unique oligo probes and have used it to profile gene expression in 248 earthworms exposed to TNT, RDX or neither. We assembled a new machine learning pipeline consisting of several well-established feature filtering/selection and classification techniques to analyze the 248-array dataset in order to construct classifier models that can separate earthworm samples into three groups: control, TNT-treated, and RDX-treated. First, a total of 869 genes differentially expressed in response to TNT or RDX exposure were identified using a univariate statistical algorithm of class comparison. Then, decision tree-based algorithms were applied to select a subset of 354 classifier genes, which were ranked by their overall weight of significance. A multiclass support vector machine (MC-SVM method and an unsupervised K-mean clustering method were applied to independently refine the classifier, producing a smaller subset of 39 and 30 classifier genes, separately, with 11 common genes being potential biomarkers. The combined 58 genes were considered the refined subset and used to build MC-SVM and clustering models with classification accuracy of 83.5% and 56.9%, respectively. This study demonstrates that the machine learning approach can be used to identify and optimize a small subset of classifier/biomarker genes from high dimensional datasets and generate classification models of acceptable precision for multiple classes.

  13. Origami-based earthworm-like locomotion robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongbin; Zhang, Yetong; Wang, K W

    2017-10-16

    Inspired by the morphology characteristics of the earthworms and the excellent deformability of origami structures, this research creates a novel earthworm-like locomotion robot through exploiting the origami techniques. In this innovation, appropriate actuation mechanisms are incorporated with origami ball structures into the earthworm-like robot 'body', and the earthworm's locomotion mechanism is mimicked to develop a gait generator as the robot 'centralized controller'. The origami ball, which is a periodic repetition of waterbomb units, could output significant bidirectional (axial and radial) deformations in an antagonistic way similar to the earthworm's body segment. Such bidirectional deformability can be strategically programmed by designing the number of constituent units. Experiments also indicate that the origami ball possesses two outstanding mechanical properties that are beneficial to robot development: one is the structural multistability in the axil direction that could contribute to the robot control implementation; and the other is the structural compliance in the radial direction that would increase the robot robustness and applicability. To validate the origami-based innovation, this research designs and constructs three robot segments based on different axial actuators: DC-motor, shape-memory-alloy springs, and pneumatic balloon. Performance evaluations reveal their merits and limitations, and to prove the concept, the DC-motor actuation is selected for building a six-segment robot prototype. Learning from earthworms' fundamental locomotion mechanism-retrograde peristalsis wave, seven gaits are automatically generated; controlled by which, the robot could achieve effective locomotion with qualitatively different modes and a wide range of average speeds. The outcomes of this research could lead to the development of origami locomotion robots with low fabrication costs, high customizability, light weight, good scalability, and excellent re-configurability.

  14. New data to the earthworm fauna of Israel (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szederjesi, T.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating several smaller earthworm samples collected in different parts of Israel resulted in recording 20 earthworm species including Bimastos parvus (Eisen, 1874 a North American peregrine which represents new record for the country. Three other species; Dendrobaena nevoi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999, Healyella jordanis (Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 1999and Perelia shamsi Csuzdi & Pavlíček, 2005 were first recorded after their original descriptions. The present list of lumbricidearthworms recorded for Israel is raised to 28.

  15. USE OF VARIOUS BAITS FOR EXTRACTION OF EARTHWORMS FROM VERMICOMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kostecka; Vinod Kumar Garg

    2015-01-01

    During vermicomposting, earthworm grower has to overcome a lot of different problems. For instance, in case of a sudden requirement to sell earthworms it is useful to have the ability to collect them in one place. Fresh food extraction is an effective and neutral way to do it. The efficiency of gathering and extracting E. fetida from the vermicompost was studied, using a fresh bait method. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory (at the mean temperature of 20±0.5 °C) in pots filled wit...

  16. An earthworm-like actuator using segmented solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Bu Hyun; Choi, Seung-Wook; Lee, Seung-Yop; Bang, Young-Bong

    2011-01-01

    A biomimetic actuator is developed using four segmented solenoids mimicking earthworm locomotion. The proposed actuator not only has a simple structure composed of cores and coils, but also enables bi-directional actuation and high speed locomotion regardless of friction conditions. We have implemented theoretical analysis to design the optimal profiles of input current signal for maximum speed and predict the output force and stroke. Experiments using a prototype show that the earthworm-like actuator travels with a speed above 60 mm s −1 regardless of friction conditions

  17. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to earthworms in urban soils and its implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachada, A; Coelho, C; Gavina, A; Dias, A C; Patinha, C; Reis, A P; da Silva, E Ferreira; Duarte, A C; Pereira, R

    2018-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a global problem, and in urban soils they can be found at potentially hazard levels. Nevertheless, the real risks that these contaminants pose to the environment are not well known, since the bioavailability of PAHs in urban soils has been poorly studied. Therefore, the bioavailability of PAHs in some selected urban soils from Lisbon (Portugal) was evaluated. Moreover, the applicability of a first screening phase based on total contents of PAHs was assessed. Results show that bioavailability of PAHs is reduced (low levels in earthworms, low accumulation percentages, and low biota-to-soil accumulation factors values), especially in more contaminated soils. The aging of these compounds explains this low availability, and confirms the generally accepted assumption that accumulation of PAHs in urban areas is mostly related with a long-term deposition of contaminated particles. The comparison of measured PAHs concentrations in earthworm tissues with the ones predicted based on theoretical models, reinforce that risks based on total levels are overestimated, but it can be a good initial approach for urban soils. This study also highlights the need of more reliable ecotoxicological data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes - this co......Alternative and renewable fuels derived from lignocellulosic biomass offer a promising alternative to conventional energy sources, and provide energy security, economic growth, and environmental benefits. However, plant cell walls naturally resist decomposition from microbes and enzymes...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  19. The earthworm fauna of regenerating forests and anthropogenic habitats in the coastal region of Paraná A fauna de minhocas em florestas em regeneração e habitats antropogênicos na região costeira do Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Römbke

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate abundance, biomass and diversity of earthworms in the southern coast region of the Mata Atlântica biodiversity hotspot. A total of 51 study sites in pastures, banana monocultures, mixed agroforestry systems, secondary forests in succession and old-growth forests near the coast of Paraná, Brazil, were evaluated. Each site was sampled once. Species richness of the earthworms was generally low and varied little between sites. At all sites except for one, the peregrine species Pontoscolex corethrurus (Glossoscolecidae strongly dominated. Three other peregrine species, Amynthas corticis, Amynthas gracilis (Megascolecidae and Ocnerodrilus occidentalis (Ocnerodrilidae, were frequent in moist sites. No autochthonous species were found. Abundance and biomass of earthworms varied strongly within and between sites (0-338 individuals m-2, 0-96 g m-2 fresh weight. Pastures had significantly lower abundance than all other sites. The forest sites had similar earthworm abundance and biomass, with a tendency to be higher in younger succession stages. The coastal plain region has been strongly altered by human activities. Reasons for the lack of any autochthonous species and the dominance of one peregrine species require further investigation.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a abundância, a biomassa e a diversidade de minhocas, na região costeira sul do "hotspot" de biodiversidade Mata Atlântica. Um total de 51 locais foram avaliados em pastagens, monoculturas de banana e sistemas agroflorestais de banana com palmito e florestas secundárias próximos à costa do Estado do Paraná. Cada local foi amostrado apenas uma vez. A riqueza de espécies de minhocas, de modo geral, foi baixa e variou pouco entre os locais. Em todos os locais, exceto um, predominou a espécie peregrina Pontoscolex corethrurus (Glossoscolecidae. Não foram encontradas espécies nativas em nenhum local. Três outras espécies peregrinas, Amynthas

  20. Effects of a constructed Technosol on mortality, survival and reproduction of earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pey, Benjamin; Cortet, Jerome; Capowiez, Yvan; Mignot, Lenaic; Nahmani, Johanne; Watteau, Francoise; Schwartz, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    Soils, whose properties and pedogenesis are dominated by artificial materials or transported materials, are classified as Technosols. Some of these Technosols are used in soil engineering, which is the voluntary action to combine technical materials in a given objective to restore an ecosystem. Primary by products that are used to build these Technosols need to be assessed on an ecotoxicological point of view. The following study aims to assess the effects of a constructed Technosol made from different primary by-products on the mortality, survival and reproductions of two earthworm species. The model of Technosol used here is a combination of green-waste compost (GWC) and papermill sludge (PS) mixed with thermally treated industrial soil (TIS). OECD soil is used as a control soil. Three different experiments have been managed: i) the first, to assess the potential toxicity effect on Eisenia foetida biomass (28 days) and reproduction (56 days), ii) the second to assess the short-term effect (7 days) on Lumbricus terrestris biomass, iii) and the third to assess the medium-term effect (30 days) on L. terrestris biomass. Reproduction of E. foetida is enhanced with high proportions of GWC. For biomass, GWC seems to improve body mass contrary to other materials which lead to losses of body mass. Thus, for E. foetida, GWC seems to be a high-quality and long-term source of food. Body mass of L. terrestris decreased with GWC and OECD. At short-term only, TIS/PS leads to a gain of body mass. Only equilibrium of 25% GWC - 75% TIS/PS allows a gain of body mass at medium term. TIS/PS appears to be a low-quality and short-term food resource but an excellent water tank. It can be concluded that the constructed Technosol is not toxic for fauna but some differences appear between different tested material combinations, depending on nature, proportion and trophic properties of materials.

  1. Potential utilization of bagasse as feed material for earthworm Eisenia fetida and production of vermicompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sartaj Ahmad; Singh, Jaswinder; Vig, Adarsh Pal

    2015-01-01

    In the present work bagasse (B) i.e waste of the sugar industry, was fed to Eisenia fetida with cattle dung (CD) support as feed material at various ratios (waste: CD) of 0:100 (B0), 25:75 (B25), 50:50 (B50), 75:25 (B75) and 100:0 (B100) on dry weight basis. Co-composting with cattle dung helped to improve their acceptability for E. fetida and also improved physico-chemical characteristics. Best appropriate ratio for survival, maximum growth and population buildup of E. fetida was determined by observing population buildup, growth rate, biomass, mortality and cocoon formation. Minimum mortality and highest population size of worms was observed in 50:50 (B50) ratio. Increasing concentrations of wastes significantly affected the growth and reproduction of worms. Nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sodium increased from pre-vermicompost to post-vermicompost, while organic carbon, and C:N ratio decreased in all the end products of post-vermicomposting. Heavy metals decreased significantly from initial except zinc, iron and manganese which increased significantly. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to recognize the changes in texture in the pre and post-vermicomposted samples. The post-vermicomposted ratios in the presence of earthworms validate more surface changes that prove to be good manure. The results observed from the present study indicated that the earthworm E. fetida was able to change bagasse waste into nutrient-rich manure and thus play a major role in industrial waste management.

  2. The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udovic, Metka; Lestan, Domen

    2007-01-01

    The effect of two earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida, on the fractionation/bioavailability of Pb and Zn before and after soil leaching with EDTA was studied. Four leaching steps with total 12.5 mmol kg -1 EDTA removed 39.8% and 6.1% of Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA removed Pb from all soil fractions fairly uniformly (assessed using sequential extractions). Zn was mostly present in the chemically inert residual soil fraction, which explains its poor removal. Analysis of earthworm casts and the remainder of the soil indicated that L. rubellus and E. fetida actively regulated soil pH, but did not significantly change Pb and Zn fractionation in non-remediated and remediated soil. However, the bioavailability of Pb (assessed using Ruby's physiologically based extraction test) in E. fetida casts was significantly higher than in the bulk of the soil. In remediated soil the Pb bioavailability in the simulated stomach phase increased by 5.1 times. - Earthworm activity increases heavy metal bioavailability in soil before and after remediation

  3. The effect of earthworms on the fractionation and bioavailability of heavy metals before and after soil remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udovic, Metka [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lestan, Domen [Agronomy Department, Centre for Soil and Environmental Science, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: domen.lestan@bf.uni-lj.si

    2007-07-15

    The effect of two earthworm species, Lumbricus rubellus and Eisenia fetida, on the fractionation/bioavailability of Pb and Zn before and after soil leaching with EDTA was studied. Four leaching steps with total 12.5 mmol kg{sup -1} EDTA removed 39.8% and 6.1% of Pb and Zn, respectively. EDTA removed Pb from all soil fractions fairly uniformly (assessed using sequential extractions). Zn was mostly present in the chemically inert residual soil fraction, which explains its poor removal. Analysis of earthworm casts and the remainder of the soil indicated that L. rubellus and E. fetida actively regulated soil pH, but did not significantly change Pb and Zn fractionation in non-remediated and remediated soil. However, the bioavailability of Pb (assessed using Ruby's physiologically based extraction test) in E. fetida casts was significantly higher than in the bulk of the soil. In remediated soil the Pb bioavailability in the simulated stomach phase increased by 5.1 times. - Earthworm activity increases heavy metal bioavailability in soil before and after remediation.

  4. Land-use and land-management change: relationships with earthworm and fungi communities and soil structural properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, David J; Keith, Aidan M; Schmidt, Olaf; Lammertsma, Dennis R; Faber, Jack H

    2013-12-01

    Change in land use and management can impact massively on soil ecosystems. Ecosystem engineers and other functional biodiversity in soils can be influenced directly by such change and this in turn can affect key soil functions. Here, we employ meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of the effects of changes in land use and land management across a range of successional/extensification transitions (conventional arable → no or reduced tillage → grassland → wooded land) on community metrics for two functionally important soil taxa, earthworms and fungi. An analysis of the relationships between community change and soil structural properties was also included. Meta-analysis highlighted a consistent trend of increased earthworm and fungal community abundances and complexity following transitions to lower intensity and later successional land uses. The greatest changes were seen for early stage transitions, such as introduction of reduced tillage regimes and conversion to grassland from arable land. Not all changes, however, result in positive effects on the assessed community metrics. For example, whether woodland conversion positively or negatively affects community size and complexity depends on woodland type and, potentially, the changes in soil properties, such as pH, that may occur during conversion. Alterations in soil communities tended to facilitate subsequent changes in soil structure and hydrology. For example, increasing earthworm abundances and functional group composition were shown to be positively correlated with water infiltration rate (dependent on tillage regime and habitat characteristics); while positive changes in fungal biomass measures were positively associated with soil microaggregate stability. These findings raise the potential to manage landscapes to increase ecosystem service provision from soil biota in relation to regulation of soil structure and water flow.

  5. Earthworm bioturbation influences the phytoavailability of metals released by particles in cultivated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Xiong, Tiantian; Foucault, Yann

    2014-01-01

    The influence of earthworm activity on soil-to-plant metal transfer was studied by carrying out six weeks mesocosms experiments with or without lettuce and/or earthworms in soil with a gradient of metal concentrations due to particles fallouts. Soil characteristics, metal concentrations in lettuce and earthworms were measured and soil porosity in the mesocosms was determined. Earthworms increased the soil pH, macroporosity and soil organic matter content due to the burying of wheat straw provided as food. Earthworm activities increased the metals concentrations in lettuce leaves. Pb and Cd concentrations in lettuce leaves can increase up to 46% with earthworm activities … These results and the low correlation between estimated by CaCl 2 and EDTA and measured pollutant phytoavailability suggest that earthworm bioturbation was the main cause of the increase. Bioturbation could affect the proximity of pollutants to the roots and soil organic matter. - Highlights: • Earthworm bioturbation increases phytoavailability of Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu. • Earthworm activity influences soil structure and increases pH. • Plant metal uptake was not correlated with CaCl 2 , EDTA estimated phytoavailability. • Increased metal phytoavailability with bioturbation could increase human exposure. - Earthworm activities can increase metal phytoavailability and subsequent human exposure to metals in consumed vegetables

  6. Soil Penetration by Earthworms and Plant Roots--Mechanical Energetics of Bioturbation of Compacted Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siul Ruiz

    Full Text Available We quantify mechanical processes common to soil penetration by earthworms and growing plant roots, including the energetic requirements for soil plastic displacement. The basic mechanical model considers cavity expansion into a plastic wet soil involving wedging by root tips or earthworms via cone-like penetration followed by cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydroskeleton or root radial growth. The mechanical stresses and resulting soil strains determine the mechanical energy required for bioturbation under different soil hydro-mechanical conditions for a realistic range of root/earthworm geometries. Modeling results suggest that higher soil water content and reduced clay content reduce the strain energy required for soil penetration. The critical earthworm or root pressure increases with increased diameter of root or earthworm, however, results are insensitive to the cone apex (shape of the tip. The invested mechanical energy per unit length increase with increasing earthworm and plant root diameters, whereas mechanical energy per unit of displaced soil volume decreases with larger diameters. The study provides a quantitative framework for estimating energy requirements for soil penetration work done by earthworms and plant roots, and delineates intrinsic and external mechanical limits for bioturbation processes. Estimated energy requirements for earthworm biopore networks are linked to consumption of soil organic matter and suggest that earthworm populations are likely to consume a significant fraction of ecosystem net primary production to sustain their subterranean activities.

  7. The earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa stimulates abundance and activity of phenoxyalkanoic acid herbicide degraders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ya-Jun; Zaprasis, Adrienne; Liu, Shuang-Jiang; Drake, Harold L; Horn, Marcus A

    2011-01-01

    2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) is a widely used phenoxyalkanoic acid (PAA) herbicide. Earthworms represent the dominant macrofauna and enhance microbial activities in many soils. Thus, the effect of the model earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa (Oligochaeta, Lumbricidae) on microbial MCPA degradation was assessed in soil columns with agricultural soil. MCPA degradation was quicker in soil with earthworms than without earthworms. Quantitative PCR was inhibition-corrected per nucleic acid extract and indicated that copy numbers of tfdA-like and cadA genes (both encoding oxygenases initiating aerobic PAA degradation) in soil with earthworms were up to three and four times higher than without earthworms, respectively. tfdA-like and 16S rRNA gene transcript copy numbers in soil with earthworms were two and six times higher than without earthworms, respectively. Most probable numbers (MPNs) of MCPA degraders approximated 4 × 105 gdw−1 in soil before incubation and in soil treated without earthworms, whereas MPNs of earthworm-treated soils were approximately 150 × higher. The aerobic capacity of soil to degrade MCPA was higher in earthworm-treated soils than in earthworm-untreated soils. Burrow walls and 0–5 cm depth bulk soil displayed higher capacities to degrade MCPA than did soil from 5–10 cm depth bulk soil, expression of tfdA-like genes in burrow walls was five times higher than in bulk soil and MCPA degraders were abundant in burrow walls (MPNs of 5 × 107 gdw−1). The collective data indicate that earthworms stimulate abundance and activity of MCPA degraders endogenous to soil by their burrowing activities and might thus be advantageous for enhancing PAA degradation in soil. PMID:20740027

  8. Feeding activity of the earthworm Eisenia andrei in artificial soil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, D.T.; Fleuren, R.H.L.J.; Roelofs, W.; de Groot, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative information on the feeding activity of earthworms is scarce but this information is valuable in many eco(toxico)logical studies. In this study, the feeding activity of the compost worm Eisenia andrei is examined in artificial soil (OECD medium), with and without a high-quality food

  9. The role of earthworm defense mechanisms in ecotoxicity studies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Radka; Procházková, Petra; Dvořák, Jiří; Škanta, František; Bilej, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2015 (2015), s. 203-213 ISSN 1824-307X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : pollution * immune system * earthworms Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.754, year: 2015

  10. Do earthworms affect phosphorus availability to grass? A pot experiment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, M.J.; Ros, M.B.H.; Koopmans, G.F.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The largest part of phosphorus (P) in soil is bound by the soil solid phase; its release to the soil solution therefore often does not meet the demand of plants. Since global P fertilizer reserves are declining, it becomes increasingly important to better utilize soil P. We tested whether earthworm

  11. Metabolic changes during estivation in the common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayley, Mark; Overgaard, Johannes; Høj, Andrea Sødergaard

    2011-01-01

    The common earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa survives drought by forming estivation chambers in the topsoil under even very slight reductions in soil water activity. We induced estivation in a soil of a consistency that allowed the removal of intact soil estivation chambers containing a single worm...

  12. Toxicity of Commercial Neem Extract to Earthworms (Pheretima peguana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ptumporn Muangphra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The LC50 of commercial neem extract (Sadao Thai III containing azadirachtin; NEEM on filter paper in the earthworm Pheretima peguana at 48 h and 72 h was 3.79 and 3.33 g cm−2, respectively. In earthworms exposed to five NEEM concentrations from 0.39 (~10% of 48-h LC50 to 3.13 (~80% of 48-h LC50 g cm−2, the radial thickness of the epidermis and body wall significantly (<.05 decreased, and thickness of intestinal epithelium increased but only at high doses, approximately 25-fold above the concentration permitted for use as an insecticide in field applications (0.09 g cm−2. NEEM significantly (<.05 increased the number of binucleated coelomocytes in the micronucleus test (detects chromosomal aberrations at 3.13 g cm−2, approximately 35-fold higher than the recommended dose, but it did not cause coelomocyte DNA single-strand breaks in the comet assay. Thus, NEEM is cytotoxic (increase in binucleates through the inhibition of cytokinesis but not genotoxic to earthworm coelomocytes. This study demonstrates that the recommended dosage of commercial neem extract as an insecticide in agricultural practices is safe for earthworms.

  13. Enteric pathogen modification by anaecic earthworm, Lampito Mauritii

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biosolids from municipal wastewater treatment plant contains several enteric microbial pathogens, predominantly Salmonella and Escherichia species in the range of 15-18 x 104 CFU/g and 11-12 x 104 CFU/g respectively. The present study investigates the influence of earthworm, Lampito mauritii on enteric pathogen ...

  14. Growth response of Amaranthus caudatus to earthworm casts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of earth worm cast on the physiomorphological differences of Amaranthus caudatus was studied in the green house of the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan for seven weeks in 1998. Earthworm casts were collected from soils cultivated with maize, cassava and oil palm fields and secondary forest.

  15. LBP/BPI homologue in Eisenia andrei earthworms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škanta, František; Procházková, Petra; Roubalová, Radka; Dvořák, Jiří; Bilej, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2016), s. 1-6 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Earthworm * Eisenia * LBP/BPI Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.218, year: 2016

  16. MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Craig; Ellerington, Neil; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2011-03-01

    This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4-9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s-1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

  17. MEMS earthworm: a thermally actuated peristaltic linear micromotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, Craig; Ellerington, Neil; Hubbard, Ted; Kujath, Marek

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the design, fabrication and testing of a bio-mimetic MEMS (micro-electro mechanical systems) earthworm motor with external actuators. The motor consists of a passive mobile shuttle with two flexible diamond-shaped segments; each segment is independently squeezed by a pair of stationary chevron-shaped thermal actuators. Applying a specific sequence of squeezes to the earthworm segments, the shuttle can be driven backward or forward. Unlike existing inchworm drives that use clamping and thrusting actuators, the earthworm actuators apply only clamping forces to the shuttle, and lateral thrust is produced by the shuttle's compliant geometry. The earthworm assembly is fabricated using the PolyMUMPs process with planar dimensions of 400 µm width by 800 µm length. The stationary actuators operate within the range of 4–9 V and provide a maximum shuttle range of motion of 350 µm (approximately half its size), a maximum shuttle speed of 17 mm s −1 at 10 kHz, and a maximum dc shuttle force of 80 µN. The shuttle speed was found to vary linearly with both input voltage and input frequency. The shuttle force was found to vary linearly with the actuator voltage.

  18. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  19. Anomalous bioaccumulation of lead in the earthworm Eisenoides lonnbergi (Michaelsen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Codling, Eton E.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    Lead concentrations in soil organisms are usually well below those in the associated soil and tend to decrease with each higher trophic level in a food chain. Earthworms of the species Eisenoides lonnbergi provide an exception to this observation, accumulating very high concentrations of lead from acidic soils. Earthworms belonging to this species were collected from strongly to extremely acidic soils at 16 sites on a wildlife refuge in Maryland, USA. A lead concentration as high as 766 mg/kg, dry weight, was detected in depurated E. lonnbergi collected from soil containing only 17 mg/kg of lead. Concentration factors (ratio of lead concentration in earthworms to lead concentration in soil, dry wt) were highly variable at the sites, from 1.0 to 83. As suggested previously, lead absorption by earthworms is enhanced in low-calcium soils. The anomalously high concentrations of lead found in E. lonnbergi are more closely correlated with the uptake of calcium from acidic soils than with bioaccessibility of soil lead. 

  20. Drivers of earthworm incidence and abundance across European forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandeler, Hans De; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Ampoorter, Evy

    2016-01-01

    Earthworms have a significant influence on the structure, composition and functioning of forest ecosystems, but in spite of their role as ecosystem engineers, little is known on the factors controlling their distribution across European forests. Optimised sampling techniques, as well as more adva...

  1. Diversity and host specificity of the Verminephrobacter–earthworm symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Davidson, Seana; Holmstrup, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Symbiotic bacteria of the genus Verminephrobacter (Betaproteobacteria) were detected in the nephridia of 19 out of 23 investigated earthworm species (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). While all four Lumbricus species and th...

  2. Methodological Considerations in the Study of Earthworms in Forest Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dylan Rhea-Fournier; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2017-01-01

    Decades of studies have shown that soil macrofauna, especially earthworms, play dominant engineering roles in soils, affecting physical, chemical, and biological components of ecosystems. Quantifying these effects would allow crucial improvement in biogeochemical budgets and modeling, predicting response of land use and disturbance, and could be applied to...

  3. The Earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae)of Wyoming, USA, Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This survey of the earthworms from 22 of the 23 counties of Wyoming recorded 13 species of terrestrial Oligochaeta, all members of the family Lumbricidae. One of these species, Aporrectodea limicola, is reported for the first time from the state. Current nomenclature is applied to historical records...

  4. Relating results from earthworm toxicity tests to agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Greig-Smith, P.W.

    1992-01-01

    The artificial soil tests of the European Economic Community and of the Organization for Economic Cooperation produce data relating earthworm mortality to pesticide concentrations in soil under laboratory conditions. To apply these results to agricultural soils it is necessary to relate these concentrations to amounts of pesticide applied per area. This paper reviews the relevant published literature and suggests a simple relation for regulatory use. Hazards to earthworms from pesticides are suggested to be greatest soon after application, when the pesticides may be concentrated in a soil layer a few millimeters thick. For estimating exposure of earthworms, however, a thicker soil layer should be considered, to account for their movement through soil. During favorable weather conditions, earthworms belonging to species appropriate to the artificial soil test have been reported to confine their activity to a layer about 5 cm. If a 5-cm layer is accepted as relevant for regulatory purposes, then an application of 1 kg/ha would be equivalent to 1-67 ppm (dry) in the artificial soil test.

  5. Comparative toxicity of pentachlorophenol to three earthworm species in artificial soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, D.; Lanno, R.P.; Farwell, A.; Dixon, D.G. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1994-12-31

    Although methods for standardized toxicity tests with earthworms exist, many of the test parameters and conditions have not been validated in actual tests and with different species of worms. This study evaluated the toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to three species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris, Eisenia fetida, and Eudrilus eugeniae using various methods of data analysis and body residues. Tests were conducted in artificial soil for a period of 28 days or until an Acute Lethality Threshold (ALT) was reached. An intensive temporal sampling regime was applied to generate sufficient data for the accurate estimation of ALTs using both LC50/time and time-to-death/soil concentration methods of data analysis. L. terrestris was tested at 15 C, E. eugeniae at 24 C, and E. fetida at both temperatures. Total body residues of PCP were measured by GC following cryogenic separation of the lipid fraction of the worm. ALTs were significantly different between E. fetida and the two larger species of worms. No effect of temperature on the ALT for E. fetida was observed, although the time taken to reach the ALT increased at the lower temperature. The relationship of PCP residues at mortality will be discussed in terms of the effects of species, body size and temperature. Limitations of the artificial soil based upon growth curves of worms will also be examined.

  6. Heavy Metals Bioaccumulation by Iranian and Australian Earthworms (Eisenia fetida in the Sewage Sludge Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Shahmansouri, H Pourmoghadas, AR Parvaresh, H Alidadi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. In this study, the possibility of heavy metals accumulation with two groups of Iranian and Australian earthworms in sewage sludge vermicompost was investigated. Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting process. The bioaccumulation of Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn as heavy metals by Iranian and Australian earthworms was studied. The results indicated that heavy metals concentration decreased with increasing vermicomposting time. Comparison of the two groups of earthworms showed that the Iranian earthworms consumed higher quantities of micronutrients such as Cu and Zn comparing with the Australian earthworms, while the bioaccumulation of non-essential elements such as Cr, Cd, and Pb by the Australian group was higher. The significant decrease in heavy metal concentrations in the final vermicompost indicated the capability of both Iranian and Australian E.fetida species in accumulating heavy metals in their body tissues.

  7. Do earthworms impact metal mobility and availability in soil? - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Hodson, Mark E.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of earthworms to ecosystem functioning has led to many studies on the impacts of metals on earthworms. Far less attention has been paid to the impact that earthworms have on soil metals both in terms of metal mobility and availability. In this review we consider which earthworms have been used in such studies, which soil components have been investigated, which types of soil have been used and what measures of mobility and availability applied. We proceed to review proposed reasons for effects: changes in microbial populations, pH, dissolved organic carbon and metal speciation. The balance of evidence suggests that earthworms increase metal mobility and availability but more studies are required to determine the precise mechanism for this. - We review the impact of earthworms on metal mobility and availability and suggest areas for further investigation.

  8. Co-Speciation of Earthworms and their nephridial symbionts, Acidovorax Spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Marie Braad; Fritz, Michael; Holmstrup, Martin

    2006-01-01

    the extracted DNA. The presence of the symbionts in the ampulla was verified by performing fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) on all worm species using an Acidovorax-specific probe. Earthworm and symbiont phylogeny was largely congruent, indicating that host and symbiont have indeed co-evolved since...... the initial bacterial colonization of an ancestral lumbricid worm. However, the association is complicated by the recent discovery of additional, putative symbiotic bacteria which have been detected in the ampulla of several earthworms by FISH. Identity, distribution among earthworms, and function...... within the genus Acidovorax [2], and they are transmitted vertically [3]. For these reasons, we suggest that the earthworm-Acidovorax association has evolved by co-speciation. This hypothesis was tested by a comparative study of earthworm and symbiont phylogeny. Different earthworm species were collected...

  9. EPR detection of hydroxyl radical generation and oxidative perturbations in lead-exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) in the presence of decabromodiphenyl ether.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kou; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhao, Li

    2015-03-01

    Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the main contaminants at e-waste recycling sites, and their potential toxicological effects on terrestrial organisms have received extensive attention. However, the impacts on the oxidative perturbations and hydroxyl radical (·OH) generation in earthworms of exposure to the two chemicals remain almost unknown. Therefore, indoor incubation tests were performed on control and contaminated soil samples to determine the effects of Pb in earthworms Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 through the use of several biomarkers in microcosms. The results have demonstrated that the addition of BDE209 (1 or 10 mg kg(-1)) decreased the enzymatic activities [superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), peroxidase] and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) compared with exposure to BDE209 alone (50, 250 or 500 mg kg(-1)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectra indicated that ·OH radicals in earthworms were significantly induced by Pb in the presence of BDE209. The changing pattern of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents was accordant with that of ·OH intensity suggested that reactive oxygen species might lead to cellular lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, CAT exhibited more sensitive response to single Pb exposure than the other biomarkers, while T-AOC, ·OH and MDA might be three most sensitive biomarkers in earthworms after simultaneous exposure to Pb and BDE209. The results of these observations suggested that oxidative stress appeared in E. fetida, and it may play an important role in inducing the Pb and BDE209 toxicity to earthworms.

  10. Seed selection by earthworms : chemical seed properties matter more than morphological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Clause, J.; Forey, E.; Eisenhauer, N.; Seal, C.E.; Soudey, A.; Colville, L.; Barot, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Aims : The passage of seeds through the earthworm gut potentially damages seeds, altering seed and seedling performances depending on seed traits. This work was conducted to study to what extent chemical and morphological seed traits determine the seed attractiveness for earthworms. Methods : We tested seed selection via the ingestion and digestion of 23 grassland plant species spanning a range of 14 morphological and chemical traits by two common earthworm species: the anecic Lumbricus te...

  11. Belowground interactions with aboveground consequences: Invasive earthworms and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Shishir; Longcore, Travis; MacDonald, Beau; McCormick, Melissa K; Szlavecz, Katalin; Wilson, Gail W T; Loss, Scot R

    2016-03-01

    A mounting body of research suggests that invasive nonnative earthworms substantially alter microbial communities, including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These changes to AMF can cascade to affect plant communities and vertebrate populations. Despite these research advances, relatively little is known about (1) the mechanisms behind earthworms' effects on AMF and (2) the factors that determine the outcomes of earthworm-AMF interactions (i.e., whether AMF abundance is increased or decreased and subsequent effects on plants). We predict that AMF-mediated effects of nonnative earthworms on ecosystems are nearly universal because (1) AMF are important components of most terrestrial ecosystems, (2) nonnative earthworms have become established in nearly every type of terrestrial ecosystem, and (3) nonnative earthworms, due to their burrowing and feeding behavior, greatly affect AMF with potentially profound concomitant effects on plant communities. We highlight the multiple direct and indirect effects of nonnative earthworms on plants and review what is currently known about the interaction between earthworms and AMF. We also illustrate how the effects of nonnative earthworms on plant-AMF mutualisms can alter the structure and stability of aboveground plant communities, as well as the vertebrate communities relying on these habitats. Integrative studies that assess the interactive effects of earthworms and AMF can provide new insights into the role that belowground ecosystem engineers play in altering aboveground ecological processes. Understanding these processes may improve our ability to predict the structure of plant and animal communities in earthworm-invaded regions and to develop management strategies that limit the numerous undesired impacts of earthworms.

  12. Biomass energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasztor, J.; Kristoferson, L.

    1992-01-01

    Bioenergy systems can provide an energy supply that is environmentally sound and sustainable, although, like all energy systems, they have an environmental impact. The impact often depends more on the way the whole system is managed than on the fuel or on the conversion technology. The authors first describe traditional biomass systems: combustion and deforestation; health impact; charcoal conversion; and agricultural residues. A discussion of modern biomass systems follows: biogas; producer gas; alcohol fuels; modern wood fuel resources; and modern biomass combustion. The issue of bioenergy and the environment (land use; air pollution; water; socioeconomic impacts) and a discussion of sustainable bioenergy use complete the paper. 53 refs., 9 figs., 14 tabs

  13. Biomass Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decker, Steve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brunecky, Roman [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lin, Chien-Yuan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Amore, Antonella [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wei, Hui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Xiaowen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tucker, Melvin P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Czernik, Stefan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sluiter, Amie D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Magrini, Kimberly A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Himmel, Michael E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [Formerly NREL; Dayton, David C. [Formerly NREL; Bozell, Joseph J. [Formerly NREL; Adney, William S. [Formerly NREL; Aden, Andy [Formerly NREL; Hames, Bonnie [Formerly NREL; Thomas, Steven R. [Formerly NREL; Bain, Richard L. [Formerly NREL

    2017-08-02

    Biomass constitutes all the plant matter found on our planet, and is produced directly by photosynthesis, the fundamental engine of life on earth. It is the photosynthetic capability of plants to utilize carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that leads to its designation as a 'carbon neutral' fuel, meaning that it does not introduce new carbon into the atmosphere. This article discusses the life cycle assessments of biomass use and the magnitude of energy captured by photosynthesis in the form of biomass on the planet to appraise approaches to tap this energy to meet the ever-growing demand for energy.

  14. Ecological transfer of radionuclides and metals to free-living earthworm species in natural habitats rich in NORM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Salbu, Brit; Skipperud, Lindis

    2012-01-01

    Transfer of radionuclides ((232)Th and (238)U) and associated metals (As, Cd, Pb and Cr) from soil to free-living earthworm species was investigated in a thorium ((232)Th) rich area in Norway. Sampling took place within former mining sites representing the technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM), at undisturbed site with unique bedrock geology representing the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and at site outside the (232)Th rich area taken as reference Background site. Soil analysis revealed the elevated levels of investigated elements at NORM and TENORM sites. Based on sequential extraction, uranium ((238)U) and cadmium (Cd) were quite mobile, while the other elements were strongly associated with mineral components of soil. Four investigated earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Dendrodrilus rubidus and Lumbricus rubellus) showed large individual variability in the accumulation of radionuclides and metals. Differences in uptake by epigeic and endogeic species, as well as differences within same species from the NORM, TENORM and Background sites were also seen. Based on total concentrations in soil, the transfer factors (TF) were in ranges 0.03-0.08 and 0.09-0.25, for (232)Th and (238)U, respectively. TFs for lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were low (less than 0.5), while TFs for Cd were higher (about 10). Using the ERICA tool, the estimated radiation exposure dose rate of the earthworms ranged from 2.2 to 3.9 μGy/h. The radiological risk for investigated earthworms was low (0.28). The obtained results demonstrated that free-living earthworm species can survive in soil containing elevated (232)Th and (238)U, as well As, Cd, Pb and Cr levels, although certain amount of radionuclides was accumulated within their bodies. The present investigation contributes to general better understanding of complex soil-to-biota transfer processes of radionuclides and metals and to assessment

  15. Trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms (Lumbricidae as a zoogenic factor of maintaining reclaimed soils’ resistance to copper contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Kulbachko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination by heavy metals, first of all, influences biological and ecological conditions, and it is able to change the conservative soil features, such as humus content, aggregation, acidity and others, leading to partial or total diminishing of soil fertility and decrease in soil economic value. Zoogenic issues of soil protective capacity formation in conditions of heavy metal content rise under technogenesis have been studied. The article discusses the features of earthworm trophic-metabolic activity in the afforested remediated site (Western Donbass, Ukraine with different options of mixed soil bulk. Western Donbass is the large center of coal mining located in South-Western part of Ukraine. High rates of technical development in this region lead to surface subsidence, rising and outbreak of high-mineralized groundwater, and formation of dump pits of mine wastes. Remediated area is represented by the basement of mine wastes covered by 5 options of artificial mixed soil with different depth of horizons. The following tree species were planted on top of artificial soil: Acer platanoides L., Robinia pseudoacacia L., and Juniperus virginiana L. The main practical tasks were to define on the quantitative basis the buffer capacity of artificial mixed soil and earthworm excreta in relation to copper contamination and to compare its immobilization capacity in conditions of artificial forest plants in the territory of Western Donbass. It was proved that earthworm excreta had a great influence on soil immobilization capacity (particularly, on soil buffering to copper which increased for excreta in the following range: humus-free loess loam – top humus layer of ordinary chernozem. Immobilization efficiency of copper by earthworm excreta from ordinary chernozem bulk compared with baseline (ordinary chernozem was significantly higher. It should be noted that trophic-metabolic activity of earthworms plays very important role as a zoogenic factor

  16. Metal concentrations in earthworms from sewage sludge-amended soils at a strip mine reclamation site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietz, R.I.; Peterson, J.R.; Prater, J.E.; Zenz, D.R.

    A 3-yr study of earthworms was initiated in selected mine soil and nonmined fields at a Fulton County, IL land reclamation site. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of the land application of anaerobically digested sewage sludge, used to reclaim the site, on heavy metal accumulations in earthworms. Two species of earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris and Aporrectodea tuberculata, were identified in the sludge-amended and nonamended, nonmined fields sampled. Only A. tuberculata was found in the sludge-amended and nonamended mine soil fields sampled. Earthworm metal concentrations generally increased with time in all the sampled fields. The decreasing order of metal accumulation by earthworms in all sludge-amended fields sampled was Cu > Cd > Ni > Cr > Pb > Zn. Sewage sludge applications to fields on both land types resulted in significant accumulations of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Land type (mine soil vs. nonmined) significantly affected earthworm Zn concentrations, with levels being higher in all nonmined fields sampled. Earthworm Cd and Cu accumulations in all fields sampled were significantly related to the current amounts of sludge-applied metals, the amount applied since the previous sampling. Concentrations of Ni, Cr, and Pb in earthworms were not significantly related to sewage sludge applications during the 1975 to 1977 sampling period. The higher Cd and Cu concentrations in earthworms from sludge-amended fields may pose a potential hazard to predators.

  17. Visualization of Enzyme Activities in Earthworm Biopores by In Situ Soil Zymography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bahar S; Hoang, Duyen; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms produce biopores with strongly increased microbial and enzyme activities and consequently they form microbial hotspots in soil. In extremely dynamic microhabitats and hotspots such as earthworm biopores, the in situ enzyme activities are a footprint of process rates and complex biotic interactions. The effect of earthworms on enzyme activities inside biopores, relative to earthworm-free soil, can be visualized by in situ soil zymography. Here, we describe the details of the approach and discuss its advantages and limitations. Direct zymography provides high spatial resolution for quantitative images of enzyme activities in biopores.

  18. Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative DNA Damage in Earthworms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hirano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms can be used as a bio-indicator of metal contamination in soil, Earlier reports claimed the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in earthworm tissues, while the metal-induced mutagenicity reared in contaminated soils for long duration. But we examined the metal-induced mutagenicity in earthworms reared in metal containing culture beddings. In this experiment we observed the generation of 8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-Gua in earthworms exposed to cadmium and nickel in soil. 8-oxo-Gua is a major premutagenic form of oxidative DNA damage that induces GC-to-TA point mutations, leading to carcinogenesis.

  19. Bioaccumulation and enantioselectivity of type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Wang, Yinghuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the bioavailability and enantioselectivity differences between bifenthrin (BF, typeⅠpyrethroid) and lambad-cyhalothrin (LCT, type Ⅱ pyrethroid) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The bio-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of BF was about 4 times greater than that of LCT. LCT was degraded faster than BF in soil while eliminated lower in earthworm samples. Compound sorption plays an important role on bioavailability in earthworm, and the soil-adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of BF and LCT were 22 442 and 42 578, respectively. Metabolic capacity of earthworm to LCT was further studied as no significant difference in the accumulation of LCT between the high and low dose experiment was found. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH), a metabolite of LCT produced by earthworm was detected in soil. The concentration of PBCOOH at high dose exposure was about 4.7 times greater than that of in low dose level at the fifth day. The bioaccumulation of BF and LCT were both enantioselective in earthworm. The enantiomer factors of BF and LCT in earthworm were approximately 0.12 and 0.65, respectively. The more toxic enantiomers ((+)-BF and (-)-LCT) had a preferential degradation in earthworm and leaded to less toxicity on earthworm for racemate exposure. In combination with other studies, a liner relationship between Log BSAF(S) and Log K(ow) was observed, and the Log BSAF(S) decreased with the increase of Log K(ow). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Caracterización ecológica de lombrices nativas (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. bajo diferentes usos del suelo (Guaviare, Colombia Ecological characterization of nature earthworm (Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. y Periscolex sp. under different soil uses (Guaviare, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuentes Baca Anamaría

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizaron las poblaciones de lombrices de tierr.a de las especies Pheretimasp., Eudovoscolexsp. y Periscolex sp., presentes en un Typic Dystropept del municipio El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia, bajo ocho tipos de usos (pradera sin pastoreo, pradera con semipastoreo, arreglo silvopastoril, cultivos de chontaduro y cacao socolado, rastrojo de cinco años, rastrojo de segundo crecimiento y bosque, utilizando 10 unidades de muestreo por cobertura y evaluando parámetros de abundancia, densidad y biomasa en relación con algunas características físico-químicas del suelo. Los resultados mostraron diferencias significativas entre las cantidades totales de huevos y adultos en el sistema silvopastoril vs. las praderas y en la pradera con semipastoreo vs. pradera sin pastoreo y de adultos en la cobertura chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - kudzu vs. cacao (Theobroma cacao. En varios casos, las respuestas de biomasa y densidad no fueron coincidentes. Mientras que en bosque natural las especies se distribuyen por igual, en las demás coberturas se presentan diferentes patrones de distribución. Se encontraron correlaciones entre biomasa, densidad y abundancia de lombrices con los contenidos de fósforo y magnesio y con la densidad aparente del suelo.
    Earthworm populations of Pheretima sp., Eudovoscolex sp. and Periscolex sp found in Typic Dystropepts from El Retorno (Guaviare, Colombia were evaluated for eight different soil uses. Ten experimental units were used to evaluate abundance, density and biomass, as related to soil physico-chemical characteristics. Results showed significant differences between total amount of eggs and adults under forest pasture combinet use vs grazing, and, grazing plus partially grazing vs non-pasture grazing, and, adults in chontaduro (Bactrys gasipaes - Kudzu vs cacao (Theobroma cacao covering. Biomass and densities answers did not show similar results while in undisturbed forest the species have the same pattern

  1. Solid biomass barometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2011-01-01

    The primary energy production from solid biomass in the European Union reached 79.3 Mtoe in 2010 which implies a growth rate of 8% between 2009 and 2010. The trend, which was driven deeper by Europe's particularly cold winter of 2009-2010, demonstrates that the economic down-turn failed to weaken the member states' efforts to structure the solid biomass sector. Heat consumption rose sharply: the volume of heat sold by heating networks increased by 18% and reached 6.7 Mtoe and if we consider the total heat consumption (it means with and without recovery via heating networks) the figure is 66 Mtoe in 2010, which amounts to 10.1% growth. The growth of electricity production continued through 2010 (8.3% up on 2009) and rose to 67 TWh but at a slower pace than in 2009 (when it rose by 11.3% on 2008). The situation of the main producer countries: Sweden, Finland, Germany and France is reviewed. It appears that cogeneration unit manufacturers and biomass power plant constructors are the main beneficiaries of the current biomass energy sector boom. There is a trend to replace coal-fired plants that are either obsolete or near their end of life with biomass or multi-fuel plants. These opportunities will enable the industry to develop and further exploit new technologies such as gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction which will enable biomass to be turned into bio-coal. (A.C.)

  2. The biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viterbo, J.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass comes mainly from forests and agriculture and is considered as a clean alternative energy that can be valorized as heat, power, bio-fuels and chemical products but its mass production is challenging in terms of adequate technology but also in terms of rethinking the use of lands. Forests can be managed to produce biomass but bio-fuels can also be generated from sea-weeds. Biomass appears very promising but on one hand we have to secure its supplying and assure its economical profitability and on another hand we have to assure a reasonable use of lands and a limited impact on the environment. The contribution of biomass to sustainable development depends on the balance between these 2 ends. (A.C.)

  3. Biomass [updated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Biomass resources and conversion technologies are diverse. Substantial biomass resources exist including woody crops, herbaceous perennials and annuals, forest resources, agricultural residues, and algae. Conversion processes available include fermentation, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion, combustion, and transesterification. Bioderived products include liquid fuels (e.g. ethanol, biodiesel, and gasoline and diesel substitutes), gases, electricity, biochemical, and wood pellets. At present the major sources of biomass-derived liquid fuels are from first generation biofuels; ethanol from maize and sugar cane (89 billion L in 2013) and biodiesel from vegetable oils and fats (24 billion liters in 2011). For other than traditional uses, policy in the forms of mandates, targets, subsidies, and greenhouse gas emission targets has largely been driving biomass utilization. Second generation biofuels have been slow to take off.

  4. Flooding responses of three earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus, in a laboratory-controlled environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Morrien, E.; Wagenaar, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of earthworm' responses towards flooding, three laboratory experiments were performed with the species Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus. Flooding response was determined in a pot experiment, in which the earthworms were incubated

  5. Flooding responses of three earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus, in a laboratory-controlled environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorn, M.I.; Gestel, van C.A.M.; Morriën, W.E.; Wagenaar, M.; Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2008-01-01

    To get a better understanding of earthworm' responses towards flooding, three laboratory experiments were performed with the species Allolobophora chlorotica, Aporrectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus rubellus. Flooding response was determined in a pot experiment, in which the earthworms were incubated

  6. Riboflavin content in autofluorescent earthworm coelomocytes is species-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Homa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently shown that a large proproportion of earthworm coelomocytes exhibit strong autofluorescence in some species (Dendrobaena veneta, Allolobophora chlorotica, Dendrodrilus rubidus, Eisenia fetida, and Octolasion spp., while autofluorescent coelomocytes are very scarce in representatives of Lumbricus spp. and Aporrectodea spp. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 was identified as a major fluorophore in Eisenia jetida coelomocytes. The main aim of the present experiments was to quantify riboflavin content in autofluorescent coelomocytes (eleocytes from several earthworm species through a combination of flow cytometric and spectrofluorometric measurements. Spectrofluorometry of coelomocyte lysates showed that riboflavin was non-detectable in the coelomocytes of Aporrectodea spp. and Lumbricus spp., but was a prominent constituent of lysates from species with autofluorescent eleocytes. In the latter case, riboflavin content was the highest in E. fetida, followed by Octolasion spp. > A. chlorotica > D. rubidus. The riboflavin content of coelomocytes correlates positively with eleocyte autofluorescence intensity measured by flow cytometry and visible with fluorescence microscopy.

  7. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  8. Pipelines : moving biomass and energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Moving biomass and energy through pipelines was presented. Field sourced biomass utilization for fuel was discussed in terms of competing cost factors; economies of scale; and differing fuel plant sizes. The cost versus scale in a bioenergy facility was illustrated in chart format. The transportation cost of biomass was presented as it is a major component of total biomass processing cost and is in the typical range of 25-45 per cent of total processing costs for truck transport of biomass. Issues in large scale biomass utilization, scale effects in transportation, and components of transport cost were identified. Other topics related to transportation issues included approaches to pipeline transport; cost of wood chips in pipeline transport; and distance variable cost of transporting wood chips by pipeline. Practical applications were also offered. In addition, the presentation provided and illustrated a model for an ethanol plant supplied by truck transport as well as a sample configuration for 19 truck based ethanol plants versus one large facility supplied by truck plus 18 pipelines. Last, pipeline transport of bio-oil and pipeline transport of syngas was discussed. It was concluded that pipeline transport can help in reducing congestion issues in large scale biomass utilization and that it can offer a means to achieve large plant size. Some current research at the University of Alberta on pipeline transport of raw biomass, bio-oil and hydrogen production from biomass for oil sands and pipeline transport was also presented. tabs., figs.

  9. Proximal Soil Sensing - A Contribution for Species Habitat Distribution Modelling of Earthworms in Agricultural Soils?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Schirrmann

    Full Text Available Earthworms are important for maintaining soil ecosystem functioning and serve as indicators of soil fertility. However, detection of earthworms is time-consuming, which hinders the assessment of earthworm abundances with high sampling density over entire fields. Recent developments of mobile terrestrial sensor platforms for proximal soil sensing (PSS provided new tools for collecting dense spatial information of soils using various sensing principles. Yet, the potential of PSS for assessing earthworm habitats is largely unexplored. This study investigates whether PSS data contribute to the spatial prediction of earthworm abundances in species distribution models of agricultural soils.Proximal soil sensing data, e.g., soil electrical conductivity (EC, pH, and near infrared absorbance (NIR, were collected in real-time in a field with two management strategies (reduced tillage / conventional tillage and sandy to loam soils. PSS was related to observations from a long-term (11 years earthworm observation study conducted at 42 plots. Earthworms were sampled from 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 m³ soil blocks and identified to species level. Sensor data were highly correlated with earthworm abundances observed in reduced tillage but less correlated with earthworm abundances observed in conventional tillage. This may indicate that management influences the sensor-earthworm relationship. Generalized additive models and state-space models showed that modelling based on data fusion from EC, pH, and NIR sensors produced better results than modelling without sensor data or data from just a single sensor. Regarding the individual earthworm species, particular sensor combinations were more appropriate than others due to the different habitat requirements of the earthworms. Earthworm species with soil-specific habitat preferences were spatially predicted with higher accuracy by PSS than more ubiquitous species.Our findings suggest that PSS contributes to the spatial

  10. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  11. Distribution of enzyme activity hotspots induced by earthworms in top- and subsoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, D. T. T.

    2016-12-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris L.) not only affect soil physics, but they also boost microbial activities and consequently create important hotspots of microbial mediated carbon and nutrient turnover through their burrowing activity. However, it is still unknown to which extend earthworms change the enzyme distribution and activity inside their burrows in top- and subsoil horizons. We hypothesized that earthworm burrows, which are enriched in available substrates, have higher percentage of enzyme activity hotspots than soil without earthworms, and that enzyme activities decreased with increasing depth because of the increasing recalcitrance of organic matter in subsoil. We visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside of worm burrows (biopores) by in situ soil zymography and measured enzyme kinetics of 6 enzymes - β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) - in pore and bulk soil material up to 105 cm. Zymography showed a heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in worm burrows. The hotspot areas was 2.4 to 14 times larger in the burrows than in soil without earthworms. However, the dispersion index of hotspot distribution showed more aggregated hotspots in soil without earthworms than in soil with earthworms and burrow wall. Enzyme activities decreased with depth, by a factor of 2 to 8 due to fresh C input from the soil surface. Compared to bulk soil, enzyme activities in topsoil biopores were up to 11 times higher for all enzymes, but in the subsoil activities of XYL, NAG and APT were lower in earthworm biopores than bulk soil. In conclusion, hotspots were twice as concentrated close to earthworm burrows as in surrounding soil. Earthworms exerted stronger effects on enzyme activities in biopores in the topsoil than in subsoil. Keywords: Earthworms, hotspots, enzyme activities, enzyme distribution, subsoil

  12. Invasive and exotic earthworms: an unaccounted change to mercury cycling in northeastern US forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. B.; Friedland, A. J.; Görres, J. H.; Renock, D. J.; Jackson, B. P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasive and exotic earthworms are now present in many forested areas of the northeastern US with currently unquantified consequences to abiotic and biotic Hg cycling. To quantify these effects, we measured Hg concentrations (mg kg-1) and amounts (μg m-2) in earthworms and soil horizons at 45 soil pits from 9 sites in northern New England. Seven earthworm species were observed in varying assemblages. Most earthworm species attained concentrations of Hg potentially hazardous to wildlife that may ingest them, with highest concentrations found in shallow-burrowing, litter-feeders. Specifically, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis had the greatest Hg concentrations (0.9 ± 0.1) and Hg amounts (8 ± 2) μg m-2. Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis were found to inhabit the forest floor and the top 5 cm of the mineral horizons in high abundance, potentially making it a readily accessible prey species. Bioaccumulation of Hg by invasive and exotic earthworms may be an important mechanism that transfers Hg to ground foraging predators, such as thrushes, red-backed salamanders and foxes, which is generally unaccounted for in terrestrial food chains. Earthworm Hg concentrations were poorly correlated with their respective soil Hg concentrations, suggesting a species dependence for Hg bioaccumulation rather than site effects. We observed that forest floor Hg concentrations and amounts were 23% and 57% lower, respectively, at soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. Moreover, Hg amounts in forest floor-feeding earthworms exceeded the remaining forest floor Hg pools. Mercury concentrations and pools in the mineral soil were 21% and 33% lower, respectively, for soil pits with earthworms compared to those without. We hypothesize that enhanced decomposition, horizon disturbance and bioaccumulation by earthworms has decreased Hg amounts in the forest floor and mineral soil. Our results suggest that earthworms are decreasing Hg storage in forest soils with

  13. Trace Metals and Metalloids in Forest Soils and Exotic Earthworms in Northern New England, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J.B.; Görres, J.H.; Jackson, B.P.; Friedland, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Trace metals and metalloids (TMM) in forest soils and invasive earthworms were studied at 9 uncontaminated sites in northern New England, USA. Essential (Cu, Mo, Ni, Zn, Se) and toxic (As, Cd, Pb, Hg and U) TMM concentrations (mg kg-1) and pools (mg m-2) were quantified for organic horizons (forest floor), mineral soils and earthworm tissues. Essential TMM tissue concentrations were greatest for mineral soil-feeding earthworm Octolasion cyaneum. Toxic TMM tissue concentrations were highest for organic horizon-feeding earthworms Dendobaena octaedra, Aporrectodea rosea and Amynthas agrestis. Most earthworm species had attained tissue concentrations of Pb, Hg and Se potentially hazardous to predators. Bioaccumulation factors were Cd > Se > Hg > Zn > Pb > U > 1.0 > Cu > As > Mo > Ni. Only Cd, Se Hg and Zn were considered strongly bioaccumulated by earthworms because their average bioaccumulation factors were significantly greater than 1.0. Differences in bioaccumulation did not appear to be caused by soil concentrations as earthworm TMM tissue concentrations were poorly correlated with TMM soil concentrations. Instead, TMM bioaccumulation appears to be species and site dependent. The invasive Amynthas agrestis had the greatest tissue TMM pools, due to its large body mass and high abundance at our stands. We observed that TMM tissue pools in earthworms were comparable or exceeded organic horizon TMM pools; earthworm tissue pools of Cd were up 12 times greater than in the organic horizon. Thus, exotic earthworms may represent an unaccounted portion and flux of TMM in forests of the northeastern US. Our results highlight the importance of earthworms in TMM cycling in northern forests and warrant more research into their impact across the region. PMID:25883392

  14. Earthworm activities in cassava and egusi melon fields in the transitional zone of Benin: linking farmers' perceptions with field studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saïdou, A.; Kossou, D.; Brussaard, L.; Richards, P.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2008-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of earthworm activities were studied in the transitional zone of Benin and linked to scientific explanations of earthworm casting activities. Earthworm activity was assessed in farmers' fields with three different cassava cultivars and in a field experiment with three different

  15. Earthworm (Clitellata: Megadrili taxonomy in the last 200 years: A homage to András Zicsi (1928−2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csuzdi, Cs.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Prof. Dr. András Zicsi, the renowned soil biologist and earthworm taxonomist passed away on 22 July, 2015 at the age of 87. To honour his enormous contribution in exploring earthworm biodiversity all over the world, we provide a brief, albeit subjective overview of the history of earthworm taxonomy in the last two century.

  16. Interactions between residue placement and earthworm ecological strategy affect aggregate turnover and N2O dynamics in agricultural soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Previous laboratory studies using epigeic and anecic earthworms have shown that earthworm activity can considerably increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from crop residues in soils. However, the universality of this effect across earthworm functional groups and its underlying mechanisms remain

  17. Earthworm-induced N2O emissions in a sandy soil with surface-applied crop residues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giannopoulos, G.; Groenigen, van J.W.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier research with endogeic and epigeic earthworm species in loamy arable soil has shown that both earthworm groups can increase nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, provided that crop residue placement matches the feeding strategy of the earthworm ecological group(s). However, it is not yet clear

  18. Impact of exotic earthworms on organic carbon sorption on mineral surfaces and soil carbon inventories in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy Lyttle; Kyungsoo Yoo; Cindy Hale; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Kathryn Resner; Alex. Blum

    2015-01-01

    Exotic earthworms are invading forests in North America where native earthworms have been absent since the last glaciation. These earthworms bioturbate soils and may enhance physical interactions between minerals and organic matter (OM), thus affecting mineral sorption of carbon (C) which may affect C cycling. We quantitatively show how OM-mineral sorption and soil C...

  19. Invasive earthworms deplete key soil inorganic nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, and P) in a northern hardwood forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit Resner; Kyungsoo Yoo; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Cindy Hale; Amy Lyttle; Alex. Blum

    2015-01-01

    Hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region have evolved without earthworms since the Last Glacial Maximum, but are now being invaded by exotic earthworms introduced through agriculture, fishing, and logging. These exotic earthworms are known to increase soil mixing, affect soil carbon storage, and dramatically alter soil morphology. Here we show, using an active...

  20. Toxicity of selected organic chemicals to the earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, E.F.; Loehr, R.C.; Malecki, M.R.; Milligan, D.L.; Durkin, P.R.

    A number of methods recently have been developed to biologically evaluate the impact of man's activities on soil ecosystems. Two test methods, the 2-d contact test and the 14-d artificial soil test, were used to evaluate the impact of six major classes of organic chemicals on the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny). Of the organic chemicals tested, phenols and amines were the most toxic to the worms, followed in descending order of toxicity by the substituted aromatics, halogenated aliphatics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phthalates. No relationship was found between earthworm toxicity as determined by the contact test and rat, Rattus norvegicus Berkenhout and mouse, Mus musculus L. LD/sub 50/ values. The physicochemical parameters of water solubility, vapor pressure, and octanol/water partition coefficient for the chemicals tested in the contact test did not show a significant relationship to the E. fetida LC/sub 50/ values. These studies indicate that: (i) earthworms can be a suitable biomonitoring tool to assist in measuring the impact of organic chemicals in wastes added to soils and (ii) contact and artificial soil tests can be useful in measuring biological impacts.

  1. Biological remediation of oil contaminated soil with earthworms Eisenia andrei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachina, S. B.; Voronkova, N. A.; Baklanova, O. N.

    2017-08-01

    The study was performed on the bioremediation efficiency of the soil contaminated with oil (20 to 100 g/kg), petroleum (20 to 60 g/kg) and diesel fuel (20 to 40 g/kg) with the help of earthworms E. andrei in the presence of bacteria Pseudomonas, nitrogen fixing bacteria Azotobacter and Clostridium, yeasts Saccharomyces, fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium, as well as Actinomycetales, all being components of biopreparation Baykal-EM. It was demonstrated that in oil-contaminated soil, the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 95-97% after 22 weeks in the presence of worms and bacteria. In petroleum-contaminated soil the content of hydrocarbons decreased by 99% after 22 weeks. The presence of the diesel fuel in the amount of 40 g per 1 kg soil had an acute toxic effect and caused the death of 50 % earthworm species in 14 days. Bacteria introduction enhanced the toxic effect of the diesel fuel and resulted in the death of 60 % earthworms after 7 days.

  2. Transmission of nephridial bacteria of the earthworm Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Seana K; Stahl, David A

    2006-01-01

    The lumbricid earthworms (annelid family Lumbricidae) harbor gram-negative bacteria in their excretory organs, the nephridia. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing of bacteria associated with the nephridia of several earthworm species has shown that each species of worm harbors a distinct bacterial species and that the bacteria from different species form a monophyletic cluster within the genus Acidovorax, suggesting that there is a specific association resulting from radiation from a common bacterial ancestor. Previous microscopy and culture studies revealed the presence of bacteria within the egg capsules and on the surface of embryos but did not demonstrate that the bacteria within the egg capsule were the same bacteria that colonized the nephridia. We present evidence, based on curing experiments, in situ hybridizations with Acidovorax-specific probes, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, that the egg capsules contain high numbers of the bacterial symbiont and that juveniles are colonized during development within the egg capsule. Studies exposing aposymbiotic hatchlings to colonized adults and their bedding material suggested that juvenile earthworms do not readily acquire bacteria from the soil after hatching but must be colonized during development by bacteria deposited in the egg capsule. Whether this is due to the developmental stage of the host or the physiological state of the symbiont remains to be investigated.

  3. Effects of earthworms on slopewash, surface runoff, and fine-litter transport on a humid-tropical forested hillslope in eastern Puerto Rico: Chapter G in Water quality and landscape processes of four watersheds in eastern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Liu, Zhigang Liu; Zou, Xiaoming; Murphy, Sheila F.; Stallard, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall, slopewash (the erosion of soil particles), surface runoff, and fine-litter transport were measured in tropical wet forest on a hillslope in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico, from February 1998 until April 2000. Slopewash data were collected using Gerlach troughs at eight plots, each 2 square meters in area. Earthworms were excluded by electroshocking from four randomly selected plots. The other four (control) plots were undisturbed. During the experiment, earthworm population in the electroshocked plots was reduced by 91 percent. At the end of the experiment, the electroshocked plots had 13 percent of earthworms by count and 6 percent by biomass as compared with the control plots. Rainfall during the sampling period (793 days) was 9,143 millimeters. Mean and maximum rainfall by sampling period (mean of 16 days) were 189 and 563 millimeters, respectively. Surface runoff averaged 0.6 millimeters and 1.2 millimeters by sampling period for the control and experimental plots, equal to 0.25 and 0.48 percent of mean rainfall, respectively. Disturbance of the soil environment by removal of earthworms doubled runoff and increased the transport (erosion) of soil and organic material by a factor of 4.4. When earthworms were removed, the erosion of mineral soil (soil mass left after ashing) and the transport of fine litter were increased by a factor of 5.3 and 3.4, respectively. It is assumed that increased runoff is a function of reduced soil porosity, resulting from decreased burrowing and reworking of the soil in the absence of earthworms. The background, or undisturbed, downslope transport of soil, as determined from the control plots, was 51 kilograms per hectare and the "disturbance" rate, determined from the experimental plots, was 261 kilograms per hectare. The background rate for downslope transport of fine litter was 71 kilograms per hectare and the disturbance rate was 246 kilograms per hectare. Data from this study indicate that the reduction

  4. Rapid bioassessment methods for assessing the toxicity of terrestrial waste sites at the Savannah River Site using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1995-08-01

    Studies were conducted to assess the feasibility of using the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, to evaluate the toxicity of contaminated soils at the Savannah River Site. Survival was assessed in several uncontaminated soils, including sandy loams and clayey loams, as well as in soils contaminated with coal fines, ash, diesel fuel, and heavy metals. In addition, behavior responses, changes in biomass, and bioaccumulation of heavy metals were assessed as sublethal indicators of toxicity. The results indicate excellent survival of Eisenia foetida in uncontaminated sandy and clayey soils. No amendment of these uncontaminated soils or addition of food was necessary to sustain the worms for the 14-day test period. In contaminated soils, no significant mortality was observed, except in soils which have very low pH (< 3). However, sublethal responses were observed in earthworms exposed to several of the contaminated soils. These responses included worms clumping on the surface of the soil, worms clumping between the sides of the test container and the soil, increased burrowing times, reductions in biomass, and elevated concentrations of heavy metals in worm tissue

  5. Earthworms as Invasive Species in Latin America — the 2nd Latin American Meeting on Oligochaeta (Earthworm) Ecology and Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez

    2006-01-01

    This special issue is based on scientific contributions presented at the 2nd Latin American Symposium of Earthworm Ecology and Taxonomy (ELAETAO, for its Spanish acronym) held in San Juan, Puerto Rico November 14-18, 2005. The first of these symposia was organized by George G. Brown and Klaus D. Sautter and held at Londrina, Brazil from December 1-3, 2003.The objective...

  6. Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L.; Sizmur, Tom; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were monitored over 56 days in calcareous contaminated-soil amended with either or both biochar and Eisenia fetida. Biochar reduced total (449 to 306 mg kg -1 ) and bioavailable (cyclodextrin extractable) (276 to 182 mg kg -1 ) PAHs, PAH concentrations in E. fetida (up to 45%) but also earthworm weight. Earthworms increased PAH bioavailability by >40%. Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment. Earthworms increased water soluble Co (3.4 to 29.2 mg kg -1 ), Cu (60.0 to 120.1 mg kg -1 ) and Ni (31.7 to 83.0 mg kg -1 ) but not As, Cd, Pb or Zn; biochar reduced water soluble Cu (60 to 37 mg kg -1 ). Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment but gave a greater reduction in As and Cd mobility. Biochar has contaminated land remediation potential, but its long-term impact on contaminants and soil biota needs to be assessed. - Research highlights: → Biochar reduced total and bioavailable PAH concentrations. → Biochar was less effective at immobilising PTEs, due to its low cation exchange capacity. → E. fetida increased PAH bioavailability and PTE mobility. → When used in combination biochar reduced the concentration of PTEs mobilised by E. fetida. → Biochar had a negative effect on E. fetida in terms of weight loss. - Biochar decreased PAH biovailability but was less effective at reducing PTE mobility, whilst E. fetida increased both PAH and PTE bioavailability.

  7. Effects of biochar and the earthworm Eisenia fetida on the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and potentially toxic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Eyles, Jose L., E-mail: j.l.gomezeyles@reading.ac.u [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom); Sizmur, Tom; Collins, Chris D.; Hodson, Mark E. [University of Reading, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Soil Research Centre, Reading, RG6 6DW Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) were monitored over 56 days in calcareous contaminated-soil amended with either or both biochar and Eisenia fetida. Biochar reduced total (449 to 306 mg kg{sup -1}) and bioavailable (cyclodextrin extractable) (276 to 182 mg kg{sup -1}) PAHs, PAH concentrations in E. fetida (up to 45%) but also earthworm weight. Earthworms increased PAH bioavailability by >40%. Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment. Earthworms increased water soluble Co (3.4 to 29.2 mg kg{sup -1}), Cu (60.0 to 120.1 mg kg{sup -1}) and Ni (31.7 to 83.0 mg kg{sup -1}) but not As, Cd, Pb or Zn; biochar reduced water soluble Cu (60 to 37 mg kg{sup -1}). Combined treatment results were similar to the biochar-only treatment but gave a greater reduction in As and Cd mobility. Biochar has contaminated land remediation potential, but its long-term impact on contaminants and soil biota needs to be assessed. - Research highlights: Biochar reduced total and bioavailable PAH concentrations. Biochar was less effective at immobilising PTEs, due to its low cation exchange capacity. E. fetida increased PAH bioavailability and PTE mobility. When used in combination biochar reduced the concentration of PTEs mobilised by E. fetida. Biochar had a negative effect on E. fetida in terms of weight loss. - Biochar decreased PAH biovailability but was less effective at reducing PTE mobility, whilst E. fetida increased both PAH and PTE bioavailability.

  8. Earthworm-induced distribution of organic matter in macro-aggregates from differently managed arable fields.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Hillenaar, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    To study the influence of soil structure on organic matter decomposition, and the possible role of earthworms therein, aggregates of the size of earthworm casts (3-4.8 mm) were sieved from air-dry soil of three arable fields. Due to different management histories (in terms of manuring and pesticide

  9. Earthworms as colonisers: Primary colonisation of contaminated land, and sediment and soil waste deposits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsackers, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the role of earthworms in the early colonisation of contaminated soils as well as sediment and waste deposits, which are worm-free because of anthropogenic activities such as open-cast mining, soil sterilisation, consistent pollution or remediation of contaminated soil. Earthworms

  10. PROBLEMS OF QUANTIFICATION AND ACCOUNTING FAUNAL DIVERSITY OF EARTHWORMS IN FOREST COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Geraskina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of quantifying earthworms is that the size of most part of the soil population is calculated per unit volume and the number of earthworms per unit area. This makes incomparable the results both of quantitative indicators of earthworm population in different soils and the number of worms and other soil invertebrates. This article presents a new approach to the faunistic and quantitative account of earthworms in forest communities. The significance of dead wood in the study of earthworm population is shown in the article. The article also presents the technique of quantitative evaluation of Lumbricidae that live in the soil and in the dead wood per unit volume – 1 m3. Examples of the number of earthworms per unit volume – 1 dm3, provided the actual habitat of earthworms is only in the upper 10-cm layer of soil or per unit volume 100 dm3 – in the case of a low number of earthworms, are considered in the article. In the dark coniferous forests of the Pechora-Ilych and Teberdinsky reserves the most favorable habitats of Lumbricidae were identified, communities with their highest species richness and abundance were identified.

  11. Earthworms, soil-aggregates and organic matter decomposition in agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The relationships between earthworm populations, soil aggregate stability and soil organic matter dynamics were studied at an experimental farm in The Netherlands.

    Arable land in general is not favourable for earthworm growth. In the Lovinkhoeve fields under conventional management

  12. Earthworms as vectors of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in soil and vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A Prysor; Roberts, Paula; Avery, Lisa M; Killham, Ken; Jones, David L

    2006-10-01

    Survival and movement of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in both soil and vermicompost is of concern with regards to human health. Whilst it is accepted that E. coli O157:H7 can persist for considerable periods in soils, it is not expected to survive thermophilic composting processes. However, the natural behavior of earthworms is increasingly utilized for composting (vermicomposting), and the extent to which earthworms promote the survival and dispersal of the bacterium within such systems is unknown. The faecal material produced by earthworms provides a ready supply of labile organic substrates to surrounding microbes within soil and compost, thus promoting microbial activity. Earthworms can also cause significant movement of organisms through the channels they form. Survival and dispersal of E. coli O157:H7 were monitored in contaminated soil and farmyard manure subjected to earthworm digestion over 21 days. Our findings lead to the conclusion that anecic earthworms such as Lumbricus terrestris may significantly aid vertical movement of E. coli O157 in soil, whereas epigeic earthworms such as Dendrobaena veneta significantly aid lateral movement within compost. Although the presence of earthworms in soil and compost may aid proliferation of E. coli O157 in early stages of contamination, long-term persistence of the pathogen appears to be unaffected.

  13. Influence of earthworm mucus and amino acids on tomato seedling growth and cadmium accumulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Shujie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Hu Feng, E-mail: fenghu@njau.edu.c [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Huixin; Li Xiuqiang [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China)

    2009-10-15

    The effects on the growth of tomato seedlings and cadmium accumulation of earthworm mucus and a solution of amino acids matching those in earthworm mucus was studied through a hydroponic experiment. The experiment included four treatments: 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} (CC), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} earthworm mucus (CE), 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} + 100 mL L{sup -1} amino acids solution (CA) and the control (CK). Results showed that, compared with CC treatment, either earthworm mucus or amino acids significantly increased tomato seedling growth and Cd accumulation but the increase was much higher in the CE treatment compared with the CA treatment. This may be due to earthworm mucus and amino acids significantly increasing the chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement uptake and transport in the tomato seedlings. The much greater increase in the effect of earthworm mucus compared with amino acid treatments may be due to IAA-like substances in earthworm mucus. - Earthworm mucus increased tomato seedlings growth and Cd accumulation through increasing chlorophyll content, antioxidative enzyme activities, and essential microelement accumulation.

  14. Can commonly measurable traits explain differences in metal accumulation and toxicity in earthworm species?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.; Peijnenburg, W.J.G.M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; Vijver, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    There is no clear consensus in the literature on the metal accumulation pattern and sensitivity of different earthworm species. In the present study, accumulation and toxicity of Cu, Cd, Ni, and Zn in the earthworms Lumbricus rubellus (epigeic), Aporrectodea longa (anecic), and Eisenia fetida

  15. Effect of tillage on earthworms over short- and medium-term in conventional and organic farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crittenden, S.; Eswaramurthy, T.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.; Pulleman, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Earthworms play an important role in many soil functions and are affected by soil tillage in agricultural soils. However, effects of tillage on earthworms are often studied without considering species and their interactions with soil properties. Furthermore, many field studies are based on one-time

  16. Organic matter composition and the protist and nematode communities around anecic earthworm burrows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriuzzi, Walter S.; Ngo, Phuong-Thi; Geisen, Stefan; Keith, Aidan M.; Dumack, Kenneth; Bolger, Thomas; Bonkowski, Michael; Brussaard, Lijbert; Faber, Jack H.; Chabbi, Abad; Rumpel, Cornelia; Schmidt, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    By living in permanent burrows and incorporating organic detritus from the soil surface, anecic earthworms contribute to soil heterogeneity, but their impact is still under-studied in natural field conditions. We investigated the effects of the anecic earthworm Lumbricus centralis on fresh carbon

  17. Earthworms can increase nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; López González, E.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils. In laboratory studies they have been shown to increase emissions of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we test whether these earthworm-induced N2O emissions also occur in the field. We quantified N2O emissions

  18. Impact of earthworm activity on the chemical fertility of irrigated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluents analysis showed significant organic and particulate pollution, the latter contributed to earthworm abundance and increased the richness of irrigated soils with nutrients. The analysis of turricules revealed the role of earthworms through the activity of bioturbation in the increase of the rate of organic matter as well as ...

  19. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MASS OF NEWLY HATCHED INDIVIDUALS AND COCOON MASS IN LUMBRICID EARTHWORMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruus, Marianne; Bjerre, Arne

    1991-01-01

    Earthworm cocoons from laboratory cultures were collected and their mass was determined. When hatched, the mass of the young worms was found. Cocoon mass and the mass of hatchlings varied considerably within species. The hygromass of newly hatched earthworms was found to correlate linearly...

  20. C60 exposure induced tissue damage and gene expression alterations in the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, van der M.J.C.; Handy, R.D.; Heckmann, L.H.; Hout, van der A.; Brink, van den N.W.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of C60 exposure (0, 15 or 154 mg/kg soil) on the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus were assessed at the tissue and molecular level, in two experiments. In the first experiment, earthworms were exposed for four weeks, and in the second lifelong. In both experiments, gene expression of heat shock

  1. Can the invasive earthworm, Amynthas agrestis, be controlled with prescribed fire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiroshi Ikeda; Mac A. Callaham Jr.; Joseph J. O' Brien; Benjamin S. Hornsby; Evelyn S. Wenk

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are one of the most significant global-scale problems caused by human activities. Earthworms function as ecosystem engineers in soil ecosystems because their feeding and burrowing activities fundamentally change the physical and biological characteristics of the soils they inhabit. As a result of this “engineering,” earthworm invasions can have...

  2. Portable Conduction Velocity Experiments Using Earthworms for the College and High School Neuroscience Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Kyle M.; Gage, Gregory J.; Jankovic, Aleksandra; Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2014-01-01

    The earthworm is ideal for studying action potential conduction velocity in a classroom setting, as its simple linear anatomy allows easy axon length measurements and the worm's sparse coding allows single action potentials to be easily identified. The earthworm has two giant fiber systems (lateral and medial) with different conduction velocities…

  3. Soil structure and earthworm activity in an marine silt loam under pasture versus arable land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, A.G.; Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural management influences soil organic matter (SOM) and earthworm activity which interact with soil structure. We aimed to describe the change in earthworm activity and related soil (micro)structure and SOM in a loamy Eutrodept as affected by permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable

  4. A simple and effective method to keep earthworms confined to open-top mesocosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms can have a profound effect on a myriad of soil physical, chemical and microbial parameters. To better understand their role in the soil, they are often studied under controlled conditions. However, a persistent problem in such controlled experiments is the ability of earthworms to escape

  5. Occurrence of an exotic earthworm (Amynthas agrestis) in undisturbed soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac. A. Callaham; Paul F. Hendrix; Ross J. Phillips

    2003-01-01

    This study documents the occurrence of an aggressive invasive earthworm species in undisturbed forest soils of the southern Appalachian Mountains of northern Georgia, USA. Earthworms were sorted from samples collected in pitfall traps that had been set in mature, mesic oak-hickory forests in remote, high elevation, locations across northern Georgia. Specimens were...

  6. Earthworms, Microbes and the Release of C and N in Biochar Amended Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land application of biochar has the potential to increase soil fertility and sequester carbon. It is unclear how soil microbes and earthworms interact with biochar and affect release or retention of nutrients. In order to determine the effects and interactions among soil microbes, earthworms, and bi...

  7. Earthworms enhance soil health and may also assist in improving biological insect pest suppression in pecans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypo...

  8. Nematodes, exotic earthworms and nitrogen addition: interactions between global change factors lead to cancellation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, Jonathan R

    2017-07-01

    Photos from the experiment described in Shao et al. (): (a) the endogeic (i.e. earthworms that typically live in the soil, burrowing horizontally to acquire nutrients) earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus that was added to the plots; (b) P. corethrurus in a quiescence state in response to drought; (c) set-up of the control plots (i.e. no earthworms, ambient nitrogen) used in this experiment. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] In Focus: Shao, Y., Zhang, W., Eisenhauer, N., Liu, T., Xiong, Y., Liang, C. & Fu, S. (2017) Nitrogen deposition cancels out exotic earthworm effects on plant-feeding nematode communities. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 708-717. In this issue of Journal of Animal Ecology, Shao et al. () explored how N addition and exotic earthworms interacted to impact on the plant-feeding nematode community. They demonstrate that exotic earthworm presence alone increased the abundance of less harmful plant-feeding nematodes and decreased the abundance of the more harmful plant-feeding nematodes. However, in plots receiving both exotic earthworms and N addition, such earthworm effects on the nematode community were negated. These findings pull focus on the need to simultaneously consider multiple global change factors (e.g. exotic species invasions and N deposition) when making predictions about how such factors might affect above- and below-ground interactions and thereby alter ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  9. Earthworms as phoretic hosts for Steinernema carpocapsae and Beauveria bassiana: Implications for enhanced biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior research indicated that earthworms may serve as phoretic hosts to entomopathogenic nematodes. Therefore, we hypothesized that biocontrol efficacy of nematodes could be enhanced in the presence of earthworms based on increased nematode dispersal through the soil. We also hypothesized that ear...

  10. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K; Keraenen, H [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  11. Biomass IGCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, K.; Keraenen, H. [Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Enviropower Inc. is developing a modern power plant concept based on pressurised fluidized-bed gasification and gas turbine combined cycle (IGCC). The process is capable of maximising the electricity production with a variety of solid fuels - different biomass and coal types - mixed or separately. The development work is conducted on many levels. These and demonstration efforts are highlighted in this article. The feasibility of a pressurised gasification based processes compared to competing technologies in different applications is discussed. The potential of power production from biomass is also reviewed. (orig.) 4 refs.

  12. Modelling tree biomasses in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repola, J.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass equations for above- and below-ground tree components of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L), Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) and birch (Betula pendula Roth and Betula pubescens Ehrh.) were compiled using empirical material from a total of 102 stands. These stands (44 Scots pine, 34 Norway spruce and 24 birch stands) were located mainly on mineral soil sites representing a large part of Finland. The biomass models were based on data measured from 1648 sample trees, comprising 908 pine, 613 spruce and 127 birch trees. Biomass equations were derived for the total above-ground biomass and for the individual tree components: stem wood, stem bark, living and dead branches, needles, stump, and roots, as dependent variables. Three multivariate models with different numbers of independent variables for above-ground biomass and one for below-ground biomass were constructed. Variables that are normally measured in forest inventories were used as independent variables. The simplest model formulations, multivariate models (1) were mainly based on tree diameter and height as independent variables. In more elaborated multivariate models, (2) and (3), additional commonly measured tree variables such as age, crown length, bark thickness and radial growth rate were added. Tree biomass modelling includes consecutive phases, which cause unreliability in the prediction of biomass. First, biomasses of sample trees should be determined reliably to decrease the statistical errors caused by sub-sampling. In this study, methods to improve the accuracy of stem biomass estimates of the sample trees were developed. In addition, the reliability of the method applied to estimate sample-tree crown biomass was tested, and no systematic error was detected. Second, the whole information content of data should be utilized in order to achieve reliable parameter estimates and applicable and flexible model structure. In the modelling approach, the basic assumption was that the biomasses of

  13. Microflora dynamics in earthworms casts in an artificial soil (biosynthesol containing lactic acid oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alauzet Nathalie

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were performed to appreciate the presence of micro-organisms able to degrade OLA, in earthworms casts or in the surroundings. Worms were grown in biosynthesol, an artificial soil. The counting of bacteria and fungi in earthworms casts and in biosynthesol without earthworms suggested that earthworms ate some of the micro-organisms. The main filamentous fungi genera found were Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Fusarium and Penicillium. Previous results in the literature have shown that some species from the Aspergillus and Fusarium genera were able to degrade OLA and other aliphatic esters. It could be suggested that these two genera and some bacteria were responsible for the pre-degradation of OLA, and that earthworms might eat them.

  14. The earthworm gastrointestinal effect on the release of organic bound residues in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J. H.

    2018-03-01

    Earthworm activities promote the release of bound residues and the digestive activities of earthworms contribute to the process. Earthworm digestive effects on bound residues can be divided into physical and chemical effects. Physical effects include gastrointestinal abrasion and mixing. The abrasion of soil and litter residues in earthworm gizzards and intestine can grind the food into fine particles, which increase the contact surface with microbial and promote the desorption of bound residues. Chemical effects are attributed to the secreted surfactant substances and digestive enzymes. The surfactants, especially at levels that lead to micellization, can enhance the desorption process of the organic contaminants that sored in the soil. The enzymes in earthworm digestive tracts can decompose the humus in soil, which may promote the release of organic residues that bind with humus.

  15. The Cultivation and SeleniumEnrichment of SeleniumEnriched Earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Xiao-fei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As a bio-carrier, Eisenia fetida was fed with cow dung that added with sodium selenite in order to transfer inorganic selenium(Se into organic selenium. Targeting on survival rate and selenium content, the effects of five Se concentrations(0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 mg·kg-1 and four cultivation periods(15, 30, 45, 60 don earthworm growth and Se contents were investigated. The cultivation method with high survival rate, high Se content of earthworm and short breeding time would be screened out. The experimental results showed that the earthworm survival rate decreased and the Se content in earthworm increased with the increase of Se application and the extension of breeding time. The most optimummethod was screened out when the Se concentration was 80 mg·kg-1 and the cultivation period was 45 days, Se content in earthworm was up to 33.25 mg·kg-1.

  16. Earthworms modify microbial community structure and accelerate maize stover decomposition during vermicomposting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiang; Zhang, Yufen; Zhang, Quanguo; Xu, Lixin; Li, Ran; Luo, Xiaopei; Zhang, Xin; Tong, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, maize stover was vermicomposted with the epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The results showed that, during vermicomposting process, the earthworms promoted decomposition of maize stover. Analysis of microbial communities of the vermicompost by high-throughput pyrosequencing showed more complex bacterial community structure in the substrate treated by the earthworms than that in the control group. The dominant microbial genera in the treatment with the earthworms were Pseudoxanthomonas, Pseudomonas, Arthrobacter, Streptomyces, Cryptococcus, Guehomyces, and Mucor. Compared to the control group, the relative abundance of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms increased. The results indicated that the earthworms modified the structure of microbial communities during vermicomposting process, activated the growth of lignocellulose degradation microorganisms, and triggered the lignocellulose decomposition.

  17. Mercury, cadmium and lead concentrations in different ecophysiological groups of earthworms in forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ernst, Gregor; Zimmermann, Stefan; Christie, Peter; Frey, Beat

    2008-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd and Pb by eight ecophysiologically distinct earthworm species was studied in 27 polluted and uncontaminated forest soils. Lowest tissue concentrations of Hg and Cd occurred in epigeic Lumbricus rubellus and highest in endogeic Octolasion cyaneum. Soils dominated by Dendrodrilus rubidus possess a high potential of risk of Pb biomagnification for secondary predators. Bioconcentration factors (soil-earthworm) followed the sequence ranked Cd > Hg > Pb. Ordination plots of redundancy analysis were used to compare HM concentrations in earthworm tissues with soil, leaf litter and root concentrations and with soil pH and CEC. Different ecological categories of earthworms are exposed to Hg, Cd and Pb in the topsoil by atmospheric deposition and accumulate them in their bodies. Species differences in HM concentrations largely reflect differences in food selectivity and niche separation. - Accumulation of non-essential heavy metals by earthworms is species-dependent and is affected by soil characteristics in natural forest soils

  18. Genotoxicity assessment of cobalt chloride in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciğerci, İbrahim Hakkı; Ali, Muhammad Muddassir; Kaygısız, Şöhret Yüksek; Liman, Recep

    2016-02-01

    Cobalt and its different compounds are extensively used worldwide and considered as possible environmental pollutant. Earthworms are useful model organism and its different species are used to monitor soil pollution. No study has been found to detect cobalt chloride (CoCl2) genotoxicity in earthworms. So, current study aimed to evaluate CoCl2 induced genotoxicity in Eisenia hortensis earthworms coelomocytes by alkaline comet assay (CA) and micronucleus (MN) test. The earthworms (n = 10 for each group) were exposed to different series of CoCl2 concentrations (100 ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 600 ppm) to find LD50. The LD50 for CoCl2 was found at 226 ppm. Then, doses of LD50/2, LD50 and 2XLD50 for 48 h were used. CA and MN demonstrated the significant increase (P earthworms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of the Earthworms Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube, 1855, Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872, and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826 from Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Ping Shen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two megascolecid earthworms Pontodrilus litoralis (Grube, 1855 and Metaphire houlleti (Perrier, 1872, and a lumbricid earthworm Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny, 1826 as the species newly recorded to Taiwan. P. litoralis is a small, euryhaline earthworm dwelling in the intertidal zone along coasts of the Penghu island and the southwestern Taiwan. M. houlleti is a medium, sexthecal earthworm from Pingtung of the southern Taiwan. It belongs to the houlleti-group of the genus Metaphire Sims and Easton, 1972. E. tetraedra is an earthworm dwelling in the torrents or damp habitat in mountain streams of the central Taiwan.

  20. In Situ Earthworm Breeding to Improve Soil Aggregation, Chemical Properties, and Enzyme Activity in Papayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Xiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The long-term use of mineral fertilizers has decreased the soil fertility in papaya (Carica papaya L. orchards in South China. In situ earthworm breeding is a new sustainable practice for improving soil fertility. A field experiment was conducted to compare the effects of four treatments consisting of the control (C, chemical fertilizer (F, compost (O, and in situ earthworm breeding (E on soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activity in a papaya orchard. The results showed that soil chemical properties, such as pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total nitrogen (TN, available nitrogen (AN, and total phosphorus (TP were significantly improved with the E treatment but declined with the F treatment. On 31 October 2008, the SOM and TN with the O and E treatments were increased by 26.3% and 15.1%, respectively, and by 32.5% and 20.6% compared with the F treatment. Furthermore, the O and E treatments significantly increased the activity of soil urease and sucrase. Over the whole growing season, soil urease activity was 34.4%~40.4% and 51.1%~58.7% higher with the O and E treatments, respectively, than that with the C treatment. Additionally, the activity of soil sucrase with the E treatment was always the greatest of the four treatments, whereas the F treatment decreased soil catalase activity. On 11 June 2008 and 3 July 2008, the activity of soil catalase with the F treatment was decreased by 19.4% and 32.0% compared with C. Soil bulk density with the four treatments was in the order of O ≤ E < F < C. The O- and E-treated soil bulk density was significantly lower than that of the F-treated soil. Soil porosity was in the order of C < F < E < O. Soil porosity with the O and E treatments was 6.0% and 4.7% higher, respectively, than that with the F treatment. Meanwhile, the chemical fertilizer applications significantly influenced the mean weight diameter (MWD of the aggregate and proportion of different size aggregate fractions. The E treatment

  1. A brief review and evaluation of earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhiming; Tang, Zhiwen; Wang, Congying

    2017-05-01

    Earthworm biomarker response to pollutants has been widely investigated in the assessment of soil pollution. However, whether and how the earthworm biomarker-approach can be actually applied to soil pollution assessment is still a controversial issue. This review is concerned about the following points: 1. Despite much debate, biomarker is valuable to ecotoxicology and biomarker approach has been properly used in different fields. Earthworm biomarker might be used in different scenarios such as large-scale soil pollution survey and soil pollution risk assessment. Compared with physicochemical analysis, they can provide more comprehensive and straightforward information about soil pollution at low cost. 2. Although many earthworm species from different ecological categories have been tested, Eisenia fetida/andrei is commonly used. Many earthworm biomarkers have been screened from the molecular to the individual level, while only a few biomarkers, such as avoidance behavior and lysosomal membrane stability, have been focused on. Other aspects of the experimental design were critically reviewed. 3. More studies should focus on determining the reliability of various earthworm biomarkers in soil pollution assessment in future research. Besides, establishing a database of a basal level of each biomarker, exploring biomarker response in different region/section/part of earthworm, and other issues are also proposed. 4. A set of research guideline for earthworm biomarker studies was recommended, and the suitability of several earthworm biomarkers was briefly evaluated with respect to their application in soil pollution assessment. This review will help to promote further studies and practical application of earthworm biomarker in soil pollution assessment.

  2. Excellent N-fixing and P-solubilizing traits in earthworm gut-isolated bacteria: A vermicompost based assessment with vegetable market waste and rice straw feed mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Nazneen; Singh, Archana; Saha, Sougata; Venkata Satish Kumar, Mattaparthi; Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar

    2016-12-01

    Vermicomposting is a dependable waste recycling technology which greatly augments N and P levels mainly through microbial action. This paper aims to identify efficient N-fixing (NFB) and P-solubilizing (PSB) bacteria from earthworm intestines. Various combinations of vegetable market waste, rice straw, and cowdung were fed to two earthworm species (Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus). Total organic C decreased, pH shifted towards neutrality, and NPK availability, and microbial (NFB, PSB, and total bacteria) population increased remarkably during vermicomposting with E. fetida. Therefore, 45 NFB and 34 PSB strains isolated from Eisenia gut were initially screened, their inter-dominance assessed, and 8 prolific strains were identified through 16SrRNA sequencing. Interestingly, two novel N-fixing strains of Kluyvera ascorbata emerged as an efficient biofertilizer candidate. Moreover, both N-fixing and P-solubilizing strains of Serratia and Bacillus were isolated from earthworm gut. All the isolated strains significantly improved soil health and facilitated crop growth as compared to commercial biofertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigation of the toxicokinetics of petroleum hydrocarbon distillates with the earthworm Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Janet; Stephenson, Gladys; Birkholz, Detlef; Dixon, D George

    2013-04-01

    The Canada-wide standards for petroleum hydrocarbons in soils regulate petroleum hydrocarbons based on four distillate ranges: F1 (C6-C10), F2 (>C10-C16), F3 (>C16-C34), and F4 (>C34). Previous toxicity tests with earthworms and F2, as well as two subfractions of F3, F3a (>C16-C23) and F3a (>C23-C34), indicate that test durations might not be sufficiently long to reach threshold effect concentrations, likely because of the differing toxicokinetics for each distillate. A study was conducted to determine the toxicokinetics of both aliphatic and aromatic fractions of F2, F3a, and F3b with the earthworm Eisenia andrei. Peak accumulation curves were observed for F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics, likely as a result of changes in exposure concentration over the test duration via loss or a decrease in the bioavailable fraction. Biota-soil accumulation factors were >1 for total F2 aliphatics and aromatics and F3a aromatics as well as for several individual polyaromatic hydrocarbons for each distillate. Aromatics were disproportionately accumulated over aliphatics and were the main contributors to toxicity; therefore, aromatics and aliphatics should be regulated separately. The toxicokinetics were used to interpret previous toxicity data. Higher molecular weight distillates need longer-than-standard test durations to determine toxicity, so toxicity test results from fixed, standard-duration tests are not strictly comparable for these petroleum distillates. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Uranium contents and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U atom ratios in soil and earthworms in western Kosovo after the 1999 war

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Lella, L.A.; Nannoni, F.; Protano, G.; Riccobono, F. [Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali ' G. Sarfatti' -Sezione di Geochimica Ambientale, University of Siena, Via del Laterino 8, I-53100, Siena (Italy)

    2005-01-20

    The uranium content and {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U atom ratio were determined in soils and earthworms of an area of Kosovo (Djakovica garrison), heavily shelled with depleted uranium (DU) ammunition during the 1999 war. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the small-scale distribution of uranium and assess the influence of the DU added to the surface environment. The total uranium concentration and the {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio of topsoils showed great variability and were inversely correlated. The highest uranium levels (up to 31.47 mg kg{sup -1}) and lowest {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratios (minimum 0.002147) were measured in topsoils collected inside, or very close to, the clusters of DU penetrator holes. Regarding the fractionation of uranium in the surface soils, the uranium concentrations in the soluble and exchangeable fractions increased as the total uranium concentration of the topsoils increased. High and rather uniform percentage contents of uranium (24-36%) were associated with the poorly crystalline iron oxide phases of soils. In the U-enriched soils the elevated levels of the element were probably due to the presence of very small, unevenly distributed oxidized DU particles. The total uranium concentration in earthworms was in the range 0.142-0.656 mg kg{sup -1}, with the highest concentrations in Lumbricus terrestris. The juveniles of all three studied species seemed to accumulate uranium more than adults, probably due to age-related differences in metabolism. The {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U ratio in the earthworms was variable (0.005241-0.007266) and independent of both the total uranium contents in soils and the absolute uranium levels in the animals. Bioconcentration was greater at lower U concentrations in soil, probably due to an increasing rate of elimination of uranium by the earthworms as the soil contents of the element increase. The results of this study clearly indicate that DU was added to the soil of the study area. Nevertheless, the phenomenon was

  5. Biomass Characterization | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization Biomass Characterization NREL provides high-quality analytical characterization of biomass feedstocks, intermediates, and products, a critical step in optimizing biomass conversion clear, amber liquid Standard Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedures We maintain a library of

  6. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resner, Kathryn [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Yoo, Kyungsoo, E-mail: kyoo@umn.edu [Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate, University of Minnesota, 439 Borlaug Hall, 1991 Upper Buford Circle, St. Paul, MN, 55108-6028 (United States); Hale, Cindy [University of Minnesota Duluth, The Natural Resources Research Institute, 5013 Miller Trunk Hwy. Duluth, MN 55811 (United States); Aufdenkampe, Anthony [Assistant Research Scientist - Isotope and Organic Geochemistry, Stroud Water Research Center, 970 Spencer Road, Avondale, PA 19311 (United States); Blum, Alex [US Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Sebestyen, Stephen [Research Hydrologist, USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station, Grand Rapids, MN 55744-3399 (United States)

    2011-06-15

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically

  7. Elemental and mineralogical changes in soils due to bioturbation along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in Northern Minnesota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resner, Kathryn; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Hale, Cindy; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Blum, Alex; Sebestyen, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Minnesota forested soils have evolved without the presence of earthworms since the last glacial retreat. When exotic earthworms arrive, enhanced soil bioturbation often results in dramatic morphological and chemical changes in soils with negative implications for the forests' sustainability. However, the impacts of earthworm invasion on geochemical processes in soils are not well understood. This study attempts to quantify the role of earthworm invasion in mineral chemical weathering and nutrient dynamics along an earthworm invasion chronosequence in a sugar maple forest in Northern Minnesota. Depth and rates of soil mixing can be tracked with atmospherically derived short lived radioisotopes 210 Pb and 137 Cs. Their radioactivities increase in the lower A horizon at the expense of the peak activities near the soil surface, which indicate that soil mixing rate and its depth reach have been enhanced by earthworms. Enhanced soil mixing by earthworms is consistent with the ways that the vertical profiles of elemental and mineralogical compositions were affected by earthworm invasion. Biologically cycled Ca and P have peak concentrations near the soil surface prior to earthworm invasion. However, these peak abundances significantly declined in the earthworm invaded soils presumably due to enhanced soil mixing. It is clear that enhanced soil mixing due to earthworms also profoundly altered the vertical distribution of most mineral species within A horizons. Though the mechanisms are not clear yet, earthworm invasion appears to have contributed to net losses of clay mineral species and opal from the A horizons. As much as earthworms vertically relocated minerals and elements, they also intensify the contacts between organic matter and cations as shown in the increased amount of Ca and Fe in organically complexed and in exchangeable pools. With future studies on soil mixing rates and elemental leaching, this study will quantitatively and mechanically address the role of

  8. Biomass shock pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzapple, Mark T.; Madison, Maxine Jones; Ramirez, Rocio Sierra; Deimund, Mark A.; Falls, Matthew; Dunkelman, John J.

    2014-07-01

    Methods and apparatus for treating biomass that may include introducing a biomass to a chamber; exposing the biomass in the chamber to a shock event to produce a shocked biomass; and transferring the shocked biomass from the chamber. In some aspects, the method may include pretreating the biomass with a chemical before introducing the biomass to the chamber and/or after transferring shocked biomass from the chamber.

  9. Biomass Energy Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomass Energy Basics Biomass Energy Basics We have used biomass energy, or "bioenergy" keep warm. Wood is still the largest biomass energy resource today, but other sources of biomass can landfills (which are methane, the main component in natural gas) can be used as a biomass energy source. A

  10. Electrifying biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusnierczyk, D.

    2005-01-01

    British Columbia's (BC) energy plan was outlined in this PowerPoint presentation. BC Hydro is the third largest electric utility in Canada with a generating capacity of 11,000 MW, 90 per cent of which is hydro generation. Various independent power project (IPP) biomass technologies were outlined, including details of biogas, wood residue and municipal solid waste facilities. An outline of BC Hydro's overall supply mix was presented, along with details of the IPP supply mix. It was suggested that the cancellation of the Duke Point power project has driven growth in the renewable energy sector. A chart of potential energy contribution by resource type was presented, as well as unit energy cost ranges. Resources included small and large hydro; demand side management; resource smart natural gas; natural gas; coal; wind; geothermal; biomass; wave; and tidal. The acquisition process was reviewed. Details of calls for tenders were presented, and issues concerning bidder responsibility and self-selection were examined. It was observed that wood residue presents a firm source of electricity that is generally local, and has support from the public. In addition, permits for wood residue energy conversion are readily available. However, size limitations, fuel risks, and issues concerning site control may prove to be significant challenges. It was concluded that the success of biomass energy development will depend on adequate access and competitive pricing. tabs., figs

  11. Earthworm ecology affects the population structure of their Verminephrobacter symbionts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo Viana, Flavia Daniela; Jensen, Christopher Erik; Macey, Michael

    2016-01-01

    from two contrasting ecological types of earthworm hosts: the high population density, fast reproducing compost worms, Eisenia andrei and E. fetida, and the low-density, slow reproducing Aporrectodea tuberculata, commonly found in garden soils; for both types, three distinct populations were...... across host individuals from the same population. Thus, host ecology shapes the population structure of the Verminephrobacter symbionts. The homogeneous symbiont populations in the compost worms indicate that Verminephrobacter can be transferred bi-parentally or via leaky horizontal transmission in high...

  12. Chloride cotransport in the membrane of earthworm body wall muscles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Volkov, E. M.; Nurullin, L. F.; Nikolsky, E.; Krůšek, Jan; Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2003), s. 587-592 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Grant - others:RBRF(RU) 98-04-48044; RBRF(RU) 99-04-48286; RBRF(RU) 99-04-4306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : earthworm * ouabain * furosemide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  13. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahmani, Johanne; Hodson, Mark E.; Black, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies

  14. Earthworm-microorganism interactions: a strategy to stabilize domestic wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limin; Wang, Yayi; Yang, Jian; Xing, Meiyan; Li, Xiaowei; Yi, Danghao; Deng, Dehan

    2010-04-01

    The performance of a conventional biofilter (BF) and a vermifilter containing the earthworm, Eisenia foetida, (VF) for the treatment of domestic wastewater sludge were compared with the earthworm-microorganism interaction mechanisms involved in sludge stabilization. The results revealed that the presence of earthworms in the VF led to significant stabilization of the sludge by enhancing the reduction in volatile suspended solids (VSS) by 25.1%. Digestion by earthworms and the earthworm-microorganism interactions were responsible for 54% and 46% of this increase, respectively. Specifically, earthworms in the VF were capable of transforming insoluble organic materials to a soluble form and then selectively digesting the sludge particles of 10-200 microm to finer particles of 0-2 microm, which led to the further degradation of organic materials by the microorganisms in the reactor. Additionally, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles showed that there was an intensified bacterial diversity in the vermifilter due to the presence of earthworms, especially in response to the nutrients in their casts. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Earthworms use odor cues to locate and feed on microorganisms in soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Earthworms are key components of temperate soil ecosystems but key aspects of their ecology remain unexamined. Here we elucidate the role of olfactory cues in earthworm attraction to food sources and document specific chemical cues that attract Eisenia fetida to the soil fungi Geotrichum candidum. Fungi and other microorganisms are major sources of volatile emissions in soil ecosystems as well as primary food sources for earthworms, suggesting the likelihood that earthworms might profitably use olfactory cues to guide foraging behavior. Moreover, previous studies have documented earthworm movement toward microbial food sources. But, the specific olfactory cues responsible for earthworm attraction have not previously been identified. Using olfactometer assays combined with chemical analyses (GC-MS, we documented the attraction of E. fetida individuals to filtrate derived from G. candidum colonies and to two individual compounds tested in isolation: ethyl pentanoate and ethyl hexanoate. Attraction at a distance was observed when barriers prevented the worms from reaching the target stimuli, confirming the role of volatile cues. These findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying key trophic interactions in soil ecosystems and have potential implications for the extraction and collection of earthworms in vermiculture and other applied activities.

  16. A review of studies performed to assess metal uptake by earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmani, Johanne [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: j.y.nahmani@reading.ac.uk; Hodson, Mark E. [Department of Soil Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Berkshire, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: m.e.hodson@reading.ac.uk; Black, Stuart [Department of Archaeology, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Whiteknights, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15

    Earthworms perform a number of essential functions in soil; the impacts of metals on earthworms are often investigated. In this review we consider the range of earthworm species, types of soil and forms of metal for which metal uptake and accumulation have been studied, the design of these experiments and the quantitative relationships that have been derived to predict earthworm metal body burden. We conclude that there is a need for more studies on earthworm species other than Eisenia fetida in order to apply the large existing database on this earthworm to other, soil dwelling species. To aid comparisons between studies agreement is needed on standard protocols that define exposure and depuration periods and the parameters, such as soil solution composition, soil chemical and physical properties to be measured. It is recommended that more field or terrestrial model ecosystem studies using real contaminated soil rather than metal-amended artificial soils are performed. - We review species, soil and experimental designs used to study metal uptake and accumulation by earthworms and suggest priorities for further studies.

  17. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizmur, Tom, E-mail: t.p.sizmur@reading.ac.uk [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom); Palumbo-Roe, Barbara [British Geological Survey, Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Hodson, Mark E. [Soil Research Centre, Dept. Geography and Environmental Science, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 6DW (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg{sup -1} and 362 mgCu kg{sup -1}) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg{sup -1} and 908 mgZn kg{sup -1}) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. > Compost increased the mobility of As. > Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. > These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  18. The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.; Karmegam, N.

    2010-01-01

    The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macro fauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

  19. The Role of Earthworms in Tropics with Emphasis on Indian Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha D. Kale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights the research carried out by different scientists in India on aspects of earthworm population dynamics and species diversity, associated with other soil fauna and microflora. It also deals with the importance of earthworm activity on physicochemical properties of soil with reference to India and other tropical countries. Stress is laid on the earthworm plant association and importance of the secretions of earthworms as plant growth stimulators. Moreover, the earthworm species reported and being utilized for vermicomposting in India are discussed, since vermicomposting is the ultimate technology which renders for the improvement of soil fertility status and plant growth. Earthworms serve as indicators of soil status such as the level of contamination of pollutants: agrochemicals, heavy metals, toxic substances, and industrial effluents; human-induced activities: land-management practices and forest degradation. In all these fields there is lacuna with respect to contributions from India when compared to the available information from other tropical countries. There is lot of scope in the field of research on earthworms to unravel the importance of these major soil macrofauna from holistic ecological studies to the molecular level.

  20. Impact of earthworms on trace element solubility in contaminated mine soils amended with green waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizmur, Tom; Palumbo-Roe, Barbara; Hodson, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    The common practice of remediating metal contaminated mine soils with compost can reduce metal mobility and promote revegetation, but the effect of introduced or colonising earthworms on metal solubility is largely unknown. We amended soils from an As/Cu (1150 mgAs kg -1 and 362 mgCu kg -1 ) and Pb/Zn mine (4550 mgPb kg -1 and 908 mgZn kg -1 ) with 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% compost and then introduced Lumbricus terrestris. Porewater was sampled and soil extracted with water to determine trace element solubility, pH and soluble organic carbon. Compost reduced Cu, Pb and Zn, but increased As solubility. Earthworms decreased water soluble Cu and As but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. The effect of the earthworms decreased with increasing compost amendment. The impact of the compost and the earthworms on metal solubility is explained by their effect on pH and soluble organic carbon and the environmental chemistry of each element. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: → Compost reduced the mobility of Cu, Pb and Zn. → Compost increased the mobility of As. → Earthworms decreased water soluble As and Cu but increased Pb and Zn in porewater. → These effects are explained by the impact of the earthworms and compost on pH and DOC. - The effect of earthworms on metal solubility was due to changes in dissolved organic carbon and pH but was reduced with increasing compost amendments.

  1. When citizens and scientists work together : a french collaborative science network on earthworms communities distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guernion, Muriel; Hoeffner, Kevin; Guillocheau, Sarah; Hotte, Hoël; Cylly, Daniel; Piron, Denis; Cluzeau, Daniel; Hervé, Morgane; Nicolai, Annegret; Pérès, Guénola

    2017-04-01

    Scientists have become more and more interested in earthworms because of their impact on soil functioning and their importance in provision of many ecosystem services. To improve the knowledge on soil biodiversity and integrate earthworms in soil quality diagnostics, it appeared necessary to gain a large amount of data on their distribution. The University of Rennes 1 developed since 2011 a collaborative science project called Observatoire Participatif des Vers de Terre (OPVT, participative earthworm observatory). It has several purposes : i) to offer a simple tool for soil biodiversity evaluation in natural and anthropic soils through earthworm assessment, ii) to offer trainings to farmers, territory managers, gardeners, pupils on soil ecology, iii) to build a database of reference values on earthworms in different habitats, iv) to propose a website (https://ecobiosoil.univ-rennes1.fr/OPVT_accueil.php) providing for example general scientific background (earthworm ecology and impacts of soil management), sampling protocols and online visualization of results (data processing and earthworms mapping). Up to now, more than 5000 plots have been prospected since the opening of the project in 2011., Initially available to anyone on a voluntary basis, this project is also used by the French Ministry of Agriculture to carry out a scientific survey throughout the French territory.

  2. Exposure to aged crumb rubber reduces survival time during a stress test in earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pochron, Sharon; Nikakis, Jacqueline; Illuzzi, Kyra; Baatz, Andrea; Demirciyan, Loriana; Dhillon, Amritjot; Gaylor, Thomas; Manganaro, Alexa; Maritato, Nicholas; Moawad, Michael; Singh, Rajwinder; Tucker, Clara; Vaughan, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    Solid waste management struggles with the sustainable disposal of used tires. One solution involves shredding used tires into crumb rubber and using the material as infill for artificial turf. However, crumb rubber contains hydrocarbons, organic compounds, and heavy metals, and it travels into the environment. Earthworms living in soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber gained 14% less body weight than did earthworms living in uncontaminated soil, but the impact of aged crumb rubber on the earthworms is unknown. Since many athletic fields contain aged crumb rubber, we compared the body weight, survivorship, and longevity in heat and light stress for earthworms living in clean topsoil to those living in topsoil contaminated with aged crumb rubber. We also characterized levels of metals, nutrients, and micronutrients of both soil treatments and compared those to published values for soil contaminated with virgin crumb rubber. Consistent with earlier research, we found that contaminated soil did not inhibit microbial respiration rates. Aged crumb rubber, like new crumb rubber, had high levels of zinc. However, while exposure to aged crumb rubber did not reduce earthworm body weight as did exposure to new crumb rubber, exposure to aged crumb rubber reduced earthworm survival time during a stress test by a statistically significant 38 min (16.2%) relative to the survival time for worms that had lived in clean soil. Aged crumb rubber and new crumb rubber appear to pose similar toxic risks to earthworms. This study suggests an environmental cost associated with the current tire-recycling solution.

  3. Nest site selection and nutritional provision through excreta: a form of parental care in a tropical endogeic earthworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel I. Ortiz-Ceballos

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nest construction is a common form of parental care in soil organisms. However, it is unknown whether the tropical earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus produces nests in soils with low nutritional quality habitats. Here we studied the reproductive behaviour and nest site selection of P. corethrurus, and tested the hypothesis whether P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in habitats with low nutritional quality. In bidimensional terrariums we evaluated the combined effect of the nutritional quality of habitat: (Poor Quality Habitat = PQH, Medium Quality Habitat = MQH, High Quality Habitat = HQH and soil depth (Shallow, Intermediate, Deep in a factorial 32 design. The number and biomass of cocoons, progeny and the production of internal and external excreta were evaluated. The quality habitat and depth of soil and their interaction had a significant effect on nest site construction and the deposition of internal excreta. Pontoscolex corethrurus built a higher amount of nests in the PQH-Intermediate and MQH-Intermediate treatments while more internal excreta were found in the HQH-Intermediate treatment. Offspring biomass was positively associated with internal excreta in the PQH (soil only and MQH (soil + grass treatments, suggesting that this could be a form of parental care. Since P. corethrurus produces more cocoons in low and medium quality habitats, while produces more internal excreta at high quality habitats, there does not seem to be an association between number of offspring and parental care. We suggest P. corethrurus could have two reproductive strategies that act as diversified bet-hedging (do not put all cocoons in one basket behavior in unpredictable environment, and thus build a higher amount of nests in low and medium quality habitats; and another where they produce more internal excreta as a form of parental care in high quality habitats. Parental care in the form of internal excreta may be particularly important in poor and medium

  4. Importance of earthworm-seed interactions for the composition and structure of plant communities: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forey, Estelle; Barot, Sébastien; Decaëns, Thibaud; Langlois, Estelle; Laossi, Kam-Rigne; Margerie, Pierre; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2011-11-01

    Soil seed bank composition and dynamics are crucial elements for the understanding of plant population and community ecology. Earthworms are increasingly recognized as important dispersers and predators of seeds. Through direct and indirect effects they influence either positively or negatively the establishment and survival of seeds and seedlings. Seedling establishment is affected by a variety of earthworm-mediated mechanisms, such as selective seed ingestion and digestion, acceleration or deceleration of germination, and seed transport. Earthworm casts deposited on the soil surface and the entrance of earthworm burrows often contain viable seeds and constitute important regeneration niches for plant seedlings and therefore likely favour specific seed traits. However, the role of earthworms as seed dispersers, mediators of seed bank dynamics and seed predators has not been considered in concert. The overall effect of earthworms on plant communities remains little understood. Most knowledge is based on laboratory studies on temperate species and future work has to explore the biological significance of earthworm-seed interactions under more natural conditions. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on earthworm-seed interactions and discuss factors determining these interactions. We highlight that this interaction may be an underappreciated, yet major driving force for the dynamics of soil seed banks and plant communities which most likely have experienced co-evolutionary processes. Despite the experimental bias, we hypothesize that the knowledge gathered in the present review is of crucial relevance for restoration and conservation ecology. For instance, as earthworms emerge as successful and ubiquitous invaders in various ecosystems, the summarized information might serve as a basis for realistic estimations and modelling of consequences on native plant communities. We depict promising directions of future research and point to the need to consider

  5. Global DNA methylation in earthworms: a candidate biomarker of epigenetic risks related to the presence of metals/metalloids in terrestrial environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoyo, María Maldonado; Flores, Crescencio Rodríguez; Torres, Adolfo Lopez; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2011-10-01

    In this work, possible relationships between global DNA methylation and metal/metalloid concentrations in earthworms have been explored. Direct correlation was observed between soil and tissue As, Se, Sb, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ag, Co, Hg, Pb (p< 0.05). Speciation results obtained for As and Hg hint at the capability of earthworms for conversion of inorganic element forms present in soil to methylated species. Inverse correlation was observed between the percentage of methylated DNA cytosines and total tissue As, As + Hg, As + Hg + Se + Sb (β = -0.8456, p = 0.071; β = -0.9406, p = 0.017; β = -0.9526, p = 0.012 respectively), as well as inorganic As + Hg (β = -0.8807, p = 0.049). It was concluded that earthworms would be particularly helpful as bioindicators of elements undergoing in vivo methylation and might also be used to assess the related risk of epigenetic changes in DNA methylation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nutrient changes and biodynamics of Eisenia fetida during vermicomposting of water lettuce (Pistia sp.) biomass: a noxious weed of aquatic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Surindra; Pandey, Bhawna; Gusain, Rita; Gaur, Rubia Zahid; Kumar, Kapil

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the results of vermicomposting of water lettuce biomass (WL) spiked with cow dung at ratios of 20, 40, 60, and 80 % employing Eisenia fetida. A total of four treatments were established and changes in chemical properties of mixtures were observed. Vermicomposting caused a decrease in pH, TOC, volatile solids, and C/N ratio by 1.01-1.08-fold, 0.85-0.92-fold, 0.94-0.96-fold, 0.56-0.70-fold, respectively, but increase in EC, tot N, tot P, tot K, tot Ca, tot Zn, tot Fe, and tot Cu, by 1.19-1.42-fold, 1.33-1.68-fold, 1.38-1.69-fold, 1.13-1.24-fold, 1.04-1.11-fold, 1.16-1.37-fold, 1.05-1.113-fold, 1.10-1.27-fold, respectively. Overall, the treatment with 60-80 % of WL showed the maximum decomposition and mineralization rates. The earthworm showed the growth and reproduction rate in considerable ranges in all treatment setups but setups with 60-80 % WL proportion exhibited the optimum results. Results reveal that biomass of water lettuce can be utilized effectively for production of valuable manure through vermicomposting system.

  7. Using of ants and earthworm to modify of soil biological quality and its effect on cocoa seedlings growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni; Budianto, Wayan; Syaf, Hasbullah; Tufaila, Muhammad; Safuan, La Ode

    2015-09-01

    Ant and earthworm can act as soil ecosystem engineers. Ant and earthworm are very dominant in smallholder cocoa plantation. The first experiment aimed to study the effect of the abundance of ants and earthworms on soil microbial activity and microfauna, and the second experiment to analyse the effect of soil modified by ants and earthworms on the cocoa seedlings growth. Ant (Ponera sp.) and earthworm (Pontoscolex sp.) collected from smallholder cocoa plantation, and kept in a container up to applied. In the first experiment, nine combinations of the abundance of ants and earthworms applied to each pot containing 3 kg of soil from smallholder cocoa plantation, and each combination of the abundance was repeated five times in a completely randomized design. After the soil was incubated for thirty days, ants and earthworms removed from the soil using hand sorting techniques. Soil from each pot was analysed for soil microbial activity, abundance of flagellates and nematodes. In the second experiment, the soil in each pot was planted with cocoa seedlings and maintained up to ninety days. The results showed the FDA hydrolytic activity of microbes, the abundance of flagellates and nematodes between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms have been significantly different. Dry weight of root, shoot and seedling cacao have been significantly different between the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms. It was concluded that the combination of the abundance of ants and earthworms can be used in ecological engineering to improve soil quality.

  8. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng; Hwang, Jae Sam; Seok, Heon; Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun; Kim, Jae Il; Kim, Ho

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH 2 -RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27 Kip1 protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27 Kip1 significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27 Kip1 degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin

  9. Biosynthesis of luminescent quantum dots in an earthworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stürzenbaum, S. R.; Höckner, M.; Panneerselvam, A.; Levitt, J.; Bouillard, J.-S.; Taniguchi, S.; Dailey, L.-A.; Khanbeigi, R. Ahmad; Rosca, E. V.; Thanou, M.; Suhling, K.; Zayats, A. V.; Green, M.

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of designer solid-state materials by living organisms is an emerging field in bio-nanotechnology. Key examples include the use of engineered viruses as templates for cobalt oxide (Co3O4) particles, superparamagnetic cobalt-platinum alloy nanowires and gold-cobalt oxide nanowires for photovoltaic and battery-related applications. Here, we show that the earthworm's metal detoxification pathway can be exploited to produce luminescent, water-soluble semiconductor cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots that emit in the green region of the visible spectrum when excited in the ultraviolet region. Standard wild-type Lumbricus rubellus earthworms were exposed to soil spiked with CdCl2 and Na2TeO3 salts for 11 days. Luminescent quantum dots were isolated from chloragogenous tissues surrounding the gut of the worm, and were successfully used in live-cell imaging. The addition of polyethylene glycol on the surface of the quantum dots allowed for non-targeted, fluid-phase uptake by macrophage cells.

  10. Neurotropic and neuroprotective activities of the earthworm peptide Lumbricusin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Lee, Ik Hwan; Nam, Seung Taek; Hong, Ji; Zhang, Peng [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jae Sam [Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, RDA, Suwon 441-707 (Korea, Republic of); Seok, Heon [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Jungwon University, Goesan, Chungcheongbukdo 367-700 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyemin; Lee, Dong Gun [School of Life Sciences, KNU Creative Bioresearch Group (BK21 Plus Program), College of Natural Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daehak-ro 80, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Il [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ho, E-mail: hokim@daejin.ac.kr [Department of Life Science, College of Natural Science, Daejin University, Pocheon, Gyeonggido 487-711 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-06

    Highlights: • 11-mer peptide Lumbricusin, a defensin like peptide, is isolated from earthworm. • We here demonstrated that Lumbricusin has neurotropic and neuroprotective effects. • p27 degradation by Lumbricusin mediates effects of Lumbricusin on neuronal cells. - Abstract: We recently isolated a polypeptide from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris that is structurally similar to defensin, a well-known antibacterial peptide. An 11-mer antibacterial peptide (NH{sub 2}-RNRRWCIDQQA), designated Lumbricusin, was synthesized based on the amino acid sequence of the isolated polypeptide. Since we previously reported that CopA3, a dung beetle peptide, enhanced neuronal cell proliferation, we here examined whether Lumbricusin exerted neurotropic and/or neuroprotective effects. Lumbricusin treatment induced a time-dependent increase (∼51%) in the proliferation of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Lumbricusin also significantly inhibited the apoptosis and decreased viability induced by treatment with 6-hydroxy dopamine, a Parkinson’s disease-mimicking agent. Immunoblot analyses revealed that Lumbricusin treatment increased ubiquitination of p27{sup Kip1} protein, a negative regulator of cell-cycle progression, in SH-SY5Y cells, and markedly promoted its degradation. Notably, adenoviral-mediated over-expression of p27{sup Kip1} significantly blocked the antiapoptotic effect of Lumbricusin in 6-hydroxy dopamine-treated SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that promotion of p27{sup Kip1} degradation may be the main mechanism underlying the neuroprotective and neurotropic effects of Lumbricusin.

  11. Analysis of chromium status in the revegetated flora of a tannery waste site and microcosm studies using earthworm E. fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirola, Ramkrishna; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Subramanian, Avudainayagam; Thavamani, Palanisami; Ramadass, Kavitha; Aryal, Rupak; Saint, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Chromium from tannery waste dump site causes significant environmental pollution affecting surrounding flora and fauna. The primary aims of this study were to survey vegetation, investigate the degree of soil pollution occurring near tannery waste dump site and make a systematic evaluation of soil contamination based on the chromium levels found in plants and earthworms from the impacted areas. This paper presents the pollution load of toxic heavy metals, and especially chromium, in 10 soil samples and 12 species of plants. Soil samples were analysed for heavy metals by using ICP-MS/ICP-OES method. Results indicated that Cr in soils exceeded soil quality guideline limits (SQGL). The total chromium present in the above ground parts of plants ranged from 1.7 mg kg -1 in Casuarina sp. to 1007 mg kg -1 in Sonchus asper. The Cr bioaccumulation in Eisenia fetida from tannery waste soil ranged from 5 to 194 mg kg -1 . The high enrichment factor of Cr in S. asper and bioaccumulation factor in earthworms indicate that there is a steady increase of toxic chromium risk in this area, which could be correlated with the past dumping activity. Emphasis needs to be put on control measures of pollution and remediation techniques in such areas to achieve an ecologically sustainable industrialisation.

  12. Earthworms from Mato Grosso, Brazil, and new records of species from the state Minhocas do Mato Grosso e novos registros de espécies do estado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Luise Carolina Bartz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to undertake a qualitative assessment of earthworm diversity in areas under human influence, in a region of Cerrado-Pantanal-Amazon rainforest transition, in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The earthworms were collected in the municipalities of Barra do Bugres and Arenápolis, and were studied together with species previously identified from other municipalities. Seventeen municipalities, at 29 sampling points of Mato Grosso State, have been sampled. Seven species of earthworms were collected and identified in Barra do Bugres: Goiascolex vanzolinii, Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Opisthodrillus borellii borellii, Opisthodrillus sp., Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster sp. and a species of the Criodrilidae family. Four species of earthworms were identified in Arenápolis: Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus affinis and Dichogaster sp. In total, 32 earthworm species/subspecies are known from Mato Grosso, 22 native and 10 exotic.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar qualitativamente a diversidade de minhocas em áreas sob influência humana, em uma região de transição de Pantanal-Cerrado-Floresta Amazônica, no Estado de Mato Grosso. As minhocas foram coletadas nos municípios de Barra do Bugres e Arenápolis e estudadas em conjunto com espécies previamente identificadas de outros municípios do Estado, em um total de 29 pontos de coletas em 17 municípios. Em Barra do Bugres, foram coletadas e identificadas sete espécies de minhocas: Goiascolex vanzolinii, Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Opisthodrillus borellii borellii, Opisthodrillus sp., Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster sp. e uma espécie da família Criodrilidae. Em Arenápolis foram identificadas quatro espécies: Pontoscolex (Pontoscolex corethrurus, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus gracilis, Dichogaster (Diplothecodrilus affinis e

  13. Effect of acute gamma radiation and protective action of different concentration of extracts of safora japonica and hypericum perforatum on the life of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Samedov, P.A.; Farajov, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Full text : As atomic power is increasingly recognized as a potential energy source to sustain future human development, radiological protection of the environment will become an even more important environmental safety concern. Thus, an understanding of the effects of ionizing radiation on non-human biota is required by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the radiological protection of the environment. Soil processes are vital to sustainable terrestrial ecosystems, and soil invertebrates play an important role in nutrient cycling by feeding on microbiota. Because of their ecological importance, soil invertebrates are used for ecological impact assessments of terrestrial ecosystem pollutants. For chemical substances, single-species laboratory tests are used to understand toxicity. Standard tests using earthworms and spring tails have been developed by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Laboratory toxicity tests are also applicable in field contamination monitoring to determine if test organisms have been exposed to field-corrected soils. In such assays, gene expression as a biomarker has been receiving increased attention as it may produce fast, sensitive and diagnostic assays. A similar use of laboratory tests can be applied to assess the environmental impact of ionizing radiation. An understanding of the dose-effect relations of ionising radiation for non-human biota establishes important baselines for radiobiological protection of ecosystems. We used standard laboratory tests to examine dose-effect relationships of gamma radiation on the survival, biomass changing, feeding activity, coprolite excretion of aboriginal earthworms

  14. Toxicity of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulations to the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Silva, P.M.C.S.; Pathiratne, A.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbofuran, mancozeb and their formulated products on survival, growth and reproduction of the tropical earthworm Perionyx excavatus were investigated in standard artificial soil. The toxicity of the three chemicals decreased in the order carbofuran > chlorpyrifos >

  15. Identifying earthworms (Oligochaeta, Megadrili of the Southern Kuril Islands using DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekhovtsov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he Kuril Islands are a volcanic archipelago located between Hokkaido and Kamchatka. In this study we investigated earthworm fauna of three of the Southern Kuril Islands, Kunashir, Shikotan, and Yuri, using both morphological analysis and DNA barcoding. Our results highlight the potential of DNA barcoding for studying earthworm fauna: while previous studies reported only six earthworm species and subspecies on the Southern Kurils, we detected 15 genetic clusters. Six of them correspond to European cosmopolites; six, to Asian species, and three, to unidentified species. While no European earthworms were found on Yuri that is uninhabited since WWII, they dominated on larger and inhabited Kunashir and Shikotan, suggesting that they are recent invaders. Of the six Asian species, five had cox1 sequences identical or very closely related to published sequences from the mainland or the Japanese islands and thus are recent invaders.

  16. Contribution of earthworms to carbon and nitrogen cycling in agro-ecosystems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Ruiter, de P.C.

    1993-01-01

    Earthworms contribute to N mineralisation directly, through consumption, digestion, respiration/ excretion and indirectly, by influencing population dynamics of other soil biota through predation or through affecting their environmental conditions. A comparison between a high-input conventional

  17. Earthworm populations in soils contaminated by the Chernobyl atomic power station accident, 1986-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivolutzkii, D.A.; Pokarzhevskii, A.D.; Viktorov, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    A study of earthworm populations in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl atomic power station was carried out in 1986-1988. Significant differences in earthworm population numbers were found between highly contaminated and control plots in summer and autumn 1986 and in April 1987. But in the autumn of 1988 the earthworm population numbers in contaminated plots were higher than in the control plots. The ratio of mature to immature specimens was higher in 1986 in the contaminated plots in comparison with the control plots. Only one species of earthworms, Dendrobaena octahedra, was found in contaminated forest plots during the first 2 yr following the accident but in the control forest plots Apporectodea caliginosa was also found. (author)

  18. An oasis of fertility on a barren island: earthworms at Papadil, Isle of Rum

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.R. Butt; C.N.  Lowe; Mac Callaham; V.  Nuutinen

    2016-01-01

    The Isle of Rum, Inner Hebrides, has an impoverished earthworm fauna as the soils are generally acidic and nutrient-poor. Species associated with human habitation are found around deserted crofting settlements subjected to

  19. Kinetics and spatial distribution of enzymes of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus cycles in earthworm biopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang Thi Thu, Duyen; Razavi, Bahar S.

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms boost microbial activities and consequently form hotspots in soil. The distribution of enzyme activities inside the earthworm biopores is completely unknown. For the first time, we analyzed enzyme kinetics and visualized enzyme distribution inside and outside biopores by in situ soil zymography. Kinetic parameters (Vmax and Km) of 6 enzymes β-glucosidase (GLU), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), xylanase (XYL), chitinase (NAG), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) and acid phosphatase (APT) were determined in biopores formed by Lumbricus terrestris L.. The spatial distributions of GLU, NAG and APT become visible via zymograms in comparison between earthworm-inhabited and earthworm-free soil. Zymography showed heterogeneous distribution of hotspots in the rhizosphere and biopores. The hotspot areas were 2.4 to 14 times larger in the biopores than in soil without earthworms. The significantly higher Vmax values for GLU, CBH, XYL, NAG and APT in biopores confirmed the stimulation of enzyme activities by earthworms. For CBH, XYL and NAG, the 2- to 3-fold higher Km values in biopores indicated different enzyme systems with lower substrate affinity compared to control soil. The positive effects of earthworms on Vmax were cancelled by the Km increase for CBH, XYL and NAG at a substrate concentration below 20 μmol g-1 soil. The change of enzyme systems reflected a shift in dominant microbial populations toward species with lower affinity to holo-celluloses and to N-acetylglucosamine, and with higher affinity to proteins as compared to the biopores-free soil. We conclude that earthworm biopores are microbial hotspots with much higher and dense distribution of enzyme activities compared to bulk soil. References Spohn M, Kuzyakov Y. (2014) Spatial and temporal dynamics of hotspots of enzyme activity in soil as affected by living and dead roots - a soil zymography analysis, Plant Soil 379: 67-77. Blagodatskaya, E., Kuzyakov, Y., 2013. Review paper: Active microorganisms in soil

  20. Slow desiccation improves dehydration tolerance and accumulation of compatible osmolytes in earthworm cocoons (Dendrobaena octaedra Savigny)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina R; Holmstrup, Martin; Malmendal, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The earthworm, Dendrobaena octaedra, is a common species in temperate and subarctic regions of the northern hemisphere. The egg capsules ('cocoons') of D. octaedra are deposited in the upper soil layers where they may be exposed to desiccation. Many previous studies on desiccation tolerance in soil...... anhydrobiotic organism we propose that they belong in a transition zone between the desiccation sensitive and the truly anhydrobiotic organisms. Clearly, these earthworm embryos share many physiological traits with anhydrobiotic organisms....

  1. Toxicity Assessment of Buprofezin, Lufenuron, and Triflumuron to the Earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, Mohamed E. I.; Kenawy, Anter; El-Aswad, Ahmed F.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are particularly important soil macroinvertebrates and are often used in assessing the general impact of pesticide pollution in soil. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the toxicity of three insect growth regulators (IGRs) buprofezin, lufenuron, and triflumuron, at different application rates and exposure times toward mature earthworms Aporrectodea caliginosa. The effects of these pesticides on the growth rate in relation to the activities of acetylcholinestera...

  2. Radioresistance of aboriginal earthworms of Absheron peninsula in radioactive model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Abdullayev, A.A.; Naghiyev, J.A.; Farajov, M.F.; Samedov, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full tex:Soil animals are the most suitable biological indicators of radioactive pollution because they are parts of nutritional chains and webs, occur in relatively high numbers and can be collected during most parts of the year.The use of earthworms in the soils from Ramana iodine plant area of Absheron peninsula, which is rich with radionuclide and in the soil mixed with RaCl2 and UO2SO4 salt solutions in different concentrations, for resistance to ionizing radiation in soil is reviewed.Effect of radionuclides on vital functions of earthworms and determination of radionuclides (before and after experiments) in contaminated soils by ?-spectrometer were carried out in laboratory condition during a month. Regarding to ?-spectrometric results there were determined that earthworms had absorbed most of radioactive elements and allocated them as coprogenous substances on the upper layer of soil. In Ramana soils mostly the 238U radionuclides were highly accumulated in gut cells of the earthworms. By the influence of radioactive elements it was shown that the earthworms from Ramana iodine plant territory variants had proved particularly sensitive to an increased Ra-radiation background and to iodine factor.It was interestingly established the proportional dependence between rising level of accumulation in earthworms' body and in their coprolites and increasing of radioactive salts containing in the soils treated by UO2SO4 and RaCl2 solutions.Thus there is different level of radioresistance for earthworms and they are among the best bioindicators of polluted soils. There was an obvious perspective of using of earthworms as bioremediators in polluted soil with radionuclides in future as well.

  3. Short-term soil bioassays may not reveal the full toxicity potential for nanomaterials; bioavailability and toxicity of silver ions (AgNO3) and silver nanoparticles to earthworm Eisenia fetida in long-term aged soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Ortiz, Maria; Lahive, Elma; George, Suzanne; Ter Schure, Anneke; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Jurkschat, Kerstin; Svendsen, Claus; Spurgeon, David J.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if standard risk assessment hazard tests are long enough to adequately provide the worst case exposure for nanomaterials. This study therefore determined the comparative effects of the aging on the bioavailability and toxicity to earthworms of soils dosed with silver ions and silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) for 1, 9, 30 & 52 weeks, and related this to the total Ag in the soil, Ag in soil pore water and earthworm tissue Ag concentrations. For ionic Ag, a classical pattern of reduced bioavailability and toxicity with time aged in the soil was observed. For the Ag NP, toxicity increased with time apparently driven by Ag ion dissolution from the added Ag NPs. Internal Ag in the earthworms did not always explain toxicity and suggested the presence of an internalised, low-toxicity Ag fraction (as intact or transformed NPs) after shorter aging times. Our results indicate that short-term exposures, without long-term soil aging, are not able to properly assess the environmental risk of Ag NPs and that ultimately, with aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect will merge to a common value. - Highlights: • Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time. • Standard tests do not adequately assess toxicity of silver NPs to earthworms. • Internal Ag in earthworms did not always explain toxicity after shorter aging times. • With aging time, Ag ion and Ag NP effect in soils will merge to a common value. - Toxicity of silver nanoparticles in soils increased with time with the result that commonly applied tests of 28 days exposure with freshly spiked soils do not adequately assess the environmental hazard of silver nanoparticles

  4. An enzyme from the earthworm Eisenia fetida is not only a protease but also a deoxyribonuclease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Zhou, Yuan; He, Hai-Jin; He, Rong-Qiao

    2011-04-01

    The earthworm enzyme Eisenia fetida Protease-III-1 (EfP-III-1) is known as a trypsin-like protease which is localized in the alimentary canal of the earthworm. Here, we show that EfP-III-1 also acts as a novel deoxyribonuclease. Unlike most DNases, this earthworm enzyme recognizes 5'-phosphate dsDNA (5'P DNA) and degrades it without sequence specificity, but does not recognize 5'OH DNA. As is the case for most DNases, Mg(2+) was observed to markedly enhance the DNase activity of EfP-III-1. Whether the earthworm enzyme functioned as a DNase or as a protease depended on the pH values of the enzyme solution. The protein acted as a protease under alkaline conditions whereas it exhibited DNase activity under acid conditions. At pH 7.0, the enzyme could work as either a DNase or a protease. Given the complex living environment of the earthworm, this dual function of EfP-III-1 may play an important role in the alimentary digestion of the earthworm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V.; Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja; Husnjak, Ivana; Merkas, Martina; Traven, Luka; Cvetkovic, Zelimira

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: → Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. → The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. → A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  6. Effects of soil properties on copper toxicity to earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiongwei; Xu, Meng; Zhou, Youya; Yan, Zengguang; Du, Yanli; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Chaoyan; Bai, Liping; Nie, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Fasheng

    2016-02-01

    The bioavailability and toxicity of metals in soil are influenced by a variety of soil properties, and this principle should be recognized in establishing soil environmental quality criteria. In the present study, the uptake and toxicity of Cu to the earthworm Eisenia fetida in 15 Chinese soils with various soil properties were investigated, and regression models for predicting Cu toxicity across soils were developed. The results showed that earthworm survival and body weight change were less sensitive to Cu than earthworm cocoon production. The soil Cu-based median effective concentrations (EC50s) for earthworm cocoon production varied from 27.7 to 383.7 mg kg(-1) among 15 Chinese soils, representing approximately 14-fold variation. Soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content were identified as key factors controlling Cu toxicity to earthworm cocoon production, and simple and multiple regression models were developed for predicting Cu toxicity across soils. Tissue Cu-based EC50s for earthworm cocoon production were also calculated and varied from 15.5 to 62.5 mg kg(-1) (4-fold variation). Compared to the soil Cu-based EC50s for cocoon production, the tissue Cu-based EC50s had less variation among soils, indicating that metals in tissue were more relevant to toxicity than metals in soil and hence represented better measurements of bioavailability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Aporrectodea caliginosa, a suitable earthworm species for field based genotoxicity assessment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klobucar, Goeran I.V., E-mail: gklobuca@zg.biol.pmf.hr [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Stambuk, Anamaria; Srut, Maja [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, Rooseveltov trg 6, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Husnjak, Ivana [Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction, Ulica Republike Austrije 14, Zagreb (Croatia); Merkas, Martina [Croatian Institute for Brain Research, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Salata 12, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Traven, Luka [Department of Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, University of Rijeka, Brace Branchetta 20a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Teaching Institute of Public Health of the Primorsko-goranska County, Kresimirova 52a, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Cvetkovic, Zelimira [Department of Ecology, Institute of Public Health, Mirogojska c. 16, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2011-04-15

    There is a growing interest for the application of biomakers to field-collected earthworms. Therefore we have evaluated the usability of native populations of endogeic, widely distributed earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa in the assessment of soil genotoxicity using the Comet assay. Validation of the Comet assay on earthworm coelomocytes has been established using commercially available Eisenia fetida exposed to copper, cadmium, and pentachlorophenol, along with A. caliginosa exposed to copper in a filter paper contact test. Neutral red retention time (NRRT) assay was conducted on copper exposed and field-collected earthworms. Significant DNA and lysosomal damage was measured using Comet and NRRT assays in native populations of A. caliginosa sampled from the polluted soils in the urban area in comparison to the earthworms from the reference site. The results of this study confirm the employment of A. caliginosa as a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Research highlights: > Native A. caliginosa has shown significant biological effect measured by the Comet and NRRT assays. > The Comet assay on A. caliginosa and E. fetida has shown to be of similar sensitivity as the NRRT assay. > A. caliginosa is a suitable species for the in situ soil toxicity and genotoxicity field surveys. - Native populations of endogeic earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa can be successfully applied in the genotoxicity field surveys using Comet assay.

  8. Self-assemblage and quorum in the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Oligochaete, Lumbricidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Zirbes

    Full Text Available Despite their ubiquity and ecological significance in temperate ecosystems, the behavioural ecology of earthworms is not well described. This study examines the mechanisms that govern aggregation behaviour specially the tendency of individuals to leave or join groups in the compost earthworm Eisenia fetida, a species with considerable economic importance, especially in waste management applications. Through behavioural assays combined with mathematical modelling, we provide the first evidence of self-assembled social structures in earthworms and describe key mechanisms involved in cluster formation. We found that the probability of an individual joining a group increased with group size, while the probability of leaving decreased. Moreover, attraction to groups located at a distance was observed, suggesting a role for volatile cues in cluster formation. The size of earthworm clusters appears to be a key factor determining the stability of the group. These findings enhance our understanding of intra-specific interactions in earthworms and have potential implications for extraction and collection of earthworms in vermicomposting processes.

  9. Earthworms Dilong: Ancient, Inexpensive, Noncontroversial Models May Help Clarify Approaches to Integrated Medicine Emphasizing Neuroimmune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Edwin L.; Balamurugan, Mariappan; Huang, Chih-Yang; Tsao, Clara R.; Heredia, Jesus; Tommaseo-Ponzetta, Mila; Paoletti, Maurizio G.

    2012-01-01

    Earthworms have provided ancient cultures with food and sources of medicinal cures. Ayurveda, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and practices in Japan, Vietnam, and Korea have focused first on earthworms as sources of food. Gradually fostering an approach to potential beneficial healing properties, there are renewed efforts through bioprospecting and evidence-based research to understand by means of rigorous investigations the mechanisms of action whether earthworms are used as food and/or as sources of potential medicinal products. Focusing on earthworms grew by serendipity from an extensive analysis of the earthworm's innate immune system. Their immune systems are replete with leukocytes and humoral products that exert credible health benefits. Their emerging functions with respect to evolution of innate immunity have long been superseded by their well-known ecological role in soil conservation. Earthworms as inexpensive, noncontroversial animal models (without ethical concerns) are not vectors of disease do not harbor parasites that threaten humans nor are they annoying pests. By recognizing their numerous ecological, environmental, and biomedical roles, substantiated by inexpensive and more comprehensive investigations, we will become more aware of their undiscovered beneficial properties. PMID:22888362

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of four pheretimoid earthworms (Clitellata: Oligochaeta) and their phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Jiang, Jibao; Dong, Yan; Qiu, Jiangping

    2015-12-15

    Among oligochaetes, the Pheretima complex within the Megascolecidae is a major earthworm group. Recently, however, the systematics of the Pheretima complex based on morphology are challenged by molecular studies. Since little comparative analysis of earthworm complete mitochondrial genomes has been reported yet, we sequenced mitogenomes of four pheretimoid earthworm species to explore their phylogenetic relationships. The general earthworm genomic features are also found in four earthworms: all genes transcribed from the same strand, the same initiation codon ATG for each PCGs, and conserved structures of RNA genes. Interestingly we find an extra potential tRNA-leucine (CUN) in Amynthas longisiphonus. The earthworm mitochondrial ATP8 exhibits the highest evolutionary rate, while the gene CO1 evolves slowest. Phylogenetic analysis based on protein-coding genes (PCGs) strongly supports the monophyly of the Clitellata, Hirudinea, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae and Pheretima complex. Our analysis, however, reveals non-monophyly within the genara Amynthas and Metaphire. Thus the generic divisions based on morphology in the Pheretima complex should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dasong; Zhou Qixing; Xu Yingming; Chen Chun; Li Ye

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC 50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ► Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ► CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ► A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

  12. Heavy metals in earthworms of Baden-Wuerttemberg. Pt. 2. Ecotoxicological assessment of soil; Schwermetalle in Regenwuermern Baden-Wuerttembergs. T. 2. Oekotoxikologische Bewertung des Bodens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahtkens, K.; Trenck, K.T. von der [Landesanstalt fuer Umwelt, Messungen und Naturschutz Baden-Wuerttemberg (LUBW), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    hitherto unknown threshold values for the accumulation in the body of the earthworm should be statistically validated and extended to other elements. Further research is needed in order to build a well founded basis for the ecotoxicological assessment of soil pollution. Acute and chronic earthworm effect thresholds are neither available yet for arsenic, cobalt, and mercury nor for some other elements occurring less frequently as soil pollutants. Background values depending on the kind of rock have been measured so far for total chromium only. They are lacking for the more toxic chromium(VI), which is a frequent soil pollutant but naturally occurs in traces only. (orig.)

  13. Biomass torrefaction mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.

    2016-05-17

    A biomass torrefaction system includes a mill which receives a raw biomass feedstock and operates at temperatures above 400 F (204 C) to generate a dusty flue gas which contains a milled biomass product.

  14. Earthworms and priming of soil organic matter - The impact of food sources, food preferences and fauna - microbiota interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, Martin; Wichern, Florian; Dyckmans, Jens; Joergensen, Rainer Georg

    2016-04-01

    Earthworms deeply interact with the processes of soil organic matter turnover in soil. Stabilization of carbon by soil aggregation and in the humus fraction of SOM are well known processes related to earthworm activity and burrowing. However, recent research on priming effects showed inconsistent effects for the impact of earthworm activity. Endogeic earthworms can induce apparent as well as true positive priming effects. The main finding is almost always that earthworm increase the CO2 production from soil. The sources of this carbon release can vary and seem to depend on a complex interaction of quantity and quality of available carbon sources including added substrates like straw or other compounds, food preferences and feeding behavior of earthworms, and soil properties. Referring to recent studies on earthworm effects on soil carbon storage and release (mainly Eck et al. 2015 Priming effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on young rhizodeposits and old soil organic matter following wheat straw addition, European Journal of Soil Biology 70:38-45; Zareitalabad et al. 2010 Decomposition of 15N-labelled maize leaves in soil affected by endogeic geophagous Aporrectodea caliginosa, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42(2):276-282; and Potthoff et al. 2001 Short-term effects of earthworm activity and straw amendment on the microbial C and N turnover in a remoistened arable soil after summer drought, Soil Biology and Biochemistry 33(4):583-591) we summaries the knowledge on earthworms and priming and come up with a conceptual approach and further research needs.

  15. Escape and avoidance learning in the earthworm Eisenia hortensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jeffrey Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in instrumental learning in earthworms dates back to 1912 when Yerkes concluded that they can learn a spatial discrimination in a T-maze. Rosenkoetter and Boice determined in the 1970s that the “learning” that Yerkes observed was probably chemotaxis and not learning at all. We examined a different form of instrumental learning: the ability to learn both to escape and to avoid an aversive stimulus. Freely moving “master” worms could turn off an aversive white light by increasing their movement; the behavior of yoked controls had no effect on the light. We demonstrate that in as few as 12 trials the behavior of the master worms comes under the control of this contingency.

  16. Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakemore, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current descriptions add natives Aporodrilus aotea sp. n., Aporodrilus ponga sp. n. and Notoscolex repanga sp. n., plus new exotic records to the numbers of megadrile earthworms known from New Zealand, which are now raised from 193 to 222 species in five families, viz: Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae and Megascolecidae, plus Lumbricidae and Glossoscolecidae for exotics. Overlooked spermathecal diverticula have been located for Notoscolex equestris Benham, 1942 and for Megascolex animae Lee, 1959 and non-tubular prostrates were misconstrued as tubular in Megascolides tasmani Lee, 1959. Of these latter three species, a lectotype is designated for Notoscolex equestris and holotypes of the other two are briefly redescribed. Whereas Megascolides tasmani now belongs in Notoscolex Fletcher, 1887 and Megascolides animae belongs in Anisochaeta Beddard, 1890, further lack of dorsal pores in Notoscolex equestris as with Notoscolex esculentus (Benham, 1904) and Notoscolex mortenseni (Michaelsen, 1924) newly qualifies all three as additional combs. novae in primarily Tasmanian genus Aporodrilus Blakemore, 2000. PMID:22303118

  17. Use of GIS for estimating potential and actual forest biomass for continental South and Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. R. Iverson; S. Brown; A. Prasad; H. Mitasova; A. J. R. Gillespie; A. E. Lugo

    1994-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate total biomass and biomass density of the tropical forest in south and southeast Asia because available data from forest inventories were insufficient to extrapolate biomass-density estimates across the region.

  18. Diversification patterns in cosmopolitan earthworms: similar mode but different tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Rosa; Novo, Marta; Marchán, Daniel F; Díaz Cosín, Darío J

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of widespread species that span the same geographic areas can elucidate the influence of historical events on current patterns of biodiversity, identify patterns of co-vicariance, and therefore aid the understanding of general evolutionary processes. Soil-dwelling animals present characteristics that make them suitable for testing the effect of the palaeogeographical events on their distribution and diversification, such as their low vagility and population structure. In this study, we shed light on the spatial lineage diversification and cladogenesis of two widely-distributed cosmopolitan and invasive earthworms (Aporrectodea rosea and A. trapezoides) in their putative ancestral area of origin, the Western Palearctic, and a few populations in North America. Molecular analyses were conducted on mitochondrial and nuclear markers from 220 (A. rosea) and 198 (A. trapezoides) individuals collected in 56 and 57 localities, respectively. We compared the lineage diversification pattern, genetic variability and cladogenesis in both species. Our findings showed that both species underwent a similar diversification from the Western Mediterranean plates to (i) Northern Europe and (ii) the Iberian Peninsula, establishing their two main lineages. Their diversification was in concordance with the main palaeogeographical events in the Iberian Peninsula and Western Mediterranean, followed by a later colonization of North America from individuals derived exclusively from the Eurosiberian lineage. Their diversification occurred at different times, with the diversification of A. rosea being potentially more ancient. Cladogenesis in both species seems to have been modelled only by the Mediterranean plate shifts, ignoring historical climatic oscillations such as the Messinian salinity crisis. Their high genetic variability, strong population structure, lack of gene flow and stepping-stone-like cladogenesis suggest the existence of different cryptic lineages

  19. Biomass Burning 5x5 degree data in Native Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BIO_MASS_5X5_HAO_NAT data set contains data representing the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. The data were collected by...

  20. The effect of radioecological condition to earthworms and the problems of ecosystems related with them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleymanova, A.S.; Garibov, A.A.; Abdullayev, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The soil and fertility was evident and breathe regarding to living materials which are composed of billions of microorganisms and pedobionts also earthworms; throughout of it plants get all chemical elements. Living materials inhabit in lamella of soil, essentially within the scope of 5 to 15 cm of depth. Soil is a main source of carbon in nature. There is for about 10 times more carbone dioxide here (the breath product of soil biota) than in atmosphere. From carbonic acid of air, plants by its terrestrial part extract carbone and by the help of photosynthesis transform it to carbohydrates and tissues. Nowadays investigations about earthworms which live in strongly polluted soils has appeared that earthworms have found a way of a survival even in such extreme conditions. Earthworms have adapted to the polluted soils. However, bait attractive in appearance to dig in such places it is not necessary: in such a way the worm accumulates heavy metals in the organism. Though earthworms aren't so attractive, and for many are simply unpleasant, for an ecosystem they are invaluable. Thus even dying they don't leave after itself any traces, and digest itself by means of cages containing in them - lysis. This process is called autolysis. Thereby for investigation of strongly polluted areas of Ramana iodine plant as an ecosystem and there is significant point to determine the effect of radiation on earthworms as one of the most important chain of soil bionetwork. So, in this way it was investigated an effect of radioactive pollution to earthworms aboriginal for Absheron peninsula. By the experimentation of earthworms in contaminated soil (with 226Ra, 228Ra, U) in respectively 1 percent, 2,5 percent, 5 percent and 10 percent soil examples during a month, it was established that the earthworms so sensible to the high level of radioactive pollution. Regarding to the data received it has a point that usage of earthworms as bio indicators, in future should help people to apply this

  1. Soil enzyme dynamics in chlorpyrifos-treated soils under the influence of earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C; Notario Del Pino, J; Capowiez, Yvan; Mazzia, Christophe; Rault, Magali

    2018-01-15

    Earthworms contribute, directly and indirectly, to contaminant biodegradation. However, most of bioremediation studies using these annelids focus on pollutant dissipation, thus disregarding the health status of the organism implied in bioremediation as well as the recovery of indicators of soil quality. A microcosm study was performed using Lumbricus terrestris to determine whether earthworm density (2 or 4individuals/kg wet soil) and the time of exposure (1, 2, 6, 12, and 18wk) could affect chlorpyrifos persistence in soil initially treated with 20mg active ingredientkg -1 wet soil. Additionally, selected earthworm biomarkers and soil enzyme activities were measured as indicators of earthworm health and soil quality, respectively. After an 18-wk incubation period, no earthworm was killed by the pesticide, but clear signs of severe intoxication were detected, i.e., 90% inhibition in muscle acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities. Unexpectedly, the earthworm density had no significant impact on chlorpyrifos dissipation rate, for which the measured half-life ranged between 30.3d (control soils) and 44.5d (low earthworm density) or 36.7d (high earthworm density). The dynamic response of several soil enzymes to chlorpyrifos exposure was examined calculating the geometric mean and the treated-soil quality index, which are common enzyme-based indexes of microbial functional diversity. Both indexes showed a significant and linear increase of the global enzyme response after 6wk of chlorpyrifos treatment in the presence of earthworms. Examination of individual enzymes revealed that soil CbE activity could decrease chlorpyrifos-oxon impact upon the rest of enzyme activities. Although L. terrestris was found not to accelerate chlorpyrifos dissipation, a significant increase in the activity of soil enzyme activities was achieved compared with earthworm-free, chlorpyrifos-treated soils. Therefore, the inoculation of organophosphorus-contaminated soils with L

  2. Carbono orgânico, nitrogênio total, biomassa e atividade microbiana do solo em duas cronosseqüências de reabilitação após a mineração de bauxita Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, microbial biomass and activity in two rehabilitation chronosequences after bauxite mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Carbone Carneiro

    2008-04-01

    reas de referência a partir do primeiro ano, enquanto para o CO e o Nt estes só foram alcançados de modo consistente em períodos mais longos de reabilitação (18 anos. O coeficiente metabólico (qCO2 foi indicativo do estresse provocado pela mineração, mas não diferenciou os diferentes tempos de reabilitação. Os resultados deste estudo mostram que os atributos essenciais ao funcionamento adequado do solo são recuperáveis pela revegetação.Mining is a human activity with a harsh impact on ecosystems. The degradation degree depends on the intensity of soil impact, exploited soil volume and amount of mine spoil. Soil microbial activities are responsible for key functions in ecosystems and can indicate the degree of rehabilitation of mined areas. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of bauxite mining in two chronosequences with different rehabilitation strategies (revegetation on the following soil attributes: organic carbon (C org, total nitrogen (Nt, microbial biomass and respiration, and enzymatic activities. The study was developed in mining areas owned by Alcoa S/A in two different environments: (a areas originally covered by a tropical prairie vegetation called "campo", at elevations up to 1,000 masl, and (b in hilly areas, on the plateau top, including remnants of the native vegetation cover, represented by a subtropical decidous forest, at elevations about 1.600 masl, called "serra". Rehabilitation differed depending on strategies and time, varying from recent mining to 19 years of rehabilitation. Composite samples were collected in eight "campo" and nine "serra" areas, in two layers (0-10 and 10-20 cm in the winter as well as in the summer, in three replicates. Bauxite mining caused a negative impact on org C, Nt and microbial biomass (C, N and P. The values of these attributes were reduced by up to 99 % in comparison with those in reference areas (native vegetation. In both "campo" and "serra", the C org, Nt, microbial biomass and

  3. Produção de mudas de alface com o uso de substrato preparado com coprólitos de minhoca Prodution of seedlings of lettuce with the use of prepared substrate with earthworm casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Rodrigues de Souza

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de coprólitos de minhoca (Chibui bari Righi & Guerra, 1985 na produção de mudas de alface (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Simpson, realizaram-se dois experimentos em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal do Acre, ambos no delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e seis repetições, totalizando 36 unidades experimentais, representadas por copos plásticos de 180 cm³. Os tratamentos foram definidos a partir da mistura de seis concentrações (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 e 100% de solo e coprólitos. Utilizaram-se dois tipos de solo, eutrófico no experimento 1 e distrófico no experimento 2. Aos 34 dias após a semeadura avaliaram-se a matéria seca da parte aérea, da raiz e total da planta. Os resultados do experimento 1 indicam que o acréscimo de coprólitos a solos eutróficos promove máximo incremento de massa seca da parte aérea e total da planta com concentrações de coprólitos de 13,49% e 17,88%, respectivamente. Entretanto, os resultados do experimento 2 indicam que a adição de coprólitos a solos distróficos, responde a uma função cúbica, com máximo incremento de massa seca da raiz e total da planta com concentrações de coprólitos de 17,49% e 21,40%, respectivamente, com decréscimo em 68,23% e 67,48%, e incremento máximo novamente com 100% de coprólitos para ambas características. O uso de substratos preparados com solo e coprólitos de minhoca somente contribui para o crescimento de mudas de alface se a condição química dos coprólitos for mais adequada que a do solo em atender as necessidades nutricionais das plantas.With the aim of evaluating the effect of earthworm casting (Chibui bari Righi & Guerra, 1985 in the production of lettuce seedlings (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Simpson, two experiments ware carried out in greenhouse in the Federal University of the Acre, both in a completely randomized outline with six treatments and six repetitions, totalizing 36

  4. Avoidance behaviour response and esterase inhibition in the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, after exposure to chlorpyrifos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Morcillo, S; Yela, J L; Capowiez, Y; Mazzia, C; Rault, M; Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C

    2013-05-01

    The avoidance response of earthworms to polluted soils has been standardised using a simple and low-cost test, which facilitates soil toxicity screening. In this study, the avoidance response of Lumbricus terrestris was quantified in chlorpyrifos-spiked soils, depending on the pesticide concentration and exposure duration. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities was also determined as indirect measures of pesticide bioavailability. The effects of different chlorpyrifos concentrations were examined in a standardised test (two-chamber system) with 0.6, 3 and 15 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. A modification of the test involved a pre-exposure step (24, 48 or 72 h) in soils spiked with 15 mg/kg. In both protocols, earthworms were unable to avoid the contaminated soils. However, the esterase activities showed that all earthworms were exposed to chlorpyrifos. Acetylcholinesterase activity did not change in earthworms in the standardised behavioural test (0.58 ± 0.20 U/mg protein, mean ± SD; n = 72), whereas the CbE activity was significantly inhibited (62-87 % inhibition) in earthworms exposed to 3 and 15 mg/kg. In the modified test, earthworms had greatly inhibited AChE activity (0.088 ± 0.034 U/mg protein, n = 72), which was supported by reactivation of the inhibited enzyme activity in the presence of pralidoxime (2-PAM). Similarly, the CbE activity was significantly inhibited in earthworms with all treatments. This study suggests that the avoidance behaviour test for organophosphorus-contaminated soils could be supported by specific biomarkers to facilitate a better understanding of pesticide exposure and toxicity during this test.

  5. Evolution of the tripartite symbiosis between earthworms, Verminephrobacter and Flexibacter-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMøller

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nephridial (excretory organ symbionts are widespread in lumbricid earthworms and the complexity of the nephridial symbiont communities varies greatly between earthworm species. The two most common symbionts are the well-described Verminephrobacter and less well-known Flexibacter-like bacteria. Verminephrobacter are present in almost all lumbricid earthworms, they are species-specific, vertically transmitted, and have presumably been associated with their hosts since the origin of lumbricids. Flexibacter-like symbionts have been reported from about half the investigated earthworms; they are also vertically transmitted. To investigate the evolution of this tri-partite symbiosis, phylogenies for 18 lumbricid earthworm species were constructed based on two mitochondrial genes, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI, and compared to their symbiont phylogenies based on RNA polymerase subunit B (rpoB and 16S rRNA genes.The two nephridial symbionts showed markedly different evolutionary histories with their hosts. For Verminephrobacter, clear signs of long-term host-symbiont co-evolution with rare host switching events confirmed its ancient association with lumbricid earthworms, likely dating back to their last common ancestor about 100 million years (MY ago. In contrast, phylogenies for the Flexibacter-like symbionts suggested an ability to switch to new hosts, to which they adapted and subsequently became species-specific. Putative co-speciation events were only observed with closely related host species; on that basis, this secondary symbiosis was estimated to be minimum 45 MY old. Based on the monophyletic clustering of the Flexibacter-like symbionts, the low 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the nearest described species (<92% and environmental sequences (<94.2 %, and the specific habitat in the earthworm nephridia, we propose a new candidate genus for this group, Candidatus Nephrothrix.

  6. Growth, reproduction and biochemical toxicity of chlorantraniliprole in soil on earthworms (Eisenia fetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Xiuguo; Chen, Dan; Li, Yiqiang; Wang, Fenglong

    2018-04-15

    Diamide insecticides have become the fourth most commonly used insecticide class in the world. Chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is a first-generation diamide insecticide with broad application potential. In this experiment, the eco-toxicity of CAP in soil at 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg on earthworms (Eisenia fetida) was evaluated during a 42 d exposure. More specifically, the environmental fate and transport of CAP between soil and earthworms was monitored during the exposure period. The present results indicated that the CAP contents of 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg treatments decreased to no more than 20% in the soil after 42 d of exposure. The accumulation of CAP in earthworms was 0.03, 0.58, 4.28 and 7.21mg/kg earthworm (FW) at 0.1, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg after 42 d of exposure. At 0.1mg/kg and 1.0mg/kg, CAP had no effect on earthworms during the exposure period. The weight of earthworms was significantly reduced at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg at 28 and 42 days after CAP application. After the 14th day, CAP induced excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg, resulting in oxidative damage to biomacromolecules. We believe that CAP has a high risk potential for earthworms when used at 5.0 and 10.0mg/kg. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer.

  8. Soil Penetration Rates by Earthworms and Plant Roots- Mechanical and Energetic Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Siul; Schymanski, Stan; Or, Dani

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the implications of different soil burrowing rates by earthworms and growing plant roots using mechanical models that consider soil rheological properties. We estimate the energetic requirements for soil elasto-viscoplastic displacement at different rates for similar burrows and water contents. In the core of the mechanical model is a transient cavity expansion into viscoplastic wet soil that mimic an earthworm or root tip cone-like penetration and subsequent cavity expansion due to pressurized earthworm hydrostatic skeleton or root radial growth. Soil matrix viscoplatic considerations enable separation of the respective energetic requirements for earthworms penetrating at 2 μm/s relative to plant roots growing at 0.2 μm/s . Typical mechanical and viscous parameters are obtained inversely for soils under different fixed water contents utilizing custom miniaturized cone penetrometers at different fixed penetration rates (1 to 1000 μm/s). Experimental results determine critical water contents where soil exhibits pronounced viscoplatic behavior (close to saturation), bellow which the soil strength limits earthworms activity and fracture propagation by expanding plant roots becomes the favorable mechanical mode. The soil mechanical parameters in conjunction with earthworm and plant root physiological pressure limitations (200 kPa and 2000 kPa respectively) enable delineation of the role of soil saturation in regulating biotic penetration rates for different soil types under different moisture contents. Furthermore, this study provides a quantitative framework for estimating rates of energy expenditure for soil penetration, which allowed us to determine maximum earthworm population densities considering soil mechanical properties and the energy stored in soil organic matter.

  9. Biodiversity of Earthworms in Taiwan: a Species Checklist with the Confirmation and New Records of the Exotic Lumbricids Eisenia fetida and Eiseniella tetraedra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Blakemore

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial megadrile earthworms variously reported from Taiwan including Lanyu Island (Botel Tobago number approximately 70 species with 29 of these, or 40%, non-natives for which 69% are Asiatic Megascolecidae and 21% are Lumbricidae of Holarctic origin. An additional 27 unnamed species have been identified from Ilan county north-eastern Taiwan by Chen et al. (2003 that, if published, would bring the total to around 100 known species. The checklist is also provided with the confirmation and new records of the exotic lumbricids Eisenia fetida (Savigny and Eiseniella tetraedra (Savigny.

  10. The Earthworm Eisenia fetida Can Help Desalinate a Coastal Saline Soil in Tianjin, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhang

    Full Text Available A laboratory microcosm experiment was conducted to determine whether the earthworm Eisenia fetida could survive in a saline soil from a field site in North China, and an experiment using response surface methodology was conducted at that field site to quantify the effects of E. fetida and green waste compost (GWC on the salt content of the soil. The microcosm results showed that E. fetida survived in GWC-amended saline soil and increased the contents of humic acid, available N, and available P in the GWC-amended soil. The data from the field experiment were described by the following second-order model: [Formula in text], where y is the decrease in soil salinity (g of salt per kg of dry soil relative to the untreated control, x1 is the number of E. fetida added per m2, and x2 is the quantity of GWC added in kg per m2. The model predicted that the total salt content of the saline soil would decrease by > 2 g kg(-1 (p<0.05 when 29-90 individuals m-2 of E. fetida and 6.1-15.0 kg m(-2 of GWC were applied. We conclude that the use of E. fetida for soil desalination is promising and warrants additional investigation.

  11. Effects of tree leaf litter, deer fecal pellets, and soil properties on growth of an introduced earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris): Implications for invasion dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassidy N. Yatso; Erik A. Lilleskov

    2016-01-01

    Invasive earthworm communities are expanding into previously earthworm-free forests of North America, producing profound ecosystem changes. Lumbricus terrestris is an invasive anecic earthworm that consumes a large portion of the detritus on the soil surface, eliminating forest floor organic horizons and reducing soil organic matter. Two mesocosm...

  12. Biomass treatment method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III; Melvin P.; Lyons, Robert C.

    2010-10-26

    A method for treating biomass was developed that uses an apparatus which moves a biomass and dilute aqueous ammonia mixture through reaction chambers without compaction. The apparatus moves the biomass using a non-compressing piston. The resulting treated biomass is saccharified to produce fermentable sugars.

  13. Rheology of concentrated biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Samaniuk; J. Wang; T.W. Root; C.T. Scott; D.J. Klingenberg

    2011-01-01

    Economic processing of lignocellulosic biomass requires handling the biomass at high solids concentration. This creates challenges because concentrated biomass behaves as a Bingham-like material with large yield stresses. Here we employ torque rheometry to measure the rheological properties of concentrated lignocellulosic biomass (corn stover). Yield stresses obtained...

  14. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  15. Biomass Feedstocks | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feedstocks Biomass Feedstocks Our mission is to enable the coordinated development of biomass generic biomass thermochemical conversion process (over a screened-back map of the United States) showing U.S. Biomass Resources, represented by photos of timber, corn stover, switchgrass, and poplar. All

  16. Methods for pretreating biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E; Chundawat, Shishir; Sousa, Leonardo

    2017-05-09

    A method for pretreating biomass is provided, which includes, in a reactor, allowing gaseous ammonia to condense on the biomass and react with water present in the biomass to produce pretreated biomass, wherein reactivity of polysaccharides in the biomass is increased during subsequent biological conversion as compared to the reactivity of polysaccharides in biomass which has not been pretreated. A method for pretreating biomass with a liquid ammonia and recovering the liquid ammonia is also provided. Related systems which include a biochemical or biofuel production facility are also disclosed.

  17. Biomass energy in Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J M [Biomass Users` Network, Regional Office for Central America and the Caribbean, San Jose (Costa Rica)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  18. Biomass energy in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end

  19. Impacts of invasive earthworms on soil mercury cycling: Two mass balance approaches to an earthworm invasion in a northern Minnesota forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sona Psarska; Edward A. Nater; Randy Kolka

    2016-01-01

    Invasive earthworms perturb natural forest ecosystems that initially developed without them, mainly by consuming the forest floor (an organic rich surficial soil horizon) and by mixing the upper parts of the soil. The fate of mercury (Hg) formerly contained in the forest floor is largely unknown. We used two mass balance approaches (simple mass balance and geochemical...

  20. Biomass energy in the making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in countries that produce