WorldWideScience

Sample records for total driving force

  1. Technology as a driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvund, T [Norsk Hydro A/S (Norway)

    1994-12-31

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs.

  2. Technology as a driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torvund, T.

    1994-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Norwegian Continental shelf has been put firmly on the agenda in Norway since the report from a working group set up by the Ministry of Industry and Energy was released in February this year. If there is to be secured a long future for oil and gas activities, a reduction in the time and costs used in the projects of the order of 40-50%, without jeopardizing the high safety and environmental standards achieved in Norway. The paper addresses how technology can be a driving force in achieving these aims. But technology alone cannot do the job. Progress and changes in several other areas are also necessary, and the new scenario also calls for improved relations between all actors in the North Sea, authorities, oil companies, contractors and labour unions. 15 figs

  3. Chemical driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1997-08-15

    Full Text Available The author provides a brief overview of the chemical driving forces for rafting in superalloys. Until recently, all theories of the driving force for rafting have considered the compositions of the two phases to be fixed, although accepting...

  4. Reconstruction of driving forces through recurrence plots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanio, Masaaki; Hirata, Yoshito; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2009-01-01

    We consider the problem of reconstructing one-dimensional driving forces only from the observations of driven systems. We extend the approach presented in a seminal paper [M.C. Casdagli, Physica D 108 (1997) 12] and propose a method that is robust and has wider applicability. By reinterpreting the work of Thiel et al. [M. Thiel, M.C. Romano, J. Kurths, Phys. Lett. A 330 (2004) 343], we formulate the reconstruction problem as a combinatorial optimization problem and relax conditions by assuming that a driving force is continuous. The method is demonstrated by using a tent map driven by an external force.

  5. Driving Force Filtering and Driving Mechanism Analysis of Urban Agricultural Development in Weifang County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUI Fei-fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.

  6. Controlling Casimir force via coherent driving field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid; Abbas, Muqaddar; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-04-01

    A four level atom-field configuration is used to investigate the coherent control of Casimir force between two identical plates made up of chiral atomic media and separated by vacuum of width d. The electromagnetic chirality-induced negative refraction is obtained via atomic coherence. The behavior of Casimir force is investigated using Casimir-Lifshitz formula. It is noticed that Casimir force can be switched from repulsive to attractive and vice versa via coherent control of the driving field. This switching feature provides new possibilities of using the repulsive Casimir force in the development of new emerging technologies, such as, micro-electro-mechanical and nano-electro-mechanical systems, i.e., MEMS and NEMS, respectively.

  7. Driving forces in the Greenlandic urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    Generally urbanization is recognised as a natural development where the population is mowing into the larger towns driven by e.g. better job opportunities, larger product and service supply and better education and health services, and it is often argued that this is also the driving forces...... support and with limited export oriented value creation. It will be disused how the previous and present urbanization interact with a sustainable development and what is the core prerequisites for sustainable towns and settlements....

  8. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic

  9. The Secret Driving Force Behind Mongolia’s Successful Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    the nation’s democracy movement its earliest stages. Courtesy of the Democratic Union of Mongolia PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 141 The Secret Driving...assistance and trade. Our state budget PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 143 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY collapsed; we...O yungerel Tsedevdam ba (2006) PRISM 6, no. 1 FROM THE FIELD | 145 THE SECRET DRIVING FORCE BEHIND MONGOLIA’S SUCCESSFUL DEMOCRACY significantly as

  10. Glenohumeral contact force during flat and topspin tennis forehand drives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blache, Yoann; Creveaux, Thomas; Dumas, Raphaël; Chèze, Laurence; Rogowski, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    The primary role of the shoulder joint in tennis forehand drive is at the expense of the loadings undergone by this joint. Nevertheless, few studies investigated glenohumeral (GH) contact forces during forehand drives. The aim of this study was to investigate GH compressive and shearing forces during the flat and topspin forehand drives in advanced tennis players. 3D kinematics of flat and topspin forehand drives of 11 advanced tennis players were recorded. The Delft Shoulder and Elbow musculoskeletal model was implemented to assess the magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces during the forehand drives. The results showed no differences in magnitude and orientation of GH contact forces between the flat and topspin forehand drives. The estimated maximal GH contact force during the forward swing phase was 3573 ± 1383 N, which was on average 1.25 times greater than during the follow-through phase, and 5.8 times greater than during the backswing phase. Regardless the phase of the forehand drive, GH contact forces pointed towards the anterior-superior part of the glenoid therefore standing for shearing forces. Knowledge of GH contact forces during real sport tasks performed at high velocity may improve the understanding of various sport-specific adaptations and causative factors for shoulder problems.

  11. Entropic forces drive contraction of cytoskeletal networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braun, M.; Lánský, Zdeněk; Hilitski, F.; Dogic, Z.; Diez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 5 (2016), s. 474-481 ISSN 0265-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17488S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : cytoskeleton * depletion forces * entropic forces Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.441, year: 2016

  12. OSHA Laboratory Standard: Driving Force for Laboratory Safety!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA's) Laboratory Safety Standards as the major driving force in establishing and maintaining a safe working environment for teachers and students. (Author)

  13. Resumption of car driving after total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ghulam; Waheed, Abdul

    2011-04-01

    To assess periods required for resuming car driving in 130 patients who had undergone total hip replacement (THR). 80 men and 50 women aged 39 to 80 years who had been driving automatic (n=49) or manual (n=81) cars in the previous 3 months and underwent unilateral primary THR of the right (n=85) or left (n=45) hip were recruited. Patients were advised to resume driving after 6 weeks if they felt comfortable to do so. 105 (81%) patients were able to resume driving at week 6 to 8; 67 (64%) had had a right THR and 65 (62%) were manual car drivers. 22 (17%) patients were able to do so at week 12. The remaining 3 (2%) patients were not confident to drive even at week 12. No patient reported deterioration in driving ability, whereas 48 (38%) felt a subjective improvement in their driving ability. The time to resume driving varies in different patients. The advice should be individualised, depending on the patient's recovery and confidence level.

  14. Driving force for hydrophobic interaction at different length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangi, Ronen

    2011-03-17

    We study by molecular dynamics simulations the driving force for the hydrophobic interaction between graphene sheets of different sizes down to the atomic scale. Similar to the prediction by Lum, Chandler, and Weeks for hard-sphere solvation [J. Phys. Chem. B 1999, 103, 4570-4577], we find the driving force to be length-scale dependent, despite the fact that our model systems do not exhibit dewetting. For small hydrophobic solutes, the association is purely entropic, while enthalpy favors dissociation. The latter is demonstrated to arise from the enhancement of hydrogen bonding between the water molecules around small hydrophobes. On the other hand, the attraction between large graphene sheets is dominated by enthalpy which mainly originates from direct solute-solute interactions. The crossover length is found to be inside the range of 0.3-1.5 nm(2) of the surface area of the hydrophobe that is eliminated in the association process. In the large-scale regime, different thermodynamic properties are scalable with this change of surface area. In particular, upon dimerization, a total and a water-induced stabilization of approximately 65 and 12 kJ/mol/nm(2) are obtained, respectively, and on average around one hydrogen bond is gained per 1 nm(2) of graphene sheet association. Furthermore, the potential of mean force between the sheets is also scalable except for interplate distances smaller than 0.64 nm which corresponds to the region around the barrier for removing the last layer of water. It turns out that, as the surface area increases, the relative height of the barrier for association decreases and the range of attraction increases. It is also shown that, around small hydrophobic solutes, the lifetime of the hydrogen bonds is longer than in the bulk, while around large hydrophobes it is the same. Nevertheless, the rearrangement of the hydrogen-bond network for both length-scale regimes is slower than in bulk water. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. The Driving Forces of Subsidiary Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimer, Stephanie C.; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    The study investigates how a multinational corporation (MNC) can promote the absorptive capacity of its subsidiaries. The focus is on what drives the MNC subsidiary's ability to absorb marketing strategies that are initiated by the MNC parent, as well as how the subsidiary enacts on this absorptive...... as a purposeful response to this dual embeddedness. An analysis of marketing strategy absorptions undertaken by 213 subsidiaries reveals that MNCs can assist their subsidiaries to compete in competitive and dynamic focal markets by forming specific organizational mechanisms that are conducive to the development...

  16. Processes and driving forces in changing cultural landscapes across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürgi, Matthias; Bieling, Claudia; Von Hackwitz, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Context: Cultural landscapes evolve over time. However, the rate and direction of change might not be in line with societal needs and more information on the forces driving these changes are therefore needed. Objectives: Filling the gap between single case studies and meta-analyses, we present...... perceived landscape changes, and remembered driving forces. Land cover and landscape changes were analysed regarding change, conversions and processes. For all case study areas, narratives on mapped land cover change, perceived landscape changes and driving forces were compiled. Results: Despite a very high...... diversity in extent, direction and rates of change, a few dominant processes and widespread factors driving the changes could be identified in the six case study areas, i.e. access and infrastructure, political shifts, labor market, technological innovations, and for the more recent period climate change...

  17. A guide for statewide impaired-driving task forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the guide is to assist State officials and other stakeholders who are interested in establishing an : Impaired-Driving Statewide Task Force or who are exploring ways to improve their current Task Force. The guide : addresses issues suc...

  18. Motive, desire, drive: the discourse of force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Blum

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the original paper on motive by Blum and McHugh (1971 is used as an occasion to make transparent an approach to social theory as it has developed over the years in their work. This method, in treating motive as an illustration, engages it as an example of the status of the signifier as a symptom of interpretive conflict endemic to any situation of action, always inviting an analysis of the symbolic order and imaginative structure that sustains the distinction as a force in social life. In this paper, motive in particular is unpacked to show how it serves as an indication of fundamental ambiguity with respect to a problem-solving situation, revealing in this case constant perplexity in relation to the enigmatic character of what comes to view on any occasion and the recurrent contestation that is released.

  19. Wall relaxation and the driving forces for cell expansive growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    When water uptake by growing cells is prevented, the turgor pressure and the tensile stress in the cell wall are reduced by continued wall loosening. This process, termed in vivo stress relaxation, provides a new way to study the dynamics of wall loosening and to measure the wall yield threshold and the physiological wall extensibility. Stress relaxation experiments indicate that wall stress supplies the mechanical driving force for wall yielding. Cell expansion also requires water absorption. The driving force for water uptake during growth is created by wall relaxation, which lowers the water potential of the expanding cells. New techniques for measuring this driving force show that it is smaller than believed previously; in elongating stems it is only 0.3 to 0.5 bar. This means that the hydraulic resistance of the water transport pathway is small and that rate of cell expansion is controlled primarily by wall loosening and yielding.

  20. Sequential reconstruction of driving-forces from nonlinear nonstationary dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güntürkün, Ulaş

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes a functional analysis-based method for the estimation of driving-forces from nonlinear dynamic systems. The driving-forces account for the perturbation inputs induced by the external environment or the secular variations in the internal variables of the system. The proposed algorithm is applicable to the problems for which there is too little or no prior knowledge to build a rigorous mathematical model of the unknown dynamics. We derive the estimator conditioned on the differentiability of the unknown system’s mapping, and smoothness of the driving-force. The proposed algorithm is an adaptive sequential realization of the blind prediction error method, where the basic idea is to predict the observables, and retrieve the driving-force from the prediction error. Our realization of this idea is embodied by predicting the observables one-step into the future using a bank of echo state networks (ESN) in an online fashion, and then extracting the raw estimates from the prediction error and smoothing these estimates in two adaptive filtering stages. The adaptive nature of the algorithm enables to retrieve both slowly and rapidly varying driving-forces accurately, which are illustrated by simulations. Logistic and Moran-Ricker maps are studied in controlled experiments, exemplifying chaotic state and stochastic measurement models. The algorithm is also applied to the estimation of a driving-force from another nonlinear dynamic system that is stochastic in both state and measurement equations. The results are judged by the posterior Cramer-Rao lower bounds. The method is finally put into test on a real-world application; extracting sun’s magnetic flux from the sunspot time series.

  1. Vehicle Dynamics Control of In-wheel Electric Motor Drive Vehicles Based on Averaging of Tire Force Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Nobuo; Iwano, Haruo; Kamada, Takayoshi; Nagai, Masao

    For in-wheel electric motor drive vehicles, a new vehicle dynamics control which is based on the tire force usage rate is proposed. The new controller adopts non-linear optimal control could manage the interference between direct yaw-moment control and the tire force usage rate. The new control is considered total longitudinal and transverse tire force. Therefore the controller can prevent tire force saturation near tire force limit during cornering. Simulations and test runs by the custom made four wheel drive in-wheel motor electric vehicle show that higher driving stability performance compared to the performance of the same vehicle without control.

  2. Driving reconnection in sheared magnetic configurations with forced fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkitiwanichakul, Peera; Makwana, Kirit D.; Ruffolo, David

    2018-02-01

    We investigate reconnection of magnetic field lines in sheared magnetic field configurations due to fluctuations driven by random forcing by means of numerical simulations. The simulations are performed with an incompressible, pseudo-spectral magnetohydrodynamics code in 2D where we take thick, resistively decaying, current-sheet like sheared magnetic configurations which do not reconnect spontaneously. We describe and test the forcing that is introduced in the momentum equation to drive fluctuations. It is found that the forcing does not change the rate of decay; however, it adds and removes energy faster in the presence of the magnetic shear structure compared to when it has decayed away. We observe that such a forcing can induce magnetic reconnection due to field line wandering leading to the formation of magnetic islands and O-points. These reconnecting field lines spread out as the current sheet decays with time. A semi-empirical formula is derived which reasonably explains the formation and spread of O-points. We find that reconnection spreads faster with stronger forcing and longer correlation time of forcing, while the wavenumber of forcing does not have a significant effect. When the field line wandering becomes large enough, the neighboring current sheets with opposite polarity start interacting, and then the magnetic field is rapidly annihilated. This work is useful to understand how forced fluctuations can drive reconnection in large scale current structures in space and astrophysical plasmas that are not susceptible to reconnection.

  3. Driving forces for texture transformation in thin Ag films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Elizabeth A.; Chmielus, Markus; Lin, Ming-Tzer; Joress, Howie; Visser, Kyle; Woll, Arthur; Vinci, Richard P.; Brown, Walter L.; Baker, Shefford P.

    2016-01-01

    The well-known thickness-dependent (111)-to-(100) texture transformation in thin FCC films is usually attributed to a competition between interface and strain energies. In this model, thin films retain their (111) texture due to the lower energy of the (111) interface, while thick films transform to (100) due to the lower stiffness and thus strain energy of a (100) film. However, recent work has called this model into question, suggesting that neither the stress nor the interface energy play a dominant role in texture transformation. We investigated the driving forces involved in this transformation by using a bulge test apparatus to induce different stresses in thin Ag films under identical annealing conditions. In situ synchrotron XRD measurements show the change in texture during annealing, and reveal that applied stresses have no effect on the transformation. Stress analysis shows that differences in driving forces for texture transformation due to applied bulge pressure were significant (≈200 kJ/m 3 ), suggesting that a different, much larger driving force must be responsible. Reduction in defect energy has been proposed as an alternative. However, vacancy and dislocation densities must be exceptionally high to significantly exceed the strain energy and do not provide obvious orientation selection mechanisms. Nanotwins in reported densities are shown to provide greater driving force (≈1000 kJ/m 3 ) and may account for orientation selection. The large difference between the calculated strain and defect energies and the driving force for grain growth (21,100 kJ/m 3 ) casts doubt on the applicability of a simple thermodynamic model of texture transformation.

  4. The Past, Present, and Future of the Air Force's Future Total Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duffy, Dennis P

    2004-01-01

    This project examines the history of the Total Force policy since its inception in 1970 through its implementation today in an effort to determine a future direction for the Air Force's Future Total Force initiative...

  5. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  6. Measuring Industry Coagglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We construct a new coagglomeration index based purely on the location of firms. We...... underlying stories at work. We conclude that in conducting analyses of this kind giving consideration to the source of agglomeration economies, employees or entrepreneurs, and finding an appropriate measure for agglomeration, are both crucial to the process of identifying agglomerative forces....

  7. Forces that Drive Nanoscale Self-assembly on Solid Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suo, Z.; Lu, W.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental evidence has accumulated in the recent decade that nanoscale patterns can self-assemble on solid surfaces. A two-component monolayer grown on a solid surface may separate into distinct phases. Sometimes the phases select sizes about 10 nm, and order into an array of stripes or disks. This paper reviews a model that accounts for these behaviors. Attention is focused on thermodynamic forces that drive the self-assembly. A double-welled, composition-dependent free energy drives phase separation. The phase boundary energy drives phase coarsening. The concentration-dependent surface stress drives phase refining. It is the competition between the coarsening and the refining that leads to size selection and spatial ordering. These thermodynamic forces are embodied in a nonlinear diffusion equation. Numerical simulations reveal rich dynamics of the pattern formation process. It is relatively fast for the phases to separate and select a uniform size, but exceedingly slow to order over a long distance, unless the symmetry is suitably broken

  8. Health Status of Military Women in the Total Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert

    1997-01-01

    ..., Air Force, and Guard/Reserve components. These data will be combined with comparable data from a Naval Health Research Center survey of active-duty Navy and Marine Corps personnel to form a comprehensive dataset for the Total Force...

  9. Drive frequency dependent phase imaging in piezoresponse force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Huifeng; Kan Yi; Lu Xiaomei; Liu Yunfei; Peng Song; Wang Xiaofei; Cai Wei; Xue Ruoshi; Zhu Jinsong

    2010-01-01

    The drive frequency dependent piezoresponse (PR) phase signal in near-stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals is studied by piezoresponse force microscopy. It is clearly shown that the local and nonlocal electrostatic forces have a great contribution to the PR phase signal. The significant PR phase difference of the antiparallel domains are observed at the contact resonances, which is related to the electrostatic dominated electromechanical interactions of the cantilever and tip-sample system. Moreover, the modulation voltage induced frequency shift at higher eigenmodes could be attributed to the change of indention force depending on the modulation amplitude with a piezoelectric origin. The PR phase of the silicon wafer is also measured for comparison. It is certificated that the electrostatic interactions are universal in voltage modulated scanning probe microscopy and could be extended to other phase imaging techniques.

  10. Impact assessment of land use planning driving forces on environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Longgao, E-mail: chenlonggao@163.com [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); Yang, Xiaoyan [Institute of Land Resources, Jiangsu Normal University (JSNU), Xuzhou 221116 (China); School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Chen, Longqian [School of Environment and Spatial Informatics, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Li, Long [Department of Geography, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

    2015-11-15

    Land use change may exert a negative impact on environmental quality. A state–impact–state (SIS) model describing a state transform under certain impacts has been integrated into land use planning (LUP) environmental impact assessment (LUPEA). This logical model is intuitive and easy to understand, but the exploration of impact is essential to establish the indicator system and to identify the scope of land use environmental impact when it is applied to a specific region. In this study, we investigated environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF), along with the conception, components, scope, and impact of LUPF. This method was illustrated by a case study in Zoucheng, China. Through the results, we concluded that (1) the LUPF on environment are impacts originated from the implementation of LUP on a regional environment, which are characterized by four aspects: magnitude, direction, action point, and its owner; (2) various scopes of LUPF on individual environmental elements based on different standards jointly define the final scope of LUPEA; (3) our case study in Zoucheng demonstrates the practicability of this proposed approach; (4) this method can be embedded into LUPEA with direction, magnitudes, and scopes of the LUPF on individual elements obtained, and the identified indicator system can be directly employed into LUPEA and (5) the assessment helps to identify key indicators and to set up a corresponding strategy to mitigate the negative impact of LUP on the environment, which are two important objectives of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in LUP. - Highlights: • Environmental driving forces from land use planning (LUPF) are investigated and categorized. • Our method can obtains the direction, magnitudes and scopes of environmental driving forces. • The LUPEA scope is determined by the combination of various scopes of LUPF on individual elements. • LUPF assessment can be embedded into LUPEA. • The method can help to

  11. Variation along liquid isomorphs of the driving force for crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ulf Rørbæk; Adrjanowicz, Karolina; Niss, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    at a reference temperature. More general analysis allows interpretation of experimental data for molecular liquids such as dimethyl phthalate and indomethacin, and suggests that the isomorph scaling exponent γ in these cases is an increasing function of density, although this cannot be seen in measurements......We investigate the variation of the driving force for crystallization of a supercooled liquid along isomorphs, curves along which structure and dynamics are invariant. The variation is weak, and can be predicted accurately for the Lennard-Jones fluid using a recently developed formalism and data...

  12. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand

  13. Segregation in ternary alloys: an interplay of driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyten, J.; Helfensteyn, S.; Creemers, C.

    2003-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations combined with the constant bond energy (CBE) model are set up to explore and understand the general segregation behaviour in ternary alloys as a function of composition and more in particular the segregation to Cu-Ni-Al (1 0 0) surfaces. Besides its simplicity, allowing swift simulations, which are necessary for a first general survey over all possible compositions, one of the advantages of the CBE model lies in the possibility to clearly identify the different driving forces for segregation. All simulations are performed in the Grand Canonical Ensemble, using a new algorithm to determine the chemical potential of the components. Notwithstanding the simplicity of the CBE model, one extra feature is evidenced: depending on the values of the interatomic interaction parameters, in some regions of the ternary diagram, a single solid solution becomes thermodynamically unstable, leading to demixing into two conjugate phases. The simulations are first done for three hypothetical systems that are however representative for real alloy systems. The three systems are characterised by different sets of interatomic interaction parameters. These extensive simulations over the entire composition range of the ternary alloy yield a 'topographical' segregation map, showing distinct regions where different species segregate. These distinct domains originate from a variable interplay between the driving forces for segregation and attractive/repulsive interactions in the bulk of the alloy. The results on these hypothetical systems are very helpful for a better understanding of the segregation behaviour in Cu-Ni-Al and other ternary alloys

  14. The driving forces of landscape change in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Draux, Hélène; Fagerholm, Nora

    2016-01-01

    , we find that distinct combinations of mainly political/institutional, cultural, and natural/spatial underlying drivers are determining landscape change, rather than single key drivers. Our systematic review indicates knowledge gaps that can be filled by: (a) expanding the scope of studies to include...... because landscape research is spread across many domains and disciplines. We here provide a systematic synthesis of 144 studies that identify the proximate and underlying drivers of landscape change across Europe. First, we categorize how driving forces have been addressed and find that most studies......; low Gross Domestic Product; boreal, steppic, and arctic landscapes; as well as forestland systems are underrepresented in the literature. Third, our review shows that land abandonment/extensification is the most prominent (62% of cases) among multiple proximate drivers of landscape change. Fourthly...

  15. Discharge switch driving by Lorentz force and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kunikazu; Hasegawa, Mitsuo; Ueno, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Our newly developed 'Rotary-Arc mode Discharge Switch' have featured longer life expectancy and lower inductance-wise by extremely minimizing the insulation deterioration and consumable main electrode through installation of permanent magnet, simplified construction and careful attention on the demagnetization. Resultantly, highly efficient and larger capacitive discharge switch have been available at such economical cost. In addition, by having derived an experimental formula for the driving speed of the arc, the required design parameters of the discharge switch have been determined, and then it has been well noted that any affections of electro-magnetic Lorentz force toward the starting characteristics have been negligible small. All these have made it possible to materialize such discharge switch which will satisfy the required conditions. (author)

  16. Orbital Forcing driving climate variability on Tropical South Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A. S.; Baker, P. A.; Silva, C. G.; Dwyer, G. S.; Chiessi, C. M.; Rigsby, C. A.; Ferreira, F.

    2017-12-01

    Past research on climate response to orbital forcing in tropical South America has emphasized on high precession cycles influencing low latitude hydrologic cycles, and driving the meridional migration of Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ).However, marine proxy records from the tropical Pacific Ocean showed a strong 41-ka periodicities in Pleistocene seawater temperature and productivity related to fluctuations in Earth's obliquity. It Indicates that the western Pacific ITCZ migration was influenced by combined precession and obliquity changes. To reconstruct different climate regimes over the continent and understand the orbital cycle forcing over Tropical South America climate, hydrological reconstruction have been undertaken on sediment cores located on the Brazilian continental slope, representing the past 1.6 million years. Core CDH 79 site is located on a 2345 m deep seamount on the northern Brazilian continental slope (00° 39.6853' N, 44° 20.7723' W), 320 km from modern coastline of the Maranhão Gulf. High-resolution XRF analyses of Fe, Ti, K and Ca are used to define the changes in precipitation and sedimentary input history of Tropical South America. The response of the hydrology cycle to orbital forcing was studied using spectral analysis.The 1600 ka records of dry/wet conditions presented here indicates that orbital time-scale climate change has been a dominant feature of tropical climate. We conclude that the observed oscillation reflects variability in the ITCZ activity associated with the Earth's tilt. The prevalence of the eccentricity and obliquity signals in continental hydrology proxies (Ti/Ca and Fe/K) as implicated in our precipitation records, highlights that these orbital forcings play an important role in tropics hydrologic cycles. Throughout the Quaternary abrupt shifts of tropical variability are temporally correlated with abrupt climate changes and atmospheric reorganization during Mid-Pleistocene Transition and Mid-Brunhes Events

  17. Health Status of Military Women in the Total Force

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bray, Robert

    1997-01-01

    The study of Health Status of Military Women and Men in the Total Force will obtain comprehensive probability-based epidemiological data for women and men across all pay grades for active-duty Army...

  18. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  19. Petroleum Development in Russian Barents sea: Driving Forces and Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, Arild; Joergensen, Anne-Kristin

    2000-01-01

    The potential of the Barents Sea for petroleum production has attracted interest for many years. In the Russian sector of this ocean, enormous gas finds and substantial oil resources have now been proven, and the first real licensing for field development in the area has just begun. Despite the area's potential, there are strong conflicts of interest. The report examines the forces alternatively driving and hindering offshore hydrocarbon development in the Russian sector of the Barents Sea. It describes exploration activities beginning during the Soviet period and extending to the present. The status of the major development projects financed in part with foreign capital, and conflicting regional and central government interests involved in such development, is described and evaluated. Coverage includes a discussion of the various regional interests in petroleum activities, with a particular focus on the conversion of naval yards in the area and the emergence of Rosshelf, an oil/gas conglomerate formed to facilitate such conversion. It also reviews the planned licensing rounds and the results of the first round. Finally, it discusses supplies from the Barents Sea in the context of overall Russian energy supply and energy development strategies. (author)

  20. Probabilistic analysis for identifying the driving force of protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Yoshihiko; Yamamori, Yu; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-01

    Toward identifying the driving force of protein folding, energetics was analyzed in water for Trp-cage (20 residues), protein G (56 residues), and ubiquitin (76 residues) at their native (folded) and heat-denatured (unfolded) states. All-atom molecular dynamics simulation was conducted, and the hydration effect was quantified by the solvation free energy. The free-energy calculation was done by employing the solution theory in the energy representation, and it was seen that the sum of the protein intramolecular (structural) energy and the solvation free energy is more favorable for a folded structure than for an unfolded one generated by heat. Probabilistic arguments were then developed to determine which of the electrostatic, van der Waals, and excluded-volume components of the interactions in the protein-water system governs the relative stabilities between the folded and unfolded structures. It was found that the electrostatic interaction does not correspond to the preference order of the two structures. The van der Waals and excluded-volume components were shown, on the other hand, to provide the right order of preference at probabilities of almost unity, and it is argued that a useful modeling of protein folding is possible on the basis of the excluded-volume effect.

  1. Small and Medium Sized Reactors: Driving Forces and Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gowin, P.J.; Kupitz, J.

    2002-01-01

    There will be growing demands for energy in the coming decades. One aspect of particular importance is that prospects for nuclear energy will to a considerable extent be influenced by developing countries. Since population growth will occur primarily in developing countries nuclear energy cannot play a significant global role without being a viable option in these countries. Since new power plants to be built will have to be compatible with regional electricity grids, this may result in a greater focus on plants in the small and medium range, defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to produce up to 700 Megawatt of electrical power. This paper first examines the driving forces that could influence the development of nuclear energy in general and of Small and Medium Sized Reactors (SMRs) in particular in the next decades and identifies key factors in that process. Concerns over climate change may to a certain extent influence the discussion on future energy options. Other factors of equal importance for the future of nuclear are a continued emphasis on maintaining high safety standards, the implementation of acceptable solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste disposal and a globally accepted non-proliferation regime, factors that may in turn have an impact on public acceptance. Economic competitiveness of nuclear energy is an additional important factor, and without being commercially viable, no energy source can in the long run represent a major and stable component in a competitive energy sector. The introduction of SMRs in developing countries poses additional challenges, such as investment limitations. Technology development plays an important role in keeping the nuclear option open for countries wishing to use nuclear reactors to meet their energy needs, and advances in reactor design will be important to enable a significant nuclear component in developing countries. This paper considers the contribution that nuclear science and

  2. Autoimmunity as a Driving Force of Cognitive Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Nataf

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, increasingly robust experimental approaches have formally demonstrated that autoimmunity is a physiological process involved in a large range of functions including cognition. On this basis, the recently enunciated “brain superautoantigens” theory proposes that autoimmunity has been a driving force of cognitive evolution. It is notably suggested that the immune and nervous systems have somehow co-evolved and exerted a mutual selection pressure benefiting to both systems. In this two-way process, the evolutionary-determined emergence of neurons expressing specific immunogenic antigens (brain superautoantigens has exerted a selection pressure on immune genes shaping the T-cell repertoire. Such a selection pressure on immune genes has translated into the emergence of a finely tuned autoimmune T-cell repertoire that promotes cognition. In another hand, the evolutionary-determined emergence of brain-autoreactive T-cells has exerted a selection pressure on neural genes coding for brain superautoantigens. Such a selection pressure has translated into the emergence of a neural repertoire (defined here as the whole of neurons, synapses and non-neuronal cells involved in cognitive functions expressing brain superautoantigens. Overall, the brain superautoantigens theory suggests that cognitive evolution might have been primarily driven by internal cues rather than external environmental conditions. Importantly, while providing a unique molecular connection between neural and T-cell repertoires under physiological conditions, brain superautoantigens may also constitute an Achilles heel responsible for the particular susceptibility of Homo sapiens to “neuroimmune co-pathologies” i.e., disorders affecting both neural and T-cell repertoires. These may notably include paraneoplastic syndromes, multiple sclerosis as well as autism, schizophrenia and neurodegenerative diseases. In the context of this theoretical frame, a specific

  3. Finite Element Analysis of the Vertical Levitation Force in an Electrostatic MEMS Comb Drive Actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooldridge, J; Blackburn, J; Muniz-Piniella, A; Stewart, M; Shean, T A V; Weaver, P M; Cain, M G

    2013-01-01

    A vertical levitation electrostatic comb drive actuator was manufactured for the purpose of measuring piezoelectric coefficients in small-scale materials and devices. Previous modelling work on comb drive levitation has focussed on control of the levitation in standard poly-silicon devices in order to minimize effects on lateral modes of operation required for the accelerometer and gyroscope applications. The actuator developed in this study was manufactured using a 20 μm electroplated Ni process with a 25 μm trench created beneath the released structure through chemical wet etching. A finite element analysis using ZINC was used to model electrostatic potential around a cross section of one static and one movable electrode, from which the net levitation force per unit electrode was calculated. The model was first verified using the electrode geometry from previously studied systems, and then used to study the variation of force as a function of decreasing substrate-electrode distance. With the top electrode surfaces collinear the calculated force density is 0.00651 ε 0 V 2 M μm −1 , equivalent to a total force for the device of 36.4 μN at an applied voltage of V M =100 V, just 16% larger than the observed value. The measured increase in force with distance was smaller than predicted with the FEA, due to the geometry of the device in which the electrodes at the anchored ends of the supporting spring structure displace by a smaller amount than those at the centre

  4. A balanced ATP driving force module for enhancing photosynthetic biosynthesis of 3-hydroxybutyrate from CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jason T; Lan, Ethan I

    2018-03-01

    Using engineered photoautotrophic microorganisms for the direct chemical synthesis from CO 2 is an attractive direction for both sustainability and CO 2 mitigation. However, the behaviors of non-native metabolic pathways may be difficult to control due to the different intracellular contexts between natural and heterologous hosts. While most metabolic engineering efforts focus on strengthening driving forces in pathway design to favor biochemical production in these organisms, excessive driving force may be detrimental to product biosynthesis due to imbalanced cellular intermediate distribution. In this study, an ATP-hydrolysis based driving force module was engineered into cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 to produce 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB), a valuable chemical feedstock for the synthesis of biodegradable plastics and antibiotics. However, while the ATP driving force module is effective for increasing product formation, uncontrolled accumulation of intermediate metabolites likely led to metabolic imbalance and thus to cell growth inhibition. Therefore, the ATP driving force module was reengineered by providing a reversible outlet for excessive carbon flux. Upon expression of this balanced ATP driving force module with 3HB biosynthesis, engineered strain produced 3HB with a cumulative titer of 1.2 g/L, a significant increase over the initial strain. This result highlighted the importance of pathway reversibility as an effective design strategy for balancing driving force and intermediate accumulation, thereby achieving a self-regulated control for increased net flux towards product biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMONA PÎRVU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability because they configure firms’ selling prices, production costs and investments needed to be competitive in the field. The threat of new competitors limits the potential profit since they involve new production units and the opportunities for market expansion. Economic strength of the buyers and bidders attracts profits to them. Rivalry among existing competitors erodes profits by increasing costs of competition (like advertising, selling expenses or those required for research and development. The presence of substitutive goods or services limits competitors’ prices through buyers’ transfer phenomena limiting and eroding market share of industry / firm in the total production output.

  6. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclung, Tim M.; Mcmaster, Tom J.

    1992-01-01

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  7. Effect of a powered drive on pushing and pulling forces when transporting bariatric hospital beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggermann, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Powered drives designed to assist with moving hospital beds are commercially available but no studies have evaluated whether they reduce the push and pull forces likely contributing to injury in caregivers. This study measured hand forces of 10 caregivers maneuvering a manual and powered bariatric bed through simulated hospital environments (hallway, elevator, and ramp). Peak push and pull forces exceeded previously established psychophysical limits for all activities with the manual bed. For the powered bed, peak forces were significantly (p pushing did not differ between beds. Powered drive may reduce the risk of injury or the number of caregivers needed for transport. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social Innovation : Driving Forces of Social Innovation in MNC

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Hoising; Osadcha, Liudmyla

    2017-01-01

    Multinational Corporations (MNCs) currently face not only a dynamic business environment and challenging profit target, but also increased expectations from the public to take responsibility for addressing social, economic, and environmental issues. There is a tendency that the leading companies in the global market, especially MNCs, put more effort to the Social Innovation (SI). This study is to investigate what drives the MNCs to be involved in social innovation. In order to find out the re...

  9. Remark on the role of the driving force in BWR instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dykin, V.; Pazsit, I.

    2009-01-01

    Simple models of BWR instability, used e.g. in understanding the role of the various oscillation modes in the overall stability of the plant, assume that each oscillation mode can be described by a second order system (a damped harmonic oscillator) driven by a white noise driving force. Change of the decay ratio (DR) of the observed signal is, as a rule, associated with the changing of the parameters of the damped oscillator, mainly its damping coefficient, and is interpreted in terms of the change of the stability of the system. However, conceptually, one cannot exclude cases when the change of the response of a driven damped oscillator is due to the change of the properties of the driving force. In this work we investigate the effect of a non-white driving force on the behaviour of the system. A question of interest is how changes of the spectrum of the driving force influence the observed autocorrelation function (ACF) of the resulting signal. Hence we calculate the response of a damped harmonic oscillator driven by a non-white driving force, corresponding to the reactivity effect of propagating density fluctuations in two-phase flow. It is shown how in some special cases such a driving force, when interpreting the neutron noise as if induced by a white noise driving source, can lead to an erroneous conclusion regarding the stability of the system. It is also concluded that in the practically interesting cases the effect of the coloured driving force, arising from propagating density fluctuations, is negligible.

  10. Output Force Enhancement of Scratch Drive Actuator in Low-Voltage Region by Using Flexible Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn CHEN

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Here a low-voltage scratch drive actuator (LVSDA is proposed by incorporating flexible joint into the conventional SDA to improve performance in low-voltage region. Experimental results show that, at the same total plate length of 80 mm and width of 65 mm, the proposed LVSDA can be actuated as low as 40 V, much lower than 80 V, the minimum required input voltage of the conventional SDA. From finite element analysis by CosmosWorks, yielding effect is found to be a critical factor. Before yielding, LVSDA can provide better performance than SDA at the same input voltage. However, the yielding stress in flexible joint would limit the achievable maximum output force in high-voltage region. By varying joint length, width, or location, LVSDA is shown to be operated in low-voltage region where the conventional SDA can not be operated, and can still provide comparable performance as SDA in high-voltage region.

  11. Boomers and seniors: The driving force behind leisure participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynda J. Sperazza; Priya Banerjee

    2010-01-01

    The 76 million Americans in the Baby Boomer population are the force behind the changing demographic picture of society today. Boomers' spending habits and lifestyle choices will also have a powerful influence on retirement and leisure in the coming decades. Boomers will redefine retirement and are expected to demand more than current senior programs and...

  12. An introductory handbook for state task forces to combat drunk driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    In June 1982 Governor Robb created a task force to identify and assess efforts under way in Virginia to address the problem of drunken driving and to make recommendations. This booklet was prepared to assist the task force in its deliberations.

  13. The Key Driving Forces for Geo-Economic Relationships between China and ASEAN Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufang Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of China and the implementation of the “21st Century Maritime Silk Road” strategy, research on geo-economics between China and ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations countries has become increasingly important. Current studies mainly focus on influencing factors, while there is little consideration about how these influencing factors act on geo-economic relationships. Therefore, this paper explores the key driving forces for geo-economic relationships between China and ASEAN countries by use of the structural equation modeling based on Partial Lease Squares. There are three main findings: (1 Economic factors have the greatest impact on geo-economic relationships and the total path effect is 0.778. Geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture act on geo-economic relationships directly and indirectly. Their total path effects are 0.731, 0.645 and 0.513, respectively. (2 Indirect effects of geo-location, geopolitics and geo-culture impacting geo-economic relationships are far greater than direct effects. Geo-culture, in particular, has a vital mediating effect on geo-economic relationships. (3 Economic drivers promote geo-economic relationships through market, industrial policy, technical, network and benefit-sharing mechanisms. Political drivers improve geo-economic relationships through cooperation, negotiation, coordination and institutional mechanisms. Cultural drivers enhance geo-economic relationships through transmission mechanism. Location drivers facilitate geo-economic relationships through selection mechanism. We provide new insights on the geo-economic relationships through quantitative analysis and enrich the existing literature by revealing the key driving forces and mechanisms for geo-economic relationships.

  14. Cantilever contribution to the total electrostatic force measured with the atomic force microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guriyanova, Svetlana; Golovko, Dmytro S; Bonaccurso, Elmar

    2010-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool for surface imaging at the nanometer scale and surface force measurements in the piconewton range. Among long-range surface forces, the electrostatic forces play a predominant role. They originate if the electric potentials of the substrate and of the tip of the AFM cantilever are different. A quantitative interpretation of the AFM signal is often difficult because it depends in a complicated fashion on the cantilever–tip–surface geometry. Since the electrostatic interaction is a long-range interaction, the cantilever, which is many microns from the surface, contributes to the total electrostatic force along with the tip. Here we present results of the electrostatic interaction between a conducting flat surface and horizontal or tilted cantilevers, with and without tips, at various distances from the surface. As addressed in a previous work, we show that the contribution of the cantilever to the overall force cannot be neglected. Based on a predictive model and on 3D confocal measurements, we discuss the influence of the tilting angle of the cantilever

  15. COMPETITIVENESS IN SERVICES, DRIVING FORCE OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    RAMONA PÎRVU; MARIA DANATIE ENESCU

    2012-01-01

    The competitiveness of a nation is ensured by the profitable activity of firms. They strengthen their position in the domestic and international markets through global strategies whose purpose is to increase productivity and maintain it at a high level. For this, the company must take into account both the internal economic environment which ensures operating conditions and the external economic environment’s development. The five competitive forces determine the industry’s profitability beca...

  16. Position and force control of a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reister, D.B.; Unseren, M.A.

    1992-10-01

    When a vehicle with two or more steerable drive wheels is traveling in a circle, the motion of the wheels is constrained. The wheel translational velocity divided by the radius to the center of rotation must be the same for all wheels. When the drive wheels are controlled independently using position control, the motion of the wheels may violate the constraints and the wheels may slip. Consequently, substantial errors can occur in the orientation of the vehicle. A vehicle with N drive wheels has (N - 1) constraints and one degree of freedom. We have developed a new approach to the control of a vehicle with N steerable drive wheels. The novel aspect of our approach is the use of force control. To control the vehicle, we have one degree of freedom for the position on the circle and (N - 1) forces that can be used to reduce errors. Recently, Kankaanranta and Koivo developed a control architecture that allows the force and position degrees of freedom to be decoupled. In the work of Kankaanranta and Koivo the force is an exogenous input. We have made the force endogenous by defining the force in terms of the errors in satisfying the rigid body kinematic constraints. We have applied the control architecture to the HERMIES-III robot and have measured a dramatic reduction in error (more than a factor of 20) compared to motions without force control.

  17. Changing and Differentiated Urban Landscape in China: Spatiotemporal Patterns and Driving Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Guangdong; Wang, Shaojian

    2016-03-01

    Urban landscape spatiotemporal change patterns and their driving mechanisms in China are poorly understood at the national level. Here we used remote sensing data, landscape metrics, and a spatial econometric model to characterize the spatiotemporal patterns of urban landscape change and investigate its driving forces in China between 1990 and 2005. The results showed that the urban landscape pattern has experienced drastic changes over the past 15 years. Total urban area has expanded approximately 1.61 times, with a 2.98% annual urban-growth rate. Compared to previous single-city studies, although urban areas are expanding rapidly, the overall fragmentation of the urban landscape is decreasing and is more irregular and complex at the national level. We also found a stair-stepping, urban-landscape changing pattern among eastern, central, and western counties. In addition, administrative level, urban size, and hierarchy have effects on the urban landscape pattern. We also found that a combination of landscape metrics can be used to supplement our understanding of the pattern of urbanization. The changes in these metrics are correlated with geographical indicators, socioeconomic factors, infrastructure variables, administrative level factors, policy factors, and historical factors. Our results indicate that the top priority should be strengthening the management of urban planning. A compact and congregate urban landscape may be a good choice of pattern for urban development in China.

  18. Gravity: one of the driving forces for evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkmann, D; Baluska, F

    2006-12-01

    Mechanical load is 10(3) larger for land-living than for water-living organisms. As a consequence, antigravitational material in form of compound materials like lignified cell walls in plants and mineralised bones in animals occurs in land-living organisms preferentially. Besides cellulose, pectic substances of plant cell walls seem to function as antigravitational material in early phases of plant evolution and development. A testable hypothesis including vesicular recycling processes into the tensegrity concept is proposed for both sensing of gravitational force and responding by production of antigravitational material at the cellular level.

  19. Crack Driving Forces in a Multilayered Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosn, Louis J.; Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the top coating thickness, modulus and shrinkage strains on the crack driving forces for a baseline multilayer Yttria-Stabilized-Zirconia/Mullite/Si thermal and environment barrier coating (TEBC) system for SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composite substrates are determined for gas turbine applications. The crack driving forces increase with increasing modulus, and a low modulus thermal barrier coating material (below 10 GPa) will have no cracking issues under the thermal gradient condition analyzed. Since top coating sintering increases the crack driving forces with time, highly sintering resistant coatings are desirable to maintain a low tensile modulus and maintain a low crack driving force with time. Finite element results demonstrated that an advanced TEBC system, such as ZrO2/HfO2, which possesses improved sintering resistance and high temperature stability, exhibited excellent durability. A multi-vertical cracked structure with fine columnar spacing is an ideal strain tolerant coating capable of reducing the crack driving forces to an acceptable level even with a high modulus of 50 GPa.

  20. Evaluating the Energetic Driving Force for Cocrystal Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Christopher R; Day, Graeme M

    2018-02-07

    We present a periodic density functional theory study of the stability of 350 organic cocrystals relative to their pure single-component structures, the largest study of cocrystals yet performed with high-level computational methods. Our calculations demonstrate that cocrystals are on average 8 kJ mol -1 more stable than their constituent single-component structures and are very rarely (intuition, the presence of hydrogen or halogen bond interactions is not necessarily a good predictor of stability. Finally, we investigate the correlation of the relative stability with simple chemical descriptors: changes in packing efficiency and hydrogen bond strength. We find some broad qualitative agreement with chemical intuition-more densely packed cocrystals with stronger hydrogen bonding tend to be more stable-but the relationship is weak, suggesting that such simple descriptors do not capture the complex balance of interactions driving cocrystallization. Our conclusions suggest that while cocrystallization is often a thermodynamically favorable process, it remains difficult to formulate general rules to guide synthesis, highlighting the continued importance of high-level computation in predicting and rationalizing such systems.

  1. Solar Radiation as Driving Force In Early Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Lynn J.; Peterson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has provided an evolutionary challenge to life on Earth in that it is both an agent of mutation and as well as a selective force. Today surface fluxes of UVR vary diurnally, seasonally, etc. Still, the UVR flux was probably substantially higher during the early phases of evolution, suggesting that its role in evolution was even more prominent during this time. In this presentation, the creative role of UVR in evolution is discussed, specifically in connection with the role that UVR may have played in the evolution of early microbial ecosystems. The presentation will include discussions of the direct influence of UVR on such processes as photosynthesis and genetic damage, as well as the indirect influence of UVR as mediated through the production of reactive oxygen species. These biological effects of UVR will be viewed against the backdrop of the physical nature of the early Earth, surely a very different place then than now.

  2. Hypoxia: The Force that Drives Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiangwei; Colgan, Sean P; Shelley, Carl Simon

    2016-01-01

    In the United States the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) reached epidemic proportions in 2012 with over 600,000 patients being treated. The rates of ESRD among the elderly are disproportionally high. Consequently, as life expectancy increases and the baby-boom generation reaches retirement age, the already heavy burden imposed by ESRD on the US health care system is set to increase dramatically. ESRD represents the terminal stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD). A large body of evidence indicating that CKD is driven by renal tissue hypoxia has led to the development of therapeutic strategies that increase kidney oxygenation and the contention that chronic hypoxia is the final common pathway to end-stage renal failure. Numerous studies have demonstrated that one of the most potent means by which hypoxic conditions within the kidney produce CKD is by inducing a sustained inflammatory attack by infiltrating leukocytes. Indispensable to this attack is the acquisition by leukocytes of an adhesive phenotype. It was thought that this process resulted exclusively from leukocytes responding to cytokines released from ischemic renal endothelium. However, recently it has been demonstrated that leukocytes also become activated independent of the hypoxic response of endothelial cells. It was found that this endothelium-independent mechanism involves leukocytes directly sensing hypoxia and responding by transcriptional induction of the genes that encode the β2-integrin family of adhesion molecules. This induction likely maintains the long-term inflammation by which hypoxia drives the pathogenesis of CKD. Consequently, targeting these transcriptional mechanisms would appear to represent a promising new therapeutic strategy. PMID:26847481

  3. Information driving force and its application in agent-based modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Bo; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xiong-Fei

    2018-04-01

    Exploring the scientific impact of online big-data has attracted much attention of researchers from different fields in recent years. Complex financial systems are typical open systems profoundly influenced by the external information. Based on the large-scale data in the public media and stock markets, we first define an information driving force, and analyze how it affects the complex financial system. The information driving force is observed to be asymmetric in the bull and bear market states. As an application, we then propose an agent-based model driven by the information driving force. Especially, all the key parameters are determined from the empirical analysis rather than from statistical fitting of the simulation results. With our model, both the stationary properties and non-stationary dynamic behaviors are simulated. Considering the mean-field effect of the external information, we also propose a few-body model to simulate the financial market in the laboratory.

  4. Command Clairvoyance: Strategically Transforming AFRC Through Total Force and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    backstop for 21st century operations. Lieutenant General Charles Stenner , Chief of the Air Force Reserve, encapsulated this by stating, "The Air Force...and it is a venue that requires the Air Force and AFRC to change in unison, as General Stenner acknowledged: The Air Force is under the same...another generation of TFI savvy leaders. Aligned with General Stenner ‟s previous comments, AFRC needs to foster an “adaptive culture” in order to

  5. Uncovering driving forces on greenhouse gas emissions in China’ aluminum industry from the perspective of life cycle analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhe; Geng, Yong; Adams, Michelle; Dong, Liang; Sun, Lina; Zhao, Jingjing; Dong, Huijuan; Wu, Jiao; Tian, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of LCA. • CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions from 2004 to 2013. • Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI. • Construction and transportation-related activities account for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions. • Policy implications such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix etc, are raised. - Abstract: With the rapid growth of aluminum production, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China’s aluminum industry (CAI) is posing a significant challenge. In this study, the energy-related GHG emission trajectories, features and driving forces of CAI are analyzed from the perspective of life cycle analysis (LCA) from 2004 to 2013. Results indicate that CAI experienced a rapid growth of energy-related GHG emissions with an average annual growth of 28.5 million tons CO_2e from 2004 to 2013. Energy-scale effect is the main driving force for energy-related GHG emissions increase in CAI, while emission-factor effect of secondary aluminum production plays a marginal effect. Construction and transportation-related activities account for the bulk of the embodied emissions, accounting for more than 40% of the total embodied emissions from CAI. Policy implications for GHG mitigation within the CAI, such as developing secondary aluminum industry, improving energy mix and optimizing resource efficiency of production, are raised.

  6. On Optimizing Steering Performance of Multi-axle Vehicle Based on Driving Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Zhicheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The steering performance of multi-axle vehicle with independent driving system is affected by the distribution of the wheel driving force. A nonlinear vehicle dynamics model including magic formula tire model for describing 11 DoF four-axle vehicle with dual-front-axle-steering (DFAS system was presented. The influence of different driving force distribution scheme on the steering performance of the vehicle was analyzed. A control strategy for improving the steady response and transient response of the vehicle steering is proposed. The results show: For the steady response, setting different drive force for internal and external wheels according to the actual steering characteristics of the vehicle can effectively improve its steering characteristics; For the transient response, adopting the zero sideslip angle control strategy and using the PID control algorithm to control the driving force of the outside wheel of tear-two-axle, under angle step input, the vehicle sideslip angle can quickly stabilize to 0 and yaw rate also significantly decreases.

  7. Preliminary Experimental Results for Indirect Vector-Control of Induction Motor Drives with Forced Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents an extension of indirect vector control of electric drives employing induction motors to 'Forced Dynamic Control'. This method of control offers an accurate realisation of dynamic response profiles, which can be selected by the user. The developed system can be integrated into a drive with a shaft position encoder or a shaft sensoriess drive, in which only the stator currents are measured. The applied stator voltages are determined by a computed inverter switching algorithm. Simulation results and preliminary experimental results for indirect vector control of an idle running induction motor indicate good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  8. Development of an innovative reflector drive mechanism using magnetic repulsion force for 4S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, K.; Watanabe, M.; Inagaki, H.; Nishikawa, A.; Takahashi, H.; Wakamatsu, M.; Matsumiya, H.; Nishiguchi, Y.

    2001-01-01

    A small sized fast reactor 4S: (Super Safe Small and Simple) which has a core of 10 - 30 years life time is controlled by reflectors. The reflector is required to be risen at very low speed to make up for the reactivity swing during operation. This report shows the development of an innovative reflector drive mechanism using magnetic repulsion force that can move at a several micrometer per one step. This drive mechanism has a passive shut down capability, and can eliminate reflector drive line. (author)

  9. Study on electromagnetism force of CARR control rod drive mechanism experimental machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Xuewei; Zhen Jianxiao; Wang Yulin; Jia Yueguang; Yang Kun; Yin Haozhe

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of acquiring electromagnetic force and electromagnetic field distributions of control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) in China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR), the force analysis on the CRDM was taken. Manufacturing the experimental machine, the electromagnetic force experiment was taken on it. The electromagnetic field and electromagnetic force simulation analyses of experimental machine were taken, working out distribution data of electromagnetic force and magnetic induction intensity distribution curve, and the effects of permanent magnetic field on electromagnetic field and structure parameters on electromagnetic force. The simulation value is accord with experiment value, the research results provide a reference to electromagnetic force study on CRDM in CARR, and also provide a reference to design of the same type CRDM. (authors)

  10. Forest Fragmentation and Driving Forces in Yingkou, Northeastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation, the process of changing original large and intact forest patches into smaller and isolated areas, significantly influences the balance of surface physical environment, biodiversity, and species richness. Sufficient knowledge of forest fragmentation is necessary to maintain ecological balance and promote sustainable resource utilization. This study combines remote sensing, geographical information systems, and landscape metrics to assess forest fragmentation at landscape and pixel levels during different time periods (2000–2005, 2005–2010, and 2010–2015 in the Yingkou region. Spatial statistical analysis is also used to analyze the relationship between forest landscape fragmentation and its determinants (e.g., natural factors, socioeconomic factors, and proximity factors. Results show that forest patches became smaller, subdivided, and isolated during 2010–2015 at the total landscape level. Local changes occurred in the southwest of the study region or around the development area. Our data also indicate that shrinkage and subdivision were the main forest fragmentation processes during three times, and attrition became the main forest fragmentation process from 2010 to 2015. These changes were significantly influenced by natural factors (e.g., elevation and slope, proximity factors (e.g., distance to city and distance to province roads, and socioeconomic factors (e.g., gross domestic product. Results presented in this study provide valuable insights into the pattern and processes of forest fragmentation and present direct implications for the protection and reasonable utilization of forest resources.

  11. Estimation of Muscle Force Based on Neural Drive in a Hemispheric Stroke Survivor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chenyun; Zheng, Yang; Hu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Robotic assistant-based therapy holds great promise to improve the functional recovery of stroke survivors. Numerous neural-machine interface techniques have been used to decode the intended movement to control robotic systems for rehabilitation therapies. In this case report, we tested the feasibility of estimating finger extensor muscle forces of a stroke survivor, based on the decoded descending neural drive through population motoneuron discharge timings. Motoneuron discharge events were obtained by decomposing high-density surface electromyogram (sEMG) signals of the finger extensor muscle. The neural drive was extracted from the normalized frequency of the composite discharge of the motoneuron pool. The neural-drive-based estimation was also compared with the classic myoelectric-based estimation. Our results showed that the neural-drive-based approach can better predict the force output, quantified by lower estimation errors and higher correlations with the muscle force, compared with the myoelectric-based estimation. Our findings suggest that the neural-drive-based approach can potentially be used as a more robust interface signal for robotic therapies during the stroke rehabilitation.

  12. The marriage between welfare services and tourism - A driving force for innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    2006-01-01

    -based sectors are well connected with other sectors, including the voluntary sector. Both internal and external driving forces are continuously challenging the Danish welfare model. The pressures and the opportunities are transmitted to tourism, albeit not uniformly. There are good reasons for commercial...

  13. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact

  14. The driving force of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger during metabolic inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baartscheer, Antonius; Schumacher, Cees A.; Coronel, Ruben; Fiolet, Jan W. T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic inhibition causes a decline in mechanical performance and, if prolonged, myocardial contracture and cell death. The decline in mechanical performance is mainly due to altered intracellular calcium handling, which is under control of the Na+/Ca2+-exchanger (NCX) The driving force

  15. Emission of greenhouse gases 1990-2010. Trends and driving forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway from 1990-2010 - trends and driving forces, a report that presents emission trends in Norway with the analysis of the main drivers and trends, and a review and analysis of the effectiveness of implemented measures.(Author)

  16. A modified synthetic driving force method for molecular dynamics simulation of grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Saiyi

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic driving force (SDF) molecular dynamics method, which imposes crystalline orientation-dependent driving forces for grain boundary (GB) migration, has been considered deficient in many cases. In this work, we revealed the cause of the deficiency and proposed a modified method by introducing a new technique to distinguish atoms in grains and GB such that the driving forces can be imposed properly. This technique utilizes cross-reference order parameter (CROP) to characterize local lattice orientations in a bicrystal and introduces a CROP-based definition of interface region to minimize interference from thermal fluctuations in distinguishing atoms. A validation of the modified method was conducted by applying it to simulate the migration behavior of Ni 〈1 0 0〉 and Al 〈1 1 2〉 symmetrical tilt GBs, in comparison with the original method. The discrepancies between the migration velocities predicted by the two methods are found to be proportional to their differences in distinguishing atoms. For the Al 〈1 1 2〉 GBs, the modified method predicts a negative misorientation dependency for both the driving pressure threshold for initiating GB movement and the mobility, which agree with experimental findings and other molecular dynamics computations but contradict those predicted using the original method. Last, the modified method was applied to evaluate the mobility of Ni Σ5 〈1 0 0〉 symmetrical tilt GB under different driving pressure and temperature conditions. The results reveal a strong driving pressure dependency of the mobility at relatively low temperatures and suggest that the driving pressure should be as low as possible but large enough to trigger continuous migration.

  17. Current Reversal Due to Coupling Between Asymmetrical Driving Force and Ratchet Potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Baoquan; Xie Huizhang; Liu Lianggang

    2006-01-01

    Transport of a Brownian particle moving in a periodic potential is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased external force. The asymmetry of the external force and the asymmetry of the potential are the two ways of inducing a net current. It is found that the competition of the spatial asymmetry of potential with the temporal asymmetry of the external force leads to the phenomena like current reversal. The competition between the two opposite driving factors is a necessary but not a sufficient condition for current reversals.

  18. Force analysis of the advanced neutron source control rod drive latch mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiano, B.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source reactor (ANS), a proposed Department of Energy research reactor currently undergoing conceptual design at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), will generate a thermal neutron flux approximating 10 30 M -2 emdash S -1 . The compact core necessary to produce this flux provides little space for the shim safety control rods, which are located in the central annulus of the core. Without proper control rod drive design, the control rod drive magnets (which hold the control rod latch in a ready-to-scram position) may be unable to support the required load due to their restricted size. This paper describes the force analysis performed on the control rod latch mechanism to determine the fraction of control rod weight transferred to the drive magnet. This information will be useful during latch, control rod drive and magnet design. 5 refs., 12 figs

  19. Driving-forces model on individual behavior in scenarios considering moving threat agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuying; Zhuang, Jun; Shen, Shifei; Wang, Jia

    2017-09-01

    The individual behavior model is a contributory factor to improve the accuracy of agent-based simulation in different scenarios. However, few studies have considered moving threat agents, which often occur in terrorist attacks caused by attackers with close-range weapons (e.g., sword, stick). At the same time, many existing behavior models lack validation from cases or experiments. This paper builds a new individual behavior model based on seven behavioral hypotheses. The driving-forces model is an extension of the classical social force model considering scenarios including moving threat agents. An experiment was conducted to validate the key components of the model. Then the model is compared with an advanced Elliptical Specification II social force model, by calculating the fitting errors between the simulated and experimental trajectories, and being applied to simulate a specific circumstance. Our results show that the driving-forces model reduced the fitting error by an average of 33.9% and the standard deviation by an average of 44.5%, which indicates the accuracy and stability of the model in the studied situation. The new driving-forces model could be used to simulate individual behavior when analyzing the risk of specific scenarios using agent-based simulation methods, such as risk analysis of close-range terrorist attacks in public places.

  20. Driving Forces of Plate Tectonics and Evolution of the Oceanic Lithosphere and Asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    As plate tectonics became established as an excellent kinematic description of the relative motions of different blocks of the Earth's lithosphere, many investigators also began exploring the forces involved in driving the plate motions. Because the plates move at nearly constant velocities over long periods of time and inertial terms are unimportant, driving forces must always be balanced by resisting forces in a way that regulates the velocities. Forsyth and Uyeda (1975) incorporated the balancing of torques on the individual plates to help constrain the relative importance of the driving and resisting forces, as parameterized in a way based on prior model investigations of individual parts of the convecting system. We found that the primary driving force was sinking of subducting lithosphere at trenches, balanced largely by viscous resisting forces in the sub-asthenospheric mantle; that viscous drag beneath the oceanic plates was negligible; and that mid-ocean ridges provided a relatively small push. One of the early questions was whether there was buoyant upwelling on a large scale beneath mid-ocean ridges as part of a whole mantle convection system with subduction of the plates representing the downwelling limb. If so, then it would be likely that the plates were just riding on top of large convection cells. Seismic tomography has demonstrated that, on average, there are no deep roots beneath mid-ocean ridges, so that active, buoyant upwelling from the deep mantle does not exist beneath spreading centers. However, more recent tomographic studies have found asymmetry of the shear velocity structure beneath ridges in some areas, pointing to a smaller scale of active convection in the shallow mantle perhaps induced by melt retention buoyancy or the local effects of ridge/hotspot interaction.

  1. A Study of the Effect of the Fringe Fields on the Electrostatic Force in Vertical Comb Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Gallagher

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The equation that describes the relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting electrostatic force within comb drives is often used to assist in choosing the dimensions for their design. This paper re-examines how some of these dimensions—particularly the cross-sectional dimensions of the comb teeth—affect this relationship in vertical comb drives. The electrostatic forces in several vertical comb drives fabricated for this study were measured and compared to predictions made with four different mathematical models in order to explore the amount of complexity required within a model to accurately predict the electrostatic forces in the comb drives.

  2. Agricultural land use change and associated driving forces over the past 180 years in two municipalities of the Brazilian Cerrado

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arruda, de Murilo Rodrigues; Slingerland, Maja; Santos, José Zilton Lopes; Giller, Ken E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to test the hypothesis that a single driving force from the local, national, or global level is capable of triggering land use changes, including large scale deforestation, within a historical context. To reach this goal we describe and explain the driving forces from the global to

  3. Position Control of Linear Synchronous Motor Drives with Exploitation of Forced Dynamics Control Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Vittek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop position control of mechanisms directly driven by linear synchronous motors with permanent magnets is presented. The control strategy is based on forced dynamic control, which is a form of feedback linearisation, yielding a non-liner multivariable control law to obtain a prescribed linear speed dynamics together with the vector control condition of mutal orthogonality between the stator current and magnetic flux vectors (assuming perfect estimates of the plant parameters. Outer position control loop is closed via simple feedback with proportional gain. Simulations of the design control sysstem, including the drive with power electronic switching, predict the intended drive performance.

  4. Analyzing the Long Term Cohesive Effect of Sector Specific Driving Forces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Berman

    Full Text Available Financial markets are partially composed of sectors dominated by external driving forces, such as commodity prices, infrastructure and other indices. We characterize the statistical properties of such sectors and present a novel model for the coupling of the stock prices and their dominating driving forces, inspired by mean reverting stochastic processes. Using the model we were able to explain the market sectors' long term behavior and estimate the coupling strength between stocks in financial markets and the sector specific driving forces. Notably, the analysis was successfully applied to the shipping market, in which the Baltic dry index (BDI, an assessment of the price of transporting the major raw materials by sea, influences the shipping financial market. We also present the analysis of other sectors-the gold mining market and the food production market, for which the model was also successfully applied. The model can serve as a general tool for characterizing the coupling between external forces and affected financial variables and therefore for estimating the risk in sectors and their vulnerability to external stress.

  5. The effect of drive frequency and set point amplitude on tapping forces in atomic force microscopy: simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legleiter, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), a sharp probe tip attached to an oscillating cantilever is allowed to intermittently strike a surface. By raster scanning the probe while monitoring the oscillation amplitude of the cantilever via a feedback loop, topographical maps of surfaces with nanoscale resolution can be acquired. While numerous studies have employed numerical simulations to elucidate the time-resolved tapping force between the probe tip and surface, until recent technique developments, specific read-outs from such models could not be experimentally verified. In this study, we explore, via numerical simulation, the impact of imaging parameters, i.e. set point ratio and drive frequency as a function of resonance, on time-varying tip-sample force interactions, which are directly compared to reconstructed tapping forces from real AFM experiments. As the AFM model contains a feedback loop allowing for the simulation of the entire scanning process, we further explore the impact that various tip-sample force have on the entire imaging process.

  6. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Garner, F.A.

    1991-11-01

    A new concept of point-defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The life times of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions

  7. Production bias: A proposed modification of the driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Singh, B.N.; Garner, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    A new concept of point defect production as the main driving force for void swelling under cascade damage conditions is proposed. This concept takes into account the recombination and formation of immobile clusters and loops of vacancies and interstitials in the cascade region. The lifetimes of the clusters and loops due to desolution are strong functions of the temperature, as well as their vacancy and interstitial nature. The resulting biased production of free point defects from the internal sources is shown to be a strong driving force for void swelling. The characteristics of void swelling due to production bias are described and compared with experimental results. We conclude that the production bias concept provides a good description of void swelling under cascade damage conditions. (orig.)

  8. Testing thermal gradient driving force for grain boundary migration using molecular dynamics simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Yongfeng; Tonks, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Strong thermal gradients in low-thermal-conductivity ceramics may drive extended defects, such as grain boundaries and voids, to migrate in preferential directions. In this work, molecular dynamics simulations are conducted to study thermal gradient driven grain boundary migration and to verify a previously proposed thermal gradient driving force equation, using uranium dioxide as a model system. It is found that a thermal gradient drives grain boundaries to migrate up the gradient and the migration velocity increases under a constant gradient owing to the increase in mobility with temperature. Different grain boundaries migrate at very different rates due to their different intrinsic mobilities. The extracted mobilities from the thermal gradient driven simulations are compared with those calculated from two other well-established methods and good agreement between the three different methods is found, demonstrating that the theoretical equation of the thermal gradient driving force is valid, although a correction of one input parameter should be made. The discrepancy in the grain boundary mobilities between modeling and experiments is also discussed.

  9. Electronic structure and driving forces in {beta}-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, Diana [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Morari, C. [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, Donath street 71-103, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)]. E-mail: cristim@s3.itim-cj.ro

    2007-07-02

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of {beta}-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries.

  10. Electronic structure and driving forces in β-cyclodextrin: Diclofenac inclusion complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdan, Diana; Morari, C.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the geometry and electronic structure for complexes of β-cyclodextrin with diclofenac using DFT calculations. The effect of solvent is explicitly taken into account. This investigation allows us to draw meaningful conclusions upon the stability of the complex and the nature of the driving forces leading to the complexation process. In particular we emphasize the role of the water, by pointing out the changes in the solvent's electronic structure for different docking geometries

  11. The world food situation: New driving forces and required actions [In Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    von Braun, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    "The world food situation is currently being rapidly redefined by new driving forces. Income growth, climate change, high energy prices, globalization, and urbanization are transforming food consumption, production, and markets. The influence of the private sector in the world food system, especially the leverage of food retailers, is also rapidly increasing. Changes in food availability, rising commodity prices, and new producer–consumer linkages have crucial implications for the livelihoods...

  12. Spatiotemporal Variation of Driving Forces for Settlement Expansion in Different Types of Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Dong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the process of settlement expansion and the spatiotemporal variation of driving forces is the foundation of rational and specific planning for sustainable development. However, little attention has been paid to the spatiotemporal differences of driving forces among different counties, especially when they are representatives of different development types. This study used Guanyun, Kunshan and Changshu as case studies, and binary logistic regression was employed. The results showed that the expansion rates of Kunshan and Changshu were 5.55 and 3.93 times higher than that of Guanyun. The combinations and relative importance of drivers varied with counties and periods. The change in the number of driving forces can be divided into three stages: increasing stage, decreasing stage, and stable stage. In the relatively developed counties, Kunshan and Changshu, the importance of population is decreased, while it remain an important factor in the less developed county, Guanyun. In addition, the effect of GDP stays the same in Kunshan while it becomes the most important factor in Changshu. The distance to the main road and the distance to town are increasingly important in Kunshan and Guanyun, and distance to town has been the only common factor in the last period, indicating the discrepancy is increased. The relative importance of distance to a lake in Kunshan and Changshu increased, reflecting the role of increasing tourism in accelerating settlement expansion.

  13. Magnetostatic torsional actuator with embedded nickel structures for the improvement of driving force and wobble motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Tsung-Lin; Fang, Weileun

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the magnetostatic torsional actuator consisting in a Si–Ni compound frame to significantly improve the driving force. The present design has three merits: (1) it employs a Si mold to simultaneously electroplate/pattern thick Ni, and the Ni and Si structures respectively provide magnetostatic force and superior mechanical properties, (2) the embedded Ni structures not only increase the ferromagnetic material volume but also enhance magnetization strength to enlarge magnetostatic torque, (3) the Si–Ni compound structure, which is nearly symmetric about the torsional axis in the out-of-plane direction, can decrease the moment of inertia and also reduce the wobble motion. In applications, one-axis torsional actuator is implemented and characterized. The experiments show that the Si–Ni compound scanner has an optical scan angle θ optical = 90° with the input power 81 mW. The input power is decreased as compared with the existing scanner. Moreover, the out-of-plane wobble motion is only 44 nm at θ optical = 15°. Compared with the existing designs consisted of asymmetric structures in the out-of-plane direction, such as electroplated film and silicon rib, about the torsional axis, the equivalent eccentric force is reduced nearly two-fold. In short, the proposed design not only increases the driving force but also decreases the wobble motion

  14. Mechanisms driving variability in the ocean forcing of Pine Island Glacier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Benjamin G M; Heywood, Karen J; Stevens, David P; Dutrieux, Pierre; Abrahamsen, E Povl; Jenkins, Adrian; Jacobs, Stanley S; Ha, Ho Kyung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Kim, Tae Wan

    2017-02-17

    Pine Island Glacier (PIG) terminates in a rapidly melting ice shelf, and ocean circulation and temperature are implicated in the retreat and growing contribution to sea level rise of PIG and nearby glaciers. However, the variability of the ocean forcing of PIG has been poorly constrained due to a lack of multi-year observations. Here we show, using a unique record close to the Pine Island Ice Shelf (PIIS), that there is considerable oceanic variability at seasonal and interannual timescales, including a pronounced cold period from October 2011 to May 2013. This variability can be largely explained by two processes: cumulative ocean surface heat fluxes and sea ice formation close to PIIS; and interannual reversals in ocean currents and associated heat transport within Pine Island Bay, driven by a combination of local and remote forcing. Local atmospheric forcing therefore plays an important role in driving oceanic variability close to PIIS.

  15. Physical driving force of actomyosin motility based on the hydration effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Mogami, George; Ohsugi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-12-01

    We propose a driving force hypothesis based on previous thermodynamics, kinetics and structural data as well as additional experiments and calculations presented here on water-related phenomena in the actomyosin systems. Although Szent-Györgyi pointed out the importance of water in muscle contraction in 1951, few studies have focused on the water science of muscle because of the difficulty of analyzing hydration properties of the muscle proteins, actin, and myosin. The thermodynamics and energetics of muscle contraction are linked to the water-mediated regulation of protein-ligand and protein-protein interactions along with structural changes in protein molecules. In this study, we assume the following two points: (1) the periodic electric field distribution along an actin filament (F-actin) is unidirectionally modified upon binding of myosin subfragment 1 (M or myosin S1) with ADP and inorganic phosphate Pi (M.ADP.Pi complex) and (2) the solvation free energy of myosin S1 depends on the external electric field strength and the solvation free energy of myosin S1 in close proximity to F-actin can become the potential force to drive myosin S1 along F-actin. The first assumption is supported by integration of experimental reports. The second assumption is supported by model calculations utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to determine solvation free energies of a small organic molecule and two small proteins. MD simulations utilize the energy representation method (ER) and the roughly proportional relationship between the solvation free energy and the solvent-accessible surface area (SASA) of the protein. The estimated driving force acting on myosin S1 is as high as several piconewtons (pN), which is consistent with the experimentally observed force. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. ANALYTICAL SYNTHESIS OF FORCED PULSE ELECTRONIC DRIVE CONTROL OF A TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Abufanas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of analytical synthesis of a control signal by a linear dynamical system is considered. As an optimization criterion, it is proposed to consider the transition time of the system from the initial state to a given final state. This type of control is called forced, providing the maximum system speed. The principle of solving this problem is considered on the basis of application of uncertain Lagrange multipliers and the Pontryagin maximum principle. Expressions are obtained for the matrix of transitions of the system and the control signal in a vector form.As an example, the electric drive described by the widespread second-order mathematical model is considered to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. Qualitative illustrations of the operability of the proposed approach, obtained by modeling in the Mathcad environment, and quantitative characteristics of the change in the input and output signals of the hypothetical control system are presented. It is shown that the use of forced control does not lead to the output of variables characterizing the state of the system, beyond the limits of admissible values.The use of forced control makes it possible to synthesize the control law in the form of a sequence of rectangular pulses of constant amplitude determined by the power source, variable duty cycle and polarity. This approach can be used for the control of DC-type DC motors used in various tracking systems used on unmanned aerial vehicles. Key words: forced control, target function, electric drive, pulse train. The use of forced control makes it possible to synthesize the control law in the form of a sequence of rectangular pulses of constant amplitude determined by the power source, variable duty cycle and polarity. This approach can be used for the control of DC-type DC motors used in various tracking systems used on unmanned aerial vehicles.

  17. Trends and driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment of the technical university

    OpenAIRE

    Danilenkova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    common patterns of ecological training and education in the technical university are analyzed in this article, their descriptions are defined. Driving forces of ecological training and education in the context of ecological education environment are discovered and proved. According to conducted research the author makes a proposition to point out at ecological risks as driving forces, searching for which improves the efficiency and effectiveness of ecological education environment. The resear...

  18. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    OpenAIRE

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object...

  19. Remote sensing monitoring and driving force analysis to forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliang Qiao, Pro.

    As an important city in the southern part of Chu Chiang Delta, Zhuhai is one of the four special economic zones which are opening up to the outside at the earliest in China. With pure and fresh air and trees shading the street, Zhuhai is a famous beach port city which is near the mountain and by the sea. On the basis of Garden City, the government of Zhuhai decides to build National Forest City in 2011, which firstly should understand the situation of greenbelt in Zhuhai in short term. Traditional methods of greenbelt investigation adopt the combination of field surveying and statistics, whose efficiency is low and results are not much objective because of artificial influence. With the adventure of the information technology such as remote sensing to earth observation, especially the launch of many remote sensing satellites with high resolution for the past few years, kinds of urban greenbelt information extraction can be carried out by using remote sensing technology; and dynamic monitoring to spatial pattern evolvement of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai can be achieved by the combination of remote sensing and GIS technology. Taking Landsat5 TM data in 1995, Landsat7 ETM+ data in 2002, CCD and HR data of CBERS-02B in 2009 as main information source, this research firstly makes remote sensing monitoring to dynamic change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai by using the combination of vegetation coverage index and three different information extraction methods, then does a driving force analysis to the dynamic change results in 3 months. The results show: the forest area in Zhuhai shows decreasing tendency from 1995 to 2002, increasing tendency from 2002 to 2009; overall, the forest area show a small diminution tendency from 1995 to 2009. Through the comparison to natural and artificial driving force, the artificial driving force is the leading factor to the change of forest and greenbelt in Zhuhai. The research results provide a timely and reliable scientific basis

  20. The driving forces for nitrogen and phosphorus flows in the food chain of china, 1980 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y; Ma, L; Gao, Z L; Wang, F H; Sims, J T; Ma, W Q; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) use and losses in China's food chain have accelerated in the past three decades, driven by population growth, rapid urbanization, dietary transition, and changing nutrient management practice. There has been little detailed quantitative analysis of the relative magnitude of these driving forces throughout this period. Therefore, we analyzed changes in N and P flows and key drivers behind changes in the food (production and consumption) chain at the national scale from 1980 to 2010. Food (N and P) consumption increased by about fivefold in urban settings over this period but has decreased in rural settings since the 1990s. For urban settings, the integrated driving forces for increased food consumption were population growth, which accounted for ∼60%, and changing urban diets toward a greater emphasis on the consumption of animal products. Nutrient inputs and losses in crop and animal productions have continuously increased from 1980 to 2010, but the rates of decadal increase were greatly different. Increased total inputs and losses in crop production were primarily driven by increased crop production for food demand (68-96%) in the 1980s but were likely offset in the 2000s by improved nutrient management practices, as evidenced by decreased total inputs to and losses from cropland for harvesting per nutrient in crop. The contributions of animal production to total N and P losses to waters from the food chain increased by 34 and 60% from 1980 to 2010. These increases were caused mainly by decreased ratios of manure returned to cropland. Our study highlights a larger impact of changing nutrient management practice than population growth on elevated nutrient flows in China's food chain. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Robots drive the German radical prostatectomy market: a total population analysis from 2006 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeben, C; Koch, R; Baunacke, M; Wirth, M P; Huber, J

    2016-12-01

    To assess trends in the distribution of patients for radical prostatectomy in Germany from 2006 to 2013 and the impact of robotic surgery on annual caseloads. We hypothesized that the advent of robotics and the establishment of certified prostate cancer centers caused centralization in the German radical prostatectomy market. Using remote data processing we analyzed the nationwide German billing data from 2006 to 2013. We supplemented this database with additional hospital characteristics like the prostate cancer center certification status. Inclusion criteria were a prostate cancer diagnosis combined with radical prostatectomy. Hospitals with certification or a surgical robot in 2009 were defined as 'early' group. Linear covariant-analytic models were applied to describe trends over time. Annual radical prostatectomy numbers declined from 28 374 (2006) to 21 850 (2013). High-volume hospitals (⩾100 cases) decreased from 87 (22.0%) in 2006 to 43 (10.4%) in 2013. Low-volume hospitals (200 cases per year contrary to the overall trend (Pdecentralization of radical prostatectomy in Germany. The driving force for this development might consist in the overall decline of radical prostatectomy numbers. The most important factor for achieving higher caseloads was the presence of a robotic system. In order to optimize outcomes of radical prostatectomy additional health policy measures might be necessary.

  2. ASEAN-5 Passenger Car Industry Outlook: The Driving Forces, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Quek, Wu Kheng

    2010-01-01

    Global automotive industry is growing at an unprecedented speed in the past decade, primarily due to the strong and fastest growing demand from the Asian emerging economies. ASEAN-5 is an economic block with huge potential. It is an attractive alternative destination for business compare with other emerging economies. Total population is 420 million people and combined economic size of $1,355 billion in this region. ASEAN-5 countries are one of the major driving markets contributed to the rap...

  3. Land use change and its driving forces toward mutual conversion in Zhangjiakou City, a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Xu, Yueqing; Sun, Piling; Huang, An; Zheng, Weiran

    2017-09-14

    Land use/cover change (LUCC), a local environmental issue of global importance, and its driving forces have been crucial issues in geography and environmental research. Previous studies primarily focused on major driving factors in various land use types, with few explorations of differences between driving forces of mutual land use type conversions, especially in fragile eco-environments. In this study, Zhangjiakou City, in a farming-pastoral ecotone in Northern China, was taken as an example to analyze land use change between 1989 and 2015, and explore the driving forces of mutual land use type conversions using canonical correlation analysis. Satellite images and government statistics, including social-economic and natural data, were used as sources. Arable land, forestland, and grassland formed the main land use structure. From 1989 to 2015 forestland, orchard land, and construction land significantly increased, while arable land, grassland, unused land, and water areas decreased. Conversions from grassland to forestland; from arable land to orchard land, forestland and construction land; and from unused land to grassland and forestland were the primary land use changes. Among these, the conversion from grassland to forestland had the highest ranking. Average annual precipitation and per capita net income of rural residents positively affected the conversion of arable land to forestland and unused land to grassland. GDP, total population, and urbanization rate contributed most significantly to converting arable land to construction land; total retail sales of social consumer goods, average annual temperature, and GDP had important positive influences in converting arable land to orchard land.

  4. Driving forces behind the Chinese public's demand for improved environmental safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ting; Wang, Jigan; Ma, Zongwei; Bi, Jun

    2017-12-15

    Over the past decades, the public demand for improved environmental safety keeps increasing in China. This study aims to assess the driving forces behind the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety using a provincial and multi-year (1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014) panel data and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) model. The potential driving forces investigated included population size, income levels, degrees of urbanization, and educational levels. Results show that population size and educational level are positively (Pdemand for improved environmental safety. No significant impact on demand was found due to the degree of urbanization. For the impact due to income level, an inverted U-shaped curve effect with the turning point of ~140,000 CNY GDP per capita is indicated. Since per capita GDP of 2015 in China was approximately 50,000 CNY and far from the turning point, the public demand for improved environmental safety will continue rising in the near future. To meet the increasing public demand for improved environmental safety, proactive and risk prevention based environmental management systems coupled with effective environmental risk communication should be established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Negotiating EU CO2/energy taxation. Political economic driving forces and barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klok, Jacob

    2001-11-01

    The primary objective of this project is to identify the main political economic driving forces behind and barriers against the creation of an EU agreement on CO 2 /energy taxation. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework for understanding European integration and on detailed historical investigations into a process of EU negotiations concerning CO 2 /energy taxation that took place from the 1980s to 1994. Following the historical analysis of political economic driving forces and barriers, some overall perspectives on possible future developments within the field of EU CO 2 /energy taxation are finally advanced. The secondary objective of the project is to consider the possible effects on the EU negotiation process of Danish efforts to push the CO 2 /energy tax proposal from the late 1980s to 994. This analysis is based on the preceding historical analysis of the EU negotiation process, as well as further investigations into the national Danish development within the field of CO 2 /energy taxation, including accounts of Denmark's particular relations with the EU during the period in question. Finally, based on the likely future developments in the field EU CO 2 /energy taxation. Denmark's strategic opportunities are outlined. (BA)

  6. Driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changhai

    2016-09-01

    This research revealed important driving forces behind the construction of an eco-compensation mechanism for wetlands (DFEMW) in China. Using China's provincial panel data from 1978 to 2008, a fixed-effects model was used to analyze the impacts of agricultural production systems on wetlands. We identified three DFEMW as follows: the change of wetland resources and protection measures in China; declaration and implementation of the provincial Wetland Protection Ordinance; and wetland degradation by agricultural production systems, which necessitated the establishment of a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. In addition to the DFEMW, a significant positive correlation between wetland area and both rural population and gross agricultural production was identified, in addition to a negative correlation with chemical fertilizer usage, reservoir storage capacity, and irrigation area. The underlying reasons for the serious degradation and inadequate protection of wetlands were market failure and government failure; these were the driving forces behind the need to establish a wetland eco-compensation mechanism. From a governmental perspective, it has been difficult to rectify market failures in resource distribution and thus to prevent wetland degradation. Factors include conflicts of interest, lack of investment, effective special laws, a simple means to protect wetlands, and a multidisciplinary management system. Therefore, the key factor is the coordination of interest relationships between those who utilize wetlands and those who seek to minimize wetland degradation and effectively protect wetlands.

  7. Driving forces and barriers for environmental technology development; Drivkrefter og barrierer for utvikling av miljoeteknologi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Driving forces and barriers behind development and usage of environmental technology is discussed, and also whether there are certain characteristics related to environmental innovations compared to other innovations in general. The development of environmental technology is in principle dominated by the same drivers and barriers as any other technology, but the order and strength of the various factors may be different. This examination as well as other empirical studies shows that regulations play a greater part for environmental technology than 'pure market forces'. To many participants it is important to be one step ahead of the regulations, i.e. the expected regulations are equally important as the factual ones in driving the technology development. Players in the business community express that it is important that the authorities cooperate with them when introducing new regulations. This will increase acceptance for the regulations and facilitate the necessary adjustments. The most important barrier in the development and use of the technologies studied is probably the lack of demand.

  8. Salticid predation as one potential driving force of ant mimicry in jumping spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Nan; Cheng, Ren-Chung; Li, Daiqin; Tso, I-Min

    2011-01-01

    Many spiders possess myrmecomorphy, and species of the jumping spider genus Myrmarachne exhibit nearly perfect ant mimicry. Most salticids are diurnal predators with unusually high visual acuity that prey on various arthropods, including conspecifics. In this study, we tested whether predation pressure from large jumping spiders is one possible driving force of perfect ant mimicry in jumping spiders. The results showed that small non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders were readily treated as prey by large ones (no matter whether heterospecific or conspecific) and suffered high attack and mortality rates. The size difference between small and large jumping spiders significantly affected the outcomes of predatory interactions between them: the smaller the juvenile jumping spiders, the higher the predation risk from large ones. The attack and mortality rates of ant-mimicking jumping spiders were significantly lower than those of non-ant-mimicking jumping spiders, indicating that a resemblance to ants could provide protection against salticid predation. However, results of multivariate behavioural analyses showed that the responses of large jumping spiders to ants and ant-mimicking salticids differed significantly. Results of this study indicate that predation pressure from large jumping spiders might be one selection force driving the evolution of nearly perfect myrmecomorphy in spiders and other arthropods. PMID:20961898

  9. TOTAL FORCE INTEGRATION: PROVIDING STABILITY FOR CITIZEN SOLDIERS IN AN EVER CHANGING AIR FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    specifically called for achieving a better work - life balance and “leveraging the best talents of our Guard, Reserve, and civilian teams.”88 Taking...paper will offer unique scenarios (Let it Be, Nowhere Man, The Long and Winding Road, and We Can Work It Out) which balance mission readiness against...entire Air Force airlift mission, resulting in substantial stressors on civilian careers and family life , which has always been the cornerstone of

  10. Human health and the water environment: using the DPSEEA framework to identify the driving forces of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Bartram, Jamie

    2014-01-15

    There is a growing awareness of global forces that threaten human health via the water environment. A better understanding of the dynamic between human health and the water environment would enable prediction of the significant driving forces and effective strategies for coping with or preventing them. This report details the use of the Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA) framework to explore the linkage between water-related diseases and their significant driving forces. The DPSEEA frameworks indicate that a select group of driving forces, including population growth, agriculture, infrastructure (dams and irrigation), and climate change, is at the root cause of key global disease burdens. Construction of the DPSEEA frameworks also allows for the evaluation of public health interventions. Sanitation was found to be a widely applicable and effective intervention, targeting the driver/pressure linkage of most of the water-related diseases examined. Ultimately, the DPSEEA frameworks offer a platform for constituents in both the health and environmental fields to collaborate and commit to a common goal targeting the same driving forces. © 2013.

  11. Driving forces for adsorption of amphiphilic peptides to the air-water interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Ozge; Villa, Alessandra; Sayar, Mehmet; Hess, Berk

    2010-09-02

    We have studied the partitioning of amphiphilic peptides at the air-water interface. The free energy of adsorption from bulk to interface was calculated by determining the potential of mean force via atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. To this end a method is introduced to restrain or constrain the center of mass of a group of molecules in a periodic system. The model amphiphilic peptides are composed of alternating valine and asparagine residues. The decomposition of the free energy difference between the bulk and interface is studied for different peptide block lengths. Our analysis revealed that for short amphiphilic peptides the surface driving force dominantly stems from the dehydration of hydrophobic side chains. The only opposing force is associated with the loss of orientational freedom of the peptide at the interface. For the peptides studied, the free energy difference scales linearly with the size of the molecule, since the peptides mainly adopt extended conformations both in bulk and at the interface. The free energy difference depends strongly on the water model, which can be rationalized through the hydration thermodynamics of hydrophobic solutes. Finally, we measured the reduction of the surface tension associated with complete coverage of the interface with peptides.

  12. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ... trained, highly experienced personnel with no aircraft to operate and support. The authors develop a methodology to evaluate missions that could be transferred from the active component to the ANG without significant cost to the total force...

  13. Driving forces shaping advanced reactor designs: Near-term and long-term prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sholly, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores the forces which have driven and which in the opinion of the author should be driving advanced reactor development programs. Four general driving forces are identified: cost, safety, environmental concerns, and non-proliferation concerns. It is suggested that the primary driving forces should be cost and safety concerns. It is suggested that advanced reactors need to demonstrate the following characteristics: (a) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents, including severe external events (not necessarily limited to contemporary design basis events) and which results in a frequency of severe core damage substantially lower than in current plants. The goal for the frequency of severe core damage should reflect a reasonable assurance that a severe core damage accident will not occur during the operating lifetime of a fleet' of such plants. (b) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents in terms of accident mitigation, resulting in a very low conditional likelihood of a substantial fission product release given a severe accident. (c) A design which utilizes near-passive and passive concepts (whose safety and reliability are demonstrable by experiment and/or full-scale test) for both accident prevention and accident mitigation to the maximum extent feasible. (d) A design which allows f a suitably long time between refueling outages, with a balance struck between refueling outage duration and refueling outage frequency so as to maximize availability and capacity factor. (e) A design which emphasizes modular construction and exceptional quality control. (f) A design which de emphasizes the importance of maintenance and human reliability more generally to assure that safety functions are performed with acceptable reliability, and to assure that passive safety characteristics are not compromised by design, manufacturing, or installation defects. It is further suggested that key factors in gaining public acceptance are the early

  14. Driving forces shaping advanced reactor designs: Near-term and long-term prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholly, S C [MHB Technical Associates, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    This paper explores the forces which have driven and which in the opinion of the author should be driving advanced reactor development programs. Four general driving forces are identified: cost, safety, environmental concerns, and non-proliferation concerns. It is suggested that the primary driving forces should be cost and safety concerns. It is suggested that advanced reactors need to demonstrate the following characteristics: (a) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents, including severe external events (not necessarily limited to contemporary design basis events) and which results in a frequency of severe core damage substantially lower than in current plants. The goal for the frequency of severe core damage should reflect a reasonable assurance that a severe core damage accident will not occur during the operating lifetime of a fleet' of such plants. (b) A design which explicitly accounts for severe accidents in terms of accident mitigation, resulting in a very low conditional likelihood of a substantial fission product release given a severe accident. (c) A design which utilizes near-passive and passive concepts (whose safety and reliability are demonstrable by experiment and/or full-scale test) for both accident prevention and accident mitigation to the maximum extent feasible. (d) A design which allows f a suitably long time between refueling outages, with a balance struck between refueling outage duration and refueling outage frequency so as to maximize availability and capacity factor. (e) A design which emphasizes modular construction and exceptional quality control. (f) A design which de emphasizes the importance of maintenance and human reliability more generally to assure that safety functions are performed with acceptable reliability, and to assure that passive safety characteristics are not compromised by design, manufacturing, or installation defects. It is further suggested that key factors in gaining public acceptance are the early

  15. The Impact of Evolutionary Driving Forces on Human Complex Diseases: A Population Genetics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr T. M. Saeb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating the molecular evolution of human genome has paved the way to understand genetic adaptation of humans to the environmental changes and corresponding complex diseases. In this review, we discussed the historical origin of genetic diversity among human populations, the evolutionary driving forces that can affect genetic diversity among populations, and the effects of human movement into new environments and gene flow on population genetic diversity. Furthermore, we presented the role of natural selection on genetic diversity and complex diseases. Then we reviewed the disadvantageous consequences of historical selection events in modern time and their relation to the development of complex diseases. In addition, we discussed the effect of consanguinity on the incidence of complex diseases in human populations. Finally, we presented the latest information about the role of ancient genes acquired from interbreeding with ancient hominids in the development of complex diseases.

  16. Robust 2-Qubit Gates in a Linear Ion Crystal Using a Frequency-Modulated Driving Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Pak Hong; Landsman, Kevin A.; Figgatt, Caroline; Linke, Norbert M.; Monroe, Christopher; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-01-01

    In an ion trap quantum computer, collective motional modes are used to entangle two or more qubits in order to execute multiqubit logical gates. Any residual entanglement between the internal and motional states of the ions results in loss of fidelity, especially when there are many spectator ions in the crystal. We propose using a frequency-modulated driving force to minimize such errors. In simulation, we obtained an optimized frequency-modulated 2-qubit gate that can suppress errors to less than 0.01% and is robust against frequency drifts over ±1 kHz . Experimentally, we have obtained a 2-qubit gate fidelity of 98.3(4)%, a state-of-the-art result for 2-qubit gates with five ions.

  17. On the driving force for crack growth during thermal actuation of shape memory alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxevanis, T.; Parrinello, A. F.; Lagoudas, D. C.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of thermomechanically induced phase transformation on the driving force for crack growth in polycrystalline shape memory alloys is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked plate subjected to a thermal actuation cycle under mechanical load in plain strain. Finite element calculations are carried out to determine the mechanical fields near the static crack and the crack-tip energy release rate using the virtual crack closure technique. A substantial increase of the energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during the thermal cycle due to the stress redistribution induced by large scale phase transformation. Thus, phase transformation occurring due to thermal variations under mechanical load may result in crack growth if the crack-tip energy release rate reaches a material specific critical value.

  18. Design and Synthesis of Distillation Systems using a Driving Force Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bek-Pedersen, Erik; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    A new integrated framework for synthesis, design and operation of distillation-based separation schemes is presented here. This framework is based on the driving force approach, which provides a measure of the differences in chemical/physical properties between two co-existing phases...... in a separation unit. A set of algorithms has been developed within this framework for design of simple as well as complex distillation columns, for the sequencing of distillation trains, for the determination of appropriate conditions of operation and for retrofit of distillation columns. The main feature of all...... these algorithms is that they provide a simple "visual" method to obtain near-optimal solutions in terms of energy consumption without rigorous simulation and/or optimisation. Several illustrative examples highlighting the application of the integrated approach are also presented. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V....

  19. Driving forces: Motor vehicle trends and their implications for global warming, energy strategies, and transportation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, J.J.; Walsh, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Cars, trucks, and other vehicles have long been linked to smog and other urban pollution, but the part they play in the larger complex of atmospheric and energy ills that we now face is often overlooked. In Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and Their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning, James J. MacKenzie, senior associate in World Resources Institute's Program in Climate, Energy, and Pollution, and Michael P. Walsh, an international consultant on transportation and environmental issues, fill in this knowledge gap with new data and analyses. They spell out four policy shifts that can help hold the line on global warming: improve new-vehicle efficiency; make transportation more efficient; cut other greenhouse gas emissions; create the green car of the future. The report focuses especially on the US, which pioneered the automotive revolution and leads the world in oil imports and emissions

  20. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-01-01

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  1. Greatest Happiness Principle in a Complex System: Maximisation versus Driving Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From philosophical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the principle of the pursuit of the greatest happiness. From mathematical point of view, micro-founded economic theories depart from the utility maximisation program. Though economists are aware of the serious limitations of the equilibrium analysis, they remain in that framework. We show that the maximisation principle, which implies the equilibrium hypothesis, is responsible for this impasse. We formalise the pursuit of the greatest happiness principle by the help of the driving force postulate: the volumes of activities depend on the expected wealth increase. In that case we can get rid of the equilibrium hypothesis and have new insights into economic theory. For example, in what extent standard economic results depend on the equilibrium hypothesis?

  2. An analysis of the driving forces of CO2 emissions embodied in Japan-China trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Yanli; Ishikawa, Masanobu; Liu Xianbing; Wang Can

    2010-01-01

    By using the latest China-Japan input-output data sets and the index decomposition analysis (IDA) approach, this article analyzes the driving forces of CO 2 emissions embodied in trade between the two countries during 1990-2000. We found that the growth of trade volume had a large influence on the increase of CO 2 emissions embodiments in bilateral trade. The dramatic decline in carbon intensity of the Chinese economy is a primary cause in offsetting CO 2 emissions exported from China to Japan over 1995-2000. We argue that a better understanding of the factors affecting CO 2 emissions embodied in international trade will assist in seeking more effective climate policies with wider participation in the post-Kyoto regime.

  3. Computational simulations of direct contact condensation as the driving force for water hammer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin-Cristian

    2015-04-27

    An analysis, based on Computer Simulations of the Direct Contact Condensation as the Driving Force for the Condensation Induced Water Hammer phenomenon is performed within this thesis. The goal of the work is to develop a mechanistic HTC model, with predictive capabilities for the simulation of horizontal or nearly horizontal two-phase ows with complex patterns including the e ect of interfacial heat and mass transfer. The newly developed HTC model was implemented into the system code ATHLET and into the CFD tools ANSYS CFX and OpenFOAM. Validation calculations have been performed for horizontal or nearly horizontal ows, where simulation results have been compared against the local measurement data such as void and temperature or area averaged data delivered by a wire mesh sensor.

  4. Cultural Changes Required in the Army to Truly Achieve a Total Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    tailored to achieve anticipated objectives.”1 Honorable John M. McHugh , Secretary of the Army Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy...United States Soldier. 16 End Notes 1 McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012-08 (Army Total Force Policy).” Secretary of the Army, September 4...1 (February 2006): 40–42. McCullough, Amy. “Out of Reserve (Air Force Reserve Command)” 94, no. 12 (2011): 40. McHugh , John M. “Army Directive 2012

  5. Stabilization of car-caravan combination using independent steer and drive/or brake forces distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossama Mokhiamar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Once a combined vehicle becomes unstable, it is very difficult for a driver to stabilize it especially under severe driving conditions, such as turning with braking. This is mainly due to the effect of the towed vehicle on the towing vehicle through the hitch jackknifing. This effect makes the handling characteristics of a car-caravan combination different from those of a single vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a control design concept for an optimum distribution of longitudinal and lateral forces of the four tires of a towing vehicle. The mean objectives of the control system were to stabilize the motion of an articulated vehicle utilizing the tires entire ability in both longitudinal and lateral directions as well as to make the handling characteristics of an articulated vehicle similar to those of a single one. The sliding control law based on vehicle planar equations of motion is used to derive the control laws. The proposed control system is evaluated under severe driving conditions and compared with the results of integrated control systems. The robustness of the articulated vehicle motion with the proposed control against the coefficient of friction variation is discussed.

  6. Driving forces for home-based reablement; a qualitative study of older adults' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelle, Kari Margrete; Tuntland, Hanne; Førland, Oddvar; Alvsvåg, Herdis

    2017-09-01

    As a result of the ageing population worldwide, there has been a growing international interest in a new intervention termed 'reablement'. Reablement is an early and time-limited home-based intervention with emphasis on intensive, goal-oriented and interdisciplinary rehabilitation for older adults in need of rehabilitation or at risk of functional decline. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how older adults experienced participation in reablement. Eight older adults participated in semi-structured interviews. A qualitative content analysis was used as the analysis strategy. Four main themes emerged from the participants' experiences of participating in reablement: 'My willpower is needed', 'Being with my stuff and my people', 'The home-trainers are essential', and 'Training is physical exercises, not everyday activities'. The first three themes in particular reflected the participants' driving forces in the reablement process. Driving forces are intrinsic motivation in interaction with extrinsic motivation. Intrinsic motivation was based on the person's willpower and responsibility, and extrinsic motivation was expressed to be strengthened by being in one's home environment with 'own' people, as well as by the co-operation with the reablement team. The reablement team encouraged and supported the older adults to regain confidence in performing everyday activities as well as participating in the society. Our findings have practical significance for politicians, healthcare providers and healthcare professionals by contributing to an understanding of how intrinsic and extrinsic motivation influence reablement. Some persons need apparently more extrinsic motivational support also after the time-limited reablement period is completed. The municipal health and care services need to consider individualised follow-up programmes after the intensive reablement period in order to maintain the achieved skills to perform everyday activities and participate in

  7. Tendency to occupy a statistically dominant spatial state of the flow as a driving force for turbulent transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmarev, Sergei F

    2013-03-01

    The transition from laminar to turbulent fluid motion occurring at large Reynolds numbers is generally associated with the instability of the laminar flow. On the other hand, since the turbulent flow characteristically appears in the form of spatially localized structures (e.g., eddies) filling the flow field, a tendency to occupy such a structured state of the flow cannot be ruled out as a driving force for turbulent transition. To examine this possibility, we propose a simple analytical model that treats the flow as a collection of localized spatial structures, each of which consists of elementary cells in which the behavior of the particles (atoms or molecules) is uncorrelated. This allows us to introduce the Reynolds number, associating it with the ratio between the total phase volume for the system and that for the elementary cell. Using the principle of maximum entropy to calculate the most probable size distribution of the localized structures, we show that as the Reynolds number increases, the elementary cells group into the localized structures, which successfully explains turbulent transition and some other general properties of turbulent flows. An important feature of the present model is that a bridge between the spatial-statistical description of the flow and hydrodynamic equations is established. We show that the basic assumptions underlying the model, i.e., that the particles are indistinguishable and elementary volumes of phase space exist in which the state of the particles is uncertain, are involved in the derivation of the Navier-Stokes equation. Taking into account that the model captures essential features of turbulent flows, this suggests that the driving force for the turbulent transition is basically the same as in the present model, i.e., the tendency of the system to occupy a statistically dominant state plays a key role. The instability of the flow at high Reynolds numbers can then be a mechanism to initiate structural rearrangement of

  8. NATURE AND DRIVING FORCES OF STRIKE MOVEMENT IN MOLDOVA IN LATE 1980S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Евгеньевна Слободянюк

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the nature and driving forces of the republican protest strike movement in Moldova in the period of perestroika reformsand its impact on the emergence and development of the civil conflict,which became the catalyst for the territorial division of the republic and the creation of the self-proclaimed Transnistrian statehood.In the article there is presented the analysis of the process of formationand activity of the strike movement. The author shows that the United Council of LabourUnionswas the initiator, organizer and the main acting force of the protest of the workers' movement, defending the civil and constitutional rights of the Russian-speaking population of the Transdnistrian region of the Moldavian SSR. The article allows getting an idea of the ways and methods of struggle of the working movement against the Soviet Moldavia nationalist representatives of the Popular front, which operated on the territory of the republic of Moldova. Particular attention is paid to the reasons of occurrence and major activities of the strike movement.Moreover, there are analyzed the consequences of these actions for the further political development of Moldova.

  9. EXTERNAL FORCES DRIVING CHANGE IN THE ROMANIAN SMALL AND MEDIUM SIZED ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roiban Roxana Nadina

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Change is a constant in everyday life confronting organizations to continuously adapt their strategy, structure, processes, and culture in order to survive and stay competitive on the market. Implementing organizational change is one of the most important skills required for managers and in the meantime the most difficult one. The forces driving change within an organization, that can be either external or internal, are those that propel a company forward towards change and in order to identify the need for change and make the proper changes, managers have to develop a tool that allows them to analyze how does the environment influence their business activities. A vision for change will clarify the directions in which the organization needs to move, starting from its current state and taking in consideration the existing opportunities and threats from the environment that allow to move to a future desired state. The purpose of this paper is to identify the concern for change in the Romanian small and medium sized enterprises by presenting and explaining the past and present influences of the main external forces that have determined the need for change in the last 3-5 years and to make recommendations about future possible changes that have to be performed by managers for a better harmonization with the environment. The research method used for this study is the interview on a sample that contains some of the most relevant SME’s from the western side of Romania, from different industries. We analyzed the main external forces that had an impact on the small and medium sized enterprises and how were they generating the need for organizational change, in order to see which present and future changes are required.

  10. Knee Joint Loads and Surrounding Muscle Forces during Stair Ascent in Patients with Total Knee Replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rasnick

    Full Text Available Total knee replacement (TKR is commonly used to correct end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing often persists and prolongs the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future healthcare research. Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation approximates joint loading and corresponding muscle forces during a movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if knee joint loadings following TKR are recovered to the level of healthy individuals, and determine the differences in muscle forces causing those loadings. Data from five healthy and five TKR patients were selected for musculoskeletal simulation. Variables of interest included knee joint reaction forces (JRF and the corresponding muscle forces. A paired samples t-test was used to detect differences between groups for each variable of interest (p<0.05. No differences were observed for peak joint compressive forces between groups. Some muscle force compensatory strategies appear to be present in both the loading and push-off phases. Evidence from knee extension moment and muscle forces during the loading response phase indicates the presence of deficits in TKR in quadriceps muscle force production during stair ascent. This result combined with greater flexor muscle forces resulted in similar compressive JRF during loading response between groups.

  11. Solvent driving force ensures fast formation of a persistent and well-separated radical pair in plant cryptochrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüdemann, Gesa; Solov'yov, Ilia; Kubar, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    upon the electron transfer. This approach allows us to follow the time evolution of the electron transfer in an unbiased fashion and to reveal the molecular driving force which ensures fast electron transfer in cryptochrome guaranteeing formation of a persistent radical pair suitable...

  12. Blood pressure is the major driving force for plaque formation in aortic-constricted ApoE-/- mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Maria E.; Wickman, Anna; Skøtt, Ole

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Using an aortic constriction model in mice, we studied whether the increase in pressure or the activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and its main receptors is the main driving force for plaque progression. METHODS: Male ApoE mice underwent sham surgery or placement of a supr...

  13. Rising electricity consumption: Driving forces and consequences. The case of rural Zanzibar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winther, Tanja [Centre for Development and the Environment (SUM), Univ. of Oslo (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The paper addresses the current, rising electricity consumption in the southern, rural locality of Zanzibar and seeks to account for the range of driving forces behind people's changed practices. The author argues that these forces are, on the one hand, determined by the availability of new technologies and through global and national institutions and influences such as Islam, commercials and changes in the governmental sector (health, education). On the other hand, the paper explores the way such influences interplay with the internal dynamics related to increasing consumption. Through an analysis of the particular character and dynamics of social and cultural life in this region, the author explains why some practices are less likely to change than other practices. For example, people in Zanzibar keep electricity (freezers and stoves) at a distance from their food. By contrast, electric light is perceived as intimately related to education, as illustrated when school children are sent to school for night classes before important exams. To which extent may general approaches to the study of energy consumption draw on this empirical case from Zanzibar? In other contexts, the patterns of people's electricity use certainly differ. In terms of sustainable energy policies, each locality has a particular set of challenges and goals, which to varying degree may be related to poverty reduction and concern for the environment. Methodologically, however, the author argues that the phenomenon of energy consumption may be studied and understood within the same framework of analysis; one that pays attention to both external and internal dynamics, the material and social aspects of technologies and the importance of power relations, gender and negotiations.

  14. Assessing LULC changes over Chilika Lake watershed in Eastern India using Driving Force Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, S.; Syed, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and industrial development has brought about significant changes in Land Use Land Cover (LULC) of many developing countries in the world. This study investigates LULC changes in the Chilika Lake watershed of Eastern India for the period of 1988 to 2016. The methodology involves pre-processing and classification of Landsat satellite images using support vector machine (SVM) supervised classification algorithm. Results reveal that `Cropland', `Emergent Vegetation' and `Settlement' has expanded over the study period by 284.61 km², 106.83 km² and 98.83 km² respectively. Contemporaneously, `Lake Area', `Vegetation' and `Scrub Land' have decreased by 121.62 km², 96.05 km² and 80.29 km² respectively. This study also analyzes five major driving force variables of socio-economic and climatological factors triggering LULC changes through a bivariate logistic regression model. The outcome gives credible relative operating characteristics (ROC) value of 0.76 that indicate goodness fit of logistic regression model. In addition, independent variables like distance to drainage network and average annual rainfall have negative regression coefficient values that represent decreased rate of dependent variable (changed LULC) whereas independent variables (population density, distance to road and distance to railway) have positive regression coefficient indicates increased rate of changed LULC . Results from this study will be crucial for planning and restoration of this vital lake water body that has major implications over the society and environment at large.

  15. Climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dailiang; Liu, Liangyun; Yang, Xiaohua; Zhou, Bin

    2012-09-01

    Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) characterizes vegetation canopy functioning and its energy absorption capacity. In this paper, we focus on climatic driving forces in inter-annual variation of global FPAR from 1982 to 2006 by Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN-Monthly) data. Using FPAR-Simple Ratio Vegetation Index (SR) relationship, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to estimate FPAR at the global scale. The correlation between inter-annual variation of FPAR and temperature, precipitation derived from GHCN-Monthly was examined, during the periods of March-May (MAM), June-August (JJA), September-November (SON), and December-February (DJF) over from 1982 to 2006. The analysis of climatic influence on global FPAR revealed the significant correlation with temperature and precipitation in some meteorological stations area, and a more significant correlation with precipitation was found than which with temperature. Some stations in the regions between 30° N and 60° N and around 30° S in South America, where the annual FPAR variation showed a significant positive correlation with temperature (P forest of Africa and Amazon during the dry season of JJA and SON.

  16. Force Sensitive Handles and Capacitive Touch Sensor for Driving a Flexible Haptic-Based Immersive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Cugini

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user’s fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  17. Force sensitive handles and capacitive touch sensor for driving a flexible haptic-based immersive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covarrubias, Mario; Bordegoni, Monica; Cugini, Umberto

    2013-10-09

    In this article, we present an approach that uses both two force sensitive handles (FSH) and a flexible capacitive touch sensor (FCTS) to drive a haptic-based immersive system. The immersive system has been developed as part of a multimodal interface for product design. The haptic interface consists of a strip that can be used by product designers to evaluate the quality of a 3D virtual shape by using touch, vision and hearing and, also, to interactively change the shape of the virtual object. Specifically, the user interacts with the FSH to move the virtual object and to appropriately position the haptic interface for retrieving the six degrees of freedom required for both manipulation and modification modalities. The FCTS allows the system to track the movement and position of the user's fingers on the strip, which is used for rendering visual and sound feedback. Two evaluation experiments are described, which involve both the evaluation and the modification of a 3D shape. Results show that the use of the haptic strip for the evaluation of aesthetic shapes is effective and supports product designers in the appreciation of the aesthetic qualities of the shape.

  18. The Driving Forces of Cultural Complexity : Neanderthals, Modern Humans, and the Question of Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Laurel; Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Feldman, Marcus W; Aoki, Kenichi

    2017-03-01

    The forces driving cultural accumulation in human populations, both modern and ancient, are hotly debated. Did genetic, demographic, or cognitive features of behaviorally modern humans (as opposed to, say, early modern humans or Neanderthals) allow culture to accumulate to its current, unprecedented levels of complexity? Theoretical explanations for patterns of accumulation often invoke demographic factors such as population size or density, whereas statistical analyses of variation in cultural complexity often point to the importance of environmental factors such as food stability, in determining cultural complexity. Here we use both an analytical model and an agent-based simulation model to show that a full understanding of the emergence of behavioral modernity, and the cultural evolution that has followed, depends on understanding and untangling the complex relationships among culture, genetically determined cognitive ability, and demographic history. For example, we show that a small but growing population could have a different number of cultural traits from a shrinking population with the same absolute number of individuals in some circumstances.

  19. Casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia: driving forces and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creegan, Reta; Duffield, Christine; Forrester, Kim

    2003-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the extent of casualisation of the nursing workforce in Australia, focusing on the impact for those managing the system. The implications for nurse managers in particular are considerable in an industry where service demand is difficult to control and where individual nurses are thought to be increasingly choosing to work casually. While little is known of the reasons behind nurses exercising their preference for casual work arrangements, some reasons postulated include visa status (overseas trained nurses on holiday/working visas); permanent employees taking on additional shifts to increase their income levels; and those who elect to work under casual contracts for lifestyle reasons. Unknown is the demography of the casual nursing workforce, how these groups are distributed within the workforce, and how many contracts of employment they have across the health service--either through privately managed nursing agencies or hospital managed casual pools. A more detailed knowledge of the forces driving the decisions of this group is essential if health care organisations are to equip themselves to manage this changing workforce and maintain a standard of patient care that is acceptable to the community.

  20. Driving forces of organic carbon spatial distribution in the tropical seascape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, L. G.; Belshe, F. E.; Ziegler, A. D.; Bouma, T. J.

    2017-02-01

    An important ecosystem service of tropical coastal vegetation including seagrass beds and mangrove forests is their ability to accumulate carbon. Here we attempt to establish the driving forces for the accumulation of surface organic carbon in southern Thailand coastal systems. Across 12 sites we found that in line with expectations, seagrass beds (0.6 ± 0.09%) and mangrove forests (0.9 ± 0.3%) had higher organic carbon in the surface (top 5 cm) sediment than un-vegetated mudflats (0.4 ± 0.04%). Unexpectedly, however, mangrove forests in this region retained organic carbon, rather than outwell it, under normal tidal conditions. No relationship was found between organic carbon and substrate grain size. The most interesting finding of our study was that climax and pioneer seagrass species retained more carbon than mixed-species meadows, suggesting that plant morphology and meadow characteristics can be important factors in organic carbon accumulation. Insights such as these are important in developing carbon management strategies involving coastal ecosystems such as offsetting of carbon emissions. The ability of tropical coastal vegetation to sequester carbon is an important aspect for valuing the ecosystems. Our results provide some initial insight into the factors affecting carbon sequestration in these ecosystems, but also highlight the need for further research on a global scale.

  1. Knee Joint Loads and Surrounding Muscle Forces during Stair Ascent in Patients with Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasnick, Robert; Standifird, Tyler; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A.; Cates, Harold E.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is commonly used to correct end-stage knee osteoarthritis. Unfortunately, difficulty with stair climbing often persists and prolongs the challenges of TKR patents. Complete understanding of loading at the knee is of great interest in order to aid patient populations, implant manufacturers, rehabilitation, and future healthcare research. Musculoskeletal modeling and simulation approximates joint loading and corresponding muscle forces during a movement. The purpose of this study was to determine if knee joint loadings following TKR are recovered to the level of healthy individuals, and determine the differences in muscle forces causing those loadings. Data from five healthy and five TKR patients were selected for musculoskeletal simulation. Variables of interest included knee joint reaction forces (JRF) and the corresponding muscle forces. A paired samples t-test was used to detect differences between groups for each variable of interest (pknee extension moment and muscle forces during the loading response phase indicates the presence of deficits in TKR in quadriceps muscle force production during stair ascent. This result combined with greater flexor muscle forces resulted in similar compressive JRF during loading response between groups. PMID:27258086

  2. A general method for computing the total solar radiation force on complex spacecraft structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, F. K.

    1981-01-01

    The method circumvents many of the existing difficulties in computational logic presently encountered in the direct analytical or numerical evaluation of the appropriate surface integral. It may be applied to complex spacecraft structures for computing the total force arising from either specular or diffuse reflection or even from non-Lambertian reflection and re-radiation.

  3. Study on anti-seismic test of control rod driving system suspended by magnetic force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhihua; Qian Dazhi; Xu Xianqi; Huang Hongwen; Zhang Zhengming; Wu Xinxin; Hu Xiao

    2012-01-01

    To verify the stability, reliability and security function in extreme conditions, the anti-seismic test of control rod drive line was conducted. Drop-time of control rod drive line in different earthquake intensities was got. The response and strain values of control rod drive line acceleration on SL-1, SL-2 level were measured. Safety functions of control rod drive line were validated in different work conditions. Anti-seismic test data shows that the driving system can keep the structure's integrality and realize operation function under OBE and SSE. (authors)

  4. When is it safe to resume driving after total hip and total knee arthroplasty? a meta-analysis of literature on post-operative brake reaction times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, C A; Tolk, J J; Janssen, R P A; Reijman, M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the current available evidence about when patients might resume driving after elective, primary total hip (THA) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) undertaken for osteoarthritis (OA). In February 2016, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, PubMed Publisher, CINAHL, EBSCO and Google Scholar were searched for clinical studies reporting on 'THA', 'TKA', 'car driving', 'reaction time' and 'brake response time'. Two researchers (CAV and JJT) independently screened the titles and abstracts for eligibility and assessed the risk of bias. Both fixed and random effects were used to pool data and calculate mean differences (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between pre- and post-operative total brake response time (TBRT). A total of 19 studies were included. The assessment of the risk of bias showed that one study was at high risk, six studies at moderate risk and 12 studies at low risk. Meta-analysis of TBRT showed a MD decrease of 25.54 ms (95% CI -32.02 to 83.09) two weeks after right-sided THA, and of 18.19 ms (95% CI -6.13 to 42.50) four weeks after a right-sided TKA, when compared with the pre-operative value. The TBRT returned to baseline two weeks after a right-sided THA and four weeks after a right-sided TKA. These results may serve as guidelines for orthopaedic surgeons when advising patients when to resume driving. However, the advice should be individualised. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:566-76. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Dynamics of aeolian desertification and its driving forces in the Horqin Sandy Land, Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Han-chen; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Liu, Shu-lin; Guo, Jian

    2014-10-01

    Aeolian desertification is one of the most serious environmental and socioeconomic problems in arid, semi-arid, and dry subhumid zones. Understanding desertification processes and causes is important to provide reasonable and effective control measures for preventing desertification. With satellite remote sensing images as data source to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of desertification from 1975 to 2010 in the Horqin Sandy Land, dynamic changes of aeolian desertification were detected using the human-machine interactive interpretation method. The driving factors of local desertification were analyzed based on natural and socioeconomic data. The results show that aeolian desertified land in the study area covered 30,199 km(2) in 2010, accounting for 24.1% of the study area. The total area of aeolian desertified land obviously expanded from 30,884 km(2) in 1975 to 32,071 km(2) in 1990, and gradually decreased to 30,199 km(2) in 2010; aeolian desertified land represented an increasing trend firstly and then decreased. During the past 35 years, the gravity centers of desertified lands that are classified as extremely severe and severe generally migrated to the northeast, whereas those that are moderate and slight migrated to the northwest. The migration distance of severely desertified land was the largest, which indicated the southern desertified lands were improved during the last few decades. In addition, the climatic variation in the past 35 years has been favorable to desertification in the Horqin Sandy Land. Aeolian desertified land rapidly expanded from 1975 to 1990 under the combined effects of climate changes and unreasonable human activities. After the 1990s, the main driving factors responsible for the decrease in desertification were positive human activities, such as the series of antidesertification and ecological restoration projects.

  6. Spatiotemporal Pattern and Driving Forces of Arable Land-Use Intensity in China: Toward Sustainable Land Management Using Emergy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hualin Xie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The level of arable land-use intensity has important impacts on food security and rural sustainable development. Using the emergy method, we investigate the spatial disparities and driving forces of arable land-use intensity in China from 1999 to 2008 at the national, regional and provincial levels. The empirical results show that chemical fertilizer was the largest component of agricultural inputs and that agricultural diesel oil recorded the highest growth rate. The degree of heterogeneities in arable land-use intensity in China showed a decreasing trend, which resulted mainly from the differences among the eastern, northeastern, central and western regions. The regional disparities in labor, pesticides and plastic sheeting decreased from 1999 to 2008. The per capita annual net incomes of household operations and the agricultural policies had a significant positive correlation with total inputs, fertilizer inputs, pesticide inputs and agricultural plastic sheeting. In addition, the nonagricultural population had a greater impact on agricultural plastic sheeting. Finally, we suggest that there is an urgent need to focus on the effects of chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs on the ecological environment. Agricultural support policies should be introduced for the poor agricultural production provinces.

  7. Oxidized cholesterol as the driving force behind the development of Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eGamba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common neurodegenerative disorder associated with dementia, is typified by the pathological accumulation of amyloid β peptides and neurofibrillary tangles within the brain. Considerable evidence indicates that many events contribute to AD progression, including oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered cholesterol metabolism.The brain’s high lipid content makes it particularly vulnerable to oxidative species, with the consequent enhancement of lipid peroxidation and cholesterol oxidation, and the subsequent formation of end products, mainly 4-hydroxynonenal and oxysterols, respectively from the two processes. The chronic inflammatory events observed in the AD brain include activation of microglia and astrocytes, together with enhancement of inflammatory molecule and free radical release. Along with glial cells, neurons themselves have been found to contribute to neuroinflammation in the AD brain, by serving as sources of inflammatory mediators. Oxidative stress is intimately associated with neuroinflammation, and a vicious circle has been found to connect oxidative stress and inflammation in AD. Alongside oxidative stress and inflammation, altered cholesterol metabolism and hypercholesterolemia also significantly contribute to neuronal damage and to progression of AD. Increasing evidence is now consolidating the hypothesis that oxidized cholesterol is the driving force behind the development of AD, and that oxysterols are the link connecting the disease to altered cholesterol metabolism in the brain and hypercholesterolemia; this is because of the ability of oxysterols, unlike cholesterol, to cross the blood brain barrier. The key role of oxysterols in AD pathogenesis has been strongly supported by research pointing to their involvement in modulating neuroinflammation, Aβ accumulation, and cell death.This review highlights the key role played by cholesterol and oxysterols in the brain in AD pathogenesis.

  8. How metal films de-wet substrates-identifying the kinetic pathways and energetic driving forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarty, Kevin F; Hamilton, John C; Thuermer, Konrad; Jones, Frank; Talin, A Alec; Bartelt, Norman C; Sato, Yu; K Schmid, Andreas; Saa, Angela; Figuera, Juan de la; Stumpf, Roland

    2009-01-01

    We study how single-crystal chromium films of uniform thickness on W(110) substrates are converted to arrays of three-dimensional (3D) Cr islands during annealing. We use low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to directly observe a kinetic pathway that produces trenches that expose the wetting layer. Adjacent film steps move simultaneously uphill and downhill relative to the staircase of atomic steps on the substrate. This step motion thickens the film regions where steps advance. Where film steps retract, the film thins, eventually exposing the stable wetting layer. Since our analysis shows that thick Cr films have a lattice constant close to bulk Cr, we propose that surface and interface stress provide a possible driving force for the observed morphological instability. Atomistic simulations and analytic elastic models show that surface and interface stress can cause a dependence of film energy on thickness that leads to an instability to simultaneous thinning and thickening. We observe that de-wetting is also initiated at bunches of substrate steps in two other systems, Ag/W(110) and Ag/Ru(0001). We additionally describe how Cr films are converted into patterns of unidirectional stripes as the trenches that expose the wetting layer lengthen along the W[001] direction. Finally, we observe how 3D Cr islands form directly during film growth at elevated temperature. The Cr mesas (wedges) form as Cr film steps advance down the staircase of substrate steps, another example of the critical role that substrate steps play in 3D island formation.

  9. Analysis of the Driving Forces in Vegetation Variation in the Grain for Green Program Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese government introduced six ecological restoration programs to improve its natural environment. Although these programs have proven successful in improving local environmental conditions, some studies have questioned their effectiveness when regions suffer from extreme weather conditions. Using the Grain for Green Program (GGP region as a study area, we estimated vegetation activities in the GGP region from 2000 to 2010 to clarify the trends in vegetation growth and their driving forces. The results showed that: (1 vegetation activities improved in the GGP region during 2000-2010, with 58.94% of the area showing an increased trend in the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index; (2 26.33% of the increased vegetation was caused by human interference, and 11.61% by climate variation, human activity was the dominant cause, and resulted in 54.68% of the degradation compared to 4.74% from climate change; and, (3 the contribution of different land use types to the NDVI interannual variations showed that high contribution regions were focused in the arid and semiarid areas, where the vegetation growth is associated with variations in recipitation and temperature. However, conversions between farmland and grassland or forest had a significant effect on the change in the NDVI trend. Therefore, although climate conditions can affect vegetation growth, human activities are more important in vegetation changes, and appropriate human activities would contribute to its continual improvement. Hence, we recommend establishing an assessment and scientific management mechanism for eco-risks in the design and management of ecosystem restoration programs.

  10. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Arne; Piškur, Jure

    2015-01-01

    Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that were semi-anaerobic.

  11. A study on the fundamental mechanism and the evolutionary driving forces behind aerobic fermentation in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Hagman

    Full Text Available Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly converts sugars to ethanol and carbon dioxide at both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The later phenomenon is called Crabtree effect and has been described in two forms, long-term and short-term effect. We have previously studied under fully controlled aerobic conditions forty yeast species for their central carbon metabolism and the presence of long-term Crabtree effect. We have also studied ten steady-state yeast cultures, pulsed them with glucose, and followed the central carbon metabolism and the appearance of ethanol at dynamic conditions. In this paper we analyzed those wet laboratory data to elucidate possible mechanisms that determine the fate of glucose in different yeast species that cover approximately 250 million years of evolutionary history. We determine overflow metabolism to be the fundamental mechanism behind both long- and short-term Crabtree effect, which originated approximately 125-150 million years ago in the Saccharomyces lineage. The "invention" of overflow metabolism was the first step in the evolution of aerobic fermentation in yeast. It provides a general strategy to increase energy production rates, which we show is positively correlated to growth. The "invention" of overflow has also simultaneously enabled rapid glucose consumption in yeast, which is a trait that could have been selected for, to "starve" competitors in nature. We also show that glucose repression of respiration is confined mainly among S. cerevisiae and closely related species that diverged after the whole genome duplication event, less than 100 million years ago. Thus, glucose repression of respiration was apparently "invented" as a second step to further increase overflow and ethanol production, to inhibit growth of other microbes. The driving force behind the initial evolutionary steps was most likely competition with other microbes to faster consume and convert sugar into biomass, in niches that

  12. A drastic reorganization of industry in the world.What is the driving force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Naruo

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show the method and model to analyze the driving force to reorganize the industry. Due to the global economy, many large scale M&A and affiliations are happening in the world. The business alliance and integration are happening in the advanced countries, the transition countries, and the developing countries. There are some factors to impact the reorganization of industry. One is government policy. Another is the market economy. The government has the industrial policy. It guides and leads the industrial structure of the country. Advanced countries had experienced the advancement of industrial structure. On the process of industrial structure advancement, the country improved national income (GNP. Through the process, the enterprise in the industry had experienced integration and separation in the industry. The theory of industrial structure supports the framework of this approach.On the other hand, the market economy also had influenced to the reorganization of industry. Business cycle, competition, and innovation had influenced the reorganization of industry. In capitalism, the shareholder of the company pushes the company to maximize the profit. The shareholder’s pressure could influence the decision of M&A.The theory of industrial organization supports the framework of this approach.The enterprise is in the business environment. Top management of the company is responsible to make a decision to merge or acquire the company. However, the decision is affected by other factors out of business environment. The shareholder influenced the individual enterprise decision. The government policy influenced the industrial structure. This could impose the enterprise to accept the amalgamation in the industry.Both of two influence the reorganization of industry.

  13. The Influence of Component Alignment and Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in Total Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin R; Vignos, Michael F; Lenhart, Rachel L; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization technique was used to simultaneously predict muscle forces, secondary knee kinematics, ligament forces, and joint contact pressures from standard gait analysis data collected on the subject. The nominal knee model predictions of medial, lateral, and total contact forces during gait agreed well with TKR measures, with root-mean-square (rms) errors of 0.23, 0.22, and 0.33 body weight (BW), respectively. Coronal plane component alignment did not affect total knee contact loads, but did alter the medial-lateral load distribution, with 4 deg varus and 4 deg valgus rotations in component alignment inducing +17% and -23% changes in the first peak medial tibiofemoral contact forces, respectively. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that uncertainties in ligament stiffness and reference strains induce ±0.2 BW uncertainty in tibiofemoral force estimates over the gait cycle. Ligament properties had substantial influence on the TKR load distributions, with the medial collateral ligament and iliotibial band (ITB) properties having the largest effects on medial and lateral compartment loading, respectively. The computational framework provides a viable approach for virtually designing TKR components, considering parametric uncertainty and predicting the effects of joint alignment and soft tissue balancing procedures on TKR function during movement.

  14. The Influence of Component Alignment and Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in Total Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Colin R.; Vignos, Michael F.; Lenhart, Rachel L.; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization technique was used to simultaneously predict muscle forces, secondary knee kinematics, ligament forces, and joint contact pressures from standard gait analysis data collected on the subject. The nominal knee model predictions of medial, lateral, and total contact forces during gait agreed well with TKR measures, with root-mean-square (rms) errors of 0.23, 0.22, and 0.33 body weight (BW), respectively. Coronal plane component alignment did not affect total knee contact loads, but did alter the medial–lateral load distribution, with 4 deg varus and 4 deg valgus rotations in component alignment inducing +17% and −23% changes in the first peak medial tibiofemoral contact forces, respectively. A Monte Carlo analysis showed that uncertainties in ligament stiffness and reference strains induce ±0.2 BW uncertainty in tibiofemoral force estimates over the gait cycle. Ligament properties had substantial influence on the TKR load distributions, with the medial collateral ligament and iliotibial band (ITB) properties having the largest effects on medial and lateral compartment loading, respectively. The computational framework provides a viable approach for virtually designing TKR components, considering parametric uncertainty and predicting the effects of joint alignment and soft tissue balancing procedures on TKR function during movement. PMID:26769446

  15. Directed motion of spheres induced by unbiased driving forces in viscous fluids beyond the Stokes' law regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-03-01

    The emergence of directed motion is investigated in a system consisting of a sphere immersed in a viscous fluid and subjected to time-periodic forces of zero average. The directed motion arises from the combined action of a nonlinear drag force and the applied driving forces, in the absence of any periodic substrate potential. Necessary conditions for the existence of such directed motion are obtained and an analytical expression for the average terminal velocity is derived within the adiabatic approximation. Special attention is paid to the case of two mutually perpendicular forces with sinusoidal time dependence, one with twice the period of the other. It is shown that, although neither of these two forces induces directed motion when acting separately, when added together, the resultant force generates directed motion along the direction of the force with the shortest period. The dependence of the average terminal velocity on the system parameters is analyzed numerically and compared with that obtained using the adiabatic approximation. Among other results, it is found that, for appropriate parameter values, the direction of the average terminal velocity can be reversed by varying the forcing strength. Furthermore, certain aspects of the observed phenomenology are explained by means of symmetry arguments.

  16. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-09-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Differences in Pattern and Driving Forces between Urban and Rural Settlements in the Coastal Region of Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization on the coast of China has attracted much attention. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in dynamics and related driving forces between urban and rural settlements. Applying the quantitative method, we demonstrate that substantial heterogeneity in settlement growth, landscape pattern metrics, change, land sources and driving forces is exhibited across the different types of urban and rural settlements. The spatial growth of urban settlements is dominated by in situ expansion, while rural settlements tend to be scattered and shrinking rapidly. The sprawl of human settlements has mainly occupied farm land, but reclamation projects are increasingly becoming important land sources for urban settlements. Local government has played a critical role in urban settlements, while the expansion of rural settlements is mainly driven by individual choice and village collective organizations. Such differences may account for differential options for the management of human settlements scientifically.

  18. Deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic steel: The synergy of stacking fault energy and chemical driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moallemi, M., E-mail: m.moallemi@ma.iut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kermanpur, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Najafizadeh, A. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fould Institute of Technology, Fouladshahr, Isfahan, 8491663763 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaee, A.; Baghbadorani, H. Samaei; Nezhadfar, P. Dastranjy [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-01-20

    The present study deals with the correlation of stacking fault energy's synergy and driving force in the formation of deformation-induced martensitic transformation in a 201 austenitic stainless steel. The fraction of deformation-induced martensite was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction and magnetic induction techniques. The kinetics of the martensite formation versus applied strain was evaluated through the sigmoidal model. It was shown that the volume fraction of ά-martensite is closely related to the driving force/SFE ratio of the alloy. The results also showed that the martensite content is similar in both XRD and magnetic methods and the applied sigmoidal model was consistent with the obtained experimental data.

  19. Sector trends and driving forces of global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions: focus in industry and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Khrushch, Marta

    1999-01-01

    Disaggregation of sectoral energy use and greenhouse gas emissions trends reveals striking differences between sectors and regions of the world. Understanding key driving forces in the energy end-use sectors provides insights for development of projections of future greenhouse gas emissions. This report examines global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon emissions in the industrial, buildings, transport, and agriculture sectors, with a more detailed focus on industry and buildings. Activity and economic drivers as well as trends in energy and carbon intensity are evaluated. The authors show that macro-economic indicators, such as GDP, are insufficient for comprehending trends and driving forces at the sectoral level. These indicators need to be supplemented with sector-specific information for a more complete understanding of future energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

  20. Dual-joint modeling for estimation of total knee replacement contact forces during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hast, Michael W; Piazza, Stephen J

    2013-02-01

    Model-based estimation of in vivo contact forces arising between components of a total knee replacement is challenging because such forces depend upon accurate modeling of muscles, tendons, ligaments, contact, and multibody dynamics. Here we describe an approach to solving this problem with results that are tested by comparison to knee loads measured in vivo for a single subject and made available through the Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in vivo Tibiofemoral Loads. The approach makes use of a "dual-joint" paradigm in which the knee joint is alternately represented by (1) a ball-joint knee for inverse dynamic computation of required muscle controls and (2) a 12 degree-of-freedom (DOF) knee with elastic foundation contact at the tibiofemoral and patellofemoral articulations for forward dynamic integration. Measured external forces and kinematics were applied as a feedback controller and static optimization attempted to track measured knee flexion angles and electromyographic (EMG) activity. The resulting simulations showed excellent tracking of knee flexion (average RMS error of 2.53 deg) and EMG (muscle activations within ±10% envelopes of normalized measured EMG signals). Simulated tibiofemoral contact forces agreed qualitatively with measured contact forces, but their RMS errors were approximately 25% of the peak measured values. These results demonstrate the potential of a dual-joint modeling approach to predict joint contact forces from kinesiological data measured in the motion laboratory. It is anticipated that errors in the estimation of contact force will be reduced as more accurate subject-specific models of muscles and other soft tissues are developed.

  1. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. The Driving Forces for the Practice of Strategic Planning in SMEs: Evidence from Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell Sandada; Raynold Tinomudaishe Chikwama

    2016-01-01

    Despite Zimbabwe sharing with the rest of the world, the notion that SMEs are the impeccable engines to economic revival, growth and development, many of the nation`s SMEs are plagued with high failure rates. Previous studies carried out in most foreign countries suggested that the high failure rate of SMEs was attributable to lack of strategic planning among a host of other factors. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study was to examine the driving forces for the practic...

  3. Meeting the challenges of the new energy industry: The driving forces facing electric power generators and the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The proceedings of the IGT national conference on meeting the challenges of the New Energy Industry: The driving forces facing Electric Power Generators and the Natural Gas Industry are presented. The conference was held June 19-21, 1995 at the Ambassador West Hotel in Downtown Chicago, Illinois. A separate abstract and indexing for each of the 18 papers presented for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  4. Measuring Risky Driving Behavior Using an mHealth Smartphone App: Development and Evaluation of gForce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Amisha D; Espey, Benjamin G; Stanley, Sean T; Garmendia, Marcial A; Pursley, Randall; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pohida, Thomas J

    2018-01-01

    Background Naturalistic driving studies, designed to objectively assess driving behavior and outcomes, are conducted by equipping vehicles with dedicated instrumentation (eg, accelerometers, gyroscopes, Global Positioning System, and cameras) that provide continuous recording of acceleration, location, videos, and still images for eventual retrieval and analyses. However, this research is limited by several factors: the cost of equipment installation; management and storage of the large amounts of data collected; and data reduction, coding, and analyses. Modern smartphone technology includes accelerometers built into phones, and the vast, global proliferation of smartphones could provide a possible low-cost alternative for assessing kinematic risky driving. Objective We evaluated an in-house developed iPhone app (gForce) for detecting elevated g-force events by comparing the iPhone linear acceleration measurements with corresponding acceleration measurements obtained with both a custom Android app and the in-vehicle miniDAS data acquisition system (DAS; Virginia Tech Transportation Institute). Methods The iPhone and Android devices were dashboard-mounted in a vehicle equipped with the DAS instrumentation. The experimental protocol consisted of driving maneuvers on a test track, such as cornering, braking, and turning that were performed at different acceleration levels (ie, mild, moderate, or hard). The iPhone gForce app recorded linear acceleration (ie, gravity-corrected). The Android app recorded gravity-corrected and uncorrected acceleration measurements, and the DAS device recorded gravity-uncorrected acceleration measurements. Lateral and longitudinal acceleration measures were compared. Results The correlation coefficients between the iPhone and DAS acceleration measurements were slightly lower compared to the correlation coefficients between the Android and DAS, possibly due to the gravity correction on the iPhone. Averaging the correlation coefficients for

  5. Driving force of PCMI failure under reactivity initiated accident conditions and influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyasu, Kunihiko; Sugiyama, Tomoyuki; Nakamura, Takehiko; Fuketa, Toyoshi

    2005-09-01

    In order to clarify the driving force of PCMI (Pellet/Cladding Mechanical Interaction) failure on high burnup fuels and to investigate the influence of hydrogen embrittlement on failure limit under RIA (Reactivity Initiated Accident) conditions, RIA-simulation experiments were performed on fresh fuel rods in the NSRR (Nuclear Safety Research Reactor). The driving force of PCMI was restricted only to thermal expansion of pellet by using fresh UO 2 pellets. Fresh claddings were pre-hydrided to simulate hydrogen absorption of high burnup fuel rods. In seven experiments out of fourteen, test rods resulted in PCMI failure, which has been observed in the NSRR tests on high burnup PWR fuels, in terms of the transient behavior and the fracture configuration. This indicates that the driving force of PCMI failure is sufficiently explained with thermal expansion of pellet and a contribution of fission gas on it is small. A large number of incipient cracks were generated in the outer surface of the cladding even on non-failed fuel rods, and they stopped at the boundary between hydride rim, which was a hydride layer localized in the periphery of the cladding, and metallic layer. It suggests that the integrity of the metallic layer except for the hydride rim has particular importance for failure limit. Fuel enthalpy at failure correlates with the thickness of hydride rim, and tends to decrease with thicker hydride layer. (author)

  6. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  7. Driving forces and their contribution to the recent decrease in sediment flux to ocean of major rivers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yanxu; Fu, Bojie; Zhao, Wenwu

    2018-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms behind land-ocean sediment transport processes is crucial, due to the resulting impacts on the sustainable management of water and soil resources. This study investigated temporal trends and historical phases of sediment flux delivered to the sea by nine major rivers in China, while also quantifying the contribution of key anthropogenic and natural driving forces. During the past six decades, sediment flux from these nine major rivers exhibited a statistically significant negative trend, decreasing from 1.92Gtyr -1 during 1954-1968 to 1.39Gtyr -1 , 0.861Gtyr -1 and 0.335Gtyr -1 during 1969-1985, 1986-1999 and 2000-2016, respectively. We used a recently developed Sediment Identity approach and found that the sharp decrease in sediment load observed across China was mainly (~95%) caused by a reduction in sediment concentration. Reservoir construction exerted the strongest influence on land-ocean sediment fluxes, while soil conservation measures represented a secondary driver. Before 1999, soil erosion was not controlled effectively in China and reservoirs, especially large ones, played a dominant role in reducing riverine sediments. After 1999, soil erosion has gradually been brought under control across China, so that conservation measures directly accounted for ~40% of the observed decrease in riverine sediments. With intensifying human activities, it is predicted that the total sediment flux delivered to the sea by the nine major rivers will continue to decrease in the coming decades, although at a slower rate, resulting in severe challenges for the sustainable management of drainage basins and river deltas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thollander, Patrik; Backlund, Sandra; Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Results are based on a questionnaire in the European foundry industry. • The energy efficiency potential is assed to be 7.5% of the total energy use. • Most important drivers to and barriers for energy efficiency are financial followed by organizational. • EPC is used among 23% of the foundries, third party financing among 12%. • Large energy management improvement potentials are uncovered. - Abstract: Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field

  9. Driving forces of main landscape change processes from past 200 years in Central Europe - differences between old democratic and post-socialist countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skokanová Hana

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article compares and points out differences in driving forces of four main landscape change processes that shaped post-socialist countries and old democratic countries of Central Europe during the last two centuries. Studying landscape change processes and corresponding driving forces helps in understanding patterns of present landscape and can help among others in better prediction of future landscape change trends. Here, the presented results are based on review of scientific articles published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014. Driving forces affecting these processes were grouped into four categories. Economic forces drove mainly agricultural intensification; agricultural land abandonment and urbanisation and were pronounced especially in the second half of the 20th century and at the beginning of the 21st century. Technological driving forces affected agricultural intensification especially in the 19th century and the second half of the 20th century while cultural driving forces had the biggest impact on urbanisation at the beginning of the 21st century. Political driving forces affected agricultural intensification, urbanisation as well as agricultural land abandonment and were pronounced mainly during the second half of the 20th century in the post-socialist countries. Political forces in the form of subsidies drove agricultural extensification at the beginning of the 21st century. The drivers for the agricultural intensification as well as urbanisation seem to be similar for both old democratic and post-socialist countries. In contrast, agricultural land abandonment in the old democratic countries was driven by technological, cultural and economic driving forces while in the post-socialist countries the political driving forces were mainly responsible. Changes in systems for subsidies and changes in the agricultural commodity markets are also responsible for different frequencies and rates of extensification of

  10. Analysis and optimization of kinematic pair force in control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhenguo; Liu Sen; Ran Xiaobing; Dai Changnian; Li Yuezhong

    2015-01-01

    Function expressions of kinematic pair force with latch dimensions, friction coefficient, link angle and external load was obtained by theoretical analysis, and the expression was verified by the motion analysis software. Key parameters of kinematic pair were confirmed, and their effect trends with force of parts were obtained. They show that the available method of kinematic pair optimization is increasing the space of latch holes. Using the motion analysis software, the forces of parts before and after optimization was compared. The result shows that the forces of parts were improved after the optimization. (authors)

  11. Understanding the driving forces behind the losses of soil carbon across England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Patricia

    2010-05-01

    More than twice as much carbon is held in soils as in vegetation or the atmosphere, and changes in soil carbon content can have a large effect on the global carbon budget. The possibility that climate change is being reinforced by increased carbon dioxide emissions from soils owing to rising temperature is the subject of a continuing debate. But evidence for the suggested feedback mechanism has to date come solely from small-scale laboratory and field experiments and modelling studies. Here we use data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales obtained between 1978 and 2003 to show that carbon was lost from soils across England and Wales over the survey period at a mean rate of 0.6% yr-1 (relative to the existing soil carbon content). We find that the relative rate of carbon loss increased with soil carbon content and was more than 2% yr-1 in soils with carbon contents greater than 100 g kg-1. The relationship between rate of carbon loss and carbon content is irrespective of land use, suggesting a link to climate change. Our findings indicate that losses of soil carbon in England and Wales—and by inference in other temperate regions—are likely to have been offsetting absorption of carbon by terrestrial sinks. To investigate the possible driving forces of the measured losses of soil carbon we applied a simple model of soil carbon turnover to evaluate alternative explanations for the observed trends. We find that neither changes in decomposition resulting from the effects of climate change on soil temperature and moisture, nor changes in carbon input from vegetation, could account on their own for the overall trends. Of other explanations, results indicate that past changes in land use and management were probably dominant. The climate change signal, such as it is, is masked by these other changes. A more sophisticated model of carbon change (DAYCENT) has now been applied across the whole range of soils in England and Wales. This model has been

  12. Analyzing the driving forces behind CO2 emissions and reduction strategies for energy-intensive sectors in Taiwan, 1996–2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yun-Hsun; Wu, Jung-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Between 1996 and 2006, CO 2 emissions in Taiwan increased by approximately 60%, with the industrial sector accounting for 50% of that increase. Among all industrial sectors, iron and steel, petrochemicals, electronics, textiles, pulp and paper and cement accounted for approximately three-quarters of the total industrial CO 2 emissions. Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions in these six sectors could be valuable for the development of effective environmental policy. This study used two-tier KLEM input–output structural decomposition analysis (I-O SDA) to analyze the factors that lead to changes in CO 2 emissions. Empirical results obtained in Taiwan reveal that increased exports level and elevated domestic autonomous final demand level were the main reasons for increases in CO 2 emissions. Technological changes in materials and labor tended to decrease CO 2 emissions, while the power generation mix contributed significantly to the increase. Relevant strategies for reducing CO 2 emissions from energy-intensive sectors are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Identifying the driving forces behind increased CO 2 emissions is important. • This study uses two-tier KLEM I-O SDA to analyze the changes in CO 2 emissions. • Three issues are identified to achieve future CO 2 emissions reduction in Taiwan

  13. Disruptive Innovations as a Driving Force for the Change of Wireless Telecommunication Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyoseva, Tsvetoslava; Poulkov, Vladimir; Mihaylov, Mihail Rumenov

    2014-01-01

    the current trends in mobile communications, we reason that the emergence of new telecommunication architectures and infrastructures is inevitable. An important consideration in the analysis is the driving role of disruptive technologies for the future of telecommunications. Based on a model for evaluating...

  14. FDR (drive-dynamics-control) - a new driving safety system with active control of brake and drive forces in the dynamic fringe range; FDR, ein neues Fahrsicherheitssystem mit aktiver Regelung der Brems- und Antriebskraefte im fahrdynamischen Grenzbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erhardt, R. [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany); Zanten, A.T. van [Bosch (R.) GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    BOSCH is going to introduce a new driving safety system in 1995, the FDR (drive-dynamics-control). Using the measured and estimated dynamic magnitudes as a basis, the system calculates inhowfar the actual vehicle motion differs from the desired stable trace- and direction-consistent handling properties. Depending on the driving situation and driver`s wishes the braking and driving forces at the wheels are adjusted with a considerable divergence in order to achieve the desired handling properties. The system improves the driving stability in all operating states as soon as the dynamic limiting range is reached. It even reduces the risk of skidding in case of extreme steering manoeuvres and also enables the safe control of the vehicle in critical traffic situations. Furthermore the system offers improved basic anti-skid braking system and anti-slip control functions. Due to these advantages it can be expected that the FDR is going to make an important contribution to avoiding accidents and reducing damage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit FDR (Fahr-Dynamik-Regelung) wird BOSCH 1995 ein neues Fahrsicherheitssystem einfuehren. Das System berechnet auf der Basis gemessener und geschaetzter fahrdynamischer Groessen, wie stark die tatsaechliche Fahrzeugbewegung von einem gewuenschten stabilen, spur- und richtungstreuen Fahrverhalten abweicht. Die Brems- und Antriebskraefte an den Raedern werden bei deutlicher Abweichung abhaengig von Fahrsituation und Fahrerwunsch so eingestellt, dass die Abweichung minimiert und das gewuenschte Fahrverhalten weitgehend erreicht wird. Das System verbessert die Fahrstabilitaet in allen Betriebszustaenden, sobald der fahrdynamische Grenzbereich erreicht wird. Es reduziert selbst bei extremen Lenkmanoevern die Schleudergefahr drastisch und ermoeglicht auch in kritischen Verkehrssituationen die sicherere Beherrschung des Fahrzeugs. Darueberhinaus bietet das System verbesserte ABS- und ASR-Grundfunktionen. Diese Vorteile lassen erwarten, dass FDR einen

  15. Assessment of changes in gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces after total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhargava P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal objectives of arthroplasty are relief of pain and enhancement of range of motion. Currently, postoperative pain and functional capacity are assessed largely on the basis of subjective evaluation scores. Because of the lack of control inherent in this method it is often difficult to interpret data presented by different observers in the critical evaluation of surgical method, new components and modes of rehabilitation. Gait analysis is a rapid, simple and reliable method to assess functional outcome. This study was undertaken in an effort to evaluate the gait characteristics of patients who underwent arthroplasty, using an Ultraflex gait analyzer. Materials and Methods: The study was based on the assessment of gait and weight-bearing pattern of both hips in patients who underwent total hip replacement and its comparison with an age and sex-matched control group. Twenty subjects of total arthroplasty group having unilateral involvement, operated by posterior approach at our institution with a minimum six-month postoperative period were selected. Control group was age and sex-matched, randomly selected from the general population. Gait analysis was done using Ultraflex gait analyzer. Gait parameters and vertical ground reaction forces assessment was done by measuring the gait cycle properties, step time parameters and VGRF variables. Data of affected limb was compared with unaffected limb as well as control group to assess the weight-bearing pattern. Statistical analysis was done by′t′ test. Results: Frequency is reduced and gait cycle duration increased in total arthroplasty group as compared with control. Step time parameters including Step time, Stance time and Single support time are significantly reduced ( P value < .05 while Double support time and Single swing time are significantly increased ( P value < .05 in the THR group. Forces over each sensor are increased more on the unaffected limb of the THR group as compared to

  16. Counterevidence to the ion hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amekura, H.; Okubo, N.; Tsuya, D.; Ishikawa, N.

    2017-08-01

    Counterevidence is provided in the ion-hammering scenario as a driving force for the shape elongation of embedded nanoparticles (NPs) under swift heavy ion irradiation (SHII). Ion-induced compaction and the hammering, which are both induced in silica under SHII, dominate at low and high fluences, respectively, causing a crossover between them around a fluence of ˜4 × 1012 ions/cm2. Nevertheless, the shape elongation of NPs detected by the optical dichroism exhibits nearly linear dependence in a wide fluence range between ˜1 × 1011 and 2 × 1013 ions/cm2, indicating that the hammering does not play an important role.

  17. Driving forces of Indian summer monsoon on Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.

    A scientific consensus exists that tectonic evolution of Himalaya is the main cause of monsoon initiation and evolution in southeast Asia. Several forcing factors such as tectonic, solar insolation, latent heat transport, albedo of the earth surface...

  18. Supporting the Future Total Force: A Methodology for Evaluating Potential Air National Guard Mission Assignments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lynch, Kristin F; Drew, John G; Sleeper, Sally; Williams, William A; Masters, James M; Luangkesorn, Louis; Tripp, Robert S; Lichter, Dahlia S; Roll, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    Manpower end-strength reductions of active duty personnel in the U.S. Air Force are making it more difficult to support the air and space expeditionary force construct using current force employment practices...

  19. Measuring Risky Driving Behavior Using an mHealth Smartphone App: Development and Evaluation of gForce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidlin, Raisa Z; Dave, Amisha D; Espey, Benjamin G; Stanley, Sean T; Garmendia, Marcial A; Pursley, Randall; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Pohida, Thomas J

    2018-04-19

    Naturalistic driving studies, designed to objectively assess driving behavior and outcomes, are conducted by equipping vehicles with dedicated instrumentation (eg, accelerometers, gyroscopes, Global Positioning System, and cameras) that provide continuous recording of acceleration, location, videos, and still images for eventual retrieval and analyses. However, this research is limited by several factors: the cost of equipment installation; management and storage of the large amounts of data collected; and data reduction, coding, and analyses. Modern smartphone technology includes accelerometers built into phones, and the vast, global proliferation of smartphones could provide a possible low-cost alternative for assessing kinematic risky driving. We evaluated an in-house developed iPhone app (gForce) for detecting elevated g-force events by comparing the iPhone linear acceleration measurements with corresponding acceleration measurements obtained with both a custom Android app and the in-vehicle miniDAS data acquisition system (DAS; Virginia Tech Transportation Institute). The iPhone and Android devices were dashboard-mounted in a vehicle equipped with the DAS instrumentation. The experimental protocol consisted of driving maneuvers on a test track, such as cornering, braking, and turning that were performed at different acceleration levels (ie, mild, moderate, or hard). The iPhone gForce app recorded linear acceleration (ie, gravity-corrected). The Android app recorded gravity-corrected and uncorrected acceleration measurements, and the DAS device recorded gravity-uncorrected acceleration measurements. Lateral and longitudinal acceleration measures were compared. The correlation coefficients between the iPhone and DAS acceleration measurements were slightly lower compared to the correlation coefficients between the Android and DAS, possibly due to the gravity correction on the iPhone. Averaging the correlation coefficients for all maneuvers, the longitudinal and

  20. Bilateral deficit in explosive force production is not caused by changes in agonist neural drive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Buckthorpe

    Full Text Available Bilateral deficit (BLD describes the phenomenon of a reduction in performance during synchronous bilateral (BL movements when compared to the sum of identical unilateral (UL movements. Despite a large body of research investigating BLD of maximal voluntary force (MVF there exist a paucity of research examining the BLD for explosive strength. Therefore, this study investigated the BLD in voluntary and electrically-evoked explosive isometric contractions of the knee extensors and assessed agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation and measurement artefacts as potential mechanisms. Thirteen healthy untrained males performed a series of maximum and explosive voluntary contractions bilaterally (BL and unilaterally (UL. UL and BL evoked twitch and octet contractions were also elicited. Two separate load cells were used to measure MVF and explosive force at 50, 100 and 150 ms after force onset. Surface EMG amplitude was measured from three superficial agonists and an antagonist. Rate of force development (RFD and EMG were reported over consecutive 50 ms periods (0-50, 50-100 and 100-150 ms. Performance during UL contractions was compared to combined BL performance to measure BLD. Single limb performance during the BL contractions was assessed and potential measurement artefacts, including synchronisation of force onset from the two limbs, controlled for. MVF showed no BLD (P = 0.551, but there was a BLD for explosive force at 100 ms (11.2%, P = 0.007. There was a BLD in RFD 50-100 ms (14.9%, P = 0.004, but not for the other periods. Interestingly, there was a BLD in evoked force measures (6.3-9.0%, P<0.001. There was no difference in agonist or antagonist EMG for any condition (P≥0.233. Measurement artefacts contributed minimally to the observed BLD. The BLD in volitional explosive force found here could not be explained by measurement issues, or agonist and antagonist neuromuscular activation. The BLD in voluntary and evoked explosive force

  1. Polyphilic Interactions as Structural Driving Force Investigated by Molecular Dynamics Simulation (Project 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Peschel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of fluorinated molecules on dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC bilayers by force-field molecular dynamics simulations. In the first step, we developed all-atom force-field parameters for additive molecules in membranes to enable an accurate description of those systems. On the basis of this force field, we performed extensive simulations of various bilayer systems containing different additives. The additive molecules were chosen to be of different size and shape, and they included small molecules such as perfluorinated alcohols, but also more complex molecules. From these simulations, we investigated the structural and dynamic effects of the additives on the membrane properties, as well as the behavior of the additive molecules themselves. Our results are in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental studies, and they contribute to a microscopic understanding of interactions, which might be used to specifically tune membrane properties by additives in the future.

  2. On the forces that drive and resist deformation of the south-central Mediterranean: a mechanical model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijholt, Nicolai; Govers, Rob; Wortel, Rinus

    2018-04-01

    The geodynamics of the Mediterranean comprises a transitional setting in which slab rollback and plate convergence compete to shape the region. In the central Mediterranean, where the balance of driving and resisting forces changes continuously and rapidly since the Miocene, both kinematic and seismo-tectonic observations display a strong variation in deformation style and, therefore possibly, lithospheric forces. We aim to understand the current kinematics in southern Italy and Sicily in terms of lithospheric forces that cause them. The strong regional variation of geodetic velocities appears to prohibit such simple explanation. We use mechanical models to quantify the deformation resulting from large-scale Africa-Eurasia convergence, ESE retreat of the Calabrian subduction zone, pull by the Aegean slab, and regional variations in gravitational potential energy (topography). A key model element is the resistance to slip on major regional fault zones. We show that geodetic velocities, seismicity and sense of slip on regional faults can be understood to result from lithospheric forces. Our most important new finding is that regional variations in resistive tractions are required to fit the observations, with notably very low tractions on the Calabrian subduction contact, and a buildup towards a significant earthquake in the Calabrian fore-arc. We also find that the Calabrian net slab pull force is strongly reduced (compared to the value possible in view of the slab's dimensions) and that trench suction tractions are negligible. Such very small contributions to the present-day force balance in the south-central Mediterranean suggest that the Calabrian arc is now further transitioning towards a setting dominated by Africa-Eurasia plate convergence, whereas during the past 30 Myrs slab retreat continually was the dominant factor.

  3. Identifying the driving forces of urban expansion and its environmental impact in Jakarta-Bandung mega urban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravitasari, A. E.; Rustiadi, E.; Mulya, S. P.; Setiawan, Y.; Fuadina, L. N.; Murtadho, A.

    2018-05-01

    The socio-economic development in Jakarta-Bandung Mega Urban Region (JBMUR) caused the increasing of urban expansion and led to a variety of environmental damage such as uncontrolled land use conversion and raising anthropogenic disaster. The objectives of this study are: (1) to identify the driving forces of urban expansion that occurs on JBMUR and (2) to analyze the environmental quality decline on JBMUR by producing time series spatial distribution map and spatial autocorrelation of floods and landslide as the proxy of anthropogenic disaster. The driving forces of urban expansion in this study were identified by employing Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model using 6 (six) independent variables, namely: population density, percentage of agricultural land, distance to the center of capital city/municipality, percentage of household who works in agricultural sector, distance to the provincial road, and distance to the local road. The GWR results showed that local demographic, social and economic factors including distance to the road spatially affect urban expansion in JBMUR. The time series spatial distribution map of floods and landslide event showed the spatial cluster of anthropogenic disaster in some areas. Through Local Moran Index, we found that environmental damage in one location has a significant impact on the condition of its surrounding area.

  4. Land use changes and its driving forces in hilly ecological restoration area based on gis and rs of northern china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Zheng, Yunlong

    2015-01-01

    Land use change is one of the important aspects of the regional ecological restoration research. With remote sensing (RS) image in 2003, 2007 and 2012, using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, the land use pattern changes in Yimeng Mountain ecological restoration area in China and its driving force factors were studied. Results showed that: (1) Cultivated land constituted the largest area during 10 years, and followed by forest land and grass land; cultivated land and unused land were reduced by 28.43% and 44.32%, whereas forest land, water area and land for water facilities and others were increased. (2) During 2003–2007, forest land change showed the largest, followed by unused land and grass land; however, during 2008–2012, water area and land for water facilities change showed the largest, followed by grass land and unused land. (3) Land use degree was above the average level, it was in the developing period during 2003–2007 and in the degenerating period during 2008–2012. (4) Ecological Restoration Projects can greatly change the micro topography, increase vegetation coverage, and then induce significant changes in the land use distribution, which were the main driving force factors of the land use pattern change in the ecological restoration area. PMID:26047160

  5. Exciplexes versus Loose Ion Pairs: How Does the Driving Force Impact the Initial Product Ratio of Photoinduced Charge Separation Reactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Many donor–acceptor systems can undergo a photoinduced charge separation reaction, yielding loose ion pairs (LIPs). LIPs can be formed either directly via (distant) electron transfer (ET) or indirectly via the dissociation of an initially formed exciplex or tight ion pair. Establishing the prevalence of one of the reaction pathways is challenging because differentiating initially formed exciplexes from LIPs is difficult due to similar spectroscopic footprints. Hence, no comprehensive reaction model has been established for moderately polar solvents. Here, we employ an approach based on the time-resolved magnetic field effect (MFE) of the delayed exciplex luminescence to distinguish the two reaction channels. We focus on the effects of the driving force of ET and the solvent permittivity. We show that, surprisingly, the exciplex channel is significant even for an exergonic ET system with a free energy of ET of −0.58 eV and for the most polar solutions studied (butyronitrile). Our findings demonstrate that exciplexes play a crucial role even in polar solvents and at moderate driving forces, contrary to what is usually assumed. PMID:25243054

  6. Relative importance of driving force and electrostatic interactions in the reduction of multihaem cytochromes by small molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintas, Pedro O; Cepeda, Andreia P; Borges, Nuno; Catarino, Teresa; Turner, David L

    2013-06-01

    Multihaem cytochromes are essential to the energetics of organisms capable of bioremediation and energy production. The haems in several of these cytochromes have been discriminated thermodynamically and their individual rates of reduction by small electron donors were characterized. The kinetic characterization of individual haems used the Marcus theory of electron transfer and assumed that the rates of reduction of each haem by sodium dithionite depend only on the driving force, while electrostatic interactions were neglected. To determine the relative importance of these factors in controlling the rates, we studied the effect of ionic strength on the redox potential and the rate of reduction by dithionite of native Methylophilus methylotrophus cytochrome c″ and three mutants at different pH values. We found that the main factor determining the rate is the driving force and that Marcus theory describes this satisfactorily. This validates the method of the simultaneous fitting of kinetic and thermodynamic data in multihaem cytochromes and opens the way for further investigation into the mechanisms of these proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibiting and driving forces for the digitalization of security systems: security officers’ view on the issue

    OpenAIRE

    Lahtinen, Markus

    2007-01-01

    This memo reports on factors that drive and inhibit the digitalization of security systems. The reported factors are as follows: Technology-push factors • Need to lower costs on the end-user side, i.e. replacing labour with technology • Perceived convenience and ease-of-use of digital systems • Digital products can be connected to the current enterprise network; enabling an expanding set of security features • Firms holding the IP-capability (IP=Internet Protocol) and not h...

  8. External and internal influences as driving forces and/or stumbling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of national and institutional quality assurance and management systems is often forced (rightfully or wrongly) into a specific direction by external and internal environmental influences. In South Africa such influences play a major role in both the national higher education policy developments and the ...

  9. VARIABILITY OF FORCED OSCILLATION (SIEMENS SIREGNOST FD-5) MEASUREMENTS OF TOTAL RESPIRATORY RESISTANCE IN PATIENTS AND HEALTHY-SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GIMENO, F; VANDERWEELE, LT; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR; VANALTENA, R

    The reproducibility of total respiratory resistance (R(rs)) measured with a simplified forced oscillatory method (Siemens Siregnost FD 5) was measured and compared with that of slow inspiratory vital capacity (IVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). The former technique has the

  10. Evaluation on driving force of natural circulation in downcomer for passive residual heat removal system in JAERI passive safety reactor JPSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunii, Katsuhiko; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1997-01-01

    The driving-force of the natural circulation in the residual heat removal (RHR) system for the JPSR (JAERI Passive Safety Reactor) is given as a gravity force of the density difference between hotter coolant in core and upper plenum and cooler coolant in downcomer. The amount of density difference and time to achieve the enough density difference for the RHR system change directly dependent on the thermal fluid flow pattern in downcomer of annulus flow pass. The purposes of the present study are to investigate the possibilities of the followings by evaluating the three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer by numerical analysis using the STREAM code; 1) promotion of making the flow pattern uniform in downcomer by installing a baffle, 2) achievement of an enough driving-force of the natural circulation, 3) validity of one-point assumption, that is, complete mixing down-flow assumption for the three-dimensional thermal fluid flow in downcomer to evaluate the function of the passive RHR system. The following conclusions were obtained: (1) The effect of baffle on the thermal fluid flow and driving-force is little, (2) The driving-force required for natural circulation cooling can be obtained in wide range of inlet velocity even if the flow is multi-dimensional, (3) Both in initial transient stage and in steady-state, the one-point assumption can be applied to evaluate the driving-force of natural circulation in the passive RHR system. (author)

  11. Reserve Components and the National Will: Clauswitz, Total Force Policy and the Strategic Realities of the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reynolds, George

    2003-01-01

    .... It will also examine the linkage between Prussian military theorist, Carl von Clauswitz's concepts and the formulation of the Abrams Doctrine and Total Force Policy as they apply to the relationship...

  12. Spatial Patterns and Driving Forces of Greenhouse Land Change in Shouguang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohua Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important facet of modern agricultural development, greenhouses satisfy ever-increasing demands for agricultural production and, therefore, constitute a growing proportion of global agriculture. However, just a handful of countries regularly collect statistics on the land cover of greenhouse infrastructure. Even when collected, these data cannot provide the detailed spatial information required for environmental risk assessment. It is, therefore, important to map spatial changes in greenhouse land cover using remote sensing (RS approaches to determine the underlying factors driving these changes. In this paper, we apply a support vector machine (SVM algorithm to identify greenhouse land cover in Shouguang City, China. Enhanced thematic mapper (ETM images were selected as the data source for land use classification in this study as they can be freely acquired and offer the necessary spatial resolution. We then used a binary logistic regression model to quantitatively discern the mechanisms underlying changes in greenhouse land cover. The results of this study show that greenhouse land cover in Shouguang increased by 50.51% between 2000 and 2015, and that 90.39% of this expansion took place between 2010 and 2015. Elevation, slope, precipitation, and the distance to the nearest rural settlements and coastline are all significant factors driving expansion in greenhouse land cover, while distance to the nearest urban areas, rivers, roads, railways, and coastline have contributed to contractions in this land use type. Our research provided a practical approach to allow the detection of changes in greenhouse land cover in the countries with using free or low-cost satellite images.

  13. Driving forces of rapid CO2 emissions growth: A case of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-Gun; Yoo, Jonghyun; Oh, Wankeun

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate Korea's final demand structure and its impacts on CO 2 emissions in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and develop environmental policy directions. Based on the environmentally extended input–output model, this study adopts a two-step approach: (1) to estimate the embodied emissions and their intensities for 393 sectors induced by final demand; and (2) to calculate the driving factors of emission growth between 2003 and 2011 and then evaluate the result by using Structural Decomposition Analysis (SDA). The findings of this study demonstrate that the impact of composition change in export with less embodied emission intensities tends to offset the increase in CO 2 emission by the export scale growth. The relatively low residential electricity price has resulted in the rapid growth of household electricity consumption and significantly contributed to emissions growth. The result of SDA indicates that Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period. The findings suggest that Korean government should promote exports in industries with less embedded CO 2 in order to protect environments. In addition, emission information of each product and service should be provided for consumers to change their purchase patterns towards contributing to low carbon emissions as active players. -- Highlights: •We investigate Korea's final demand structure and its contribution to CO 2 emissions. •Using SDA, we evaluate the driving factors of emission growth from 2003 to 2011. •Exports play a critical role in Korea's CO 2 emissions growth. •The relatively low residential electricity price has contributed to emission growth. •Korea's final demand behavior yielded high carbonization over the same period

  14. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  15. The Symbiotic Relationship between the Air Force’s Active and Reserve Components: Ensuring the Health of the Total Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    2009), 3, http://www.gao.gov/ assets /100/96269.pdf. 22. Department of Defense Human Resources Management, “ Human Resources Manage- ment ( HRM ) Community of...rotating forces.20 Predictability is especially important to obtaining RC partici- pation in the absence of mobilization authority by allowing...continuum of service construct to reduce legal and policy barriers be- tween the components. This construct mandates “a Human Capital strategy allowing

  16. Geological and climatic forces driving speciation in the continentally distributed trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Lemmon, Alan R; Cannatella, David C

    2007-09-01

    Tertiary geological events and Quaternary climatic fluctuations have been proposed as important factors of speciation in the North American flora and fauna. Few studies, however, have rigorously tested hypotheses regarding the specific factors driving divergence of taxa. Here, we test explicit speciation hypotheses by correlating geologic events with divergence times among species in the continentally distributed trilling chorus frogs (Pseudacris). In particular, we ask whether marine inundation of the Mississippi Embayment, uplift of the Appalachian Mountains, or modification of the ancient Teays-Mahomet River system contributed to speciation. To examine the plausibility of ancient rivers causing divergence, we tested whether modern river systems inhibit gene flow. Additionally, we compared the effects of Quaternary climatic factors (glaciation and aridification) on levels of genetic variation. Divergence time estimates using penalized likelihood and coalescent approaches indicate that the major lineages of chorus frogs diversified during the Tertiary, and also exclude Quaternary climate change as a factor in speciation of chorus frogs. We show the first evidence that inundation of the Mississippi Embayment contributed to speciation. We reject the hypotheses that Cenozoic uplift of the Appalachians and that diversion of the Teays-Mahomet River contributed to speciation in this clade. We find that by reducing gene flow, rivers have the potential to cause divergence of lineages. Finally, we demonstrate that populations in areas affected by Quaternary glaciation and aridification have reduced levels of genetic variation compared to those from more equable regions, suggesting recent colonization.

  17. Research Problems Associated with Limiting the Applied Force in Vibration Tests and Conducting Base-Drive Modal Vibration Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry D.

    1995-01-01

    The intent of this paper is to make a case for developing and conducting vibration tests which are both realistic and practical (a question of tailoring versus standards). Tests are essential for finding things overlooked in the analyses. The best test is often the most realistic test which can be conducted within the cost and budget constraints. Some standards are essential, but the author believes more in the individual's ingenuity to solve a specific problem than in the application of standards which reduce problems (and technology) to their lowest common denominator. Force limited vibration tests and base-drive modal tests are two examples of realistic, but practical testing approaches. Since both of these approaches are relatively new, a number of interesting research problems exist, and these are emphasized herein.

  18. Seasonal changes and driving forces of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Qiao, Fangli; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on analyzing seasonal variation of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait that greatly affect the marine environment in the Bohai Sea, using observational data including sea bed mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler currents, CTD salinity data on deck, sea level anomalies of coastal tide gauge stations, and climatological monthly sea level anomalies from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data. Our results show three patterns of outflow and inflow through the Bohai Strait. The first is such that outflow and inflow occur respectively in the southern and northern parts of the strait, as in the traditional understanding. Our results suggest that this pattern occurs only in autumn and winter. Beginning in late September, Ekman currents driven by the northwesterly monsoon carry Bohai Sea water that piles up in the southern part of that sea and then exits eastward to the Yellow Sea. In this process, the pressure and current fields are continuously adjusted, until a quasi balance state between wind stress, Coriolis force and pressure gradient force is reached in winter. Inflow with a compensating property through the northern channel is close to the outflow through the southern channel in winter. The second pattern is a single inflow in spring, and the current and pressure fields are in adjustment. In early spring, the northwesterly monsoon ceases, Yellow Sea water enters the Bohai Sea under the pressure gradient force. With southeasterly monsoon establishment and strengthening, northern Yellow Sea water continually flows into the Bohai Sea and causes sea level rise northward. In the third pattern, outflow is much greater than inflow in summer. The currents run eastward in the central Bohai Sea and then enter the northern Yellow Sea through the northern channel and upper layer of the southern channel, while a westward current with a compensating property enters via the lower layer of the southern channel. Larger

  19. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Moreno, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  20. Mining spatial information to investigate the evolution of karst rocky desertification and its human driving forces in Changshun, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Erqi; Zhang, Hongqi; Li, Mengxian

    2013-08-01

    The processes of karst rocky desertification (KRD) have been found to cause the most severe environmental degradation in southwestern China. Understanding the driving forces that cause KRD is essential for managing and restoring the areas that it impacts. Studies of the human driving forces of KRD are limited to the county level, a specific administrative unit in China; census data are acquired at this scale, which can lead to scale biases. Changshun County is studied here as a representative area and anthropogenic influences in the county are accounted for by using Euclidean distances for the proximity to roads and settlements. We propose a standard coefficient of human influence (SOI) that standardizes the Euclidean distances for different KRD transformations to compare the effects of human activities in different areas. In Changshun County, the individual influences of roads and settlements share similar characteristics. The SOIs of improved KRD transformation types are almost negative, but the SOIs of deteriorated types are nearly positive except for one form of KRD turning to the extremely severe KRD. The results indicated that the distribution and evolution of the KRD areas from 2000 to 2010 in Changshun were affected positively by human activities (e.g., KRD restoration projects) and also negatively (e.g., by intense and irrational land use). Our results demonstrate that the spatial techniques and SOI used in this study can effectively incorporate information concerning human influences and internal KRD transformations. This provides a suitable approach for studying the relationships between human activities and KRD processes at fine scales. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Transitions in Land Use Architecture under Multiple Human Driving Forces in a Semi-Arid Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Ouedraogo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to detect the main shifts in land-use architecture and assess the factors behind the changes in typical tropical semi-arid land in Burkina Faso. Three sets of time-series LANDSAT data over a 23-year period were used to detect land use changes and their underpinning drivers in multifunctional but vulnerable ecologies. Group discussions in selected villages were organized for mapping output interpretation and collection of essential drivers of change as perceived by local populations. Results revealed profound changes and transitions during the study period. During the last decade, shrub and wood savannahs exhibited high net changes (39% and −37% respectively with a weak net positive change for cropland (only 2%, while cropland and shrub savannah exhibited high swap (8% and 16%. This suggests that the area of cropland remained almost unchanged but was subject to relocation, wood savannah decreased drastically, and shrub savannah increased exponentially. Cropland exhibited a null net persistence while shrub and wood savannahs exhibited positive and negative net persistence (1.91 and −10.24, respectively, indicating that there is movement toward agricultural intensification and wood savannah tended to disappear to the benefit of shrub savannah. Local people are aware of the changes that have occurred and support the idea that illegal wood cutting and farming are inappropriate farming practices associated with immigration; absence of alternative cash generation sources, overgrazing and increasing demand for wood energy are driving the changes in their ecosystems. Policies that integrate restoration and conservation of natural ecosystems and promote sustainable agroforestry practices in the study zone are highly recommended.

  2. Sequential actin-based pushing forces drive meiosis I chromosome migration and symmetry breaking in oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kexi; Rubinstein, Boris; Unruh, Jay R.; Guo, Fengli; Slaughter, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Polar body extrusion during oocyte maturation is critically dependent on asymmetric positioning of the meiotic spindle, which is established through migration of the meiosis I (MI) spindle/chromosomes from the oocyte interior to a subcortical location. In this study, we show that MI chromosome migration is biphasic and driven by consecutive actin-based pushing forces regulated by two actin nucleators, Fmn2, a formin family protein, and the Arp2/3 complex. Fmn2 was recruited to endoplasmic reticulum structures surrounding the MI spindle, where it nucleated actin filaments to initiate an initially slow and poorly directed motion of the spindle away from the cell center. A fast and highly directed second migration phase was driven by actin-mediated cytoplasmic streaming and occurred as the chromosomes reach a sufficient proximity to the cortex to activate the Arp2/3 complex. We propose that decisive symmetry breaking in mouse oocytes results from Fmn2-mediated perturbation of spindle position and the positive feedback loop between chromosome signal-induced Arp2/3 activation and Arp2/3-orchestrated cytoplasmic streaming that transports the chromosomes. PMID:23439682

  3. Thermodynamic Description of Synergy in Solvent Extraction: II Thermodynamic Balance of Driving Forces Implied in Synergistic Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, J; Bley, M; Dufrêche, J-F; Gourdin, S; Pellet-Rostaing, S; Zemb, T; Dourdain, S

    2017-11-21

    In the second part of this study, we analyze the free energy of transfer in the case of synergistic solvent extraction. This free energy of the transfer of an ion in dynamic equilibrium between two coexisting phases is decomposed into four driving forces combining long-range interactions with the classical complexation free energy associated with the nearest neighbors. We demonstrate how the organometallic complexation is counterbalanced by the cost in free energy related to structural change on the colloidal scale in the solvent phase. These molecular forces of synergistic extraction are driven not only by the entropic term associated with the tight packing of electrolytes in the solvent and by the free energy cost of coextracting water toward the hydrophilic core of the reverse aggregates present but also by the entropic costs in the formation of the reverse aggregate and by the interfacial bending energy of the extractant molecules packed around the extracted species. Considering the sum of the terms, we can rationalize the synergy observed, which cannot be explained by classical extraction modeling. We show an industrial synergistic mixture combining an amide and a phosphate complexing site, where the most efficient/selective mixture is observed for a minimal bending energy and maximal complexation energy.

  4. Impaction Force Influences Taper-Trunnion Stability in Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoff, Jonathan R; Longaray, Jason; Rajaravivarma, Raga; Gopalakrishnan, Ananthkrishnan; Chen, Antonia F; Hozack, William J

    2018-01-31

    This study investigated the influence of femoral head impaction force, number of head strikes, the energy sequence of head strikes, and head offset on the strength of the taper-trunnion junction. Thirty titanium-alloy trunnions were mated with 36-mm zero-offset cobalt-chromium femoral heads of corresponding taper angle. A drop tower impacted the head with 2.5J or 8.25J, resulting in 6 kN or 14 kN impaction force, respectively, in a single strike or combinations of 6 kN + 14 kN or 14 kN + 14 kN. In addition, ten 36-mm heads with -5 and +5 offset were impacted with sequential 14 kN + 14 kN strikes. Heads were subsequently disassembled using a screw-driven mechanical testing frame, and peak distraction force was recorded. Femoral head pull-off force was 45% the strike force, and heads struck with a single 14 kN impact showed a pull-off force twice that of the 6 kN group. Two head strikes with the same force did not improve pull-off force for either 6 kN (P = .90) or 14 kN (P = .90). If the forces of the 2 impactions varied, but either impact measured 14 kN, a 51% higher pull-off force was found compared to impactions of either 6 kN or 6 kN + 6 kN. Femoral head offset did not significantly change the pull-off force among -5, 0, and +5 heads (P = .37). Femoral head impaction force influenced femoral head trunnion-taper stability, whereas offset did not affect pull-off force. Multiple head strikes did not add additional stability, as long as a single strike achieved 14 kN force at the mallet-head impactor interface. Insufficient impaction force may lead to inadequate engagement of the trunnion-taper junction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of a Surrogate Contact Model in Force-Dependent Kinematic Simulations of Total Knee Replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, M.A.; Andersen, M.S.; Damsgaard, M.; Koopman, B.; Janssen, D.W.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal (MS) models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact, and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal

  6. Evaluation of a surrogate contact model in force-dependent kinematic simulations of total knee replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marra, Marco Antonio; Andersen, Michael S.; Damsgaard, Michael; Koopman, Bart F.J.M.; Janssen, Dennis; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Knowing the forces in the human body is of great clinical interest and musculoskeletal (MS) models are the most commonly used tool to estimate them in vivo. Unfortunately, the process of computing muscle, joint contact, and ligament forces simultaneously is computationally highly demanding. The goal

  7. Selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome: a comparison with sense codon usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotta, Edoardo

    2016-05-17

    The three stop codons UAA, UAG, and UGA signal the termination of mRNA translation. As a result of a mechanism that is not adequately understood, they are normally used with unequal frequencies. In this work, we showed that selective forces and mutational biases drive stop codon usage in the human genome. We found that, in respect to sense codons, stop codon usage was affected by stronger selective forces but was less influenced by neutral mutational biases. UGA is the most frequent termination codon in human genome. However, UAA was the preferred stop codon in genes with high breadth of expression, high level of expression, AT-rich coding sequences, housekeeping functions, and in gene ontology categories with the largest deviation from expected stop codon usage. Selective forces associated with the breadth and the level of expression favoured AT-rich sequences in the mRNA region including the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR, but acted with scarce effects on sense codons, generating two regions, upstream and downstream of the stop codon, with strongly different base composition. By favouring low levels of GC-content, selection promoted labile local secondary structures at the stop site and its proximal 3'-UTR. The compositional and structural context favoured by selection was surprisingly emphasized in the class of ribosomal proteins and was consistent with sequence elements that increase the efficiency of translational termination. Stop codons were also heterogeneously distributed among chromosomes by a mechanism that was strongly correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences. In human genome, the nucleotide composition and the thermodynamic stability of stop codon site and its proximal 3'-UTR are correlated with the GC-content of coding sequences and with the breadth and the level of gene expression. In highly expressed genes stop codon usage is compositionally and structurally consistent with highly efficient translation termination signals.

  8. Supply Chain Management as a Driving Force for Generating Competitive Advantage for Dairy Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Olegovna Poleshkina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to uncover the reserves to generate competitive advantages for the participants of the market of perishables in the case of the dairy sector due to the formation of effective supply chains, as this category of goods is the most demanding in terms of periods and conditions of transportation and terms of preservation. The research technique is based on the concepts of value chains and supply chain management. In order to optimize the distribution of functions between the participants of the dairy chain a process-based approach has been applied. The research has revealed the main reasons for high aggregate costs and the places of their formation at each stage of the dairy supply chain. The article proposes the mechanisms to address three main problems arising from the process of building relations between the participants of the dairy supply chain in Russia. These problems are associated with a disproportionate margin distribution between the participants of the chain, with non-compliance of the quality of raw milk with the requirements for the production of specific types of dairy products, and with distrust of the supply chain participants, which increases transaction costs and forces to create reserve supplies which reduce the competitiveness of the whole dairy supply chain in general. In order to improve the competitiveness of all participants in the dairy chain, the article presents several mechanisms for solving these problems. The first is margin distribution based on the costs incurred by each participant of the dairy chain. The second is the use of a mathematical model to determine the assortment of goods of a dairy enterprise on the basis of the incoming volume and quality of raw milk according to the seasonal factor and the demand for dairy products. The third is the feasibility of refusal from the formation of reserve supplies by all participants of the dairy chain, which will not only minimize aggregate costs, but also

  9. High temperature reactor: Driving force to convert CO2 to fuel - HTR2008-58132

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    The rapidly increasing cost of petroleum products and uncertainty of long-term supply have prompted the U.S. military to aggressively pursue production of alternative fuels (synfuels) such as coal-to-liquids (CTL). U.S. Air Force is particularly active in this effort while the entire military is involved in simultaneously developing fuel specifications for alternative fuels that enable a single fuel for the entire battle space; all ground vehicles, aircraft and fuel cells. By limiting its focus on coal, tar sands and oil shale resources, the military risks violating federal law which requires the use of synfuels that have life cycle greenhouse gas emissions less than or equal to emissions from conventional petroleum fuels. A climate-friendly option would use a high temperature nuclear reactor to split water. The hydrogen (H 2 ) would be used in the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) to react with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) to produce carbon monoxide (CO) and water. The oxygen (O 2 ) would be fed into a supercritical (SC) coal furnace. The flue gas CO 2 emissions would be stripped of impurities before reacting with H 2 in a RWGS process. Resultant carbon monoxide (CO) is fed, with additional H2, (extra H 2 needed to adjust the stoichiometry: 2 moles H 2 to one mole CO) into a conventional Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) to produce a heavy wax which is cracked and isomerized and refined to Jet Propulsion 8 (JP-8) and Jet Propulsion 5 (JP-5) fuels. The entire process offers valuable carbon-offsets and multiple products that contribute to lower syn-fuel costs and to comply with the federal limitation imposed on syn-fuel purchases. While the entire process is not commercially available, component parts are being researched; their physical and chemical properties understood and some are state-of-the-art technologies. An international consortium should complete physical, chemical and economic flow sheets to determine the feasibility of this concept that, if pursued, has broad

  10. A piezo motor based on a new principle with high output force, rigidity and integrity: The Tuna Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Lu, Qingyou

    2012-11-01

    We present a linear piezoelectric motor as simple as one piezoelectric scanner tube (PST) spring-clamping a central shaft at both ends with roughly equal clamping forces. The clamping points are aligned with ±X electrodes at one end and ±Y electrodes at the other end. Thus, the ±X (or ±Y) push-pull motions of the PST can cause the push-pull motions of the clamping points on the shaft (called push-pull rubbing), which reduces the total dynamic friction force at one (or the other) end of the PST. This new piezo motor advances one step by fast push-pull rubbing at one end while slowly retracting the PST followed by fast push-pull rubbing at the other end while slowly elongating the PST. Apart from the obvious advantages of simplicity, rigidity, integrity, etc., we will also show that this motor can produce a large output force, which we believe is because of the huge drop of the clamping friction force when the push-pull rubbing occurs.

  11. Genomic Instability: The Driving Force behind Refractory/Relapsing Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knecht, Hans; Righolt, Christiaan; Mai, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    In classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) the malignant mononuclear Hodgkin (H) and multinuclear, diagnostic Reed-Sternberg (RS) cells are rare and generally make up <3% of the total cellular mass of the affected lymph nodes. During recent years, the introduction of laser micro-dissection techniques at the single cell level has substantially improved our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HL. Gene expression profiling, comparative genomic hybridization analysis, micro-RNA expression profiling and viral oncogene sequencing have deepened our knowledge of numerous facets of H- and RS-cell gene expression deregulation. The question remains whether disturbed signaling pathways and deregulated transcription factors are at the origin of refractory/relapsing Hodgkin’s lymphoma or whether these hallmarks are at least partially related to another major factor. We recently showed that the 3D nuclear organization of telomeres and chromosomes marked the transition from H- to RS-cells in HL cell lines. This transition is associated with progression of telomere dysfunction, shelterin disruption and progression of complex chromosomal rearrangements. We reported analogous findings in refractory/relapsing HL and identified the shelterin proteins TRF1, TRF2 and POT1 as targets of the LMP1 oncogene in post-germinal center B-cells. Here we summarize our findings, including data not previously published, and propose a model in which progressive disruption of nuclear integrity, a form of genomic instability, is the key-player in refractory/relapsing HL. Therapeutic approaches should take these findings into account

  12. analysis of spatial-temporal variations and driving force of low cloud in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu

    2015-04-01

    Cloud plays a crucial role in the climate system, and better understanding of its characteristics and formation mechanism are essential to study the climate system, improve the performance of climate models, and to provide scientific basis on conducting weather modification activities and better using water resources for the purpose of improving the local climate and ecological environment. During 1961 to 2005, decrease trend is detected for the total cloud amount over most parts of northern China, while increase trend is found for the low cloud amount with significant regionality. Both station and ISCCP D2 datasets present similar spatial distributions and interdecadal variation of high cloud. However two datasets show different characters for those of low cloud. Three typical sub-regions are chosen considering their underlying surface features and the temporal trend of low cloud amount, over which the interdecadal variations of low cloud amount in three regions are systematically investigated. The analyses show the strong regionality and seasonality in low cloud amount's temporal variations and trend, and quasi-biannual oscillations are observed in low cloud amount in three regions in the past 45 years. The relationships between 500 hPa circulation indexes and low cloud over the three regions are examined by means of singular value decomposition (SVD). The results show that the summer low cloud amount in Xinjiang is closely related with the Subtropical High, the Tibetan Plateau and Polar Vortex, and the autumn low cloud amount in North China is affected by the area of Subtropical High and intensity of Polar Vortex. For northeast China the controlling factor that affects the spring low cloud amount is the area of Polar Vortex in quadrant ⅳ(30°W-60°E).

  13. Economic innovation and efficiency gains as the driving force for accelerating carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is normally assumed that gains in energy efficiency are one of the best routes that society has available to it for stabilizing future carbon dioxide emissions. For a given degree of economic productivity less energy is consumed and a smaller quantity of fossil fuels is required. While certainly this observation is true in the instant, it ignores feedbacks in the economic system such that efficiency gains ultimately lead to greater energy consumption: taken as a global whole, they permit civilization to accelerate its expansion into the energy reserves that sustain it. Here this argument is formalized from a general thermodynamic perspective. The core result is that there exists a fixed, time-independent link between a very general representation of global inflation-adjusted economic wealth (units currency) and civilization's total capacity to consume power (units energy per time). Based on 40 years of available statistics covering more than a tripling of global GDP and a doubling of wealth, this constant has a value of 7.1 +/- 0.01 Watts per one thousand 2005 US dollars. Essentially, wealth is power. Civilization grows by dissipating power in order to sustain all its current activities and to incorporate more raw material into its existing structure. Growth of its structure is related to economic production, so more energy efficient economic production facilitates growth. Growth is into the reserves that sustain civilization, in which case there is a positive feedback in the economic system whereby energy efficiency gains ultimately "backfire" if their intended purpose is to reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The analogy that can be made is to a growing child: a healthy child who efficiently incorporates food into her structure grows quickly and is able to consume more in following years. Economically, an argument is made that, for a range of reasons, there are good reasons to refer to efficiency gains as economic "innovation", both for

  14. Grassland Aboveground Biomass in Inner Mongolia: Dynamics (2001-2016) and Driving force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Zeng, Y.; Chen, J.; Wu, B.

    2017-12-01

    Plant biomass is the most critical measure of carbon stored in an ecosystem, yet it remains imprecisely modeled for many terrestrial biomes. This lack of modeling capacity for biomass and its change through time and space has impeded scientists from making headway concerning issues in the geographic and social sciences. Satellite remote sensing techniques excel at detecting changes in the Earth's surface; however, accurate estimates of biomass for the heterogeneous biome landscapes based on remote sensing techniques are few and far between, which has led to many repetitive studies. Here, we argued that our ability to assess biomass in a heterogeneous landscape using satellite remote sensing techniques would be effectively enhanced through a stratification of landscapes, i.e homogenizing landscapes. Specifically, above-ground biomass (AGB) for an extended heterogeneous grassland biome over the entirety of Inner Mongolia during the past 16 years (2001-2016) was explored using remote sensing time series data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Massive and extensive in-situ measurement AGB data and pure vegetation index (PVI) models, developed from normal remote sensing vegetation indices such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), were highlighted in the accomplishment of this study. Taking into full consideration the landscape heterogeneity for the grassland biome over Inner Mongolia, we achieved a series of AGB models with high R2 (>0.85) and low RMSE ( 20.85 g/m2). The total average amount of fresh AGB for the entirety of Inner Mongolia grasslands over the past 16 years was estimated as 87 Tg with an inter-annual standard deviation of 9 Tg. Overall, the grassland AGB for Inner Mongolia increased sporadically. We found that the dynamics of AGB in the grassland biome of Inner Mongolia were substantially dominated by variation in precipitation despite the accommodation of a huge

  15. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  16. Driving forces behind the increasing cardiovascular treatment intensity.A dynamic epidemiologic model of trends in Danish cardiovascular drug utilization.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildemoes, Helle Wallach; Andersen, Morten

    . Objectives: To investigate the driving forces behind the increasing treatment prevalence of cardiovascular drugs, in particular statins, by means of a dynamic epidemiologic drug utilization model. Methods: Material: All Danish residents older than 20 years by January 1, 1996 (4.0 million inhabitants), were...

  17. ART Or AGR: Deciphering Which Reserve Program is Best Suited for Today’s Total Force Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY ART OR AGR: DECIPHERING WHICH RESERVE PROGRAM IS BEST SUITED FOR TODAY’S TOTAL FORCE STRUCTURE...4 ART Program...time workforce, which are the ART and AGR programs, by comparing each and highlighting the differences, advantages and disadvantages they present to

  18. Is personality a driving force for socioeconomic differences in young adults' health care use? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Maren; Arts, Koos; Traag, Tanja; Otten, Ferdy; Bosma, Hans

    2017-09-01

    To relate personality characteristics at the age of 12 to socioeconomic differences in health care use in young adulthood. And thereby examining the extent to which socioeconomic differences in the use of health care in young adulthood are based on differences in personality characteristics, independent of the (parental) socioeconomic background. Personality of more than 13,000 Dutch 12-year old participants was related to their health and socioeconomic position after a follow-up of 13 years (when the participants had become young adults). In young adulthood, low socioeconomic status was related to high health care use (e.g. low education -hospital admission: OR = 2.21; low income -GP costs: OR = 1.25). Odds ratios (for the socioeconomic health differences) did not decrease when controlled for personality. In this Dutch sample of younger people, personality appeared not to be a driving force for socioeconomic differences in health care use. Findings thus do not support the personality-related, indirect selection perspective on the explanation of socioeconomic differences in health.

  19. Driving forces in energy-related CO2 emissions in south and east coastal China: commonality and variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C.; Liu, Y.; Jin, J.; Wei, T.

    2015-12-01

    East and south coastal China contributes to respectively about 30% and 8% of CO2 emissions in China and the world, and therefore play a critical role in achieving the national goal of emission reduction to mitigate the global warming. It also serves as a benchmark for the less developed regions of China, in terms of achieving the developed world's human development standard under lower per capita emissions. We analyze the driving forces of emissions in this region and their provincial characteristics by applying the Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index method. Our findings show that emissions have been doubled during the period from 2000 to 2012, along with three and two folds increase in economy and energy consumption, respectively. This suggests a persistent lock between economic growth and emissions, even in this socioeconomically advanced region in China. Provincial difference in annual emission growth reveals three distinguished low-carbon developmental stages, owning mainly to the effectiveness of energy efficiency in reducing emission growth. This may explain why previous climate policies have aimed to reduce carbon intensity. These results indicate that targeted measures on enhancing energy efficiency in the short term and de-carbonization of both the economic and energy structure in the long term can lower the emission growth more effectively and efficiently. They also suggest that factor-driven emission reduction strategies and policies are needed in the geographically and socioeconomically similar regions.

  20. Application of driving force- Pressure- State- Impact- Response (DPSIR Framework for Analyzing the Human habitat in City of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Salehi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human habitat change is a complicated issue that many factors play different roles in its formation and distribution. Considering this complication, a more comprehensive and holistic approach is needed for a better understanding and management of those factors. The causal frameworks are among systemic and integrated methods for addressing the causes of environmental problems and the relationships that exist between the environmental systems for proposing proper solutions. The DPSIR model is a functional analysis framework to depict the cause-effect relationships that exist in creating environmental problems. Tehran is one of the major megacities in the Middle East that faces environmental consequences of over population and unplanned urban sprawl, and because of its location in arid region, its vulnerable to rise of environmental problem. In this research, by using the DPSIR framework, different aspects of habitat condition of Tehran are analyzed and later with the help of this conceptual framework, strategies for controlling urban environment. The results show that urbanization is the major driving force that is induced by overpopulation and the need for further urban sprawl, which cause pressure on natural resources. The state of housing and rapid land use changes have brought about unfavorable living conditions that result in unfavorable impacts on public health and safety, which are the results of ineffective policies and solutions.

  1. Empirical Validation of a Hypothesis of the Hormetic Selective Forces Driving the Evolution of Longevity Regulation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Gomez-Perez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exogenously added lithocholic bile acid and some other bile acids slow down yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response and altering mitochondrial functionality. Unlike animals, yeast cells do not synthesize bile acids. We therefore hypothesized that bile acids released into an ecosystem by animals may act as interspecies chemical signals that generate selective pressure for the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms in yeast within this ecosystem. To empirically verify our hypothesis, in this study we carried out a 3-step process for the selection of long-lived yeast species by a long-term exposure to exogenous lithocholic bile acid. Such experimental evolution yielded 20 long-lived mutants, 3 of which were capable of sustaining their considerably prolonged chronological lifespans after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. The extended longevity of each of the 3 long-lived yeast species was a dominant polygenic trait caused by mutations in more than two nuclear genes. Each of the 3 mutants displayed considerable alterations to the age-related chronology of mitochondrial respiration and showed enhanced resistance to chronic oxidative, thermal and osmotic stresses. Our findings empirically validate the hypothesis suggesting that hormetic selective forces can drive the evolution of longevity regulation mechanisms within an ecosystem.

  2. The Driving Forces for the Practice of Strategic Planning in SMEs: Evidence from Harare Metropolitan Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwell Sandada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite Zimbabwe sharing with the rest of the world, the notion that SMEs are the impeccable engines to economic revival, growth and development, many of the nation`s SMEs are plagued with high failure rates. Previous studies carried out in most foreign countries suggested that the high failure rate of SMEs was attributable to lack of strategic planning among a host of other factors. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study was to examine the driving forces for the practice of strategic planning in SMEs. A quantitative cross sectional study was conducted among active SMEs who are registered with the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises and Cooperative Development in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that globalisation, business ownership motivations, environmental dynamism and innovation & technological advancement have a positive and statistically significant influence on the adoption or practice of strategic planning among SMEs. The study has important implications for the practice and implementation of strategic planning among SMEs especially in the context of a developing country such as Zimbabwe.

  3. The flow field acting on the fluttering profile, kinematics, forces and total moment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozánek, Jan; Vlček, Václav; Zolotarev, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 7 (2013), s. 1-7 ISSN 0219-4554 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1522 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : fluttering profile * interferometry visualization * acting forces and moment Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 1.059, year: 2013

  4. Thigh-calf contact parameters for six high knee flexion postures: Onset, maximum angle, total force, contact area, and center of force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M

    2018-01-23

    In high knee flexion, contact between the posterior thigh and calf is expected to decrease forces on tibiofemoral contact surfaces, therefore, thigh-calf contact needs to be thoroughly characterized to model its effect. This study measured knee angles and intersegmental contact parameters in fifty-eight young healthy participants for six common high flexion postures using motion tracking and a pressure sensor attached to the right thigh. Additionally, we introduced and assessed the reliability of a method for reducing noise in pressure sensor output. Five repetitions of two squatting, two kneeling, and two unilateral kneeling movements were completed. Interactions of posture by sex occurred for thigh-calf and heel-gluteal center of force, and thigh-calf contact area. Center of force in thigh-calf regions was farther from the knee joint center in females, compared to males, during unilateral kneeling (82 and 67 mm respectively) with an inverted relationship in the heel-gluteal region (331 and 345 mm respectively), although caution is advised when generalizing these findings from a young, relatively fit sample to a population level. Contact area was larger in females when compared to males (mean of 155.61 and 137.33 cm 2 across postures). A posture main effect was observed in contact force and sex main effects were present in onset and max angle. Males had earlier onset (121.0°) and lower max angle (147.4°) with onset and max angles having a range between movements of 8° and 3° respectively. There was a substantial total force difference of 139 N between the largest and smallest activity means. Force parameters measured in this study suggest that knee joint contact models need to incorporate activity-specific parameters when estimating loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nature of macroeconomic equilibrium and driving force of economic cycles in the light of difference between money and exergy forms in cost estimations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.V. [National Politechnical Univ., Kiev (Ukraine); Brodianskii, V.M. [Moscow Power Engineering Inst. Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1996-11-01

    The main problem of exergy application directly in economic analysis is to find valid correlation between money-based cost and exergy based one (including exergy expenses of labour) and to define exergy cost as an economic category among the existing traditional economic ones. The present report is aimed to search the way for this macroeconomic problems` solution. It is demonstrated that exergy-based cost can be recalculated in a monetary form using a coefficient, defined as a ratio between money supply and the total exergy of all natural resources involved in production process, i.e. as a ratio between monetary and exergy bases. The difference between `natural` and current prices (P) can be used directly both for general quantitative characteristics of an economic cycles driving force and for control of market relationship imperfection. It is shown that for the period of time with the positive P, that is, current price is lower than a `natural` one, the recoveries in business cycles are observed. For the period of time with the negative P, that is, current price is higher than a natural one, economic recessions are observed. The moment of time when P = 0 corresponds to the turning point of a business cycle. In such a way the possibility to predict the turning points of business cycles is demonstrated. 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  6. Estimation of Longitudinal Force and Sideslip Angle for Intelligent Four-Wheel Independent Drive Electric Vehicles by Observer Iteration and Information Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Te; Chen, Long; Xu, Xing; Cai, Yingfeng; Jiang, Haobin; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2018-04-20

    Exact estimation of longitudinal force and sideslip angle is important for lateral stability and path-following control of four-wheel independent driven electric vehicle. This paper presents an effective method for longitudinal force and sideslip angle estimation by observer iteration and information fusion for four-wheel independent drive electric vehicles. The electric driving wheel model is introduced into the vehicle modeling process and used for longitudinal force estimation, the longitudinal force reconstruction equation is obtained via model decoupling, the a Luenberger observer and high-order sliding mode observer are united for longitudinal force observer design, and the Kalman filter is applied to restrain the influence of noise. Via the estimated longitudinal force, an estimation strategy is then proposed based on observer iteration and information fusion, in which the Luenberger observer is applied to achieve the transcendental estimation utilizing less sensor measurements, the extended Kalman filter is used for a posteriori estimation with higher accuracy, and a fuzzy weight controller is used to enhance the adaptive ability of observer system. Simulations and experiments are carried out, and the effectiveness of proposed estimation method is verified.

  7. Changes in quality management for light water reactor fuel manufacturing: A utility's view of driving forces and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huettmann, A.; Skusa, J.; Ketteler, M.

    2000-01-01

    Quality management in LWR fuel manufacturing for the use in German reactors is based on international guidelines and national/local authority requirements defined in operational licenses. The quality management is twofold and comprises a quality assurance system and the check of manufacturing documents including witnessing of fabrication processes and inspections. Utility and authority appointed technical expert witness manufacturing and take part in inspections performed by the manufacturer where the scope is strictly defined and does not provide possibilities of flexible responses to manufacturing occurrences. For future developments in quality management HEW supports strengthening the ideas of quality planning. Analysis of all factors influencing fuel reliability shall be performed prior to manufacturing. This will increase the efforts in reviewing of drawings and specifications. Included here shall be a review of processes that will be used in manufacturing. The qualification and robustness of processes shall be demonstrated with special qualification programs and analysis of manufacturing statistics. Instead of product/project related inspections the use of all manufacturing data will provide a complete picture of the manufacturing quality. By applying statistical methods it will be possible to identify trends in manufacturing before deviations occur. So the basic driving force to implement statistical process control for the utilities is the wish to get comprehensive information of delivered quality, whereas for manufacturers it might be to increase production yields and thus to lower costs. The introduction and full use of statistical process control requires open information about manufacturing processes and inspection results by the manufacturers. This might include data judged to be economically sensitive. It also requires changes in attitude at the utilities and appointed experts. HEW has started to review and change internal guidelines to allow

  8. Orbital-scale nonlinear response of East Asian summer monsoon to its potential driving forces in the late Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Liang; Shi, Zhengguo; Tan, Liangcheng; Deng, Chenglong

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a statistical study to characterize the nonlinear response of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) to its potential forcing factors over the last 260 ka on orbital timescales. We find that both variation in solar insolation and global ice volume were responsible for the nonlinear forcing of orbital-scale monsoonal variations, accounting for 80% of the total variance. Specifically, EASM records with dominated precession variance exhibit a more sensitive response to changes in solar insolation during intervals of enhanced monsoon strength, but are less sensitive during intervals of reduced monsoon strength. In the case of global ice volume with 100-ka variance, this difference is not one of sensitivity but rather a difference in baseline conditions, such as the relative areas of land and sea which affected the land-sea thermal gradient. We therefore suggest that EASM records with dominated precession variance recorded the signal of a shift in the location of the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone, and the associated changes in the incidence of torrential rainfall; while for proxies with dominated 100-ka variance, it recorded changes in the land-sea thermal gradient via its effects on non-torrential precipitation.

  9. Comparison of isokinetic peak force and power in adults with partial and total blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Michael; Ray, Christopher; Nocera, Joe; Croce, Ron

    2006-08-01

    For many populations the ability to move efficiently is compromised by an impaired muscular functioning. Strength development is necessary to overcome the effects of gravity to maintain posture and generate movement responses for mobility. The strength and power capabilities of individuals with total blindness (n = 12) were compared to those with partial vision (n = 12) to evaluate effects of vision on performance. Results indicate that (1) no significant differences were apparent between total blindness and partial vision, (2) significant sex differences were evident in each group, and (3) better performance was apparent at lower velocities. It was concluded that physical performance in individuals with blindness and partial vision are equally deficient.

  10. Influence of Minimally Invasive Total Hip Replacement on Hip Reaction Forces and Their Orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, Tim; Al-Munajjed, Amir A.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob; Dendorfer, Sebastian; Renkawitz, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is becoming increasingly popular. Supporters claim that the main advantages of MIS total hip replacement (THR) are less pain and a faster rehabilitation and recovery. Critics claim that safety and efficacy of MIS are yet to be determined. We focused on a

  11. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fobel, Ryan; Fobel, Christian; Wheeler, Aaron R.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  12. The Influence of Component Alignment and Ligament Properties on Tibiofemoral Contact Forces in Total Knee Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Colin R.; Vignos, Michael F.; Lenhart, Rachel L.; Kaiser, Jarred; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2016-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate the influence of coronal plane alignment and ligament properties on total knee replacement (TKR) contact loads during walking. We created a subject-specific knee model of an 83-year-old male who had an instrumented TKR. The knee model was incorporated into a lower extremity musculoskeletal model and included deformable contact, ligamentous structures, and six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) tibiofemoral and patellofemoral joints. A novel numerical optimization ...

  13. [Spatio-temporal change of sand-fixing function and its driving forces in desertification control ecological function area of Hunshandake, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lu; Tian, Mei-rong; Gao, Ji-xi; Qian, Jin-ping

    2016-01-01

    Soil erosion is an important ecological and environmental problem in Hunshandake Desert, and the sand-fixing function determines the degree of ecological security in the entire region. In order to clarify the situation of windbreak and sand fixation in Hunshandake area, and to guide the prevention and treatment of desertification on regional scale, based on the meteorological and remote sensing data, this paper quantitatively analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of windbreak and sand fixation ability between 2000-2010 by the revised wind erosion equation (RWEQ) model, meanwhile, the driving forces for each county ( or banner) in the functional zone were analyzed with the method of principal component analysis. The results showed that there was a fluctuation of the sand fixing capacity in Hunshandake over time, generally rendering a decline trend. The coniferous forest and grassland had strong windbreak and sand fixation capacity in unit area among the various land categories. In terms of spatial distribution, the windbreak and sand fixation function in western and southeastern region was weak and needed to be strengthened with ecological restoration efforts. Through the study of the social driving forces of each administrative region in the function zone, there were 3 main social driving forces of soil erosion in the administrative functions: the intensity of input-output, the level of economic development and the level of agriculture-husbandry development.

  14. Photoinduced electron transfer in covalent ruthenium-anthraquinone dyads: relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and donor-bridge energy gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankache, Jihane; Wenger, Oliver S

    2012-02-28

    Four rigid rod-like molecules comprised of a Ru(bpy)(3)(2+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) photosensitizer, a 9,10-anthraquinone electron acceptor, and a molecular bridge connecting the two redox partners were synthesized and investigated by optical spectroscopic and electrochemical means. An attempt was made to assess the relative importance of driving-force, solvent polarity, and bridge variation on the rates of photoinduced electron transfer in these molecules. Expectedly, introduction of tert-butyl substituents in the bipyridine ligands of the ruthenium complex and a change in solvent from dichloromethane to acetonitrile lead to a significant acceleration of charge transfer rates. In dichloromethane, photoinduced electron transfer is not competitive with the inherent excited-state deactivation processes of the photosensitizer. In acetonitrile, an increase in driving-force by 0.2 eV through attachment of tert-butyl substituents to the bpy ancillary ligands causes an increase in electron transfer rates by an order of magnitude. Replacement of a p-xylene bridge by a p-dimethoxybenzene spacer entails an acceleration of charge transfer rates by a factor of 3.5. In the dyads from this study, the relative order of importance of individual influences on electron transfer rates is therefore as follows: solvent polarity ≥ driving-force > donor-bridge energy gap.

  15. Local deforestation patterns and their driving forces of tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern Oaxaca, Mexico (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Galicia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The tropical dry forest is an ecosystem that is undergoing rapid changes. Although global driving forces behind these changes have been addressed at a local scale, spatio-temporal dynamics are still largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to identify the causes governing the dynamics of changes in land use and land cover in the tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern México. Satellite imagery and air photographs were used in a GIS context to produce maps of land use and land cover for 1985, 1995 and 2006. A number of statistical methods (Markov chains, general lineal models and regression tree analysis were applied to identify the proximate and the underlying causes of deforestation, agriculture being the most important one. When agriculture is mainly for self consumption, topographic factors determine its location. Increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector has resulted in the abandonment of agricultural land; consequently, the forest has recovered. Different studies have examined the dynamics of local deforestation and its driving forces in México; however, this study considered both spatial and temporal elements in order to identify the most important underlying driving forces of deforestation and its dynamics at local scale, and also compared two neighboring municipalities.

  16. Polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation: comparison of first-principles theory with ultra-fast x-ray experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Stephen; Murray, Eamonn

    2015-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of a ultrafast pulse of polarized light. To compare the results with recent ultra-fast, time-resolved x-ray diffraction experiments, we include the decay of the force due to carrier scattering, as measured in optical Raman scattering experiments, and simulate the optical absorption process, depth-dependent atomic driving forces, and x-ray diffraction in the experimental geometry. We find excellent agreement between the theoretical predictions and the observed oscillations of the x-ray diffraction signal, indicating that first-principles theory of optical absorption is well suited to the calculation of initial atomic driving forces in photo-excited materials following ultrafast excitation. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland (Grant No. 12/IA/1601) and EU Commission under the Marie Curie Incoming International Fellowships (Grant No. PIIF-GA-2012-329695).

  17. Biomechanical Effects of Posterior Condylar Offset and Posterior Tibial Slope on Quadriceps Force and Joint Contact Forces in Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Tak Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the biomechanical effect of the posterior condylar offset (PCO and posterior tibial slope (PTS in posterior-stabilized (PS fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty (TKA. We developed ±1, ±2, and ±3 mm PCO models in the posterior direction and −3°, 0°, 3°, and 6° PTS models using a previously validated FE model. The influence of changes in the PCO and PTS on the biomechanical effects under deep-knee-bend loading was investigated. The contact stress on the PE insert increased by 14% and decreased by 7% on average as the PCO increased and decreased, respectively, compared to the neutral position. In addition, the contact stress on post in PE insert increased by 18% on average as PTS increased from −3° to 6°. However, the contact stress on the patellar button decreased by 11% on average as PTS increased from −3° to 6° in all different PCO cases. The quadriceps force decreased by 14% as PTS increased from −3° to 6° in all PCO models. The same trend was found in patellar tendon force. Changes in PCO had adverse biomechanical effects whereas PTS increase had positive biomechanical effects. However, excessive PTS should be avoided to prevent knee instability and subsequent failure.

  18. Estimation of Tri-Axial Walking Ground Reaction Forces of Left and Right Foot from Total Forces in Real-Life Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erfan Shahabpoor

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous monitoring of natural human gait in real-life environments is essential in many applications including disease monitoring, rehabilitation, and professional sports. Wearable inertial measurement units are successfully used to measure body kinematics in real-life environments and to estimate total walking ground reaction forces GRF(t using equations of motion. However, for inverse dynamics and clinical gait analysis, the GRF(t of each foot is required separately. Using an experimental dataset of 1243 tri-axial separate-foot GRF(t time histories measured by the authors across eight years, this study proposes the ‘Twin Polynomial Method’ (TPM to estimate the tri-axial left and right foot GRF(t signals from the total GRF(t signals. For each gait cycle, TPM fits polynomials of degree five, eight, and nine to the known single-support part of the left and right foot vertical, anterior-posterior, and medial-lateral GRF(t signals, respectively, to extrapolate the unknown double-support parts of the corresponding GRF(t signals. Validation of the proposed method both with force plate measurements (gold standard in the laboratory, and in real-life environment showed a peak-to-peak normalized root mean square error of less than 2.5%, 6.5% and 7.5% for the estimated GRF(t signals in the vertical, anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions, respectively. These values show considerable improvement compared with the currently available GRF(t decomposition methods in the literature.

  19. [Driving forces of carbon emission from energy consumption in China old industrial cities: a case study of Shenyang City, Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Geng, Yong; Xue, Bing

    2012-10-01

    To quantitatively analyze the effects of anthropogenic factors on regional environmental quality is a hot topic in the field of sustainable development research. Taking the typical old industrial city Shenyang in Northeast China as a case, and by using the IPCC method for calculating carbon emission from energy consumption, this paper estimated the carbon emission from energy consumption in the city in 1978-2009, and a time series analysis on the anthropogenic factors driving this carbon emission was made by the STIRPAT model based upon Kaya equation and ridge regression. In 1978-2009, the carbon emission in the city had a slow increase first, slow decrease then, and a rapid increase thereafter. The total carbon emission in 2009 was 4.6 times of that in 1978. Population growth was the main factor driving the growth of the emission, and there existed an equal-proportional variation between the population growth and the carbon emission growth. Urbanization was another main driving factor followed by population growth, and the per capita GDP was positively correlated with the carbon emission. Kuznets curve did not exist for the relationship between economic development and carbon emission in Shenyang. Energy source intensity reduction (representing technology improvement) was the main factor driving the reduction of the total carbon emission.

  20. Medical Total Force Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Facilities (MTFs). For specialties that are common in civilian labor markets , civilian providers generally cost less than military providers. While the...produced in Military Treatment Facilities (MTFs). For specialties that are common in civilian labor markets , civilian providers generally cost less...Attracting Fully Trained Medical Personnel,” CRM D0013237.A2 (Alexandria, VA: CNA Corporation, 2006). 66

  1. The effect of electric field geometry on the performance of electromembrane extraction systems: Footprints of a third driving force along with migration and diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza [School of Physics and Accelerators, NSTRI, P. O. Box, 11365-8486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed, E-mail: ss-hosseiny@sbu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed [Faculty of Chemistry, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abrari, Masoud [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C., 1983963113, Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-03

    The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m{sup −1} and 111 kV m{sup −1} in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.

  2. The effect of electric field geometry on the performance of electromembrane extraction systems: Footprints of a third driving force along with migration and diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moazami, Hamid Reza; Hosseiny Davarani, Saied Saeed; Mohammadi, Jamil; Nojavan, Saeed; Abrari, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of electric field vectors was first calculated for electromembrane extraction (EME) systems in classical and cylindrical electrode geometries. The results showed that supported liquid membrane (SLM) has a general field amplifying effect due to its lower dielectric constant in comparison with aqueous donor/acceptor solutions. The calculated norms of the electric field vector showed that a DC voltage of 50 V can create huge electric field strengths up to 64 kV m −1 and 111 kV m −1 in classical and cylindrical geometries respectively. In both cases, the electric field strength reached its peak value on the inner wall of the SLM. In the case of classical geometry, the field strength was a function of the polar position of the SLM whereas the field strength in cylindrical geometry was angularly uniform. In order to investigate the effect of the electrode geometry on the performance of real EME systems, the analysis was carried out in three different geometries including classical, helical and cylindrical arrangements using naproxen and sodium diclofenac as the model analytes. Despite higher field strength and extended cross sectional area, the helical and cylindrical geometries gave lower recoveries with respect to the classical EME. The observed decline of the signal was proved to be against the relations governing migration and diffusion processes, which means that a third driving force is involved in EME. The third driving force is the interaction between the radially inhomogeneous electric field and the analyte in its neutral form. - Highlights: • Electric field vectors have been calculated in EME systems. • A new driving force has been proposed in EME systems. • EME can be theoretically applied to nonionic polarizable analytes.

  3. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    intensive uses, although the same processes are likely to occur in parts of the Okavango region in the future. Literature: Banwart, S. (2011). "Save our soils." Nature 474: 151-152. Bürgi, M., A. M. Hersperger, et al. (2004). "Driving forces of landscape change - current and new directions." Landscape Ecology 19: 857-868. Butchart, S. H. M., M. Walpole, et al. (2010). "Global Biodiversity: Indicators of Recent Declines." Science 328(5982): 1164-1168. Ellis, E. C. and N. Ramankutty (2008). "Putting people in the map: anthropogenic biomes of the world." Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6(8): 439-447. Foley, J. A., R. Defries, et al. (2005). "Global consequences of land use." Science 309(5734): 570-574. Geist, H. J. and E. F. Lambin (2002). "Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation." BioScience 52(2): 143-150. Haub, C. (2012) World Population Data Sheet. World Population Hein, L., K. van Koppen, et al. (2006). "Spatial scales, stakeholders and the valuation of ecosystem services." Ecological Economics 57: 209-228. Hersperger, A. M., M.-P. Gennaio, et al. (2010). "Linking land change with driving forces and actors: four conceptual models." Ecology and Society 15(4): 1-17. Huang, C., L. S. Davis, et al. (2002). "An assessment of support vector machines for land cover classification." International Journal of Remote Sensing 23(4): 725-749. IPCC (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. T. F. Stocker, G. Qin, G.-K. Plattneret al. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Jönsson, P. and L. Eklundh (2004). "TIMESAT - a program for analysing time-series of satellite sensor data." Computers and Geosciences 30(833-845). Kowalski, B., N. Azebaze, et al. (2013). "Mashare - The People." Biodiversity & Ecology 5: 121-128. Lal, R. (2013). "Climate-strategic agriculture and the water-soil-waste nexus." Journal of Plant

  4. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Smart management - Driving forces and conditions for the development of advanced electricity networks; Smart ledning - Drivkrafter och foerutsaettningar foer utveckling av avancerade elnaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Oerjan; Staahl, Benjamin (Blue Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2011-02-15

    This report describes the development of Intelligent Networks, or Smart Grids. It is divided into two sections. The first section highlights the basics of what is called 'smart' grid technology, what the underlying driving forces are and how the conditions for market looks like. It also depicts the impact on consumers, emerging business logics and ongoing investment and incentives in the world. The first part ends with an operator map of the market. The second part takes a closer look on some key areas and includes a simple reminder of technology related to smart grids

  6. First-principles calculation of the polarization-dependent force driving the Eg mode in bismuth under optical excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Eamonn; Fahy, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Using first principles electronic structure methods, we calculate the induced force on the Eg (zone centre transverse optical) phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of polarized light. When radiation with polarization perpendicular to the c-axis is absorbed in bismuth, the distribution of excited electrons and holes breaks the three-fold rotational symmetry and leads to a net force on the atoms in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We calculate the initial excited electronic distribution as a function of photon energy and polarization and find the resulting transverse and longitudinal forces experienced by the atoms. Using the measured, temperature-dependent rate of decay of the transverse force[2], we predict the approximate amplitude of induced atomic motion in the Eg mode as a function of temperature and optical fluence. This work is supported by Science Foundation Ireland and a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowship.

  7. Driving Forces of Dynamic Changes in Soil Erosion in the Dahei Mountain Ecological Restoration Area of Northern China Based on GIS and RS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Niu, Xiang; Wang, Bing; Gao, Peng; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic change in soil erosion is an important focus of regional ecological restoration research. Here, the dynamic changes of soil erosion and its driving forces in the Dahei Mountain ecological restoration area of northern China were analyzed by LANDSAT TM remote sensing captured via geographic information system (GIS) technologies during three typical periods in 2004, 2008 and 2013. The results showed the following: (1) a decrease in intensive erosion and moderate erosion areas, as well as an increase in light erosion areas, was observed during two periods: one from 2004 to 2008 and the other from 2008 to 2013. (2) Between 2004 and 2008, the variation in the range of slight erosion was the largest (24.28%), followed by light erosion and intensive erosion; between 2008 and 2013, the variation in the range of intensive erosion area was the largest (9.89%), followed by slight erosion and moderate erosion. (3) Socioeconomic impact, accompanied by natural environmental factors, was the main driving force underlying the change in soil erosion within the ecological restoration area. In particular, the socioeconomic factors of per capita forest area and land reclamation rate, as well as the natural environmental factor of terrain slope, significantly influenced soil erosion changes within the ecological restoration area.

  8. Driving forces behind the stagnancy of China's energy-related CO2 emissions from 1996 to 1999: the relative importance of structural change, intensity change and scale change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, S.; Matsuoka, S.

    2005-01-01

    It is noteworthy that income elasticity of energy consumption in China shifted from positive to negative after 1996, accompanied by an unprecedented decline in energy-related CO 2 emissions. This paper therefore investigate the evolution of energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1985 to 1999 and the underlying driving forces, using the newly proposed three-level 'perfect decomposition' method and provincially aggregated data. The province-based estimates and analyses reveal a 'sudden stagnancy' of energy consumption, supply and energy-related CO 2 emissions in China from 1996 to 1999. The speed of a decrease in energy intensity and a slowdown in the growth of average labor productivity of industrial enterprises may have been the dominant contributors to this 'stagnancy'. The findings of this paper point to the highest rate of deterioration of state-owned enterprises in early 1996, the industrial restructuring caused by changes in ownership, the shutdown of small-scale power plants, and the introduction of policies to improve energy efficiency as probable factors. Taking into account the characteristics of those key driving forces, we characterize China's decline of energy-related CO 2 emissions as a short-term fluctuation and incline to the likelihood that China will resume an increasing trend from a lower starting point in the near future. (author)

  9. Structure and relative importance of ponderomotive forces and current drive generated by converted fast waves in pre-heated low aspect ratio tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperman, S.; Bruma, C.; Komoshvili, K

    2003-05-12

    The generation in low aspect ratio tokamaks (LARTs) of ponderomotive forces and non-inductive current drive by the resonant fast wave-plasma interaction with mode conversion to kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) and subsequent deposition, mainly by resonant electron Landau damping, is considered. The calculations follow the rigorous solution of the full wave equations upon using a dielectric tensor operator consisting of (i) a parallel conductivity including both kinetic effects (collisionless Landau damping on passing electrons) and collisional damping on both trapped electrons and passing electrons+ions and (ii) perpendicular components provided by the resistive two-fluid model equations. The fast waves are launched by an antenna located on the low field side and extending {+-}45 deg. about the equatorial plane. A parametric investigation of the structure and importance of the various components of the ponderomotive forces and current drive generated in START-like plasmas is carried out and their suitability for supplementing the required non-rf toroidal equilibrium current is demonstrated.

  10. Driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings: an analysis of energy performance of Swedish buildings, 2000-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglseth, Bente Beckstroem

    2008-06-15

    The building sector is responsible for a substantial part of energy use and green house gas emissions in Europe. This report explores driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance of buildings, using the Swedish building sector as a case. The development of energy performance of buildings in Sweden from 2000 until 2006 is explored by applying a threefold understanding of energy performance of buildings: substitution from fossil fuels to renewable energy, conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. Three explanatory approaches are used to analyse driving forces and barriers to improved energy performance: the techno-economic approach stresses the physical aspects of infrastructure and technologies, the institutional approach emphasizes the role of institutional factors, while the regulative approach focuses on formal rules and laws. The study concludes that all factors have promoted substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy, while they have prevented conversion from electrical heating to thermal energy and reduction in energy demand. (author). 95 refs

  11. Up-regulation of Rho/ROCK signaling in sarcoma cells drives invasion and increased generation of protrusive forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rosel, D.; Brabek, J.; Tolde, O.; Mierke, C.T.; Zitterbart, D.P.; Raupach, C.; Bicanova, K.; Kollmannsberger, P.; Pánková, D.; Veselý, Pavel; Folk, P.; Fabry, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 9 (2008), s. 1410-1420 ISSN 1541-7786 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Rho kinase ROCK * traction force microscopy * ameboid invasion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.533, year: 2008

  12. Varieties of flood risk governance in Europe: How do countries respond to driving forces and what explains institutional change?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.; Kaufmann, M.; Mees, H.; Schellenberger, T.; Ganzevoort, W.; Hegger, D.L.T.; Larrue, C.; Matczak, P.

    2017-01-01

    Floods are challenging the resilience of societies all over the world. In many countries there are discussions on diversifying the strategies for flood risk management, which implies some sort of policy change. To understand the possibilities of such change, a thorough understanding of the forces of

  13. The Conflicting Forces Driving Future Avionics Acquisition (Les Arguments Contradictoires pour les Futurs Achats d’Equipements d’Avionique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    Sep 1983 "Reliability Parameter of Additive Plated Through Hoics," William E. Greiner , Kollmorgen Corporation, 1rAnnual "Guidelines for Surface Mounting...Militare Etat-Major delIs Force Adienne Ufficio del Delegato Nazionaic all*AGARD Quartier Reine Elisabeth Aeroporto Pratica di Mare Rue d’Evere, 1140

  14. Spontaneous formation of small unilamellar vesicles by pH jump: A pH gradient across the bilayer membrane as the driving force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, H.; Mantsch, H.H.; Casal, H.L.

    1990-01-01

    31 P NMR and infrared spectroscopic methods have been used to study the formation of small unilamellar vesicles by the pH-jump method. It is shown that increasing the pH of different lamellar phospholipid dispersions (phosphatidic acids and phosphatidylserines) induces a pH gradient. This pH gradient is estimated to be 4 ± 1 pH units, and its direction is such that the inner monolayer of the vesicles is at lower pH. There is spectroscopic evidence for tighter packing of the lipid hydrocarbon chains in the inner monolayer, probably due to the constraints imposed by the high curvature of the small vesicles formed. These results are discussed in terms of the driving force of the spontaneous vesiculation

  15. Dehydrogenation Kinetics and Modeling Studies of MgH2 Enhanced by Transition Metal Oxide Catalysts Using Constant Pressure Thermodynamic Driving Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi Temitope Sabitu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of transition metal oxide catalysts (ZrO2, CeO2, Fe3O4 and Nb2O5 on the hydrogen desorption kinetics of MgH2 was investigated using constant pressure thermodynamic driving forces in which the ratio of the equilibrium plateau pressure (pm to the opposing plateau (pop was the same in all the reactions studied. The results showed Nb2O5 to be vastly superior to other catalysts for improving the thermodynamics and kinetics of MgH2. The modeling studies showed reaction at the phase boundary to be likely process controlling the reaction rates of all the systems studied.

  16. Driving forces of redistribution of elements during quasicrystalline phase formation under heating of mechanically alloyed Al65Cu23Fe12 powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherdyntsev, V. V.; Kaloshkin, S. D.; Shelekhov, E. V.; Principi, G.; Rodin, A. O.

    2008-02-01

    Al65Cu23Fe12 alloys were prepared by ball milling of the elemental powders mixture. Phase and structural transformations at heating of as-milled powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Precision analysis of Mössbauer spectra was performed to check the adequacy of the fitting of X-ray diffraction patterns. The results were compared with the data of differential scanning and solution calorimetry, as well as with the thermodynamic literature data, in order to estimate the driving forces of redistribution of elements that preceded the formation of single-phase quasicrystalline structure. The heat of elements mixing, which is positive for Cu-Fe system and negative for Al-Fe and Al-Cu systems, was supposed to be a decisive factor for phase transformations during heating of the alloy. The correlation between sequence of phase transformations during heating and the thermodynamic data was discussed and the scheme describing phase transformations observed was proposed.

  17. Bimodal atomic force microscopy driving the higher eigenmode in frequency-modulation mode: Implementation, advantages, disadvantages and comparison to the open-loop case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the bimodal amplitude-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereby the fundamental eigenmode is driven by using the amplitude-modulation technique (AM-AFM) while a higher eigenmode is driven by using either the constant-excitation or the constant-amplitude variant of the frequency-modulation (FM-AFM) technique. We also offer a comparison to the original bimodal AFM method, in which the higher eigenmode is driven with constant frequency and constant excitation amplitude. General as well as particular characteristics of the different driving schemes are highlighted from theoretical and experimental points of view, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This study provides information and guidelines that can be useful in selecting the most appropriate operation mode to characterize different samples in the most efficient and reliable way.

  18. Gibbs energy modelling of the driving forces and calculation of the fcc/hcp martensitic transformation temperatures in Fe-Mn and Fe-Mn-Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotes, S.; Fernandez Guillermet, A.; Sade, M.

    1999-01-01

    Very recent, accurate dilatometric measurements of the fcc hcp martensitic transformation (MT) temperatures are used to develop a new thermodynamic description of the fcc and hcp phases in the Fe-Mn-Si system, based on phenomenological models for the Gibbs energy function. The composition dependence of the driving forces for the fcc→hcp and the hcp→fcc MTs is established. Detailed calculations of the MT temperatures are reported, which are used to investigate the systematic effects of Si additions upon the MT temperatures of Fe-Mn alloys. A critical comparison with one of the most recent thermodynamic analyses of the Fe-Mn-Si system, which is due to Forsberg and Agren, is also presented. (orig.)

  19. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihua Dong

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policydimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM(Thematic Mapper data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from bothresearch institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-ruralland-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, thenon-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agriculturalland especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urbansettlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced aprocess of changing from aggregation (1995-2000 to decentralization (2000-2006.Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which includethe establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the buildingof Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and theGrain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-usechange. By analyzing Chongqing’s land-use change and its policy driving forces, someimplications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That ismore attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing andconsolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing landmanagement into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

  20. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10 4 M ☉ ), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10 4 in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  1. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, Philip F., E-mail: phopkins@caltech.edu [TAPIR, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10{sup 4} in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  2. Prediction of medial and lateral contact force of the knee joint during normal and turning gait after total knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purevsuren, Tserenchimed; Dorj, Ariunzaya; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2016-04-01

    The computational modeling approach has commonly been used to predict knee joint contact forces, muscle forces, and ligament loads during activities of daily living. Knowledge of these forces has several potential applications, for example, within design of equipment to protect the knee joint from injury and to plan adequate rehabilitation protocols, although clinical applications of computational models are still evolving and one of the limiting factors is model validation. The objective of this study was to extend previous modeling technique and to improve the validity of the model prediction using publicly available data set of the fifth "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict In Vivo Knee Loads." A two-stage modeling approach, which combines conventional inverse dynamic analysis (the first stage) with a multi-body subject-specific lower limb model (the second stage), was used to calculate medial and lateral compartment contact forces. The validation was performed by direct comparison of model predictions and experimental measurement of medial and lateral compartment contact forces during normal and turning gait. The model predictions of both medial and lateral contact forces showed strong correlations with experimental measurements in normal gait (r = 0.75 and 0.71) and in turning gait trials (r = 0.86 and 0.72), even though the current technique over-estimated medial compartment contact forces in swing phase. The correlation coefficient, Sprague and Geers metrics, and root mean squared error indicated that the lateral contact forces were predicted better than medial contact forces in comparison with the experimental measurements during both normal and turning gait trials. © IMechE 2016.

  3. Crystal structure of a trapped catalytic intermediate suggests that forced atomic proximity drives the catalysis of mIPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelon, Kelly; Roberts, Mary F; Stec, Boguslaw

    2011-12-07

    1-L-myo-inositol-phosphate synthase (mIPS) catalyzes the first step of the unique, de novo pathway of inositol biosynthesis. However, details about the complex mIPS catalytic mechanism, which requires oxidation, enolization, intramolecular aldol cyclization, and reduction, are not fully known. To gain further insight into this mechanism, we determined the crystal structure of the wild-type mIPS from Archaeoglobus fulgidus at 1.7 Å, as well as the crystal structures of three active-site mutants. Additionally, we obtained the structure of mIPS with a trapped 5-keto-glucose-6-phosphate intermediate at 2 Å resolution by a novel (to our knowledge) process of activating the crystal at high temperature. A comparison of all of the crystal structures of mIPS described in this work suggests a novel type of catalytic mechanism that relies on the forced atomic proximity of functional groups. The lysine cluster is contained in a small volume in the active site, where random motions of these side chains are responsible for the progress of the complex multistep reaction as well as for the low rate of catalysis. The mechanism requires that functional groups of Lys-274, Lys-278, Lys-306, and Lys-367 assume differential roles in the protonation/deprotonation steps that must occur during the mIPS reaction. This mechanism is supported by the complete loss of activity of the enzyme caused by the Leu-257 mutation to Ala that releases the lysine containment. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The sixth Euratom framework programme 2003-2006: a driving force for the construction of the Nuclear European Research Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Ruiz, P.; Forsstroem, H.; Goethem, G. van

    2005-01-01

    At the Lisbon 2000 summit, a strategic goal was proposed for the European Union: 'to become the most competitive knowledge-based economy with more and better employment and social cohesion by 2010'. Overall, in particular in the community of nuclear fission research, this EC initiative was well accepted by the main stakeholders. In Europe, the main stakeholders (i.e. suppliers and/or demanders) of nuclear research are actually: the research organisations (with mixed public/private funding), the manufacturing industry (or vendors), the utilities (or engineering companies), the regulatory bodies (or technical safety organisations) and the academia (or universities). In response to the Lisbon 2000 objectives, Commissioner P. BUSQUIN launched the concept of European Research Area (ERA) which sets also the frame for the FP-6. In this invited lecture, research and training in nuclear fission are looked at from a nuclear ERA perspective with emphasis on the three success factors of any European integration policy, namely: needs, vision and instruments, that ought to be strongly shared amongst the stakeholders in the EU-25. The following questions are addressed. What is driving the current EU trend towards more research, more education and more training in general? Regarding nuclear fission, in particular, who are the end-users of Euratom 'research and training' and what are their expectations (needs) from EU programmes? Do all stakeholders share the same vision about European research and training in nuclear fission? What are the instruments proposed by the Commission to the end-users to conduct joint research programmes? The above questions are all linked to nuclear knowledge management. It is shown that, in Community research, production of knowledge remains the most important objective, be it to generate products or services. However, dissemination/transfer (e.g. education and training) and exploitation (e.g. innovation) of knowledge become equally important as

  5. [The geometry of the keel determines the behaviour of the tibial tray against torsional forces in total knee replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García David, S; Cortijo Martínez, J A; Navarro Bermúdez, I; Maculé, F; Hinarejos, P; Puig-Verdié, L; Monllau, J C; Hernández Hermoso, J A

    2014-01-01

    The keel design of the tibial tray is essential for the transmission of the majority of the forces to the peripheral bone structures, which have better mechanical proprieties, thus reducing the risk of loosening. The aim of the present study was to compare the behaviour of different tibial tray designs submitted to torsional forces. Four different tibial components were modelled. The 3-D reconstruction was made using the Mimics software. The solid elements were generated by SolidWorks. The finite elements study was done by Unigraphics. A torsional force of 6 Nm. applied to the lateral aspects of each tibial tray was simulated. The GENUTECH® tibial tray, with peripheral trabecular bone support, showed a lower displacement and less transmitted tensions under torsional forces. The results suggest that a tibial tray with more peripheral support behaves mechanically better than the other studied designs. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation: Are disturbance and stress the key selective forces that drive the psammophilous succession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Plant communities of coastal dunes are distributed along a characteristic sea-inland gradient. Generally, there is a shift from annual and short height species with small leaves in the initial successional stages to perennial tall shrubs with tough leaves in later phases. Assessing the community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values is used in plant ecology to describe ecosystem properties especially during succession. In particular, CSR (Competitive, Stress-tolerant, and Ruderal strategy) classification allows us to explore community functional shifts in terms of disturbance, stress and competition selective forces. The functional basis of the psammophilous succession was studied based on the following questions: (1) Can we circumscribe different functional types among plant species of Mediterranean coastal dunes? (2) How do CWM trait values vary along the environmental sea-inland gradient? (3) What is the relative importance of competition, stress and disturbance in the processes of plant community assembling? (4) Can we postulate that along primary successions there is generally a shift from ruderality to stress-tolerance? An explorative analysis of functional groups was performed by Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysing nine morpho-functional traits measured for 45 taxa from 880 dune plots localised in Tuscany (central Italy, Europe). NMDS ordination showed a scattered distribution of psammophytes that could not be delimited in precise plant functional types. The first NMDS axis has been interpreted as a leaf economics axis because it was correlated to leaf area (LA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), while the second one was a plant size axis because of its correlation with canopy height. Along the sea-inland gradient, pioneer plant communities of upper beach were dominated by ruderals (with the lowest values of LDMC and specific leaf area - SLA), well-adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of coastal dunes. More distant from the sea, where

  7. Energy consumption development 1980 - 2020 - a historical development, driving forces and projections; Energibruksutvikling 1980 - 2020 - historisk utvikling, drivkrefter og fremskrivninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espegren, Kari Aamodt; Rosenberg, Eva; Fidje, Audun

    2005-10-01

    The Institute for Energy Technology has on commission from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate studied the development in the energy consumption in the period 1980 - 2020 and the energy use development towards 2020. With the historical developments in the various sectors, the Ministry of Finance projections and dialogs with firms and industries as basis various basic scenarios for the development in the energy consumption towards 2020 are made. The total end energy utilisation in a stationary sector would be approx. 151 Twh in 2001. In the basis scenario this will increase with 10 % to 167 Twh in 2020. The largest increase would be in the service sector with approx. 9 Twh net energy. In the household sector the increase would be approx. Twh while in the industrial sector about 1.5 Twh. Analysis carried out with the MARKAL model shows that it would be macro conomically profitable to implement energy conservation measures corresponding to 19 Twh in 2020. The composition of the energy carriers would be somewhat altered in 2020 compared to 2001. The oil consumption would particularly be reduced while the use of gas, bio nergy and district heating would increase.

  8. Absolute measurement of the total ion-drag force on a single plasma-confined microparticle at the void edge under microgravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    We present an absolute measurement of the total ion-drag force on one single microparticle at the edge of the dust free region in low pressure complex plasmas: the void. In order to do so, the particle confinement position was monitored as a function of the gas pressure for two particle sizes under

  9. Molecular dynamics simulations shed light on the enthalpic and entropic driving forces that govern the sequence specific recognition between netropsin and DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Jozica; Gerster, Sarah; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2010-09-02

    With the aim to gain a better understanding of the various driving forces that govern sequence specific DNA minor groove binding, we performed a thermodynamic analysis of netropsin binding to an AT-containing and to a set of six mixed AT/GC-containing binding sequences in the DNA minor groove. The relative binding free energies obtained using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations show significant variations with the binding sequence. While the introduction of a GC base pair in the middle or close to the middle of the binding site is unfavorable for netropsin binding, a GC base pair at the end of the binding site appears to have no negative influence on the binding. The results of the structural and energetic analyses of the netropsin-DNA complexes reveal that the differences in the calculated binding affinities cannot be explained solely in terms of netropsin-DNA hydrogen-bonding or interaction energies. In addition, solvation effects and entropic contributions to the relative binding free energy provide a more complete picture of the various factors determining binding. Analysis of the relative binding entropy indicates that its magnitude is highly sequence-dependent, with the ratio |TDeltaDeltaS|/|DeltaDeltaH| ranging from 0.07 for the AAAGA to 1.7 for the AAGAG binding sequence, respectively.

  10. Daylighting as the Driving Force of the Design Process: from the Results of a Survey to the Implementation into an Advanced Daylighting Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio R.M. Lo Verso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study for the transformation of an industrial area in Turin, Italy. The area hosts two buildings (one of which appointed as listed to be transformed into dwellings. A synergic approach was adopted which combined expertise from architecture, social-economics, psychology and building physics sciences. Building physics sciences lead the research team. A user-centered design was pursued, using a bottom-up approach. A specifically developed questionnaire was submitted on-line to potential users. The survey showed that ‘amount of daylight’, ‘size of rooms’, ‘tranquility of the area’ and ‘presence of a private garden’ were perceived by users to be the most positive aspects of both their present and future, ideal home. These results were then implemented into the project. The exploitation of daylight became the driving force of the transformation project. Especially for the listed building, skylights and light wells were designed to bring daylight into the cores of the buildings, which host common spaces such as libraries or study rooms. The amount of daylight was assessed through the legislative index of the average daylight factor and through a climate-based modeling approach, calculating dynamic metrics such as the spatial daylight autonomy and the Useful Daylight Illuminance. The paper critically compares and discusses these two approaches. Finally, the energy demand for lighting was also calculated to analyze how the increased exploitation of daylight may imply a reduced need for electricity for lighting.

  11. Very high geothermal gradient in near surface of the Whataroa Valley adjacent to the Alpine Fault: topographic driving forces and permeable mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, P.; Sutherland, R.; Townend, J.; Coussens, J.; Capova, L.

    2015-12-01

    The first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1B) yielded a geothermal gradient of 62.6 ± 2.1 °C/km from a depth of 126 m where it intersected the Alpine Fault principal slip surface beneath Gaunt Creek (Sutherland et al. 2012). Ambient fluid pressures in DFDP-2B at Whataroa River were 8-10% above hydrostatic and a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km was determined, the geothermal gradient being considerably higher than we had predicted previously. 3D coupled thermal/fluid flow models have been generated of the Whataroa Valley and the DFDP-2 drill site. Modelling confirms that the following features, present in the Whataroa Valley, are a requirement for a geothermal gradient of >130°C/km at a depth of 1km beneath the valley; high topography, permeability on the order of 10-15 m2 in both the mountains and beneath the valleys to depths of > 1km below the valley floor, and abundant fluid. The high permeability and large topographic driving force leads to abundant meteoric water flowing downward through the mountains, hitting the permeability barrier of the Alpine Fault and being pushed upward into the valleys. The high geothermal gradient of the DFDP-2B borehole implies that the valleys also have a very high permeability which is likely a result of rock damage along the Alpine Fault.

  12. The Driving Forces of Guest Substitution in Gas Hydrates—A Laser Raman Study on CH4-CO2 Exchange in the Presence of Impurities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Beeskow-Strauch

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of CH4 gas from natural hydrate formations by injection of industrially emitted CO2 is considered to be a promising solution to simultaneously access an unconventional fossil fuel reserve and counteract atmospheric CO2 increase. CO2 obtained from industrial processes may contain traces of impurities such as SO2 or NOx and natural gas hydrates may contain higher hydrocarbons such as C2H6 and C3H8. These additions have an influence on the properties of the resulting hydrate phase and the conversion process of CH4-rich hydrates to CO2-rich hydrates. Here we show results of a microscopic and laser Raman in situ study investigating the effects of SO2-polluted CO2 and mixed CH4-C2H6 hydrate on the exchange process. Our study shows that the key driving force of the exchange processes is the establishment of the chemical equilibrium between hydrate phase and the surrounding phases. The exchange rate is also influenced by the guest-to-cavity ratio as well as the thermodynamic stability in terms of p-T conditions of the original and resulting hydrate phase. The most effective molecule exchange is related to structural changes (sI-sII which indicates that hydrate decomposition and reformation processes are the occurring processes.

  13. North America as driving force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, Markus

    2012-07-01

    The fact that Europe is comparably small in size and densely populated puts limits to the use of PV solar trackers. But that's no reason for the tracker manufacturers to throw in the towel. Those prepared to take a look abroad may yet feel their hearts beat faster.

  14. Driving forces of researchers mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Floriana; Carletti, Timoteo

    2014-05-01

    Starting from the dataset of the publication corpus of the APS during the period 1955-2009, we reconstruct the individual researchers trajectories, namely the list of the consecutive affiliations for each scholar. Crossing this information with different geographic datasets we embed these trajectories in a spatial framework. Using methods from network theory and complex systems analysis we characterise these patterns in terms of topological network properties and we analyse the dependence of an academic path across different dimensions: the distance between two subsequent positions, the relative importance of the institutions (in terms of number of publications) and some socio-cultural traits. We show that distance is not always a good predictor for the next affiliation while other factors like ``the previous steps'' of the career of the researchers (in particular the first position) or the linguistic and historical similarity between two countries can have an important impact. Finally we show that the dataset exhibit a memory effect, hence the fate of a career strongly depends from the first two affiliations.

  15. The driving force behind all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, A.

    1988-01-01

    The book reviews the history of energy uses in the world, arranging the material into three main sections corresponding to the three historical revolutions in the development of man's capacity to use the energy available in the world for his own purposes. These three mile posts are the mastering and utilization of fire, the Neolithic revolution, and the industrial revolution. The author tells the story excitingly and in a fascinating way explaining the very first steps and the long way mankind took, to achieve the technological systems we have now. Concentrating on the developments and interactions of significance to today's situation, the author presents data and information that brings life into history and fosters independent thinking. Right answers need the right questions, so the author tries to find out what has become indispensable for us, since when we have it, and who found it, and why, and what the consequences are for the present generation. The author mentions the persons, their biographies, and their achievements, showing that all knowledge and success was achieved by hard work. (orig./DG) [de

  16. 多倍化是杂草起源与演化的驱动力%Polyploidization, one of the driving forces for weed origin and evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李君; 强胜

    2012-01-01

    杂草及外来植物入侵给全球经济发展及生态环境都带来了严重危害,研究其起源与演化将有助于它们的管理与控制.多倍化是植物进化的主要驱动力量,然而多倍化在杂草起源与演化中的作用还停留在种类统计以及零碎的研究案例证据上.本文综述了植物多倍体基因组结构及基因表达的研究进展以及染色体加倍后的生态学效应.多倍化促进了基因组水平与表型水平的进化,影响物种或群体生存竞争能力和繁殖扩展能力,提高物种或群体生态适应性.这一遗传过程可能促使外来种在新的生境中的成功入侵进而转变为杂草,并提出重视开展对杂草及外来入侵植物的多倍化研究的设想.%Weeds and alien invasive plants have caused tremendously ecological and socio-economic damages and loses worldwide, therefore,it is important to study origin and evolution of weeds for their effective management. Polyploidy is believed to be the main driving force of plant evolution, however, its playing the role in weeds origin and evolution is poorly understood. In this paper we review the progresses on the polyploid genome structure and gene expression and the ecological consequences of chromosome doubling. The polyploidy promotes the evolution of genomic and phenotype, affects the species survival competition, reproduction and expansion capability, and improves the ecological adaptability. Polyploidization can drive the successful invasion of invasive alien species and consequently evolution into a weed in new habitats. In addition, it is proposed that the research works on invasive alien plants may focus on polyploidization function in weed evolution and alien plant invasion.

  17. Revealing the Driving Forces of Mid-Cities Urban Growth Patterns Using Spatial Modeling: a Case Study of Los Ángeles, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio I. Aguayo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available City growth and changes in land-use patterns cause various important social and environmental impacts. To understand the spatial and temporal dynamics of these processes, the factors that drive urban development must be identified and analyzed, especially those factors that can be used to predict future changes and their potential environmental effects. Our objectives were to quantify the relationship between urban growth and its driving forces and to predict the spatial growth pattern based on historical land-use changes for the city of Los Ángeles in central Chile. This involved the analysis of images from 1978, 1992, and 1998 and characterization of the spatial pattern of land-use change; the construction of digital coverage in GIS; the selection of predictive variables through univariate analysis; the construction of logistic regression models using growth vs. nongrowth for 1978-1992 as the dependent variable; and the prediction of the probability of land-use change by applying the regression model to the 1992-1998 period. To investigate the influence of spatial scale, we constructed several sets of models that contained (1 only distance variables, e.g., distance to highways; (2 only scale-dependent density variables, e.g., density of urban area within a 600-m radius; (3 both distance and density variables; and (4 both distance and density variables at several spatial scales. The environmental variables were included in all models. The combination of distance and density variables at several scales is required to appropriately capture the multiscale urban growth process. The best models correctly predict ~90% of the observed land-use changes for 1992-1998. The distance to access roads, densities of the urban road system and urbanized area at various scales, and soil type were the strongest predictors of the growth pattern. Other variables were less important or not significant in explaining the urban growth process. Our approach, which

  18. Assessing driving forces of land use and land cover change by a mixed-method approach in north-eastern Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleemann, Janina; Baysal, Gülendam; Bulley, Henry N N; Fürst, Christine

    2017-07-01

    Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis. Viewpoints from experts help to answer why the land use is changing, since many triggering effects, especially non-spatial and indirect drivers of LULCC, are not measurable by other methodological approaches. Geo-statistical or economic analyses add to validate the relevance of the expert-based results. First, we conducted in-depth interviews and developed a list of 34 direct and indirect drivers of LULCC. Subsequently, a group of experts was asked in a questionnaire to select the most important drivers by using a Likert scale. This information was complemented by remote sensing analysis. Finally, the driver analysis was compared to information from literature. Based on these analyses there is a very high confidence that population growth, especially in rural areas, is a major driver of LULCC. Further, current farming practice, bush fires, livestock, the road network and climate variability were the main direct drivers while the financial capital of farmers and customary norms regarding land tenure were listed as important indirect drivers with high confidence. Many of these driving forces, such as labour shortage and migration, are furthermore interdependent. Governmental laws, credits, the service by extension officers, conservational agriculture and foreign agricultural medium-scale investments are currently not driving

  19. Calculation of the total potential between two deformed heavy ion nuclei using the Monte Carlo method and M3Y nucleon-nucleon forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Zanganeh, V.

    2009-01-01

    In the current study, a simulation technique has been employed to calculate the total potential between two deformed nuclei. It has been shown that this simulation technique is an efficient one for calculating the total potential for all possible orientations between the symmetry axes of the interacting nuclei using the realistic nuclear matter density and the M3Y nucleon-nucleon effective forces. The analysis of the results obtained for the 48 Ca+ 238 U, 46 Ti+ 46 Ti, and 27 Al+ 70 Ge reactions reveal that considering the density dependent effects in the M3Y forces causes the nuclear potential to drop by an amount of 0.4 MeV.

  20. Internal-external malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty increases tibial force imbalance but does not change laxities of the tibiofemoral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to quantify the increase in tibial force imbalance (i.e. magnitude of difference between medial and lateral tibial forces) and changes in laxities caused by  2° and 4° of internal-external (I-E) malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty. Because I-E malalignment would introduce the greatest changes to the articular surfaces near 90° of flexion, the hypotheses were that the tibial force imbalance would be significantly increased near 90° flexion and that primarily varus-valgus laxity would be affected near 90° flexion. Kinematically aligned TKA was performed on ten human cadaveric knee specimens using disposable manual instruments without soft tissue release. One 3D-printed reference femoral component, with unmodified geometry, was aligned to restore the native distal and posterior femoral joint lines. Four 3D-printed femoral components, with modified geometry, introduced I-E malalignments of 2° and 4° from the reference component. Medial and lateral tibial forces were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. Bidirectional laxities in four degrees of freedom were measured from 0° to 120° flexion using a custom load application system. Tibial force imbalance increased the greatest at 60° flexion where a regression analysis against the degree of I-E malalignment yielded sensitivities (i.e. slopes) of 30 N/° (medial tibial force > lateral tibial force) and 10 N/° (lateral tibial force > medial tibial force) for internal and external malalignments, respectively. Valgus laxity increased significantly with the 4° external component with the greatest increase of 1.5° occurring at 90° flexion (p < 0.0001). With the tibial component correctly aligned, I-E malalignment of the femoral component caused significant increases in tibial force imbalance. Minimizing I-E malalignment lowers the increase in the tibial force imbalance. By keeping

  1. Nonlinear nonresonant forces by radio-frequency waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhe; Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Qin, Hong; Myra, J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Nonresonant forces by applied rf waves in plasmas are analyzed. Along the background dc magnetic field, the force arises from the gradient of the ponderomotive potential. Only when the dc magnetic field is straight, however, is this parallel force completely consistent with that from the single particle picture, where the ponderomotive force depends on the gradients of rf fields only. Across the dc magnetic field, besides the ponderomotive force from the particle picture, additional Reynolds stress and polarization stress contribute to the total force. For waves with frequency much lower than the cyclotron frequency, the perpendicular forces from the particle and fluid pictures can have opposite signs. In plasmas with a symmetry angle (e.g., toroidal systems), nonresonant forces cannot drive net flow or current in the flux surface, but the radial force may influence macroscopic behavior of plasma. Moreover, nonresonant forces may drive flow or current in linear plasmas or in a localized region of toroidal plasmas

  2. Contrasting evolution patterns between glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes in the central Tibetan Plateau and driving force analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C.; Sheng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    High-altitude lakes in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) showed strong spatio-temporal variability during past decades. The lake dynamics can be associated with several key factors including lake type, supply of glacial meltwater, local climate variations. It is important to differentiate these factors when analyzing the driving force of lakes dynamics. With a focus on lakes over the Tanggula Mountains of the central TP, this study investigates the temporal evolution patterns of lake area and water level of different types: glacier-fed closed lake, non-glacier-fed closed lake and upstream lake (draining into closed lakes). We collected all available Landsat archive data and quantified the inter-annual variability of lake extents. Results show accelerated expansions of both glacier-fed and non-glacier-fed lakes during 1970s-2013, and different temporal patterns of the two types of lakes: the non-glacier-fed lakes displayed a batch-wise growth pattern, with obvious growth in 2002, 2005 and 2011 and slight changes in other years, while glacier-fed lakes showed steady expanding tendency. The contrasting patterns are confirmed by the distinction of lake level change between the two groups derived from satellite altimetry during 2003-2009. The upstream lakes remained largely stable due to natural drainage regulation. The intermittent expansions for non-glacier-fed lakes were found to be related to excessive precipitation events and positive "precipitation-evaporation". In contrast, glacier-fed lake changes showed weak correlations with precipitation variations, which imply a joint contribution from glacial meltwater to water budgets. A simple estimation reveals that the increased water storage for all of examined lakes contributed from precipitation/evaporation (0.31±0.09 Gt/yr) slightly overweighed the glacial meltwater supply (0.26±0.08 Gt/yr).

  3. Drive Stands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Systems Laboratory (ESL)houses numerous electrically driven drive stands. A drive stand consists of an electric motor driving a gearbox and a mounting...

  4. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  5. Estímulos ao Desenvolvimento Tecnológico: Influência do Mercado Driving Forces for Technology Development: Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de A. Cid

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoje em dia não se discute mais a importância da Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento para a sobrevivência e longevidade de uma Empresa. Todo tipo de indústria sente o impacto do aumento da competição e da velocidade dos avanços tecnológicos. Entretanto, os recursos estão escassos, tanto para as despesas necessárias às atividades de negócio quanto para a pesquisa, o que deixa os gerentes com a difícil tarefa de decidir onde os recursos serão aplicados. Anos atrás, quando os recursos eram (aparentemente ilimitados a força que impulsionava a pesquisa era o desafio da descoberta do novo. A complexidade do processo, os intricados métodos de análise, a quebra de barreiras do conhecimento, alimentavam as mentes dos cientistas. Depois da pesquisa, os profissionais de marketing deveriam encontrar mercados para os novos produtos. Atualmente a pesquisa de mercado, as ferramentas de análise de negócio e outros aspectos outrora desconhecidos dos cientistas dominam as mesas dos gerentes. Este artigo descreve três diferentes abordagens na distribuição de recursos para pesquisa e resume alguns dos princípios que ajudam as empresas a funcionar melhor.Nowadays the importance of Research and Development to a Company survival and longevity is well known. Virtually every industry feels the impact of increased competition and the fast pace of technology change. However, resources are getting scarce, both for doing business and research as well, leaving managers with the tough job of selecting which project will get funding. Years ago, when money was (seemingly unlimited the driving force to research was the challenge of inventing something new. The process complexity, the intricate analysis methods, the breaking of new frontiers were the food for the scientists inquiring minds. Then marketing professionals had to work to find or create market. Now market research, business analysis tools and other aspects once unknown to scientists rule. This article

  6. Study on HCl Driving Force for the Reaction of NaCl-Maleic Acid Mixing Single Droplet Using Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiang; Zhang, Yunhong

    2016-04-01

    Chemical aging is the one of the most important physicochemical process in atmospheric aerosols. Mixing of sea salt and water-soluble organic components has profound effects on the volatile characteristic and evolving chemical composition of the anthropogenic origin aerosols, which are poorly understood. In this study, the chemical reaction behavior of the mixture of NaCl and maleic acid (H2MA) micron-level single droplet was investigated using a gas-flow system combined with microscopic Fourier transform infrared (micro-FTIR) spectrometer over the range of relative humidity (63˜95% RH) for the first time. The results showed that the mixture of NaCl and H2MA single droplet could react to form monosodium maleate salt (NaHMA) at the constant RH from the characterization of the FTIR. The reaction is a result of an acid displacement reaction R1, which is driven by high volatility of the HCl product. NaCl(aq)+H2MA(aq)=NaHMA(aq)+HCl(aq,g) (R1) According to the change tendency of the absorbance values of 1579 cm-1 COO- stretching band of the NaHMA dependent upon reaction times at different RHs, the growth range of the trend which could lead to the faster reaction rate was obvious at lower RH. The water content of the droplet was also more likely to reduce rapidly with the loss of the RH from the absorbance changes of 3400 cm-1H2O stretching band dependent upon reaction times. These may be due to irreversible evaporation of HCl gas which is the main driving force for this type of reaction and the NaHMA is a less hygroscopic component compared to H2MA. And the HCl gas is more likely to evaporate faster from the single droplet and promote the reaction rate and the consumption of water content at lower RH. These results could help in understanding the chemical conversion processes of water-soluble dicarboxylic acids to dicarboxylate salts, as well as the consumption of Cl in sea salt aerosols by organic acids in the atmosphere.

  7. Base drive for paralleled inverter systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    In a paralleled inverter system, a positive feedback current derived from the total current from all of the modules of the inverter system is applied to the base drive of each of the power transistors of all modules, thereby to provide all modules protection against open or short circuit faults occurring in any of the modules, and force equal current sharing among the modules during turn on of the power transistors.

  8. Dementia & Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have to give up driving. Many people associate driving with self-reliance and freedom; the loss of driving privileges ... familiar roads and avoid long distances. Avoid heavy traffic and heavily traveled roads. Avoid driving at night and in bad weather. Reduce the ...

  9. Investigation of forced and total degradation products of amlodipine besylate by liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoiljković Zora Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An isocratic, reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was applied for the investigation of the degradation products of amlodipine besylate under the stressed conditions in solution. Amlodipine besylate stock solutions were subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, chemical oxidation and photodegradation as well as to the electrochemical degradation by cyclic voltammetry in 0.05 mol/L NaHCO3 on gold electrode. The total degradation of amlodipine besylate was achieved in 5 mol/L NaOH at 80°C for 6 h and the compound with molecular formula C15H16NOCl was identified as a main degradation product. Under acidic (5 mol/L HCl at 80°C for 6 h stress conditions 75.2% of amlodipine besylate degradation was recorded. Oxidative degradation in the solution of 3% H2O2-methanol 80:20 at 80°C for 6 h showed that amlodipine besylate degraded to 80.1%. After 14 days of expose in photostability chamber amlodipine besylate solution showed degradation of 32.2%. In electrochemical degradation after 9 hours of cyclization the beginning of amlodipine oxidation was shifted for 200 mV to more negative potentials, with the degradation of 66.5%. Mass spectrometry analysis confirmed the presence of dehydro amlodipine derivate with molecular formula C20H23N2O5Cl in oxidative and acidic conditions while in electrochemical degradation was detected in traces. [Projekat Ministarsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172013

  10. Distracted driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including maps) The Dangers of Talking on the Phone While Driving You are four times more likely to get ... of reach. If you are caught using a phone while driving, you may risk a ticket or fine. Most ...

  11. Distracted Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and increased awareness of distracted driving using radio advertisements, news stories, and similar media. After the projects ... available at www.trafficsafetymarketing.gov . Distracted Driving Enforcement – TV Ads (Paid). For re-tagging, go to: www. ...

  12. [Innovation drive is the original motive force of discipline construction: the developing road of Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery in the 309th Hospital of PLA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, C Y

    2018-03-20

    Discipline construction is a systematic project, covering clinic, teaching, scientific research, management, and humanity. Based on the perspective of innovation drive, from the aspects of discipline structure setting, specialized laboratory construction, sub-specialty formation, clinical characteristic and advantage formation, and management concept update, this article summarizes the growth process of Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery in the 309th Hospital of PLA.

  13. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  14. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  15. Characterizing Spatiotemporal Pattern of Land Use Change and Its Driving Force Based on GIS and Landscape Analysis Techniques in Tianjin during 2000–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafei Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The spatial and temporal characteristics and driving factors analysis of regional land use are the core scientific problems in the research of ecological environment and human sustainable development. It is also an important basis for the government to formulate land management policy. Based on the land use maps of 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015, this article analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern of land use change in Tianjin, and determined the relative importance of each driving factor of land use change. The main features of land use change were the continuous expansion of built-up land (1386.89 km2/74.73% gains and the decrease of arable land area (1181.60 km2/16.84% losses. The area and intensity of land use change were not completely consistent, such as Wuqing and Jixian. The hotspots of land use change mainly were located in the main urban region in Tianjin, around the suburban settlements and Binhai New Area. The landscape pattern in the research region has also changed significantly. The Largest patch index (LPI and largest shape index (LSI of arable land showed an increasing trend, and the degree of landscape fragmentation of arable land was deepened. The trend of landscape index of built-up land was similar to that of arable land, but the change intensity was more severe. In addition, the article also used the stepwise regression analysis in the multiple regression to analyze the relative importance of various driving factors, indicating that the driving factors of the built-up land and arable land change were obviously different in different periods. Government policies also have a significant impact on land use change, such as establishing the Tianjin Binhai New Area (TBNA.

  16. Multiregional Input-Output Analysis of Spatial-Temporal Evolution Driving Force for Carbon Emissions Embodied in Interprovincial Trade and Optimization Policies: Case Study of Northeast Industrial District in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hao; Dong, Suocheng; Li, Fujia; Yang, Yang; Li, Shantong; Li, Yu

    2018-01-02

    In the counties with rapid economy and carbon emissions (CEs) growth, CEs embodied in interprovincial trade (CEs-PT) significantly impacts the CEs amount and structure and represents a key issue to consider in CEs reduction policies formulation. This study applied EEBT and two-stage SDA model to analyze the characteristics and driving force of spatial-temporal evolution for net CEs-PT outflow in the Northeast Industrial District of China (NID). We found that, during 1997-2007, the net CEs-PT flowed out from NID to 16 south and east provinces, then to 23 provinces all over China, and its amount has increased 216.798Mt (by 211.67% per year). The main driving forces are technology and demand (further decomposed into structure and scale matrix); the contribution are 71.6418 Mt and 145.1562 Mt. Then, we constructed coupling relationship model and took the top three industries with the greatest net CEs-PT outflow (farming, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries, electricity and heat production and supply, petroleum processing, coking, and nuclear fuel processing) as examples, adjusted the interprovincial trade constructions, scales, and objects, to reduce the CEs-PT with lower costs, greater effect, and more equitability. The achievement could provide reference for formulating CEs reduction policies for similar areas in the world characterized by rapid growth of economy and CEs.

  17. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  18. A new force emerges from the dark side: evidence is growing that an intrinsic property of the universe is helping to drive its expansion

    CERN Multimedia

    Cookson, C

    2003-01-01

    "Astronomical surveys over the past five years have forced cosmologists to conclude that ordinary matter - in the form of familiar stars, planets and interstellar dust or more exotic objects, such as quasars and neutron stars - makes up only 4 per cent of the universe" (1 page).

  19. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    A reactor core, one or more control rods, and a control rod drive are described for selectively inserting and withdrawing the one or more control rods into and from the reactor core, which consists of: a support structure secured beneath the reactor core; control rod positioning means supported by the support structure for movably supporting the control rod for movement between a lower position wherein the control rod is located substantially beneath the reactor core and an upper position wherein at least an upper portion of the control rod extends into the reactor core; transmission means; primary drive means connected with the control rod positioning means by the transmission means for positioning the control rod under normal operating conditions; emergency drive means for moving the control rod from the lower position to the upper position under emergency conditions, the emergency drive means including a weight movable between an upper and a lower position, means for movably supporting the weight, and means for transmitting gravitational force exerted on the weight to the control rod positioning means to move the control rod upwardly when the weight is pulled downwardly by gravity; the transmission means connecting the control rod positioning means with the emergency drive means so that the primary drive means effects movement of the weight and the control rod in opposite directions under normal conditions, thus providing counterbalancing to reduce the force required for upward movement of the control rod under normal conditions; and restraint means for restraining the fall of the weight under normal operating conditions and disengaging the primary drive means to release the weight under emergency conditions

  20. Impaired Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get the Facts What Works: Strategies to Increase Car Seat and Booster Seat ... narcotics. 3 That’s one percent of the 111 million self-reported episodes of alcohol-impaired driving among U.S. ...

  1. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca3Ir4Sn13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Santosh; Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A.; Tomy, C.V.; Grover, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca 3 Ir 4 Sn 13 on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition

  2. Activation of lysosomal P2X4 by ATP transported into lysosomes via VNUT/SLC17A9 using V‐ATPase generated voltage gradient as the driving force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xi Zoë; Cao, Qi; Sun, Xue

    2016-01-01

    Key points SLC17A9 proteins function as a lysosomal ATP transporter responsible for lysosomal ATP accumulation.P2X4 receptors act as lysosomal ion channels activated by luminal ATP.SLC17A9‐mediated ATP transport across the lysosomal membrane is suppressed by Bafilomycin A1, the V‐ATPase inhibitor.SLC17A9 mainly uses voltage gradient but not pH gradient generated by the V‐ATPase as the driving force to transport ATP into the lysosome to activate P2X4. Abstract The lysosome contains abundant ATP which plays important roles in lysosome functions and in cell signalling. Recently, solute carrier family 17 member 9 (SLC17A9, also known as VNUT for vesicular nucleotide transporter) proteins were suggested to function as a lysosomal ATP transporter responsible for lysosomal ATP accumulation, and P2X4 receptors were suggested to be lysosomal ion channels that are activated by luminal ATP. However, the molecular mechanism of SLC17A9 transporting ATP and the regulatory mechanism of lysosomal P2X4 are largely unknown. In this study, we report that SLC17A9‐mediated ATP transport across lysosomal membranes is suppressed by Bafilomycin A1, the V‐ATPase inhibitor. By measuring P2X4 activity, which is indicative of ATP transport across lysosomal membranes, we further demonstrated that SLC17A9 mainly uses voltage gradient but not pH gradient as the driving force to transport ATP into lysosomes. This study provides a molecular mechanism for lysosomal ATP transport mediated by SLC17A9. It also suggests a regulatory mechanism of lysosomal P2X4 by SLC17A9. PMID:27477609

  3. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  4. Heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta that has undergone three decades of urbanization and industrialization: Distributions, sources, and driving forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guanxing; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Chunyan; Li, Liangping; Chen, Zongyu

    2018-09-01

    Urbanization and industrialization have increased groundwater resource demands, and may drive the change of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), southern China. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the distributions, sources, and driving forces of heavy metal(loid)s and organic chemicals in groundwater in the PRD is vital for water resource management in this region. In this study, eight heavy metal(loid)s and fifty-five organic chemicals in groundwater across the PRD were investigated. The results show that undrinkable groundwater related to heavy metal(loid)s was mainly due to high concentrations of Fe (19.3%) and As (6.8%). Eighteen organic contaminants were detected in groundwater in the PRD, where the most frequently detected organic contaminant was naphthalene, and its detection rate was 2.51%. In 5.3% of all groundwater samples, one or more organic contaminants were found. All detected organic contaminants, except ones without allowable limits, in groundwater were at concentrations below allowable limits of China. The mean concentrations of heavy metal(loid)s in granular aquifers were higher than those in fissured and karst aquifers, especially for Fe and As. Except Se, the mean concentrations of other heavy metal(loid)s and the frequency of detection of organic contaminants in groundwater in urbanized and peri-urban areas were higher than those in non-urbanized areas, especially for Hg, Co, and organic contaminants. Fe, As, and Se in groundwater mainly originated from the release of Fe/As/Se rich sediments. The former two were driven by reduction reactions, while the latter was driven by oxidation resulting from the infiltration of NO 3 - . In contrast, other five heavy metal(loid)s and organic contaminants in groundwater mainly originated from the anthropogenic sources, such as the infiltration of industrial sewage. It is evident that urbanization and industrialization are two powerful driving forces for

  5. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…

  6. Vegetation dynamics and its driving forces from climate change and human activities in the Three-River Source Region, China from 1982 to 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaobin; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Gang, Chengcheng [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China); An, Ru [School of Earth Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Xikang Road 129, Nanjing, 210098 (China); Li, Jianlong, E-mail: lijianlongnju@163.com [School of Life Science, Nanjing University, Xianlin Road 163, Qixia District, Nanjing, 210046 (China)

    2016-09-01

    The Three-River Source Region (TRSR), a region with key importance to the ecological security of China, has undergone climate changes and a shift in human activities driven by a series of ecological restoration projects in recent decades. To reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation dynamics and calculate the contributions of driving factors in the TRSR across different periods from 1982 to 2012, net primary productivity (NPP) estimated using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model was used to assess the status of vegetation. The actual effects of different climatic variation trends on interannual variation in NPP were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationships of NPP with different climate factors and human activities were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed the following: from 1982 to 2012, the average NPP in the study area was 187.37 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −1}. The average NPP exhibited a fluctuation but presented a generally increasing trend over the 31-year study period, with an increase rate of 1.31 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}. During the entire study period, the average contributions of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation to NPP interannual variation over the entire region were 0.58, 0.73, and 0.09 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. Radiation was the climate factor with the greatest influence on NPP interannual variation. The factor that restricted NPP increase changed from temperature and radiation to precipitation. The average contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP interannual variation were 1.40 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2} and − 0.08 g cm{sup −2} yr{sup −2}, respectively. From 1982 to 2000, the general climate conditions were favorable to vegetation recovery, whereas human activities had a weaker negative impact on vegetation growth. From 2001 to 2012, climate conditions began to have a negative impact on vegetation growth, whereas human activities made a favorable impact on vegetation

  7. Vegetation dynamics and its driving forces from climate change and human activities in the Three-River Source Region, China from 1982 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Chaobin; Wang, Zhaoqi; Chen, Yizhao; Gang, Chengcheng; An, Ru; Li, Jianlong

    2016-01-01

    The Three-River Source Region (TRSR), a region with key importance to the ecological security of China, has undergone climate changes and a shift in human activities driven by a series of ecological restoration projects in recent decades. To reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation dynamics and calculate the contributions of driving factors in the TRSR across different periods from 1982 to 2012, net primary productivity (NPP) estimated using the Carnegie–Ames–Stanford approach model was used to assess the status of vegetation. The actual effects of different climatic variation trends on interannual variation in NPP were analyzed. Furthermore, the relationships of NPP with different climate factors and human activities were analyzed quantitatively. Results showed the following: from 1982 to 2012, the average NPP in the study area was 187.37 g cm"−"2 yr"−"1. The average NPP exhibited a fluctuation but presented a generally increasing trend over the 31-year study period, with an increase rate of 1.31 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2. During the entire study period, the average contributions of temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation to NPP interannual variation over the entire region were 0.58, 0.73, and 0.09 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2, respectively. Radiation was the climate factor with the greatest influence on NPP interannual variation. The factor that restricted NPP increase changed from temperature and radiation to precipitation. The average contributions of climate change and human activities to NPP interannual variation were 1.40 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2 and − 0.08 g cm"−"2 yr"−"2, respectively. From 1982 to 2000, the general climate conditions were favorable to vegetation recovery, whereas human activities had a weaker negative impact on vegetation growth. From 2001 to 2012, climate conditions began to have a negative impact on vegetation growth, whereas human activities made a favorable impact on vegetation recovery. - Highlights: • Partitioned the

  8. Driving things

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    2015-01-01

    I explore how participants organise involvement with objects brought into the car, relative to the demands of driving and social activity. Objects in cars commonly include phones or other technologies, food, body care products, texts, clothing, bags and carry items, toys, and even animals...... 2004, Haddington et al. 2012). I focus here especially on how the practical and interactional work of locating, seeing, placing, handling, hearing, and relinquishing, is ordered and accomplished relative to the emerging and contingent demands of both driving and social participation......, such that involvement with objects is constituted as secondary to driving in a multiactivity setting (e.g. Haddington et al. 2014). We see how events with, for, of, and even by objects can occur as predictable, planned and even designed for (e.g. changing glasses, applying body lotion), or might be unexpected...

  9. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum.P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years.On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02.P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  10. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Katsuyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To restrict the reduction in performance due to stress corrosion cracks by making use of condensate produced in a turbine steam condenser. Structure: Water produced in a turbine steam condenser is forced into a condensed water desalting unit by low pressure condensate pump. The condensate is purified and then forced by a high pressure condensate pump into a feedwater heater for heating before it is returned to the reactor by a feedwater pump. Part of the condensate issuing from the condensate desalting unit is branched from the remaining portion at a point upstream the pump and is withdrawn into a control rod drive water pump after passing through a motordriven bypass valve, an orifice and a condenser water level control valve, is pressurized in the control rod drive water desalting unit and supplied to a control rod drive water pressure system. The control rod is vertically moved by the valve operation of the water pressure system. Since water of high oxygen concentration does not enter during normal operation, it is possible to prevent the stress cracking of the stainless steel apparatus. (Nakamura, S.)

  11. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watando, Kosaku; Tanaka, Yuzo; Mizumura, Yasuhiro; Hosono, Kazuya.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To provide a simple and compact construction of an apparatus for driving a drive shaft inside with a magnetic force from the outside of the primary system water side. Structure: The weight of a plunger provided with an attraction plate is supported by a plunger lift spring means so as to provide a buffer action at the time of momentary movement while also permitting the load on lift coil to be constituted solely by the load on the drive shaft. In addition, by arranging the attraction plate and lift coil so that they face each other with a small gap there-between, it is made possible to reduce the size and permit efficient utilization of the attracting force. Because of the small size, cooling can be simply carried out. Further, since there is no mechanical penetration portion, there is no possibility of leakage of the primary system water. Furthermore, concentration of load on a latch pin is prevented by arranging so that with a structure the load of the control rod to be directly beared through the scrum latch. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  13. The evidences of progressive pressurization of volcanic conduit as driving forces of unrest phenomena analyzed via modelling of multiplatform geodetic measurements: Fernandina (GALAPAGOS) and Maunaloa (HAWAII) case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, Susi; Castaldo, Raffaele; Casu, Francesco; D'Auria, Luca; De Luca, Claudio; De Novellis, Vincenzo; Solaro, Giuseppe; Tizzani, Pietro

    2017-04-01

    We investigated the source of the ground deformation pattern affecting the Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes by jointly exploiting different dataset collected by both GPS and multiplatform and multiorbit SAR sensors. We exploited the advanced Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) techniques to analyze unrest episode in two different geodynamics context. Our main goal is the understanding of the relationship among the spatio-temporal evolution of the ground deformation field and the temporal volumetric variation of the detected geodetic source during the uplift phenomena. We highlight the huge opportunity in understanding volcano unrest phenomena offered by the joint use of remote sensing data and inversion procedures: this prospect is particularly relevant for the analysis of uplift events, when other geophysical measurements are not available. For Mauna Loa (Hawaii) and Fernandina (Galapagos) volcanoes, the performed statistic analysis support the source pipe-like as the more suitable geometry to explain the unrest phenomena in which magmatic masses intrude in volcanic conduits. In particular, the deformation time series achieved at MounaLoa volcano are achieved by 23 GPS permanent stations of the Hawaii surveillance network, processed by Nevada Geodetic Laboratory, 7 SAR dataset acquired from ascending and descending orbits, with different look angles and along different tracks, by the C-Band Envisat satellite along the 2003 - 2010 time period for a total of 189 SAR imagery. Moreover, we exploited 2 dataset collected from ascending and descending passes by the X-Band Cosmo Sky-Med constellation during the 2012 - 2015 time span . These SAR datasets have been processed through the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as P-SBAS (De Luca et al., 2016), which allows us to retrieve the Line of Sight (LOS) projection of the surface deformation and analyze its temporal evolution by generating displacement time series. Starting this data

  14. [Study on the types and water pollution driving forces of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China based on the analysis of water environment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shi-Xing; Wang, La-Chun; Huo, Yu; Chen, Chang-Chun; Teng, Juan

    2009-07-15

    According to the major pollution sources of urban water environment, 10 indexes such as industrial sewage quantity were closen to establish evaluation indexes system about the types and influencing factors of the typical and medium-small-sized cities in the southern China. Case studies of 16 typical and medium-small-sized cities were taken in Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Hubei and Anhui provinces. Combined with SPSS 11.0 cluster analysis results, city types were divided in reference to the values of water resources comprehensive pollution indexes and economical development indexes. The driving forces about city water environment pollution were studied by principal component analysis method. The result indicates that the 16 cities belong to two categories and four sub-categories, which are rich economy as well as light pollution of water environment and poor economy as well as heavy pollution of water environment. The influencing factors of water environment pollution are in sequence of industrial water pollution, agricultural no-point source pollution and urban domestic water pollution. The main factors of water environment pollution influenced I category cities, II as well as IV category cities and III category cities are industrial water pollution, urban domestic pollution and agricultural no-point source pollution respectively.

  15. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  16. The community as a driving force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A Workshop on Effective Strategies for Sustainable Community-based Family Planning (FP) and Maternal and Child Health (MCH) was held on October 14-23, 1993, as part of an Asian regional project focusing on women. Bangladesh, China, Laos, Nepal, the Philippines, and Viet Nam were represented at the workshop. The program introduced participants to effective community participation strategies in FP and MCH in Indonesia and allowed for the exchange of information. The UN Population Fund expressed support and encouragement for the exchange and recognition of Indonesia's government support for efforts at regional exchanges. Indonesia established integrated service posts or "Posyandu" in villages during the 1980s for women volunteers as health advocates. FP/MCH was later integrated in these health posts. The service posts aim to reduce infant mortality and maternal mortality through growth monitoring of children aged under five years, provision of FP, nutrition services for pregnant mothers, immunization, and monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. Trained volunteers and community people are aides to either government personnel or nongovernmental (NGO) workers. The Indonesian government FP program evolved from a program "for" the people, to "with" the people, and finally "by" the people. Fees for contraception, which are still below retail prices, are being introduced as a means of achieving sustainability. The government trains doctors and midwives in FP. NGOs such as Yayasan Kusuma Buana (YKB) in Jakarta provide a mix of quality services. YKB is active in promoting awareness of FP. Community outreach is achieved through mothers' classes, urban Posyandu services, and training of traditional birth attendants. The Indonesian Planned Parenthood Association maintains self-reliance programs in FP/MCH. Day-care centers and youth counseling centers are used in promoting FP/MCH. YKB methods were demonstrated for workshop participants (posters used in local shops and awareness activities for school health programs). Workshop participants were exposed to many activities in FP/MCH. Participants learned the importance of government commitment and the importance of people's acceptance that FP is necessary for improving the quality of life.

  17. Driving Force Based Design of Cyclic Distillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Fjordbak; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2017-01-01

    with mixed phase feeds. A range of binary test cases, benzene toluene, methanol water, and ethanol water, are evaluated. The advantage of the design approach in cyclic distillation is shown to be analogous to the advantages obtained in conventional continuous distillation, including a minimal utility...

  18. Amenity migration - driving force for rural development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartoš, Michael; Kušová, Drahomíra; Těšitel, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 4, 3-4 (2007), s. 57-69 ISSN 1841-0375 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA403/07/0714 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Amenity migration * tourism * rural development Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  19. Thermodynamic driving force for rafting in superalloys

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available - and three-dimensional systems behave similarly. The initial plastic strain in gamma' is anelastic and in principle reversible. When the plastic strain exceeds m delta, platelets perpendicular to the stress axis are formed if the product sigma delta...

  20. The driving force role of ruthenacyclobutanes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-02-07

    DFT calculations have been used to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic preference for ruthenacyclobutanes resulting from the experimentally proposed interconversion pathways (olefin and alkylidene rotations) through the investigation of cross-metathesis reaction mechanism for neutral Grubbs catalyst, RuCl2(=CHEt)NHC (A), with ethylene and 1-butene as the substrates. Our results show that although the proposed interconversions are feasible due to the predicted low energy barriers (2-6 kcal/mol), the formation of ruthenacyclobutane is kinetically favored over the competitive reactions involving alkylidene rotations. In comparison with catalyst A, the reaction energy profile for cationic Piers catalyst [RuCl2(=CHPCy3)NHC+] (B) is more endothermic in nature with both ethylene and 1-butene substrates.

  1. The driving force role of ruthenacyclobutanes

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.; Cavallo, Luigi; Poater, Albert

    2015-01-01

    DFT calculations have been used to determine the thermodynamic and kinetic preference for ruthenacyclobutanes resulting from the experimentally proposed interconversion pathways (olefin and alkylidene rotations) through the investigation of cross-metathesis reaction mechanism for neutral Grubbs catalyst, RuCl2(=CHEt)NHC (A), with ethylene and 1-butene as the substrates. Our results show that although the proposed interconversions are feasible due to the predicted low energy barriers (2-6 kcal/mol), the formation of ruthenacyclobutane is kinetically favored over the competitive reactions involving alkylidene rotations. In comparison with catalyst A, the reaction energy profile for cationic Piers catalyst [RuCl2(=CHPCy3)NHC+] (B) is more endothermic in nature with both ethylene and 1-butene substrates.

  2. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Tourism: spatial dimension and driving force

    OpenAIRE

    Lourenço, Nelson; Jorge, Rosário

    2003-01-01

    Spatial and socio-economic impacts of tourism have been quite significant in some regions, causing changes in the economic structure, stimulating some sectors and displacing others. Tourism creates pressures on different domains—natural resources and environment, the built environment, and hospitality and cultural resources. The tourism infrastructure has impacted on the existing social, economic, and environmental dynamics of Goan society. Some of the tourism-related influences are discu...

  4. Pattern-formation under acoustic driving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel

    2015-07-01

    Chemical and metallurgical processes enhanced by high intensity acoustic waves, thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators, fuel rods in nuclear reactors, heat exchanger tubes, offshore and vibrating structures, solar thermal collectors, acoustic levitators, microfluidic devices, cycling, musical acoustics, blood flow through veins/arteries, hearing in the mammalian ear, carbon nanotube loudspeakers, etc. The evolution of a myriad of processes involving the oscillation of viscous fluids in the presence of solid boundaries is up to a certain extent influenced by acoustic streaming. In addition to the sound field, viscous energy dissipation at the fluid-solid boundary causes a time-independent fluid circulation, which can lead to a significant enhancement of heat, mass and momentum transfer at large oscillation amplitudes. A particularly relevant phenomenon that can be notably affected by acoustic streaming is the promotion of sound waves by temperature gradients or viceversa (thermoacoustics), which is at the basis of potentially efficient and environmental friendly engines and refrigerators that have attracted a renewed interest in the last years. In the present manuscript, historical developments and the underlying basic physics behind acoustic streaming and thermoacoustics are reviewed from an unifying perspective.

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furumitsu, Yutaka.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of a device for driving an LMFBR type reactor control rod by providing a buffer unit having a stationary electromagnetic coil and a movable electromagnetic coil in the device to thereby avord impact stress at scram time and to simplify the structure of the buffer unit. Constitution: A non-contact type buffer unit is constructed with a stationary electromagnetic coil, a cable for the stationary coil, a movable electromagnetic coil, a spring cable for the movable coil, and a backup coil spring or the like. Force produced at scram time is delivered without impact by the attracting or repelling force between the stationary coil and the movable coil of the buffer unit. Accordingly, since the buffer unit is of a non-contact type, there is no mechanical impact and thus no large impact stress, and as it has simple configuration, the reliability is improved and the maintenance can be conducted more easily. (Yoshihara, H.)

  6. The difference between actual and prescribed weight bearing of total hip patients with a trochanteric osteotomy: long-term vertical force measurements inside and outside the hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.P. Hurkmans (Henri); J.B.J. Bussmann (Hans); R.W. Selles (Ruud); E. Benda (Eric); H.J. Stam (Henk); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients load the operated leg at a prescribed weight-bearing target load during postoperative recovery. DESIGN: A descriptive prospective study. SETTING: Orthopedic clinic and patients' homes. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty patients who had undergone total hip

  7. Safe driving for teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driving and teenagers; Teens and safe driving; Automobile safety - teenage drivers ... months before taking friends as passengers. Teenage-related driving deaths occur more often in certain conditions. OTHER SAFETY TIPS FOR TEENS Reckless driving is still a ...

  8. Characterization of New Isolates of Apricot vein clearing-associated virus and of a New Prunus-Infecting Virus: Evidence for Recombination as a Driving Force in Betaflexiviridae Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle Marais

    Full Text Available Double stranded RNAs from Prunus samples gathered from various surveys were analyzed by a deep-sequencing approach. Contig annotations revealed the presence of a potential new viral species in an Azerbaijani almond tree (Prunus amygdalus and its genome sequence was completed. Its genomic organization is similar to that of the recently described Apricot vein clearing associated virus (AVCaV for which two new isolates were also characterized, in a similar fashion, from two Japanese plums (Prunus salicina from a French germplasm collection. The amino acid identity values between the four proteins encoded by the genome of the new virus have identity levels with those of AVCaV which fall clearly outside the species demarcation criteria. The new virus should therefore be considered as a new species for which the name of Caucasus prunus virus (CPrV has been proposed. Phylogenetic relationships and nucleotide comparisons suggested that together with AVCaV, CPrV could define a new genus (proposed name: Prunevirus in the family Betaflexiviridae. A molecular test targeting both members of the new genus was developed, allowing the detection of additional AVCaV isolates, and therefore extending the known geographical distribution and the host range of AVCaV. Moreover, the phylogenetic trees reconstructed with the amino acid sequences of replicase, movement and coat proteins of representative Betaflexiviridae members suggest that Citrus leaf blotch virus (CLBV, type member of the genus Citrivirus may have evolved from a recombination event involving a Prunevirus, further highlighting the importance of recombination as a driving force in Betaflexiviridae evolution. The sequences reported in the present manuscript have been deposited in the GenBank database under accession numbers KM507061-KM504070.

  9. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou, E-mail: qxl@ustc.edu.cn [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Hou, Yubin [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-05-15

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  10. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Ying; Lu, Qingyou; Hou, Yubin

    2014-01-01

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is <10% of the total static friction force, which can help increase output force greatly. The piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope

  11. Design of a portable artificial heart drive system based on efficiency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, T

    1986-11-01

    This paper discusses a computer simulation of a pneumatic portable piston-type artificial heart drive system with a linear d-c-motor. The purpose of the design is to obtain an artificial heart drive system with high efficiency and small dimensions to enhance portability. The design employs two factors contributing the total efficiency of the drive system. First, the dimensions of the pneumatic actuator were optimized under a cost function of the total efficiency. Second, the motor performance was studied in terms of efficiency. More than 50 percent of the input energy of the actuator with practical loads is consumed in the armature circuit in all linear d-c-motors with brushes. An optimal design is: the piston cross-sectional area of 10.5 cm2 cylinder longitudinal length of 10 cm. The total efficiency could be up to 25 percent by improving the gasket to reduce the frictional force.

  12. Driving safety in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, T A; Cimino, C R; Malek, A R; Gardner, N; Leaverton, P L; Dunne, P B; Hauser, R A

    2002-12-10

    In this study, 39 patients with PD and 25 control subjects without neurologic disease completed testing in a driving simulator. PD patients had more total collisions on the driving simulator than control subjects (t = -3.7, p < 0.01). In PD patients, collisions were associated with Hoehn and Yahr stage (chi(2) = 12.4, p = 0.006) and correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score (r = 0.5, p < 0.01).

  13. Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui

    2014-07-11

    Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42  m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100  m/s on tapered surfaces.

  14. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonuki, Koji.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the driving speed of control rods at rapid insertion with an elongate control rod and an extension pipe while ensuring sufficient buffering performance in a short buffering distance, by providing a plurality of buffers to an extension pipe between a control rod drive source and a control rod in LMFBR type reactor. Constitution: First, second and third buffers are respectively provided to an acceleration piston, an extension pipe and a control rod respectively and the insertion positions for each of the buffers are displaced orderly from above to below. Upon disconnection of energizing current for an electromagnet, the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod are rapidly inserted in one body. The first, second and third buffers are respectively actuated at each of their falling strokes upon rapid insertion respectively, and the acceleration piston, the extension pipe and the control rod receive the deceleration effect in the order correspondingly. Although the compression force is applied to the control rod only near the stroke end, it does not cause deformation. (Kawakami, Y.)

  15. Rotating magnetic field current drive-theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, I.J.

    1989-01-01

    Rotating magnetic fields have been used to drive plasma current and establish a range of compact torus configurations, named rotamaks. The current drive mechanism involves a ponderomotive force acting on the electron fluid. Recent extensions of the theory indicate that this method is most suitable for driving currents in directions perpendicular to the steady magnetic fields

  16. Current Drive in a Ponderomotive Potential with Sign Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.J. Fisch; J.M. Rax; I.Y. Dodin

    2003-07-30

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect can practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional radio-frequency current-drive techniques, since different considerations come into play.

  17. Current Drive in a Ponderomotive Potential with Sign Reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Rax, J.M.; Dodin, I.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect can practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional radio-frequency current-drive techniques, since different considerations come into play

  18. Efficient Driving of Piezoelectric Transducers Using a Biaxial Driving Technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Pichardo

    Full Text Available Efficient driving of piezoelectric materials is desirable when operating transducers for biomedical applications such as high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or ultrasound imaging. More efficient operation reduces the electric power required to produce the desired bioeffect or contrast. Our preliminary work [Cole et al. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. 2014;26(13:135901.] suggested that driving transducers by applying orthogonal electric fields can significantly reduce the coercivity that opposes ferroelectric switching. We present here the experimental validation of this biaxial driving technique using piezoelectric ceramics typically used in HIFU. A set of narrow-band transducers was fabricated with two sets of electrodes placed in an orthogonal configuration (following the propagation and the lateral mode. The geometry of the ceramic was chosen to have a resonance frequency similar for the propagation and the lateral mode. The average (± s.d. resonance frequency of the samples was 465.1 (± 1.5 kHz. Experiments were conducted in which each pair of electrodes was driven independently and measurements of effective acoustic power were obtained using the radiation force method. The efficiency (acoustic/electric power of the biaxial driving method was compared to the results obtained when driving the ceramic using electrodes placed only in the pole direction. Our results indicate that the biaxial method increases efficiency from 50% to 125% relative to the using a single electric field.

  19. Total Force Demand and Resourcing the Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    recapitalization and investment  Actual and perceived readiness that shapes global outcomes  T “R th W kf ” fi t d t ko esource e or orce you rs...silver bullet” H l f l “R R l d A i ” ill i H C i l e p u esource - e ate ct ons w span ent re uman ap ta Architecture  Critical to

  20. Electric drive motors for industrial robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtner, K.

    1985-04-01

    In robotized industrial plants it is possible to use electric motors in the technological process and also for control, assembly, transport, testing, and measurements. Particularly suitable for these applications are permanent-magnet d.c. motors. A new special series was developed for industrial robots with hinge joints in kinematic pairs. The complete drive includes thyristors or transistor controls with regulators and, if necessary, a line transformer as well as a servomotor with tachometer and odometer for speed, current, and position control. The drive is coupled to a robot tong through mechanical torque and force converters. In addition to a 0 to 4000 rpm speed regulation, without wobble at low speeds, and a high torque-to-weight ratio for repetitive short-time heavy duty, these low-inertia motors develop high starting and accelerating torques over the entire speed range. They operate from a 1 to O 220 V a.c. line through a rectifier. The motors are totally enclosed, or of open construction for better ventilation. Their windings have class F insulation for operation at ambient temperatures up to 40 C.

  1. Extended driving impairs nocturnal driving performances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Sagaspe

    Full Text Available Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3-5 am, 1-5 am and 9 pm-5 am on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [+/-SD] = 23.4 [+/-1.7] years participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3-5 am driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05 for the intermediate (1-5 am driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001 for the long (9 pm-5 am driving session. Compared to the reference session (9-10 pm, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001, 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001 and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001, respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05 and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01. At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited.

  2. 东北老工业区生态安全动态演变过程及驱动力%Dynamic evolution and driving forces of ecological security in the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐呈瑞; 逯承鹏; 杨青; 姜璐; 任婉侠; 薛冰

    2017-01-01

    Ecological security is as important as national,economic,and financial security and has become the main constraint of future socio-economic security.The Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China is an important traditional industrial and grain production base of China,and its ecological security is related to the implementation of sustainable development strategies.Based on the emergy-ecological footprint model,the ecological security in Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China was quantitatively evaluated from 2000 to 2014,followed by a scenario analysis on the driving forces of the ecological security using a principal component analysis method.The results showed that,the value of emergy ecological-capacity per capita decreased from 0.66 to 0.64 hm2/cap,whereas the emergy-ecological footprint increased from 10.58 to 19.85 hm2/cap,which indicated that an ecological deficit existed in the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China.The ecological pressure in this area increased,showing an unsustainable development trend from 2000 to 2014.The ecological pressure index and ecological security levels gradually increasing,ecological security situation is deteriorating,ecological security issues to be urgent resolved.The ecological stress tended to be serious as a result of a combination of several factors,such as social,economic,population,resource,environmental,technological level,and land use degree.Finally,effective management strategies and suggestions to improve the ecological security of the Traditional Industrial Area of northeastern China were proposed.%生态安全与国防安全、经济安全、金融安全等已具有同等重要的战略地位,并成为未来经济社会安全的主要约束.东北老工业区作为我国重要的老工业基地及粮食生产基地,其生态安全状况关系着中国可持续发展战略的实施.采用能值-生态足迹模型,对东北老工业区2000-2014年生态安全动态演变过程进行

  3. LAND-USE CHANGE AND ITS DRIVING FORCES OF "THREE PARALLEL RIVERS" IN NORTHWEST YUNNAN PROVINCE%滇西北三江并流区土地利用变化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金亮; 蒋莲芳; 李瑞林

    2005-01-01

    counties that prefectures located (such as Shangri-la, Lushui and Lijiang) was faster than of that othercounties. (5) The main driving forces of LUCC of this area were social-economy factors, including population growth,science technology development, growth of economy, inheritance and development of ethnic cultures, changes of policy and laws related to resources use and environmental protection.

  4. Drivers’ Age, Gender, Driving Experience, and Aggressiveness as Predictors of Aggressive Driving Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepjolkina Viktorija

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in the problem of aggressive driving. In the presentstudy two demographic variables (gender and age, two non-psychological driving-experiencerelated variables (annual mileage and legal driving experience in years and aggressiveness asa personality trait (including behavioural and affective components as psychological variableof individual differences were examined as potential predictors of aggressive driving. The aimof the study was to find out the best predictors of aggressive driving behaviour. The study wasbased on an online survey, and 228 vehicle drivers in Latvia participated in it. The questionnaireincluded eight-item Aggressive Driving Scale (Bone & Mowen, 2006, short Latvian versionof the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ; Buss & Perry, 1992, and questions gainingdemographic and driving experience information. Gender, age and annual mileage predictedaggressive driving: being male, young and with higher annual driving exposure were associatedwith higher scores on aggressive driving. Dispositional aggressiveness due to anger componentwas a significant predictor of aggressive diving score. Physical aggression and hostility wereunrelated to aggressive driving. Altogether, the predictors explained a total of 28% of thevariance in aggressive driving behaviour. Findings show that dispositional aggressiveness,especially the anger component, as well as male gender, young age and higher annual mileagehas a predictive validity in relation to aggressive driving. There is a need to extend the scope ofpotential dispositional predictors pertinent to driving aggression.

  5. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  6. HARMONIC DRIVE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr FOLĘGA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The variety of types and sizes currently in production harmonic drive is a problem in their rational choice. Properly selected harmonic drive must meet certain requirements during operation, and achieve the anticipated service life. The paper discusses the problems associated with the selection of the harmonic drive. It also presents the algorithm correct choice of harmonic drive. The main objective of this study was to develop a computer program that allows the correct choice of harmonic drive by developed algorithm.

  7. Analysis of Vehicle Steering and Driving Bifurcation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical method of vehicle steering bifurcation analysis is based on the nonlinear autonomous vehicle model deriving from the classic two degrees of freedom (2DOF linear vehicle model. This method usually neglects the driving effect on steering bifurcation characteristics. However, in the steering and driving combined conditions, the tyre under different driving conditions can provide different lateral force. The steering bifurcation mechanism without the driving effect is not able to fully reveal the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics. Aiming at the aforementioned problem, this paper analyzed the vehicle steering and driving bifurcation characteristics with the consideration of driving effect. Based on the 5DOF vehicle system dynamics model with the consideration of driving effect, the 7DOF autonomous system model was established. The vehicle steering and driving bifurcation dynamic characteristics were analyzed with different driving mode and driving torque. Taking the front-wheel-drive system as an example, the dynamic evolution process of steering and driving bifurcation was analyzed by phase space, system state variables, power spectral density, and Lyapunov index. The numerical recognition results of chaos were also provided. The research results show that the driving mode and driving torque have the obvious effect on steering and driving bifurcation characteristics.

  8. Safety Education in Driving. 2nd Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    Intended for driving instruction students, this publication contains instructional materials for safety education. It contains six sections on facts and figures; defensive driving; safety devices; restraints; emergency situations; and other highway users. Each section consists of reading material followed by an activity or activities. A total of…

  9. Consistent Automation Solutions for Electrohydraulic Drives in Times of Industry 4.0

    OpenAIRE

    Köckemann, Albert; Birke, Benno

    2016-01-01

    Electrohydraulic drives are primarily used whenever a low power/weight ratio, a compact build and/or large forces are required for individual applications. These drives are often used together with electric drive technology in machines. However, in terms of automation, unlike electric drives, electrohydraulic drives are still largely connected via analog interfaces and centralized closed control loops today. To compensate for this competitive disadvantage of hydraulic drive technology and, at...

  10. Comparison of Unsafe Driving Across Medical Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Sanghee; Ranchet, Maud; Tant, Mark; Akinwuntan, Abiodun E; Devos, Hannes

    2017-09-01

    To compare risks of unsafe driving in patients with medical conditions. This large population-based study included all patients who were referred for a fitness-to-drive evaluation at an official driving evaluation center in 2013 and 2014. Risks of unsafe driving included physician's fitness-to-drive recommendation, comprehensive fitness-to-drive decision, motor vehicle crash history, and traffic violation history. A total of 6584 patients were included in the study. Risks of unsafe driving were significantly different across medical conditions (Pdriving. Patients with psychiatric conditions or substance abuse did worse on most driving safety outcomes, despite their low representation in the total sample (359 [6%] and 46 [1%], respectively). The risk of unsafe driving varied greatly across medical conditions. Sensitization campaigns, education, and medical guidelines for physicians and driver licensing authorities are warranted to identify patients at risk, especially for those with psychiatric conditions and substance abuse problems. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A liquid helium piston pump with a superconducting drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes a bellows pump where the driving force is achieved by an arrangement of three superconducting coils. The pump was designed for use in the supercritical helium flow circuit of the LCT-conductor test facility. The main advantage of the superconducting drive, compared to conventional pumps with external drive, is the compact design. Force transferring parts between 4.2 K and room temperature are not necessary. The pump was tested in a closed loop arrangement. The superconducting drive for a piston pump consists of a moving coil in a constant background field. Other coil configurations and the upscaling of the pump design are discussed

  12. Combination spindle-drive system for high precision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Howard L.

    1977-07-26

    A combination spindle-drive is provided for fabrication of optical quality surface finishes. Both the spindle-and-drive utilize the spindle bearings for support, thereby removing the conventional drive-means bearings as a source of vibration. An airbearing spindle is modified to carry at the drive end a highly conductive cup-shaped rotor which is aligned with a stationary stator to produce torque in the cup-shaped rotor through the reaction of eddy currents induced in the rotor. This arrangement eliminates magnetic attraction forces and all force is in the form of torque on the cup-shaped rotor.

  13. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading.......Instruct the reader in getting most satisfaction out of an EV, especially concerning driving and loading....

  14. Dementia and driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000028.htm Dementia and driving To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. If your loved one has dementia , deciding when they can no longer drive may ...

  15. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of

  16. Gear bearing drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor); Weinberg, Brian (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  17. Antihistamines and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hanlon, J F

    1988-10-27

    The results of two placebo-controlled driving performance studies confirm laboratory data showing that the nonsedating antihistamine terfenadine does not influence the driving performance of users. The amplitude of vehicle weaving calculated for drivers who received this agent did not differ from control values. Neither terfenadine nor loratadine, another nonsedating antihistamine, potentiated the adverse effects of alcohol on driving performance.

  18. Driving After a Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 23,2015 Can I drive after a stroke? Driving is often a major concern after someone has a stroke. It’s not unusual for stroke survivors to want to drive. Being able to get around after a stroke is important. Safety behind the wheel is even more important after ...

  19. Sequential Dependencies in Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doshi, Anup; Tran, Cuong; Wilder, Matthew H.; Mozer, Michael C.; Trivedi, Mohan M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of recent experience on current behavior has been studied extensively in simple laboratory tasks. We explore the nature of sequential effects in the more naturalistic setting of automobile driving. Driving is a safety-critical task in which delayed response times may have severe consequences. Using a realistic driving simulator, we find…

  20. Simple Driving Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2002-01-01

    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data...

  1. A drive through Web 2.0: an exploration of driving safety promotion on Facebook™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apatu, Emma J I; Alperin, Melissa; Miner, Kathleen R; Wiljer, David

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Facebook™ to capture the prevalence of driving safety promotion user groups, obtain user demographic information, to understand if Facebook™ user groups influence reported driving behaviors, and to gather a sense of perceived effectiveness of Facebook™ for driving safety promotion targeted to young adults. In total, 96 driving safety Facebook™ groups (DSFGs) were identified with a total of 33,368 members, 168 administrators, 156 officers, 1,598 wall posts representing 12 countries. A total of 85 individuals participated in the survey. Demographic findings of this study suggest that driving safety promotion can be targeted to young and older adults. Respondents' ages ranged from 18 to 66 years. A total of 62% of respondents aged ≤ 24 years and 57.8% of respondents aged ≥ 25 years reported changing their driving-related behaviors as a result of reading information on the DSFGs to which they belonged. A higher proportion of respondents ≥ 25 years were significantly more likely to report Facebook™ and YouTube™ as an effective technology for driving safety promotion. This preliminary study indicates that DSFGs may be effective tools for driving safety promotion among young adults. More research is needed to understand the cognition of Facebook™ users as it relates to adopting safe driving behavior. The findings from this study present descriptive data to guide public health practitioners for future health promotion activities on Facebook™.

  2. Factors associated with driving in teens with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Patty; Kao, Trudy; Curry, Allison E; Durbin, Dennis R

    2012-01-01

    To compare the characteristics of driving and nondriving teens and explore the driving outcomes for teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders. Parents of teens aged 15 to 18 years with a parent-reported diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder enrolled in Interactive Autism Network, an online research registry, were eligible for this cross-sectional study. An online survey was used for data collection. A total of 297 parents completed the survey. Sixty-three percent of teens currently drive or plan to drive. Twenty-nine percent of the teens who are age-eligible to drive currently drive. Compared with age-eligible but nondriving teens, a greater proportion of driving teens were in full-time regular education (p public transportation. Driving predictors included individualized education plans with driving goals, indicators of functional status (classroom placement, college aspiration, and job experience), and parent experience with teaching teens to drive. Twelve percent of teens received driving citations, and 12% of teens had been involved in a motor vehicle crash. Although a significant proportion of teens with higher functioning autism spectrum disorders were driving or learning to drive, the fact that most driving teens' individualized education plans did not include driving goals suggests an area of opportunity for improvement in transition planning. Driving teens were more frequently in regular education settings with college aspirations, which could help schools identify potential drivers.

  3. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across...

  4. Subatomic forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, C.

    1989-01-01

    Inside the atom, particles interact through two forces which are never felt in the everyday world. But they may hold the key to the Universe. These ideas on subatomic forces are discussed with respect to the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the electroweak force. (author)

  5. Totally James

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with James Howe, author of "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe". In this interview, Howe discusses tolerance, diversity and the parallels between his own life and his literature. Howe's four books in addition to "The Misfits" and "Totally Joe" and his list of recommended books with lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender,…

  6. The death drive in tourism studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buda, Dorina Maria

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical concept of the death drive postulated by Freud and Lacan refers to a constant force at the junction between life and death, which is not understood in a biological sense of physical demise of the body, nor in opposition to life. Tourist experiences in conflict zones can be more

  7. Control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okutani, Tetsuro.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a simple and economical control rod drive using a control circuit requiring no pulse circuit. Constitution: Control rods in a BWR type reactor are driven by hydraulic pressure and inserted or withdrawn in the direction of applying the hydraulic pressure. The direction of the hydraulic pressure is controlled by a direction control valve. Since the driving for the control rod is extremely important in view of the operation, a self diagnosis function is disposed for rapid inspection of possible abnormality. In the present invention, two driving contacts are disposed each by one between the both ends of a solenoid valve of the direction control valve for driving the control rod and the driving power source, and diagnosis is conducted by alternately operating them. Therefore, since it is only necessary that the control circuit issues a driving instruction only to one of the two driving contacts, the pulse circuit is no more required. Further, since the control rod driving is conducted upon alignment of the two driving instructions, the reliability of the control rod drive can be improved. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Using driving simulators to assess driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Linda Ng; Lee, John D

    2010-05-01

    Changes in drivers, vehicles, and roadways pose substantial challenges to the transportation safety community. Crash records and naturalistic driving data are useful for examining the influence of past or existing technology on drivers, and the associations between risk factors and crashes. However, they are limited because causation cannot be established and technology not yet installed in production vehicles cannot be assessed. Driving simulators have become an increasingly widespread tool to understand evolving and novel technologies. The ability to manipulate independent variables in a randomized, controlled setting also provides the added benefit of identifying causal links. This paper introduces a special issue on simulator-based safety studies. The special issue comprises 25 papers that demonstrate the use of driving simulators to address pressing transportation safety problems and includes topics as diverse as neurological dysfunction, work zone design, and driver distraction. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimization of spent fuel pool weir gate driving mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Du, Lin; Tao, Xinlei; Wang, Shijie; Shang, Ertao; Yu, Jianjiang

    2018-04-01

    Spent fuel pool is crucial facility for fuel storage and nuclear safety, and the spent fuel pool weir gate is the key related equipment. In order to achieve a goal of more efficient driving force transfer, loading during the opening/closing process is analyzed and an optimized calculation method for dimensions of driving mechanism is proposed. The result of optimizing example shows that the method can be applied to weir gates' design with similar driving mechanism.

  10. Current drive in a ponderomotive potential with sign reversal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Dodin, I.Y.; Rax, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Noninductive current drive can be accomplished through ponderomotive forces with high efficiency when the potential changes sign over the interaction region. The effect, which operates somewhat like a Maxwell demon, can be practiced upon both ions and electrons. The current-drive efficiencies, in principle, might be higher than those possible with conventional rf current-drive techniques. It remains, however, for us to identify how the effect might be implemented in a magnetic fusion device in a practical manner

  11. Superluminal warp drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F. [Colina de los Chopos, Centro de Fisica ' Miguel A. Catalan' , Instituto de Matematicas y Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: p.gonzalezdiaz@imaff.cfmac.csic.es

    2007-09-20

    In this Letter we consider a warp drive spacetime resulting from that suggested by Alcubierre when the spaceship can only travel faster than light. Restricting to the two dimensions that retains most of the physics, we derive the thermodynamic properties of the warp drive and show that the temperature of the spaceship rises up as its apparent velocity increases. We also find that the warp drive spacetime can be exhibited in a manifestly cosmological form.

  12. The Total Force: Cultural Considerations for the Future of the Total Force Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    address TFI as an organizational process or structure problem in which people, qualifications, and equipment, are objects that can be manipulated in...Merger and Cultural Change for Better Outcomes: The First Five Years of the New York State Office of Children and Family Services.” Child Welfare Vol...will take on the culture of the commander, [and therefore the commander must] make doing the right things easy and wrong [or] stupid things hard.”19

  13. PMBLDC motor drive with power factor correction controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Arun, N.

    2012-01-01

    reliability, and low maintenance requirements. The proposed Power Factor Controller topology improves power quality by improving performance of PMBLDCM drive, such as reduction of AC main current harmonics, near unity power factor. PFC converter forces the drive to draw sinusoidal supply current in phase...

  14. Proceedings of the international conference on maglev and linear drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on Maglev and linear drives. Topics covered include: Development of superconducting magnets for the Canadian electrodynamic Maglev vehicle; Power supply system to drive HSST - Expo '86; and Thrust and levitation force characteristics of linear synchronous motors

  15. CAE DEVELOPMENT OF PRECESSIONAL DRIVES USING AUTODESK INVENTOR PLATFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion BOSTAN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the modelling and simulation of precessional drives designed in two variants capable of high transmission ratio and torque for one stage compact construction. The constructions were designed in Inventor and also as multi body systems in otionInventor. The simulations of the drives provide information concerning positions, velocities, accelerations, point trajectories, forces and moments, energies, as well as contact forces at the contact between gear teeth and satellite teeth and other data concerning the system.

  16. Medications and impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetland, Amanda; Carr, David B

    2014-04-01

    To describe the association of specific medication classes with driving outcomes and provide clinical recommendations. The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published from January 1973 to June 2013 on classes of medications associated with driving impairment. The search included outcome terms such as automobile driving, motor vehicle crash, driving simulator, and road tests. Only English-language articles that contained findings from observational or interventional designs with ≥ 10 participants were included in this review. Cross-sectional studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. Driving is an important task and activity for the majority of adults. Some commonly prescribed medications have been associated with driving impairment measured by road performance, driving simulation, and/or motor vehicle crashes. This review of 30 studies identified findings with barbiturates, benzodiazepines, hypnotics, antidepressants, opioid and nonsteroidal analgesics, anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, antiparkinsonian agents, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, anticholinergic medications, and hypoglycemic agents. Additional studies of medication impact on sedation, sleep latency, and psychomotor function, as well as the role of alcohol, are also discussed. Psychotropic agents and those with central nervous system side effects were associated with measures of impaired driving performance. It is difficult to determine if such associations are actually a result of medication use or the medical diagnosis itself. Regardless, clinicians should be aware of the increased risk of impaired driving with specific classes of medications, educate their patients, and/or consider safer alternatives.

  17. Universal Drive Train Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This vehicle drive train research facility is capable of evaluating helicopter and ground vehicle power transmission technologies in a system level environment. The...

  18. Driving for shorter outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritch, S.

    1996-01-01

    Nuclear plant outages are necessary to complete activities that cannot be completed during the operating cycle, such as steam generator inspection and testing, refueling, installing modifications, and performing maintenance tests. The time devoted to performing outages is normally the largest contributor to plant unavailability. Similarly, outage costs are a sizable portion of the total plant budget. The scope and quality of work done during outages directly affects operating reliability and the number of unplanned outages. Improved management and planning of outages enhances the margin of safety during the outage and results in increased plant reliability. The detailed planning and in-depth preparation that has become a necessity for driving shorter outage durations has also produced safer outages and improved post-outage reliability. Short outages require both plant and vendor management to focus on all aspects of the outage. Short outage durations, such as 26 days at South Texas or 29 days at North Anna, require power plant inter-department and intra-department teamwork and communication and vendor participation. In this paper shorter and safer outage at the 3-loop plants in the United States are explained. (J.P.N.)

  19. Research on micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing based on static wirerope tension of a surgical robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingtao Yu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The micromanipulator’s force feedback is one of the key research contents of minimally invasive surgical robotic system. Because the micromanipulator is a kind of compact construction which is suitable for valve installation with small space in surgery, especially for the influence of disinfection method, there are major difficulties and limitations to integrate compact sensors in the end of micromanipulator. This article focuses on the 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing, and these three joints are actuated by wirerope driving. A clamping force sensing method is proposed based on static tension of wirerope driving, and a static model between the clamping force and wirerope’s static tension is established considering the influence of real friction resistance in the mechanical system. Finally, an equivalent experimental test platform for 3-degree-of-freedom micromanipulator’s clamping force sensing is set up, and then a series of experiments of the clamping force are studied. The frictional resistances of wirerope between the guide plate and guide pulley mechanism are tested, and a calibration and correction method of the experimental clamping force is proposed. The final experiment results show that the total average accuracy of experimental clamping force is about 78.3%, and it can be the basic measurement force to realize micromanipulator’s clamping force feedback of a minimally invasive surgical robot.

  20. Kinematics and Dynamics of Roller Chain Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglede, Niels

    There are two main subjects of this work: Kinematic and dynamic modeling and analysis of roller chain drives. In the kinematic analysis we contribute first with a complete treatment of the roller chain drive modeled as a four-bar mechanism. This includes a general, exact and approximate analysis...... which is useful for predicting the characteristic loading of the roller chain drive. As a completely novel contribution, a kinematic model and analysis is presented which includes both spans and sprockets in a simple chain drive system. A general procedure for determination of the total wrapping length...... is presented, which also allows for exact sprocket center positions for a chain with a given number of links. Results show that the total chain wrapping length varies periodically with the tooth frequency. These results are of practical importance to both the design, installation and operation of roller chain...

  1. Dual role of an ac driving force and the underlying two distinct order–disorder transitions in the vortex phase diagram of Ca{sub 3}Ir{sub 4}Sn{sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Santosh, E-mail: santoshkumar@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Singh, Ravi P.; Thamizhavel, A. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Tomy, C.V., E-mail: tomy@phy.iitb.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Grover, A.K. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • This work pertains to new findings related to a broad SMP anomaly. • Broad SMP prima facie encompasses two phase transformations in vortex matter. • We demarcated two phase boundaries pertaining to order–disorder transitions which have quasi first-order nature. - Abstract: We present distinct demarcation of the Bragg glass (BG) to multi-domain vortex glass (VG) transition line and the eventual amorphization of the VG phase in a weakly pinned single crystal of the superconducting compound Ca{sub 3}Ir{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} on the basis of comprehension of the different yields about the second magnetization peak (SMP) anomaly in the dc magnetization and the corresponding anomalous feature in the ac susceptibility measurements. The shaking by a small ac magnetic field, inevitably present in the ac susceptibility measurements, is seen to result in contrasting responses in two different portions of the field-temperature (H, T) phase space of the multi-domain VG. In one of the portions, embracing the BG to VG transition across the onset of the SMP anomaly, the ac drive is surprisingly seen to assist the transformation of the well ordered BG phase to a lesser ordered VG phase. The BG phase exists as a superheated state over a small portion of the VG space and this attests to the first order nature of the BG to VG transition.

  2. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  3. Wrong-way driving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Wrong-way driving is a phenomenon that mainly happens on motorways. Although the number of wrong-way crashes is relatively limited, their consequences are much more severe than the consequences of other motorway injury crashes. The groups most often causing wrong-way driving accidents are young,

  4. Recognizing driving in haste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rendón-Vélez, E.

    2014-01-01

    One can often hear people discussing the reasons why a road accident has happened: “She had to pick up her kids in the school before four o’clock and she was driving in haste and careless”, “He was stressed, he wanted to reach the beginning of the football match, tried to drive faster and didn't

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To secure the reactor operation safety by the provision of a fluid pressure detecting section for control rod driving fluid and a control rod interlock at the midway of the flow pass for supplying driving fluid to the control rod drives. Constitution: Between a driving line and a direction control valve are provided a pressure detecting portion, an alarm generating device, and a control rod inhibition interlock. The driving fluid from a driving fluid source is discharged by way of a pump and a manual valve into the reactor in which the control rods and reactor fuels are contained. In addition, when the direction control valve is switched and the control rods are inserted and extracted by the control rod drives, the pressure in the driving line is always detected by the pressure detection section, whereby if abnormal pressure is resulted, the alarm generating device is actuated to warn the abnormality and the control rod inhibition interlock is actuated to lock the direction control valve thereby secure the safety operation of the reactor. (Seki, T.)

  6. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  7. Self-driving carsickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  8. Self-driving carsickness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diels, C.; Bos, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and

  9. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    CERN Document Server

    Veltman, André; De Doncker, Rik W

    2007-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive introduction to various aspects of electrical drive systems. This volume provides a presentation of dynamic generic models that cover all major electrical machine types and modulation/control components of a drive as well as dynamic and steady state analysis of transformers and electrical machines.

  10. Electric Vehicle - Economical driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, VCE, Steen V.; Schøn, Henriette

    1999-01-01

    How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV......How do you reduce the energy-wast when driving and loading EV's - or rather: How do I get more km/l out of an EV...

  11. Efficiency trends in electric machines and drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecrow, B.C.; Jack, A.G.

    2008-01-01

    Almost all electricity in the UK is generated by rotating electrical generators, and approximately half of it is used to drive electrical motors. This means that efficiency improvements to electrical machines can have a very large impact on energy consumption. The key challenges to increased efficiency in systems driven by electrical machines lie in three areas: to extend the application of variable-speed electric drives into new areas through reduction of power electronic and control costs; to integrate the drive and the driven load to maximise system efficiency; and to increase the efficiency of the electrical drive itself. In the short to medium term, efficiency gains within electrical machines will result from the development of new materials and construction techniques. Approximately a quarter of new electrical machines are driven by variable-speed drives. These are a less mature product than electrical machines and should see larger efficiency gains over the next 50 years. Advances will occur, with new types of power electronic devices that reduce switching and conduction loss. With variable-speed drives, there is complete freedom to vary the speed of the driven load. Replacing fixed-speed machines with variable-speed drives for a high proportion of industrial loads could mean a 15-30% energy saving. This could save the UK 15 billion kWh of electricity per year which, when combined with motor and drive efficiency gains, would amount to a total annual saving of 24 billion kWh

  12. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Akira.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to monitor the coupling state between a control rod and a control rod drive. Constitution: After the completion of a control rod withdrawal, a coolant pressure is applied to a control rod drive being adjusted so as to raise only the control rod drive and, in a case where the coupling between the control rod drive and the control rod is detached, the former is elevated till it contacts the control rod and then stopped. The actual stopping position is detected by an actual position detection circuit and compared with a predetermined position stored in a predetermined position detection circuit. If both of the positions are not aligned with each other, it is judged by a judging circuit that the control rod and the control rod drives are not combined. (Sekiya, K.)

  13. Energizing porters by proton-motive force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N

    1994-11-01

    It is generally accepted that the chemistry of water was the most crucial determinant in shaping life on earth. Among the more important chemical features of water is its dissociation into protons and hydroxyl ions. The presence of relatively high proton concentrations in the ambient solution resulted in the evolution of proton pumps during the dawn of life on earth. These proton pumps maintained neutral pH inside the cells and generated electrochemical gradients of protons (proton-motive force) across their membranes. The existence of proton-motive force enabled the evolution of porters driven by it that are most probably among the more primitive porters in the world. The directionality of the substrate transport by the porters could be to both sides of the membranes because they can serve as proton symporters or antiporters. One of the most important subjects of this meeting is the mechanism by which proton-motive and other ion-motive forces drive the transport processes through porters. Is there a common mechanism of action for all proton-driven porters? Is there some common partial reaction by which we can identify the way that porters are energized by proton-motive force? Is there a common coupling between proton movement and uptake or secretion of certain molecules? Even a partial answer to one of these questions would advance our knowledge... or confusion. As my mentor Efraim Racker used to say: 'If you are not totally confused you do not understand the issue'.

  14. Current challenges in autonomous driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barabás, I.; Todoruţ, A.; Cordoş, N.; Molea, A.

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the automotive industry makes a quantum shift to a future, where the driver will have smaller and smaller role in driving his or her vehicle ending up being totally excluded. In this paper, we have investigated the different levels of driving automatization, the prospective effects of these new technologies on the environment and traffic safety, the importance of regulations and their current state, the moral aspects of introducing these technologies and the possible scenarios of deploying the autonomous vehicles. We have found that the self-driving technologies are facing many challenges: a) They must make decisions faster in very diverse conditions which can include many moral dilemmas as well; b) They have an important potential in reducing the environmental pollution by optimizing their routes, driving styles by communicating with other vehicles, infrastructures and their environment; c) There is a considerable gap between the self-drive technology level and the current regulations; fortunately, this gap shows a continuously decreasing trend; d) In case of many types of imminent accidents management there are many concerns about the ability of making the right decision. Considering that this field has an extraordinary speed of development, our study is up to date at the submission deadline. Self-driving technologies become increasingly sophisticated and technically accessible, and in some cases, they can be deployed for commercial vehicles as well. According to the current stage of research and development, it is still unclear how the self-driving technologies will be able to handle extreme and unexpected events including their moral aspects. Since most of the traffic accidents are caused by human error or omission, it is expected that the emergence of the autonomous technologies will reduce these accidents in their number and gravity, but the very few currently available test results have not been able to scientifically underpin this issue yet. The

  15. Spot Feeding Spheroidal Graphite Iron with Exothermic and Insulating Ram-Up Sleeves in Vertically Parted Moulds: Efficiency, Microstructure, Dimensional Accuracy, Deformation, and Driving Force and Feeding Criteria Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard

    feeders (ram-up sleeves) is investigated, showing that this new feeding approach can be used successfully to feed secluded sections inductile cast iron (EN-GJS-500-7). The feeder efficiency is tested using a high Silicon (Si) ductile iron (EN-GJS-450-10). The limits for the examined feeder configurations......Improvement of feeder technologies for energy savings in cast iron foundries is not only the title of the project behind this dissertation; it is a good idea that can improve casting yield and reduce production cost, and in turn strengthening the foundries competitive advantage. The approach...... of solidification. The dissertation provides a new approach to feeding secluded sections, a new characterisation of the underlying feeding forces, and new knowledge about the thermal deformation effects caused and controlled by feeding....

  16. Resonant driving of a nonlinear Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmisano, Carlo; Gervino, Gianpiero; Balma, Massimo; Devona, Dorina; Wimberger, Sandro

    2013-01-01

    As a proof of principle, we show how a classical nonlinear Hamiltonian system can be driven resonantly over reasonably long times by appropriately shaped pulses. To keep the parameter space reasonably small, we limit ourselves to a driving force which consists of periodic pulses additionally modulated by a sinusoidal function. The main observables are the average increase of kinetic energy and of the action variable (of the non-driven system) with time. Applications of our scheme aim for driving high frequencies of a nonlinear system with a fixed modulation signal.

  17. Note: A rigid piezo motor with large output force and an effective method to reduce sliding friction force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying; Hou, Yubin; Lu, Qingyou

    2014-05-01

    We present a completely practical TunaDrive piezo motor. It consists of a central piezo stack sandwiched by two arm piezo stacks and two leg piezo stacks, respectively, which is then sandwiched and spring-clamped by a pair of parallel polished sapphire rods. It works by alternatively fast expanding and contracting the arm/leg stacks while slowly expanding/contracting the central stack simultaneously. The key point is that sufficiently fast expanding and contracting a limb stack can make its two sliding friction forces well cancel, resulting in the total sliding friction force is piezo motor's high compactness, precision, and output force make it perfect in building a high-quality harsh-condition (vibration resistant) atomic resolution scanning probe microscope.

  18. Assessment of driving-related performance in chronic whiplash using an advanced driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasaki, Hiroshi; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Haines, Andrew; Jull, Gwendolen

    2013-11-01

    Driving is often nominated as problematic by individuals with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD), yet driving-related performance has not been evaluated objectively. The purpose of this study was to test driving-related performance in persons with chronic WAD against healthy controls of similar age, gender and driving experience to determine if driving-related performance in the WAD group was sufficiently impaired to recommend fitness to drive assessment. Driving-related performance was assessed using an advanced driving simulator during three driving scenarios; freeway, residential and a central business district (CBD). Total driving duration was approximately 15min. Five driving tasks which could cause a collision (critical events) were included in the scenarios. In addition, the effect of divided attention (identify red dots projected onto side or rear view mirrors) was assessed three times in each scenario. Driving performance was measured using the simulator performance index (SPI) which is calculated from 12 measures. z-Scores for all SPI measures were calculated for each WAD subject based on mean values of the control subjects. The z-scores were then averaged for the WAD group. A z-score of ≤-2 indicated a driving failing grade in the simulator. The number of collisions over the five critical events was compared between the WAD and control groups as was reaction time and missed response ratio in identifying the red dots. Seventeen WAD and 26 control subjects commenced the driving assessment. Demographic data were comparable between the groups. All subjects completed the freeway scenario but four withdrew during the residential and eight during the CBD scenario because of motion sickness. All scenarios were completed by 14 WAD and 17 control subjects. Mean z-scores for the SPI over the three scenarios was statistically lower in the WAD group (-0.3±0.3; Pdriving. There were no differences in the reaction time and missed response ratio in divided

  19. Turbulent current drive mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, Christopher J.; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Guo, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Mechanisms through which plasma microturbulence can drive a mean electron plasma current are derived. The efficiency through which these turbulent contributions can drive deviations from neoclassical predictions of the electron current profile is computed by employing a linearized Coulomb collision operator. It is found that a non-diffusive contribution to the electron momentum flux as well as an anomalous electron-ion momentum exchange term provide the most efficient means through which turbulence can modify the mean electron current for the cases considered. Such turbulent contributions appear as an effective EMF within Ohm's law and hence provide an ideal means for driving deviations from neoclassical predictions.

  20. Fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goree, J.; Ono, M.; Colestock, P.; Horton, R.; McNeill, D.; Park, H.

    1985-07-01

    Fast wave current drive is demonstrated in the Princeton ACT-I toroidal device. The fast Alfven wave, in the range of high ion-cyclotron harmonics, produced 40 A of current from 1 kW of rf power coupled into the plasma by fast wave loop antenna. This wave excites a steady current by damping on the energetic tail of the electron distribution function in the same way as lower-hybrid current drive, except that fast wave current drive is appropriate for higher plasma densities

  1. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  2. Electromagnetic design calculation of the control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Qirong; Zhu Jingchang

    1991-01-01

    Electromagnetic design calculation of the step-by-step magnetic jacking control rod drive mechanism includes magnetic field force calculation and design calculation of magnetomotive force for three electromagnetic iron and their coilds. The basic principle and method of electromagnetic design calculation had been expounded to take the lift magnet and lift coil for example

  3. PTAC driving safety survey results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd, E. [Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The results of a survey conducted by the Petroleum Technology Alliance Canada were presented. The survey identified ways in which companies in the oil and gas industry can reduce the potential for vehicle incidents, as well as improve fleet management techniques. Respondents provided a list of over 60 relevant technologies with high potential for application. Top driving safety challenges included adverse weather and road conditions, as well as driver attitude and awareness. Driver speed and fatigue were also seen as significant challenges, as well as encounters with wildlife and road conditions. Poor site conditions were also identified as a challenge, along with poor hazard recognition training, and lack of experience. A total of 157 representatives responded, whose fleets collectively drive approximately 136,500,000 km per year. The fleets totalled 15,800 vehicles. Respondents' affiliations with the oil and gas industry were included, as well as ownership classifications and company fleet sizes. Total annual fleet kilometers were presented, as well as the number of incidents per company per year, along with the number of respondents' animal strikes per year. tabs, figs.

  4. Fundamentals of electrical drives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, A.; Pulle, D.W.J.; de Doncker, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, user-friendly, color illustrated introductory text for electrical drive systems that simplifies the understanding of electrical machine principles Updated edition covers innovations in machine design, power semi-conductors, digital signal processors and simulation software Presents

  5. Science of driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Science of Driving project focused on developing a collaborative relationship to develop curriculum units for middle school and high school students to engage them in exciting real-world scenarios. This effort involved faculty, staff, and student...

  6. Drugs and driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walsh, J. Michael; De Gier, Johan J.; Christopherson, Asbjørg S.; Verstraete, Alain G.

    The authors present a global overview on the issue of drugs and driving covering four major areas: (1) Epidemiology and Prevalence-which reviews epidemiological research, summarizes available information, discusses the methodological shortcomings of extant studies, and makes recommendations for

  7. Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…

  8. Factors Driving Business Intelligence Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimvydas Skyrius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of business intelligence (BI, despite rapid technology advances, continues to feature inadequate levels of adoption. The attention of researchers is shifting towards hu-man factors of BI adoption. The wide set of human factors influencing BI adoption con-tains elements of what we call BI culture – an overarching concept covering key managerial issues that come up in BI implementation. Research sources provide different sets of features pertaining to BI culture or related concepts – decision-making culture, analytical culture and others. The goal of this paper is to perform the review of research and practical sources to examine driving forces of BI – data-driven approaches, BI agility, maturity and acceptance – to point out culture-related issues that support BI adoption and to suggest an emerging set of factors influencing BI culture.

  9. Instant Google Drive starter

    CERN Document Server

    Procopio, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This book is a Starter which teaches you how to use Google Drive practically. This book is perfect for people of all skill levels who want to enjoy the benefits of using Google Drive to safely store their files online and in the cloud. It's also great for anyone looking to learn more about cloud computing in general. Readers are expected to have an Internet connection and basic knowledge of using the internet.

  10. Control rod driving mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooshima, Yoshio.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To perform reliable scram operation, even if abnormality should occur in a system instructing scram operation in FBR type reactors. Constitution: An aluminum alloy member to be melt at a predetermined temperature (about 600sup(o)C) is disposed to a connection part between a control rod and a driving mechanism, whereby the control rod is detached from the driving mechanism and gravitationally fallen to the reactor core. (Ikeda, J.)

  11. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  12. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  13. Self-driving carsickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diels, Cyriel; Bos, Jelte E

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses the predicted increase in the occurrence and severity of motion sickness in self-driving cars. Self-driving cars have the potential to lead to significant benefits. From the driver's perspective, the direct benefits of this technology are considered increased comfort and productivity. However, we here show that the envisaged scenarios all lead to an increased risk of motion sickness. As such, the benefits this technology is assumed to bring may not be capitalised on, in particular by those already susceptible to motion sickness. This can negatively affect user acceptance and uptake and, in turn, limit the potential socioeconomic benefits that this emerging technology may provide. Following a discussion on the causes of motion sickness in the context of self-driving cars, we present guidelines to steer the design and development of automated vehicle technologies. The aim is to limit or avoid the impact of motion sickness and ultimately promote the uptake of self-driving cars. Attention is also given to less well known consequences of motion sickness, in particular negative aftereffects such as postural instability, and detrimental effects on task performance and how this may impact the use and design of self-driving cars. We conclude that basic perceptual mechanisms need to be considered in the design process whereby self-driving cars cannot simply be thought of as living rooms, offices, or entertainment venues on wheels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Dementia and driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, D; Neubauer, K; Boyle, M; Gerrard, J; Surmon, D; Wilcock, G K

    1992-04-01

    Many European countries test cars, but not their drivers, as they age. There is evidence to suggest that human factors are more important than vehicular factors as causes of motor crashes. The elderly also are involved in more accidents per distance travelled than middle-aged drivers. As the UK relies on self-certification of health by drivers over the age of 70 years, we examined the driving practices of patients with dementia attending a Memory Clinic. Nearly one-fifth of 329 patients with documented dementia continued to drive after the onset of dementia, and impaired driving ability was noted in two-thirds of these. Their families experienced great difficulty in persuading patients to stop driving, and had to invoke outside help in many cases. Neuropsychological tests did not help to identify those who drove badly while activity of daily living scores were related to driving ability. These findings suggest that many patients with dementia drive in an unsafe fashion after the onset of the illness. The present system of self-certification of health by the elderly for driver-licensing purposes needs to be reassessed.

  15. VEHICLE DRIVING CYCLE OPTIMISATION ON THE HIGHWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinoviy STOTSKO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the problem of reducing vehicle energy consumption. The authors consider the optimisation of highway driving cycle a way to use the kinetic energy of a car more effectively at various road conditions. The model of a vehicle driving control at the highway which consists of elementary cycles, such as accelerating, free rolling and deceleration under forces of external resistance, was designed. Braking, as an energy dissipation regime, was not included. The influence of the various longitudinal profiles of the road was taken into consideration and included in the model. Ways to use the results of monitoring road and traffic conditions are presented. The method of non-linear programming is used to design the optimal vehicle control function and phase trajectory. The results are presented by improved typical driving cycles that present energy saving as a subject of choice at a specified schedule.

  16. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  17. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  18. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  19. INFLUENCE OF MOBILE PHONE USE WHILE DRIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hugh WOO, Ph.D., P.E.

    2001-01-01

    Based on the conclusions of this study, the Legislative Yuan of Taiwan passed a law to ban the use of handheld mobile phones while driving in January 2, 2001. For a compulsory three-month campaign, the regulation will be in force from September 1, with a violation fine of NT$3,000 (approximate to US$90 for drivers and NT$1,000 for motorcyclists.

  20. Principle and analysis of a linear motor driving system for HTS levitation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jian X.; Guo, You G.; Zhu, Jian G.

    2007-01-01

    High temperature superconductor (HTS) high levitation force density with passive and self-stabilizing features allows a number of special applications to be developed. Linear motor driving systems are commonly required for those applications such as levitated transport systems. In this paper a prototype linear motor driving system with HTS is analyzed with calculation details including its magnetic fields and driving forces presented in the paper

  1. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  2. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To enable rapid control in a simple circuit by providing a motor control device having an electric capacity capable of simultaneously driving all of the control rods rapidly only in the inserting direction as well as a motor controlling device capable of fine control for the insertion and extraction at usual operation. Constitution: The control rod drives comprise a first motor control device capable of finely controlling the control rods both in inserting and extracting directions, a second motor control device capable of rapidly driving the control rods only in the inserting direction, and a first motor switching circuit and a second motor switching circuit switched by switches. Upon issue of a rapid insertion instruction for the control rods, the second motor switching circuit is closed by the switch and the second motor control circuit and driving motors are connected. Thus, each of the control rod driving motors is driven at a high speed in the inserting direction to rapidly insert all of the control rods. (Yoshino, Y.)

  3. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Mavrič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy poses a risk for all participants in road traffic; therefore people with epilepsy do not meet the criteria for an unlimited driving license. Their driving is affected not only by epileptic seizures causing impaired consciousness and involuntary movements, but also by antiepileptic drugs with their many unwanted affects. The experts have not yet agreed on whether people with epilepsy have an increased risk of experiencing a road traffic accident. However, recent data suggests that the overall risk is lower compared to other medical conditions. Scientific evidence forms the basis of legislation, which by limiting people with epilepsy, enables all participants in road traffic to drive in the safest possible environment. The legislation that governs epilepsy and driving in Slovenia has been recently thoroughly reformed and thus allows a less discriminatory management of people with epilepsy. Although people with epilepsy experience many issues in their daily life, including their personal relationships and employment, they often list the need for driving as a top concern in surveys. General physicians play an important role in managing the issues of people with epilepsy.

  4. Self-rated Driving and Driving Safety in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Lesley A.; Dodson, Joan; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ackerman, Michelle L.; Ball, Karlene

    2012-01-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults’ self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving...

  5. Software Process Improvement Using Force Field Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An improvement plan is then drawn and implemented. This paper studied the state of Nigerian software development organizations based on selected attributes. Force field analysis is used to partition the factors obtained into driving and restraining forces. An attempt was made to improve the software development process ...

  6. Total quality is people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Confronted by changing market conditions and increased global competition, in 1983 the Commercial Nuclear Fuel Division (CNFD) of Westinghouse Electric embarked on an ambitious plan to make total quality the centerpiece of its long-term business strategy. Five years later, the division's efforts in making continuous quality improvement a way of life among its more than 2,000 employees gained national recognition when it was named a charter recipient of the Malcolm Baldridge National Quality Award. What CNFD achieved during the 1980s was a cultural transformation, characterized by an empowered work force committed to a common vision. The company's quality program development strategy is described

  7. Gears and gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Jelaska, Damir T

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how gears are formed and how they interact or 'mesh' with each other is essential when designing equipment that uses gears or gear trains. The way in which gear teeth are formed and how they mesh is determined by their geometry and kinematics, which is the topic of this book.  Gears and Gear Drives provides the reader with comprehensive coverage of gears and gear drives. Spur, helical, bevel, worm and planetary gears are all covered, with consideration given to their classification, geometry, kinematics, accuracy control, load capacity and manufacturing. Cylindric

  8. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  9. Different forces

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    The different forces, together with a pictorial analogy of how the exchange of particles works. The table lists the relative strength of the couplings, the quanta associated with the force fields and the bodies or phenomena in which they have a dominant role.

  10. Comparing Expert and Novice Driving Behavior in a Driving Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiran B. Ekanayake

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study focused on comparing driving behavior of expert and novice drivers in a mid-range driving simulator with the intention of evaluating the validity of driving simulators for driver training. For the investigation, measurements of performance, psychophysiological measurements, and self-reported user experience under different conditions of driving tracks and driving sessions were analyzed. We calculated correlations between quantitative and qualitative measures to enhance the reliability of the findings. The experiment was conducted involving 14 experienced drivers and 17 novice drivers. The results indicate that driving behaviors of expert and novice drivers differ from each other in several ways but it heavily depends on the characteristics of the task. Moreover, our belief is that the analytical framework proposed in this paper can be used as a tool for selecting appropriate driving tasks as well as for evaluating driving performance in driving simulators.

  11. Driving skills after whiplash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimse, R; Bjørgen, I A; Straume, A

    1997-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that some persons with longlasting problems after whiplash have changed eye movements. These changes have been related to disturbance of the posture control system. The question raised in the present study is whether such disturbances can influence daily life functions connected with balance, position and external movements, such as car driving. A group of 23 persons with disturbed eye movements due to whiplash injury, was tested in a driving simulator, together with a closely matched control group. The results revealed significant differences between the two groups with respect to response times to the traffic signs presented, identification of type of sign, as well as steering precision while the subjects' attention was directed to the process of identifying the signs. Alternative explanations such as driving experience, pain, medication or malingering are at least partly controlled for, but cannot completely be ruled out. A distorted posture control system leading to disturbance of eye movements seems to be the most likely primary causative factor, but these disturbances are most certainly complexly determined. Reduced attention capacity is considered to be a mediating secondary factor. Registration of eye movements may be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate driving skill after whiplash.

  12. Gaze-controlled Driving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tall, Martin; Alapetite, Alexandre; San Agustin, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We investigate if the gaze (point of regard) can control a remote vehicle driving on a racing track. Five different input devices (on-screen buttons, mouse-pointing low-cost webcam eye tracker and two commercial eye tracking systems) provide heading and speed control on the scene view transmitted...

  13. Gas turbine drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Developments in gas turbine drives are reviewed, e.g., low weight per unit power and thrust-weight ratio, fast availability of the maximum speed, absolute resistance to cold and to droplet formation vibrationeless run, and low exhaust gas temperatures. Applications in aeronautic engineering (turbofan), power stations, marine propulsion systems, railways and road transportation vehicles are mentioned.

  14. Chaos in drive systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kratochvíl C.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an elementary introduction to the subject of chaos in the electromechanical drive systems. In this article, we explore chaotic solutions of maps and continuous time systems. These solutions are also bounded like equilibrium, periodic and quasiperiodic solutions.

  15. Electric Drive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    compound promises to reduce weight of future permanent magnet motors by 20 to 30 percent; a similar reduction is expected in size (approximately 20...drive systems. The AC permanent magnet (brushless DC motor) is rapidly evolving and will replace most electrically excited machines. Permanent magnet motors using

  16. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  17. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  18. Driving While Intoxicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brick, John

    Alcohol intoxication increases the risk of highway accidents, the relative risk of crash probability increasing as a function of blood alcohol content (BAC). Because alcohol use is more prevalent than use of other drugs, more is known about the relationship between alcohol use and driving. Most states presume a BAC of .10% to be evidence of drunk…

  19. Rod drive and latching mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, L.; Sherwood, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    Hydraulic drive and latching mechanisms for driving reactivity control mechanisms in nuclear reactors are described. Preferably, the pressurized reactor coolant is utilized to raise the drive rod into contact with and to pivot the latching mechanism so as to allow the drive rod to pass the latching mechanism. The pressure in the housing may then be equalized which allows the drive rod to move downwardly into contact with the latching mechanism but to hold the shaft in a raised position with respect to the reactor core. Once again, the reactor coolant pressure may be utilized to raise the drive rod and thus pivot the latching mechanism so that the drive rod passes above the latching mechanism. Again, the mechanism pressure can be equalized which allows the drive rod to fall and pass by the latching mechanism so that the drive rod approaches the reactor core. (author)

  20. Fundamental limitations on 'warp drive' spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Visser, Matt

    2004-01-01

    'Warp drive' spacetimes are useful as 'gedanken-experiments' that force us to confront the foundations of general relativity, and among other things, to precisely formulate the notion of 'superluminal' communication. After carefully formulating the Alcubierre and Natario warp drive spacetimes, and verifying their non-perturbative violation of the classical energy conditions, we consider a more modest question and apply linearized gravity to the weak-field warp drive, testing the energy conditions to first and second orders of the warp-bubble velocity, v. Since we take the warp-bubble velocity to be non-relativistic, v << c, we are not primarily interested in the 'superluminal' features of the warp drive. Instead we focus on a secondary feature of the warp drive that has not previously been remarked upon-the warp drive (if it could be built) would be an example of a 'reaction-less drive'. For both the Alcubierre and Natario warp drives we find that the occurrence of significant energy condition violations is not just a high-speed effect, but that the violations persist even at arbitrarily low speeds. A particularly interesting feature of this construction is that it is now meaningful to think of placing a finite mass spaceship at the centre of the warp bubble, and then see how the energy in the warp field compares with the mass-energy of the spaceship. There is no hope of doing this in Alcubierre's original version of the warp field, since by definition the point at the centre of the warp bubble moves on a geodesic and is 'massless'. That is, in Alcubierre's original formalism and in the Natario formalism the spaceship is always treated as a test particle, while in the linearized theory we can treat the spaceship as a finite mass object. For both the Alcubierre and Natario warp drives we find that even at low speeds the net (negative) energy stored in the warp fields must be a significant fraction of the mass of the spaceship

  1. Do Adolescents with Specific Language Impairment Understand Driving Terminology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfe, Jessica M.; Wittke, Kacie; Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined if adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) understand driving vocabulary as well as their typically developing (TD) peers. Method: A total of 16 adolescents with SLI and 16 TD comparison adolescents completed a receptive vocabulary task focused on driving terminology derived from statewide driver's manuals.…

  2. New active machine tool drive mounting on the frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Švéda J.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the new active mounting of the machine tool drives. The commonly used machine tools are at this time mainly equipped with fix-mounting of the feed drives. This structure causes full transmission of the force shocks to the machine bed and thereby restricts the dynamic properties of the motion axis and the whole machine. The spring-mounting of the feed drives is one of the possibilities how to partially suppress the vibrations. The force that reacts to the machine tool bed is transformed thereby the vibrations are lightly reduced. Unfortunately the transformation is not fully controlled. The new active mounting of the machine tool drives allows to fully control the force behaviour that react to the machine body. Thereby the number of excited frequencies on the machine tool bed is significantly reduced. The active variant of the feed drive mounting is characterized by the synergistic cooperation between two series-connected actuators (“motor on motor”. The paper briefly describes design, control techniques and optimization of the feed drives with the new active mounting conception.

  3. Are women the next driving force in mining?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, J.

    2007-07-15

    A symposium entitled 'Women in mining' was held as part of Australia's Minerals Week 2007, on 29 May in Canberra, ACT. In July 2007, Engineers Australia together with Association of Professional Engineers Scientists and Managers, Australia held a women's conference in Melbourne. A survey carried out identified the two main obstacles to women's career advancement: balancing work and life, followed by workplace culture. The majority of female respondents of a recent survey by the Australian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy were concentrated around the early to intermediate stages of their career whereas male respondents were clustered around senior positions. These findings are in line with a report commissioned by the mineral industry and the federal government 'Unearthing new resources: attracting and retaining women in the Australian mineral industry', released in May. This found that the age profile of women in the industry is concentrated towards those aged 34 and under. Lack of child care was cited as the major reason for leaving the industry. A lack of mentor relationships and support networks for women was identified. The article reports comments by Nicole Hollows, Macarthur Coal's CEO and recently appointed managing director, and others who attended the 'Women in mining symposium'. 1 ref., 6 photos.

  4. Intensification of grassland and forage use: driving forces and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Klein, de C.; Alfaro, M.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing demand for safe and nutritional dairy and beef products in a globalising world, together with the needs to increase resource use efficiency and to protect biodiversity, provide strong incentives for intensification of grassland and forage use. This paper addresses the question: 'Does

  5. Research proposal: Industry convergence - Driving forces, factors and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Industry convergence – the merger of hitherto separate industries – is a phenomenon that has had a profound effect on several industries and received considerable interest among practitioners and business press over the past decades. Despite this, industry con- vergence has only received limited attention from the academic management field, al- though an emergent discussion on convergence can be identified. Prior research is limited by a lack of coherent theoretical definitions of convergence...

  6. Bursts of transposable elements as an evolutionary driving force

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Belyayev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 12 (2014), s. 2573-2584 ISSN 1010-061X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : evolution * genome * marginal populations * speciation * transposable elements Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 3.232, year: 2014

  7. Dynamics and driving forces of hides, skins, leather and leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Footwear and leather goods are constrained by lack of factories, competition from used goods, synthetic plastics and uninformed market. Investment in hides, skins and leather industry supported by training programmes has potential to generate great monetary revenue. Keywords: Hides, skin, leather, value chain, slaughter ...

  8. Delegation to automaticity: the driving force for cognitive evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, J M; Shine, R

    2014-01-01

    The ability to delegate control over repetitive tasks from higher to lower neural centers may be a fundamental innovation in human cognition. Plausibly, the massive neurocomputational challenges associated with the mastery of balance during the evolution of bipedality in proto-humans provided a strong selective advantage to individuals with brains capable of efficiently transferring tasks in this way. Thus, the shift from quadrupedal to bipedal locomotion may have driven the rapid evolution of distinctive features of human neuronal functioning. We review recent studies of functional neuroanatomy that bear upon this hypothesis, and identify ways to test our ideas.

  9. Advanced nuclear power options: The driving forces and their results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously demonstrate satisfactory performance in terms of both safety and economics. In order to be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focused upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. It is seen that the safety-oriented concepts are typically of lower capacity by approximately an order of magnitude, than the economics-oriented concepts. This is the result, in the former concept, of using less efficient, but more reliable, means of accomplishing essential safety functions. (author)

  10. Regional Relative Price Disparities and Their Driving Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eu Joon Chang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the long-run behavior of relative price dispersion among cities in Korea with a special emphasis on heterogeneous transitional patterns of price level dynamics. Formal statistical tests indicate considerable evidence for rejecting the null of relative price level convergence among the majority of cities over the sample period of 1985-2015. The analysis of gravity model suggests that the effect of transportation costs on intercity price level differentials is limited, while other socioeconomic factors, such as income, input factor prices, demographic structure, and housing price growth, play key roles in accounting for persistent regional price level disparities. Individual price levels are found to be better explained by a multiple-component model, and the deviations from PPP may be attributed to distinct stochastic common trends that are characterized by income and demographic structure.

  11. Individualization as Driving Force of Clustering Phenomena in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Michael; Flache, Andreas; Helbing, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    One of the most intriguing dynamics in biological systems is the emergence of clustering, in the sense that individuals self-organize into separate agglomerations in physical or behavioral space. Several theories have been developed to explain clustering in, for instance, multi-cellular organisms,

  12. Operations Data Files, driving force behind International Space Station operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppenbrouwers, Tom; Ferra, Lionel; Markus, Michael; Wolff, Mikael

    2017-09-01

    Almost all tasks performed by the astronauts on-board the International Space Station (ISS) and by ground controllers in Mission Control Centre, from operation and maintenance of station systems to the execution of scientific experiments or high risk visiting vehicles docking manoeuvres, would not be possible without Operations Data Files (ODF). ODFs are the User Manuals of the Space Station and have multiple faces, going from traditional step-by-step procedures, scripts, cue cards, over displays, to software which guides the crew through the execution of certain tasks. Those key operational documents are standardized as they are used on-board the Space Station by an international crew constantly changing every 3 months. Furthermore this harmonization effort is paramount for consistency as the crew moves from one element to another in a matter of seconds, and from one activity to another. On ground, a significant large group of experts from all International Partners drafts, prepares reviews and approves on a daily basis all Operations Data Files, ensuring their timely availability on-board the ISS for all activities. Unavailability of these operational documents will halt the conduct of experiments or cancel milestone events. This paper will give an insight in the ground preparation work for the ODFs (with a focus on ESA ODF processes) and will present an overview on ODF formats and their usage within the ISS environment today and show how vital they are. Furthermore the focus will be on the recently implemented ODF features, which significantly ease the use of this documentation and improve the efficiency of the astronauts performing the tasks. Examples are short video demonstrations, interactive 3D animations, Execute Tailored Procedures (XTP-versions), tablet products, etc.

  13. Barriers to fruit consumption: Driving forces behind consumer behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briz, T.; Sijtsema, S.J.; Jasiulewicz, A.; Kyriakidi, A.; Dolors Guàrdia, M.; Berg, van den I.; Lans, van der I.A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract This study gives more insight in motives and barriers, i.e. positive and negative drivers, for European fruit consumption, as a basis to meet consumer requirements in developing new types of fruits and fruit products and to develop interventions. For that purpose, focus group discussions

  14. Lipid and protein composition as driving force for multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Roy; Shaharabani, Rona

    Physical models and experiments often reduce the number of components aiming to address the fundamental mechanisms. Nevertheless, the inherent heterogeneity is an essential ingredient in the biological context. We present our recent efforts to model and understand the development of multiple sclerosis (MS) from a biophysical perspective. Myelin sheath is a multilamellar complex of various lipids and proteins that surround axons and acts as an insulating layer for proper nerve conduction. In MS the myelin structure is disrupted impairing its function. Previous studies showed that MS is correlated with small lipid composition variation and reduction in the adhesive myelin basic protein. We found that such alterations result in pathological phase transition from a lamellar to inverted hexagonal that involve enhanced local curvature. Similar curvatures are also found in vivo in diseased myelin sheaths. Since the etiology and recovery pathways of MS are currently unclear, these findings delineate novel functional roles to dominant constituents in cytoplasmic myelin sheaths, shed new light on mechanisms disrupting lipid-protein complexes, and suggest new courses for diagnosis and treatment for MS.

  15. Exploring driving forces and liquid properties for electrokinetic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents an effort to understand electrokinetic energy conversion systems which are based on motion of ionic charges in micro- and nano-confinements. In particular, both experimentally and theoretically the utilization of different kind of liquids was investigated to convert mechanical

  16. External Costs as Driving Forces of Land Use Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Loehr

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion is often not carried out in a sustainable way. The loss of arable land and biodiversity, concern about food security and rising costs of infrastructure due to urban sprawl are just some of the problems under discussion. This paper compares Germany, China and Cambodia. The article points out that, despite huge differences in institutions and governance, unsustainable land use changes mostly have some patterns in common: The beneficiaries of land conversion are often well-organized actors, whereas the costs of land conversion are often shifted to poorly organized groups and to society as a whole. A sustainable land use policy has to look for a better coupling of benefits and costs of land use changes. In order to achieve this goal, the article suggests completing the planning law with a suitable economic framework.

  17. Digital Density as the Driving Force of Digital Transformation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have increased the influence of technology in business, even changing business models and strategies of organisations. This influence, called Digital Transformation of Business (DT), happens when there is an increase of the number of digital connections, information and interactions. This phenom-ena has been defined as Digital Density (DD) and aims to provide an assessment of the digitalization status of an organization. With the concept of DD we pro-pose the DD Framework, t...

  18. Advanced nuclear power options: The driving forces and their results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golay, M W [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1990-07-01

    Successful nuclear power plant concepts must simultaneously demonstrate satisfactory performance in terms of both safety and economics. In order to be attractive to both electric utility companies and the public, such plants must produce economical electric energy consistent with a level of safety which is acceptable to both the public and the plant owner. Programs for reactor development worldwide can be classified according to whether the reactor concept pursues improved safety or improved economic performance as the primary objective. When improved safety is the primary goal, safety enters the solution of the design problem as a constraint which restricts the set of allowed solutions. Conversely, when improved economic performance is the primary goal it is allowed to be pursued only to an extent which is compatible with stringent safety requirements. The three major reactor coolants under consideration for future advanced reactor use are water, helium and sodium. Reactor development programs focused upon safety and upon economics using each coolant are being pursued worldwide. It is seen that the safety-oriented concepts are typically of lower capacity by approximately an order of magnitude, than the economics-oriented concepts. This is the result, in the former concept, of using less efficient, but more reliable, means of accomplishing essential safety functions. (author)

  19. Individualization as driving force of clustering phenomena in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mäs

    Full Text Available One of the most intriguing dynamics in biological systems is the emergence of clustering, in the sense that individuals self-organize into separate agglomerations in physical or behavioral space. Several theories have been developed to explain clustering in, for instance, multi-cellular organisms, ant colonies, bee hives, flocks of birds, schools of fish, and animal herds. A persistent puzzle, however, is the clustering of opinions in human populations, particularly when opinions vary continuously, such as the degree to which citizens are in favor of or against a vaccination program. Existing continuous opinion formation models predict "monoculture" in the long run, unless subsets of the population are perfectly separated from each other. Yet, social diversity is a robust empirical phenomenon, although perfect separation is hardly possible in an increasingly connected world. Considering randomness has not overcome the theoretical shortcomings so far. Small perturbations of individual opinions trigger social influence cascades that inevitably lead to monoculture, while larger noise disrupts opinion clusters and results in rampant individualism without any social structure. Our solution to the puzzle builds on recent empirical research, combining the integrative tendencies of social influence with the disintegrative effects of individualization. A key element of the new computational model is an adaptive kind of noise. We conduct computer simulation experiments demonstrating that with this kind of noise a third phase besides individualism and monoculture becomes possible, characterized by the formation of metastable clusters with diversity between and consensus within clusters. When clusters are small, individualization tendencies are too weak to prohibit a fusion of clusters. When clusters grow too large, however, individualization increases in strength, which promotes their splitting. In summary, the new model can explain cultural clustering in human societies. Strikingly, model predictions are not only robust to "noise"-randomness is actually the central mechanism that sustains pluralism and clustering.

  20. Safe handling, economics: Driving forces in radwaste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    This article describes how, faced with tortuous federal and state progress toward provision of disposal facilities, utilities are taking interim steps to deal with mounting spent-fuel and low-level radioactive-waste burdens. Whether for highly radioactive fuel assemblies that have served their designated life in nuclear reactors, or for the low-level radioactive waste materials (LLW) created by maintenance, volume-reduction, or other activities at generating sites, ultimate disposition has become a matter requiring immediate steps to avoid complete exhaustion of storage space at utility sites. A virtual impasse exists in both areas: Regional compacts have moved very slowly toward licensing and construction of new LLW disposal sites, and federal action to meet the 1998 deadline for acceptance of spent fuel, as prescribed by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1982 -- for either temporary storage (with monitored retrieval, MRS) or permanent burial -- has proceeded at a snail's pace

  1. Challenges and Driving Forces for Business Plans in Biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macheiner, Tanja; Huppertz, Berthold; Bayer, Michaela; Sargsyan, Karine

    2017-04-01

    Due to increased utilization of biospecimens for research and emergence of new technologies, the availability and quality of biospecimens and their collection are coming more and more into focus. However, the long-term economic situation of biobanks is still mostly unclear. Also, the common sustainable utilization of various international biobanks is challenging due to local differences in sample processing, law and ethics. This article discusses possible strategies to achieve a sustainable utilization of biospecimens as part of the business plan of biobanks. The following questions were addressed as part of a business plan: (1) How can a biobank build up and maintain an up-to-date infrastructure? (2) What kind of funding can support the sustainability of a biobank? (3) Is there an international solution for informed consents to enable sample and data sharing? (4) How can a biobank react during economically unstable periods? (5) Which kind of biobanking research is innovative? (6) What kind of education could be most needful for knowledge transfer in biobanking? (7) Does an expiration date for a biobank make sense according to the period of funding? A strategy for optimal utilization begins with sharing of resources, infrastructure, and investments at the planning stage of a biobank, and continues to the transfer of knowledge and know-how by education. For clinical biobanks in particular, a long-term funding and cost recovery strategy is necessary for sustainable utilization.

  2. Energy analysis of control rod drive mechanism in HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Hanliang; Wu Yuanqiang

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model for the control rod drive mechanism for the 10 MW High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTR-10) and analyzes accidents which may occur in the drive mechanism, for example, chain break, coupling damage and other damage scenarios. The results show that the matching problem between buffer capability and coupling strength is the main reason for coupling damage; increased temperatures would reduce eddy damping and cause a mismatch between buffer capability and coupling strength; and the displacement of the buffer spring will affect the coupling force. The results provide a theoretical basis for the design of the control rod drive mechanism for HTR-10

  3. Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mueller, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes present major reliability issues, leading to great interest in the current development of gearless direct-drive wind energy systems. Offering high reliability, high efficiency and low maintenance, developments in these direct-drive systems point the way to the next generation of wind power, and Electrical drives for direct drive renewable energy systems is an authoritative guide to their design, development and operation. Part one outlines electrical drive technology, beginning with an overview of electrical generators for direct drive systems. Principles of electrical design for permanent magnet generators are discussed, followed by electrical, thermal and structural generator design and systems integration. A review of power electronic converter technology and power electronic converter systems for direct drive renewable energy applications is then conducted. Part two then focuses on wind and marine applications, beginning with a commercial overview of wind turbine drive systems and a...

  4. Driving towards ecotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, Devora A; Normandin, Avery M; Strait, Elizabeth A; Esvelt, Kevin M

    2017-12-01

    The prospect of using genetic methods to target vector, parasite, and reservoir species offers tremendous potential benefits to public health, but the use of genome editing to alter the shared environment will require special attention to public perception and community governance in order to benefit the world. Public skepticism combined with the media scrutiny of gene drive systems could easily derail unpopular projects entirely, especially given the potential for trade barriers to be raised against countries that employ self-propagating gene drives. Hence, open and community-guided development of thoughtfully chosen applications is not only the most ethical approach, but also the most likely to overcome the economic, social, and diplomatic barriers. Here we review current and past attempts to alter ecosystems using biological methods, identify key determinants of social acceptance, and chart a stepwise path for developers towards safe and widely supported use.

  5. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Hiromitsu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To drive control rods at an optimum safety speed corresponding to the reactor core output. Constitution: The reactor power is detected by a neutron detector and the output signal is applied to a process computer. The process computer issues a signal representing the reactor core output, which is converted through a function generator into a signal representing the safety speed of control rods. The converted signal is further supplied to a V/F converter and converted into a pulse signal. The pulse signal is inputted to a step motor driving circuit, which actuates a step motor to operate the control rods always at a safety speed corresponding to the reactor core power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Drive-by-Downloads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez, Julia; Endicott-Popovsky, Barbara E.; Seifert, Christian; Aval, Chiraag U.; Frincke, Deborah A.

    2010-02-01

    Abstract: Drive-by-downloads are malware that push, and then execute, malicious code on a client system without the user's consent. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a discussion of the usefulness of antivirus software for detecting the installation of such malware, providing groundwork for future studies. Client honeypots collected drive-by malware which was then evaluated using common antivirus products. Initial analysis showed that most of such antivirus products identified less than 70% of these highly polymorphic malware programs. Also, it was observed that the antivirus products tested, even when successfully detecting this malware, often failed to classify it, leading to the conclusion that further work could involve not only developing new behavioral detection technologies, but also empirical studies that improve general understanding of these threats. Toward that end, one example of malicious code was analyzed behaviorally to provide insight into next steps for the future direction of this research.

  7. Safety rod driving device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Kiyonobu; Kurosaki, Akira.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To rapidly insert safety rods for a criticality experiment device into a reactor core container to stop the criticality reaction thereby prevent reactivity accidents. Constitution: A cylinder device having a safety rod as a cylinder rod attached with a piston at one end is constituted. The piston is elevated by pressurized air and attracted and fixed by an electromagnet which is a stationary device disposed at the upper portion of the cylinder. If the current supply to the electromagnet is disconnected, the safety rod constituting the cylinder rod is fallen together with the piston to the lower portion of the cylinder. Since the cylinder rod driving device has neither electrical motor nor driving screw as in the conventional device, necessary space can be reduced and the weight is decreased. In addition, since the inside of the nuclear reactor can easily be shielded completely from the external atmosphere, leakage of radioactive materials can be prevented. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Control rod drive mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsugi, Masao; Goto, Mikihiko.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a control rod drive mechanism using water as an operating source, which prevents a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the neighbourhood of a return nozzle in a reactor to limit formation of excessive thermal stress to improve a safety. Constitution: In the control rod drive mechanism of the present invention, a heating device is installed in the neighbourhood of a pressure container for a reactor. This heating device is provided to heat return water in the reactor to a level equal to the temperature of reactor water thereby preventing a phenomenon for forming two-layers of water in the reactor. This limits formation of thermal stress in the return nozzle in the reactor. Accordingly, it is possible to minimize damages in the return nozzle portion and yet a possibility of failure in reactor water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  9. A rotary drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Causer, R.

    1983-01-01

    A rotary drive for a manipulator or teleoperator comprises a ring member freely rotatable about an eccentric boss extending from an input driver shaft. The ring member has a tapered rim portion wedged between two resiliently biassed friction rings of larger diameter than the ring member and coaxial with the driver shaft, and the ring member is rotatably connected to an output driven shaft. The rotary drive provides a considerable velocity ratio, and also provides a safety feature in that friction between the rim portion and the friction rings only causes rotation of the driven shaft if the load on the driven shaft is less than a certain limiting value. This limiting value may be varied by adjusting the resilient bias on the friction rings. (author)

  10. Driving and engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Giakoumis, Evangelos G

    2017-01-01

    This book presents in detail the most important driving and engine cycles used for the certification and testing of new vehicles and engines around the world. It covers chassis and engine-dynamometer cycles for passenger cars, light-duty vans, heavy-duty engines, non-road engines and motorcycles, offering detailed historical information and critical review. The book also provides detailed examples from SI and diesel engines and vehicles operating during various cycles, with a focus on how the engine behaves during transients and how this is reflected in emitted pollutants, CO2 and after-treatment systems operation. It describes the measurement methods for the testing of new vehicles and essential information on the procedure for creating a driving cycle. Lastly, it presents detailed technical specifications on the most important chassis-dynamometer cycles around the world, together with a direct comparison of those cycles.

  11. Classical description of dynamical many-body systems with central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goepfert, A.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis develops a new model, and related numerical methods, to describe classical time-dependent many-body systems interacting through central forces, spin-orbit forces and spin-spin forces. The model is based on two-particle interactions. The two-body forces consist of attractive and repulsive parts. In this model the investigated multi-particle systems are self-bound. Also the total potential of the whole ensemble is derived from the two-particle potential and is not imposed 'from outside'. Each particle has the three degrees of freedom of its centre-of-mass motion and the spin degree of freedom. The model allows for the particles to be either charged or uncharged. Furthermore, each particle has an angular momentum, an intrinsic spin, and a magnetic dipole moment. Through the electromagnetic forces between these charges and moments there arise dynamical couplings between them. The internal interactions between the charges and moments are well described by electromagnetic coupling mechanisms. In fact, compared to conventional classical molecular dynamics calculations in van der Waals clusters, which have no spin degrees of freedom, or for Heisenberg spin Systems, which have no orbital degrees of freedom, the model presented here contains both types of degrees of freedom with a highly non-trivial coupling. The model allows to study the fundamental effects resulting from the dynamical coupling of the spin and the orbital-motion sub-systems. In particular, the dynamics of the particle mass points show a behaviour basically different from the one of particles in a potential with only central forces. Furthermore, a special type of quenching procedure was invented, which tends to drive the multi-particle Systems into states with highly periodic, non-ergodic behaviour. Application of the model to cluster simulations has provided evidence that the model can also be used to investigate items like solid-to-liquid phase transitions (melting), isomerism and specific heat

  12. Driving electrostatic transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic transducers represent a very interesting alternative to the traditional inefficient electrodynamic transducers. In order to establish the full potential of these transducers, power amplifiers which fulfill the strict requirements imposed by such loads (high impedance, frequency...... depended, nonlinear and high bias voltage for linearization) must be developed. This paper analyzes power stages and bias configurations suitable for driving an electrostatic transducer. Measurement results of a 300 V prototype amplifier are shown. Measuring THD across a high impedance source is discussed...

  13. Electromotor control rod drive for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The positioning of a control rod arranged in a pressure vessel takes place with a drive. This protrudes out of the pressure vessel through a support and is formed from a rotating field motor with energy source, e.g. alternating current connection. Its stator surrounds a section of a pressure casing which covers the length of the drive. The rotor is arranged in the pressure casing and interacts with a shaft lying in the rotation axis. Furthermore, segments are hinged on it, each of which forms two arms of a rocker. Each segment can be revolved against a storing force in a plane containing the rotation axis, through the stator field acting on one of the rocker arms. In order that the drive motor is automatically blocked should the electricity supply fail, the other rocker arm can be connected with a fixed cased component of the drive having the effect of a friction break or a form-locking mechanical catch. (DG/LH) [de

  14. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  15. SU(6) symmetry and the quark forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartnik, E.A.; Namyslowski, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The short distance forces between 3 valence quarks in the proton are investigated in perturbative QCD formulated on the light cone. These forces are the driving terms in the Brodsky-Lepage type evolution equation for the partially decomposed distribution amplitudes. The one-gluon exchange force, which is the lowest order force in the running coupling constant αsub(s) retains the SU(6) symmetry, while the αsub(s) 2 -order force, corresponding to one Coulomb gluon and one transverse gluon, breaks the SU(6) symmetry. The latter force contributes to the deviation from 1/2 of the d/u ratio for the proton, observed experimentally. In the kinematical domain of one fast quark, the αsub(s) 2 -order force gives the leading (1-x) 3 behaviour of the deep inelastic structure function F 2 (x), in contrast to the αsub(s)-order force, which gives (1-x) 5 , for xapprox.=1. (orig.)

  16. Self-rated driving and driving safety in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lesley A; Dodson, Joan E; Edwards, Jerri D; Ackerman, Michelle L; Ball, Karlene

    2012-09-01

    Many U.S. states rely on older adults to self-regulate their driving and determine when driving is no longer a safe option. However, the relationship of older adults' self-rated driving in terms of actual driving competency outcomes is unclear. The current study investigates self-rated driving in terms of (1) systematic differences between older adults with high (good/excellent) versus low (poor/fair/average) self-ratings, and (2) the predictive nature of self-rated driving to adverse driving outcomes in older adults (n=350; mean age 73.9, SD=5.25, range 65-91). Adverse driving outcomes included self-reported incidences of (1) being pulled over by the police, (2) receiving a citation, (3) receiving a recommendation to cease or limit driving, (4) crashes, and (5) state-reported crashes. Results found that older drivers with low self-ratings reported more medical conditions, less driving frequency, and had been given more suggestions to stop/limit their driving; there were no other significant differences between low and high self-raters. Logistic regression revealed older drivers were more likely to have a state-reported crash and receive a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Men were more likely to report all adverse driving outcomes except for receiving a suggestion to stop or limit driving. Regarding self-rated driving, older adults with high ratings were 66% less likely (OR=0.34, 95% CI=0.14-0.85) to have received suggestions to limit or stop driving after accounting for demographics, health and driving frequency. Self-ratings were not predictive of other driving outcomes (being pulled over by the police, receiving a citation, self-reported crashes, or state-reported crashes, ps>0.05). Most older drivers (85.14%) rated themselves as either good or excellent drivers regardless of their actual previous citation or crash rates. Self-rated driving is likely not related to actual driving proficiency as indicated by previous crash involvement in older adults

  17. Low Sex Drive in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low sex drive in women Overview Women's sexual desires naturally fluctuate over the years. Highs and lows commonly coincide ... used for mood disorders also can cause low sex drive in women. If your lack of interest ...

  18. Marijuana and actual driving performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    This report concerns the effects of marijuana smoking on actual driving performance. It presents the results of one pilot and three actual driving studies. The pilot study's major purpose was to establish the THC dose current marijuana users smoke to...

  19. Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this issue Health Capsule Distracted Driving Raises Crash Risk En español Send us your comments Video technology ... distracted driving, especially among new drivers, raises the risk for car crashes and near crashes. The study ...

  20. Decomposing changes in the aggregate labor force participation rate

    OpenAIRE

    Hotchkiss, Julie L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a simple methodology for decomposing changes in the aggregate labor force participation rate (LFPR) over time into demographic group changes in labor force participation behavior and in population share. The purpose is to identify the relative importance of behavioral changes and population changes as driving forces behind changes in the aggregate LFPR.

  1. Nuclear refueling platform drive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, F.R.; Faulstich, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a drive system. It comprises: a gantry including a bridge having longitudinal and transverse axes and supported by spaced first and second end frames joined to fist and second end frames joined to first and second drive trucks for moving the bridge along the transverse axis; first means for driving the first drive truck; second means for driving the second drive truck being independent from the first driving means; and means for controlling the first and second driving means for reducing differential transverse travel between the first and second drive trucks, due to a skewing torque acting on the bridge, to less than a predetermined maximum, the controlling means being in the form of an electrical central processing unit and including: a closed-loop first velocity control means for controlling velocity of the first drive truck by providing a first command signal to the first driver means; a close loop second velocity control means for controlling velocity of the second drive truck by providing a second command signal to the second driving means; and an auxiliary closed-loop travel control means

  2. Subduction Drive of Plate Tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, W. B.

    2003-12-01

    shrinking oceans, forcing rapid Pacific spreading. Slabs suck forward overriding arcs and continental lithosphere, plus most subjacent mantle above the transition zone. Changes in sizes of oceans result primarily from transfer of oceanic lithosphere, so backarcs and expanding oceans spread only slowly. Lithosphere parked in, or displaced from, the transition zone, or mixed into mid-upper mantle, is ultimately recycled, and regional variations in age of that submerged lithosphere may account for some regional contrasts in MORB. Plate motions make no kinematic sense in either the "hotspot" reference frame (HS; the notion of fixed plumes is easily disproved) or the no-net-rotation frame (NNR) In both, for example, many hinges roll forward, impossible with gravity drive. Subduction-drive predictions are fulfilled, and paleomagnetic data are satisfied (as they are not in HS and NNR), in the alternative framework of propulsionless Antarctica fixed relative to sluggish lower mantle. Passive ridges migrate away from Antarctica on all sides, and migration of these and other ridges permits tapping fresh asthenosphere. (HS and NNR tend to fix ridges). Ridge migration and spreading rates accord with subduction drive. All trenches roll back when allowance is made for back-arc spreading and intracontinental deformation. Africa rotates slowly toward subduction systems in the NE, instead of moving rapidly E as in HS and NNR. Stable NW Eurasia is nearly stationary, instead of also moving rapidly, and S and E Eurasian deformation relates to subduction and rollback. The Americas move Pacificward at almost the full spreading rates of passive ridges behind them. Lithosphere has a slow net westward drift. Reference: W.B. Hamilton, An alternative Earth, GSA Today, in press.

  3. Modelagem da adsorção de compostos orgânicos voláteis sobre nanotubos de carbono cup-stacked usando o modelo da força motriz linear = Modeling volatile organic compounds (voc’s adsorption onto cupstacked carbon nanotubes (cscnt using the linear driving force model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os compostos orgânicos voláteis (COV são importante classe de poluentes do ar, e a adsorção tem sido largamente empregada no seu tratamento há vários anos. O presente trabalho utilizou metodologias analíticas convencionais para avaliar o nanotubo cup-stacked (CSCNT na purificação de correntes gasosas contaminadas com COV. O CSCNT é constituído de múltiplas camadas de grafeno em formato cônico, apresentando extremidades abertas em sua superfície externa e canais centrais vazios. Foi adotado o Carbotrap como suporte do cup-stacked. O adsorvente-parâmetro de comparação do desempenho desse compósito foi o próprio Carbotrap (sem o nanotubo. Foi avaliada a capacidade de adsorção de cada adsorvente, bem como suas capacidades de saturação para cada uma das concentrações trabalhadas com os dois adsorbatos utilizados (1, 5, 20 e 35 ppm de tolueno e fenol. Na modelagem das curvas massaxtempo, utilizou-se o modelo da força motriz linear (LDF – linear driving force. A metodologia proposta para determinação das curvas massa.tempo mostrou-se aplicável a análises desta natureza. Em relação ao desempenho dos adsorventes, o compósito obteve clara vantagem em relação ao Carbotrap; os valores das capacidades de saturação para o compósito foram, em média, 67% superiores aos obtidos para o Carbotrap.Volatile organic compounds (VOC’s are an important category of air pollutants and adsorption has been employed in the treatment (or simply concentration of these compounds. The current study used an ordinary analytical methodology to evaluate the properties of a cupstacked nanotube (CSCNT, a stacking morphology of truncated conical graphene, with large amounts of open edges on the outer surface and empty central channels. This work used a Carbotrap bearing a cup-stacked structure (composite; for comparison, Carbotrapwas used as reference (without the nanotube. The retention and saturation capacities of both adsorbents to each

  4. Gravity as Quantum Entanglement Force

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon; Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Lee, Jungjai

    2010-01-01

    We conjecture that the total quantum entanglement of matter and vacuum in the universe tends to increase with time, like entropy, and that an effective force is associated with this tendency. We also suggest that gravity and dark energy are types of quantum entanglement forces, similar to Verlinde's entropic force, and give holographic dark energy with an equation of state comparable to current observational data. This connection between quantum entanglement and gravity could give some new in...

  5. Nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinde, K.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the present status of the meson theory of nuclear forces is reviewed. After some introductory remarks about the relevance of the meson exchange concept in the era of QCD and the empirical features of the NN interaction, the exciting history of nuclear forces is briefly outlined. In the main part, the author gives the basic physical ideas and sketch the derivation of the one-boson-exchange model of the nuclear force, in the Feynman approach. Secondly we describe, in a qualitative way, various necessary extensions, leading to the Bonn model of the N interaction. Finally, points to some interesting pen questions connected with the extended quark structure of the hadrons, which are topics of current research activity

  6. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  7. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John

    2002-01-01

    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  8. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  9. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  10. Cognitive impairment and driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Molnar, Lisa J

    2012-11-01

    As the populations of many countries continue to age, cognitive impairment will likely become more common. Individuals with cognitive impairment pose special challenges for families, health professionals, driving safety professionals, and the larger community, particularly if these older adults depend on driving as their primary means of community mobility. It is vital that we continue to extend our knowledge about the driving behavior of individuals' with cognitive impairment, as well as try to develop effective means of screening and assessing these individuals for fitness to drive and help facilitate their transition to non-driving when appropriate. This special issue is intended to provide researchers and practitioners an opportunity to present the most recent research findings on driving-related issues among older adults with cognitive impairment. The issue contains 11 original contributions from seven countries. The topics covered by these papers are: crash risks; screening, assessment, and fitness to drive; driving performance using a driving simulator; and driving behaviors and driving-related decisions of people with cognitive impairments. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Parkinson's disease and driving ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajiv; Pentland, Brian; Hunter, John; Provan, Frances

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore the driving problems associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to ascertain whether any clinical features or tests predict driver safety. Methods The driving ability of 154 individuals with PD referred to a driving assessment centre was determined by a combination of clinical tests, reaction times on a test rig and an in‐car driving test. Results The majority of cases (104, 66%) were able to continue driving although 46 individuals required an automatic transmission and 10 others needed car modifications. Ability to drive was predicted by the severity of physical disease, age, presence of other associated medical conditions, particularly dementia, duration of disease, brake reaction, time on a test rig and score on a driving test (all pautomatic transmission. A combination of clinical tests and in‐car driving assessment will establish safety to drive, and a number of clinical correlates can be shown to predict the likely outcome and may assist in the decision process. This is the largest series of consecutive patients seen at a driving assessment centre reported to date, and the first to devise a scoring system for on‐road driving assessment. PMID:17178820

  12. Effects of chewing gum on driving performance as evaluated by the STISIM driving simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ingyu; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Joo-Hyun

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of chewing gum on driving performance in a driving simulator. [Subjects] In total, 26 young licensed drivers participated. [Methods] The driving scenario was typical of an urban environment: a single-carriageway, two-way road consisting of a mix of curved and straight sections, with considerable levels of traffic, pedestrians, and parked cars. Mean distance driven above the speed limit, lane position, mean distance driven across the center line, and mean distance driven off the road were used as estimates of brake, accelerator, and steering control. The results were compared with those of a non-chewing gum control condition. [Results] The driving performance while chewing gum was significantly better: the mean distance driven above the speed limit was 26.61% shorter, and the mean distance driven off the road was 31.99% shorter. Lane position and mean distance driven across the center line did not differ significantly between the two conditions. [Conclusion] Chewing gum appears to enhance driving performance during a sustained attention driving task.

  13. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M.; Black, Alex A.; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Methods Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Results Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Conclusions Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness. PMID:27472221

  14. A qualitative exploration of driving stress and driving discourtesy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Parker, B; Jones, C M; Rune, K; Tucker, J

    2018-05-31

    Driving courtesy, and conversely driving discourtesy, recently has been of great interest in the public domain. In addition, there has been increasing recognition of the negative impact of stress upon the individual's health and wellbeing, with a plethora of interventions aimed at minimising stress more generally. The research literature regarding driving dis/courtesy, in comparison, is scant, with a handful of studies examining the dis/courteous driving behaviour of road users, and the relationship between driving discourtesy and driving stress. To examine courteous and discourteous driving experiences, and to explore the impact of stress associated with such driving experiences. Thirty-eight drivers (20 females) from the Sunshine Coast region volunteered to participate in one of four 1-1.5 h focus groups. Content analysis used the verbatim utterances captured via an Mp3 device. Three themes pertaining to stressful and discourteous interactions were identified. Theme one pertained to the driving context: road infrastructure (eg, roundabouts, roadwork), vehicles (eg, features), location (eg, country vs city, unfamiliar areas), and temporal aspects (eg, holidays). Theme two pertained to other road users: their behaviour (eg, tailgating, merging), and unknown factors (eg, illicit and licit drug use). Theme three pertained to the self as road user: their own behaviours (eg, deliberate intimidation), and their emotions (eg, angry reaction to other drivers, being in control). Driving dis/courtesy and driving stress is a complex phenomenon, suggesting complex intervention efforts are required. Driving discourtesy was reported as being highly stressful, therefore intervention efforts which encourage driving courtesy and which foster emotional capacity to cope with stressful circumstances appear warranted. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M Wood

    Full Text Available To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment.Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years. On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire.Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability.Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  16. Glaucoma and Driving: On-Road Driving Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Joanne M; Black, Alex A; Mallon, Kerry; Thomas, Ravi; Owsley, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    To comprehensively investigate the types of driving errors and locations that are most problematic for older drivers with glaucoma compared to those without glaucoma using a standardized on-road assessment. Participants included 75 drivers with glaucoma (mean = 73.2±6.0 years) with mild to moderate field loss (better-eye MD = -1.21 dB; worse-eye MD = -7.75 dB) and 70 age-matched controls without glaucoma (mean = 72.6 ± 5.0 years). On-road driving performance was assessed in a dual-brake vehicle by an occupational therapist using a standardized scoring system which assessed the types of driving errors and the locations where they were made and the number of critical errors that required an instructor intervention. Driving safety was rated on a 10-point scale. Self-reported driving ability and difficulties were recorded using the Driving Habits Questionnaire. Drivers with glaucoma were rated as significantly less safe, made more driving errors, and had almost double the rate of critical errors than those without glaucoma. Driving errors involved lane positioning and planning/approach, and were significantly more likely to occur at traffic lights and yield/give-way intersections. There were few between group differences in self-reported driving ability. Older drivers with glaucoma with even mild to moderate field loss exhibit impairments in driving ability, particularly during complex driving situations that involve tactical problems with lane-position, planning ahead and observation. These results, together with the fact that these drivers self-report their driving to be relatively good, reinforce the need for evidence-based on-road assessments for evaluating driving fitness.

  17. Control rod drives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Hiroyasu; Kawamura, Atsuo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce pellet-clad mechanical interactions, as well as improve the fuel safety. Constitution: In the rod drive of a bwr type reactor, an electric motor operated upon intermittent input such as of pulse signals is connected to a control rod. A resolver for converting the rotational angle of the motor to electric signals is connected to the rotational shaft of the motor and the phase difference between the output signal from the resolver and a reference signal is adapted to detect by a comparator. Based on the detection result, the controller is actuated to control a motor for control rod drive so that fine control for the movement of the control rod is made possible. This can reduce the moving distance of the control rod, decrease the thermal stress applied to the control rod and decrease the pellet clad mechanical interaction failures due to thermal expansion between the cladding tube and the pellets caused by abrupt changes in the generated power. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Rebalancing the Air Force: A Comprehensive Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    the consequences can be significant. High Tempo (Figure 4) Lt Gen Charles E. Stenner , Jr., Chief of the Air Force Reserve, stated while...29 January 2010. 14 Lt Gen Charles E. Stenner Jr., Chief of the Air Force Reserve, ―Total Force Policy 21: A 21 st Century Framework for...Military Force Mix Decisions,‖ White Paper, 15 July 2010. 15 Lt Gen Charles E. Stenner Jr., Chief of the Air Force Reserve, ―Testimony Before the House

  19. failure analysis and shock protection of external hard disk drive

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    model its structural responses to free fall drop-impact shock and vibration. Secondly, the hard ... Keywords: Free fall, impact force, Shock, Vibration, Stress, Reliability, Modeling, Simulation External Hard disk drive. 1. ..... on the disk, it could initiate process which could .... [19] Katta, P.: MATLAB Guide to Finite Elements - An.

  20. Does automatic transmission improve driving behavior in older drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selander, Helena; Bolin, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers. In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers - used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) - were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured. The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants' driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations. Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.